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Sample records for doped ultrathin n-si

  1. Surface photovoltage in heavily doped GaN:Si,Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. D.; Behrends, A.; Mohajerani, M. S.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A.; Baski, A. A.; Reshchikov, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    In n-type GaN, an upward band bending of about 1 eV is caused by negative charge at the surface. UV light reduces the band bending by creating a surface photovoltage (SPV), which can be measured by a Kelvin probe. Previously, we reported a fast SPV signal of about 0.6 eV in undoped and moderately doped GaN. In this work, we have studied degenerate GaN co-doped with Zn and Si, with a Si concentration of about 1019 cm-3 and a Zn concentration of 6×1017 cm-3. At room temperature, a fast component of about 0.6 eV was observed. However, after preheating the sample at 600 K for one hour and subsequently cooling the sample to 300 K (all steps performed in vacuum), the fast component disappeared. Instead, a very slow (minutes) and logarithmic in time rise of the SPV was observed with UV illumination. The total change in SPV was about 0.4 eV. This slow SPV transient can be reversibly converted into the "normal" fast (subsecond) rise by letting air or dry oxygen in at room temperature. Possible explanations of the observed unusual SPV transients are discussed.

  2. Electronic transport in heavily doped Ag/n-Si composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton W. Bates Jr.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hall measurements characterized Ag/n-Si composite films 1 micron thick produced by magnetron co-sputtering onto high resistivity Si (111 substrates at 550°C. The targets were Ag and n-type Si doped with 3 × 1019/cm3 of antimony. Films were prepared with 13, 16 and 22 at. % Ag and measured over a temperature range 77–500°K. Conduction takes place at low temperatures by variable rang hopping in localized states at the Fermi level and by thermal activation over grain boundaries at higher temperatures. The Log Resistivity vs 1/kT curves for the three Ag concentrations vary in a similar manner, but decrease in magnitude with increasing Ag due to the smaller number of grain boundaries between Ag nanoparticles occurring with increasing Ag concentration. At low temperatures Hall mobilities are essentially independent of temperature as the carrier densities for the three Ag concentrations are constant from 77 to slightly under 300°K with resistivities varying by small amounts. The mobilities at all Ag concentrations increase with temperature and approach each other as the effects of grain boundaries become less important. This work presents for the first time the effects of metal particles embedded in a semiconductor on the transport properties of carriers in the semiconductor. Though these effects are for a given average particle size most of the results are expected to hold over a range of particle sizes. Free electrons produced in films containing 13 and 16 at. % Ag result in concentrations of 1.5 × 1019/cm3, one half the antimony doping, while those with 22 at. % Ag, the carrier concentrations are three orders of magnitude higher. These constant carrier concentrations are due to the metal-insulator transition that occurs in doped crystalline and polycrystalline silicon for carrier densities nc >3.9 × 1018/cm3. The three orders of magnitude higher carrier concentration produced in films with 22 at. % Ag is argued to be due to doping of the Si

  3. Effects of a Thin Ru-Doped PVP Interface Layer on Electrical Behavior of Ag/n-Si Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, Yosef; Nikravan, Afsoun; Altındal, Şemsettin; Uslu, İbrahim

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the electrical property of Ag/n-Si metal-semiconductor (MS) structure by growing an Ru-doped PVP interlayer between Ag and n-Si using electrospinning technique. To illustrate the utility of the Ru-doped PVP interface layer, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/n-Si (MS) and Ag/Ru-doped PVP/n-Si metal-polymer-semiconductor (MPS) structures was carried out. In addition, the main electrical parameters of the fabricated Ag/Ru-doped PVP/n-Si structures were investigated as a function of frequency and electric field using impedance spectroscopy method (ISM). The capacitance-voltage (C-V) plot showed an anomalous peak in the depletion region due to the special density distribution of interface traps/states (D it /N ss) and interlayer. Both the values of series resistance (R s) and N ss were drawn as a function of voltage and frequency between 0.5 kHz and 5 MHz at room temperature and they had a peak behavior in the depletion region. Some important parameters of the sample such as the donor concentration atoms (N D), Fermi energy (E F ), thickness of the depletion region (W D), barrier height (Φ B0 ) and R s were determined from the C -2 versus V plot for each frequency. The values of N D , W D , Φ B0 and R s were changed from 1 × 1015 cm-3, 9.61 × 10-5 cm, 0.94 eV and 19,055 Ω (at 0.5 kHz) to 0.13 × 1015 cm-3, 27.4 × 10-4 cm, 1.04 eV and 70 Ω (at 5 MHz), respectively. As a result of the experiments, it is observed that the change in electrical parameters becomes more effective at lower frequencies due to the N ss and their relaxation time (τ), dipole and surface polarizations.

  4. Characterization of nano-powder grown ultra-thin film p-CuO/n-Si hetero-junctions by employing vapour-liquid-solid method for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, Jenifar; Das, Anindita [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CRNN), Kolkata 700098 (India); Das, Avishek [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Saha, Nayan Ranjan [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Karmakar, Anupam [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sanatan, E-mail: scelc@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the CuO nano-powder has been synthesized by employing chemical bath deposition technique for its subsequent use to grow ultrathin film (20 nm) of p-CuO on n-Si substrate for the fabrication of p-CuO/n-Si hetero-junction diodes. The thin CuO film has been grown by employing vapour-liquid-solid method. The crystalline structure and chemical phase of the film are characterized by employing field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Chemical stoichiometry of the film has been confirmed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The potential for photovoltaic applications of such films is investigated by measuring the junction current-voltage characteristics and by extracting the relevant parameters such as open circuit photo-generated voltage, short circuit current density, fill-factor and energy conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO nano-powder by CBD method • Growth of ultra-thin film of CuO by employing VLS method for the first time • Physical and electrical characterization of such films for photovoltaic applications • Estimation of energy conversion efficiency of the p-CuO/n-Si p-n junction solar cell.

  5. Electroluminescence of doped and undoped AlN/SiC-heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruesewitz, Christoph; Vetter, Ulrich; Hofsaess, Hans [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    AlN with its large and direct bandgap is a useful host for optoelectronic applications. Grown on 6H-SiC, a heterojunction is created, forming a diode. The light emitted by n-doped 6H-SiC via electroluminescence forms a broad band with a maximum at a wavelength of 475 nm. With the AlN layer on the surface, nitrogen atoms can diffuse into the 6H-SiC, creating new energy levels. Depending on the direction of the current and additional dopants in the AlN layer, the carrier concentration changes and new levels are available, resulting in different colours. It is shown that in this heterojunction blue, red and white colours are feasible.

  6. Evaluation of local free carrier concentrations in individual heavily-doped GaN:Si micro-rods by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, M. S.; Khachadorian, S.; Schimpke, T.; Nenstiel, C.; Hartmann, J.; Ledig, J.; Avramescu, A.; Strassburg, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Waag, A.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional III-nitride micro-structures are being developed as a promising candidate for the future opto-electrical devices. In this study, we demonstrate a quick and straight-forward method to locally evaluate free-carrier concentrations and a crystalline quality in individual GaN:Si micro-rods. By employing micro-Raman mapping and analyzing lower frequency branch of A1(LO)- and E1(LO)-phonon-plasmon-coupled modes (LPP-), the free carrier concentrations are determined in axial and planar configurations, respectively. Due to a gradual doping profile along the micro-rods, a highly spatially resolved mapping on the sidewall is exploited to reconstruct free carrier concentration profile along the GaN:Si micro-rods. Despite remarkably high free carrier concentrations above 1 × 1020 cm-3, the micro-rods reveal an excellent crystalline quality, without a doping-induced stress.

  7. Electronic structures and thermochemical properties of the small silicon-doped boron clusters B(n)Si (n=1-7) and their anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Kadłubański, Paweł; Roszak, Szczepan; Majumdar, Devashis; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2011-11-18

    We perform a systematic investigation on small silicon-doped boron clusters B(n)Si (n=1-7) in both neutral and anionic states using density functional (DFT) and coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)) theories. The global minima of these B(n)Si(0/-) clusters are characterized together with their growth mechanisms. The planar structures are dominant for small B(n)Si clusters with n≤5. The B(6)Si molecule represents a geometrical transition with a quasi-planar geometry, and the first 3D global minimum is found for the B(7)Si cluster. The small neutral B(n)Si clusters can be formed by substituting the single boron atom of B(n+1) by silicon. The Si atom prefers the external position of the skeleton and tends to form bonds with its two neighboring B atoms. The larger B(7)Si cluster is constructed by doping Si-atoms on the symmetry axis of the B(n) host, which leads to the bonding of the silicon to the ring boron atoms through a number of hyper-coordination. Calculations of the thermochemical properties of B(n)Si(0/-) clusters, such as binding energies (BE), heats of formation at 0 K (ΔH(f)(0)) and 298 K (ΔH(f)([298])), adiabatic (ADE) and vertical (VDE) detachment energies, and dissociation energies (D(e)), are performed using the high accuracy G4 and complete basis-set extrapolation (CCSD(T)/CBS) approaches. The differences of heats of formation (at 0 K) between the G4 and CBS approaches for the B(n)Si clusters vary in the range of 0.0-4.6 kcal mol(-1). The largest difference between two approaches for ADE values is 0.15 eV. Our theoretical predictions also indicate that the species B(2)Si, B(4)Si, B(3)Si(-) and B(7)Si(-) are systems with enhanced stability, exhibiting each a double (σ and π) aromaticity. B(5)Si(-) and B(6)Si are doubly antiaromatic (σ and π) with lower stability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Illumination and Voltage Dependence of Electrical Characteristics of Au/0.03 Graphene-Doped PVA/n-Si Structures via Capacitance/Conductance-Voltage Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, Alialy; Şlemsettin, Altındal; Ahmet, Kaya; İ, Uslu

    2015-01-01

    Au/n-Si (MS) structures with a high dielectric interlayer (0.03 graphene-doped PVA) are fabricated to investigate the illumination and voltage effects on electrical and dielectric properties by using capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/ω-V) measurements at room temperature and at 1 MHz. Some of the main electrical parameters such as concentration of doping atoms (N D ), barrier height (ϕ B (C - V)), depletion layer width (W D ) and series resistance (R s ) show fairly large illumination dispersion. The voltage-dependent profile of surface states (N ss ) and resistance of the structure (R i ) are also obtained by using the dark-illumination capacitance (C dark -C ill ) and Nicollian-Brews methods, respectively. For a clear observation of changes in electrical parameters with illumination, the values of N D , W D , ϕ B (C - V) and R s are drawn as a function of illumination intensity. The values of N D and W D change almost linearly with illumination intensity. On the other hand, R s decreases almost exponentially with increasing illumination intensity whereas ϕ B (C - V) increases. The experimental results suggest that the use of a high dielectric interlayer (0.03 graphene-doped PVA) considerably passivates or reduces the magnitude of the surface states. The large change or dispersion in main electrical parameters can be attributed to generation of electron-hole pairs in the junction under illumination and to a good light absorption. All of these experimental results confirm that the fabricated Au/0.03 graphene-doped PVA/n-Si structure can be used as a photodiode or a capacitor in optoelectronic applications. (paper)

  9. Dramatically enhanced ultraviolet photosensing mechanism in a n-ZnO nanowires/i-MgO/n-Si structure with highly dense nanowires and ultrathin MgO layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Chan; Jung, Byung Oh; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Ju Ho; Lee, Jeong Yong; Lee, Jun Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports that the visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetecting properties of ZnO nanowire based photodetectors were remarkably improved by introducing ultrathin insulating MgO layers between the ZnO nanowires and Si substrates. All layers were grown without pause by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and the density and vertical arrangement of the ZnO nanowires were strongly dependent on the thickness of the MgO layers. The sample in which an MgO layer with a thickness of 8 nm was inserted had high density nanowires with a vertical alignment and showed dramatically improved UV photosensing performance (photo-to-dark current ratio = 1344.5 and recovery time = 350 ms). The photoresponse spectrum revealed good visible-blind UV detectivity with a sharp cut off at 378 nm and a high UV/visible rejection ratio. A detailed discussion regarding the developed UV photosensing mechanism from the introduction of the i-MgO layers and highly dense nanowires in the n-ZnO nanowires/i-MgO/n-Si substrates structure is presented in this work.

  10. Synthesis of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon nanocages as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yueming; Xu, Chaofa; Chen, Guangxu; Liu, Zhaohui; Ma, Ming; Xie, Qingji; Zheng, Nanfeng; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-03-01

    Synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with large surface area, high conductivity, and suitable pore size distribution is highly desirable for high-performance supercapacitor applications. Here, we report a novel protocol for template synthesis of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon nanocages (CNCs) derived from polyaniline (PANI) and their excellent capacitive properties. The synthesis of CNCs involves one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Mn3O4@PANI core-shell nanoparticles, carbonization to produce carbon coated MnO nanoparticles, and then removal of the MnO cores by acidic treatment. The CNCs prepared at an optimum carbonization temperature of 800 °C (CNCs-800) have regular frameworks, moderate graphitization, high specific surface area, good mesoporosity, and appropriate N doping. The CNCs-800 show high specific capacitance (248 F g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1)), excellent rate capability (88% and 76% capacitance retention at 10 and 100 A g(-1), respectively), and outstanding cycling stability (~95% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. The CNCs-800 can also exhibit great pseudocapacitance in 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous solution besides the large electrochemical double-layer capacitance. The excellent capacitance performance coupled with the facile synthesis of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitic CNCs indicates their great application potential in supercapacitors.

  11. Estimation of free carrier concentrations in high-quality heavily doped GaN:Si micro-rods by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, M. S.; Khachadorian, S.; Nenstiel, C.; Schimpke, T.; Avramescu, A.; Strassburg, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Waag, A.

    2016-03-01

    The controlled growth of highly n-doped GaN micro rods is one of the major challenges in the fabrication of recently developed three-dimensional (3D) core-shell light emitting diodes (LEDs). In such structures with a large active area, higher electrical conductivity is needed to achieve higher current density. In this contribution, we introduce high quality heavily-doped GaN:Si micro-rods which are key elements of the newly developed 3D core-shell LEDs. These structures were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using selective area growth (SAG). We employed spatially resolved micro-Raman and micro-photoluminescence (PL) in order to directly determine a free-carrier concentration profile in individual GaN micro-rods. By Raman spectroscopy, we analyze the low-frequency branch of the longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon-plasmon coupled modes and estimate free carrier concentrations from ≍ 2.4 × 1019 cm-3 up to ≍ 1.5 × 1020 cm-3. Furthermore, free carrier concentrations are determined by estimating Fermi energy level from the near band edge emission measured by low-temperature PL. The results from both methods reveal a good consistency.

  12. Advanced interface modelling of n-Si/HNO3 doped graphene solar cells to identify pathways to high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ma, Fa-Jun; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Hao; Jie, Jiansheng; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2018-03-01

    In graphene/silicon solar cells, it is crucial to understand the transport mechanism of the graphene/silicon interface to further improve power conversion efficiency. Until now, the transport mechanism has been predominantly simplified as an ideal Schottky junction. However, such an ideal Schottky contact is never realised experimentally. According to literature, doped graphene shows the properties of a semiconductor, therefore, it is physically more accurate to model graphene/silicon junction as a Heterojunction. In this work, HNO3-doped graphene/silicon solar cells were fabricated with the power conversion efficiency of 9.45%. Extensive characterization and first-principles calculations were carried out to establish an advanced technology computer-aided design (TCAD) model, where p-doped graphene forms a straddling heterojunction with the n-type silicon. In comparison with the simple Schottky junction models, our TCAD model paves the way for thorough investigation on the sensitivity of solar cell performance to graphene properties like electron affinity. According to the TCAD heterojunction model, the cell performance can be improved up to 22.5% after optimizations of the antireflection coatings and the rear structure, highlighting the great potentials for fabricating high efficiency graphene/silicon solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  13. Construction and Study of Hetreojunction Solar Cell Based on Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline/n-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline/n-type Si heterojunctions solar cell are fabricated by spin coating of soluble dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA-doped polyaniline onto n-type Si substrate. The electrical characterization of the Al/n-type Si/polyaniline/Au (Ag structure was investigated by using current-voltage (I-V, capacitance-voltage (C-V, and impedance spectroscopy under darkness and illumination. The photovoltaic cell parameters, that is, open-circuit voltage (oc, short-circuit current density (sc, fill factor (FF, and energy conversion efficiency (η were calculated. The highest sc, oc, and efficiency of these heterojunctions obtained using PANI-DBSA as a window layer (wideband gap and Au as front contact are 1.8 mA/cm2, 0.436 V, and 0.13%, respectively. From Mott-Schottky plots, it was found that order of charge carrier concentrations is 3.5×1014 and 1.0×1015/cm3 for the heterojunctions using Au as front contact under darknessness and illumination, respectively. Impedance study of this type of solar cell showed that the shunt resistance and series resistance decreased under illumination.

  14. Temperature and voltage dependence of barrier height and ideality factor in Au/0.07 graphene-doped PVA/n-Si structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındal Yerişkin, S.; Balbaşı, M.; Demirezen, S.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Au/0.07 graphene-doped PVA/n-Si structures were fabricated and current conduction mechanism in these structures were investigated in the temperature range of 80-380 K through forward bias current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. Main electrical parameters were extracted from I-V data. Zero-bias barrier height (\\overline{Φ}_{B0}) and ideality factor (n) were found strong functions of temperature and their values ranged from 0.234 eV and 4.98 (at 80 K) to 0.882 eV and 1.15 (at 380 K), respectively. Φ ap versus q/2k T plot was drawn to obtain an evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights (BHs) and it revealed two distinct linear regions with different slopes and intercepts. The mean values of BH ( Φ Bo) and zero-bias standard deviation (σ s ) were obtained from the intercept and slope of the linear regions of this plot as 1.30 eV and 0.16 V for the first region (280-380 K) and 0.74 eV and 0.085 V for the second region (80-240 K), respectively. Thus, the values of \\overline{Φ}_{B0} and effective Richardson constant ( A*) were also found from the intercept and slope of the modified Richardson plot [ln( I s /T 2) - q 2 σ o 2 /2k 2 T 2 vs q/ kT] as 1.31 eV and 130 A/cm2 K2 for the first region and 0.76 eV and 922 A/cm2 K2 for the second region, respectively. The value of A* for the first region was very close to the theoretical value for n-Si (112 A/cm2 K2). The energy density distribution profile of surface states (Nss) was also extracted from the forward bias I-V data by taking into account voltage dependent effective BH (Φe) and n.

  15. Understanding the doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Shimada, Satoru; Azumi, Reiko; Saito, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other semiconductor technology, doping of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film is of great significance for performance improvement or modification. However, it still remains a challenge to seek a stable and effective dopant. In this paper, we unitize several spectroscopic techniques and electrical characterizations under various conditions to investigate the effects of typical dopants and related methods. Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) solution, I 2 vapor, and CuI nanoparticles are used to modify a series of ultrathin CNT networks. Although efficient charge transfer is achieved initially after doping, HNO 3 is not applicable because it suffers from severe reliability problems in structural and electrical properties, and it also causes a number of undesired structural defects. I 2 vapor doping at 150 °C can form some stable C-I bonding structures, resulting in relatively more stable but less efficient electrical performances. CuI nanoparticles seem to be an ideal dopant. Photonic curing enables the manipulation of CuI, which not only results in the construction of novel CNT-CuI hybrid structures but also encourages the deepest level of charge transfer doping. The excellent reliability as well as processing feasibility identify the bright perspective of CNT-CuI hybrid film for practical applications

  16. Understanding the doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: y-shuu@aist.go.jp; Shimada, Satoru; Azumi, Reiko [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanomaterials Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    Similar to other semiconductor technology, doping of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film is of great significance for performance improvement or modification. However, it still remains a challenge to seek a stable and effective dopant. In this paper, we unitize several spectroscopic techniques and electrical characterizations under various conditions to investigate the effects of typical dopants and related methods. Nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution, I{sub 2} vapor, and CuI nanoparticles are used to modify a series of ultrathin CNT networks. Although efficient charge transfer is achieved initially after doping, HNO{sub 3} is not applicable because it suffers from severe reliability problems in structural and electrical properties, and it also causes a number of undesired structural defects. I{sub 2} vapor doping at 150 °C can form some stable C-I bonding structures, resulting in relatively more stable but less efficient electrical performances. CuI nanoparticles seem to be an ideal dopant. Photonic curing enables the manipulation of CuI, which not only results in the construction of novel CNT-CuI hybrid structures but also encourages the deepest level of charge transfer doping. The excellent reliability as well as processing feasibility identify the bright perspective of CNT-CuI hybrid film for practical applications.

  17. White organic light-emitting diodes based on doped and ultrathin Rubrene layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Jiang, Yadong; Wen, Wen; Yu, Junsheng

    2010-10-01

    Based on a yellow fluorescent dye of 5, 6, 11, 12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene), WOLEDs were fabricated, with doping structure and ultrathin layer structure utilized in the devices. By doping Rubrene into blue-emitting N,N'-bis-(1- naphthyl)-N,N'-biphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB), the device with a structure of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/NPB (40 nm)/NPB:Rubrene (0.25 wt%, 7 nm)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) (30 nm)/Mg:Ag exhibited a warm white light with Commissions Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.38, 0.41) at 12 V. The electroluminescent spectrum of the OLED consisted of blue and yellow fluorescent emissions, the intensity of blue emission increased gradually relative to the orange emission with increasing voltage. This is mainly due to the recombination zone shifted towards the anode side as the transmission rate of electrons grows faster than that of holes under higher bias voltage. A maximum luminance of 7300 cd/m2 and a maximum power efficiency of 0.57 lm/W were achieved. Comparatively, by utilizing ultrathin dopant layer, the device with a structure of ITO/NPB (40 nm)/Rubrene (0.3 nm)/NPB (7 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/Mg:Ag achieved a low turn-on voltage of 3 V and a more stable white light. The peaks of EL spectra located at 430 and 560 nm corresponding to the CIE coordinates of (0.32, 0.32) under bias voltage ranging from 5 to 15 V. A maximum luminance of 5630 cd/m2 and a maximum power efficiency of 0.6 lm/W were achieved. The balanced spectra were attributed to the stable confining of charge carriers and exciton by the thin emitting layers. Hence, with simple device structure and fabricating process, the device with ultrathin layer achieved low turn-on voltage, stable white light emitting and higher power efficiency.

  18. Preparation of ITO/SiO{sub x}/n-Si solar cells with non-decline potential field and hole tunneling by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, H. W.; Yang, J.; Li, Y. H.; Xu, F. [SHU-SolarE R and D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Xu, J. [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, Z. Q., E-mail: zqma@shu.edu.cn [SHU-SolarE R and D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Complete photo-generated minority carrier's quantum tunneling device under AM1.5 illumination is fabricated by depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on n-type silicon to form a structure of ITO/SiO{sub x}/n-Si heterojunction. The work function difference between ITO and n-Si materials essentially acts as the origin of built-in-field. Basing on the measured value of internal potential (V{sub bi} = 0.61 V) and high conversion efficiency (9.27%), we infer that this larger photo-generated holes tunneling occurs when a strong inversion layer at the c-Si surface appears. Also, the mixed electronic states in the ultra-thin intermediate region between ITO and n-Si play a defect-assisted tunneling.

  19. Preparation of ITO/SiOx/n-Si solar cells with non-decline potential field and hole tunneling by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, H. W.; Yang, J.; Li, Y. H.; Xu, F.; Xu, J.; Ma, Z. Q.

    2015-03-01

    Complete photo-generated minority carrier's quantum tunneling device under AM1.5 illumination is fabricated by depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on n-type silicon to form a structure of ITO/SiOx/n-Si heterojunction. The work function difference between ITO and n-Si materials essentially acts as the origin of built-in-field. Basing on the measured value of internal potential (Vbi = 0.61 V) and high conversion efficiency (9.27%), we infer that this larger photo-generated holes tunneling occurs when a strong inversion layer at the c-Si surface appears. Also, the mixed electronic states in the ultra-thin intermediate region between ITO and n-Si play a defect-assisted tunneling.

  20. Electronic structure evolution in doping of fullerene (C{sub 60}) by ultra-thin layer molybdenum trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong; Kauppi, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Liu, Xiaoliang [Institute for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials (ISUPAM), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Gao, Yongli, E-mail: ygao@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Institute for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials (ISUPAM), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2015-08-28

    Ultra-thin layer molybdenum oxide doping of fullerene has been investigated using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) can be observed directly with UPS. It is observed that the Fermi level position in fullerene is modified by ultra-thin-layer molybdenum oxide doping, and the HOMO onset is shifted to less than 1.3 eV below the Fermi level. The XPS results indicate that charge transfer was observed from the C{sub 60} to MoO{sub x} and Mo{sup 6+} oxides is the basis as hole dopants.

  1. Formation of a highly doped ultra-thin amorphous carbon layer by ion bombardment of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotr Michałowski, Paweł; Pasternak, Iwona; Ciepielewski, Paweł; Guinea, Francisco; Strupiński, Włodek

    2018-07-01

    Ion bombardment of graphene leads to the formation of defects which may be used to tune properties of the graphene based devices. In this work, however, we present that the presence of the graphene layer on a surface of a sample has a significant impact on the ion bombardment process: broken sp2 bonds react with the incoming ions and trap them close to the surface of the sample, preventing a standard ion implantation. For an ion bombardment with a low impact energy and significant dose (in the range of 1014 atoms cm‑2) an amorphization of the graphene layer is observed but at the same time, most of the incoming ions do not penetrate the sample but stop at the surface, thus forming a highly doped ultra-thin amorphous carbon layer. The effect may be used to create thin layers containing desired atoms if no other technique is available. This approach is particularly useful for secondary ion mass spectrometry where a high concentration of Cs at the surface of a sample significantly enhances the negative ionization probability, allowing it to reach better detection limits.

  2. Highly-crystalline ultrathin gadolinium doped and carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G. B.; Yang, L. W.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, J. W.; Zhong, J. X.; Chu, P. K.

    2015-11-01

    Highly-crystalline gadolinium doped and carbon-coated ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets (denoted as LTO-Gd-C) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized on large scale by controlling the amount of carbon precursor in the topotactic transformation of layered ultrathin Li1.81H0.19Ti2O5·xH2O (H-LTO) nanosheets at 700 °C. The characterizations of structure and morphology reveal that the gadolinium doped and carbon-coated ultrathin LTO nanosheets have high crystallinity with a thickness of about 10 nm. Gadolinium doping allows the spinel LTO products to be stabilized, thereby preserving the precursor's sheet morphology and single crystal structure. Carbon encapsulation serves dual functions by restraining crystal growth of the LTO primary nanoparticles in the LTO-Gd-C nanosheets and decreasing the external electron transport resistance. Owing to the synergistic effects rendered by ultrathin nanosheets with high crystallinity, gadolinium doping and carbon coating, the developed ultrathin LTO nanosheets possess excellent specific capacity, cycling performance, and rate capability compared with reference materials, when evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The simple and effective strategy encompassing nanoscale morphological engineering, surface modification, and doping improves the performance of LTO-based anode materials for high energy density and high power LIBs applied in large scale energy storage.

  3. Ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, You; Li, Yinghao; Yin, Shuli; Yu, Hongjie; Xue, Hairong; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Hongjing; Wang, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Design of highly active and cost-effective electrocatalysts is very important for the generation of hydrogen by electrochemical water-splitting. Herein, we report the fabrication of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles (CoRu@NCs) and demonstrate their promising feasibility for efficiently catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a wide pH range. The resultant CoRu@NC nanohybrids possess an alloy–carbon core–shell structure with encapsulated low-ruthenium-content CoRu bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (10–30 nm) as the core and ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon layers (2–6 layers) as the shell. Remarkably, the optimized catalyst (CoRu@NC-2 sample) with a Ru content as low as 2.04 wt% shows superior catalytic activity and excellent durability for HER in acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions. This work offers a new method for the design and synthesis of non-platium-based electrocatalysts for HER in all-pH.

  4. Effect of cerium doping on the electrical properties of ultrathin indium tin oxide films for application in touch sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Saewon; Cho, Sanghyun; Song, Pungkeun

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and microstructure properties of cerium doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) ultrathin films were evaluated to assess their potential application in touch sensors. 10 to 150-nm ITO and ITO:Ce films were deposited on glass substrates (200 °C) by DC magnetron sputtering using different ITO targets (doped with CeO 2 : 0, 1, 3, 5 wt.%). ITO:Ce (doped with CeO 2 : 3 wt.%) films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. This lower resistivity was accompanied by a significant increase in the Hall mobility despite a decrease in crystallinity. In addition, the surface morphology and wetting properties improved with increasing Ce concentration. This is related to an earlier transition from an island structure to continuous film formation caused by an increase in the initial nucleation density. - Highlights: • 10 to 150-nm InSnO 2 (ITO) and ITO:Ce thin films were deposited by sputtering. • ITO:Ce films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. • Hall mobility was strongly affected by initial film formation. • Surface morphology and wetting property improved with increasing Ce concentration. • Such behavior is related to an earlier transition to continuous film formation

  5. 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks for enhanced acetone gas sensing application

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hadeethi, Yas; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Heniti, Saleh. H.; Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, S.H.; Zhang, Xixiang; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterizations and gas sensing application of 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks synthesized by a simple and facile hydrothermal process. The synthesized nanosheets were characterized using several techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties. The detailed characterizations confirmed that the nanosheets are pure, grown in high-density, possessing well-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the synthesized nanosheets were used as functional material to develop nanosensor device by coating it on the alumina substrate with suitable electrodes. The fabricated sensor device was tested towards acetone gas which exhibited a maximum sensitivity of 5.556 (Ra/Rg) for 200 ppm of acetone at 320 °C.

  6. 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks for enhanced acetone gas sensing application

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hadeethi, Yas

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterizations and gas sensing application of 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks synthesized by a simple and facile hydrothermal process. The synthesized nanosheets were characterized using several techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties. The detailed characterizations confirmed that the nanosheets are pure, grown in high-density, possessing well-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the synthesized nanosheets were used as functional material to develop nanosensor device by coating it on the alumina substrate with suitable electrodes. The fabricated sensor device was tested towards acetone gas which exhibited a maximum sensitivity of 5.556 (Ra/Rg) for 200 ppm of acetone at 320 °C.

  7. Photoreflectance study of InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhifallah, I.; Daoudi, M.; Bardaoui, A.; Eljani, B.; Ouerghi, A.; Chtourou, R.

    2011-01-01

    Photoreflectance and photoluminescence studies were performed to characterize InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistors. These structures were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on (1 0 0) oriented GaAs substrates with different silicon-delta-doped layer densities. Interband energy transitions in the InAs ultrathin layer quantum well were observed below the GaAs band gap in the photoreflectance spectra, and assigned to electron-heavy-hole (E e-hh ) and electron-light-hole (E e-lh ) fundamental transitions. These transitions were shifted to lower energy with increasing silicon-δ-doping density. This effect is in good agreement with our theoretical results based on a self-consistent solution of the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations and was explained by increased escape of photogenerated carriers and enhanced Quantum Confined Stark Effect in the Si-delta-doped InAs/GaAs QW. In the photoreflectance spectra, not only the channel well interband energy transitions were observed, but also features associated with the GaAs and AlGaAs bulk layers located at about 1.427 and 1.8 eV, respectively. By analyzing the Franz-Keldysh Oscillations observed in the spectral characteristics of Si-δ-doped samples, we have determined the internal electric field introduced by ionized Si-δ-doped centers. We have observed an increase in the electric field in the InAs ultrathin layer with increasing silicon content. The results are explained in terms of doping dependent ionized impurities densities and surface charges. - Research highlights: → Studying HEMTs structures with different silicon doping content. → An increase of the electric field in the InAs layer with increasing Si content. → The interband energy transitions in the HEMTs structures have been obtained from PR. → Experimental and theoretical values of transitions energies were in good agreement.

  8. Graphene oxide doped ionic liquid ultrathin composite membranes for efficient CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2016-11-28

    Advanced membrane systems with high flux and sufficient selectivity are required for industrial gas separation processes. In order to achieve high flux and high selectivity, the membrane material should be as thin as possible and it should have selective sieving channels and long term stability. This could be achieved by designing a three component material consisting of a blend of an ionic liquid and graphene oxide covered by a highly permeable low selective polymeric coating. By using a simple dip coating technique, we prepared high flux and CO selective ultrathin graphene oxide (GO)/ionic liquid membranes on a porous ultrafiltration support. The ultrathin composite membranes derived from GO/ionic liquid complex displays remarkable combinations of permeability (CO flux: 37 GPU) and selectivity (CO/N selectivity: 130) that surpass the upper bound of ionic liquid membranes for CO/N separation. Moreover, the membranes were stable when tested for 120 hours.

  9. Studies on fabrication and characterization of a high-performance Al-doped ZnO/n-Si (1 1 1) heterojunction photodetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Raid A; Al-Naimi, Ala; Al-Ani, Alaa A

    2008-01-01

    ZnO:Al/c-Si (1 1 1) isotype heterojunction photodetectors were fabricated by a chemical spray pyrolysis technique. High responsivity and good junction characteristics were obtained after post-deposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Dark and illuminated I–V characteristics were measured and analyzed. The ideality factor was deduced from I–V characteristics and found to be 1.3 after RTA. C–V measurements revealed that the junction was abrupt type. The energyband diagram, based on the Anderson model, was constructed from the electrical properties of the junction. Good photoresponses in UV and visible regions with responsivity were around 0.1 A W −1 and 0.47 A W −1 , respectively. The rise time of the detector was improved after RTA and found to be 50 ns. These results suggest that the Al dopant could be a good choice to fabricate the doped ZnO/Si devices for photodetection and other optoelectronic applications. We describe here the fabrication process and optoelectronic characteristics of the photodetector

  10. Gas Permeation, Mechanical Behavior and Cytocompatibility of Ultrathin Pure and Doped Diamond-Like Carbon and Silicon Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protective ultra-thin barrier films gather increasing economic interest for controlling permeation and diffusion from the biological surrounding in implanted sensor and electronic devices in future medicine. Thus, the aim of this work was a benchmarking of the mechanical oxygen permeation barrier, cytocompatibility, and microbiological properties of inorganic ~25 nm thin films, deposited by vacuum deposition techniques on 50 µm thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK foils. Plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (direct deposition from an ion source was applied to deposit pure and nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon films, while physical vapor deposition (magnetron sputtering in pulsed DC mode was used for the formation of silicon as well as titanium doped diamond-like carbon films. Silicon oxide films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The results indicate a strong influence of nanoporosity on the oxygen transmission rate for all coating types, while the low content of microporosity (particulates, etc. is shown to be of lesser importance. Due to the low thickness of the foil substrates, being easily bent, the toughness as a measure of tendency to film fracture together with the elasticity index of the thin films influence the oxygen barrier. All investigated coatings are non-pyrogenic, cause no cytotoxic effects and do not influence bacterial growth.

  11. Ultrathin Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Layer Uniformly Supported on Graphene Frameworks as Ultrahigh-Capacity Anode for Lithium-Ion Full Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshan; Li, Ke; Yang, Guanhui; Aboud, Mohamed F Aly; Shakir, Imran; Xu, Yuxi

    2018-03-01

    The designable structure with 3D structure, ultrathin 2D nanosheets, and heteroatom doping are considered as highly promising routes to improve the electrochemical performance of carbon materials as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, it remains a significant challenge to efficiently integrate 3D interconnected porous frameworks with 2D tunable heteroatom-doped ultrathin carbon layers to further boost the performance. Herein, a novel nanostructure consisting of a uniform ultrathin N-doped carbon layer in situ coated on a 3D graphene framework (NC@GF) through solvothermal self-assembly/polymerization and pyrolysis is reported. The NC@GF with the nanosheets thickness of 4.0 nm and N content of 4.13 at% exhibits an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 2018 mA h g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 and an ultrafast charge-discharge feature with a remarkable capacity of 340 mA h g -1 at an ultrahigh current density of 40 A g -1 and a superlong cycle life with a capacity retention of 93% after 10 000 cycles at 40 A g -1 . More importantly, when coupled with LiFePO 4 cathode, the fabricated lithium-ion full cells also exhibit high capacity and excellent rate and cycling performances, highlighting the practicability of this NC@GF. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Tailoring of magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films by Dy doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the controlled modification of relaxation parameters and magnetic moments of epitaxial Fe thin films through Dy doping. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show that an increase of Dy doping from 0.1% to 5% gives a tripling in Gilbert damping, and more importantly a strongly enhanced anisotropic damping that can be qualitatively understood through the slow-relaxing impurity model. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show a pronounced suppression of the orbital moment of the Fe with Dy doping, leading to an almost threefold drop in the orbital to spin moment ratio, ml/ms. Doping with Dy can therefore be used to control both dynamic and static properties of thin ferromagnetic films for improved performance in spintronics device applications, mediated through the antiferromagnetic interaction of the 4f and 3d states.

  13. Tailoring of magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films by Dy doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A. A. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hesjedal, T. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    We report on the controlled modification of relaxation parameters and magnetic moments of epitaxial Fe thin films through Dy doping. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show that an increase of Dy doping from 0.1% to 5% gives a tripling in Gilbert damping, and more importantly a strongly enhanced anisotropic damping that can be qualitatively understood through the slow-relaxing impurity model. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show a pronounced suppression of the orbital moment of the Fe with Dy doping, leading to an almost threefold drop in the orbital to spin moment ratio, m{sub l}/m{sub s}. Doping with Dy can therefore be used to control both dynamic and static properties of thin ferromagnetic films for improved performance in spintronics device applications, mediated through the antiferromagnetic interaction of the 4f and 3d states.

  14. Photoreflectance study of InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhifallah, I., E-mail: ines.dhifallah@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semiconducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' energie, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Daoudi, M.; Bardaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semiconducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' energie, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Eljani, B. [Unite de recherche sur les Hetero-Epitaxie et Applications, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Ouerghi, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS Route de Nozay 91 46a0, Marcoussis (France); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semiconducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' energie, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    Photoreflectance and photoluminescence studies were performed to characterize InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistors. These structures were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on (1 0 0) oriented GaAs substrates with different silicon-delta-doped layer densities. Interband energy transitions in the InAs ultrathin layer quantum well were observed below the GaAs band gap in the photoreflectance spectra, and assigned to electron-heavy-hole (E{sub e-hh}) and electron-light-hole (E{sub e-lh}) fundamental transitions. These transitions were shifted to lower energy with increasing silicon-{delta}-doping density. This effect is in good agreement with our theoretical results based on a self-consistent solution of the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations and was explained by increased escape of photogenerated carriers and enhanced Quantum Confined Stark Effect in the Si-delta-doped InAs/GaAs QW. In the photoreflectance spectra, not only the channel well interband energy transitions were observed, but also features associated with the GaAs and AlGaAs bulk layers located at about 1.427 and 1.8 eV, respectively. By analyzing the Franz-Keldysh Oscillations observed in the spectral characteristics of Si-{delta}-doped samples, we have determined the internal electric field introduced by ionized Si-{delta}-doped centers. We have observed an increase in the electric field in the InAs ultrathin layer with increasing silicon content. The results are explained in terms of doping dependent ionized impurities densities and surface charges. - Research highlights: {yields} Studying HEMTs structures with different silicon doping content. {yields} An increase of the electric field in the InAs layer with increasing Si content. {yields} The interband energy transitions in the HEMTs structures have been obtained from PR. {yields} Experimental and theoretical values of transitions energies were in good agreement.

  15. Ferroelectric transistors with monolayer molybdenum disulfide and ultra-thin aluminum-doped hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wui Chung; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Jialun; Xia, Qiangfei; Zhu, Wenjuan

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate ferroelectric memory devices with monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the channel material and aluminum (Al)-doped hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the ferroelectric gate dielectric. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors with 16 nm thick Al-doped HfO2 are fabricated, and a remnant polarization of 3 μC/cm2 under a program/erase voltage of 5 V is observed. The capability of potential 10 years data retention was estimated using extrapolation of the experimental data. Ferroelectric transistors based on embedded ferroelectric HfO2 and MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition are fabricated. Clockwise hysteresis is observed at low program/erase voltages due to slow bulk traps located near the 2D/dielectric interface, while counterclockwise hysteresis is observed at high program/erase voltages due to ferroelectric polarization. In addition, the endurances of the devices are tested, and the effects associated with ferroelectric materials, such as the wake-up effect and polarization fatigue, are observed. Reliable writing/reading in MoS2/Al-doped HfO2 ferroelectric transistors over 2 × 104 cycles is achieved. This research can potentially lead to advances of two-dimensional (2D) materials in low-power logic and memory applications.

  16. On the annealing-induced enhancement of the interface properties of NiO:Cu/wet-SiOx/n-Si tunnelling junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueliang; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jingwei; Sun, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Using metal oxides to form a carrier-selective interface on crystalline silicon (c-Si) has recently generated considerable interest for use with c-Si photovoltaics because of the potential to reduce cost. n-type oxides, such as MoO3, V2O5, and WO3, have been widely studied. In this work, a p-type oxide, Cu-doped NiO (NiO:Cu), is explored as a transparent hole-selective contact to n-Si. An ultrathin SiOx layer, fabricated by a wet-chemical method (wet-SiOx), is introduced at the NiO:Cu/n-Si interface to achieve a tunnelling junction solar cell. Interestingly, it was observed that the interface quality of the NiO:Cu/wet-SiOx/n-Si heterojunction was dramatically enhanced by post-deposition annealing (PDA) at a temperature of 200 °C. Our device exhibits an improved power conversion efficiency of 10.8%, which is the highest efficiency among NiO/Si heterojunction photo-electric devices to date. It is demonstrated that the 200 °C PDA treatment enhances the built-in field by a reduction in the interface density of states (Dit) but does not influence the work function of the NiO:Cu thin layer. This stable work function after the PDA treatment is in conflict with the changed built-in field according to the Schottky model. Thus, the Bardeen model is introduced for this physical insight: the enhancement of the built-in field originates from the unpinning of the Fermi levels of NiO:Cu and n-Si by the interface state reduction.

  17. A DFT study on NEA GaN photocathode with an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Kong, Yike; Diao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Due to the drawbacks of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, a new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispense with Cs activation are proposed. This structure can be obtained through the coverage of an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer on the p-type Mg-doped GaN emission layer. The influences of the cap layer on the photocathode are calculated using DFT. This study indicates that the n-type cap layer can promote the photoemission characteristics of GaN photocathode and demonstrates the probability of the preparation of a NEA GaN photocathode with an n-type cap layer.

  18. Using an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer to realize high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with low efficiency roll-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge, E-mail: mdg1014@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhao, Yongbiao [Luminous Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhang, Hongmei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-06-28

    By adopting an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer sandwiched between two blue emission layers, high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with reduced efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The optimized devices show a balanced white emission with Internationale de L'Eclairage of (0.41, 0.44) at the luminance of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, and the maximum power efficiency, current efficiency (CE), and external quantum efficiency reach 63.2 lm/W, 59.3 cd/A, and 23.1%, which slightly shift to 53.4 lm/W, 57.1 cd/A, and 22.2% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, showing low efficiency roll-off. Detailed investigations on the recombination zone and the transient electroluminescence (EL) clearly reveal the EL processes of the ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer in WOLEDs.

  19. Non-covalent doping of graphitic carbon nitride with ultrathin graphene oxide and molybdenum disulfide nanosheets: an effective binary heterojunction photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S W; Yang, L W; Tian, Y; Wei, X L; Ding, J W; Zhong, J X; Chu, Paul K

    2014-10-01

    A proof of concept integrating binary p-n heterojunctions into a semiconductor hybrid photocatalyst is demonstrated by non-covalent doping of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with ultrathin GO and MoS2 nanosheets using a facile sonochemical method. In this unique ternary hybrid, the layered MoS2 and GO nanosheets with a large surface area enhance light absorption to generate more photoelectrons. On account of the coupling between MoS2 and GO with g-C3N4, the ternary hybrid possesses binary p-n heterojunctions at the g-C3N4/MoS2 and g-C3N4/GO interfaces. The space charge layers created by the p-n heterojunctions not only enhance photogeneration, but also promote charge separation and transfer of electron-hole pairs. In addition, the ultrathin MoS2 and GO with high mobility act as electron mediators to facilitate separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at each p-n heterojunction. As a result, the ternary hybrid photocatalyst exhibits improved photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation compared to other reference materials. The results provide new insights into the large-scale production of semiconductor photocatalysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of thermal annealing on the structure and the electrical transport properties of ultrathin gadolinia-doped ceria films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, K.; Pryds, N.; Theil Kuhn, L.; Esposito, V.; Linderoth, S. [Technical University of Denmark, Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Division, Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Heiroth, S.; Lippert, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Schou, J. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Photonics Engineering, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-09-15

    Ultrathin crystalline films of 10 mol% gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO10) are grown on MgO (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition at a moderate temperature of 400 C. As-deposited CGO10 layers of approximately 4 nm, 14 nm, and 22 nm thickness consist of fine grains with dimensions {<=}{proportional_to}11 nm. The films show high density within the thickness probed in the X-ray reflectivity experiments. Thermally activated grain growth, density decrease, and film surface roughening, which may result in the formation of incoherent CGO10 islands by dewetting below a critical film thickness, are observed upon heat treatment at 400 C and 800 C. The effect of the grain coarsening on the electrical characteristics of the layers is investigated and discussed in the context of a variation of the number density of grain boundaries. The results are evaluated with regard to the use of ultrathin CGO10 films as seeding templates for the moderate temperature growth of thick solid electrolyte films with improved oxygen transport properties. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices consisting of a non-doped thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter and an ultrathin phosphorescent emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Juan; Wang, Zijun; Wang, Run; Chi, Zhenguo; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are fabricated by employing non-doped emitting layers (EMLs), which are consisted of a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-diphenylsulfone (DMAC-DPS) and an ultrathin yellow iridium complex bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2′ ] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt) 2 Ir(acac)]. With thickness optimization of DMAC-DPS, a white OLED achieves maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 34.9 cd/A, 29.2 lm/W and 11.4%, respectively, as well as warm white emission with relatively stable electroluminescence spectra. The results suggest that, bipolar charge carrier transport property and concentration independent property of DMAC-DPS, charge carrier trapping effect of the ultrathin (tbt) 2 Ir(acac), and balanced self-emission process and energy transfer process between DMAC-DPS and (tbt) 2 Ir(acac), contribute to high device performance.

  2. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices consisting of a non-doped thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter and an ultrathin phosphorescent emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zijun; Wang, Run [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chi, Zhenguo, E-mail: chizhg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are fabricated by employing non-doped emitting layers (EMLs), which are consisted of a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-diphenylsulfone (DMAC-DPS) and an ultrathin yellow iridium complex bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2′}] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. With thickness optimization of DMAC-DPS, a white OLED achieves maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 34.9 cd/A, 29.2 lm/W and 11.4%, respectively, as well as warm white emission with relatively stable electroluminescence spectra. The results suggest that, bipolar charge carrier transport property and concentration independent property of DMAC-DPS, charge carrier trapping effect of the ultrathin (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac), and balanced self-emission process and energy transfer process between DMAC-DPS and (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac), contribute to high device performance.

  3. Improvement of transistor characteristics and stability for solution-processed ultra-thin high-valence niobium doped zinc-tin oxide thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeng, Jiann-Shing, E-mail: jsjeng@mail.nutn.edu.tw

    2016-08-15

    Nb-doped Zinc tin oxide (NZTO) channel materials have been prepared by solution process in combination with the spin-coating method. All NZTO thin film transistors (TFTs) are n-type enhancement-mode devices, either without or with Nb additives. High-valence niobium ion (ionic charge = +5) has a larger ionic potential and similar ionic radius to Zn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions. As compared with the pure ZTO device, introducing Nb{sup 5+} ions into the ZTO channel layers can improve the electrical properties and bias stability of TFTs because of the reduction of the oxygen vacancies. This study discusses the connection among the material properties of the NZTO films and the electrical performance and bias stability of NZTO TFTs and how they are influenced by the Nb/(Nb + Sn) molar ratios of NZTO films. - Highlights: • Ultra-thin high-valence niobium doped zinc-tin oxide (NZTO) thin films are prepared using a solution process. • Nb dopants in ZTO films reduce the oxygen vacancy and subgap adsorption of the ZTO films. • The Nb-doping concentration of the NZTO channel layer has a strong influence on the TFT performance.

  4. Improvement of the effective work function and transmittance of thick indium tin oxide/ultrathin ruthenium doped indium oxide bilayers as transparent conductive oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taweesup, Kattareeya; Yamamoto, Ippei; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Lothongkum, Gobboon; Tsukagoshi, Kazutoshi; Ohishi, Tomoji; Tungasmita, Sukkaneste; Visuttipitukul, Patama; Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium doped indium oxide (In_1_−_xRu_xO_y) films fabricated using DC magnetron co-sputtering with In_2O_3 and Ru targets were investigated for use as transparent conductive oxides. The In_1_−_xRu_xO_y films had an amorphous structure in the wide compositional range of x = 0.3–0.8 and had an extremely smooth surface. The transmittance and resistivity of the In_1_−_xRu_xO_y films increased as the Ru content increased. The transmittance of the In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y film improved to over 80% when the film thickness was less than 5 nm, while the specific resistivity (ρ) was kept to a low value of 1.6 × 10"−"4 Ω cm. Based on these experimental data, we demonstrated that thick indium tin oxide (In_0_._9Sn_0_._1O_y, ITO) (150 nm)/ultrathin In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y (3 nm) bilayers have a high effective work function of 5.3 eV, transmittance of 86%, and low ρ of 9.2 × 10"−"5 Ω cm. This ITO/In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer is a candidate for use as an anode for organic electroluminescent devices. - Highlights: • We investigated characteristics of thick ITO/ultrathin Ru doped In_2O_3 bilayers. • Effect of Ru addition in In_2O_3 results in smooth surface because of an amorphous structure. • The In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y film with less than 5 nm improves to high transmittance over 80%. • ITO/In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer has a high effective work function of 5.3 eV. • We conclude that ITO/ultrathin In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer is a candidate as an anode of OEL.

  5. 3D hierarchical assembly of ultrathin MnO2 nanoflakes on silicon nanowires for high performance micro-supercapacitors in Li- doped ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Aradilla, David; Bidan, Gérard; Gentile, Pascal; Schubert, Thomas J.S.; Wimberg, Jan; Sadki, Saïd; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Building of hierarchical core-shell hetero-structures is currently the subject of intensive research in the electrochemical field owing to its potential for making improved electrodes for high-performance micro-supercapacitors. Here we report a novel architecture design of hierarchical MnO2@silicon nanowires (MnO2@SiNWs) hetero-structures directly supported onto silicon wafer coupled with Li-ion doped 1-Methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluromethylsulfonyl)imide (PMPyrrBTA) ionic liquids as electrolyte for micro-supercapacitors. A unique 3D mesoporous MnO2@SiNWs in Li-ion doped IL electrolyte can be cycled reversibly across a voltage of 2.2 V and exhibits a high areal capacitance of 13 mFcm−2. The high conductivity of the SiNWs arrays combined with the large surface area of ultrathin MnO2 nanoflakes are responsible for the remarkable performance of these MnO2@SiNWs hetero-structures which exhibit high energy density and excellent cycling stability. This combination of hybrid electrode and hybrid electrolyte opens up a novel avenue to design electrode materials for high-performance micro-supercapacitors. PMID:25985388

  6. Nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets with interconnected framework for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shasha; Chen, Yaxin; Shi, Liluo; Dong, Yue; Ma, Jing; Chen, Xiaohong; Song, Huaihe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a low-cost and environmental friendly synthesis strategy is proposed to fabricate nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets (N-CNS) with interconnected framework by using soybean milk as the carbon precursor and sodium chloride as the template. The interconnected porous nanosheet structure is beneficial for lithium ion transportation, and the defects introduced by pyridine nitrogen doping are favorable for lithium storage. When used as the anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the N-CNS electrode shows a high initial reversible specific capacity of 1334 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1, excellent rate performance (1212, 555 and 336 mAh g-1 at 0.05, 0.5 and 2 A g-1, respectively) and good cycling stability (355 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 1000 cycles). Furthermore, this study demonstrates the prospects of biomass and soybean milk, as the potential anode for the application of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  7. Structural characterization of ultrathin Cr-doped ITO layers deposited by double-target pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaria, Maura; Caricato, Anna Paola; Leggieri, Gilberto; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Catalano, Massimo; Manera, Maria Grazia; Rella, Roberto; Taurino, Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on the growth and structural characterization of very thin (20 nm) Cr-doped ITO films, deposited at room temperature by double-target pulsed laser ablation on amorphous silica substrates. The role of Cr atoms in the ITO matrix is carefully investigated with increasing doping content by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Selected-area electron diffraction, conventional bright field and dark field as well as high-resolution TEM analyses, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrate that (i) crystallization features occur despite the low growth temperature and small thickness, (ii) no chromium or chromium oxide secondary phases are detectable, regardless of the film doping levels, (iii) the films crystallize as crystalline flakes forming large-angle grain boundaries; (iv) the observed flakes consist of crystalline planes with local bending of the crystal lattice. Thickness and compositional information about the films are obtained by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry. Results are discussed by considering the combined effects of growth temperature, smaller ionic radius of the Cr cation compared with the trivalent In ion, doping level, film thickness, the double-target doping technique and peculiarities of the pulsed laser deposition method.

  8. Structural characterization of ultrathin Cr-doped ITO layers deposited by double-target pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, Maura; Caricato, Anna Paola; Leggieri, Gilberto; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Catalano, Massimo; Grazia Manera, Maria; Rella, Roberto; Taurino, Antonietta

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we report on the growth and structural characterization of very thin (20 nm) Cr-doped ITO films, deposited at room temperature by double-target pulsed laser ablation on amorphous silica substrates. The role of Cr atoms in the ITO matrix is carefully investigated with increasing doping content by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Selected-area electron diffraction, conventional bright field and dark field as well as high-resolution TEM analyses, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrate that (i) crystallization features occur despite the low growth temperature and small thickness, (ii) no chromium or chromium oxide secondary phases are detectable, regardless of the film doping levels, (iii) the films crystallize as crystalline flakes forming large-angle grain boundaries; (iv) the observed flakes consist of crystalline planes with local bending of the crystal lattice. Thickness and compositional information about the films are obtained by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry. Results are discussed by considering the combined effects of growth temperature, smaller ionic radius of the Cr cation compared with the trivalent In ion, doping level, film thickness, the double-target doping technique and peculiarities of the pulsed laser deposition method.

  9. Structural characterization of ultrathin Cr-doped ITO layers deposited by double-target pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, Maura; Caricato, Anna Paola; Leggieri, Gilberto; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio; Maruccio, Giuseppe [Physics Department, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Catalano, Massimo; Manera, Maria Grazia; Rella, Roberto; Taurino, Antonietta, E-mail: antonietta.taurino@le.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2011-09-14

    In this paper we report on the growth and structural characterization of very thin (20 nm) Cr-doped ITO films, deposited at room temperature by double-target pulsed laser ablation on amorphous silica substrates. The role of Cr atoms in the ITO matrix is carefully investigated with increasing doping content by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Selected-area electron diffraction, conventional bright field and dark field as well as high-resolution TEM analyses, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrate that (i) crystallization features occur despite the low growth temperature and small thickness, (ii) no chromium or chromium oxide secondary phases are detectable, regardless of the film doping levels, (iii) the films crystallize as crystalline flakes forming large-angle grain boundaries; (iv) the observed flakes consist of crystalline planes with local bending of the crystal lattice. Thickness and compositional information about the films are obtained by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry. Results are discussed by considering the combined effects of growth temperature, smaller ionic radius of the Cr cation compared with the trivalent In ion, doping level, film thickness, the double-target doping technique and peculiarities of the pulsed laser deposition method.

  10. Controlling electrodeposited ultrathin amorphous Fe hydroxides film on V-doped nickel sulfide nanowires as efficient electrocatalyst for water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao; Yan, Kai-Li; Lu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Bin; Gao, Wen-Kun; Chi, Jing-Qi; Liu, Zi-Zhang; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2017-09-01

    Developing cost-effective electrocatalysts with both high activity and stability remains challenging for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in water electrolysis. Herein, based on V-doped nickel sulfide nanowire on nickel foam (NiVS/NF), we further conduct controllable electrodeposition of Fe hydroxides film on NiVS/NF (eFe/NiVS/NF) to further improve OER performance and stability. For comparison, ultrafast chemical deposition of Fe hydroxides on NiVS/NF (uFe/NiVS/NF) is also utilized. V-doping of NiVS/NF may introduce more active sites for OER, and nanowire structure can expose abundant active sites and facilitate mass transport. Both of the two depositions generate amorphous Fe hydroxides film covering on the surface of nanowires and lead to enhanced OER activities. Furthermore, electrodeposition strategy realizes uniform Fe hydroxides film on eFe/NiVS/NF confirmed by superior OER activity of eFe/NiVS/NF than uFe/NiVS/NF with relatively enhanced stability. The OER activity of eFe/NiVS/NF depends on various electrodepositon time, and the optimal time (15 s) is obtained with maximum OER activity. Therefore, the controllable electrodeposition of Fe may provide an efficient and simple strategy to enhance the OER properties of electrocatalysts.

  11. Selective tuning of magnetization dynamics damping in Tb- and Nd-doped permalloy ultrathin films by adjacent copper nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong, E-mail: physzd@yahoo.com [School of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Key Lab. of Communication Science and Technology of Shandong Province, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Physics Department, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Yue, Jinjin; Jiang, Sheng [Physics Department, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhai, Ya, E-mail: yazhai@seu.edu.cn [Physics Department, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); National Laboratory of Solid Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru [National Laboratory of Solid Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-07-05

    The mechanism of angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of dilute Tb and Nd doping in permalloy thin films with various thicknesses of adjacent copper layer are investigated by experimental approach and theoretical fitting by considering the contributions from intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, inhomogeneous broadening and two-magnon scattering. The results show that the damping coefficient α, by intrinsic contribution extracted from ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, increases from 0.0153 to 0.0218 for NiFe–Nd films and from 0.0193 to 0.0261 for NiFe–Tb films resulting from the spin pumping effect at the interface of NiFe–Nd(or Tb)/Cu as the thickness of copper layer increases from 1 nm to 15 nm. The surface magnetic anisotropy constant K{sub 1} is obtained and shows an decreasing trend from positive to negative, which implies that the copper layer could reduce the surface perpendicular anisotropy. The fitting spin mixed conductivity is (2.72 ± 0.18) × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} at NiFe–Tb/Cu interface and (2.4 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} at Cu/NiFe–Nd interface, respectively. - Highlights: • The thickness of Cu buffer layer affects the surface perpendicular anisotropy of FM layer. • The interface roughness could be investigated by using FMR linewidth. • The damping coefficient is enhanced by spin-pumping effect.

  12. Electrical transport measurements and degradation of graphene/n-Si Schottky junction diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, No-Won; Lee, Won-Yong; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Koh, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Hong, Chang-Hee; Kim, Keun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We report on the electrical properties, such as the ideality factors and Schottky barrier heights, that were obtained by using current density - voltage (J - V ) and capacitance - voltage (C - V ) characteristics. To fabricate circularly- and locally-contacted Au/Gr/n-Si Schottky diode, we deposited graphene through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth technique, and we employed reactive ion etching to reduce the leakage current of the Schottky diodes. The average values of the barrier heights and the ideality factors from the J .V characteristics were determined to be ∼0.79 ± 0.01 eV and ∼1.80 ± 0.01, respectively. The Schottky barrier height and the doping concentration from the C - V measurements were ∼0.85 eV and ∼1.76 x 10 15 cm -3 , respectively. From the J - V characteristics, we obtained a relatively low reverse leakage current of ∼2.56 x 10 -6 mA/cm -2 at -2 V, which implies a well-defined rectifying behavior. Finally, we found that the Gr/n-Si Schottky diodes that were exposed to ambient conditions for 7 days exhibited a ∼3.2-fold higher sheet resistance compared with the as-fabricated Gr/n-Si diodes, implying a considerable electrical degradation of the Gr/n-Si Schottky diodes.

  13. Charge transport properties of metal/metal-phthalocyanine/n-Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal

    2010-12-16

    In present work the charge transport properties of metal/metal-phthalocyanine/n-Si structures with low (N{sub D} = 4 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}), medium (N{sub D}=1 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) and high (N{sub D}=2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) doped n-Si as injecting electrode and the effect of air exposure of the vacuum evaporated metal-phthalocyanine film in these structures is investigated. The results obtained through temperature dependent electrical characterizations of the structures suggest that in terms of dominant conduction mechanism in the corresponding devices Schottky-type conduction mechanism dominates the charge transport in low-bias region of these devices up to 0.8 V, 0.302 V and 0.15 V in case of low, medium and high doped n-Silicon devices. For higher voltages, in each case of devices, the space-charge-limited conduction, controlled by exponential trap distribution, is found to dominate the charge transport properties of the devices. The interface density of states at the CuPc/n-Si interface of the devices are found to be lower in case of lower work function difference at the CuPc/n-Si interface of the devices. The results also suggest that the work function difference at the CuPc/n-Si interface of these devices causes charge transfer at the interface and these phenomena results in formation of interface dipole. The width of the Schottky depletion region at the CuPc/n-Si interface of these devices is found to be higher with higher work function difference at the interface. The investigation of charge transport properties of Al/ZnPc/medium n-Si and Au/ZnPc/ medium n-Si devices suggest that the Schottky depletion region formed at the ZnPc/n-Si interface of these devices determines the charge transport in the low-bias region of both the devices. Therefore, the Schottky-type (injection limited) and the space-charge-limited (bulk limited) conduction are observed in the low and the high bias regions of these devices, respectively. The determined width of the

  14. Efficient bright white organic light-emitting diode based on non-doped ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lu; Yu Junsheng; Tang Xiaoqing; Wang Tao; Li Wei; Jiang Yadong

    2008-01-01

    High-performance undoped white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has been fabricated using an ultrathin yellow-emitting layer of 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) inserted at two sides of interface between two N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'- biphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'- diamine (NPB) layers as a hole transporting and blue emissive layer, respectively. The results showed that a maximum luminance of the device reached to as high as 21,500 cd/m 2 at 15 V. The power efficiencies of 2.5 and 1.6 lm/W at a luminance of 1000 and 10000 cd/m 2 , respectively, were obtained. The peaks of electroluminescent (EL) spectra locate at 429 and 560 nm corresponding to the Commissions Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.32, 0.33), which is independent of bias voltage. The performance enhancement of the device may result from direct charge carrier trapping in rubrene. Energy transfer mechanism was also found in the EL process

  15. Efficient bright white organic light-emitting diode based on non-doped ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu Junsheng [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Tang Xiaoqing; Wang Tao; Li Wei; Jiang Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2008-11-15

    High-performance undoped white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has been fabricated using an ultrathin yellow-emitting layer of 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) inserted at two sides of interface between two N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'- biphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'- diamine (NPB) layers as a hole transporting and blue emissive layer, respectively. The results showed that a maximum luminance of the device reached to as high as 21,500 cd/m{sup 2} at 15 V. The power efficiencies of 2.5 and 1.6 lm/W at a luminance of 1000 and 10000 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained. The peaks of electroluminescent (EL) spectra locate at 429 and 560 nm corresponding to the Commissions Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.32, 0.33), which is independent of bias voltage. The performance enhancement of the device may result from direct charge carrier trapping in rubrene. Energy transfer mechanism was also found in the EL process.

  16. Energy position of bistable defect (CiCs)0 in 'B' configuration in a forbidden zone of n-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgolenko, A.P.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Varentsov, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Float-zone and phosphorus-doped n-Si samples after irradiation by fast-pile neutrons and subsequent annealing at room temperature were investigated. The calculation of effective concentration of carriers after irradiation was carried out in the framework of Gossick's model taking into account the recharges of defects both in conducting matrix of n-Si and in the space-charge region of defect clusters. The distribution function of electrons on the acceptor level of bistable defect (C i C s ) 0 when the concentration of this defect is the function of the Fermi level in conducting matrix of n-Si is determined. The concentration of bistable interstitial-carbon-substitutional-carbon pair and its energy level at (E c - 0,123 eV) in forbidden band of silicon were calculated. On the observable level of stable configuration C i C s (A - )-defects at (E c - 0,147 eV) the theoretical change of carriers concentration in the conduction band simulated by the recharges (C i C s ) 0 was imposed. The concentration of these (C i C s ) 0 -defects has been changed in the process of their recharges. It is shown that in n-Si with high carbon and oxygen concentration after affiliating of oxygen atoms to bistable defect (C i C s ) 0 in a forbidden band of n-Si the stable defects not only in 'A' but also in 'B' configurations are formed with energy levels at (E c - 0,13 eV) and (E c - 0,09 eV)

  17. Self-assembled patches in PtSi/n-Si (111) diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afandiyeva, I. M.; Altιndal, Ş.; Abdullayeva, L. K.; Bayramova, A. İ.

    2018-05-01

    Using the effect of the temperature on the capacitance–voltage (C–V) and conductance–voltage (G/ω–V) characteristics of PtSi/n-Si (111) Schottky diodes the profile of apparent doping concentration (N Dapp), the potential difference between the Fermi energy level and the bottom of the conduction band (V n), apparent barrier height (Φ Bapp), series resistance (R s) and the interface state density N ss have been investigated. From the temperature dependence of (C–V) it was found that these parameters are non-uniformly changed with increasing temperature in a wide temperature range of 79–360 K. The voltage and temperature dependences of apparent carrier distribution we attributed to the existence of self-assembled patches similar the quantum wells, which formed due to the process of PtSi formation on semiconductor and the presence of hexagonal voids of Si (111).

  18. Ultrathin ZnSe nanowires: one-pot synthesis via a heat-triggered precursor slow releasing route, controllable Mn doping and application in UV and near-visible light detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xing, Guanjie; Tang, Shilin; Li, Xiaohong; Fan, Louzhen; Li, Yunchao

    2017-10-12

    We report herein a heat-triggered precursor slow releasing route for the one-pot synthesis of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires (NWs), which relies on the gradual dissolving of Se powder into oleylamine containing a soluble Zn precursor under heating. This route allows the reaction system to maintain a high monomer concentration throughout the entire reaction process, thus enabling the generation of ZnSe NWs with diameter down to 2.1 nm and length approaching 400 nm. The size-dependent optical properties and band-edge energy levels of the ZnSe NWs were then explored in depth by UV-visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. Considering their unique absorption properties, these NWs were specially utilized for fabricating photoelectrochemical-type photodetectors (PDs). Impressively, the PDs based on the ZnSe NWs with diameters of 2.1 and 4.5 nm exhibited excellent responses to UVA and near-visible light, respectively: both possessed ultrahigh on/off ratios (5150 for UVA and 4213 for near-visible light) and ultrawide linear response ranges (from 2.0 to 9000 μW cm -2 for UVA and 5.0 to 8000 μW cm -2 for near-visible light). Furthermore, these ZnSe NWs were selectively doped with various amounts of Mn 2+ to tune their emission properties. As a result, ZnSe NW film-based photochromic cards were creatively developed for visually detecting UVA and near-visible radiation.

  19. Effect of Aluminum on Characterization of ZnTe/n-Si Heterojunction Photo detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Samir A.; Hassun, Hanan K.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminum doped zinc telluride ZnTenSi thin films of (400nm) thickness with (005 01 015 and 02) wt % were deposited on the glass substrate and nSi wafer to fabricate ZnTenSi heterojunction Photodetector by using thermal vacuum evaporation technique Structural optical electrical and photovoltaic properties are investigated for the samples XRD analysis shows that all the deposited ZnTenSi films show polycrystalline structure with cubic phases and highest sharp peak corresponding to (111) planes and from AFM images shows the surface roughness increase with increase Al percentage ratio The optical absorption measurement of the films was find from transmittance ranges in the variety of wavelength (400 1000) nm and the optical energy band gap decrease from 224 eV to 186 eV dependent upon the Aluminum ratio in the films moreover our studies contain the calculation of the electrical properties of hetero junction were obtained via IV (dark and light condition) and C V measurement The photoelectric properties indicated rise illumination current of heterojunctions through increasing both of incident lighting intensity and Aluminum dopant The values of specific detectivity and quantum efficiency are calculated for all samples also the best spectral response occurs when Al doping ratio 02% The high photo sensitivity and comparatively fast response haste are attributable to in height crystal quality of the [ZnTe ] thin films.

  20. Effective Passivation and Tunneling Hybrid a-SiOx(In) Layer in ITO/n-Si Heterojunction Photovoltaic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Li, Yong; Han, Baichao; Song, Wenlei; Xu, Fei; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Zhongquan

    2017-05-24

    In this article, using controllable magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) materials on single crystal silicon at 100 °C, the optoelectronic heterojunction frame of ITO/a-SiO x (In)/n-Si is simply fabricated for the purpose of realizing passivation contact and hole tunneling. It is found that the gradation profile of indium (In) element together with silicon oxide (SiO x /In) within the ultrathin boundary zone between ITO and n-Si occurs and is characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with the ion milling technique. The atomistic morphology and physical phase of the interfacial layer has been observed with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. X-ray diffraction, Hall effect measurement, and optical transmittance with Tauc plot have been applied to the microstructure and property analyses of ITO thin films, respectively. The polycrystalline and amorphous phases have been verified for ITO films and SiO x (In) hybrid layer, respectively. For the quantum transport, both direct and defect-assisted tunneling of photogenerated holes through the a-SiO x (In) layer is confirmed. Besides, there is a gap state correlative to the indium composition and located at E v + 4.60 eV in the ternary hybrid a-SiO x (In) layer that is predicted by density functional theory of first-principles calculation, which acts as an "extended delocalized state" for direct tunneling of the photogenerated holes. The reasonable built-in potential (V bi = 0.66 V) and optimally controlled ternary hybrid a-SiO x (In) layer (about 1.4 nm) result in that the device exhibits excellent PV performance, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.540 V, a short-circuit current density of 30.5 mA/cm 2 , a high fill factor of 74.2%, and a conversion efficiency of 12.2%, under the AM 1.5 illumination. The work function difference between ITO (5.06 eV) and n-Si (4.31 eV) is determined by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and ascribed to the essence of the built-in-field of the PV device

  1. Obtaining of bilateral high voltage epitaxial p—i—n Si structures by LPE method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakiv N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon p—i—n-structures are usually obtained using conventional diffusion method or liquid phase epitaxy (LPE. In both cases, the formation of p- and n-layers occurs in two stages. This technological approach is quite complex. Moreover, when forming bilateral high-voltage epitaxial layers, their parameters significantly deteriorate as a result of prolonged heat treatment of active high-resistivity layer. Besides, when using diffusion method, it is impossible to provide good reproducibility of the process. In this paper a technique of growing bilateral high-voltage silicon p—i—n-structures by LPE in a single process is proposed. The authors have obtained the optimum compounds of silicon-undersaturated molten solutions for highly doped (5•1018 cm–3 contact layers: 0.4—0.8 at. % aluminum in gallium melt for growing p-Si-layers and 0.03—0.15 at. % ytterbium in tin melt for n-Si-layers. Parameters of such structures provide for manufacturing of high-voltage diodes on their basis. Such diodes can be used in navigational equipment, communication systems for household and special purposes, on-board power supply systems, radar systems, medical equipment, etc.

  2. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.

    2014-01-01

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10 −10  A) and rectification of more than 10 6 . We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69 eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83 eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Güttler

  3. Ultrathin metallized PBI paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevey, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of preparing ultrathin papers with a target weight of 3.5 g/m squared from polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibrids was undertaken. Small hand sheets of target weight were fabricated. They were light brown, low density materials with sufficient strength to be readily handleable. Characterization of these sheets included strength, fold endurance, thermal gravimetric analysis in air and nitrogen and photomicrographs. Two different batches of PBI fibrids were studied and differences in fabrication performance were noted. In neither case could target weight papers be prepared using conventional paper making techniques.

  4. Impedance analysis on organic ultrathin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bom, Sidhant; Wagner, Veit [Jacobs University Bremen, School of Engineering and Science, Campus Ring 8, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a standard technique for thin film analysis to obtain important information as thicknesses, diffusion properties of mobile ions and leakage currents. The measured electrical impedance of a sample is modeled by a physical equivalent circuit of resistors and capacitors. In the present work this information is obtained as a function of frequency also for ultrathin organic layers in the monolayer regime. A series of semiconducting and insulating polymers (regioregular poly-3-hexylthiophene (rr-P3HT), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) and self assembled monolayers (octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), thiolated phospholipids) were deposited either on highly n-doped silicon wafers or on gold surfaces. E.g. ultrathin layers were obtained by dip coating a silicon wafer in rr-P3HT solution in chloroform. The thickness of 2 nm determined for this system by impedance measurement agrees well with the atomic force microscopy analysis and corresponds to a single layer of polymer chains. The leakage current is seen as an ohmic contribution at low frequencies and allows a systematic optimization of process parameters. In summary, impedance spectroscopy allows very fast and convenient analysis of thin organic layers even down to the monolayer regime.

  5. Ultrathin (Nanocellulose Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingda; Lin, Lih Y.

    2017-03-01

    Conventional approaches to flexible optoelectronic devices typically require depositing the active materials on external substrates. This is mostly due to the weak bonding between individual molecules or nanocrystals in the active materials, which prevents sustaining a freestanding thin film. Herein we demonstrate an ultrathin freestanding ZnO quantum dot (QD) active layer with nanocellulose structuring, and its corresponding device fabrication method to achieve substrate-free flexible optoelectronic devices. The ultrathin ZnO QD-nanocellulose composite is obtained by hydrogel transfer printing and solvent-exchange processes to overcome the water capillary force which is detrimental to achieving freestanding thin films. We achieved an active nanocellulose paper with ~550 nm thickness, and >91% transparency in the visible wavelength range. The film retains the photoconductive and photoluminescent properties of ZnO QDs and is applied towards substrate-free Schottky photodetector applications. The device has an overall thickness of ~670 nm, which is the thinnest freestanding optoelectronic device to date, to the best of our knowledge, and functions as a self-powered visible-blind ultraviolet photodetector. This platform can be readily applied to other nano materials as well as other optoelectronic device applications.

  6. Chemical gating of epitaxial graphene through ultrathin oxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Omiciuolo, Luca; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano

    2015-08-07

    We achieved a controllable chemical gating of epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates by exploiting the electrostatic polarization of ultrathin SiO2 layers synthesized below it. Intercalated oxygen diffusing through the SiO2 layer modifies the metal-oxide work function and hole dopes graphene. The graphene/oxide/metal heterostructure behaves as a gated plane capacitor with the in situ grown SiO2 layer acting as a homogeneous dielectric spacer, whose high capacity allows the Fermi level of graphene to be shifted by a few hundreds of meV when the oxygen coverage at the metal substrate is of the order of 0.5 monolayers. The hole doping can be finely tuned by controlling the amount of interfacial oxygen, as well as by adjusting the thickness of the oxide layer. After complete thermal desorption of oxygen the intrinsic doping of SiO2 supported graphene is evaluated in the absence of contaminants and adventitious adsorbates. The demonstration that the charge state of graphene can be changed by chemically modifying the buried oxide/metal interface hints at the possibility of tuning the level and sign of doping by the use of other intercalants capable of diffusing through the ultrathin porous dielectric and reach the interface with the metal.

  7. Elastic properties of ultrathin diamond/AlN membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuerbig, V.; Hees, J.; Pletschen, W.; Sah, R.E.; Wolfer, M.; Kirste, L.; Heidrich, N.; Nebel, C.E.; Ambacher, O.; Lebedev, V.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond- (NCD) and AlN-based ultrathin single layer and bilayer membranes are investigated towards their mechanical properties. It is shown that chemo-mechanical polishing and heavy boron doping of NCD thin films do not impact the elastic properties of NCD layers as revealed by negligible variations of the NCD Young's modulus (E). In addition, it is demonstrated that the combination of NCD elastic layer and AlN piezo-actuator is highly suitable for the fabrication of mechanically stable ultrathin membranes in comparison to AlN single layer membranes. The elastic parameters of NCD/AlN heterostructures are mainly determined by the outstanding high Young's modulus of NCD (E = 1019 ± 19 GPa). Such ultrathin unimorph membranes allow for fabrication of piezo-actuated AlN/NCD microlenses with tunable focus length. - Highlights: • Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and AlN circular membranes • No influence of polishing of NCD thin films on the mechanical properties of NCD • No influence of heavy boron-doping on the mechanical properties of NCD • Demonstration of mechanically stable piezo-actuated NCD/AlN membranes • Reported performance of AlN/NCD microlenses with adjustable focus length

  8. Device Performance and Reliability Improvements of AlGaBN/GaN/Si MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0037 Device Performance and Reliablity Improvements of AlGaBN/GaN/Si MOSFET Robert Wallace UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT DALLAS Final...GaN/Si MOSFET 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4069 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Wallace 5d.  PROJECT...AOARD Grant FA2386-14-1-4069 Device Performance and Reliability Improvements of AlGaN/GaN/Si MOSFET US 12 month extension (2014 – 2015) for current

  9. Ultrathin Shape Change Smart Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weinan; Kwok, Kam Sang; Gracias, David H

    2018-02-20

    With the discovery of graphene, significant research has focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of ultrathin materials. Graphene has also brought into focus other ultrathin materials composed of organics, polymers, inorganics, and their hybrids. Together, these ultrathin materials have unique properties of broad significance. For example, ultrathin materials have a large surface area and high flexibility which can enhance conformal contact in wearables and sensors leading to improved sensitivity. When porous, the short transverse diffusion length in these materials allows rapid mass transport. Alternatively, when impermeable, these materials behave as an ultrathin barrier. Such controlled permeability is critical in the design of encapsulation and drug delivery systems. Finally, ultrathin materials often feature defect-free and single-crystal-like two-dimensional atomic structures resulting in superior mechanical, optical, and electrical properties. A unique property of ultrathin materials is their low bending rigidity, which suggests that they could easily be bent, curved, or folded into 3D shapes. In this Account, we review the emerging field of 2D to 3D shape transformations of ultrathin materials. We broadly define ultrathin to include materials with a thickness below 100 nm and composed of a range of organic, inorganic, and hybrid compositions. This topic is important for both fundamental and applied reasons. Fundamentally, bending and curving of ultrathin films can cause atomistic and molecular strain which can alter their physical and chemical properties and lead to new 3D forms of matter which behave very differently from their planar precursors. Shape change can also lead to new 3D architectures with significantly smaller form factors. For example, 3D ultrathin materials would occupy a smaller space in on-chip devices or could permeate through tortuous media which is important for miniaturized robots and smart dust applications. Our

  10. Impact of the silicon substrate resistivity and growth condition on the deep levels in Ni-Au/AlN/Si MIS Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Simoen, Eddy; Zhao, Ming; Li, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Deep levels formed under different growth conditions of a 200 nm AlN buffer layer on B-doped Czochralski Si(111) substrates with different resistivity were investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) on metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors. Growth-temperature-dependent Al diffusion in the Si substrate was derived from the free carrier density obtained by capacitance-voltage measurement on samples grown on p- substrates. The DLTS spectra revealed a high concentration of point and extended defects in the p- and p+ silicon substrates, respectively. This indicated a difference in the electrically active defects in the silicon substrate close to the AlN/Si interface, depending on the B doping concentration.

  11. Ultrathin Planar Graphene Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Ajayan, Pullikel M [Rice University; Yoo, Jung Joon [KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; Balakrishnan, Kaushik [Rice University; Srivastava, Anchal [Rice University; Conway, Michelle [Rice University; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohan [Rice University; Yu, Jin [Rice University; Vajtai, Robert [Rice University

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of atomically thin and flat layers of conducting materials such as graphene, new designs for thin film energy storage devices with good performance have become possible. Here, we report an in-plane fabrication approach for ultrathin supercapacitors based on electrodes comprised of pristine graphene and multi-layer reduced graphene oxide. The in-plane design is straightforward to implement and exploits efficiently the surface of each graphene layer for energy storage. The open architecture and the effect of graphene edges enable even the thinnest of devices, made from as grown 1-2 graphene layers, to reach specific capacities up to 80 Fcm-2. While, much higher (394 Fcm-2) specific capacities are observed in case of multi-layered graphene oxide electrodes, owing to the better utilization of the available electrochemical surface area. The performances of devices with pristine as well as thicker graphene based structures are examined using a combination of experiments and model calculations. The demonstrated all solid-state supercapacitors provide a prototype for a broad range of thin-film based energy storage devices.

  12. Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new class of superconducting materials, Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS) are described. These materials are produced by sequentially depositing ultrathin layers of materials using high rate magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. Strong evidence is presented that layers as thin as 10 A can be prepared in this fashion. Resistivity data indicates that the mean free path is layer thickness limited. A strong disagreement is found between the experimentally measured transition temperatures T/sub c/ and the T/sub c/'s calculated using the Cooper limit approximation. This is interpreted as a change in the band structure or the phonon structure of the material due to layering or to surfaces

  13. Current Transport Properties of Monolayer Graphene/n-Si Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, C. S.; Garg, Manjari; Singh, J. P.; Singh, R.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports on the fabrication and the detailed macroscopic and nanoscale electrical characteristics of monolayer graphene/n-Si Schottky diodes. The temperature dependent electrical transport properties of monolayer graphene/n-Si Schottky diodes were investigated. Nanoscale electrical characterizations were carried out using Kelvin probe force microscopy and conducting atomic force microscopy. Most the values of ideality factor and barrier height are found to be in the range of 2.0–4.4 and 0.50–0.70 eV for monolayer graphene/n-Si nanoscale Schottky contacts. The tunneling of electrons is found to be responsible for the high value of ideality factor for nanoscale Schottky contacts.

  14. Oxide ultrathin films science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information in one accessible book. Written by international experts from multidisciplinary fields, this in-depth exploration of oxide ultrathin films covers all aspects of these systems, starting with preparation and characterization, and going on to geometrical and electronic structure, as well as applications in current and future systems and devices. From the Contents: Synthesis and Preparation of Oxide Ultrathin Films Characterization Tools of Oxide Ultrathin Films Ordered Oxide Nanostructures on Metal Surfaces Unusual Properties of Oxides and Other Insulators in the Ultrathin Limit Silica and High-K Dielectrics Thin Films in Microelectronics Oxide Passive Films and Corrosion Protection Oxide Films as Catalytic Materials and as Models of Real Catalysts Oxide Films in Spintronics Oxide Ultrathin Films in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Transparent Conducting and Chromogenic Oxide Films as Solar Energy Materials Oxide Ultrathin Films in Sensor Applications Ferroelectricity in Ultrathin Film Capacitors T...

  15. Experimental and computational investigation of graphene/SAMs/n-Si Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, H.; Bacaksiz, C.; Yagmurcukardes, N.; Karakaya, C.; Mermer, O.; Can, M.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.; Selamet, Y.

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of two different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on electrical characteristics of bilayer graphene (BLG)/n-Si Schottky diodes. Novel 4″bis(diphenylamino)-1, 1‧:3″-terphenyl-5‧ carboxylic acids (TPA) and 4,4-di-9H-carbazol-9-yl-1,1‧:3‧1‧-terphenyl-5‧ carboxylic acid (CAR) aromatic SAMs have been used to modify n-Si surfaces. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) results have been evaluated to verify the modification of n-Si surface. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of bare and SAMs modified devices show rectification behaviour verifying a Schottky junction at the interface. The ideality factors (n) from ln(I)-V dependences were determined as 2.13, 1.96 and 2.07 for BLG/n-Si, BLG/TPA/n-Si and BLG/CAR/n-Si Schottky diodes, respectively. In addition, Schottky barrier height (SBH) and series resistance (Rs) of SAMs modified diodes were decreased compared to bare diode due to the formation of a compatible interface between graphene and Si as well as π-π interaction between aromatic SAMs and graphene. The CAR-based device exhibits better diode characteristic compared to the TPA-based device. Computational simulations show that the BLG/CAR system exhibits smaller energy-level-differences than the BLG/TPA, which supports the experimental findings of a lower Schottky barrier and series resistance in BLG/CAR diode.

  16. Separation of stress-free AlN/SiC thin films from Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redkov, A V; Osipov, A V; Mukhin, I S; Kukushkin, S A

    2016-01-01

    We separated AlN/SiC film from Si substrate by chemical etching of the AlN/SiC/Si heterostructure. The film fully repeats the size and geometry of the original sample and separated without destroying. It is demonstrated that a buffer layer of silicon carbide grown by a method of substitution of atoms may have an extensive hollow subsurface structure, which makes it easier to overcome the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion during the growth of thin films. It is shown that after the separation of the film from the silicon substrate, mechanical stresses therein are almost absent. (paper)

  17. Electron trap annealing in neutron transmutation doped silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Silicon doped by neutron transmutation to 1.2×1014 phosphorus atoms/cm3 was investigated with deep level transient spectroscopy using evaporated Au/n-Si diodes. Seven bulk electron traps were identified which appear after 30 min N2 anneal at temperatures between 425 and 725 °C. Five of these anne......Silicon doped by neutron transmutation to 1.2×1014 phosphorus atoms/cm3 was investigated with deep level transient spectroscopy using evaporated Au/n-Si diodes. Seven bulk electron traps were identified which appear after 30 min N2 anneal at temperatures between 425 and 725 °C. Five...

  18. Substrate temperature effects on reactively sputtered Cr2O3/n-Si heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Genisel, Mustafa Fatih; Issa, Ali Ahmed; Tombak, Ahmet; Kilicoglu, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    To see the effects of substrate temperature on Cr 2 O 3 /n-Si heterojunctions, Cr 2 O 3 thin films were formed on n-Si and glass substrates at 40, 150 and 250 °C by radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering technique. High purity Cr was used as target and oxygen was used as reactive gas. Optical properties of Cr 2 O 3 /n-Si thin films were analyzed using UV-vis data. The band gaps of the films were compared. The electrical properties of Cr 2 O 3 /n-Si heterojunction were tested by their current voltage ( I-V ) measurements in dark. It was observed that the heterojunction which was fabricated by forming Cr 2 O 3 thin film at 250 °C gave better rectification. The characteristic electrical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance were calculated by using its I-V data. The influence of light intensity on photovoltaic effect behavior of the device was also calculated, finally the barrier height value of the structure obtained from capacitance-voltage ( C-V ) data were compared with the one calculated from I-V measurements. (paper)

  19. Investigation of InGaN/Si double junction tandem solar cells | Bouzid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the solar power conversion efficiency of InGaN/Si double junction tandem solar cells was investigated under 1-sun AM1.5 illumination, using realistic material parameters. With this intention, the current-voltage curves are calculated for different front recombination velocities and the influence of the bottom cell ...

  20. Enhancing the Photovoltage of Ni/ n-Si Photoanode for Water Oxidation through a Rapid Thermal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengyang; She, Guangwei; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyang; Mu, Lixuan; Guo, Xiangxin; Shi, Wensheng

    2018-03-14

    The Ni in the Ni/ n-Si photoanode can not only protect Si from corrosion, but also catalyze the water oxidation reaction. However, the high density of interface states at the Ni/ n-Si interface could pin the Fermi level of silicon, which will lower the Schottky barrier height of the Ni/ n-Si. As a result, a low photovoltage and consequent high onset potential of Ni/ n-Si photoanode for water oxidation were generated. In this study, the interfacial states of the Ni/ n-Si photoanodes were efficiently diminished through a rapid thermal process (RTP). Calculated from the Mott-Schottky plots, the Schottky barrier height of Ni/ n-Si was increased from 0.58 to 0.78 eV after RTP. Under the illumination of 100 mW cm -2 of the Xe lamp, the onset potential of the Ni/ n-Si photoanode for water oxidation was negatively shifted for 150 mV after RTP. Besides, the RTP-treated Ni/ n-Si photoanode exhibited a high stability during the PEC water oxidation of 8 h in 1 M KOH solution.

  1. Impact of Plasma Electron Flux on Plasma Damage-Free Sputtering of Ultrathin Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Contact Layer on p-GaN for InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwang Jeong; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Oh, Seung Kyu; You, Shin-Jae; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2018-02-01

    The origin of plasma-induced damage on a p -type wide-bandgap layer during the sputtering of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) contact layers by using radiofrequency-superimposed direct current (DC) sputtering and its effects on the forward voltage and light output power (LOP) of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with sputtered ITO transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) is systematically studied. Changing the DC power voltage from negative to positive bias reduces the forward voltages and enhances the LOP of the LEDs. The positive DC power drastically decreases the electron flux in the plasma obtained by plasma diagnostics using a cutoff probe and a Langmuir probe, suggesting that the repulsion of plasma electrons from the p -GaN surface can reduce plasma-induced damage to the p -GaN. Furthermore, electron-beam irradiation on p -GaN prior to ITO deposition significantly increases the forward voltages, showing that the plasma electrons play an important role in plasma-induced damage to the p -GaN. The plasma electrons can increase the effective barrier height at the ITO/deep-level defect (DLD) band of p -GaN by compensating DLDs, resulting in the deterioration of the forward voltage and LOP. Finally, the plasma damage-free sputtered-ITO TCE enhances the LOP of the LEDs by 20% with a low forward voltage of 2.9 V at 20 mA compared to LEDs with conventional e-beam-evaporated ITO TCE.

  2. The Interface Influence in TiN/SiN x Multilayer Nanocomposite Under Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglov, V. V.; Safronov, I. V.; Kvasov, N. T.; Remnev, G. E.; Shimanski, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper focuses on studying the kinetics of radiation-induced point defects formed in TiN/SiN x multilayer nanocomposites with account of their generation, diffusion recombination, and the influence of sinks functioning as interfaces. In order to describe the kinetics in nanocrystalline TiN and amorphous SiN x phases, a finite-difference method is used to solve the system of balance kinetic equations for absolute defect concentrations depending on the spatiotemporal variables. A model of the disclination-dislocation interface structure is used to study the absorption of radiation-induced point defects on the boundaries in created stress fields. It is shown that the interface effectively absorbs point defects in these phases of TiN/SiN x multilayer nanocomposite, thereby reducing their amount within the space between phases. This behavior of point defects partially explains a mechanism of the radiation resistance in this type of nanocomposites.

  3. Electronic and interface state density properties of Cu/n-Si MIS-type diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin [Physics Department, Firat University, Elazig 23169 (Turkey)]. E-mail: fyhanoglu@firat.edu.tr

    2007-05-01

    Electronic and interface-state density properties of the Cu/n-Si diode were investigated by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage (C-V) analyses. The electronic parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance of the diode were determined by performing different plots. The barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance values of the diode were found to be 0.69 eV, 5.31 and 7.63 k{omega}, respectively. The obtained ideality factor confirms that the Cu/n-Si device has a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) configuration. The conductance mechanism of the Cu/n-Si diode is in agreement with typical of hopping conduction in polycrystalline and amorphous materials. The interface state density of the diode was found to vary from 1.45x10{sup 13} (eV{sup -1} cm{sup 2}) at E {sub C}-0.45 eV to 0.88x10{sup 13} (eV{sup -1} cm{sup 2}) at E {sub C}-0.66 eV.

  4. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  5. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-03-01

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Elasticity theory of ultrathin nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiangang; Yun, Guohong; Narsu, B; Yao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    A self-consistent theoretical scheme for describing the elastic behavior of ultrathin nanofilms (UTNFs) was proposed. Taking into account the lower symmetry of an UTNF compared to its bulk counterpart, additional elastic and magnetoelastic parameters were introduced to model the elasticity rigorously. The applications of current theory to several elastic and magnetoelastic systems gave excellent agreement with experiments. More importantly, the surface elastic and magnetoelastic parameters used to fit the experimental results are physically reasonable and in close agreement with those obtained from experiment and simulation. This fact suggests that the additional elastic (magnetoelastic) constants due to symmetry breaking are of great importance in theoretical description of the mechanical properties of UTNFs. And we proved that the elasticity of UTNFs should be described by a three-dimensional model just including the intrinsic surface and bulk parameters, but not the effective surface parameters. It is believed that the theory reported here is a universal strategy for elasticity and magnetoelasticity of ultrathin films. (paper)

  7. Mechanistic analysis of temperature-dependent current conduction through thin tunnel oxide in n+-polySi/SiO2/n+-Si structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Piyas

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed investigation on temperature-dependent current conduction through thin tunnel oxides grown on degenerately doped n-type silicon (n+-Si) under positive bias ( VG ) on heavily doped n-type polycrystalline silicon (n+-polySi) gate in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. The leakage current measured between 298 and 573 K and at oxide fields ranging from 6 to 10 MV/cm is primarily attributed to Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission of trapped electrons from the neutral electron traps located in the silicon dioxide (SiO2) band gap in addition to Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling of electrons from n+-Si acting as the drain node in FLOating gate Tunnel OXide Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory devices. Process-induced neutral electron traps are located at 0.18 eV and 0.9 eV below the SiO2 conduction band. Throughout the temperature range studied here, PF emission current IPF dominates FN electron tunneling current IFN at oxide electric fields Eox between 6 and 10 MV/cm. A physics based new analytical formula has been developed for FN tunneling of electrons from the accumulation layer of degenerate semiconductors at a wide range of temperatures incorporating the image force barrier rounding effect. FN tunneling has been formulated in the framework of Wentzel-Kramers-Brilloiun taking into account the correction factor due to abrupt variation of the energy barrier at the cathode/oxide interface. The effect of interfacial and near-interfacial trapped-oxide charges on FN tunneling has also been investigated in detail at positive VG . The mechanism of leakage current conduction through SiO2 films plays a crucial role in simulation of time-dependent dielectric breakdown of the memory devices and to precisely predict the normal operating field or applied floating gate (FG) voltage for lifetime projection of the devices. In addition, we present theoretical results showing the effect of drain doping concentration on the FG leakage current.

  8. The carrier transport mechanism and band offset at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yapeng, E-mail: liyp1984@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Li, Yingfeng [School of Electrical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Wang, Jianyuan [School of Nature and Applied Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); He, Zhirong; Zhang, Yonghong; Yu, Qi; Hou, Juncai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The carrier transport deviated from ideal thermionic emission model. • One deep level present at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction. • The band offsets of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction are a type-II band alignment. - Abstract: The ZnO films were deposited on the surface of n-Si(111) substrate by pulsed laser deposition for fabrication of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction. The carrier transport mechanism, deep level defects and band offsets at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction were investigated by current- voltage measurement, deep level transient spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results showed that the barrier height and ideality factor values varied in the different linear voltage range by using the thermionic emission model, which was due to the deep level participated in carrier transport. Meanwhile, it was found that one deep level appeared at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction with densities of the deep level about 8.5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} and activation energies about 224 m eV, which originated from O{sup 2−} vacancies of ZnO films. In addition, the valence band offset of the ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction can be calculated to be −2.4 ± 0.15 eV. The conduction band offset is deduced to be −3.5 ± 0.15 eV from the valence band offset value, indicating that the band offsets of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction is a type-II band alignment.

  9. Low cost, p-ZnO/n-Si, rectifying, nano heterojunction diode: Fabrication and electrical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kabra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A low cost, highly rectifying, nano heterojunction (p-ZnO/n-Si diode was fabricated using solution-processed, p-type, ZnO nanoparticles and an n-type Si substrate. p-type ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical synthesis route and characterized by XRD and a Hall effect measurement system. The device was fabricated by forming thin film of synthesized p-ZnO nanoparticles on an n-Si substrate using a dip coating technique. The device was then characterized by current–voltage (I–V and capacitance–voltage (C–V measurements. The effect of UV illumination on the I–V characteristics was also explored and indicated the formation of a highly rectifying, nano heterojunction with a rectification ratio of 101 at 3 V, which increased nearly 2.5 times (232 at 3 V under UV illumination. However, the cut-in voltage decreases from 1.5 V to 0.9 V under UV illumination. The fabricated device could be used in switches, rectifiers, clipper and clamper circuits, BJTs, MOSFETs and other electronic circuitry.

  10. Modeling of InGaN/Si tandem cells: comparison between 2-contacts/4-contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Huni Walid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its electrical and optical interesting properties, InGaN alloy is being intensively studied to be combined with silicon in order to achieve low-cost high-efficiency solar cell. However, a relatively thick monophasic layer of InGaN is difficult to grow due to the relaxation issue in material. This issue can be avoided by semibulk structure. In this work, we present an InGaN/Si double-junction solar cell modeled using Silvaco-ATLAS TCAD software. We have taken into account polarization effect in III-N materials. We have shown that 50% of indium is needed to ensure the current matching between the top cell and the bottom cell in 2-terminal configuration. Such high indium composition is technologically challenging to grow. Thus, we have modeled a 4-terminals solar cell with relatively low indium composition (In = 25% where current matching is not needed. With technologically feasible structural parameters, we have shown that an efficiency near to 30% can be achieved with InGaN/Si 4-contact tandem cell.

  11. Modeling of InGaN/Si tandem cells: comparison between 2-contacts/4-contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Huni, Walid; Migan, Anne; Alamarguy, David; Djebbour, Zakaria

    2017-03-01

    Due to its electrical and optical interesting properties, InGaN alloy is being intensively studied to be combined with silicon in order to achieve low-cost high-efficiency solar cell. However, a relatively thick monophasic layer of InGaN is difficult to grow due to the relaxation issue in material. This issue can be avoided by semibulk structure. In this work, we present an InGaN/Si double-junction solar cell modeled using Silvaco-ATLAS TCAD software. We have taken into account polarization effect in III-N materials. We have shown that 50% of indium is needed to ensure the current matching between the top cell and the bottom cell in 2-terminal configuration. Such high indium composition is technologically challenging to grow. Thus, we have modeled a 4-terminals solar cell with relatively low indium composition (In = 25%) where current matching is not needed. With technologically feasible structural parameters, we have shown that an efficiency near to 30% can be achieved with InGaN/Si 4-contact tandem cell.

  12. Epitaxial growth of higher transition-temperature VO2 films on AlN/Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Slusar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the epitaxial growth and the mechanism of a higher temperature insulator-to-metal-transition (IMT of vanadium dioxide (VO2 thin films synthesized on aluminum nitride (AlN/Si (111 substrates by a pulsed-laser-deposition method; the IMT temperature is TIMT ≈ 350 K. X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope data show that the epitaxial relationship of VO2 and AlN is VO2 (010 ‖ AlN (0001 with VO2 [101] ‖   AlN   [ 2 1 ̄ 1 ̄ 0 ] zone axes, which results in a substrate-induced tensile strain along the in-plane a and c axes of the insulating monoclinic VO2. This strain stabilizes the insulating phase of VO2 and raises TIMT for 10 K higher than TIMT single crystal ≈ 340 K in a bulk VO2 single crystal. Near TIMT, a resistance change of about four orders is observed in a thick film of ∼130 nm. The VO2/AlN/Si heterostructures are promising for the development of integrated IMT-Si technology, including thermal switchers, transistors, and other applications.

  13. Organic semiconductor photodiode based on indigo carmine/n-Si for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, V.; Manthrammel, M. Aslam; Shkir, Mohd.; Yahia, I. S.; Zahran, H. Y.; Yakuphanoglu, F.; AlFaify, S.

    2018-06-01

    The fabrication of indigo carmine/n-Si photodiode has been done, and a robust dark and photocurrent-voltage ( I- V), capacitance vs. voltage ( C-V) and conductance vs. voltage ( G-V) studies were done over a wide range of applied voltage and frequencies. The surface morphology was assessed by atomic force microscope (AFM), and the grain size was measured to be about 66 nm. The reverse current increased with both increasing illumination intensity and bias potential, whereas the forward current increased exponentially with bias potential. The responsivity value was also calculated. Barrier height and ideality factor of diode were estimated through a log (I) vs log (V) plot, and obtained to be 0.843 and 4.75 eV, respectively. The Vbi values are found between 0.95 and 1.2V for frequencies ranging between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The value of R s is found to be lower at higher frequencies which may be due to a certain distribution of localized interface states. A strong frequency and voltage dependency were observed for interface states density N ss in the present indigo carmine/n-Si photodiode, and this explained the observed capacitance and resistance variation with frequency. These results suggest that the fabricated diode has the potential to be applied in optoelectronic devices.

  14. Biosensors Based on Ultrathin Film Composite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-25

    composite membranes should have a number C •’ of potential advantages including fast response time, simplicity of construction, and applicability to a number...The support membrane for the ultrathin film composite was an Anopore ( Alltech Associates) microporous alumina filter, these membranes are 55 Pm thick...constant 02 concentration in this solution. Finally, one of the most important potential advantage of a sensor based on an ultrathin film composite

  15. Ultrathin film, high specific power InP solar cells on flexible plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.-T.; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Wang Hongyu; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrathin-film, single-crystal InP Schottky-type solar cells mounted on flexible plastic substrates. The lightly p-doped InP cell is grown epitaxially on an InP substrate via gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InP substrate is removed via selective chemical wet-etching after the epitaxial layers are cold-welded to a 25 μm thick Kapton sheet, followed by the deposition of an indium tin oxide top contact that forms the Schottky barrier with InP. The power conversion efficiency under 1 sun is 10.2±1.0%, and its specific power is 2.0±0.2 kW/kg. The ultrathin-film solar cells can tolerate both tensile and compressive stress by bending over a <1 cm radius without damage.

  16. Self-Powered UV-Near Infrared Photodetector Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide/n-Si Vertical Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Liu, Lin; Wu, Guan; Chen, Wei; Qin, Sujie; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    A novel self-powered photodetector based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/n-Si p-n vertical heterojunction with high sensitivity and fast response time is presented. The photodetector contains a p-n vertical heterojunction between a drop-casted rGO thin film and n-Si. Contacts between the semiconductor layer (rGO, n-Si) and source-drain Ti/Au electrodes allow efficient transfer of photogenerated charge carriers. The self-powered UV-near infrared photodetector shows high sensitivity toward a spectrum of light from 365 to 1200 nm. Under the 600 nm illumination (0.81 mW cm -2 ), the device has a photoresponsivity of 1.52 A W -1 , with fast response and recover time (2 ms and 3.7 ms), and the ON/OFF ratios exceed 10 4 when the power density reaches ≈2.5 mW cm -2 . The high photoresponse primarily arises from the built-in electric field formed at the interface of n-Si and rGO film. The effect of rGO thickness, rGO reduction level, and layout of rGO/n-Si effective contact area on device performance are also systematically investigated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Oxidation and Tribological Behavior of Ti-B-C-N-Si Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Pulsed Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaeho; Heo, Sungbo; Kim, Wang Ryeol; Kim, Jun-Ho; Nam, Dae-Geun; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Ikmin; Park, In-Wook

    2018-03-01

    Quinary Ti-B-C-N-Si nanocomposite films were deposited onto AISI 304 substrates using a pulsed d.c. magnetron sputtering system. The quinary Ti-B-C-N-Si (5 at.%) film showed excellent tribological and wear properties compared with those of the Ti-B-C-N films. The steady friction coefficient of 0.151 and a wear rate of 2 × 10-6 mm3N-1m-1 were measured for the Ti-B-C-N-Si films. The oxidation behavior of Ti-B-C-N-Si nanocomposite films was systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal analyzer with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is concluded that the addition of Si into the Ti-B-C-N film improved the tribological properties and oxidation resistance of the Ti-B-C-N-Si films. The improvements are due to the formation of an amorphous SiOx phase, which plays a major role in the self-lubricant tribo-layers and oxidation barrier on the film surface or in the grain boundaries, respectively.

  18. Tuning of Schottky barrier height of Al/n-Si by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vali, Indudhar Panduranga [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Shetty, Pramoda Kumara, E-mail: pramod.shetty@manipal.edu [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Mahesha, M.G. [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Petwal, V.C.; Dwivedi, Jishnu [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, Indore 452012 (India); Choudhary, R.J. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Tuning of Schottky barrier height has been achieved by electron beam irradiation at different doses on n-Si wafer prior to the fabrication of Schottky contact. • The XPS analyses have shown irradiation induced defects and the formation of several localized chemical states in Si/SiOx interface that influences the Schottky barrier height. • High ideality factor indicates metal-insulator-semiconductor configuration of the Schottky diode and the inhomogeneous nature of the Schottky barrier height. • The modifications in I–V characteristics have been observed as a function of electron dose. This is caused due to changes in the Schottky diode parameters and different transport mechanisms. - Abstract: The effect of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on Al/n-Si Schottky diode has been studied by I–V characterization at room temperature. The behavior of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface is analyzed by means of variations in the MS contact parameters such as, Schottky barrier height (Φ{sub B}), ideality factor (n) and series resistance (R{sub s}). These parameters were found to depend on the EBI dose having a fixed incident beam of energy 7.5 MeV. At different doses (500, 1000, 1500 kGy) of EBI, the Schottky contacts were prepared and extracted their contact parameters by applying thermionic emission and Cheung models. Remarkably, the tuning of Φ{sub B} was observed as a function of EBI dose. The improved n with increased Φ{sub B} is seen for all the EBI doses. As a consequence of which the thermionic emission is more favored. However, the competing transport mechanisms such as space charge limited emission, tunneling and tunneling through the trap states were ascribed due to n > 1. The analysis of XPS spectra have shown the presence of native oxide and increased radiation induced defect states. The thickness variation in the MS interface contributing to Schottky contact behavior is discussed. This study explains a new technique to tune

  19. Enhanced thermoelectric power in ultrathin topological insulators with magnetic doping

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-07

    We derive analytical expressions for the magnetic moment and orbital magnetization as well as for the corresponding thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a topological insulator film. We demonstrate enhancement of the thermoelectric transport for decreasing film thickness and for application of an exchange field due to the tunable band gap. Combining hybridization and exchange field is particularly suitable for heat to electric energy conversion and thermoelectric cooling.

  20. Enhanced thermoelectric power in ultrathin topological insulators with magnetic doping

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the magnetic moment and orbital magnetization as well as for the corresponding thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a topological insulator film. We demonstrate enhancement of the thermoelectric transport for decreasing film thickness and for application of an exchange field due to the tunable band gap. Combining hybridization and exchange field is particularly suitable for heat to electric energy conversion and thermoelectric cooling.

  1. Hybrid organic/inorganic position-sensitive detectors based on PEDOT:PSS/n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Mahdiyeh; Torbatiyan, Hadis; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    Various configurations like p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor Schottky barriers, and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures have been widely used in position-sensitive detectors. In this report, we propose a PEDOT:PSS/n-Si heterojunction as a hybrid organic/inorganic configuration for position-sensitive detectors. The influence of the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, the wavelength of incident light, and the intensity of illumination on the device performance are investigated. The hybrid PSD exhibits very high sensitivity (>100 mV/mm), excellent nonlinearity (0.995) with a response time of heterojunction are very promising for developing a new class of position-sensitive detectors based on the hybrid organic/inorganic junctions.

  2. Design and Simulation of A Novel Piezoelectric AlN-Si Cantilever Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN-Si composite cantilever gyroscope is proposed in this paper. The cantilever is stimulated to oscillate in plane by two inverse voltages which are applied on the two paralleled drive electrodes, respectively. The whole working principles are deduced, which based on the piezoelectric equation and elastic vibration equation. In this work, a cantilever gyroscope has been simulated and optimized by COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2a. The drive mode frequency is 87.422 kHz, and the sense mode frequency is 87.414 kHz. The theoretical sensitivity of this gyroscope is 0.145 pm/◦/s. This gyroscope has a small size and simple structure. It will be a better choice for the consumer electronics.

  3. Electric field dependence of the temperature and drift velocity of hot electrons in n-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The average energy- and momentum loss rates of hot electrons interacting simultaneously with acoustic phonons, ionized and neutral impurities in n-Si are calculated quantum theoretically by means of a drifted hot Fermi-Dirac distribution. The drift velocity vd and electron temperature Te occurring in this distribution are determined self-consistently from the force- and power balance equation with respect to the charge neutrality condition. The functions Te(E) and vd(E) calculated in this way are compared with the corresponding relations obtained with help of the simple electron temperature model in order to determine the range of application of this model often used in previous treatises. (author)

  4. Spin-Hall effect and emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition in n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Paul C.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-04-01

    Spin current experiences minimal dephasing and scattering in Si due to small spin-orbit coupling and spin-lattice interactions is the primary source of spin relaxation. We hypothesize that if the specimen dimension is of the same order as the spin diffusion length then spin polarization will lead to non-equilibrium spin accumulation and emergent phase transition. In n-Si, spin diffusion length has been reported up to 6 μm. The spin accumulation in Si will modify the thermal transport behavior of Si, which can be detected with thermal characterization. In this study, we report observation of spin-Hall effect and emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition behavior using magneto-electro-thermal transport characterization. The freestanding Pd (1 nm)/Ni80Fe20 (75 nm)/MgO (1 nm)/n-Si (2 μm) thin film specimen exhibits a magnetic field dependent thermal transport and spin-Hall magnetoresistance behavior attributed to Rashba effect. An emergent phase transition is discovered using self-heating 3ω method, which shows a diverging behavior at 270 K as a function of temperature similar to a second order phase transition. We propose that spin-Hall effect leads to the spin accumulation and resulting emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition. We propose that the length scale for Rashba effect can be equal to the spin diffusion length and two-dimensional electron gas is not essential for it. The emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition is attributed to the site inversion asymmetry in diamond cubic Si lattice.

  5. Preparation and Optoelectrical Properties of p-CuO/n-Si Heterojunction by a Simple Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Xu, Jing; Ning, Huanpo; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Huaizhong; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Qin, Yuming; Zhang, Lei

    The Cuprous oxide (CuO) thin film was prepared on texturized Si wafer by a simple sol-gel method to fabricate p-CuO/n-Si heterojunction photoelectric device. The novel sol-gel method is very cheap and convenient. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the CuO film were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. A good nonlinear rectifying behavior is obtained for the p-CuO/n-Si heterojunction. Under reverse bias, good photoelectric behavior is obtained.

  6. Formation mechanisms of metallic Zn nanodots by using ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuk, J. M.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y.; No, Y. S.; Kim, T. W.; Choi, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results showed that metallic Zn nanodots (NDs) were fabricated through transformation of ZnO thin films by deposition of SiO x on ZnO/n-Si (100) heterostructures. The Zn NDs with various sizes and densities were formed due to the occurrence of the mass diffusion of atoms along the grain boundaries in the ZnO thin films. The fabrication mechanisms of metallic Zn NDs through transformation of ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  7. Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Of AlN/SiCN Nanocomposite Coatings Prepared By R.F.-Reactive Sputtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakafushi Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FIn this work, AlN/SiCN composite coatings were deposited by r.f.-reactive sputtering method using a facing target-type sputtering (FTS apparatus with composite targets consisting of Al plate and SiC chips in a gaseous mixture of Ar and N2, and investigated their mechanical properties and microstructure. The indentation hardness (HIT of AlN/SiCN coatings prepared from composite targets consisting of 8 ~32 chips of SiC and Al plate showed the maximum value of about 29~32 GPa at a proper nitrogen gas flow rate. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns for the AlN/SiCN composite coatings indicated the presence of the only peeks of hexagonal (B4 structured AlN phase. AlN coatings clarified the columnar structure of the cross sectional view TEM observation. On the other hand, microstructure of AlN/SiCN composite coatings changed from columnar to equiaxed structure with increasing SiCN content. HR-TEM observation clarified that the composite coatings consisted of very fine equiaxial grains of B4 structured AlN phase and amorphous phase.

  8. Conduction mechanism in electron beam irradiated Al/n-Si Schottky diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vali, Indudhar Panduranga; Shetty, Pramoda Kumara; Mahesha, M.G.; Petwal, V.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the high energy physics experiments, silicon based diodes are used to fabricate radiation detector to detect the charged particles. The Schottky barrier diodes have been studied extensively to understand the behavior of metal semiconductor interface, since such interfaces have been utilized as typical contacts in silicon devices. Because of surface states, interfacial layer, microscopic clusters of metal-semiconductor phases and other effects, it is difficult to fabricate junctions with barriers near the ideal values predicted from the work functions of the two isolated materials, therefore measured barrier heights are used in the device design. In this work, the Al/n-Si Schottky contacts are employed to study the diode parameters (Schottky barrier height and ideality factor), where the Schottky contacts were fabricated on electron beam irradiated silicon wafers. The interface behavior between electron irradiated Si wafer and post metal deposition is so far not reported. This method could be an alternative way to tailor the Schottky barrier height (SBH) without subjecting semiconductor sample to pre chemical and/or post heat treatments during fabrication

  9. Electrical characterization of proton irradiated p+-n-n+ Si diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Lee, D.U.; Kim, E.K.; Bae, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical characterization of p + -n-n + Si power electric diodes was done with proton irradiation. The kinetic energies of irradiated protons were 2.32, 2.55 and 2.97MeV, and for each energy condition, doses of 1x10 11 , 1x10 12 and 1x10 13 cm -2 were given. By modulating the kinetic energy, the proton penetration depth into Si crystal could be adjusted to the range of 55-90μm, and then controlled to the special depth regions such as junction region, depletion region and neutral region over the depletion layer in the p + -n-n + diode structure. Defects produced by the proton irradiation affected to electrical property of the Si diode because of their carrier trapping, and then the reverse recovery time was improved from 240 to 50ns. It appeared that the defect states with activation energies of 0.47 and 0.54eV may be responsible for the decrease of the minority carrier lifetime in the proton-irradiated diode with 2.97MeV energy and 1x10 13 cm -2 doses

  10. Self-Powered, High-Speed and Visible-Near Infrared Response of MoO(3-x)/n-Si Heterojunction Photodetector with Enhanced Performance by Interfacial Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanxi; Liang, Zhimin; Su, Mingze; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie; Xie, Weiguang

    2015-11-25

    Photodetectors with a wide spectrum response are important components for sensing, imaging, and other optoelectronic applications. A molybdenum oxide (MoO(3-x))/Si heterojunction has been applied as solar cells with great success, but its potential in photodetectors has not been explored yet. Herein, a self-powered, high-speed heterojunction photodetector fabricated by coating an n-type Si hierarchical structure with an ultrathin hole-selective layer of molybdenum oxide (MoO(3-x)) is first investigated. Excellent and stable photoresponse performance is obtained by using a methyl group passivated interface. The heterojunction photodetector demonstrated high sensitivity to a wide spectrum from 300 to 1100 nm. The self-powered photodetector shows a high detectivity of (∼6.29 × 10(12) cmHz(1/2) W(-1)) and fast response time (1.0 μs). The excellent photodetecting performance is attributed to the enhanced interfacial barrier height and three-dimensional geometry of Si nanostructures, which is beneficial for efficient photocarrier collection and transportation. Finally, our devices show excellent long-term stability in air for 6 months with negligible performance degradation. The thermal evaporation method for large-scale fabrication of MoO(3-x)/n-Si photodetectors makes it suitable for self-powered, multispectral, and high-speed response photodetecting applications.

  11. Kink effect in ultrathin FDSOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. J.; Bawedin, M.; Choi, H. G.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2018-05-01

    Systematic experiments demonstrate the presence of the kink effect even in FDSOI MOSFETs. The back-gate bias controls the kink effect via the formation of a back accumulation channel. The kink is more or less pronounced according to the film thickness and channel length. However, in ultrathin (MOSFETs.

  12. Electroluminescence of organic light-emitting diodes with an ultra-thin layer of dopant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Weizhi [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu Junsheng [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Wang, Tao [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Jiang, Yadong [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: jiangyd@uestc.edu.cn; Wei, Bangxiong [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Conventional fluorescent dyes, i.e., 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB), 5,12-dihydro-5,12-dimethylquino [2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione (DMQA) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene), were used to investigate the performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum (Alq{sub 3})/MgAg. The dyes were either inserted into devices as an ultra-thin film at the NPB/Alq{sub 3} interface by sequential evaporation, or doped into the Alq{sub 3} emission layer by co-evaporation with the doping ratio about 2%. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of devices indicated that concentration quenching effect (CQE) of the dye-dopant was slightly bigger in the former than in the latter, while the degrees of CQE for three dopants are in the order of DMQA > DCJTB > Rubrene suggested by the difference in EL spectra and performances of devices. In addition, EL process of device with an ultra-thin layer of dopant is dominated by direct carrier trapping (DCT) process due to almost no holes recombine with electrons in Alq{sub 3}-host layer.

  13. First-principles quantum molecular calculations of structural and mechanical properties of TiN/SiNx heterostructures, and the achievable hardness of the nc-TiN/SiNx nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, V.I.; Veprek, S.; Argon, A.S.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Gorb, L.; Hill, F.; Leszczynski, J.

    2015-01-01

    TiN/SiN x heterostructures with one monolayer of the interfacial SiN x have been investigated in the framework of first-principles molecular dynamics calculations in the temperature range of 0 to 1400 K with subsequent static relaxation. The atomic configurations, thermal stability and stress–strain relations have been calculated. Among the heterostructures studied, only the TiN(111)/SiN/TiN(111) and TiN(111)/Si 2 N 3 /TiN(111) ones are thermally stable. Upon tensile load, decohesion occurs between the Ti−N bonds adjacent to the SiN x interfacial layer for TiN(001)/SiN/TiN(001) and TiN(111)/Si 2 N 3 /TiN(111) heterostructures, and inside the TiN slab for TiN(001)/Si 3 N 4 /TiN(001) and TiN(110)/SiN/TiN(110) ones. Upon shear, failure occurs in TiN near the interfaces in all the heterostructures, except for the TiN(001)/Si 3 N 4 /TiN(001) one, for which the plastic flow occurs inside the TiN slab. Based on these results we estimate the maximum achievable hardness of nc-TiN/Si 3 N 4 nanocomposites free of impurities to be about 170 GPa. - Highlights: • Interface stability in TiN/SiN x heterostructures at T ≤ 1400 K is studied by quantum molecular dynamics. • Ideal decohesion and shear strengths of the heterostructures have been calculated. • Achievable hardness of nc-TiN/Si 3 N 4 -like nanocomposites of about 170 GPa is calculated. • Experimentally achieved lower hardness is limited by flaws, such as oxygen impurities

  14. First-principles quantum molecular calculations of structural and mechanical properties of TiN/SiN{sub x} heterostructures, and the achievable hardness of the nc-TiN/SiN{sub x} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.I., E-mail: ivash@ipms.kiev.ua [Institute of Problems of Material Science, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Krzhyzhanosky Str. 3, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Veprek, S., E-mail: stan.veprek@lrz.tum.de [Department of Chemistry, Technical University Munich, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Argon, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Turchi, P.E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (L-352), P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gorb, L. [Badger Technical Services, LLC, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Hill, F. [U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Leszczynski, J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    TiN/SiN{sub x} heterostructures with one monolayer of the interfacial SiN{sub x} have been investigated in the framework of first-principles molecular dynamics calculations in the temperature range of 0 to 1400 K with subsequent static relaxation. The atomic configurations, thermal stability and stress–strain relations have been calculated. Among the heterostructures studied, only the TiN(111)/SiN/TiN(111) and TiN(111)/Si{sub 2}N{sub 3}/TiN(111) ones are thermally stable. Upon tensile load, decohesion occurs between the Ti−N bonds adjacent to the SiN{sub x} interfacial layer for TiN(001)/SiN/TiN(001) and TiN(111)/Si{sub 2}N{sub 3}/TiN(111) heterostructures, and inside the TiN slab for TiN(001)/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiN(001) and TiN(110)/SiN/TiN(110) ones. Upon shear, failure occurs in TiN near the interfaces in all the heterostructures, except for the TiN(001)/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiN(001) one, for which the plastic flow occurs inside the TiN slab. Based on these results we estimate the maximum achievable hardness of nc-TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites free of impurities to be about 170 GPa. - Highlights: • Interface stability in TiN/SiN{sub x} heterostructures at T ≤ 1400 K is studied by quantum molecular dynamics. • Ideal decohesion and shear strengths of the heterostructures have been calculated. • Achievable hardness of nc-TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-like nanocomposites of about 170 GPa is calculated. • Experimentally achieved lower hardness is limited by flaws, such as oxygen impurities.

  15. Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doganov, Rostislav A.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros [Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, 117546 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Koenig, Steven P.; Yeo, Yuting [Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, 117546 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Ultrathin black phosphorus, or phosphorene, is a two-dimensional material that allows both high carrier mobility and large on/off ratios. Similar to other atomic crystals, like graphene or layered transition metal dichalcogenides, the transport behavior of few-layer black phosphorus is expected to be affected by the underlying substrate. The properties of black phosphorus have so far been studied on the widely utilized SiO{sub 2} substrate. Here, we characterize few-layer black phosphorus field effect transistors on hexagonal boron nitride—an atomically smooth and charge trap-free substrate. We measure the temperature dependence of the field effect mobility for both holes and electrons and explain the observed behavior in terms of charged impurity limited transport. We find that in-situ vacuum annealing at 400 K removes the p-doping of few-layer black phosphorus on both boron nitride and SiO{sub 2} substrates and reduces the hysteresis at room temperature.

  16. Trap assisted charge multiplication enhanced photoresponse of Li-P codoped p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Ritesh; Kumar, Amitesh; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report a high-performance p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated by dual ion beam sputter deposition. The lithium-phosphorus (Li-P) codoping route was used to realize low resistive and stable p-type ZnO. The current-voltage characteristics of p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction photodiode showed good rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio of 170 at  ±3 V. The spectral response measurements of the photodiode showed excellent responsivity with a peak observed around ~325 nm and cutoff wavelength around 370 nm. The maximum responsivity achieved was 2.6 A W-1 at an applied reverse bias of  -6 V. The external quantum efficiency determined was of the order of ~1000% which is attributed to the trap assisted multiplication of charge carriers.

  17. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si3N4 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Wheeler, J. M.; Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J.; Zeng, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries

  18. Protection of p+-n-Si Photoanodes by Sputter-Deposited Ir/IrOxThin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Bastian Timo; Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Sputter deposition of Ir/IrOx on p+-n-Si without interfacial corrosion protection layers yielded photoanodes capable of efficient water oxidation (OER) in acidic media (1 M H2SO4). Stability of at least 18 h was shown by chronoamperomety at 1.23 V versus RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) under 38...... density of 1 mA/cm2 at 1.05 V vs. RHE. Further improvement by heat treatment resulted in a cathodic shift of 40 mV and enabled a current density of 10 mA/cm2 (requirements for a 10% efficient tandem device) at 1.12 V vs. RHS under irradiation. Thus, the simple IrOx/Ir/p+-n-Si structures not only provide...

  19. Investigation of MoO{sub x}/n-Si strong inversion layer interfaces via dopant-free heterocontact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Teng; Liu, Ruiyuan; Wu, Chen; Zhong, Yanan; Liu, Yuqiang; Wang, Yusheng; Han, Yujie; Xia, Zhouhui; Zou, Yatao; Song, Tao; Duhm, Steffen; Sun, Baoquan [Inst. of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Lab. for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow Univ. (China); Wang, Rongbin [Inst. of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Lab. for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow Univ. (China); Institut fuer Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Koch, Norbert [Institut fuer Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs)/silicon (Si) heterocontact solar cells are currently under intensive investigation due to their simple fabrication process and less parasitic light absorption compared to traditional heterocontact counterparts. Effective segregation of carriers which is related to carrier-selective heterocontact is crucial for the performance of photovoltaic devices. Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}, x ≤ 3), with a wide bandgap of ∝3.24 eV as well as defect bands derived from oxygen vacancies located inside the band gap, has been introduced to integrate with n-type Si (n-Si) as hole selective contact. Here, we utilize a stepwise in situ deposition of MoO{sub x} to investigate its interaction with Si by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. A strong inversion layer originating from a charge transfer process is demonstrated in the n-Si surface region upon MoO{sub x} contact characterized by XPS, UPS, capacitance-voltage (C-V), and minority charge carrier lifetime mapping measurements. A dopant-free heterocontact is built within n-Si with a high built-in potential (V{sub bi}) of ∝0.80 V which benefits for acquiring a high open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). These results give a detailed interpretation on the carrier transport mechanism of MoO{sub x}/n-Si heterocontact and also pave a new route toward fabricating high efficiency, low-cost solar cells. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Plastic Deformation Induced by Nanoindentation Test Applied on ZrN/Si3N4 Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating that alternates with either nanocrystalline ZrN or amorphous Si3N4 interlayers was fabricated by reactively magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N2 mixture atmosphere. The thicknesses of the nanocrystalline ZrN and the amorphous Si3N4 interlayers are ~12.5 and 2.5 nm, respectively. The ZrN/Si3N4 coating exhibits a promoted hardness of 28.6 ± 1.2 GPa when compared to the binary ZrN. Microstructure evolution just underneath the nanoindentation impression of the ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating has been investigated. The result indicates that both ZrN nanograin rotations and plastic flow of the Si3N4 interlayers contribute to the permanent deformation of the multilayer coating induced by the nanoindentation. In addition, the introduction of the a-Si3N4 interlayers hinders both the initiation and propagation of microcracks when the multilayer coating was applied to the scratch test. The propagation deflection of the microcracks was observed attributed to the heterogenous interface, which produces the hardness promotion of the multilayer coating eventually.

  1. Reliable determination of the Cu/n-Si Schottky barrier height by using in-device hot-electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parui, Subir, E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Ribeiro, Mário; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Llopis, Roger [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E., E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2015-11-02

    We show the operation of a Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu/n-Si hot-electron transistor for the straightforward determination of a metal/semiconductor energy barrier height even at temperatures below carrier-freeze out in the semiconductor. The hot-electron spectroscopy measurements return a fairly temperature independent value for the Cu/n-Si barrier of 0.66 ± 0.04 eV at temperatures below 180 K, in substantial accordance with mainstream methods based on complex fittings of either current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The Cu/n-Si hot-electron transistors exhibit an OFF current of ∼2 × 10{sup −13} A, an ON/OFF ratio of ∼10{sup 5}, and an equivalent subthreshold swing of ∼96 mV/dec at low temperatures, which are suitable values for potential high frequency devices.

  2. Reliable determination of the Cu/n-Si Schottky barrier height by using in-device hot-electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parui, Subir; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Ribeiro, Mário; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    We show the operation of a Cu/Al 2 O 3 /Cu/n-Si hot-electron transistor for the straightforward determination of a metal/semiconductor energy barrier height even at temperatures below carrier-freeze out in the semiconductor. The hot-electron spectroscopy measurements return a fairly temperature independent value for the Cu/n-Si barrier of 0.66 ± 0.04 eV at temperatures below 180 K, in substantial accordance with mainstream methods based on complex fittings of either current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The Cu/n-Si hot-electron transistors exhibit an OFF current of ∼2 × 10 −13  A, an ON/OFF ratio of ∼10 5 , and an equivalent subthreshold swing of ∼96 mV/dec at low temperatures, which are suitable values for potential high frequency devices

  3. 60Co gamma irradiation effects on the the capacitance and conductance characteristics of Au/PMI/n-Si Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğluoğlu, N.; Karadeniz, S.; Yüksel, Ö. F.; Şafak, H.; Kuş, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the perylene-monoimide/n-Si (100) Schottky structures have been fabricated by spin coating process. We have studied the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and conductance-voltage ( G- V) characteristics of the Au/perylene-monoimide/n-Si diodes at 500 kHz before and after 60Co γ-ray irradiation. The effects of 60Co γ -ray irradiation on the electrical characteristics of a perylene-monoimide/n-Si Schottky diode have been investigated. A decrease both in the capacitance and conductance has been observed after 60Co γ -ray irradiation. This has been attributed to a decrease in the net ionized dopant concentration that occurred as a result of 60Co γ-ray irradiation. Some contact parameters such as barrier height (Φ B ) interface state density ( N ss ) and series resistance ( R s ) have been calculated from the C- V and G- V characteristics of the diode before and after irradiation. It has been observed that the Φ B and N ss values are decreased after the applied radiation, while the R s value is increased.

  4. Corrosion resistance of the NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering under different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Lei; Li, Heqin; Shen, Jiong; Qiao, Kai; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    The AlN/SiC bilayer and SiC monolayer thin films were deposited on sintered NdFeB by RF magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. Their structures and morphologies were studied by XRD and AFM and SEM. The corrosion behaviors of AlN/SiC and SiC-coated NdFeB in 3.5 wt% NaCl, 20 wt% NaOH and 0.1 mol/L H 2 SO 4 solutions were characterized with potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results show that AlN/SiC and SiC thin films can evidently improve the corrosion resistance of NdFeB, and the AlN/SiC films have the better resistance than the SiC film. - Highlights: • SiC monolayer and AlN/SiC bilayer thin films have been prepared on NdFeB at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. • NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer films has more corrosion resistance than that coated with SiC monolayer film under different environments. • The grains of the AlN/SiC bilayer films are finer and the surface roughness is lower than that of SiC monolayer film

  5. Corrosion resistance of the NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering under different environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); Li, Heqin, E-mail: lhqjs@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); Shen, Jiong [Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd., Anhui Lujiang 231500 (China); Qiao, Kai; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Chu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-02-01

    The AlN/SiC bilayer and SiC monolayer thin films were deposited on sintered NdFeB by RF magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. Their structures and morphologies were studied by XRD and AFM and SEM. The corrosion behaviors of AlN/SiC and SiC-coated NdFeB in 3.5 wt% NaCl, 20 wt% NaOH and 0.1 mol/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were characterized with potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results show that AlN/SiC and SiC thin films can evidently improve the corrosion resistance of NdFeB, and the AlN/SiC films have the better resistance than the SiC film. - Highlights: • SiC monolayer and AlN/SiC bilayer thin films have been prepared on NdFeB at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. • NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer films has more corrosion resistance than that coated with SiC monolayer film under different environments. • The grains of the AlN/SiC bilayer films are finer and the surface roughness is lower than that of SiC monolayer film.

  6. Ultrasound-responsive ultrathin multiblock copolyamide vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Yu, Chunyang; Huang, Tong; Xu, Shuting; Bai, Yongping; Zhou, Yongfeng

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the self-assembly of novel polymer vesicles from an amphiphilic multiblock copolyamide, and the vesicles show a special structure with an ultrathin wall thickness of about 4.5 nm and a combined bilayer and monolayer packing model. Most interestingly, the vesicles are ultrasound-responsive and can release the encapsulated model drugs in response to ultrasonic irradiation.This study reports the self-assembly of novel polymer vesicles from an amphiphilic multiblock copolyamide, and the vesicles show a special structure with an ultrathin wall thickness of about 4.5 nm and a combined bilayer and monolayer packing model. Most interestingly, the vesicles are ultrasound-responsive and can release the encapsulated model drugs in response to ultrasonic irradiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experiments and characterization, and FT-IR, TEM, DPD, FL and micro-DSC results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08596a

  7. Photoresponsive properties of ultrathin silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Duy P.; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Nann, Thomas; Thierry, Benjamin; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Functional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising building blocks in the design of highly sensitive photodetectors and bio-chemical sensors. We systematically investigate the photoresponse properties of ultrathin SiNWs (20 nm) fabricated using a size-reduction method based on e-beam lithography and tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet-etching. The high-quality SiNWs were able to detect light from the UV to the visible range with excellent sensitivity (∼1 pW/array), good time response, and high photoresponsivity (R ∼ 2.5 × 10 4  A/W). Improvement of the ultrathin SiNWs' photoresponse has been observed in comparison to 40 nm counter-part nanowires. These properties are attributable to the predominance surface-effect due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of ultrathin SiNWs. Long-term measurements at different temperatures in both the forward and reverse bias directions demonstrated the stability and reliability of the fabricated device. By sensitizing the fabricated SiNW arrays with cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs), hybrid QD SiNW devices displayed an improvement in photocurrent response under UV light, while preserving their performance in the visible light range. The fast, stable, and high photoresponse of these hybrid nanostructures is promising towards the development of optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices

  8. Photoresponsive properties of ultrathin silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Duy P.; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Nann, Thomas; Thierry, Benjamin, E-mail: a.offenhaeusser@fz-juelich.de, E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, MM Bldg., Mawson Lakes Blvd., Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Offenhäusser, Andreas, E-mail: a.offenhaeusser@fz-juelich.de, E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 2.4v Bldg., Wilhelm-Johnen St., Jülich 52428 (Germany)

    2014-12-08

    Functional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising building blocks in the design of highly sensitive photodetectors and bio-chemical sensors. We systematically investigate the photoresponse properties of ultrathin SiNWs (20 nm) fabricated using a size-reduction method based on e-beam lithography and tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet-etching. The high-quality SiNWs were able to detect light from the UV to the visible range with excellent sensitivity (∼1 pW/array), good time response, and high photoresponsivity (R ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 4 }A/W). Improvement of the ultrathin SiNWs' photoresponse has been observed in comparison to 40 nm counter-part nanowires. These properties are attributable to the predominance surface-effect due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of ultrathin SiNWs. Long-term measurements at different temperatures in both the forward and reverse bias directions demonstrated the stability and reliability of the fabricated device. By sensitizing the fabricated SiNW arrays with cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs), hybrid QD SiNW devices displayed an improvement in photocurrent response under UV light, while preserving their performance in the visible light range. The fast, stable, and high photoresponse of these hybrid nanostructures is promising towards the development of optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  9. Effect of the energy of recoil atoms on conductivity compensation in moderately doped n-Si and n-SiC under irradiation with MeV electrons and protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovski, V.V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Lebedev, A.A., E-mail: shura.lebe@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Emtsev, V.V.; Oganesyan, G.A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    Processes of radiation defect formation and conductivity compensation in silicon and silicon carbide irradiated with 0.9 MeV electrons are considered in comparison with the electron irradiation at higher energies. The experimental values of the carrier removal rate at the electron energy of 0.9 MeV are nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the similar values of the parameter for higher energy electrons (6–9 MeV). At the same time, the formation cross-section of primary radiation defects (Frenkel pairs, FPs) is nearly energy-independent in this range. It is assumed that these differences are due to the influence exerted by the energy of primary knocked-on atoms (PKAs). As the PKA energy increases, the average distance between the genetically related FPs grows and, as a consequence, the fraction of FPs unrecombined under irradiation becomes larger. The FP recombination radius is estimated (∼1.1 nm), which makes it possible to ascertain the charge state of the recombining components. Second, the increase in the PKA energy enables formation of new, more complex secondary radiation defects. At electron energies exceeding 15 MeV, the average PKA energies are closer to the values obtained under irradiation with 1 MeV protons, compared with an electron irradiation at the same energy. As for the radiation-induced defect formation, the irradiation of silicon with MeV protons can be, in principle, regarded as a superposition of the irradiation with 1 MeV electrons and that with silicon ions having energy of ∼1 keV, with the “source” of silicon ions generating these ions uniformly across the sample thickness.

  10. Microwave absorptions of ultrathin conductive films and designs of frequency-independent ultrathin absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sucheng; Anwar, Shahzad; Lu, Weixin; Hang, Zhi Hong; Hou, Bo; Shen, Mingrong; Wang, Chin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We study the absorption properties of ultrathin conductive films in the microwave regime, and find a moderate absorption effect which gives rise to maximal absorbance 50% if the sheet (square) resistance of the film meets an impedance matching condition. The maximal absorption exhibits a frequency-independent feature and takes place on an extremely subwavelength scale, the film thickness. As a realistic instance, ∼5 nm thick Au film is predicted to achieve the optimal absorption. In addition, a methodology based on metallic mesh structure is proposed to design the frequency-independent ultrathin absorbers. We perform a design of such absorbers with 50% absorption, which is verified by numerical simulations

  11. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  12. 300C/15 kW power converter with AlGaN/GaN-Si MOS-HFETs for electric propulsion systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capitalizing on a strong expertise in III-Nitride epitaxy, GaN-Si power device designs, and wide-bandgap power electronics, researchers at GeneSiC Semiconductor...

  13. Ultra-thin Glass Film Coated with Graphene: A New Material for Spontaneous Emission Enhancement of Quantum Emitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Sun; Chun Jiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-thin glass film coated with graphene as a new kind of surrounding material which can greatly enhance spontaneous emission rate(SER) of dipole emitter embedded in it. With properly designed parameters,numerical results show that SER-enhanced factors as high as 1.286 9 106 can be achieved. The influences of glass film thickness and chemical potential/doping level of graphene on spontaneous emission enhancement are also studied in this paper. A comparison is made between graphene and other coating materials such as gold and silver to see their performances in SER enhancement.

  14. Effects of thermal annealing on electrical characteristics of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglam, M.; Ates, A.; Guezeldir, B.; Astam, A.; Yildirim, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In general, at the metal-semiconductor contacts, interfacial layers have been fabricated by different methods such as molecular beam epitaxy, metal organic chemical vapor deposition, sputtering and vacuum evaporation. However, all of these techniques have encountered various difficulties in the deposited films. Instead of these methods, since Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method is simple, fast, sensitive, and less costly to prepare interfacial layer, we have first employed this method in order to prepare Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure. For this reason, the CdS thin film has been directly formed on n-type Si substrate by means of SILAR method. The Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure has demonstrated clearly rectifying behaviour by the current-voltage (I-V) curves studied at room temperature. In order to observe the effect of the thermal annealing, this structure has been annealed at temperatures from 50 to 300 deg. C for 3 min in N 2 atmosphere. The characteristic parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance of this structure have been calculated from the forward bias I-V characteristics as a function of annealing temperature with different methods. The values of n, Φ b and mean R s of the initial Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure were found to be 2.31, 0.790 eV and 1.86 kΩ respectively. After annealing at 300 deg. C, these values were changed to 1.89, 0.765 eV and 0.48 kΩ. It has been seen that the barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance have slightly changed with increasing annealing temperature up to 300 deg. C.

  15. Broad and focused ion beams Ga+ implantation damage in the fabrication of p+-n Si shallow junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckl, A.J.; Lin, C.M.; Patrizio, D.; Rai, A.K.; Pronko, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    The use of focused and broad beam Ga + implantation for the fabrication of p + -n Si shallow junctions is explored. In particular, the issue of ion induced damage and its effect on diode electrical properties is explored. FIB-fabricated junctions exhibit a deeper junction with lower sheet resistance and higher leakage current than the BB-implanted diodes. TEM analysis exhibits similar amorphization and recrystallization behavior for both implantation techniques with the BB case generating a higher dislocation loop density after a 900 degree C anneal. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Ultrathin, epitaxial cerium dioxide on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flege, Jan Ingo, E-mail: flege@ifp.uni-bremen.de; Kaemena, Björn; Höcker, Jan; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Bertram, Florian [Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wollschläger, Joachim [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 7, 49069 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    It is shown that ultrathin, highly ordered, continuous films of cerium dioxide may be prepared on silicon following substrate prepassivation using an atomic layer of chlorine. The as-deposited, few-nanometer-thin Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} film may very effectively be converted at room temperature to almost fully oxidized CeO{sub 2} by simple exposure to air, as demonstrated by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This post-oxidation process essentially results in a negligible loss in film crystallinity and interface abruptness.

  17. Elementary spin excitations in ultrathin itinerant magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakeri, Khalil, E-mail: zakeri@mpi-halle.de

    2014-12-10

    Elementary spin excitations (magnons) play a fundamental role in condensed matter physics, since many phenomena e.g. magnetic ordering, electrical (as well as heat) transport properties, ultrafast magnetization processes, and most importantly electron/spin dynamics can only be understood when these quasi-particles are taken into consideration. In addition to their fundamental importance, magnons may also be used for information processing in modern spintronics. Here the concept of spin excitations in ultrathin itinerant magnets is discussed and reviewed. Starting with a historical introduction, different classes of magnons are introduced. Different theoretical treatments of spin excitations in solids are outlined. Interaction of spin-polarized electrons with a magnetic surface is discussed. It is shown that, based on the quantum mechanical conservation rules, a magnon can only be excited when a minority electron is injected into the system. While the magnon creation process is forbidden by majority electrons, the magnon annihilation process is allowed instead. These fundamental quantum mechanical selection rules, together with the strong interaction of electrons with matter, make the spin-polarized electron spectroscopies as appropriate tools to excite and probe the elementary spin excitations in low-dimensional magnets e.g ultrathin films and nanostructures. The focus is put on the experimental results obtained by spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy and spin-polarized inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. The magnon dispersion relation, lifetime, group and phase velocity measured using these approaches in various ultrathin magnets are discussed in detail. The differences and similarities with respect to the bulk excitations are addressed. The role of the temperature, atomic structure, number of atomic layers, lattice strain, electronic complexes and hybridization at the interfaces are outlined. A possibility of simultaneous probing of magnons and phonons

  18. Trap effect of an ultrathin DCJTB layer in organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuanmin [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory for Information Storage, Displays and Materials, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Teng Feng [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory for Information Storage, Displays and Materials, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)]. E-mail: advanced9898@126.com; Xu Zheng [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory for Information Storage, Displays and Materials, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Hou Yanbing [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory for Information Storage, Displays and Materials, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yang Shengyi [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory for Information Storage, Displays and Materials, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xu Xurong [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory for Information Storage, Displays and Materials, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2005-08-15

    An improved performance of organic light-emitting diodes has been obtained by using 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4Hpyran (DCJTB) as an ultrathin emitting layer. When 0.1 nm DCJTB was inserted between the hole-transporting layer and electron-transporting layer, for an unoptimized device indium-tin oxide (ITO)/naphtylphenyliphenyl diamine (NPB)/DCJTB (0.1 nm)/8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq{sub 3})/Al, the maximum brightness was 1531 cd m{sup -2} at 15 V. Compared with doped devices ITO/NPB/Alq{sub 3}:DCJTB (1%)/Alq{sub 3}/LiF/Al, a higher efficiency has been achieved. Compared with the conventional device ITO/NPB/Alq{sub 3}/Al, the inserted device has a slightly higher current efficiency and lower turn-on voltage. We suggest the ultrathin DCJTB layer acts as trap for carriers, and the accumulated holes at the hole-transport layer/electron-transport layer interface have enhanced the electric field in the electron-transport layer and improved the electron injection at the cathode.

  19. Adjusting White OLEDs with Yellow Light Emission Phosphor Dye and Ultrathin NPB Layer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency white organic light emission devices were demonstrated with phosphor material dye bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenylbenzothiazolato-N,C2′]iridium (acetylacetonate and ultrathin layer structure. The ultra thin layer be composed of 4,4′-bis[N-1-naphthyl-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (NPB or 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl : NPB mixed layer with blue light emission. The emission spectra of devices could be adjusted by different phosphor doping concentrations and ultra thin layer structure. Warm white light emitting device could be obtained with 5 wt% doping concentration and power efficiency of 9.93 lm/W at 5 V. Pure white light with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.30 and external quantum efficiency of 4.49% could be achieved with ultra thin layer device structure and 3 wt% phosphor doped device.

  20. Electrical characterization of defects introduced in n-Si during electron beam deposition of Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auret, F.D.; Coelho, S.M.M.; Nel, J.M.; Meyer, W.E. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-10-15

    We have used deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and high resolution DLTS to characterize the defects introduced in epitaxially grown n-type, P-doped, Si during electron beam deposition (EBD) of Pt for Schottky contact formation. The identity of some of these defects could be established by comparing their properties to those of well-known defects introduced by high energy electron irradiation of the same material. The most prominent EBD-induced defects thus identified were the E-center (VP center), the A-center (VO center), interstitial carbon (C{sub i}), and the interstitial carbon-substitutional carbon (C{sub i}C{sub s}) pair. EBD also introduced some defects that were not observed after high energy electron irradiation. DLTS depth profiling revealed that the main defects, VO and VP, could be detected up to 0.5 {mu}m below the metal-Si interface. Shielding the sample from particles originating in the region of the electron beam significantly reduced defect introduction and resulted in Schottky contacts with improved rectification properties. Finally, we have found that exposing the sample to EBD conditions, without actually depositing metal, introduced a different set of electron traps, not introduced by the EBD process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Airplane dopes and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  2. Room temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky barrier diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdoğan, Erman, E-mail: e.erdogan@alparslan.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Muş Alparslan University, Muş 49250 (Turkey); Kundakçı, Mutlu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    Metal-semiconductors (MSs) or Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have a significant potential in the integrated device technology. In the present paper, electrical characterization of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky diode have been systematically carried out by simple Thermionic method (TE) and Norde function based on the I-V characteristics. Ag ohmic and schottky contacts are deposited on InGaN/n-Si film by thermal evaporation technique under a vacuum pressure of 1×10{sup −5} mbar. Ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance values of this diode are determined from I-V curve. These parameters are calculated by TE and Norde methods and findings are given in a comparetive manner. The results show the consistency for both method and also good agreement with other results obtained in the literature. The value of ideality factor and barrier height have been determined to be 2.84 and 0.78 eV at room temperature using simple TE method. The value of barrier height obtained with Norde method is calculated as 0.79 eV.

  3. Room temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky barrier diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Erman; Kundakçı, Mutlu

    2017-02-01

    Metal-semiconductors (MSs) or Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have a significant potential in the integrated device technology. In the present paper, electrical characterization of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky diode have been systematically carried out by simple Thermionic method (TE) and Norde function based on the I-V characteristics. Ag ohmic and schottky contacts are deposited on InGaN/n-Si film by thermal evaporation technique under a vacuum pressure of 1×10-5 mbar. Ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance values of this diode are determined from I-V curve. These parameters are calculated by TE and Norde methods and findings are given in a comparetive manner. The results show the consistency for both method and also good agreement with other results obtained in the literature. The value of ideality factor and barrier height have been determined to be 2.84 and 0.78 eV at room temperature using simple TE method. The value of barrier height obtained with Norde method is calculated as 0.79 eV.

  4. Electrical characterization of Au/quercetin/n-Si heterojunction diode and optical analysis of quercetin thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombak, Ahmet; Özaydin, C.; Boğa, M.; Kiliçoğlu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin (3,5,7,3’,4’-pentahydroxyflavone, QE), one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to possess a wide variety of biological effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, hepatoprotective, renoprotective and neuroprotective effects. In this study organic-inorganic junctions were fabricated by forming quercetin complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. Optical properties of quercetin thin film were studied with the help of spectrophotometer. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of Au/quercetin/n-Si heterojunction diode was investigated at room temperature in dark. Some basic parameters of the diode such as ideality factor, rectification ratio, barrier height, series resistance and shunt resistance were calculated using dark current-voltage measurement. It was also seen that the device had good sensitivity to the light under 40-100 mW/cm"2 illumination conditions.

  5. Electrical characterization of Au/quercetin/n-Si heterojunction diode and optical analysis of quercetin thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombak, Ahmet, E-mail: tahmet@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art& Science, Batman University, Batman 72000 (Turkey); Özaydin, C. [Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Batman University, Batman 72000 (Turkey); Boğa, M. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Dicle University, Diyarbakir 21280 (Turkey); Kiliçoğlu, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, Diyarbakir 21280 (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    Quercetin (3,5,7,3’,4’-pentahydroxyflavone, QE), one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to possess a wide variety of biological effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, hepatoprotective, renoprotective and neuroprotective effects. In this study organic-inorganic junctions were fabricated by forming quercetin complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. Optical properties of quercetin thin film were studied with the help of spectrophotometer. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of Au/quercetin/n-Si heterojunction diode was investigated at room temperature in dark. Some basic parameters of the diode such as ideality factor, rectification ratio, barrier height, series resistance and shunt resistance were calculated using dark current-voltage measurement. It was also seen that the device had good sensitivity to the light under 40-100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination conditions.

  6. A Ga2O3 underlayer as an isomorphic template for ultrathin hematite films toward efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Takashi; Brillet, Jérémie; Cornuz, Maurin; Le Formal, Florian; Tétreault, Nicolas; Sivula, Kevin; Grätzel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hematite photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are often fabricated as extremely-thin films to minimize charge recombination because of the short diffusion lengths of photoexcited carriers. However, poor crystallinity caused by structural interaction with a substrate negates the potential of ultrathin hematite photoanodes. This study demonstrates that ultrathin Ga2O3 underlayers, which were deposited on conducting substrates prior to hematite layers by atomic layer deposition, served as an isomorphic (corundum-type) structural template for ultrathin hematite and improved the photocurrent onset of PEC water splitting by 0.2 V. The benefit from Ga2O3 underlayers was most pronounced when the thickness of the underlayer was approximately 2 nm. Thinner underlayers did not work effectively as a template presumably because of insufficient crystallinity of the underlayer, while thicker ones diminished the PEC performance of hematite because the underlayer prevented electron injection from hematite to a conductive substrate due to the large conduction band offset. The enhancement of PEC performance by a Ga2O3 underlayer was more significant for thinner hematite layers owing to greater margins for improving the crystallinity of ultrathin hematite. It was confirmed that a Ga2O3 underlayer was applicable to a rough conducting substrate loaded with Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles, improving the photocurrent by a factor of 1.4. Accordingly, a Ga2O3 underlayer could push forward the development of host-guest-type nanocomposites consisting of highly-rough substrates and extremely-thin hematite absorbers.

  7. Ultrathin Nanosheet Assembled Sn0.91 Co0.19 S2 Nanocages with Exposed (100) Facets for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Gu, Peng; Zhang, Guangxun; Lu, Yao; Huang, Kesheng; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan

    2018-02-01

    Ultrathin 2D inorganic nanomaterials are good candidates for lithium-ion batteries, as well as the micro/nanocage structures with unique and tunable morphologies. Meanwhile, as a cost-effective method, chemical doping plays a vital role in manipulating physical and chemical properties of metal oxides and sulfides. Thus, the design of ultrathin, hollow, and chemical doped metal sulfides shows great promise for the application of Li-ion batteries by shortening the diffusion pathway of Li ions as well as minimizing the electrode volume change. Herein, ultrathin nanosheet assembled Sn 0.91 Co 0.19 S 2 nanocages with exposed (100) facets are first synthesized. The as-prepared electrode delivers an excellent discharge capacity of 809 mA h g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 with a 91% retention after 60 discharge-charge cycles. The electrochemical performance reveals that the Li-ion batteries prepared by Sn 0.91 Co 0.19 S 2 nanocages have high capacity and great cycling stability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Influence of the carbon-doping location on the material and electrical properties of a AlGaN/GaN heterostructure on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Yiqiang; Zhou, Deqiu; Chen, Zijun; Zheng, Yue; He, Zhiyuan; Yang, Fan; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Guilin; Shen, Zhen; Zhong, Jian; Zhang, Baijun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different C-doping locations in a GaN/Si structure with a GaN/AlN superlattice (SL) buffer on the material and electrical properties of GaN/Si was studied. The introduction of C doping can remarkably degrade the crystal quality of the buffer. C-doping of a top GaN buffer can introduce compressive stress into the top GaN due to the size effect, while C-doping in a SL buffer can impair the compressive stress provided from the SL buffer to the top GaN. It is found that introducing high-density carbon into the whole buffer can result in a more strain-balanced GaN/Si system with small deterioration of the 2DEG channel. Furthermore, the whole buffer C-doping method is an effective and easy way to achieve a thin buffer with low leakage current and high breakdown voltage (266 V@1 nA mm −1 ; 698 V@10 μA mm −1 ; 912 V@1 mA mm −1 ). By using the whole-buffer C-doping method, a 2.5 μm-thick AlGaN/GaN HFET with a breakdown voltage higher than 900 V was achieved, and the breakdown voltage per unit buffer thickness can reach 181 V μm −1 . (paper)

  9. Density of the unoccupied electronic states of the ultrathin films of the aziridinylphenylpyrrol substituted fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolov, A.S.; Lazneva, E.F.; Gerasimova, N.B.; Panina, Yu.A.; Zashikhin, G.D.; Baramygin, A.V.; Si, P.; Akhremtchik, S.N.; Gavrikov, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • DOUS of the ultrathin films of the aziridinylphenylpyrrol substituted C_6_0 was determined by using the transmission of the low-energy electrons technique and by the DFT calculations. • The introduction of the APP substituent to C_6_0 molecule was accompanied by the modifications of DOUS in the energy range from 2 eV to 9 eV above E_F. • The major DOUS bands were assigned π* and σ* - type character using the spatial distribution of the relevant orbitals obtained from the DFT calculation results. - Abstract: The ultrathin films of aziridinylphenylpyrrol-C_6_0 (APP-C_6_0) and of the unsubstituted C_6_0 thermally deposited in UHV on an oxidized silicon substrate (SiO_2)n-Si were studied experimentally using the very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) method and the total current spectroscopy (TCS) measurement scheme. The density of the unoccupied electronic states (DOUS) located 2-20 eV above the Fermi level (E_F) of the films under study was determined using the TCS results and using the results of the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the vacant electronic orbitals of the APP-C_6_0 and C_6_0 molecules. The DOUS peak structure obtained on the basis of the calculation results corresponds well to the structure of the major DOUS bands obtained from the TCS experiment. The comparison of the DOUS spectra of the APP-C_6_0 and C_6_0 films under study showed that the introduction of the APP substituent to the C_6_0 molecule was accompanied by the pronounced changes of the π* DOUS bands in the energy range from 2 eV to 5 eV above E_F and of the DOUS band composed from both π* and σ* - type orbitals in the energy range from 5 eV to 9 eV above E_F. The formation of the low-lying σ* DOUS band in the APP-C_6_0 film in the energy range from 8 eV to 13 eV above E_F can be explained by the superposition of the relevant DOUS maxima from the C_6_0 film and from the APP fragment.

  10. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  11. Dual-layer ultrathin film optics: I. Theory and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits dual-layer ultrathin film optics, which can be used for functional graded refractive index thin film stack. We present the detailed derivation including s-polarized and p-polarized light under arbitrary incidence angle showing the equivalence between the dual-layer ultrathin films and a negative birefringent thin film and also the approximations made during the derivation. Analysis of the approximations shows the influence of thickness of dual-layer thin films, the incidence angle and desired refractive index of the birefringent film. Numerical comparison between the titanium dioxide/aluminum oxide based dual-layer ultrathin film stack and the equivalent birefringent film verifies the theoretical analysis. The detailed theoretical study and numerical comparison provide a physical insight and design guidelines for dual-layer ultrathin film based optical devices. (paper)

  12. The Thickness Dependence of Optical Constants of Ultrathin Iron Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shang; Lian Jie; Wang Xiao; Li Ping; Sun Xiao-Fen; Li Qing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses from 7.1 to 51.7 nm are deposited by magnetron sputtering and covered by tantalum layers protecting them from being oxidized. These ultrathin iron films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurement. An extra tantalum film is deposited under the same sputtering conditions and its optical constants and film thickness are obtained by a combination of ellipsometry and transmission measurement. After introducing these obtained optical constants and film thickness into the tantalum-iron film, the optical constants and film thicknesses of ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses are obtained. The results show that combining ellipsometry and transmission measurement improves the uniqueness of the obtained film thickness. The optical constants of ultrathin iron films depend strongly on film thicknesses. There is a broad absorption peak at about 370 nm and it shifts to 410 nm with film thickness decreasing

  13. Surface-potential undulation of Alq3 thin films prepared on ITO, Au, and n-Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Ito, Hiromi; Maeda, Mizuo; Hara, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The surface potential (SP) morphology on thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) was investigated with Kelvin probe force microscopy. Thin Alq3 films of 100 nm were prepared on ITO/glass substrates, Au/mica substrates, and n-Si substrates. Cloud-like morphologies of the SP undulation with 200-400 nm in lateral size were observed for all three types of the substrates. New larger peaks were observed in the cloud-like morphologies when the surfaces were exposed shortly to a light, while the SP average was reduced monotonically. The nonuniform distribution of charged traps and mobility was deduced from the SP undulation morphology and its photoexposure dependences.

  14. Effect of irradiation temperature on the efficiency of introduction of multivacancy defects into n-Si crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagava, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    The n-Si single crystals are studied in order to gain insight into the effect of the temperature of irradiation T irr on the defect-production process. The samples under study were irradiated with 2-MeV electrons in the range T irr = 20-400 deg. C. Irradiated crystals were annealed isochronously in the temperature range from 80 to 600 deg. C. Measurements were carried out by the Hall method in the temperature range from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that the efficiency of introduction of radiation defects with a high thermal stability (T ann ≥ 350 deg. C) attains a maximum at T irr = 150 deg. C. The observed effect is accounted for by formation of multivacancy defects PV 2 on the basis of ionized E centers and nonequilibrium vacancies

  15. A study on the microstructure of Pt/TaN/Si films by high resolution TEM analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, K N; Oh, J E; Park, C S; Lee, S I; Lee, M Y

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure change of Pt/amorphous TaN/Si films after various heat treatments has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis. TaN thin films are deposited by remote plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RP-MOCVD) using pentakis-dimethyl-amino-tantalum (PDMATa) and radical sources, hydrogen and ammonia plasma. Deposited TaN thin film shows excellent barrier properties such as good resistance against oxidation after post-heat treatment at high temperature. In the case of hydrogen plasma, however, diffusion of Pt into TaN layer was observed, which was caused by the out-diffusion of carbon through the grain boundaries of Pt. In the case of ammonia plasma, the formation of thin oxide layer at the Pt/TaN interface was observed.

  16. Degradation effects in the one-band-tunneling Au/CaF{sub 2}/n-Si(111) MIS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vexler, M.I.; Suturin, S.M.; Tyaginov, S.E.; Banshchikov, A.G. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytechnicheskaya Str., 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sokolov, N.S. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytechnicheskaya Str., 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: nsokolov@fl.ioffe.ru

    2008-10-01

    High quality Au/CaF{sub 2}/n-Si(111) metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with thin (< 2.5 nm) epitaxial fluorite layers were fabricated. Damage of such structures due to electrical overload has been investigated in this work. Current-voltage characteristics of these structures before and in process of degradation are measured. A mechanism explaining the pronounced breakdown at reverse bias is suggested. This mechanism relies on the potentially possible bistability arising from the one-band character of tunneling in the studied devices. Some comparisons with the degradation scenario in SiO{sub 2}-based samples are made. Wear-out fields for CaF{sub 2} films are estimated. The changes in behaviour of fresh and damaged structures under visible light irradiation are treated.

  17. Ultrathin microwave metamaterial absorber utilizing embedded resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Ji Sub; Yoo, Young Joon; Khuyen, Bui Xuan; Rhee, Joo Yull; Chen, Xianfeng; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-10-01

    We numerically and experimentally studied an ultrathin and broadband perfect absorber by enhancing the bandwidth with embedded resistors into the metamaterial structure, which is easy to fabricate in order to lower the Q-factor and by using multiple resonances with the patches of different sizes. We analyze the absorption mechanism in terms of the impedance matching with the free space and through the distribution of surface current at each resonance frequency. The magnetic field, induced by the antiparallel surface currents, is formed strongly in the direction opposite to the incident electromagnetic wave, to cancel the incident wave, leading to the perfect absorption. The corresponding experimental absorption was found to be higher than 97% in 0.88-3.15 GHz. The agreement between measurement and simulation was good. The aspects of our proposed structure can be applied to future electronic devices, for example, advanced noise-suppression sheets in the microwave regime.

  18. Individual Magnetic Molecules on Ultrathin Insulating Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hallak, Fadi; Warner, Ben; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus

    2012-02-01

    Single molecule magnets have attracted ample interest because of their exciting magnetic and quantum properties. Recent studies have demonstrated that some of these molecules can be evaporated on surfaces without losing their magnetic properties [M. Mannini et al., Nature 468, 417, (2010)]. This remarkable progress enhances the chances of real world applications for these molecules. We present STM imaging and spectroscopy data on iron phthalocyanine molecules deposited on Cu(100) and on a Cu2N ultrathin insulating surface. These molecules have been shown to display a large magnetic anisotropy on another thin insulating surface, oxidized Cu(110) [N. Tsukahara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 167203 (2009)]. By using a combination of elastic and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy, we investigate the binding of the molecules to the surface and the impact that the surface has on their electronic and magnetic properties.

  19. Ultrathin Polymer Films, Patterned Arrays, and Microwells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingdi

    2002-05-01

    The ability to control and tailor the surface and interface properties of materials is important in microelectronics, cell growth control, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Modification of material surfaces with ultrathin polymer films is attractive due to the availability of a variety of polymers either commercially or by synthesis. We have developed two approaches to the attachment of ultrathin polymer films on solid substrates. In the first method, a silane-functionalized perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA-silane) was synthesized and used to covalently immobilize polymer thin films on silicon wafers. Silanization of the wafer surface with the PFPA-silane introduced a monolayer of azido groups which in turn covalently attached the polymer film by way of photochemically initiated insertion reactions. The thickness of the film could be adjusted by the type and the molecular weight of the polymer. The method is versatile due to the general C-H and/or N-H insertion reactions of crosslinker; and therefore, no specific reactive functional groups on the polymers are required. Using this method, a new type of microwell array was fabricated from covalently immobilized polymer thin films on flat substrates. The arrays were characterized with AFM, XPS, and TOF-SIMS. The second method describes the attachment of polymer thin films on solid substrates via UV irradiation. The procedure consisted of spin-coating a polymer film and irradiating the film with UV light. Following solvent extraction, a thin film remained. The thickness of the film, from a few to over a hundred nanometers, was controlled by varying solution concentration and the molecular weight of the polymer.

  20. Parameters of compensating centers in n-type Si highly compensated by irradiation. Parametry kompensiruyushchikh tsentrov v n-Si sil'no kompensirovannym oblucheniem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, P M; Fistul' , V I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (USSR)

    1990-06-01

    Resuls of investigations into effect of {gamma}- and neutron irradiation on defect formation in high-ohmic n-Si

    using technique of capacity temperature dependence (CTD) are given. Radiation dose varied from 4.8x10{sup 17} up to 1.7x10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. CTD technique is shown to be successfully applied to investigate into defect formation at irradiation of highly compensated silicon. Rate of admission of Ec-0.40 eV deep acceptor levels in n-Si at pulsed electron irradiation does not depend on fine impurity cocentration. Positions of energy levels of deep acceptors introduced into n-Si do not coincide and constitute, respectively, E{sub c}-0.40 and E{sub c}-049 eV.

  1. Comprehensive phase diagram of two-dimensional space charge doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpetti, Edoardo; Biscaras, Johan; Erb, Andreas; Shukla, Abhay

    2017-12-12

    The phase diagram of hole-doped high critical temperature superconductors as a function of doping and temperature has been intensively studied with chemical variation of doping. Chemical doping can provoke structural changes and disorder, masking intrinsic effects. Alternatively, a field-effect transistor geometry with an electrostatically doped, ultra-thin sample can be used. However, to probe the phase diagram, carrier density modulation beyond 10 14  cm -2 and transport measurements performed over a large temperature range are needed. Here we use the space charge doping method to measure transport characteristics from 330 K to low temperature. We extract parameters and characteristic temperatures over a large doping range and establish a comprehensive phase diagram for one-unit-cell-thick BSCCO-2212 as a function of doping, temperature and disorder.

  2. Dose dependence of tensoresistance for the symmetrical orientation of the deformation axis relatively to all isoenergetic ellipsoids in γ-irradiated (60Co n-Si crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Gaidar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose dependence of tensoresistance X /0, which was measured at the symmetrical orientation of the deformation axis (compression relatively to all isoenergetic ellipsoids both in the initial and in -irradiated samples, was investigated in n-Si crystals. It has been shown that changing the irradiation doses is accompanied by not only quantitative but also qualitative changes in the functional dependence X /0 = f (Х. Features of tensoresistance in n-Si irradiated samples were found depending on three crystallographic directions, along which the samples were cut out and the mechanical stress Х was applied.

  3. Fabrication of p-{beta}-Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 2}/nSi heterostructure diode and their electrical and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, T; Katsumata, H; Makita, Y; Kobayashi, N; Hasegawa, M; Uekusa, S

    1997-07-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of p-type {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers on n-type Si(100) substrates and the investigation of their p-n diode characteristics. Since the undoped {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers have typically shown n-type conductivity, the p-type layers were formed by the introduction of Mn impurity into {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers using two types of doping methods; one is an Electron-Beam-Deposition (EBD) procedure of Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x < {approximately}0.1) at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 900 C for 1--120 min, where FeSi{sub 2} ingots added with Mn({approximately}10%) were used as starting materials. The other is a {sup 55}Mn{sup +}-implantation into {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers formed by EBD and subsequent annealing at 850 C for 1--120 min. From van der Pauw measurements, p-type {beta}-Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 2} layers with the resistivity of 0.0036--0.031 {Omega}{center{underscore}dot}cm and hole mobility of 11.9--89.0 cm{sup 2}/V{center{underscore}dot}sec were found to be successfully formed on n-Si substrates by both doping methods. The p-n diode characteristics of these heterostructure diodes were investigated by I-V and C-V measurements. The results indicate that the carrier distribution does not agree with either ideal one-side step or one-side slop junctions, although optical transmittance and reflectance measurements indicate that the silicide/Si interface is of good quality.

  4. Doping droops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aditi; Chaturvedi, Harish; Kalra, Juhi; Kalra, Sudhanshu

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major concern in the athletic world. The misconception among athletes and their coaches is that when an athlete breaks a record it is due to some "magic ingredient" and not because of training, hard work, mental attitude and championship performance. The personal motivation to win in competitive sports has been intensified by national, political, professional and economic incentives. Under this increased pressure athletes have turned to finding this "magic ingredient". Athlete turns to mechanical (exercise, massage), nutritional (vitamins, minerals), pharmacological (medicines) or gene therapies to have an edge over other players. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has already asked scientists to help find ways to prevent gene therapy from becoming the newest form of doping. The safety of the life of athletes is compromised with all forms of doping techniques, be it a side effect of a drug or a new technique of gene doping.

  5. GaN nanorods and LED structures grown on patterned Si and AlN/Si substrates by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shunfeng; Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Neumann, Richard; Merzsch, Stephan; Peiner, Erwin; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    GaN nanorods (NRs) show promising applications in high-efficiency light emitting diodes, monolithic white light emission and optical interconnection due to their superior properties. In this work, we performed GaN nanostructures growth by pre-patterning the Si and AlN/Si substrates. The pattern was transferred to Si and AlN/Si substrates by photolithography and inductively-coupled plasma etching. GaN NRs were grown on these templates by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). GaN grown on Si pillar templates show a truncated pyramidal structure. Transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated clearly that the threading dislocations bend to the side facets of the GaN nanostructures and terminate. GaN growth can also be observed on the sidewalls and bottom surface between the Si pillars. A simple phenomenological model is proposed to explain the GaN nanostructure growth on Si pillar templates. Based on this model, we developed another growth method, by which we grow GaN rod structures on pre-patterned AlN/Si templates. By in-situ nitridation and decreasing of the V/III ratio, we found that GaN rods only grew on the patterned AlN/Si dots with an aspect ratio of about 1.5 - 2. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Influence of PECVD deposited SiNx passivation layer thickness on In0.18Al0.82N/GaN/Si HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sarab Preet; Liu, Yi; Ngoo, Yi Jie; Kyaw, Lwin Min; Bera, Milan Kumar; Chor, Eng Fong; Dolmanan, S B; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride (SiN x ) passivation film thickness on In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/GaN/Si heterostructures and HEMTs has been investigated. The formation of Si 3 N 4 was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements reveal that both the density and roughness of the SiN x film increase with increasing film thickness. With an increase in SiN x film thickness, a significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density, drain current, extrinsic transconductance and negative threshold voltage shift of the In 0.18 Al 0.82 /GaN/Si HEMTs are observed. An optimal thickness of SiN x is ∼100 nm and it yields a substantial increase in 2DEG density (∼30%) with a minimum sheet resistance for In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/GaN/Si heterostructures. Furthermore, we correlate the observed SiN x film thickness-dependent electrical characteristics of In 0.18 Al 0.82 /GaN/Si HEMTs with the density of the SiN x film. (paper)

  7. Dependence of open-circuit voltage of SnO2-nSi solar cells; SnO2-nSi taiyo denchi no sanka ondo menhoi izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, S; Shimizu, A; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Although metal(or semiconductor)-semiconductor solar cells, SnO2-nSi solar cell for example, are superior in cost and efficiency, its barrier height and open-circuit voltage V(oc) are lower than those of p-n junctions. To improve these defects, study was made on the dependence of V(oc) on oxidation temperature and surface orientation using various solar cells prepared from (100)Si and (111)Si under various oxidation conditions. As a result, the density of surface states increases with a decrease in oxidation temperature of Si substrates, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). In this case, since oxide films are extremely thin and contribution of non-terminated bonds is large in the initial oxidation stage, the quantity of dangling bonds is larger in (100) plane than (111) plane, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). Since the surface energy level (the degree of electrons dominated by acceptor-like surface state from this level to the top of a valence band) of (100) Si is lower than that of (111) Si, the effective barrier height and V(oc) increase. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Photoelectric Properties of Si Doping Superlattice Structure on 6H-SiC(0001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianbi; Zang, Yuan; Hu, Jichao; Lin, Shenghuang; Chen, Zhiming

    2017-05-25

    The energy-band structure and visible photoelectric properties of a p/n-Si doping superlattice structure (DSL) on 6H-SiC were simulated by Silvaco-TCAD. The,n the Si-DSL structures with 40 nm-p-Si/50 nm-n-Si multilayers were successfully prepared on 6H-SiC(0001) Si-face by chemical vapor deposition. TEM characterizations of the p/n-Si DSL confirmed the epitaxial growth of the Si films with preferred orientation and the misfit dislocations with a Burgers vector of 1/3 at the p-Si/n-Si interface. The device had an obvious rectifying behavior, and the turn-on voltage was about 1.2 V. Under the visible illumination of 0.6 W/cm², the device demonstrated a significant photoelectric response with a photocurrent density of 2.1 mA/cm². Visible light operation of the Si-DSL/6H-SiC heterostructure was realized for the first time.

  9. Photoelectric Properties of Si Doping Superlattice Structure on 6H-SiC(0001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbi Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy-band structure and visible photoelectric properties of a p/n-Si doping superlattice structure (DSL on 6H-SiC were simulated by Silvaco-TCAD. The,n the Si-DSL structures with 40 nm-p-Si/50 nm-n-Si multilayers were successfully prepared on 6H-SiC(0001 Si-face by chemical vapor deposition. TEM characterizations of the p/n-Si DSL confirmed the epitaxial growth of the Si films with preferred orientation and the misfit dislocations with a Burgers vector of 1/3 <21-1> at the p-Si/n-Si interface. The device had an obvious rectifying behavior, and the turn-on voltage was about 1.2 V. Under the visible illumination of 0.6 W/cm2, the device demonstrated a significant photoelectric response with a photocurrent density of 2.1 mA/cm2. Visible light operation of the Si-DSL/6H-SiC heterostructure was realized for the first time.

  10. Reduction in interface defect density in p-BaSi2/n-Si heterojunction solar cells by a modified pretreatment of the Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yudai; Yachi, Suguru; Takabe, Ryota; Sato, Takuma; Emha Bayu, Miftahullatif; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated defects that occurred at the interface of p-BaSi2/n-Si heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that BaSi2 (a-axis-oriented) was subjected to in-plane compressive strain, which relaxed when the thickness of the p-BaSi2 layer exceeded 50 nm. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy revealed defects in the Si layer near steps that were present on the Si(111) substrate. Deep level transient spectroscopy revealed two different electron traps in the n-Si layer that were located at 0.33 eV (E1) and 0.19 eV (E2) below the conduction band edge. The densities of E1 and E2 levels in the region close to the heterointerface were approximately 1014 cm-3. The density of these electron traps decreased below the limits of detection following Si pretreatment to remove the oxide layers from the n-Si substrate, which involved heating the substrate to 800 °C for 30 min under ultrahigh vacuum while depositing a layer of Si (1 nm). The remaining traps in the n-Si layer were hole traps located at 0.65 eV (H1) and 0.38 eV (H2) above the valence band edge. Their densities were as low as 1010 cm-3. Following pretreatment, the current versus voltage characteristics of the p-BaSi2/n-Si solar cells under AM1.5 illumination were reproducible with conversion efficiencies beyond 5% when using a p-BaSi2 layer thickness of 100 nm. The origin of the H2 level is discussed.

  11. Effects of Si content on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changjie; Hu, Shuilian; Jiang, Yuanfei; Wu, Namei; Li, Mingsheng; Xin, Li; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui

    2014-11-01

    TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings of various Si content (0-5.09 at.%) were deposited on AISI-304 stainless steel by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of these coatings were systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), nanoindentation tester, a home-made indentation system, a scratch tester and a wear tester. Results indicated that with increasing Si content in these coatings, a reduction of grain size and surface roughness, a transformation of the (1 1 1) preferred orientation was detected by XRD and FESEM. Furthermore the hardness of these coatings increase from 9.672 GPa to 18.628 GPa, and the elastic modulus reveal the rising trend that increase from 224.654 GPa to 251.933 GPa. However, the elastic modulus of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content dropped rapidly and changed to about 180.775 GPa. The H3/E2 ratio is proportional to the film resistance to plastic deformation. The H3/E2 ratio of the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content possess of the maximum of 0.11 GPa, and the indentation test indicate that few and fine cracks were observed from its indentation morphologies. The growth pattern of cracks is mainly bending growing. The present results show that the best toughness is obtained for TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content. In addition, the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content also has good adhesion property and superior wear resistance, and the wear mechanism is mainly adhesion wear.

  12. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Shul'ga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  13. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, N.F., E-mail: shulga@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine); Shulga, S.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-10

    Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  14. Ultrathin microwave absorber based on metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y J; Yoo, Y J; Hwang, J S; Lee, Y P

    2016-01-01

    We suggest that ultrathin broadband metamaterial is a perfect absorber in the microwave regime by utilizing the properties of a resistive sheet and metamaterial. Meta-atoms are composed of four-leaf clover-shape metallic patterns and a metal plane separated by three intermediate resistive sheet layers between four dielectric layers. We interpret the absorption mechanism of the broadband by using the distribution of surface currents at specific frequencies. The simulated absorption was over 99% in 1.8–4.2 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption was also over 99% in 2.62–4.2 GHz; however, the absorption was slightly lower than 99% in 1.8–2.62 GHz because of the sheet resistance and the changed values for the dielectric constant. Furthermore, it is independent of incident angle. The results of this research indicate the possibility of applications, due to the suppression of noxious exposure, in cell phones, computers and microwave equipments. (paper)

  15. A Broadband Ultrathin Nonlinear Switching Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zarnousheh Farahani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ultrathin planar nonlinear metamaterial slab is designed and simulated. Nonlinearity is provided through placing diodes in each metamaterial unit cell. The diodes are auto-biased and activated by an incident wave. The proposed structure represents a broadband switching property between two transmission and reflection states depending on the intensity of the incident wave. High permittivity values are presented creating a near zero effective impedance at low power states, around the second resonant mode of the structure unit cell; as the result, the incident wave is reflected. Increasing the incident power to the level which can activate the loaded diodes in the structure results in elimination of the resonance and consequently a drop in the permittivity values near the permeability one as well as a switch to the transmission state. A full wave as well as a nonlinear simulations are performed. An optimization method based on weed colonization is applied to the unit cell of the metamaterial slab to achieve the maximum switching bandwidth. The structure represents a 24% switching bandwidth of a 10 dB reduction in the reflection coefficient.

  16. Layer-by-layer assembled heteroatom-doped graphene films with ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and rate capability for micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Parvez, Khaled; Winter, Andreas; Vieker, Henning; Liu, Xianjie; Han, Sheng; Turchanin, Andrey; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-07-09

    Highly uniform, ultrathin, layer-by-layer heteroatom (N, B) co-doped graphene films are fabricated for high-performance on-chip planar micro-supercapacitors with an ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of ∼488 F cm(-3) and excellent rate capability due to the synergistic effect of nitrogen and boron co-doping. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of Schottky and MgO-based tunnelling diodes with different ferromagnets for spin injection in n-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrmann, T; Dimopoulos, T; Brueckl, H; Kovacs, A; Kohn, A; Weyers, S; Paschen, U; Smoliner, J

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present the electrical properties of sputter-deposited ferromagnetic (FM) Schottky diodes and MgO-based tunnelling diodes to n-doped (0 0 1) silicon. The effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) has been evaluated as a function of the FM electrode (Co 70 Fe 30 , Co 40 Fe 40 B 20 and Ni 80 Fe 20 ), the silicon doping density (10 15 to 10 18 cm -3 ), the MgO tunnelling barrier thickness (0, 1.5 and 2.5 nm) and post-deposition annealing up to 400 0 C. The ideality factors of the Schottky diodes are close to unity, indicating transport by thermionic emission and the absence of an interfacial oxide layer, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The effective SBH is found to be approximately 0.65 eV, independent of the FM material and decreasing with increasing doping density. The changes induced by high temperature annealing at the current-voltage characteristic of the Schottky diodes depend strongly on the FM electrode. The effective SBH for the tunnelling diodes is as low as 0.3 eV, which suggests a high density of oxide and interface traps. It is again independent of the FM electrode, decreasing with increasing doping density and annealing temperature. The inclusion of MgO leads to higher thermal stability of the tunnelling diodes. The measured contact resistance values are discussed with respect to the conductivity mismatch for spin injection and detection.

  18. Low-temperature processed ultrathin TiO2 for efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaokun; Hu, Ziyang; Xu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Yuejin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ultrathin and discrete TiO 2 (u-TiO 2 ) was fabricated at low temperature. • High-performance perovskite solar cells based u-TiO 2 was realized. • u-TiO 2 between perovskite and FTO functions as a bridge for electron transport. • u-TiO 2 accelerates electron transfer and alleviates charge recombination. - Abstract: A compact TiO 2 (c-TiO 2 ) layer fabricated by spin coating or spray pyrolysis following a high-temperature sintering is a routine in high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Here, we demonstrate an effective low-temperature approach to fabricate an ultrathin and discrete TiO 2 (u-TiO 2 ) for enhancing photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. Via hydrolysis of low-concentration TiCl 4 solution at 70 °C, u-TiO 2 was grown on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate, forming the electron selective contact with the photoactive CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 film. The perovskite solar cell using u-TiO 2 achieves an efficiency of 13.42%, which is compared to 13.56% of the device using c-TiO 2 prepared by high-temperature sintering. Cyclic voltammetry, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy and electrical impedance spectroscopy were conducted to study interface engineering and charge carrier dynamics. Our results suggest that u-TiO 2 functions as a bridge for electron transport between perovskite and FTO, which accelerates electron transfer and alleviates charge recombination.

  19. Novel attributes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/SiC HEMTs with the multiple indented channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Ghaffari, Majid

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a high performance AlGaN/AlN/GaN/SiC High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) with the multiple indented channel (MIC-HEMT) is proposed. The main focus of the proposed structure is based on reduction of the space around the gate, stop of the spread of the depletion region around the source-drain, and decrement of the thickness of the channel between the gate and drain. Therefore, the breakdown voltage increases, meanwhile the elimination of the gate depletion layer extension to source/drain decreases the gate-source and gate-drain capacitances. The optimized results reveal that the breakdown voltage and the drain saturation current increase about 178% and 46% compared with a conventional HEMT (C-HEMT), respectively. Therefore, the maximum output power density is improved by factor 4.1 in comparison with conventional one. Also, the cut-off frequency of 25.2 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency of 92.1 GHz for the MIC-HEMT are obtained compared to 13 GHz and 43 GHz for that of the C-HEMT and the minimum figure noise decreased consequently of reducing the gate-drain and gate-source capacitances by about 42% and 40%, respectively. The proposed MIC-HEMT shows a maximum stable gain (MSG) exceeding 24.1 dB at 3.1 GHz which the greatest gain is yet reported for HEMTs, showing the potential of this device for high power RF applications.

  20. Impedance spectroscopy of p-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si nano-HJD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, S.S. [Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Sakr, G.B. [Nano-Science Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Nano-Science Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Semiconductor Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Basset, D.M. [Nano-Science Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2013-04-15

    The dielectric relaxation and alternating current mechanisms of nano-crystalline p-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si heterojunction diode (HJD) were investigated by complex impedance spectroscopy over a wide range of temperature (297–473 K) and a frequency range (42 Hz–5 MHz). The bulk resistance R{sub b} as well as the bulk capacitance C{sub b} were found to increase with increasing temperature. The dc conductivity exhibits a typical Arrhenius behavior. The electrical activation energy ΔE{sub σ} was determined to be (0.28 eV). The ac conductivity spectrum was found to obey Jonscher's universal power law. The frequency exponent s decreases slightly with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of ac conductivity can be reasonably interpreted in terms of the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The dielectric constant ε{sub 1}(ω) and dielectric loss ε{sub 2}(ω) were found to decrease with increasing frequency and to increase with increasing temperature. The mean value of the exponent m decreases with increasing temperature. The dielectric analysis is described by non-Debye type behavior.

  1. High Performance of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Solar Cells Based on Textured Surface with AgNWs Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jilei; Li, Gaofei; Fang, Xiaohong; Yang, Liyou; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have gained extensive research and attention due to simple device structure and low-cost technological processes. Here, HHSCs are presented based on a highly transparent conductive polymer poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) directly spin-coated on an n-type crystalline silicon with microscale surface textures, which are prepared by traditional chemical etching. We have studied interface properties between PEDOT:PSS and textured n-Si by varying coating conditions. Final power conversion efficiency (PCE) could arrive at 8.54% by these simple solution-based fabrication processes. The high conversion efficiency is attributed to the fully conformal contact between PEDOT:PSS film and textured silicon. Furthermore, the reflectance of the PEDOT:PSS layer on textured surface is analyzed by changing film thickness. In order to improve the performance of the device, silver nanowires were employed as electrodes because of its better optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. The highest PCE of 11.07% was achieved which displayed a 29.6% enhancement compared with traditional silver electrodes. These findings imply that the combination of PEDOT:PSS film and silver nanowire transparent electrodes pave a promising way for realizing high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells.

  2. GaN epilayers on nanopatterned GaN/Si(1 1 1) templates: Structural and optical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.S.; Tripathy, S.; Wang, B.Z.; Chua, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Template-based nanoscale epitaxy has been explored to realize high-quality GaN on Si(1 1 1) substrates. We have employed polystyrene-based nanosphere lithography to form the nano-hole array patterns on GaN/Si(1 1 1) template and then, subsequent regrowth of GaN is carried out by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). During the initial growth stage of GaN on such nanopatterned substrates, we have observed formation of nanoislands with hexagonal pyramid shape due to selective area epitaxy. With further epitaxial regrowth, these nanoislands coalesce and form continuous GaN film. The overgrown GaN on patterned and non-patterned regions is characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high-spatial resolution optical spectroscopic methods. Micro-photoluminescence (PL), micro-Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to assess the microstructural and optical properties of GaN. Combined PL and Raman data analyses show improved optical quality when compared to GaN simultaneously grown on non-patterned bulk Si(1 1 1). Such thicker GaN templates would be useful to achieve III-nitride-based opto- and electronic devices integrated on Si substrates

  3. Ultrathin and stable Nickel films as transparent conductive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Di Sarcina, I. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Bossi, S. [ENEA, Robotics Laboratory, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa (Italy); Rinaldi, A.; Pilloni, L.; Piegari, A. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2015-11-02

    Ultrathin stable transparent conductive nickel films were deposited on quartz substrates by radio frequency sputtering at room temperature. Such films showed visible transmittance up to 80% and conductivity up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm, further increased to 2,3 × 10{sup 5} S/cm by incorporation of a micrometric silver grid. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed quite compact, smooth and low surface roughness films. Excellent film stability, ease, fast and low cost process fabrication make these films highly competitive compared to indium tin oxide alternative transparent conductors. Films were characterized regarding their morphological, optical and electrical properties. - Highlights: • Indium-free transparent conductors are proposed. • Ultrathin Ni films are fabricated with a very fast process at room temperature. • Films have conductivity values up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm. • Ni ultrathin films are good candidates for UV and NIR optoelectronic applications.

  4. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2011-01-01

    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  5. XPS study of the ultrathin a-C:H films deposited onto ion beam nitrided AISI 316 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskinis, S.; Andrulevicius, M.; Kopustinskas, V.; Tamulevicius, S.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the steel surface treatment by nitrogen ion beam and subsequent deposition of the diamond-like carbon (hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and nitrogen doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-CN x :H)) films were investigated by means of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Experimental results show that nitrogen ion beam treatment of the AISI 316 steel surface even at room temperature results in the formation of the Cr and Fe nitrides. Replacement of the respective metal oxides by the nitrides takes place. Formation of the C-N bonds was observed for both ultrathin a-C:H and ultrathin a-CN x :H layers deposited onto the nitrided steel. Some Fe and/or Cr nitrides still were presented at the interface after the film deposition, too. Increased adhesion between the steel substrate and hydrogenated amorphous carbon layer after the ion beam nitridation was explained by three main factors. The first two is steel surface deoxidisation/passivation by nitrogen as a result of the ion beam treatment. The third one is carbon nitride formation at the nitrided steel-hydrogenated amorphous carbon (or a-CN x :H) film interface

  6. Efficient Inorganic Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with Polyethylene Glycol Passivated Ultrathin CsPbBr3 Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Guo, Xiaoyang; Hu, Yongsheng; Lv, Ying; Lin, Jie; Liu, Zheqin; Fan, Yi; Liu, Xingyuan

    2017-09-07

    Efficient inorganic perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) with an ultrathin perovskite emission layer (∼30 nm) were realized by doping Lewis base polyethylene glycol (PEG) into CsPbBr 3 films. PEG in the perovskite films not only physically fills the crystal boundaries but also interacts with the perovskite crystals to passivate the crystal grains, reduce nonradiative recombination, and ensure efficient luminance and high efficiency. As a result, promoted brightness, current efficiency (CE), and external quantum efficiency (EQE) were achieved. The nonradiative decay rate of the PEG:CsPbBr 3 composite film is 1 order of magnitude less than that of the neat CsPbBr 3 film. After further optimization of the molar ratio between CsBr and PbBr 2 , a peak CE of 19 cd/A, a maximum EQE of 5.34%, and a maximum brightness of 36600 cd/m 2 were achieved, demonstrating the interaction between PEG and the precursors. The results are expected to offer some helpful implications in optimizing the polymer-assisted PeLEDs with ultrathin emission layers, which might have potential application in see-through displays.

  7. Gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisma, H J; de Hon, O

    2006-04-01

    Together with the rapidly increasing knowledge on genetic therapies as a promising new branch of regular medicine, the issue has arisen whether these techniques might be abused in the field of sports. Previous experiences have shown that drugs that are still in the experimental phases of research may find their way into the athletic world. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have expressed concerns about this possibility. As a result, the method of gene doping has been included in the list of prohibited classes of substances and prohibited methods. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge gained in the field of genetic therapies may be misused in elite sports. Many genes are readily available which may potentially have an effect on athletic performance. The sporting world will eventually be faced with the phenomena of gene doping to improve athletic performance. A combination of developing detection methods based on gene arrays or proteomics and a clear education program on the associated risks seems to be the most promising preventive method to counteract the possible application of gene doping.

  8. Capacitance and conductance characterization of nano-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, S.S. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Sakr, G.B. [Nano-Science Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: isyahia@gmail.com [Nano-Science Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Semiconductor Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Basset, D.M. [Nano-Science Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • XRD and DTA micrographs were used to study the structure of ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. • C–V, G–V and R{sub s}–V of the diode characteristics have been analyzed for the first time. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss, loss tangent and ac conductivity were determined. • The interfaces states were determined using conductance–voltage technique. • ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} is a good candidate for electronic device applications. - Abstract: Capacitance–voltage (C–V) and conductance–voltage (G–V) characteristics of p-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si HJD were studied over a wide frequency and temperature. Both the interface states density N{sub ss} and series resistance R{sub s} were strongly frequency and temperature dependent. The interface states density N{sub ss} is decreased with increasing frequency and increase with increasing temperature. The values of the built-in potential (V{sub bi}) were calculated and found to increase with increasing temperature and frequency. The values of capacitance C, conductance G, series resistance R{sub s}, corrected capacitance C{sub ADJ}, corrected conductance G{sub ADJ}, dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε″), loss tangent (tan δ) and the AC conductivity (σ{sub ac}) are strongly dependent on the applied frequency, voltage and temperature. The obtained results show that the locations of N{sub ss} and R{sub s} have a significant effect on the electrical characteristics of the studied diode.

  9. Structure of multilayered Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} nanocomposite coatings fabricated by differential pumping co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [JEOL USA Inc., 11 Dearborn Road, Peabody, Massachusetts 01960 (United States); Nose, Masateru [Faculty of Art and Design, University of Toyama, 180 Futagami-machi, Takaoka 933-8588 (Japan); Onishi, Ichiro [JEOL Ltd. 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Shiojiri, Makoto [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2013-11-11

    A Cr(Al)N/38 vol. % SiO{sub x} hard coating was prepared on a (001) Si substrate at 250 °C in a differential pumping co-sputtering system, which has two chambers for radio frequency (RF) sputtering and a substrate holder rotating on the chambers. The composite coating was grown by alternate sputter-depositions from CrAl and SiO{sub 2} targets with flows of N{sub 2}+Ar and Ar at RF powers of 200 and 75 W, respectively, on transition layers grown on the substrate. Analytical electron microscopy reveled that the Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} coating had a multilayered structure of Cr(Al)N crystal layers ∼1.6 nm thick and two-dimensionally dispersed amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}) particles with sizes of ∼1 nm or less. The a-SiO{sub x} particles were enclosed with the Cr(Al)N layers. The coating had a low indentation hardness of ∼25 GPa at room temperature, due to a high oxide fraction of 38 vol. % and a low substrate rotational speed of 1 rpm. Faster rotation and lower oxide fraction would make a-SiO{sub x} particles smaller, resulting in the formation of Cr(Al)N crystal including the very fine a-SiO{sub x} particles with small number density. They would work as obstacles for the lattice deformation of the Cr(Al)N crystals. We have fabricated a superhard coating of Cr(Al)N/17 vol. % SiO{sub x} with a hardness of 46 GPa prepared at 12 rpm.

  10. Dosimetric and thermoluminescent characteristics of sintered samples based on Li{sub 2}OAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}nSiO{sub 2} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogollo P, R.; Salcedo Q, J. [Universidad de Cordoba, Materials and Applied Physics Group, Carrera 6 No. 76-103, Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia); Gutierrez F, O., E-mail: rafaelcogollo@correo.unicordoba.edu.co [Metropolitan Technological Institute, Alquimia Group, Calle 54 No. 30-01, Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-10-01

    This work describes the thermoluminescent (Tl) characteristics of lithium aluminosilicates, Li{sub 2}OAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}nSiO{sub 2}, for its possible use as Tl dosimeter for low doses. The sinterized tablets of Li{sub 2}OAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}nSiO{sub 2} were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and irradiated at different doses using a Theratron 780 C-{sup 60}Co unit in air at room temperature. The Rasheedy's technique was used for the kinetic trap parameters determination. The XRD results show a mixture of two phases of 64% {beta}-spodumene and 36% {beta}-eucryptite in the sinterized tablets. Tl analysis indicates that in these systems, recombination processes prevail, and that these systems can be used successfully as Tl dosimeters for therapeutic dose ranges. (Author)

  11. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Gordon Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Rd., Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wheeler, J. M. [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J. [Gordon Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Rd., Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Zeng, X. T. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2016-01-14

    CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries.

  12. Appearance and disappearance of ferromagnetism in ultrathin LaMnO3 on SrTiO3 substrate: A viewpoint from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming; Weng, Yakui; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Shuai

    2017-12-01

    The intrinsic magnetic state (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic) of ultrathin LaMnO3 films on the most commonly used SrTiO3 substrate is a long-existing question under debate. Either strain effect or nonstoichiometry was argued to be responsible for the experimental ferromagnetism. In a recent experiment [X. R. Wang, C. J. Li, W. M. Lü, T. R. Paudel, D. P. Leusink, M. Hoek, N. Poccia, A. Vailionis, T. Venkatesan, J. M. D. Coey, E. Y. Tsymbal, Ariando, and H. Hilgenkamp, Science 349, 716 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa5198], one more mechanism, namely, the self-doping due to polar discontinuity, was argued to be the driving force of ferromagnetism beyond the critical thickness. Here systematic first-principles calculations have been performed to check these mechanisms in ultrathin LaMnO3 films as well as superlattices. Starting from the very precise descriptions of both LaMnO3 and SrTiO3, it is found that the compressive strain is the dominant force for the appearance of ferromagnetism, while the open surface with oxygen vacancies leads to the suppression of ferromagnetism. Within LaMnO3 layers, the charge reconstructions involve many competitive factors and certainly go beyond the intuitive polar catastrophe model established for LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Our paper not only explains the long-term puzzle regarding the magnetism of ultrathin LaMnO3 films but also sheds light on how to overcome the notorious magnetic dead layer in ultrathin manganites.

  13. A route to ultrathin quantum gases at polar perovskite heterointerfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    that is confined to an ultrathin slab of only 5.6 Å thickness. Electronegative cations therefore are a promising way to enhance the quantum nature of hole gases. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dynamic response of ultrathin highly dense ZIF-8 nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookney, Joanna; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Hrabanek, Pavel; Vankelecom, Ivo; Fila, Vlastimil; Benes, Nieck E

    2014-10-11

    Ultrathin ZIF-8 nanofilms are prepared by facile step-by-step dip coating. A critical withdrawal speed allows for films with a very uniform minimum thickness. The high refractive index of the films denotes the absence of mesopores. The dynamic response of the films to CO2 exposure resembles behaviour observed for non-equilibrium organic polymers.

  15. Dynamic response of ultrathin highly dense ZIF-8 nanofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Cookney, J.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Hrabanek, P.; Vankelecom, I.; Fila, V.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin ZIF-8 nanofilms are prepared by facile step-by-step dip coating. A critical withdrawal speed allows for films with a very uniform minimum thickness. The high refractive index of the films denotes the absence of mesopores. The dynamic response of the films to CO2 exposure resembles behaviour observed for nonequilibrium organic polymers.

  16. Dynamic response of ultrathin highly dense ZIF-8 nanofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cookney, J.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Hrabanek, P.; Vankelecom, I.; Fila, V.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin ZIF-8 nanofilms are prepared by facile step-by-step dip coating. A critical withdrawal speed allows for films with a very uniform minimum thickness. The high refractive index of the films denotes the absence of mesopores. The dynamic response of the films to CO2 exposure resembles

  17. Ultra-thin zirconia films on Zr-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joong Il Jake; Mayr-Schmoelzer, Wernfried; Mittendorfer, Florian; Redinger, Josef; Diebold, Ulrike; Schmid, Michael [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Li, Hao; Rupprechter, Guenther [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Zirconia ultra-thin films have been prepared by oxidation of Pt{sub 3}Zr(0001) and showed a structure equivalent to (111) of cubic zirconia. Following previous work, we have prepared ultra-thin zirconia by oxidation of a different alloy, Pd{sub 3}Zr(0001), which resulted in a similar structure with a slightly different lattice parameter, 351.2 ±0.4 pm. Unlike the oxide on Pt{sub 3}Zr, where Zr of the oxide binds to Pt in the substrate, here the oxide binds to substrate Zr via oxygen. This causes stronger distortion of the oxide structure, i.e. a stronger buckling of Zr in the oxide. After additional oxidation of ZrO{sub 2}/Pt{sub 3}Zr, a different ultra-thin zirconia phase is observed. A preliminary structure model for this film is based on (113)-oriented cubic zirconia. 3D oxide clusters are also present after growing ultra-thin zirconia films. They occur at the step edges, and the density is higher on Pd{sub 3}Zr. These clusters also appear on terraces after additional oxidation. XPS reveals different core level shifts of the oxide films, bulk, and oxide clusters.

  18. Dynamic response of ultrathin highly dense ZIF-8 nanofilms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cookney, J.; Ogieglo, W.; Hrabánek, Pavel; Vankelecom, I.; Fíla, V.; Benes, N. E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 11698-11700 ISSN 1359-7345 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ultrathin FIF-8 nanofilms * metal-organic frameworks * zeolitic imidazolate frameworks Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.834, year: 2014

  19. Ultra-Thin Coatings Beautify Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The craftsmen in the Roman Empire who constructed the Lycurgus Cup 17 centuries ago probably didn't think their artifact would survive for nearly 2,000 years as a prized possession. And they certainly couldn't have known that the technology they used to make it would eventually become an important part of space exploration. Carved from one solid mass, the cup is one of the few complete glass objects from that period, and the only one made from dichroic glass. Meaning "two-colored" in Greek, dichroic glass was originally created by adding trace amounts of gold and silver to a large volume of glass melt. The resulting medium partially reflects the light passing through it, causing an observer to see different colors depending on the direction of the light source. The Lycurgus Cup, for example, is famous for appearing green in daylight and red when lit at night, symbolic of the ripening grapes used to fill it with wine. NASA revitalized the production of dichroic glass in the 1950s and 1960s as a means of protecting its astronauts. Ordinary clear substances cannot protect human vision from the harsh rays of unfiltered sunlight, and everything from the human body to spacecraft sensors and computers are at risk if left unprotected from the radiation that permeates space. The microscopic amounts of metal present in dichroic glass make it an effective barrier against such harmful radiation. While the ancient manufacturing technique called for adding metals to glass melt, NASA developed a process in which metals are vaporized by electron beams in a vacuum chamber and then applied directly to surfaces in an ultra-thin film. The vapor condenses in the form of crystal structures, and the process is repeated for up to several dozen coatings. The resulting material, still only about 30 millionths of an inch thick, is sufficient to reflect radiation even while the glass, or polycarbonate, as in the case of space suit helmets, remains transparent to the human eye.

  20. Direct peroral cholangioscopy using an ultrathin endoscope: making technique easier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sola-Vera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholangioscopy is a useful tool for the study and treatment of biliary pathology. Ultrathin upper endoscopes allow direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPC but have some drawbacks. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the success rate of DPC with an ultrathin endoscope using a balloon catheter to reach the biliary confluence. Material and methods: Prospective observational study. An ultrathin endoscope (Olympus XP180N, outer diameter 5.5 mm, working channel 2 mm was used. To access the biliary tree, free-hand technique was used. To reach the biliary confluence an intraductal balloon catheter (Olympus B5-2Q diameter 1.9 mm and a 0.025 inch guide wire was used. In all cases sphincterotomy and/or sphincteroplasty was performed. The success rate was defined as the percentage of cases in which the biliary confluence could be reached with the ultrathin endoscope. Results: Fifteen patients (8 men/7 women were included. Mean age was 77.7 ± 10.8 years (range 45-91. The indications for cholangioscopy were suspected bile duct stones (n = 9, electrohydraulic lithotripsy for the treatment of difficult choledocholithiasis (n = 5 and evaluation of biliary stricture (n = 1. Access to the bile duct was achieved in 14/15 cases (93.3 %. Biliary confluence was reached in 13/15 cases (86.7 %. One complication was observed in one patient (oxigen desaturation. Conclusions: DPC with an ultrathin endoscope can be done with the free-hand technique. Intraductal balloon-guided DPC allows full examination of the common bile duct in most cases.

  1. Ultra-thin Oxide Membranes: Synthesis and Carrier Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Sung

    Self-supported freestanding membranes are films that are devoid of any underlying supporting layers. The key advantage of such structures is that, due to the lack of substrate effects - both mechanical and chemical, the true native properties of the material can be probed. This is crucial since many of the studies done on materials that are used as freestanding membranes are done as films clamped to substrates or in the bulk form. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and fabrication as well as electrical studies of free standing ultrathin controllable thin film deposition process. Taking things a step further, to electrically probe these membranes required design of complex device architecture and extensive optimization of nano-fabrication processes. The challenges and optimized fabrication method of such membranes are demonstrated. Three materials are probed in this study, VO2, TiO2, and CeO2. VO2 for understanding structural considerations for electronic phase change and nature of ionic liquid gating, TiO2 and CeO2 for understanding surface conduction properties and surface chemistry. The VO2 study shows shift in metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature arising from stress relaxation and opening of the hysteresis. The ionic liquid gating studies showed reversible modulation of channel resistance and allowed distinguishing bulk process from the surface effects. Comparing the ionic liquid gating experiments to hydrogen doping experiments illustrated that ionic liquid gating can be a surface limited electrostatic effect, if the critical voltage threshold is not exceeded. TiO2 study shows creation of non-stoichiometric forms under ion milling. Utilizing focused ion beam milling, thin membranes of Ti xOy of 100-300 nm thickness have been created. TEM studies indicated polycrystallinity and presence of twins in the FIB-milled nanowalls. Compositional analysis in the transmission electron microscope also showed reduced content of oxygen, confirming non

  2. Efecto del dopado con Si sobre la estructura de defectos en sistemas heteroepitaxiales GaN/AlN/Si(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, A. M.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The Si doping effect on the defect structure in GaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111 substrates using AlN buffer layers has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy and related techniques have been used to carry out the structural characterization. The Si doping affects both the subgrain size and misorientation in GaN epilayer mosaic structure. The Si doping also leads to an increase of the planar defect density, as well as a decrease of the threading dislocation density. The enlargement of the subgrain tilt and the planar defect density explain the reduction of the dislocation density reaching the GaN free surface.

    En el presente artículo se lleva a cabo el análisis del efecto que el dopado con Si tiene sobre la estructura de defectos en epicapas de GaN crecidas por epitaxia de haces moleculares sobre sustratos de Si (111 utilizando capas amortiguadoras de AlN. La caracterización estructural se llevó a cabo mediante microscopía electrónica de transmisión convencional y de alta resolución. El dopado con Si afecta a la desorientación y tamaño de los subgranos que constituyen la estructura mosaico de la epicapa de GaN. El dopado con Si provoca un aumento en la densidad de defectos planares, así como una disminución en la densidad de dislocaciones de propagación. El incremento en el grado de desorientación de inclinación, así como en la densidad de defectos planares que se produce conforme aumenta el dopado con Si explican la disminución en la densidad de dislocaciones que alcanzan la superficie libre de GaN.

  3. The strain effect in the surface barrier structures prepared on the basis of n-Si and p-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatkarimov, O.O.; Tuychiev, U.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the ways of creation of large deformations in small volume of the semiconductor is the deformation created by a needle. At insignificant change of external influence the large deformation under a needle in small volume of the semiconductor the significant change of electrophysical parameters of the semiconductor in small volume is created. Therefore, in the present work the results of researches of local pressure influence on physical properties of surface barrier structures has been performed on the basis of silicon with Ni and Mn impurity. The relative changes of a direct current made on the basis n-Si and p-Si from a different degree of compensation are given depending on size of local pressure are shown. Change of current in structures Au-Si -Sb with specific resistance of base ρ=80 Ω·cm and ρ=200 Ω·cm are I p /I 0 =3-3.5 times and I P /I ) =2-2.5 times at pressure P=1.6·10 8 Pa respectively. These data show, that in structures received on the basis of initial silicon, change of a direct current with pressure is in inverse proportion to size of resistance of base of the diode. And in structures Au-Si -Sb with specific resistance of base ρ=5·10 2 Ω·cm and ρ=3·10 3 Ω·cm these changes accordingly are I P /I 0 =7 and I P /I 0 =14. Changes of direct current relative to initial value for structures on the basis p-Si with specific resistance ρ=7·10 2 Ω·cm and ρ=4·10 3 Ω·cm) are I P /I 0 =9 and I P /I 0 =16 respectively. The same changes of direct current of structures on the basis P-Si at local pressure are I P /I 0 =2-2.5. The given values I P /I 0 testify that as in structures Au-Si -Sb, and structures Sb-p-Si -Au, unlike structures on the basis of initial silicon, the values I P /I 0 are increased with increase of specific resistance of base of structures

  4. Temperature dependence of dark current of pSi-n(Si2)1-x(CdS)x structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmonov, Sh.N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The research of influence of isovalent impurity on electric and photo-electric properties of semiconductors where formative with semiconductor continuous solid solutions (CSS) of substitution presents both the fundamental and the applied application interest at the area of material science and photoelectrical properties of semiconductors. In the given work results of experimental researches (Si 2 ) 1-x (CdS) x epitaxial layers grown on c-Si substrates by a method liquid phase epitaxy are presented. The grown layers had thickness and ∼ 10 micron, n-type of conductivity with specific resistance 0,016 Ohm sm. Dependences of the dark current of pSi-n(Si 2 ) 1-x (CdS) x structures have been investigated at various values of a bias voltage. In experiment it was observed anomaly dependence of current. The current with arising of temperature begun monotonously aroused and reached some minimal value at temperature 100 C and then again starts to arise up to temperature 200 C. Arising of dark current is caused of the band-to-band thermal generation of electron-hole pairs. The voltage drop at the temperature 100 C is caused by the recharging of impurity atoms CdS. It is known, that width of the forbidden band of CdS Eg,CdS=2,48 eV more than Eg,Si=1,1 eV. Covalent bond of atoms CdS is stronger than Si-Si bond. However, when the molecule of CdS replaces two atoms of silicon in tetrahedral lattice of silicon the bonds of Cd-S become weak under influence of surrounding atoms of silicon. It causes to occurrence impurity level CdS located on Ei=1,2 eV below a valence band top of silicon. The generation of electron-hole pairs with participation of CdS impurities at the 100 C temperature is occurred under action thermal phonons. However, holes formed on impurity levels are localized and they will be recombination centers. Therefore drop of the dark current caused by dispersion of carriers on impurity centers. (authors)

  5. Flexible Mixed-Potential-Type (MPT) NO₂ Sensor Based on An Ultra-Thin Ceramic Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Rui; Jing, Gaoshan; Yu, Hongyan; Cui, Tianhong

    2017-07-29

    A novel flexible mixed-potential-type (MPT) sensor was designed and fabricated for NO₂ detection from 0 to 500 ppm at 200 °C. An ultra-thin Y₂O₃-doped ZrO₂ (YSZ) ceramic film 20 µm thick was sandwiched between a heating electrode and reference/sensing electrodes. The heating electrode was fabricated by a conventional lift-off process, while the porous reference and the sensing electrodes were fabricated by a two-step patterning method using shadow masks. The sensor's sensitivity is achieved as 58.4 mV/decade at the working temperature of 200 °C, as well as a detection limit of 26.7 ppm and small response time of less than 10 s at 200 ppm. Additionally, the flexible MPT sensor demonstrates superior mechanical stability after bending over 50 times due to the mechanical stability of the YSZ ceramic film. This simply structured, but highly reliable flexible MPT NO₂ sensor may lead to wide application in the automobile industry for vehicle emission systems to reduce NO₂ emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

  6. Transparent and Flexible Capacitors with an Ultrathin Structure by Using Graphene as Bottom Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin, transparent and flexible capacitors using graphene as the bottom electrodes were directly fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN substrates. ZrO2 dielectric films were deposited on the treated surface of graphene by atomic layer deposition (ALD. The deposition process did not introduce any detectible defects in the graphene, as indicated by Raman measurements, guaranteeing the electrical performances of the graphene electrodes. The Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO films were prepared as the top electrodes using the ALD technique. The capacitors presented a high capacitance density (10.3 fF/μm2 at 10 kHz and a relatively low leakage current (5.3 × 10−6 A/cm2 at 1 V. Bending tests revealed that the capacitors were able to work normally at an outward bending radius of 10 mm without any deterioration of electrical properties. The capacitors exhibited an average optical transmittance of close to 70% at visible wavelengths. Thus, it opens the door to practical applications in transparent integrated circuits.

  7. Electronic properties of p-GaAs deposited on n-Si with pulsed-laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, B; Erlacher, A; Smith, H E; Mitchel, W C; Brown, G J

    2008-01-01

    By means of nanosecond laser pulses at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, p(Zn)-type GaAs was ablated and deposited on n-type Si. The samples showed rectification and Hall measurements established that the deposited material was p-type, but the active-doping concentration was six orders of magnitude below the target value. Because secondary-ion mass spectroscopy results indicated stoichiometric material transfer, we concluded that most of the Zn atoms do not act as acceptors because of the amorphous film texture. The work further showed indications that pulsed-laser deposition at 355 nm causes enhanced Si diffusion into the deposited film, compared to the ablations done at 532 and 1064 nm

  8. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaria, M; Caricato, A P; Martino, M

    2012-01-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film–substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film–substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films. (paper)

  9. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  10. Refractive-Index Sensing with Ultrathin Plasmonic Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    We study the refractive-index sensing properties of plasmonic nanotubes with a dielectric core and ultrathin metal shell. The few nanometer thin metal shell is described by both the usual Drude model and the nonlocal hydrodynamic model to investigate the effects of nonlocality. We derive an analy......We study the refractive-index sensing properties of plasmonic nanotubes with a dielectric core and ultrathin metal shell. The few nanometer thin metal shell is described by both the usual Drude model and the nonlocal hydrodynamic model to investigate the effects of nonlocality. We derive...... an analytical expression for the extinction cross section and show how sensing of the refractive index of the surrounding medium and the figure of merit are affected by the shape and size of the nanotubes. Comparison with other localized surface plasmon resonance sensors reveals that the nanotube exhibits...

  11. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Jonathan D.; Walper, Scott A.; Melde, Brian J.; Daniele, Michael A.; Stenger, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L-1.

  12. Surface plasmon—polaritons on ultrathin metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Jun; Zhang Jun; Shao Le-Xi; Tian Ying

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the surface plasmon—polaritons used for ultrathin metal films with the aid of linear response theory and make comparisons with the known result given by Economou E N. In this paper we consider transverse electromagnetic fields and assume that the electromagnetic field in the linear response formula is the induced field due to the current of the electrons. It satisfies the Maxwell equation and thus we replace the current (charge) term in the Maxwell equation with the linear response expectation value. Finally, taking the external field to be zero, we obtain the dispersion relation of the surface plasmons from the eigenvalue equation. In addition, the charge-density and current-density in the z direction on the surface of ultrathin metal films are also calculated. The results may be helpful to the fundamental understanding of the complex phenomenon of surface plasmon-polaritons. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin disordered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the understanding of two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin, disordered thin films is reviewed. The different consequences of microscopic versus macroscopic disorder are stressed. It is shown that microscopic disorder leads to a rapid suppression of the mean-field transition temperature. The consequences of macroscopic disorder are not well understood, but a universal behavior of the zero-bias resistance as a function of field and temperature has been observed. (orig.)

  14. Nearly zero transmission through periodically modulated ultrathin metal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Peng, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Transmission of light through an optically ultrathin metal film with a thickness comparable to its skin depth is significant. We demonstrate experimentally nearly-zero transmission of light through a film periodically modulated by a one-dimensional array of subwavelength slits. The suppressed...... optical transmission is due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons and the zero-transmission phenomenon is strongly dependent on the polarization of the incident wave....

  15. Ultrathin Metallic Coatings Can Induce Quantum Levitation between Nanosurfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Boström, Mathias; Ninham, Barry W.; Brevik, Iver; Persson, Clas; Parsons, Drew F.; Sernelius, Bo E.

    2012-01-01

    There is an attractive Casimir-Lifshitz force between two silica surfaces in a liquid (bromobenze or toluene). We demonstrate that adding an ultrathin (5-50 angstrom) metallic nanocoating to one of the surfaces results in repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces above a critical separation. The onset of such quantum levitation comes at decreasing separations as the film thickness decreases. Remarkably, the effect of retardation can turn attraction into repulsion. From that we explain how an ultrathi...

  16. Ultrathin monomolecular films and robust assemblies based on cyclic catechols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zieger, M. M.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Verveniotis, E.; Preuss, C. M.; Zorn, M.; Reck, B.; Goldmann, A. S.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2017), s. 670-679 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic catechols * ultrathin films * macromolecules monolayers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2016

  17. On the persistence of polar domains in ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zubko, P.; Lu, H.; Bark, C.-W.; Martí, Xavier; Santiso, J.; Eom, C.-B.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 28 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 284001. ISSN 1361-648X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrathin barium titanate * tunnel junctions * ferroelectric domains * polarization screening * retention * negative capacitance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  18. Irradiation effects of 6 MeV electron on electrical properties of Al/Al2O3/n-Si MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, P.; Banerjee, I.; Bajaj, A.; Chakraborty, P.; Barhai, P.K.; Dahiwale, S.S.; Das, A.K.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Kim, D.; Mahapatra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of 6 MeV electron irradiation on the electrical properties of Al/Al 2 O 3 /n-Si metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors has been investigated. Using rf magnetron sputtering deposition technique, Al/Al 2 O 3 /n-Si MOS capacitors were fabricated and such twelve capacitors were divided into four groups. The first group of MOS capacitors was not irradiated with 6 MeV electrons and treated as virgin. The second group, third group and fourth group of MOS capacitors were irradiated with 6 MeV electrons at 10 kGy, 20 kGy, and 30 kGy doses, respectively, keeping the dose rate ∼1 kGy/min. The variations in crystallinity of the virgin and irradiated MOS capacitors have been compared from GIXRD (Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction) spectra. Thickness and in-depth elemental distributions of individual layers were performed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The device parameters like flat band voltage (V FB ) and interface trap density (D it ) of virgin and irradiated MOS capacitors have been calculated from C vs V and G/ω vs V curve, respectively. The electrical properties of the capacitors were investigated from the tan δ vs V graph. The device parameters were estimated using C–V and G/ω–V measurements. Poole–Frenkel coefficient (β PF ) of the MOS capacitors was determined from leakage current (I)–voltage (V) measurement. The leakage current mechanism was proposed from the β PF value. - Highlights: ► The electron irradiation effects make variation in the device parameters. ► The device parameters changes due to percentage of defects and charge trapping. ► Leakage current of Al/Al 2 O 3 /n-Si changes due to interface dangling bonds. ► The leakage current mechanism of MOS structures is due to Poole-Frenkel effect.

  19. Ultrathin TaOx film based photovoltaic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    Application of the economical metal oxide thin-film photovoltaic devices is hindered by the poor energy efficiency. This paper investigates the photovoltaic effect with an ultrathin tantalum oxide (TaOx) tunnel barrier, formed by the plasma oxidation of a pre-deposited tantalum (Ta) film. These ∼ 3 nm TaOx tunnel barriers showed approximately 160 mV open circuit voltage and 3-5% energy efficiency, for varying light intensity. The ultrathin TaOx (∼ 3 nm) could absorb approximately 12% of the incident light radiation in 400-1000 nm wavelength range; this strong light absorbing capability was found to be associated with the dramatically large extinction coefficient. Spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed that the extinction coefficient of 3 nm TaOx was ∼ 0.2, two orders higher than that of tantalum penta oxide (Ta 2 O 5 ). Interestingly, refractive index of this 3 nm thick TaOx was comparable with that of stochiometeric Ta 2 O 5 . However, heating and prolonged high-intensity light exposure deteriorated the photovoltaic effect in TaOx junctions. This study provides the basis to explore the photovoltaic effect in a highly economical and easily processable ultrathin metal oxide tunnel barrier or analogous systems.

  20. A study of the substrate surface chemical states at the interface TiN/Si by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Vinicius Gabriel; Alvarez, Fernando, E-mail: vi.antunes@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Titanium-based thin films are used for a great number of applications, such as hard coating in cutting tools, catalyst diffusion barriers, and in microelectronic devices. Although the understanding of the film adhesion mechanisms onto different substrates continue being a challenge and its atomic bonding properties are not fully understood. Furthermore, as the interface determines many characteristics of the final film by prompting the bulk properties of the grown material, a detailed study of the first atomic layers is an interesting route to gain physical inside on the adhesion properties of the coating. Also, it is important to remark that the presence of residual oxygen in standards deposition chambers is sometime unavoidable and its influence on the films properties is important to be taking in account. In this work the influence of the chemical state of the silicon surface at the interface TiN/Si have been studied. In order to this, a few atomic layers of TiN were deposited on mirror polished c-Si by ion beam deposition (IBD) sputtering of a pure Ti target in a nitrogen atmosphere during 5s (T=350C). In this conditions, a 3Å average thickness, as estimated by the material deposition rate, is obtained. The local electronic structure at the interface TiN/Si was scrutinized by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, 1485.6eV) in a UHV chamber attached to the IBD system, i.e the studied samples are free from atmospheric contamination. The study indicates the presence of Ti-Si, Ti-O, Si-O, Ti-N and Si-N bonds at the TiN/Si interface, where the oxygen stems from the residual chamber pressure. The nano-structuration of the Si substrate surface by noble gas ion bombardment during the pre-cleaning procedure of the substrate and its influence on the bonding structures at the TiN/Si interface will be also presented and discussed. Finally, the oxygen reduction effect obtained by introducing H2 on the interface structure is presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Device Performance and Reliability Improvements of AlGaN/GaN/Si MOSFET Using Defect-Free Gate Recess and Laser Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-15

    of AlGaN/GaN/Si MOSFET Using Defect-Free Gate Recess and Laser Annealing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-11-1-4077 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant AOARD...MOSFET Using Defect-Free Gate Recess and Laser Annealing ”. Under the USAF-Taiwan research program, the partner institution was National Chiao Tung...CHAPTER 1: In Situ Atomic Layer Deposition Half Cycle Study of Al2O3 Growth on AlGaN/GaN - Initial and wet chemical treated AlGaN surfaces were

  2. Highly efficient white organic light-emitting devices consisting of undoped ultrathin yellow phosphorescent layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Ma, Zhu; Zhao, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-02-15

    High-efficiency white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on an undoped ultrathin yellow light-emitting layer and a doped blue light-emitting layer were demonstrated. While the thickness of blue light-emitting layer, formed by doping a charge-trapping phosphor, iridium(III) bis(4 Prime ,6 Prime -difluorophenylpyridinato)tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate (FIr6) in a wide bandgap host, was kept constant, the thickness of neat yellow emissive layer of novel phosphorescent material, bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2 Prime }]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] was varied to optimize the device performance. The optimized device exhibited maximum luminance, current efficiency and power efficiency of 24,000 cd/m{sup 2} (at 15.2 V), 79.0 cd/A (at 1550 cd/m{sup 2}) and 40.5 lm/W (at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}), respectively. Besides, the white-light emission covered a wide range of visible spectrum, and the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates were (0.32, 0.38) with a color temperature of 5800 K at 8 V. Moreover, high external quantum efficiency was also obtained in the high-efficiency WOLEDs. The performance enhancement was attributed to the proper thickness of (t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac) layer that enabled adequate current density and enough phosphorescent dye to trap electrons. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly efficient WOLEDs based on two complementary layers were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The yellow emissive layer was formed by utilizing undoping system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The blue emissive layer was made by host-guest doping system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thickness of the yellow emissive layer was varied to make device optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized device achieved high power efficiency of 40.5 lm/W.

  3. Doping of two-dimensional MoS2 by high energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Zhao, Yuda; Lin, Ziyuan; Long, Yan; Wang, Yi; Chan, Mansun; Chai, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been demonstrated to be promising candidates for next generation electronic circuits. Analogues to conventional Si-based semiconductors, p- and n-doping of 2D materials are essential for building complementary circuits. Controllable and effective doping strategies require large tunability of the doping level and negligible structural damage to ultrathin 2D materials. In this work, we demonstrate a doping method utilizing a conventional high-energy ion-implantation machine. Before the implantation, a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) protective layer is used to decelerate the dopant ions and minimize the structural damage to MoS2, thus aggregating the dopants inside MoS2 flakes. By optimizing the implantation energy and fluence, phosphorus dopants are incorporated into MoS2 flakes. Our Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results show that only negligibly structural damage is introduced to the MoS2 lattice during the implantation. P-doping effect by the incorporation of p+ is demonstrated by Photoluminescence (PL) and electrical characterizations. Thin PMMA protection layer leads to large kinetic damage but also a more significant doping effect. Also, MoS2 with large thickness shows less kinetic damage. This doping method makes use of existing infrastructures in the semiconductor industry and can be extended to other 2D materials and dopant species as well.

  4. Frequency Dependent Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Au/P3HT:PCBM:F4-TCNQ/n-Si Schottky Barrier Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşçıoğlu, İ.; Tüzün Özmen, Ö.; Şağban, H. M.; Yağlıoğlu, E.; Altındal, Ş.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester: 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (P3HT:PCBM:F4-TCNQ) organic film was deposited on n-type silicon (n-Si) substrate by spin coating method. The electrical and dielectric analysis of Au/P3HT:PCBM:F4-TCNQ/n-Si Schottky barrier diode was conducted by means of capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and conductance-voltage ( G/ ω- V) measurements in the frequency range of 10 kHz-2 MHz. The C- V- f plots exhibit fairly large frequency dispersion due to excess capacitance caused by the presence of interface states ( N ss). The values of N ss located in semiconductor bandgap at the organic film/semiconductor interface were calculated by Hill-Coleman method. Experimental results show that dielectric constant ( ɛ') and dielectric loss ( ɛ″) decrease with increasing frequency, whereas loss tangent (tan δ) remains nearly the same. The decrease in ɛ' and ɛ″ was interpreted by the theory of dielectric relaxation due to interfacial polarization. It is also observed that ac electrical conductivity ( σ ac) and electric modulus ( M' and M″) increase with increasing frequency.

  5. FEM Analysis of Sezawa Mode SAW Sensor for VOC Based on CMOS Compatible AlN/SiO2/Si Multilayer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A Finite Element Method (FEM simulation study is conducted, aiming to scrutinize the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode in a multilayer AlN/SiO2/Si Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor to low concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, that is, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene. A Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS compatible AlN/SiO2/Si based multilayer SAW resonator structure is taken into account for this purpose. In this study, first, the influence of AlN and SiO2 layers’ thicknesses over phase velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients (k2 of two SAW modes (i.e., Rayleigh and Sezawa is analyzed and the optimal thicknesses of AlN and SiO2 layers are opted for best propagation characteristics. Next, the study is further extended to analyze the mass loading effect on resonance frequencies of SAW modes by coating a thin Polyisobutylene (PIB polymer film over the AlN surface. Finally, the sensitivity of the two SAW modes is examined for VOCs. This study concluded that the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode for 1 ppm of selected volatile organic gases is twice that of the Rayleigh wave mode.

  6. Microstructure and properties of thick nanocomposite TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings on Vanadis 23 HS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Zimowski, Slawomir [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, Krakow (Poland); Wendler, Bogdan; Progalskiy, Ivan [Lodz Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2015-07-15

    The microstructure and selected micro-mechanical properties of a 13.4 μm thick nanocomposite TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coating deposited onto Vanadis 23 HS steel by a new gas pulsed magnetron sputtering technique were investigated. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the detailed microstructure of the coating. It was found that the coating exhibited a fully nanocrystalline structure and was composed of two zones: the outer zone with columnar structure and the inner one with equiaxed, fine columnar structure. Both zones consisted mainly of the δ-TiN nanocrystallites with a small amount of α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In order to increase coating adhesion to the substrate, a graded intermediate layer consisting of three different phases (pure Cr, CrN and Cr2N) was applied. The hardness of the as-deposited TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coating was equal to 48 GPa, whereas it was equal to 40 GPa after annealing. The coatings exhibited very good adhesion to the underlying steel substrate.

  7. Effect of deep levels of radiation-induced defects in silicon γ-irradiated Al-V-n-Si structures characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzaneva, E.V.; Vdovichenko, A.D.; Kuznetsov, G.V.; Muntyan, Yu.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of high energy γ-quanta irradiation on the mechanism of current transmission in Al-V-N-Si structures employed in Schottky barrier instruments has been investigated. Before irradiation the structures have been annealed in the nitrogen atmosphere at T=500 deg C. The samples have been γ-irradiated on the side of the metall film at T=20 deg C. The irradiation spectrum is continuous, maximum γ-quanta energy 50 MeV, medium one is 20 MeV. The integral flux of γ-quanta, PHIsub(γ) varied from 10 7 to 10 13 quantum/cm -2 . The volt-ampere and volt-farad characteristics have been measred. It is shown that variation of the main electrophysical characteristics of the Al-V-nSi structures upon γ-irradiation is due to deep levels of radiation defects arising in silicon with the energetic position Esub(c)-E=0.38-0.4 eV and Esub(v)+Esub(2)=0.23-0.25 → β, where Esub(c), Esub(v) are energies for the conduction band bottom and the valence band ceiling. In the 77-293 K temperature range the determining range the determining effect on current mission mechanism in irradiated structures is exerted by resonance electron tunnelling with participation of a level with the Esub(c)-Esub(1)=0.38-0.4 eV

  8. Microstructures and growth mechanisms of GaN films epitaxially grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Lin, Yunhao; Zhou, Shizhong; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-11-13

    2 inch-diameter GaN films with homogeneous thickness distribution have been grown on AlN/Si(111) hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with laser rastering technique. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN films are characterized in detail. By optimizing the laser rastering program, the ~300 nm-thick GaN films grown at 750 °C show a root-mean-square (RMS) thickness inhomogeneity of 3.0%, very smooth surface with a RMS surface roughness of 3.0 nm, full-width at half-maximums (FWHMs) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.7° and 0.8°, respectively, and sharp and abrupt AlN/GaN hetero-interfaces. With the increase in the growth temperature from 550 to 850 °C, the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN films are gradually improved at first and then decreased. Based on the characterizations, the corresponding growth mechanisms of GaN films grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by PLD with various growth temperatures are hence proposed. This work would be beneficial to understanding the further insight of the GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates by PLD for the application of GaN-based devices.

  9. Mechanical and electrical properties of ultra-thin chips and flexible electronics assemblies during bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, D.A.; Van De Wiel, H.J.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.; Schram, J.F.M.; Cauwe, M.; Van Den Brand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20 μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics such as food packaging sensor systems or healthcare and sport monitoring tags as wearable patches or even directly in clothing textile. The ultra-thin chips in these

  10. Metal Immiscibility Route to Synthesis of Ultrathin Carbides, Borides, and Nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixing; Kochat, Vidya; Pandey, Prafull; Kashyap, Sanjay; Chattopadhyay, Soham; Samanta, Atanu; Sarkar, Suman; Manimunda, Praveena; Zhang, Xiang; Asif, Syed; Singh, Abhisek K; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-08-01

    Ultrathin ceramic coatings are of high interest as protective coatings from aviation to biomedical applications. Here, a generic approach of making scalable ultrathin transition metal-carbide/boride/nitride using immiscibility of two metals is demonstrated. Ultrathin tantalum carbide, nitride, and boride are grown using chemical vapor deposition by heating a tantalum-copper bilayer with corresponding precursor (C 2 H 2 , B powder, and NH 3 ). The ultrathin crystals are found on the copper surface (opposite of the metal-metal junction). A detailed microscopy analysis followed by density functional theory based calculation demonstrates the migration mechanism, where Ta atoms prefer to stay in clusters in the Cu matrix. These ultrathin materials have good interface attachment with Cu, improving the scratch resistance and oxidation resistance of Cu. This metal-metal immiscibility system can be extended to other metals to synthesize metal carbide, boride, and nitride coatings. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Ultrathin-ring Electrodes for Pseudo-steady-state Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazumi, Yuki; Hamamoto, Katsumi; Noda, Tatsuo; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of ultrathin-ring electrodes with a diameter of 2 mm and a thickness of 100 nm is established. The ultrathin-ring electrodes provide a large density of pseudo-steady-state currents, and realize pseudo-steady-state amperometry under quiescent conditions without a Faraday cage. Under the limiting current conditions, the current response at the ultrathin-ring electrode can be well explained by the theory of the microband electrode response. Cyclic voltammograms at the ultrathin-ring electrode show sigmoidal characteristics with some hysteresis. Numerical simulation reveals that the hysteresis can be ascribed to the time-dependence of pseudo-steady-state current. The performance of amperometry with the ultrathin-ring electrode has been verified in its application to redox enzyme kinetic measurements.

  12. Synthesis of Sub-2 nm Iron-Doped NiSe2 Nanowires and Their Surface-Confined Oxidation for Oxygen Evolution Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Hu, Shaojin; Zheng, Xusheng; Gao, Min-Rui; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Shi, Lei; Gao, Qiang; Zheng, Xiao; Chu, Wangsheng; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Junfa; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-04-03

    Ultrathin nanostructures are attractive for diverse applications owing to their unique properties compared to their bulk materials. Transition-metal chalcogenides are promising electrocatalysts, yet it remains difficult to make ultrathin structures (sub-2 nm), and the realization of their chemical doping is even more challenging. Herein we describe a soft-template mediated colloidal synthesis of Fe-doped NiSe 2 ultrathin nanowires (UNWs) with diameter down to 1.7 nm. The synergistic interplay between oleylamine and 1-dodecanethiol is crucial to yield these UNWs. The in situ formed amorphous hydroxide layers that is confined to the surface of the ultrathin scaffolds enable efficient oxygen evolution electrocatalysis. The UNWs exhibit a very low overpotential of 268 mV at 10 mA cm -2 in 0.1 m KOH, as well as remarkable long-term stability, representing one of the most efficient noble-metal-free catalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier behaviour by atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin Al2O3 interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Gupta, Suman; Jaiswal, Piyush; Bhat, Navakanta; Shivashankar, S.A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 dielectric layers (1 nm and 2 nm thick) on the Schottky barrier behaviour for high (Pt) and low (Al) work function metals on n- and p-doped InGaAs substrates has been investigated. Rectifying behaviour was observed for the p-type substrates (both native oxide and sulphur passivated) for both the Al/p-InGaAs and Al/Al 2 O 3 /p-InGaAs contacts. The Pt contacts directly deposited on p-InGaAs displayed evidence of limited rectification which increased with Al 2 O 3 interlayer thickness. Ohmic contacts were formed for both metals on n-InGaAs in the absence of an Al 2 O 3 interlayer, regardless of surface passivation. However, limited rectifying behaviour was observed for both metals on the 2 nm Al 2 O 3 /n-InGaAs samples for the sulphur passivated InGaAs surface, indicating the importance of both surface passivation and the presence of an ultra-thin dielectric interlayer on the current–voltage characteristics displayed by these devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier (SB) behaviour • Improving metal–InGaAs interface by sulphur passivation and ultrathin interlayer • Examine the effect of low work function and high work function metals on SB • Different SB behaviours observed on both n-type InGaAs and p-type InGaAs • Metal/n-InGaAs interface is more strongly pinned than the metal/p-InGaAs interface

  14. Modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier behaviour by atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Gupta, Suman; Jaiswal, Piyush; Bhat, Navakanta; Shivashankar, S.A. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2015-08-31

    The effect of inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric layers (1 nm and 2 nm thick) on the Schottky barrier behaviour for high (Pt) and low (Al) work function metals on n- and p-doped InGaAs substrates has been investigated. Rectifying behaviour was observed for the p-type substrates (both native oxide and sulphur passivated) for both the Al/p-InGaAs and Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-InGaAs contacts. The Pt contacts directly deposited on p-InGaAs displayed evidence of limited rectification which increased with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer thickness. Ohmic contacts were formed for both metals on n-InGaAs in the absence of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer, regardless of surface passivation. However, limited rectifying behaviour was observed for both metals on the 2 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/n-InGaAs samples for the sulphur passivated InGaAs surface, indicating the importance of both surface passivation and the presence of an ultra-thin dielectric interlayer on the current–voltage characteristics displayed by these devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier (SB) behaviour • Improving metal–InGaAs interface by sulphur passivation and ultrathin interlayer • Examine the effect of low work function and high work function metals on SB • Different SB behaviours observed on both n-type InGaAs and p-type InGaAs • Metal/n-InGaAs interface is more strongly pinned than the metal/p-InGaAs interface.

  15. Doped Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Keum, Chang-Min; Kasemann, Daniel; Naab, Ben; Bao, Zhenan; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-23

    Organic field-effect transistors hold the promise of enabling low-cost and flexible electronics. Following its success in organic optoelectronics, the organic doping technology is also used increasingly in organic field-effect transistors. Doping not only increases device performance, but it also provides a way to fine-control the transistor behavior, to develop new transistor concepts, and even improve the stability of organic transistors. This Review summarizes the latest progress made in the understanding of the doping technology and its application to organic transistors. It presents the most successful doping models and an overview of the wide variety of materials used as dopants. Further, the influence of doping on charge transport in the most relevant polycrystalline organic semiconductors is reviewed, and a concise overview on the influence of doping on transistor behavior and performance is given. In particular, recent progress in the understanding of contact doping and channel doping is summarized.

  16. Quantum magnetotransport properties of ultrathin topological insulator films

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-01-30

    We study the quantum magnetotransport in ultrathin topological insulator films in an external magnetic field considering hybridization between the upper and lower surfaces of the film. We investigate the two possible mechanisms for splitting of Landau levels, Zeeman and hybridization effects, and show that their interplay leads to minima in the collisional and Hall conductivities with a metal-to-insulator phase transition at the charge neutrality point. Hall plateaus arise at unusual multiples of e2/h . Evidence of a quantum phase transition for the zeroth and splitting of the higher Landau levels is found from the temperature and magnetic field dependences of the transport.

  17. Quantum magnetotransport properties of ultrathin topological insulator films

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We study the quantum magnetotransport in ultrathin topological insulator films in an external magnetic field considering hybridization between the upper and lower surfaces of the film. We investigate the two possible mechanisms for splitting of Landau levels, Zeeman and hybridization effects, and show that their interplay leads to minima in the collisional and Hall conductivities with a metal-to-insulator phase transition at the charge neutrality point. Hall plateaus arise at unusual multiples of e2/h . Evidence of a quantum phase transition for the zeroth and splitting of the higher Landau levels is found from the temperature and magnetic field dependences of the transport.

  18. Ultrathin magnetic structures II measurement techniques and novel magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2006-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism, with profound impact in technology and serving as the basis for a revolution in electronics. Our understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures has also advanced significantly. This rapid development has generated a need for a comprehensive treatment that can serve as an introduction to the field for those entering it from diverse fields, but which will also serve as a timely overview for those already working in this area. The four-volume work Ultra-Thin Magnetic

  19. Phase diagram of Fe1-xCox ultrathin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Voytenko, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Concentration-driven reorientation phase transitions in ultrathin magnetic films of FeCo alloy have been studied. It is established that, in addition to the easy-axis and easy-plane phases, a spatially inhomogeneous phase (domain structure), a canted phase, and also an 'in-plane easy-axis' phase can exist in the system. The realization of the last phase is associated with the competition between the single-ion anisotropy and the magnetoelastic interaction. The critical values of Co concentration corresponding to the phase transitions are evaluated, the types of phase transitions are determined, and the phase diagrams are constructed

  20. Optical properties of vacuum deposited polyaniline ultra-thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, M. R. A.; Din, M.; Yunus, W. M. M.; Hasan, Z. A.; Kasim, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Ultra-thin films of emeraldine base (EB) and emeraldine salt (ES) form of polyaniline (PANi) were prepared using electron-gun vacuum deposition. Thickness range studied was between 100AA and 450AA. Dielectric permittivity of the films determined from Kretchmann Configuration Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) angles-scanning set-up show shifts and narrowing of the SPR dip. Absorbance spectra of S-polarized and P-polarized light show the aging effect on orientation of the film. The effect of aging on its conductivity and photoluminescence is also correlated to the surface morphology

  1. Electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin rhodium nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Bao Lin; Ren-Yun; Sun Hou Qian; Chen Xiao Shuang; Zhao Ji Jun

    2003-01-01

    The structures of ultrathin rhodium nanowires are studied using empirical molecular dynamics simulations with a genetic algorithm. Helical multishell cylindrical and pentagonal packing structures are found. The electronic and magnetic properties of the rhodium nanowires are calculated using an spd tight-binding Hamiltonian in the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation. The average magnetic moment and electronic density of states are obtained. Our results indicate that the electronic and magnetic properties of the rhodium nanowires depend not only on the size of the wire but also on the atomic structure. In particular, centred pentagonal and hexagonal structures can be unusually ferromagnetic.

  2. Design of an ultra-thin dual band infrared system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke; Cheng, Xuemin; Lv, Qichao; Hu, YiFei

    2014-11-01

    The ultra-thin imaging system using reflective multiple-fold structure has smaller volume and less weight while maintaining high resolution compared with conventional optical systems. The multi-folded approach can significantly extend focal distance within wide spectral range without incurring chromatic aberrations. In this paper, we present a dual infrared imaging system of four-folded reflection with two air-spaced concentric reflective surfaces. The dual brand IR system has 107mm effective focal length, 0.7NA, +/-4° FOV, and 50mm effective aperture with 80mm outer diameter into a 25mm total thickness, which spectral response is 3~12μm.

  3. Ground state configurations in antiferromagnetic ultrathin films with dipolar anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, H.

    2013-01-01

    The formalism developed in a previous work to calculate the dipolar energy in quasi-two-dimensional crystals with ferromagnetic order is now extended to collinear antiferromagnetic order. Numerical calculations of the dipolar energy are carried out for systems with tetragonally distorted fcc [001] structures, the case of NiO and MnO ultrathin film grown in non-magnetic substrates, where the magnetic phase is a consequence of superexchange and dipolar interactions. The employed approximation allows to demonstrate that dipolar coupling between atomic layers is responsible for the orientation of the magnetization when it differs from the one in a single layer. The ground state energy of a given NiO or MnO film is found to depend not only on the strain, but also on how much the interlayer separation and the 2D lattice constant are changed with respect to the ideal values corresponding to the non-distorted cubic structure. Nevertheless, it is shown that the orientation of the magnetization in the magnetic phase of any of these films is determined by the strain exclusively. A striped phase with the magnetization along the [112 ¯ ] direction appears as the ground state configuration of NiO and MnO ultrathin films. In films with equally oriented stripes along the layers this magnetic phase is twofold degenerate, while in films with multidomain layers it is eightfold degenerate. These results are not in contradiction with experimentally observed out-of-plane or in-plane magnetization of striped phases in NiO and MnO ultrathin films. - Highlights: ► Dipolar energy in collinear antiferromagnetic ultrathin films is calculated. ► Numerical results are presented for distorted fcc [001] structures. ► The lowest energy of a system depends on how the tetragonal distortion is achieved. ► A striped phase with magnetization in the [112 ¯ ] direction is the ground state. ► In multidomain NiO and MnO films it is eightfold degenerate.

  4. Ultra-thin Metal and Dielectric Layers for Nanophotonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Leandro, Lorenzo; Malureanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    In our talk we first give an overview of the various thin films used in the field of nanophotonics. Then we describe our own activity in fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin films of high quality. We particularly focus on uniform gold layers having thicknesses down to 6 nm fabricated by......-beam deposition on dielectric substrates and Al-oxides/Ti-oxides multilayers prepared by atomic layer deposition in high aspect ratio trenches. In the latter case we show more than 1:20 aspect ratio structures can be achieved....

  5. Highly Simplified Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Devices Incorporating a Green Phosphorescence Ultrathin Emitter within a Novel Interface Exciplex for High Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Jun-Gui; Huang, Chen-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Fung, Man-Keung; Murtaza, Imran; Meng, Hong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2017-03-29

    Herein we report a novel design philosophy of tandem OLEDs incorporating a doping-free green phosphorescent bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-N)phenyl-C](acetylacetonato)iridium(III) (Ir(ppy) 2 (acac)) as an ultrathin emissive layer (UEML) into a novel interface-exciplex-forming structure of 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) and 1,3,5-tri(p-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene (TmPyPB). Particularly, relatively low working voltage and remarkable efficiency are achieved and the designed tandem OLEDs exhibit a peak current efficiency of 135.74 cd/A (EQE = 36.85%) which is two times higher than 66.2 cd/A (EQE = 17.97%) of the device with a single emitter unit. This might be one of the highest efficiencies of OLEDs applying ultrathin emitters without light extraction. Moreover, with the proposed structure, the color gamut of the displays can be effectively increased from 76% to 82% NTSC if the same red and blue emissions as those in the NTSC are applied. A novel form of harmonious fusion among interface exciplex, UEML, and tandem structure is successfully realized, which sheds light on further development of ideal OLED structure with high efficiency, simplified fabrication, low power consumption, low cost, and improved color gamut, simultaneously.

  6. Dependence of the annealing kinetics of A centers and divacancies on temperature, particle energy, and irradiation dose for n-Si crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagava, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    n-Si crystals grown by the float-zone method with a phosphorus concentration of ∼6 x 10 13 cm -3 and irradiated with 2-MeV electrons and 25-MeV protons were studied. It is shown that the kinetics of the isochronous annealing of the A centers and divacancies (the annealing temperature and the rearrangement of radiation defects in the situation where the dissociation of one type of defects gives rise to more stable defects) depends in a complicated way on the energy, dose, and temperature of irradiation; i.e., this kinetics depends on the relation between the concentrations of various radiation defects and on the charge state of reacting primary radiation defects when they interact with each other, with impurity atoms, and with disordered regions. An increase in the concentration of divacancies in the temperature range of 180-210 deg. C is attributed to the dissociation of disordered regions

  7. Effect of Surface Morphology and Dispersion Media on the Properties of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Hybrid Solar Cell Containing Functionalized Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van Trinh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results on the effect of surface morphology and dispersion media on the properties of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si hybrid solar cell containing functionalized graphene (Gr. The hybrid solar cells based on SiNWs showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE compared to the planar based cells due to suppressing the carrier recombination and improving carrier transport efficiency. The PCE of hybrid solar cells could be improved by adding Gr into PEDOT:PSS. Different solvents including deionized (DI water, ethylene glycol (EG, and isopropyl alcohol (IPA were used as media for Gr dispersion. The best performance was obtained for the cell containing Gr dispersed in EG with a measured PCE of 7.33% and nearly 13% and 16% enhancement in comparison with the cells using Gr dispersed in IPA and DI water, respectively. The increase in PCE is attributed to improving the carrier-mobility, electrical conductivity, PEDOT crystallinity, and ordering.

  8. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on deep levels in Au /n-Si (100) Schottky diode studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Katharria, Y. S.; Kumar, Sugam; Kanjilal, D.

    2007-12-01

    In situ deep level transient spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the influence of 100MeV Si7+ ion irradiation on the deep levels present in Au/n-Si (100) Schottky structure in a wide fluence range from 5×109to1×1012ions cm-2. The swift heavy ion irradiation introduces a deep level at Ec-0.32eV. It is found that initially, trap level concentration of the energy level at Ec-0.40eV increases with irradiation up to a fluence value of 1×1010cm-2 while the deep level concentration decreases as irradiation fluence increases beyond the fluence value of 5×1010cm-2. These results are discussed, taking into account the role of energy transfer mechanism of high energy ions in material.

  9. Crossover of the preferred growth orientation of AlN/Si(001) films during off-axis radio frequency sputter growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, H.W.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.; Yi, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    We found that the crystallographic orientation of AlN/Si(001) thin films crosses over from the substrate normal towards the direction of incident flux during off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputter growth. At high growth temperatures, the crystalline c-axis orientation is maintained along the substrate normal direction initially, but jumps discontinuously towards the direction of incident flux. In contrast, at low growth temperatures, the c-axis direction shifts continuously towards the incident flux direction and saturates in the middle agreeing with the tangential rule of oblique deposition, i.e., tan β=1/2 tan α, where α and β denote the angles of incident flux and column incline, respectively. Selected area transmission electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the crossover measured by in situ x-ray scattering experiments

  10. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of Zn/ZnSe/n-Si/Au-Sb structure fabricated using SILAR method as a function of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezeldir, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Atatuerk, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Saglam, M., E-mail: msaglam@atauni.edu.t [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Atatuerk, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ates, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Atatuerk, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-09-10

    The Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method has been used to deposit ZnSe thin film onto Si substrate to obtain the Zn/ZnSe/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) methods are used to investigate the structural and morphological properties of films. The XRD and SEM studies reveal that the films are covered well on Si substrate and have good polycrystalline structure and crystalline levels. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of this structure have been investigated as a function of the temperature (80-300 K) with 20 K steps. The ideality factor (n) and zero-bias barrier height ({Phi}{sub b0}) value which obtained from I-V curves were found to be strongly temperature dependent. While {Phi}{sub b0} increases with increasing temperature, n decreases. This behavior of the {Phi}{sub b0} and n can be attributed to barrier inhomogeneities at the metal-semiconductor (M-S) interface. The temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics of the Zn/ZnSe/n-Si/Au-Sb structure can reveal the existence of a double Gaussian distribution. The mean barrier height and the Richardson constant values are obtained as 0.925 eV and 1.140 eV, 130 A/cm{sup 2} K{sup 2} and 127 A/cm{sup 2} K{sup 2}, from the modified Richardson plot, respectively. Furthermore, the barrier height and carrier concentration are calculated from reverse bias C{sup -2}-V measurements at 200 kHz frequency as a function of the temperature.

  11. Nano-crystalline p-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si as a new heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, G.B. [Nano-Science Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Fouad, S.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Nano-Science Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Semicondcutor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel Basset, D.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/Si thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation technique. ► XRD and AFM graphs support the nano-crystalline of the studied device. ► Dark current–voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode were investigated. ► Electrical parameters and conduction mechanism were determined. ► Conduction mechanisms were controlled by TE, SCLC and TCLC. -- Abstract: In this communication, ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation technique on n-Si substrate. P-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si heterojunction diode was fabricated. The structure of ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film was checked by XRD pattern and confirmed by AFM micrographs. The dark current–voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode were investigated to determine the electrical parameters and conduction mechanism as a function of forward and reverse biasing conditions in the range (−10 V to 10 V) at temperature interval (303–423 K). The conduction mechanism was controlled by thermionic emission, space charge limited (SCLC) and trap-charge limited current (TCLC) mechanisms. The basic parameters such as the series resistance R{sub s}, the shunt resistance R{sub sh}, the ideality factor n and the barrier height φ{sub b} of the diode, the total density of trap states N{sub 0} and the exponential trapping distribution P{sub o} were determined. The obtained results showed that ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} is a good candidate for the applications of electronic devices.

  12. The novel transparent sputtered p-type CuO thin films and Ag/p-CuO/n-Si Schottky diode applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tombak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, the physical properties and microelectronic parameters of direct current (DC sputtered p-type CuO film and diode have been investigated. The film of CuO as oxide and p-type semiconductor is grown onto glass and n-Si substrates by reactive DC sputtering at 250 °C. After deposition, a post-annealing procedure is applied at various temperatures in ambient. Through this research, several parameters are determined such structural, optical and electrical magnitudes. The thickness of CuO thin films goes from 122 to 254 nm. A (111-oriented cubic crystal structure is revealed by X-ray analysis. The grain size is roughly depending on the post-annealing temperature, it increases with temperature within the 144–285 nm range. The transmittance reaches 80% simultaneously in visible and infrared bands. The optical band gap is varied between 1.99 and 2.52 eV as a result of annealing temperature while the resistivity and the charge carrier mobility decrease with an increase in temperature from 135 to 14 Ω cm and 0.92 to 0.06 cm2/Vs, respectively. The surface of samples is homogenous, bright dots are visible when temperature reaches the highest value. As a diode, Ag/CuO/n-Si exhibits a non-ideal behavior and the ideality factor is about 3.5. By Norde method, the barrier height and the series resistance are extracted and found to be 0.96 V and 86.6 Ω respectively.

  13. Effect of BaSi2 template growth duration on the generation of defects and performance of p-BaSi2/n-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachi, Suguru; Takabe, Ryota; Deng, Tianguo; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of BaSi2 template growth duration (t RDE = 0-20 min) on the defect generation and performance of p-BaSi2/n-Si heterojunction solar cells. The p-BaSi2 layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was 15 nm thick with a hole concentration of 2 × 1018 cm-3. The conversion efficiency η increased for films grown at long t RDE, owing to improvements of the open-circuit voltage (V OC) and fill factor (FF), reaching a maximum of η = 8.9% at t RDE = 7.5 min. However, η decreased at longer and shorter t RDE owing to lower V OC and FF. Using deep-level transient spectroscopy, we detected a hole trap level 190 meV above the valence band maximum for the sample grown without the template (t RDE = 0 min). An electron trap level 106 meV below the conduction band minimum was detected for a sample grown with t RDE = 20 min. The trap densities for both films were (1-2) × 1013 cm-3. The former originated from the diffusion of Ba into the n-Si region; the latter originated from defects in the template layer. The crystalline qualities of the template and MBE-grown layers were discussed. The root-mean-square surface roughness of the template reached a minimum of 0.51 nm at t RDE = 7.5 min. The a-axis orientation of p-BaSi2 thin films degraded as t RDE exceeded 10 min. In terms of p-BaSi2 crystalline quality and solar cell performance, the optimum t RDE was determined to be 7.5 min, corresponding to approximately 4 nm in thickness.

  14. Low-temperature conducting channel switching in hybrid Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/n-Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikulov, V.A., E-mail: vikulov@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Dimitriev, A.A.; Balashev, V.V.; Pisarenko, T.A.; Korobtsov, V.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Conducting channel switching between the polycrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film and the n-Si substrate takes place in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/n-Si structure at temperature below 125 K. • This effect occurs via the field-assisted tunneling through the composite insulating layer that consists of the highly resistive Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the tunnel SiO{sub 2}. • The switching is attended by a change in the shape of the current-voltage characteristics from the linear at 300 K to the S-type at 80 K. - Abstract: The carrier transport properties of the polycrystalline magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) films grown on an n-type Si substrate with 5 nm-thick SiO{sub 2} have been investigated between 80 and 300 K in current-in-plane geometry. It was established that at temperature decrease to about 120 K, the resistivity of thin Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films increases up to a peak value and then abruptly drops. This process is attended by a change in the shape of the current-voltage characteristics from the linear at 300 K to the S-type at 80 K. The observed peculiarities are explained by conducting channel switching from the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film to the Si substrate via the field-assisted tunneling of carriers through the composite insulating layer consisting of highly resistive Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and tunnel SiO{sub 2}.

  15. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B; Kosbar, Laura L; Murray, Conal E; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-18

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (approximately 50 A), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS(2-x)Se(x) films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>10(5) A cm(-2)) and mobilities greater than 10 cm2 V(-1) s(-1)--an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  16. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B.; Kosbar, Laura L.; Murray, Conal E.; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-01

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (~50Å), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS2-xSex films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>105Acm-2) and mobilities greater than 10cm2V-1s-1-an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  17. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed

  18. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  19. Superstable Ultrathin Water Film Confined in a Hydrophilized Carbon Nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomo, Yoko; Askounis, Alexandros; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil; Takahashi, Koji

    2018-03-14

    Fluids confined in a nanoscale space behave differently than in the bulk due to strong interactions between fluid molecules and solid atoms. Here, we observed water confined inside "open" hydrophilized carbon nanotubes (CNT), with diameter of tens of nanometers, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A 1-7 nm water film adhering to most of the inner wall surface was observed and remained stable in the high vacuum (order of 10 -5 Pa) of the TEM. The superstability of this film was attributed to a combination of curvature, nanoroughness, and confinement resulting in a lower vapor pressure for water and hence inhibiting its vaporization. Occasional, suspended ultrathin water film with thickness of 3-20 nm were found and remained stable inside the CNT. This film thickness is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the critical film thickness (about 40 nm) reported by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory and previous experimental investigations. The stability of the suspended ultrathin water film is attributed to the additional molecular interactions due to the extended water meniscus, which balances the rest of the disjoining pressures.

  20. Low temperature CVD growth of ultrathin carbon films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the low temperature, large area growth of ultrathin carbon films by chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure on various substrates. In particularly, uniform and continuous carbon films with the thickness of 2-5 nm were successfully grown at a temperature as low as 500 oC on copper foils, as well as glass substrates coated with a 100 nm thick copper layer. The characterizations revealed that the low-temperature-grown carbon films consist on few short, curved graphene layers and thin amorphous carbon films. Particularly, the low-temperature grown samples exhibited over 90% transmittance at a wavelength range of 400-750 nm and comparable sheet resistance in contrast with the 1000oC-grown one. This low-temperature growth method may offer a facile way to directly prepare visible ultrathin carbon films on various substrate surfaces that are compatible with temperatures (500-600oC used in several device processing technologies.

  1. Ultrathin regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, H.G.O.; Frey, G.L.; Shkunov, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrathin films of regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (RR-P3HT) were deposited through a dip-coating technique and utilized as the semiconducting film in field-effect transistors (FETs). Proper selection of the substrate and solution concentration enabled the growth of a monolayer-thick RR-P3HT...... film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), U-V-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and grazing incidence diffraction were used to study the growth mechanism, thickness and orientation of self-organized monolayer thick RR-P3HT films on SiO2 surfaces. Films were found to adopt a Stranski......-Krastanov-type growth mode with formation of a very stable first monolayer. X-ray measurements show that the direction of pi-stacking in the films (the (010) direction) is parallel to the substrate, which is the preferred orientation for high field-effect carrier mobilities. The field-effect mobilities in all ultrathin...

  2. In situ polymerization process of polypyrrole ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Tada, Kazuya; Shinkuma, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A novel thin film processing technique has been developed for the fabrication of ultrathin films of conducting polymers with molecular-level control over thickness and multilayer architecture. This new self-assembly process opens up vast possibilities in applications which require large area, ultrathin films of conducting polymers and more importantly in applications that can take advantage of the unique interactions achievable in the complex, supermolecular architectures of multilayer films. In in situ polymerized polypyrrole (PPy), the deposition process strongly depends on the nature of the substrate surface. That is, for a surface that is negatively charged, there is a linear correspondence between dipping time and the amount of PPy deposited on the substrate. However, in the case of a positively charged surface, there is an apparent rest period of approximately 10-20 min, during which no PPy is deposited. From optical absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron emission studies etc., it became clear that oligomers of pyrrole were adsorbed on the positively charged surface during the rest period, as a result the polymerization reaction of PPy could proceed

  3. Ultra-thin infrared metamaterial detector for multicolor imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, John A; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, Sanjay; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-09-18

    The next generation of infrared imaging systems requires control of fundamental electromagnetic processes - absorption, polarization, spectral bandwidth - at the pixel level to acquire desirable information about the environment with low system latency. Metamaterial absorbers have sparked interest in the infrared imaging community for their ability to enhance absorption of incoming radiation with color, polarization and/or phase information. However, most metamaterial-based sensors fail to focus incoming radiation into the active region of a ultra-thin detecting element, thus achieving poor detection metrics. Here our multifunctional metamaterial absorber is directly integrated with a novel mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) detector with an ultra-thin (~λ/15) InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (T2SL) interband cascade detector. The deep sub-wavelength metamaterial detector architecture proposed and demonstrated here, thus significantly improves the detection quantum efficiency (QE) and absorption of incoming radiation in a regime typically dominated by Fabry-Perot etalons. Our work evinces the ability of multifunctional metamaterials to realize efficient wavelength selective detection across the infrared spectrum for enhanced multispectral infrared imaging applications.

  4. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  5. Extracellular ultrathin fibers sensitive to intracellular reactive oxygen species: Formation of intercellular membrane bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo, E-mail: ksha@kangwon.ac.kr

    2011-07-15

    Membrane bridges are key cellular structures involved in intercellular communication; however, dynamics for their formation are not well understood. We demonstrated the formation and regulation of novel extracellular ultrathin fibers in NIH3T3 cells using confocal and atomic force microscopy. At adjacent regions of neighboring cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and glucose oxidase induced ultrathin fiber formation, which was prevented by Trolox, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The height of ROS-sensitive ultrathin fibers ranged from 2 to 4 nm. PMA-induced formation of ultrathin fibers was inhibited by cytochalasin D, but not by Taxol or colchicine, indicating that ultrathin fibers mainly comprise microfilaments. PMA-induced ultrathin fibers underwent dynamic structural changes, resulting in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Thus, these fibers are formed by a mechanism(s) involving ROS and involved in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging of ultrathin fibers may contribute to understanding the diverse mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication and the intercellular transfer of biomolecules, including proteins and cell organelles.

  6. Fabrication of Ultra-thin Color Films with Highly Absorbing Media Using Oblique Angle Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-08-29

    Ultra-thin film structures have been studied extensively for use as optical coatings, but performance and fabrication challenges remain.  We present an advanced method for fabricating ultra-thin color films with improved characteristics. The proposed process addresses several fabrication issues, including large area processing. Specifically, the protocol describes a process for fabricating ultra-thin color films using an electron beam evaporator for oblique angle deposition of germanium (Ge) and gold (Au) on silicon (Si) substrates.  Film porosity produced by the oblique angle deposition induces color changes in the ultra-thin film. The degree of color change depends on factors such as deposition angle and film thickness. Fabricated samples of the ultra-thin color films showed improved color tunability and color purity. In addition, the measured reflectance of the fabricated samples was converted into chromatic values and analyzed in terms of color. Our ultra-thin film fabricating method is expected to be used for various ultra-thin film applications such as flexible color electrodes, thin film solar cells, and optical filters. Also, the process developed here for analyzing the color of the fabricated samples is broadly useful for studying various color structures.

  7. Spectroelectrochemical properties of ultra-thin indium tin oxide films under electric potential modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xue, E-mail: x0han004@louisville.edu; Mendes, Sergio B., E-mail: sbmend01@louisville.edu

    2016-03-31

    In this work, the spectroscopic properties of ultra-thin ITO films are characterized under an applied electric potential modulation. To detect minute spectroscopic features, the ultra-thin ITO film was coated over an extremely sensitive single-mode integrated optical waveguide, which provided a long pathlength with more than adequate sensitivity for optical interrogation of the ultra-thin film. Experimental configurations with broadband light and several laser lines at different modulation schemes of an applied electric potential were utilized to elucidate the nature of intrinsic changes. The imaginary component of the refractive index (absorption coefficient) of the ultra-thin ITO film is unequivocally shown to have a dependence on the applied potential and the profile of this dependence changes substantially even for wavelengths inside a small spectral window (500–600 nm). The characterization technique and the data reported here can be crucial to several applications of the ITO material as a transparent conductive electrode, as for example in spectroelectrochemical investigations of surface-confined redox species. - Highlights: • Optical waveguides are applied for spectroscopic investigations of ultra-thin films. • Ultra-thin ITO films in aqueous environment are studied under potential modulation. • Unique spectroscopic features of ultra-thin ITO films are unambiguously observed.

  8. Effect of surface passivation by SiN/SiO2 of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrate by deep level transient spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassoumi, Malek; Mosbahi, Hana; Zaidi, Mohamed Ali; Gaquiere, Christophe; Maaref, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Device performance and defects in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors have been correlated. The effect of SiN/SiO 2 passivation of the surface of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrates is reported on DC characteristics. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on the device after the passivation by a (50/100 nm) SiN/SiO 2 film. The DLTS spectra from these measurements showed the existence of the same electron trap on the surface of the device

  9. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Acharya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc and high critical current density (Jc. The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  10. Interference-Free Electrochemical Detection of Nanomolar Dopamine Using Doped Polypyrrole and Silver Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Suparna; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Turner, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to detect dopamine in nanomolar range using an electrochemical sensor utilizing a composite made of chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles and p-toluene sulfonic acid-doped ultrathin polypyrrole film. Studies included cyclic voltammogram, amperometry, differential pulse voltammetry and also investigation by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A detection limit of 0.58 nM was achieved in the linear range 1 x 10(-9) M to 1.2 x 10(-7) M. High sensitivity ...

  11. Visible-light driven nitrogen-doped petal-morphological ceria nanosheets for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junchao; Zhang, Wenya; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Zhigang; Chen, Feng; Liu, Chengbao; Lu, Xiaowang; Li, Ping; Wang, Kaiyuan; Chen, Ailian

    2018-06-01

    Water splitting is a promising sustainable technology for solar-to-chemical energy conversion. Herein, we successfully fabricated nitrogen-doped ultrathin CeO2 nanosheets by using field poppy petals as templates, which exhibit an efficiently catalytic activity for water splitting. Abundant oxygen vacancies and substitutional N atoms were experimentally observed in the film due to its unique biomorphic texture. In view of high efficiency and long durability of the as-prepared photocatalyst, this biotemplate method may provide an alternative technique for using biomolecules to assemble 2D nanomaterials.

  12. Determination of the absolute internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence in GaN co-doped with Si and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Foussekis, M.; McNamara, J. D.; Behrends, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A.

    2012-04-01

    The optical properties of high-quality GaN co-doped with silicon and zinc are investigated by using temperature-dependent continuous-wave and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The blue luminescence band is related to the ZnGa acceptor in GaN:Si,Zn, which exhibits an exceptionally high absolute internal quantum efficiency (IQE). An IQE above 90% was calculated for several samples having different concentrations of Zn. Accurate and reliable values of the IQE were obtained by using several approaches based on rate equations. The concentrations of the ZnGa acceptors and free electrons were also estimated from the photoluminescence measurements.

  13. Oxidation Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Silicon Films Deposited from Si2H6 and NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Emmanuel; Boyer, Pierre; Samitier, Josep; Hassani, Ahmed

    1994-03-01

    Si2H6/NH3 gas mixture was employed to obtain, by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) at low temperature, nitrogen-doped silicon (NIDOS) films with various N/Si ratios. Thermal oxide was grown in dry oxygen at 900°C and 1100°C on NIDOS films. The result indicates that the nitrogen content of NIDOS films, assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), greatly influences their oxidation rate.

  14. On compensation in Si-doped AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua S.; Baker, Jonathon N.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Mirrielees, Kelsey J.; Reddy, Pramod; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.

    2018-04-01

    Controllable n-type doping over wide ranges of carrier concentrations in AlN, or Al-rich AlGaN, is critical to realizing next-generation applications in high-power electronics and deep UV light sources. Silicon is not a hydrogenic donor in AlN as it is in GaN; despite this, the carrier concentration should be controllable, albeit less efficiently, by increasing the donor concentration during growth. At low doping levels, an increase in the Si content leads to a commensurate increase in free electrons. Problematically, this trend does not persist to higher doping levels. In fact, a further increase in the Si concentration leads to a decrease in free electron concentration; this is commonly referred to as the compensation knee. While the nature of this decrease has been attributed to a variety of compensating defects, the mechanism and identity of the predominant defects associated with the knee have not been conclusively determined. Density functional theory calculations using hybrid exchange-correlation functionals have identified VAl+n SiAl complexes as central to mechanistically understanding compensation in the high Si limit in AlN, while secondary impurities and vacancies tend to dominate compensation in the low Si limit. The formation energies and optical signatures of these defects in AlN are calculated and utilized in a grand canonical charge balance solver to identify carrier concentrations as a function of Si content. The results were found to qualitatively reproduce the experimentally observed compensation knee. Furthermore, these calculations predict a shift in the optical emissions present in the high and low doping limits, which is confirmed with detailed photoluminescence measurements.

  15. Nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multilayer protective coatings on carbon obtained by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupinǎ, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Vladoiu, Rodica; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Nicolescu, Virginia; Manu, Radu; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2018-02-01

    To obtain protective nitrogen doped Si-C multilayer coatings on carbon, used to improve the oxidation resistance of carbon, was used TVA method. The initial carbon layer has been deposed on a silicon substrate in the absence of nitrogen, and then a 3nm Si thin film to cover carbon layer was deposed. Further, seven Si and C layers were alternatively deposed in the presence of nitrogen ions. In order to form silicon carbide at the interface between silicon and carbon layers, all carbon, silicon and nitrogen ions energy has increased up to 150eV. The characterization of microstructure and electrical properties of as-prepared N-Si-C multilayer structures were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM) techniques, Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and electrical measurements. The retention of oxygen in the protective layer of N-Si-C is due to the following phenomena: (a) The reaction between oxygen and silicon carbide resulting in silicon oxide and carbon dioxide; (b) The reaction involving oxygen, nitrogen and silicon resulting silicon oxinitride with a variable composition; (c) Nitrogen acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. To perform electrical measurements, ohmic contacts were attached on the N-Si-C samples. Electrical conductivity was measured in constant current mode. To explain the temperature behavior of electrical conductivity we assumed a thermally activated electric transport mechanism.

  16. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  17. Flexible Mixed-Potential-Type (MPT NO2 Sensor Based on An Ultra-Thin Ceramic Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui You

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible mixed-potential-type (MPT sensor was designed and fabricated for NO2 detection from 0 to 500 ppm at 200 °C. An ultra-thin Y2O3-doped ZrO2 (YSZ ceramic film 20 µm thick was sandwiched between a heating electrode and reference/sensing electrodes. The heating electrode was fabricated by a conventional lift-off process, while the porous reference and the sensing electrodes were fabricated by a two-step patterning method using shadow masks. The sensor’s sensitivity is achieved as 58.4 mV/decade at the working temperature of 200 °C, as well as a detection limit of 26.7 ppm and small response time of less than 10 s at 200 ppm. Additionally, the flexible MPT sensor demonstrates superior mechanical stability after bending over 50 times due to the mechanical stability of the YSZ ceramic film. This simply structured, but highly reliable flexible MPT NO2 sensor may lead to wide application in the automobile industry for vehicle emission systems to reduce NO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

  18. Young's Modulus and Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of ZnO Conductive and Transparent Ultra-Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for measuring Young's modulus of an ultra-thin film, with a thickness in the range of about 10 nm, was developed by combining an optical lever technique for measuring the residual stress and X-ray diffraction for measuring the strain in the film. The new technique was applied to analyze the mechanical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO films, that have become the focus of significant attention as a substitute material for indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes. Young's modulus of the as-deposited GZO films decreased with thickness; the values for 30 nm and 500 nm thick films were 205 GPa and 117 GPa, respectively. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the GZO films was measured using the new technique in combination with in-situ residual stress measurement during heat-cycle testing. GZO films with 30–100 nm thickness had a coefficient of linear thermal expansion in the range of 4.3 × 10−6 – 5.6 × 10−6 °C−1.

  19. Magnetic Phase Transition in Ion-Irradiated Ultrathin CoN Films via Magneto-Optic Faraday Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiung-Wu; Chang, Yen-Chu; Chang, Sheng-Chi

    2013-11-15

    The magnetic properties of 1 nm thick in-plane anisotropic Co ultrathin film on ZnO(0001) were investigated through successive 500 eV nitrogen-ion sputtering. Magneto-optical Faraday effects were used to observe the evolution of the ion-irradiated sample in longitudinal and perpendicular magnetic fields. The ferromagnetic phase of the initial in-plane anisotropic fcc β-Co phase transformation to β-Co(N) phase was terminated at paramagnetic CoN x phase. In-plane anisotropy with weak out-of-plane anisotropy of the Co/ZnO sample was initially observed in the as-grown condition. In the sputtering process, the N⁺ ions induced simultaneous sputtering and doping. An abrupt spin reorientation behavior from in-plane to out-of-plane was found under prolonged sputtering condition. The existence of perpendicular anisotropy measured from the out-of-plane Faraday effect may be attributed to the co-existence of residual β-Co and Co₄N exchange bonding force by the gradual depletion of Co-N thickness.

  20. The multilayered structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Na; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron

  1. Theoretical Methods of Domain Structures in Ultrathin Ferroelectric Films: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyi Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods and recent developments of the theoretical study of domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films. The review begins with an introduction to some basic concepts and theories (e.g., polarization and its modern theory, ferroelectric phase transition, domain formation, and finite size effects, etc. that are relevant to the study of domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films. Basic techniques and recent progress of a variety of important approaches for domain structure simulation, including first-principles calculation, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, effective Hamiltonian approach and phase field modeling, as well as multiscale simulation are then elaborated. For each approach, its important features and relative merits over other approaches for modeling domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films are discussed. Finally, we review recent theoretical studies on some important issues of domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films, with an emphasis on the effects of interfacial electrostatics, boundary conditions and external loads.

  2. “Self-Peel-Off” Transfer Produces Ultrathin Polyvinylidene-Fluoride-Based Flexible Nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Here, a new strategy, self-peel-off transfer, for the preparation of ultrathin flexible nanodevices made from polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) is reported. In this process, a functional pattern of nanoparticles is transferred via peeling from a

  3. Ultrathin Polyamide Membranes Fabricated from Free-Standing Interfacial Polymerization: Synthesis, Modifications, and Post-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    ) membranes. The polyamide selective layer usually possesses a high selectivity and permeability, making it the heart of this membrane technology. To further improve and understand its formation, with entirely excluding the effect of substrate, an ultrathin

  4. A prospective randomized study comparing transnasal and peroral 5-mm ultrathin endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Feng Lin

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: PO intubation seems an excellent alternative method when using a 5-mm ultrathin endoscopy because it achieves comparable patient tolerance, acceptance, and satisfaction as TN intubation, takes less time and causes lower intubation failure and epistaxis.

  5. Ultrathin nondoped emissive layers for efficient and simple monochrome and white organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongbiao; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, highly efficient and simple monochrome blue, green, orange, and red organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on ultrathin nondoped emissive layers (EMLs) have been reported. The ultrathin nondoped EML was constructed by introducing a 0.1 nm thin layer of pure phosphorescent dyes between a hole transporting layer and an electron transporting layer. The maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) reached 17.1%, 20.9%, 17.3%, and 19.2% for blue, green, orange, and red monochrome OLEDs, respectively, indicating the universality of the ultrathin nondoped EML for most phosphorescent dyes. On the basis of this, simple white OLED structures are also demonstrated. The demonstrated complementary blue/orange, three primary blue/green/red, and four color blue/green/orange/red white OLEDs show high efficiency and good white emission, indicating the advantage of ultrathin nondoped EMLs on constructing simple and efficient white OLEDs.

  6. Feasibility of Ultra-Thin Fiber-Optic Dosimeters for Radiotherapy Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bongsoo; Kwon, Guwon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jaeseok; Yoo, Wook Jae; Ji, Young Hoon; Jang, Kyoung Won

    2015-11-17

    In this study, prototype ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters were fabricated using organic scintillators, wavelength shifting fibers, and plastic optical fibers. The sensor probes of the ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters consisted of very thin organic scintillators with thicknesses of 100, 150 and 200 μm. These types of sensors cannot only be used to measure skin or surface doses but also provide depth dose measurements with high spatial resolution. With the ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters, surface doses for gamma rays generated from a Co-60 therapy machine were measured. Additionally, percentage depth doses in the build-up regions were obtained by using the ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters, and the results were compared with those of external beam therapy films and a conventional fiber-optic dosimeter.

  7. Non-doped-type white organic light-emitting diodes for lighting purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianzhuo [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Wenlian, E-mail: wllioel@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Chu Bei, E-mail: beichu@163.co [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Yan Fei; Yang Dongfang; Liu Huihui; Wang Junbo [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2010-05-15

    We demonstrate a non-doped white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) in which the blue-, green- and red-emissions are generated from 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl 9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB), which is used as an ultrathin layer. The DCJTB ultrathin layer plays the chromaticity tuning role in optimizing the white spectral band by modulating the location of the DCJTB ultrathin layer in the green emissive Alq layer. The optimized WOLED gives the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage-1931 xy coordinates of (0.319, 0.335), a color rendering index of 91.2 at 10 V, a maximum brightness of 21010 cd/m{sup 2} at 12 V and a maximum current efficiency of 5.17 cd/A at 6.6 V. The electroluminescence mechanism of the white device is also discussed.

  8. An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xingjie; Wong, Zi Jing; Mrejen, Michael; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-09-18

    Metamaterial-based optical cloaks have thus far used volumetric distribution of the material properties to gradually bend light and thereby obscure the cloaked region. Hence, they are bulky and hard to scale up and, more critically, typical carpet cloaks introduce unnecessary phase shifts in the reflected light, making the cloaks detectable. Here, we demonstrate experimentally an ultrathin invisibility skin cloak wrapped over an object. This skin cloak conceals a three-dimensional arbitrarily shaped object by complete restoration of the phase of the reflected light at 730-nanometer wavelength. The skin cloak comprises a metasurface with distributed phase shifts rerouting light and rendering the object invisible. In contrast to bulky cloaks with volumetric index variation, our device is only 80 nanometer (about one-ninth of the wavelength) thick and potentially scalable for hiding macroscopic objects. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Ultrathin Alvarez lens system actuated by artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsch, S; Grewe, A; Köbele, L; Sinzinger, S; Zappe, H

    2016-04-01

    A key feature of Alvarez lenses is that they may be tuned in focal length using lateral rather than axial translation, thus reducing the overall length of a focus-tunable optical system. Nevertheless the bulk of classical microsystems actuators limits further miniaturization. We present here a new, ultrathin focus-tunable Alvarez lens fabricated using molding techniques and actuated using liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) artificial muscle actuators. The large deformation generated by the LCE actuators permits the integration of the actuators in-plane with the mechanical and optical system and thus reduces the device thickness to only 1.6 mm. Movement of the Alvarez lens pair of 178 μm results in a focal length change of 3.3 mm, based on an initial focal length of 28.4 mm. This design is of considerable interest for realization of ultraflat focus-tunable and zoom systems.

  10. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi; Oura, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET’s drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore. (paper)

  11. Ultra-thin films for plasmonics: a technology overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-thin films with low surface roughness that support surface plasmon-polaritons in the infra-red and visible ranges are needed in order to improve the performance of devices based on the manipulation of plasmon propagation. Increasing amount of efforts is made in order not only to improve...... the quality of the deposited layers but also to diminish their thickness and to find new materials that could be used in this field. In this review, we consider various thin films used in the field of plasmonics and metamaterials in the visible and IR range. We focus our presentation on technological issues...... of their deposition and reported characterization of film plasmonic performance....

  12. Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.

  13. Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2016-07-12

    Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.

  14. Nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak for electrically large conducting cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Xu, He-Xiu; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-09-01

    Based on the concept of the scattering cancellation technique, we propose a nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak that can efficiently suppress the total scattering cross sections of an electrically large conducting cylinder (over one free-space wavelength). The cloaking mechanism is investigated in depth based on the Mie scattering theory and is simultaneously interpreted from the perspective of far-field bistatic scattering and near-field distributions. We remark that, unlike the perfect transformation-optics-based cloak, this nonideal cloaking technique is mainly designed to minimize simultaneously several scattering multipoles of a relatively large geometry around considerably broad bandwidth. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the antiscattering ability of the metasurface gives rise to excellent total scattering reduction of the electrically large cylinder and remarkable electric-field restoration around the cloak. The outstanding cloaking performance together with the good features of and ultralow profile, flexibility, and easy fabrication predict promising applications in the microwave frequencies.

  15. Nucleation of C60 on ultrathin SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Brad; Groce, Michelle; Cullen, William; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Williams, Ellen; Einstein, Ted

    2012-02-01

    We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy to characterize the nucleation, growth, and morphology of C60 on ultrathin SiO2 grown at room temperature. C60 thin films are deposited in situ by physical vapor deposition with thicknesses varying from <0.05 to ˜1 ML. Island size and capture zone distributions are examined for a varied flux rate and substrate deposition temperature. The C60 critical nucleus size is observed to change between monomers and dimers non-monotonically from 300 K to 500 K. Results will be discussed in terms of recent capture zone studies and analysis methods. Relation to device fabrication will be discussed. doi:10.1016/j.susc.2011.08.020

  16. Ultrathin polycrystalline 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Min-Cherl; Zhang, Dongrong; Nikiforov, Gueorgui O.; Lee, Michael V.; Qi, Yabing, E-mail: Yabing.Qi@oist.jp [Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit (EMSS), Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Joo Shin, Tae; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Han-Koo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Shin, Hyun-Joon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Ultrathin (<6 nm) polycrystalline films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-P) are deposited with a two-step spin-coating process. The influence of spin-coating conditions on morphology of the resulting film was examined by atomic force microscopy. Film thickness and RMS surface roughness were in the range of 4.0–6.1 and 0.6–1.1 nm, respectively, except for small holes. Polycrystalline structure was confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements suggested that the plane through aromatic rings of TIPS-P molecules was perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  17. Chain and mirophase-separated structures of ultrathin polyurethane films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojio, Ken; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Motokucho, Suguru; Furukawa, Mutsuhisa; Uchiba, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Measurements are presented how chain and microphase-separated structures of ultrathin polyurethane (PU) films are controlled by the thickness. The film thickness is varied by a solution concentration for spin coating. The systems are PUs prepared from commercial raw materials. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurement revealed that the degree of hydrogen bonding among hard segment chains decreased and increased with decreasing film thickness for strong and weak microphase separation systems, respectively. The microphase-separated structure, which is formed from hard segment domains and a surrounding soft segment matrix, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The size of hard segment domains decreased with decreasing film thickness, and possibility of specific orientation of the hard segment chains was exhibited for both systems. These results are due to decreasing space for the formation of the microphase-separated structure.

  18. A route to ultrathin quantum gases at polar perovskite heterointerfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2012-09-07

    Oxide interfaces are attracting interest in recent years due to special functionalities of two-dimensional quantum gases. However, with typical thicknesses of at least 10-12 Å the gases still extend considerably in the third dimension, which compromises the size of quantum effects. To overcome this limitation, we propose incorporation of highly electronegative cations, such as Ag. By ab initio calculations, we demonstrate the formation of a mobile two-dimensional hole gas in AgNbO 3/SrTiO 3 that is confined to an ultrathin slab of only 5.6 Å thickness. Electronegative cations therefore are a promising way to enhance the quantum nature of hole gases. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Low-reflection beam refractions by ultrathin Huygens metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Sheng Li; Wan, Xiang; Fu, Xiao Jian; Zhao, Yong Jiu; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Huygens source unit cell to develop an ultrathin low-reflection metasurface, which could provide extreme controls of phases of the transmitted waves. Both electric and magnetic currents are supported by the proposed unit cell, thus leading to highly efficient and full controls of phases. The coupling between electric and magnetic responses is negligible, which will significantly reduce the difficulty of design. Since the unit cell of metasurface is printed on two bonded boards, the fabrication process is simplified and the thickness of metasurface is reduced. Based on the proposed unit cell, a beam-refracting metasurface with low-reflection is designed and manufactured. Both near-field and far-field characteristics of the beam-refracting metasurface are investigated by simulations and measurements, which indicate that the proposed Huygens metasurface performs well in controlling electromagnetic waves

  20. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2016-01-01

    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts...... are important. This article explores how the International Standards for Testing, which face different interpretations and challenges when policy is implemented, are perceived by elite athletes. Particularly, this article aims to investigate how elite athletes perceive the functioning of the testing system (i.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...

  1. The distribution of the barrier height in Al–TiW–Pd2Si/n-Si Schottky diodes from I–V–T measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dökme, Ilbilge; Altındal, Şemsettin; Afandiyeva, Izzet M

    2008-01-01

    The forward and reverse bias current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of Al–TiW–Pd 2 Si/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were measured in the temperature range of 300–400 K. The estimated zero-bias barrier height Φ B0 and the ideality factor n assuming thermionic emission (TE) theory show a strong temperature dependence. While n decreases, Φ B0 increases with increasing temperature. The Richardson plot is found to be linear in the temperature range measured, but the activation energy value of 0.378 eV and the Richardson constant (A*) value of 15.51 A cm −2 K −2 obtained in this plot are much lower than the known values. Such behavior is attributed to Schottky barrier inhomogeneities by assuming a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights (BHs) due to BH inhomogeneities that prevail at the interface. Also, the Φ B0 versus q/2kT plot was drawn to obtain evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the BHs, and Φ B0 = 0.535 eV and σ 0 = 0.069 V for the mean BH and zero-bias standard deviation, respectively, have been obtained from this plot. Thus, the modified ln(I 0 /T 2 ) − q 2 σ 2 0 /2k 2 T 2 versus q/kT plot gives Φ B0 and A* as 0.510 eV and 121.96 A cm −2 K −2 , respectively. This value of the Richardson constant 121.96 A cm −2 K −2 is very close to the theoretical value of 120 A K −2 cm −2 for n-type Si. Hence, it has been concluded that the temperature dependence of the forward I–V characteristics of the Al–TiW–Pd 2 Si/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes can be successfully explained on the basis of a thermionic emission mechanism with a Gaussian distribution of the BHs

  2. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissolvable Films of Silk Fibroin for Ultrathin Conformal Bio-Integrated Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    implantation. *A full list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper. Silk is an appealing biopolymer as a temporary, soluble...18 APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin...10.1038/NMAT2745 Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics Dae-Hyeong Kim and Jonathan Viventi et al

  4. Origin of spin-dependent asymmetries in electron transmission through ultrathin ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, M.P.; Mills, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations of exchange asymmetries in the transmission of electrons through ultrathin films of ferromagnetic Fe. The results account nicely for the magnitude of the asymmetries observed by Pappas et al. in photoemission studies of Cu covered by an ultrathin film of Fe. We argue that exchange asymmetry in the transmissivity of the Fe film, rather than the spin dependence of the electron mean free path, is responsible for the effects reported by these authors

  5. Ultrathin and Nanostructured Au Films with Gradient of Effective Thickness. Optical and Plasmonic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilin, S V; Berzhansky, V N; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Milyukova, E T; Karavaynikov, A V; Tomilina, O A

    2016-01-01

    In present work the results of investigation of optical (transmission spectra) and plasmonic (surface plasmon-polariton resonance) properties of ultrathin and nanostructured Au films are presents. Methods and techniques for the syntheses of samples of ultrathin and nanostructured metallic films, and for the experimental studies of optical and plasmonic properties are representative. Au films on SiO 2 (optic glass) substrates were investigated. (paper)

  6. Relation between film thickness and surface doping of MoS2 based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart de la Rosa, César J.; Arutchelvan, Goutham; Leonhardt, Alessandra; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Radu, Iuliana; Heyns, Marc; De Gendt, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin MoS2 film doping through surface functionalization with physically adsorbed species is of great interest due to its ability to dope the film without reduction in the carrier mobility. However, there is a need for understanding how the thickness of the MoS2 film is related to the induced surface doping for improved electrical performance. In this work, we report on the relation of MoS2 film thickness with the doping effect induced by the n-dopant adsorbate poly(vinyl-alcohol). Field effect transistors built using MoS2 films of different thicknesses were electrically characterized, and it was observed that the ION/OFF ratio after doping in thin films is more than four orders of magnitudes greater when compared with thick films. Additionally, a semi-classical model tuned with the experimental devices was used to understand the spatial distribution of charge in the channel and explain the observed behavior. From the simulation results, it was revealed that the two-dimensional carrier density induced by the adsorbate is distributed rather uniformly along the complete channel for thin films (<5.2 nm) contrary to what happens for thicker films.

  7. Investigation of interface property in Al/SiO2/ n-SiC structure with thin gate oxide by illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P. K.; Hwu, J. G.

    2017-04-01

    The reverse tunneling current of Al/SiO2/ n-SiC structure employing thin gate oxide is introduced to examine the interface property by illumination. The gate current at negative bias decreases under blue LED illumination, yet increases under UV lamp illumination. Light-induced electrons captured by interface states may be emitted after the light sources are off, leading to the recovery of gate currents. Based on transient characteristics of gate current, the extracted trap level is close to the light energy for blue LED, indicating that electron capture induced by lighting may result in the reduction of gate current. Furthermore, bidirectional C- V measurements exhibit a positive voltage shift caused by electron trapping under blue LED illumination, while a negative voltage shift is observed under UV lamp illumination. Distinct trapping and detrapping behaviors can be observed from variations in I- V and C- V curves utilizing different light sources for 4H-SiC MOS capacitors with thin insulators.

  8. Influence of air exposure duration and a-Si capping layer thickness on the performance of p-BaSi2/n-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Takabe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of p-BaSi2(20nm/n-Si heterojunction solar cells was performed with different a-Si capping layer thicknesses (da-Si and varying air exposure durations (tair prior to the formation of a 70-nm-thick indium-tin-oxide electrode. The conversion efficiencies (η reached approximately 4.7% regardless of tair (varying from 12–150 h for solar cells with da-Si = 5 nm. In contrast, η increased from 5.3 to 6.6% with increasing tair for those with da-Si = 2 nm, in contrast to our prediction. For this sample, the reverse saturation current density (J0 and diode ideality factor decreased with tair, resulting in the enhancement of η. The effects of the variation of da-Si (0.7, 2, 3, and 5 nm upon the solar cell performance were examined while keeping tair = 150 h. The η reached a maximum of 9.0% when da-Si was 3 nm, wherein the open-circuit voltage and fill factor also reached a maximum. The series resistance, shunt resistance, and J0 exhibited a tendency to decrease as da-Si increased. These results demonstrate that a moderate oxidation of BaSi2 is a very effective means to enhance the η of BaSi2 solar cells.

  9. Performance Improvement of Microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si Thin Film Solar Cells by Using Laser-Assisted Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si thin film solar cells treated with hydrogen plasma were fabricated at low temperature using a CO2 laser-assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD system. According to the micro-Raman results, the i-Si films shifted from 482 cm−1 to 512 cm−1 as the assisting laser power increased from 0 W to 80 W, which indicated a gradual transformation from amorphous to crystalline Si. From X-ray diffraction (XRD results, the microcrystalline i-Si films with (111, (220, and (311 diffraction were obtained. Compared with the Si-based thin film solar cells deposited without laser assistance, the short-circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with assisting laser power of 80 W were improved from 14.38 mA/cm2 to 18.16 mA/cm2 and from 6.89% to 8.58%, respectively.

  10. Peculiarities of radiation defect formation and annealing in n-Si due to their interaction with each other and defect clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugakov, P.F.; Lukyanitsa, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rearrangement processes proceeding during annealing (T/sub a/ = 50 to 500 0 C) of radiation defects in 60 Co γ-irradiated (T/sub irr/ 0 C) n-Si crystals (rho = 100 to 600 Ωcm) grown by the vacuum float-zone technique are studied. The temperature dependences of the Hall coefficient are measured. The results obtained are interpreted taking into account the interaction during annealing of vacancy-type defects (E-centres, divacancies) with each other and interstitial radiation defects (C/sub i/-C/sub s/ complexes, interstitial carbon C/sub i/). Phosphorus-two vacancies complexes, stable to T/sub a/ >= 500 0 C, are shown to be formed as a result of rearrangements and interaction of E-centres between themselves. The character of interaction of vacancy defects with interstitial ones is found to change significantly in the presence of defect clusters in the bulk of the crystal which are formed under heat treatment (T = 800 0 C, two hours) of the samples preliminary irradiated with fast neutrons (flux PHI/sub n/ = 1x10 14 to 1x10 16 cm -2 ). The peculiarities of radiation defects annealing observed in this case are explained taking into account the influence of defect clusters on the migration processes of mobile defects. Nature of radiation defects being formed at various stages of annealing is discussed. (author)

  11. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics of Au/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes and the effect of transition metal oxides as an interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Somnath; Puigdollers, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Temperature dependent current-voltage (I‒V) characteristics of Au/n-type silicon (n-Si) Schottky barrier diodes have been investigated. Three transition metal oxides (TMO) are used as an interface layer between gold and silicon. The basic Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕb 0) and series resistance (Rs) are calculated and successfully explained by the thermionic emission (TE) theory. It has been found that ideality factor decreased and barrier height increased with increased of temperature. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(I0/T2) vs. 1000/T is determined the activation energy (Ea) and Richardson constant (A*). Whereas value of 'A*' is much smaller than the known theoretical value of n-type Si. The temperature dependent I-V characteristics obtained the mean value of barrier height (ϕb 0 bar) and standard deviation (σs) from the linear plot of ϕap vs. 1000/T. From the modified Richardson plot of ln(I0/T2) ˗ (qσ)2/2(kT)2 vs. 1000/T gives Richardson constant and homogeneous barrier height of Schottky diodes. Main observation in this present work is the barrier height and ideality factor shows a considerable change but the series resistance value exhibits negligible change due to TMO as an interface layer.

  12. Influence of He-ion irradiation on the characteristics of Pd/n-Si{sub 0.90}Ge{sub 0.10}/Si Schottky contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamor, M; Sellai, A; Bouziane, K; Harthi, S H Al; Busaidi, M Al; Gard, F S [Physics Department, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36 Muscat 123, Sultanate of (Oman)

    2007-03-07

    Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of He-ion irradiated Pd/n-Si{sub 09}Ge{sub 0.10} Schottky contacts have been measured in the temperature range from 100 to 300 K. Schottky barrier properties such as the Schottky barrier height ({phi}{sub bn}) and ideality factor (n) have been studied as a function of temperature. The degree to which their characteristics deviated from the ideal case increased as the temperature decreased. A decrease in {phi}{sub bn} and an increase in n with decreasing temperature are observed. Additionally, linear dependence between the so-called temperature factor T{sub 0} and temperature as well as between {phi}{sub bn} and n are shown. This type of strong temperature dependence indicates the presence of a large degree of lateral inhomogeneities of the barrier height, resulting from the He-ion irradiation induced defects and traps which produce a variation in the number of free carriers. The presence of electrically active defects introduced by He-ion irradiation at and below the Si{sub 0.90}Ge{sub 0.10} surface support this interpretation.

  13. One step growth of GaN/SiO2 core/shell nanowire in vapor-liquid-solid route by chemical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, B. K.; Yadav, Shivesh; Dhar, S.

    2017-11-01

    GaN/SiO2 core/shell nanowires are grown by cobalt phthalocyanine catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid route, in which Si wafer coated with a mixture of gallium and indium is used as the source for Ga and Si and ammonia is used as the precursor for nitrogen and hydrogen. Gallium in the presence of indium and hydrogen, which results from the dissociation of ammonia, forms Si-Ga-In alloy at the growth temperature ∼910 °C. This alloy acts as the source of Si, Ga and In. A detailed study using a variety of characterization tools reveals that these wires, which are several tens of micron long, has a diameter distribution of the core ranging from 20 to 50 nm, while the thickness of the amorphous SiO2 shell layer is about 10 nm. These wires grow along [ 1 0 1 bar 0 ] direction. It has also been observed that the average diameter of these wires decreases, while their density increases as the gallium proportion in the Ga-In mixture is increased.

  14. Fabrication of current confinement aperture structure by transforming a conductive GaN:Si epitaxial layer into an insulating GaOx layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Feng; Lee, Wen-Che; Shieh, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Danti; Wang, Dili; Han, Jung

    2014-12-24

    We report here a simple and robust process to convert embedded conductive GaN epilayers into insulating GaOx and demonstrate its efficacy in vertical current blocking and lateral current steering in a working LED device. The fabrication processes consist of laser scribing, electrochemical (EC) wet-etching, photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation, and thermal oxidization of a sacrificial n(+)-GaN:Si layer. The conversion of GaN is made possible through an intermediate stage of porosification where the standard n-type GaN epilayers can be laterally and selectively anodized into a nanoporous (NP) texture while keeping the rest of the layers intact. The fibrous texture of NP GaN with an average wall thickness of less than 100 nm dramatically increases the surface-to-volume ratio and facilitates a rapid oxidation process of GaN into GaOX. The GaOX aperture was formed on the n-side of the LED between the active region and the n-type GaN layer. The wavelength blueshift phenomena of electroluminescence spectra is observed in the treated aperture-emission LED structure (441.5 nm) when compared to nontreated LED structure (443.7 nm) at 0.1 mA. The observation of aperture-confined electroluminescence from an InGaN LED structure suggests that the NP GaN based oxidation will play an enabling role in the design and fabrication of III-nitride photonic devices.

  15. Solar-blind AlxGa1-xN/AlN/SiC photodiodes with a polarization-induced electron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Sampath, A. V.; Gallinat, C. S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Campbell, J. C.; Shen, H.; Wraback, M.

    2013-08-01

    Heterogeneous n-III-nitride/i-p silicon carbide (SiC) photodetectors have been demonstrated that enable the tailoring of the spectral response in the solar blind region below 280 nm. The negative polarization induced charge at the aluminum gallium nitride (AlxGa1-xN)/aluminum nitride (AlN) interface in conjunction with the positive polarization charge at the AlN/SiC interface creates a large barrier to carrier transport across the interface that results in the selective collection of electrons photoexcited to the Γ and L valleys of SiC while blocking the transport of electrons generated in the M valley. In addition, the AlxGa1-xN alloys act as transparent windows that enhance the collection of carriers generated by high energy photons in the fully depleted SiC absorption regions. These two factors combine to create a peak external quantum efficiency of 76% at 242 nm, along with a strong suppression of the long-wavelength response from 260 nm to 380 nm.

  16. The effect of {sup 60}Co ({gamma}-ray) irradiation on the electrical characteristics of Au/SnO{sub 2}/n-Si (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekcen, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Tataroglu, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ademt@gazi.edu.tr; Altindal, S.; Buelbuel, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    The effect of {sup 60}Co ({gamma}-ray) irradiation on the electrical properties of Au/SnO{sub 2}/n-Si (MIS) structures has been investigated using the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) measurements in the frequency range 1 kHz to 1 MHz at room temperature. The MIS structures were exposed to {gamma}-rays at a dose rate of 2.12 kGy/h in water and the range of total dose was 0-500 kGy. It was found that the C-V and G/{omega}-V curves were strongly influenced with both frequency and the presence of the dominant radiation-induced defects, and the series resistance was increased with increasing dose. Also, the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift ({delta}V{sub T}) strongly depended on radiation dose and frequency, and the density of interface states N{sub ss} by Hill-Coleman method decreases with increasing radiation dose.

  17. To dope or not to dope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Knudsen, Mette Lykke; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2013-01-01

    tAim: This study aims to examine the circumstances which athletes say affect their (hypothetical) consid-erations of whether to dope or not and explore the differences between athletes of different gender, ageand sport type.Methods: 645 elite athletes (mean age: 22.12; response rate: 43%) represe......tAim: This study aims to examine the circumstances which athletes say affect their (hypothetical) consid-erations of whether to dope or not and explore the differences between athletes of different gender, ageand sport type.Methods: 645 elite athletes (mean age: 22.12; response rate: 43......%) representing 40 sports completed aweb-based questionnaire. Participants were asked to imagine themselves in a situation in which theyhad to decide whether to dope or not to dope and then evaluate how different circumstances would affecttheir decisions.Results: Multiple circumstances had an effect on athletes......’ hypothetical decisions. The most effective deter-rents were related to legal and social sanctions, side-effects and moral considerations. Female athletesand younger athletes evaluated more reasons as deterrents than older, male athletes. When confrontedwith incentives to dope, the type of sport was often...

  18. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-12-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed.

  19. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed. (topical review)

  20. The strength limits of ultra-thin copper films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiederhirn, Guillaume

    2007-07-02

    Elucidating size effects in ultra-thin films is essential to ensure the performance and reliability of MEMS and electronic devices. In this dissertation, the influence of a capping layer on the mechanical behavior of copper (Cu) films was analyzed. Passivation is expected to shut down surface diffusion and thus to alter the contributions of dislocation- and diffusion-based plasticity in thin films. Experiments were carried out on 25 nm to 2 {mu}m thick Cu films magnetron-sputtered onto amorphous-silicon nitride coated silicon (111) substrates. These films were capped with 10 nm of aluminum oxide or silicon nitride passivation without breaking vacuum either directly after Cu deposition or after a 500 C anneal. The evolution of thermal stresses in these films was investigated mainly by the substrate curvature method between -160 C and 500 C. Negligible differences were detected for the silicon nitride vs. the aluminum oxide passivated Cu films. The processing parameters associated with the passivation deposition also had no noticeable effect on the stress-temperature behavior of the Cu. However, the thermomechanical behavior of passivated Cu films strongly depended on the Cu film thickness. For films in the micrometer range, the influence of the passivation layer was not significant, which suggests that the Cu deformed mainly by dislocation plasticity. However, diffusional creep plays an increasing role with decreasing film thickness since it becomes increasingly difficult to nucleate dislocations in smaller grains. Size effects were investigated by plotting the stress at room temperature after thermal cycling as a function of the inverse film thickness. Between 2 {mu}m and 200 nm, the room temperature stress was inversely proportional to the film thickness. The passivation exerted a strong effect on Cu films thinner than 100 nm by effectively shutting down surface diffusion mechanisms. Since dislocation processes were also shut off in these ultra-thin films, they

  1. Ultra-Thin Solid-State Nanopores: Fabrication and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Aaron Tzeyang

    Solid-state nanopores are a nanofluidic platform with unique advantages for single-molecule analysis and filtration applications. However, significant improvements in device performance and scalable fabrication methods are needed to make nanopore devices competitive with existing technologies. This dissertation investigates the potential advantages of ultra-thin nanopores in which the thickness of the membrane is significantly smaller than the nanopore diameter. Novel, scalable fabrication methods were first developed and then utilized to examine device performance for water filtration and single molecule sensing applications. Fabrication of nanometer-thin pores in silicon nitride membranes was achieved using a feedback-controlled ion beam method in which ion sputtering is arrested upon detection of the first few ions that drill through the membrane. Performing fabrication at liquid nitrogen temperatures prevents surface atom rearrangements that have previously complicated similar processes. A novel cross-sectional imaging method was also developed to allow careful examination of the full nanopore geometry. Atomically-thin graphene nanopores were fabricated via an electrical pulse method in which sub-microsecond electrical pulses applied across a graphene membrane in electrolyte solution are used to create a defect in the membrane and controllably enlarge it into a nanopore. This method dramatically increases the accuracy and reliability of graphene nanopore production, allowing consistent production of single nanopores down to subnanometer sizes. In filtration applications in which nanopores are used to selectively restrict the passage of dissolved contaminants, ultra-thin nanopores minimize the flow resistance, increasing throughput and energy-efficiency. The ability of graphene nanopores to separate different ions was characterized via ionic conductance and reversal potential measurements. Graphene nanopores were observed to conduct cations preferentially over

  2. Health-enhancing doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2010-01-01

    Editorial published at International Network of Humanistic Doping Research (INHDR) website: http://www.doping.au.dk/en/online-resources/editorials/......Editorial published at International Network of Humanistic Doping Research (INHDR) website: http://www.doping.au.dk/en/online-resources/editorials/...

  3. Influence of air exposure duration and a-Si capping layer thickness on the performance of p-BaSi{sub 2}/n-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabe, Ryota; Yachi, Suguru; Tsukahara, Daichi; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi, E-mail: suemasu@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Du, Weijie [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Material and Device, College of Mathematics and Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Fabrication of p-BaSi{sub 2}(20 nm)/n-Si heterojunction solar cells was performed with different a-Si capping layer thicknesses (d{sub a-Si}) and varying air exposure durations (t{sub air}) prior to the formation of a 70-nm-thick indium-tin-oxide electrode. The conversion efficiencies (η) reached approximately 4.7% regardless of t{sub air} (varying from 12–150 h) for solar cells with d{sub a-Si} = 5 nm. In contrast, η increased from 5.3 to 6.6% with increasing t{sub air} for those with d{sub a-Si} = 2 nm, in contrast to our prediction. For this sample, the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}) and diode ideality factor decreased with t{sub air}, resulting in the enhancement of η. The effects of the variation of d{sub a-Si} (0.7, 2, 3, and 5 nm) upon the solar cell performance were examined while keeping t{sub air} = 150 h. The η reached a maximum of 9.0% when d{sub a-Si} was 3 nm, wherein the open-circuit voltage and fill factor also reached a maximum. The series resistance, shunt resistance, and J{sub 0} exhibited a tendency to decrease as d{sub a-Si} increased. These results demonstrate that a moderate oxidation of BaSi{sub 2} is a very effective means to enhance the η of BaSi{sub 2} solar cells.

  4. Analysis of device parameters for Au/tin oxide/n-Si(1 0 0) metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barış, Behzad, E-mail: behzadbaris@gmail.com

    2014-04-01

    In present paper, the device parameters of tin oxide/n-Si(1 0 0) structure have been determined by means of capacitance–voltage (C–V) and conductance–voltage (G–V) measurements between 500 Hz and 1 MHz and current–voltage (I–V) measurements between −2 and +3 V at 300 K. This device has denoted good rectifying behavior and the I–V data could be described by thermionic emission (TE) technique. The values of ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ{sub B}) for the sample have been determined to be 3.724 and 0.624 eV, respectively. The measured values of capacitance and conductance for the series resistance under all the biases have been corrected influence to calculate the real values of capacitance and conductance. The frequency dependence of the capacitance may be attributed to trapping states. Interface trap states of the MOS device increased by decreasing the frequency and were calculated as 1.12×10{sup 11} and 6.62×10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} for 1 MHz and 100 kHz, respectively. Several important device parameters such as barrier height (Φ{sub B}), fermi energy (E{sub F}), diffusion voltage (V{sub D}), donor carrier concentration (N{sub D}) and space charge layer width (W{sub D}) for the device have been obtained between 100 kHz and 1 MHz.

  5. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  6. Synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters below 5 nm for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huidan; Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Mengying; Yan, Yi; Liu, Yongping; Li, Ming; Yang, Zhishu; Geng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Semiconductor with one dimension (1D) ultrathin nanostructure has been proved to be a promising nanomaterial in photocatalytic field. Great efforts were made on preparation of monoclinic ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires. However, non-monoclinic phase tungsten oxides with 1D ultrathin structure, especially less than 5 nm width, have not been reported. Herein, we report the synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires (U-WOx NW) by modified hydrothermal method. Microstructure characterization showed that U-WOx NW have the diameters of 1-3 nm below 5 nm and are hexagonal phase sub-stoichiometric WOx. U-WOx NW show absorption tail in the visible and near infrared region due to oxygen vacancies. For improving further photocatalytic performance, Ag co-catalyst was grown directly onto U-WOx NW surface by in situ redox reaction. Photocatalytic measurements revealed hexagonal U-WOx NW have better photodegradation activity, compared with commercial WO3(C-WO3) and oxidized U-WOx NW, ascribe to larger surface area, short diffusion length of photo-generated charge carriers and visible absorption of oxygen-vacancy-rich hexagonal ultrathin nanostructures. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity and stability of U-WOx NW using Ag co-catalyst were further improved.

  7. Growth of ultra-thin Ag films on Ni(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Axel; Flege, Jan Ingo; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Senanayake, Sanjaya [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Alamgir, Faisal [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of ultra-thin metal films on metallic substrates strongly depend on their morphology and the structure of the buried interface. Hence, detailed knowledge of the growth mechanisms is essential for the creation of new functional materials with novel characteristics. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive structural study of the growth and properties of epitaxial Ag films on Ni(111) by in-situ low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). For lower temperatures, the growth of the Ag film proceeds in a Stranski-Krastanov mode after completion of the wetting layer, while for higher temperatures layer-by-layer growth is observed. Quantitative information about the film structure were obtained by analyzing the intensity-voltage (I-V) dependence of the local electron reflectivity (IV-LEEM). The corresponding I(V) spectra showed intensity oscillations depending on local thickness of the Ag film due to the quantum size effect (QSE). Modeling of the I(V) spectra was performed both within the framework of a one-dimensional Kronig-Penney model and multiple scattering IV-LEED calculations. The results of both approaches concerning the variation of the layer spacings and interface characteristics for different temperatures and film thicknesses will be discussed.

  8. Ultrathin Coaxial Fiber Supercapacitors Achieving High Energy and Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Caiwei; Xie, Yingxi; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Tang, Yong; Lu, Longsheng; Lin, Liwei

    2017-11-15

    Fiber-based supercapacitors have attracted significant interests because of their potential applications in wearable electronics. Although much progress has been made in recent years, the energy and power densities, mechanical strength, and flexibility of such devices are still in need of improvement for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate an ultrathin microcoaxial fiber supercapacitor (μCFSC) with high energy and power densities (2.7 mW h/cm 3 and 13 W/cm 3 ), as well as excellent mechanical properties. The prototype with the smallest reported overall diameter (∼13 μm) is fabricated by successive coating of functional layers onto a single micro-carbon-fiber via a scalable process. Combining the simulation results via the electrochemical model, we attribute the high performance to the well-controlled thin coatings that make full use of the electrode materials and minimize the ion transport path between electrodes. Moreover, the μCFSC features high bending flexibility and large tensile strength (more than 1 GPa), which make it promising as a building block for various flexible energy storage applications.

  9. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Sachan, R; Strader, J; Favazza, C; Khenner, M; Kalyanaraman, R

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm < or = h < or = 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm < or = h < or = 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  10. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, H; Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sachan, R; Strader, J; Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Khenner, M, E-mail: ramki@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO{sub 2} under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm {<=} h {<=} 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm {<=} h {<=} 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO{sub 2}. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  11. Axial ion channeling patterns from ultra-thin silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motapothula, M.; Dang, Z.Y.; Venkatesan, T.; Breese, M.B.H.; Rana, M.A.; Osman, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present channeling patterns produced by MeV protons transmitted through 55 nm thick [0 0 1] silicon membranes showing the early evolution of the axially channeled beam angular distribution for small tilts away from the [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] axes. Instead of a ring-like “doughnut” distribution previously observed at small tilts to major axes in thicker membranes, geometric shapes such as squares and hexagons are observed along different axes in ultra-thin membranes. The different shapes arise because of the highly non-equilibrium transverse momentum distribution of the channeled beam during its initial propagation in the crystal and the reduced multiple scattering which allows the fine angular structure to be resolved. We describe a simple geometric construction of the intersecting planar channels at an axis to gain insight into the origin of the geometric shapes observed in such patterns and how they evolve into the ‘doughnut’ distributions in thicker crystals.

  12. Photoelectron diffraction of magnetic ultrathin films: Fe/Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Wagner, M.K. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Guo, X.Q.; Tong, S.Y. (Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-03

    The preliminary results of an ongoing investigation of Fe/Cu(001) are presented here. Energy dependent photoelectron diffraction, including the spin-dependent variant using the multiplet split Fe3s state, is being used to investigate the nanoscale structures formed by near-monolayer deposits of Fe onto Cu(001). Core-level photoemission from the Fe3p and Fe3s states has been generated using synchrotron radiation as the tunable excitation source. Tentatively, a comparison of the experimental Fe3p cross section measurements with multiple scattering calculations indicates that the Fe is in a fourfold hollow site with a spacing of 3.6{Angstrom} between it and the atom directly beneath it, in the third layer. This is consistent with an FCC structure. The possibility of utilizing spin-dependent photoelectron diffraction to investigate magnetic ultrathin films will be demonstrated, using our preliminary spectra of the multiplet-split Fe3s os near-monolayer Fe/Cu(001). 18 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Spin accumulation in disordered topological insulator ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Ho, Cong Son; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2017-08-01

    Topological insulator (TI) ultrathin films differ from the more commonly studied semi-infinite bulk TIs in that the former possess both top and bottom surfaces where the surface states localized at different surfaces can couple to one another across the finite thickness of the film. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization, the TI thin films display two distinct phases depending on which of the inter-surface coupling or the magnetization is stronger. In this work, we consider a Bi2Se3 TI thin film system with an in-plane magnetization and numerically calculate the resulting spin accumulation on both surfaces of the film due to an in-plane electric field to linear order. We describe a numerical scheme for performing the Kubo formula calculation in which we include impurity scattering and vertex corrections. We find that the sums of the spin accumulation over the two surfaces in the in-plane direction perpendicular to the magnetization and in the out of plane direction are antisymmetric in Fermi energy around the charge neutrality point and are non-vanishing only when the symmetry between the top and bottom TI surfaces is broken. The impurity scattering, in general, diminishes the magnitude of the spin accumulation.

  14. Development of Full-Scale Ultrathin Shell Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Türkmen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed that a new ultrathin shell composite reflector is developed considering different design options to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio, cost, and manufacturing. The reflector is an offset parabolic reflector with a diameter of 6 m, a focal length of 4.8 m, and an offset of 0.3 m and has the ability of folding and self-deploying. For Ku-band missions a full-scale offset parabolic reflector antenna is designed by considering different concepts of stiffening: (i reflective surface and skirt, (ii reflective surface and radial ribs, and (iii reflective surface, skirt, and radial ribs. In a preliminary study, the options are modeled using ABAQUS finite element program and compared with respect to their mass, fundamental frequency, and thermal surface errors. It is found that the option of reflective surface and skirt is more advantageous. The option is further analyzed to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio considering the design parameters of material thickness, width of the skirt, and ply angles. Using the TOPSIS method is determined the best reflector concept among thirty different designs. Accordingly, new design can be said to have some advantages in terms of mass, natural frequency, number of parts, production, and assembly than both SSBR and AstroMesh reflectors.

  15. Extremely flexible nanoscale ultrathin body silicon integrated circuits on plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrjerdi, Davood; Bedell, Stephen W

    2013-01-09

    In recent years, flexible devices based on nanoscale materials and structures have begun to emerge, exploiting semiconductor nanowires, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. This is primarily to circumvent the existing shortcomings of the conventional flexible electronics based on organic and amorphous semiconductors. The aim of this new class of flexible nanoelectronics is to attain high-performance devices with increased packing density. However, highly integrated flexible circuits with nanoscale transistors have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we show nanoscale flexible circuits on 60 Å thick silicon, including functional ring oscillators and memory cells. The 100-stage ring oscillators exhibit the stage delay of ~16 ps at a power supply voltage of 0.9 V, the best reported for any flexible circuits to date. The mechanical flexibility is achieved by employing the controlled spalling technology, enabling the large-area transfer of the ultrathin body silicon devices to a plastic substrate at room temperature. These results provide a simple and cost-effective pathway to enable ultralight flexible nanoelectronics with unprecedented level of system complexity based on mainstream silicon technology.

  16. Ultrathin flexible piezoelectric sensors for monitoring eye fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chaofeng; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Bingwei; Zhang, Yangyang; Du, Yangkun; Feng, Xue

    2018-02-01

    Eye fatigue is a symptom induced by long-term work of both eyes and brains. Without proper treatment, eye fatigue may incur serious problems. Current studies on detecting eye fatigue mainly focus on computer vision detect technology which can be very unreliable due to occasional bad visual conditions. As a solution, we proposed a wearable conformal in vivo eye fatigue monitoring sensor that contains an array of piezoelectric nanoribbons integrated on an ultrathin flexible substrate. By detecting strains on the skin of eyelid, the sensors may collect information about eye blinking, and, therefore, reveal human’s fatigue state. We first report the design and fabrication of the piezoelectric sensor and experimental characterization of voltage responses of the piezoelectric sensors. Under bending stress, the output voltage curves yield key information about the motion of human eyelid. We also develop a theoretical model to reveal the underlying mechanism of detecting eyelid motion. Both mechanical load test and in vivo test are conducted to convince the working performance of the sensors. With satisfied durability and high sensitivity, this sensor may efficiently detect abnormal eyelid motions, such as overlong closure, high blinking frequency, low closing speed and weak gazing strength, and may hopefully provide feedback for assessing eye fatigue in time so that unexpected situations can be prevented.

  17. Impact of Ultrathin C60 on Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Wang, Qiong; Traverse, Christopher J; Yang, Chenchen; Young, Margaret; Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S; Lunt, Sophia Y; Hamann, Thomas W; Lunt, Richard R

    2018-01-23

    Halide perovskite solar cells have seen dramatic progress in performance over the past several years. Certified efficiencies of inverted structure (p-i-n) devices have now exceeded 20%. In these p-i-n devices, fullerene compounds are the most popular electron-transfer materials. However, the full function of fullerenes in perovskite solar cells is still under investigation, and the mechanism of photocurrent hysteresis suppression by fullerene remains unclear. In previous reports, thick fullerene layers (>20 nm) were necessary to fully cover the perovskite film surface to make good contact with perovskite film and avoid large leakage currents. In addition, the solution-processed fullerene layer has been broadly thought to infiltrate into the perovskite film to passivate traps on grain boundary surfaces, causing suppressed photocurrent hysteresis. In this work, we demonstrate an efficient perovskite photovoltaic device with only 1 nm C 60 deposited by vapor deposition as the electron-selective material. Utilizing a combination of fluorescence microscopy and impedance spectroscopy, we show that the ultrathin C 60 predominately acts to extract electrons from the perovskite film while concomitantly suppressing the photocurrent hysteresis by reducing space charge accumulation at the interface. This work ultimately helps to clarify the dominant role of fullerenes in perovskite solar cells while simplifying perovskite solar cell design to reduce manufacturing costs.

  18. Stability of Polymer Ultrathin Films (Top-Down Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Jayanta Kumar; Beuvier, Thomas; Unni, Aparna Beena; Chavez Panduro, Elvia Anabela; Vignaud, Guillaume; Delorme, Nicolas; Chebil, Mohamed Souheib; Grohens, Yves; Gibaud, Alain

    2015-08-25

    In polymer physics, the dewetting of spin-coated polystyrene ultrathin films on silicon remains mysterious. By adopting a simple top-down method based on good solvent rinsing, we are able to prepare flat polystyrene films with a controlled thickness ranging from 1.3 to 7.0 nm. Their stability was scrutinized after a classical annealing procedure above the glass transition temperature. Films were found to be stable on oxide-free silicon irrespective of film thickness, while they were unstable (2.9 nm) on 2 nm oxide-covered silicon substrates. The Lifshitz-van der Waals intermolecular theory that predicts the domains of stability as a function of the film thickness and of the substrate nature is now fully reconciled with our experimental observations. We surmise that this reconciliation is due to the good solvent rinsing procedure that removes the residual stress and/or the density variation of the polystyrene films inhibiting thermodynamically the dewetting on oxide-free silicon.

  19. Doping of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Doping of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Long-term stable water vapor permeation barrier properties of SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at extremely low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the water vapor permeation barrier properties of 30-nm-thick SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayer structures grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 7 mTorr. The derived water vapor transmission rate was 1.12 × 10 −6 g/(m 2 day) at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity, and this value was maintained up to 15 000 h of aging time. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the nanolaminated film was composed of an amorphous phase. A mixed phase was observed upon performing high resolution transmission electron microscope analysis, which indicated that a thermodynamically stable structure was formed. It was revealed amorphous SiN/SiCN/SiN multilayer structures that are free from intermixed interface defects effectively block water vapor permeation into active layer

  2. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes.

  3. Epitaxial stabilization of ultra thin films of electron doped manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middey, S., E-mail: smiddey@uark.edu; Kareev, M.; Meyers, D.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Tripathi, S.; Chakhalian, J. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Yazici, D.; Maple, M. B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Ryan, P. J.; Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Ultra-thin films of the electron doped manganite La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} were grown in a layer-by-layer growth mode on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates by pulsed laser interval deposition. High structural quality and surface morphology were confirmed by a combination of synchrotron based x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions. In addition, the electron doping signature was corroborated by Hall effect measurements. All grown films show a ferromagnetic ground state as revealed by both dc magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements and remain insulating contrary to earlier reports of a metal-insulator transition. Our results hint at the possibility of electron-hole asymmetry in the colossal magnetoresistive manganite phase diagram akin to the high-T{sub c} cuprates.

  4. Synthesis of the (N2)3- radical from Y2+ and its protonolysis reactivity to form (N2H2)2- via the Y[N(SiMe3)2]3/KC8 reduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Lee, David S; Ziller, Joseph W; Doedens, Robert J; Bates, Jefferson E; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

    2011-03-23

    Examination of the Y[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3)/KC(8) reduction system that allowed isolation of the (N(2))(3-) radical has led to the first evidence of Y(2+) in solution. The deep-blue solutions obtained from Y[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3) and KC(8) in THF at -35 °C under argon have EPR spectra containing a doublet at g(iso) = 1.976 with a 110 G hyperfine coupling constant. The solutions react with N(2) to generate (N(2))(2-) and (N(2))(3-) complexes {[(Me(3)Si)(2)N](2)(THF)Y}(2)(μ-η(2):η(2)-N(2)) (1) and {[(Me(3)Si)(2)N](2)(THF)Y}(2)(μ-η(2):η(2)-N(2))[K(THF)(6)] (2), respectively, and demonstrate that the Y[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3)/KC(8) reaction can proceed through an Y(2+) intermediate. The reactivity of (N(2))(3-) radical with proton sources was probed for the first time for comparison with the (N(2))(2-) and (N(2))(4-) chemistry. Complex 2 reacts with [Et(3)NH][BPh(4)] to form {[(Me(3)Si)(2)N](2)(THF)Y}(2)(μ-N(2)H(2)), the first lanthanide (N(2)H(2))(2-) complex derived from dinitrogen, as well as 1 as a byproduct, consistent with radical disproportionation reactivity.

  5. Epitaxial growth and dielectric properties of Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 thin films on TiN/Si substrates with SrTiO sub 3 buffer layers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Choi, B C; Jeong, J H; Joseph, M; Tabata, H; Kawai, T

    2000-01-01

    Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 (BVO) thin films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO sub 3 /TiN/Si substrates by using pulsed laser ablation. A TiN thin film was prepared at 700 .deg. C as a bottom electrode. The TiN film exhibited a high alpha axis orientation and a very smooth morphology. Before the preparation of the BVO thin film, a crystallized SrTiO sub 3 thin film was deposited as a buffer layer on TiN/Si. The BVO thin film grown at a substrate temperature at 700 .deg. C and an oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr was found to be epitaxial along the c-axis. Also, BVO films were observed to have flat surfaces and the step-flow modes. The dielectric constant of the BVO film on STO/TiN/Si was constant at about 8 approx 4 in the applied frequency range between 10 sup 2 and 10 sup 6 Hz.

  6. Optical and electrical improvements of semipolar (1 1 −2 2) GaN-based light emitting diodes by Si doping of n-GaN template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Hwan; Han, Sang-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ryong; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In semipolar GaN, Si-doping is effective to reduce out-of plane PSFs toward [1−100]. • Interfacial quality of semipolar QWs was improved by increasing SiH4 flow of n-GaN. • Electrical properties of semipolar GaN were improved by increasing Si doping. • Light output power of semipolar LEDs were increased with SiH4 flow rate of n-type GaN. - Abstract: We report that the performance of semipolar (1 1 −2 2) GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was improved by increasing the Si-doping concentration of n-type GaN templates. In-plane and out-of plane high-resolution X-ray diffraction demonstrated that crystal defects such as threading dislocation, partial stacking faults and basal stacking faults, were significantly decreased by increasing the Si-doping concentration. This resulted in the increase of carrier mobility due to reduction of the defect-scattering effect. Furthermore, the quality of InGaN/GaN quantum-well interfaces was improved by increasing the Si-doping concentration of the n-type GaN template. Based on these results, we suggest that the light-output power and operation voltage of semipolar (1 1 −2 2) GaN-based LEDs would be improved by increasing Si doping concentration of n-type GaN templates

  7. Subatomic deformation driven by vertical piezoelectricity from CdS ultrathin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; He, Xuexia; Zhu, Hongfei; Sun, Linfeng; Fu, Wei; Wang, Xingli; Hoong, Lai Chee; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhao, Wu; Wei, Jun; Jin, Zhong; Shen, Zexiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Driven by the development of high-performance piezoelectric materials, actuators become an important tool for positioning objects with high accuracy down to nanometer scale, and have been used for a wide variety of equipment, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, positioning at the subatomic scale is still a great challenge. Ultrathin piezoelectric materials may pave the way to positioning an object with extreme precision. Using ultrathin CdS thin films, we demonstrate vertical piezoelectricity in atomic scale (three to five space lattices). With an in situ scanning Kelvin force microscopy and single and dual ac resonance tracking piezoelectric force microscopy, the vertical piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) up to 33 pm·V(-1) was determined for the CdS ultrathin films. These findings shed light on the design of next-generation sensors and microelectromechanical devices.

  8. Ultrathin Cu2O as an efficient inorganic hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2016-02-18

    We demonstrate that ultrathin P-type Cu2O thin films fabricated by a facile thermal oxidation method can serve as a promising hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Following a two-step method, inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells were fabricated and a power conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. We find that the thickness and properties of Cu2O layers must be precisely tuned in order to achieve the optimal solar cell performance. The good performance of such perovskite solar cells can be attributed to the unique properties of ultrathin Cu2O, including high hole mobility, good energy level alignment with CH3NH3PbI3, and longer lifetime of photo-excited carriers. Combining merits of low cost, facile synthesis, and high device performance, ultrathin Cu2O films fabricated via thermal oxidation hold promise for facilitating the developments of industrial-scale perovskite solar cells.

  9. Ultrathin Interface Regime of Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles for Effective Magnetism Tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung Ho; Noh, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Hyun; Lim, Yongjun; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2017-02-08

    The magnetic exchange coupling interaction between hard and soft magnetic phases has been important for tailoring nanoscale magnetism, but spin interactions at the core-shell interface have not been well studied. Here, we systematically investigated a new interface phenomenon termed enhanced spin canting (ESC), which is operative when the shell thickness becomes ultrathin, a few atomic layers, and exhibits a large enhancement of magnetic coercivity (H C ). We found that ESC arises not from the typical hard-soft exchange coupling but rather from the large magnetic surface anisotropy (K S ) of the ultrathin interface. Due to this large increase in magnetism, ultrathin core-shell nanoparticles overreach the theoretical limit of magnetic energy product ((BH) max ) and exhibit one of the largest values of specific loss power (SLP), which testifies to their potential capability as an effective mediator of magnetic energy conversion.

  10. Ultra-thin film encapsulation processes for micro-electro-mechanical devices and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoldt, Conrad R; Bright, Victor M

    2006-01-01

    A range of physical properties can be achieved in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) through their encapsulation with solid-state, ultra-thin coatings. This paper reviews the application of single source chemical vapour deposition and atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the growth of submicron films on polycrystalline silicon microstructures for the improvement of microscale reliability and performance. In particular, microstructure encapsulation with silicon carbide, tungsten, alumina and alumina-zinc oxide alloy ultra-thin films is highlighted, and the mechanical, electrical, tribological and chemical impact of these overlayers is detailed. The potential use of solid-state, ultra-thin coatings in commercial microsystems is explored using radio frequency MEMS as a case study for the ALD alloy alumina-zinc oxide thin film. (topical review)

  11. Borazino-Doped Polyphenylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Davide; Fasano, Francesco; Najjari, Btissam; Demitri, Nicola; Bonifazi, Davide

    2017-04-19

    The divergent synthesis of two series of borazino-doped polyphenylenes, in which one or more aryl units are replaced by borazine rings, is reported for the first time, taking advantage of the decarbonylative [4 + 2] Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction between ethynyl and tetraphenylcyclopentadienone derivatives. Because of the possibility of functionalizing the borazine core with different groups on the aryl substituents at the N and B atoms of the borazino core, we have prepared borazino-doped polyphenylenes featuring different doping dosages and orientations. To achieve this, two molecular modules were prepared: a core and a branching unit. Depending on the chemical natures of the central aromatic module and the reactive group, each covalent combination of the modules yields one exclusive doping pattern. By means of this approach, three- and hexa-branched hybrid polyphenylenes featuring controlled orientations and dosages of the doping B 3 N 3 rings have been prepared. Detailed photophysical investigations showed that as the doping dosage is increased, the strong luminescent signal is progressively reduced. This suggests that the presence of the B 3 N 3 rings engages additional deactivation pathways, possibly involving excited states with an increasing charge-separated character that are restricted in the full-carbon analogues. Notably, a strong effect of the orientational doping on the fluorescence quantum yield was observed for those hybrid polyphenylene structures featuring low doping dosages. Finally, we showed that Cu-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is also chemically compatible with the BN core, further endorsing the inorganic benzene as a versatile aromatic scaffold for engineering of molecular materials with tailored and exploitable optoelectronic properties.

  12. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Characteristics of Au/Si3N4/4H n-SiC MIS Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiterol, F.; Güllü, H. H.; Bayraklı, Ö.; Yıldız, D. E.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical characteristics of the Au/Si3N4/4H n-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode were investigated under the temperature, T , interval of 160-400 K using current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage ( C {-} V ) and conductance-voltage ( G/ω {-} V ) measurements. Firstly, the Schottky diode parameters as zero-bias barrier height ( Φ_{B0} ) and ideality factor ( n ) were calculated according to the thermionic emission (TE) from forward bias I-V analysis in the whole working T . Experimental results showed that the values of Φ_{B0} were in increasing behavior with increasing T while n values decreased with inverse proportionality in n versus Φ_{{{{B}}0}} plot. Therefore, the non-ideal I-V behavior with inhomogeneous barrier height (BH) formation has been discussed under the assumption of Gaussian distribution (GD). From the GD of BHs, the mean BH was found to be about 1.40 eV with 0.1697 standard deviation and the modified Richardson constant A^{*} of this diode was obtained as 141.65 A/cm2 K2 in good agreement with the literature (the theoretical value of A^{*} is 137.21 A/cm2 K2). The relationship between Φ_{B0} and n showed an abnormal I-V behavior depending on T , and it was modeled by TE theory with GD of BH due to the effect in inhomogeneous BH at the interface. Secondly, according to Cheung's model, series resistance, R_{{S}} values were calculated in the T range of 160-400 K and these values were found to decrease with increasing T . Finally, the density of interface states, D_{{it}} was calculated and the T dependence of energy distribution of D_{{it}} profiles determined the forward I {-} V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective BH, Φ_{{e}} and n . D_{{it}} were also calculated according to the Hill-Coleman method from C {-} V and G/ω {-} V analysis. Furthermore, the variation of D_{{it}} as a function of frequency, f and T were determined.

  13. Precisely Controlled Ultrathin Conjugated Polymer Films for Large Area Transparent Transistors and Highly Sensitive Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Dongyoon; Ryu, Gi-Seong; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Myungwon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-04-13

    A uniform ultrathin polymer film is deposited over a large area with molecularlevel precision by the simple wire-wound bar-coating method. The bar-coated ultrathin films not only exhibit high transparency of up to 90% in the visible wavelength range but also high charge carrier mobility with a high degree of percolation through the uniformly covered polymer nanofibrils. They are capable of realizing highly sensitive multigas sensors and represent the first successful report of ethylene detection using a sensor based on organic field-effect transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pathways from disordered to ordered nanostructures from defect guided dewetting of ultrathin bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Abhiram; Mondal, Kartick; Biswas, Gautam; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-03-01

    Transitions from spinodal to pattern-guided dewetting of a bilayer of ultrathin films (dewetting to generate ordered patterns of nanoscopic size and periodicity. Comparing the results obtained from the MD simulations with the more widely employed continuum dynamics approach highlights the importance of the MD approach in quantitatively analyzing the dynamics of the dewetting of ultrathin films. The study demonstrates that the pattern-guided dewetting of confined bilayers can lead to ordered holes, droplets, and stripes with size and periodicity less than 10nm, which are yet to be realized experimentally and can be of significance for a number of future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electric field effect on exchange interaction in ultrathin Co films with ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Mio; Yamada, Kihiro T.; Shiota, Yoichi; Ando, Fuyuki; Koyama, Tomohiro; Kakizakai, Haruka; Mizuno, Hayato; Miwa, Kazumoto; Ono, Shimpei; Moriyama, Takahiro; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2018-06-01

    Electric-field modulations of magnetic properties have been extensively studied not only for practical applications but also for fundamental interest. In this study, we investigated the electric field effect on the exchange interaction in ultrathin Co films with ionic liquids. The exchange coupling J was characterized from the direct magnetization measurement as a function of temperature using Pt/ultrathin Co/MgO structures. The trend of the electric field effect on J is in good agreement with that of the theoretical prediction, and a large change in J by applying a gate voltage was observed by forming an electric double layer using ionic liquids.

  16. Patterned FePt nanostructures using ultrathin self-organized templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chen Hua; Zhang, Min; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xiao Hong

    2018-02-01

    Patterned magnetic thin films are both scientifically interesting and technologically useful. Ultrathin self-organized anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template can be used to fabricate large area nanodot and antidot arrays. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures may be tuned by the morphology of the AAO template, which in turn can be controlled by synthetic parameters. In this work, ultrathin AAO templates were used as etching masks for the fabrication of both FePt nanodot and antidot arrays with high areal density. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10 FePt thin films are preserved in the nanostructures.

  17. Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, T. D., E-mail: tds32@cam.ac.uk; Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Ferguson, A. J., E-mail: ajf1006@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Rushforth, A. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-10

    Current-induced torques in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers were investigated using an electrically driven ferromagnetic resonance technique. The angle dependence of the resonances, detected by a rectification effect as a voltage, was analysed to determine the symmetries and relative magnitudes of the spin-orbit torques. Both anti-damping (Slonczewski) and field-like torques were observed. As the ferromagnet thickness was reduced from 3 to 1 nm, the sign of the sum of the field-like torque and Oersted torque reversed. This observation is consistent with the emergence of a Rashba spin orbit torque in ultra-thin bilayers.

  18. The influence of the surface parameter changes onto the phonon states in ultrathin crystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šetrajčić, Jovan P.; Ilić, Dušan I.; Jaćimovski, Stevo K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have analytically investigated how the changes in boundary surface parameters influence the phonon dispersion law in ultrathin films of the simple cubic crystalline structure. Spectra of possible phonon states are analyzed using the method of two-time dependent Green's functions and for the diverse combination of boundary surface parameters, this problem was presented numerically and graphically. It turns out that for certain values and combinations of parameters, displacement of dispersion branches outside of bulk zone occurs, leading to the creation of localized phonon states. This fact is of great importance for the heat removal, electrical conductivity and superconducting properties of ultrathin films.

  19. Analyzing nitrogen concentration using carrier illumination (CI) technology for DPN ultra-thin gate oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.S.; Wu, Bill; Fan, Aki; Kuo, C.W.; Segovia, M.; Kek, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in the gate oxide plays a key role for 90 nm and below ULSI technology. Techniques like secondary ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are commonly used for understanding N concentration. This paper describes the application of the carrier illuminationTM (CI) technique to measure the nitrogen concentration in ultra-thin gate oxides. A set of ultra-thin gate oxide wafers with different DPN (decoupled plasma nitridation) treatment conditions were measured using the CI technique. The CI signal has excellent correlation with the N concentration as measured by XPS

  20. Ultra-thin Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang

    2017-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a 5.2% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) featuring an ultra-thin absorber layer (less than 450 nm). Solutions to the issues of reproducibility and micro-particulate ejection often encountered with PLD are proposed. At the ......We report on the fabrication of a 5.2% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) featuring an ultra-thin absorber layer (less than 450 nm). Solutions to the issues of reproducibility and micro-particulate ejection often encountered with PLD are proposed...

  1. Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Mikhail A.; Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Kolle, Mathias; Genevet, Patrice; Aizenberg, Joanna; Capasso, Federico

    2013-09-01

    Recently a new class of optical interference coatings was introduced which comprises ultra-thin, highly absorbing dielectric layers on metal substrates. We show that these lossy coatings can be augmented by an additional transparent subwavelength layer. We fabricated a sample comprising a gold substrate, an ultra-thin film of germanium with a thickness gradient, and several alumina films. The experimental reflectivity spectra showed that the additional alumina layer increases the color range that can be obtained, in agreement with calculations. More generally, this transparent layer can be used to enhance optical absorption, protect against erosion, or as a transparent electrode for optoelectronic devices.

  2. A dual-stimuli-responsive fluorescent switch ultrathin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixiong; Liang, Ruizheng; Liu, Wendi; Yan, Dongpeng; Wei, Min

    2015-10-01

    Stimuli-responsive fluorescent switches have shown broad applications in optical devices, biological materials and intelligent responses. Herein, we describe the design and fabrication of a dual-stimuli-responsive fluorescent switch ultrathin film (UTF) via a three-step layer-by-layer (LBL) technique: (i) encapsulation of spiropyran (SP) within an amphiphilic block copolymer (PTBEM) to give the (SP@PTBEM) micelle; (ii) the mixture of riboflavin (Rf) and poly(styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS) to enhance the adhesion ability of small molecules; (iii) assembly of negatively charged SP@PTBEM and Rf-PSS with cationic layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets to obtain the (Rf-PSS/LDH/SP@PTBEM)n UTFs (n: bilayer number). The assembly process of the UTFs and their luminescence properties, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), present a uniform and ordered layered structure with stepwise growth. The resulting Rf-PSS/LDH/SP@PTBEM UTF serves as a three-state switchable multicolor (green, yellow, and red) luminescent system based on stimulation from UV/Vis light and pH, with an acceptable reversibility. Therefore, this work provides a facile way to fabricate stimuli-responsive solid-state film switches with tunable-color luminescence, which have potential applications in the areas of displays, sensors, and rewritable optical memory and fluorescent logic devices.Stimuli-responsive fluorescent switches have shown broad applications in optical devices, biological materials and intelligent responses. Herein, we describe the design and fabrication of a dual-stimuli-responsive fluorescent switch ultrathin film (UTF) via a three-step layer-by-layer (LBL) technique: (i) encapsulation of spiropyran (SP) within an amphiphilic block copolymer (PTBEM) to give the (SP@PTBEM) micelle; (ii) the mixture of riboflavin (Rf) and poly(styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS) to enhance the adhesion ability of small molecules; (iii) assembly of negatively charged SP

  3. Growth orientation dependence of Si doping in GaAsN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiuxun, E-mail: xxhan@semi.ac.cn [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Dong, Chen [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Feng, Qiang [Optoelectronic Department, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya, 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-02-07

    The incorporation of Si in GaAsN alloys grown simultaneously on (100), (311)A, (311)B, and (211)B GaAs substrates by the chemical beam epitaxy has been investigated. The decrease in electron concentration with the increasing N composition suggests the occurrence of N and Si interaction, whereas the interaction exhibits evidently different extent depending on the growth orientation. Combined with the secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements, it is revealed that (311)B and (211)B are the promising substrate orientations to reduce the N-Si passivation and improve n-type Si doping in GaAsN over a wider N composition range. A surface bonding model is utilized to explain the plane polarity dependent incorporation behaviors of Si and N.

  4. One-pot synthesis of MoS2/In2S3 ultrathin nanoflakes with mesh-shaped structure on indium tin oxide as photocathode for enhanced photo-and electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoliang; Shan, Fei; Jiang, Xinxin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Feng

    2018-03-01

    A bifunctional MoS2/In2S3 hybrid composite that has both photo- and electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is prepared by a facile one pot hydrothermal method. The characterizations by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Photoluminescence (PL) shows that the MoS2/In2S3 hybrid exhibits ultrathin nanoflakes with mesh-shaped structure on transparent conductive substrates, and the as prepared catalyst composite obviously improves the separation of electro-hole pairs. The as prepared hybrid nanosheets with Mo:In of 1/2 integrate In-doped MoS2 to reduce the stacking and increase the active surface area. The novel mesh-shaped nanostructure with a moderate degree of disorder provides not only simultaneously intrinsic conductivity and defects but also higher electrochemically active surface area (ECSA). By electrochemical measurements, such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), we find that the MoS2/In2S3 hybrid possesses much better photo/electrochemical activity than pristine MoS2 or In2S3. MoS2/In2S3 ultrathin nanoflaks are anticipated to be a superior photoelectrocatalyst for PEC cells, and the rational use of the MoS2/In2S3 cathode offers a new avenue toward achieving effective photo-assistant electrocatalytic activity.

  5. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp"3 network to sp"2 as evidenced by an increase of the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp"3-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp"3 and sp"2 contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  6. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  7. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting devices with a non-doped yellow phosphorescent emissive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Juan; Yu Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Hu Xiao; Hou Menghan; Jiang Yadong

    2012-03-30

    Highly efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices (PHWOLEDs) with a simple structure of ITO/TAPC (40 nm)/mCP:FIrpic (20 nm, x wt.%)/bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2} Prime ] iridium (acetylacetonate) (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) (y nm)/Bphen (30 nm)/Mg:Ag (200 nm) have been developed, by inserting a thin layer of non-doped yellow phosphorescent (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) between doped blue emitting layer (EML) and electron transporting layer. By changing the doping concentration of the blue EML and the thickness of the non-doped yellow EML, a PHWOLED comprised of higher blue doping concentration and thinner yellow EML achieves a high current efficiency of 31.7 cd/A and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.33, 0.41) at a luminance of 3000 cd/m{sup 2} could be observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduce a simplified architecture for phosphorescent white organic light-emitting device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The key concept of device fabrication is combination of doped blue emissive layer (EML) with non-doped ultra-thin yellow EML. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping concentration of the blue EML and thickness of the yellow EML are sequentially adjusted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High device performance is achieved due to improved charge carrier balance as well as two parallel emission mechanisms in the EMLs.

  8. Salt-Doped Polymer Light-Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Bathilde

    Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (PLECs) are solid state devices based on the in situ electrochemical doping of the luminescent polymer and the formation of a p-n junction where light is emitted upon the application of a bias current or voltage. PLECs answer the drawbacks of polymer light-emitting diodes as they do not require an ultra-thin active layer nor are they reliant on low work function cathode materials that are air unstable. However, because of the dynamic nature of the doping, they suffer from slow response times and poor stability over time. Frozen-junction PLECs offer a solution to these drawbacks, yet they are impractical due to their sub-ambient operation temperature requirement. Our work presented henceforth aims to achieve room temperature frozen-junction PLECS. In order to do that we removed the ion solvating/transporting polymer from the active layer, resulting in a luminescent polymer combined solely with a salt sandwiched between an ITO electrode and an aluminum electrode. The resulting device was not expected to operate like a PLEC due to the absence of an ion-solvating and ion-transporting medium. However, we discovered that the polymer/salt devices could be activated by applying a large voltage bias, resulting in much higher current and luminance. More important, the activated state is quasi static. Devices based on the well-known orange-emitting polymer MEH-PPV displayed a luminance storage half-life of 150 hours when activated by forward bias (ITO biased positively with respect to the aluminum) and 200 hours when activated by reverse bias. More remarkable yet, devices based on a green co-polymer displayed no notable decay in current density or luminance even after being stored for 1200 hours at room temperature! PL imaging under UV excitation demonstrates the presence of doping. These devices are described herein along with an explanation of their operating mechanisms.

  9. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  10. Subthreshold Current and Swing Modeling of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for the subthreshold current and swing of the short-channel symmetric underlap ultrathin double gate metal oxide field effect transistors with a source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profile. The channel potential model already reported earlier has been utilized to formulate the closed form expression for the subthreshold current and swing of the device. The effects of the lateral straggle and geometrical parameters such as the channel length, channel thickness, and oxide thickness on the off current and subthreshold slope have been demonstrated. The devices with source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profiles in the underlap structure are observed to be highly resistant to short channel effects while improving the current drive. The proposed model is validated by comparing the results with the numerical simulation data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator from SILVACO.

  11. Exfoliation of Threading Dislocation-Free, Single-Crystalline, Ultrathin Gallium Nitride Nanomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Zhao, Lan

    2014-01-01

    -efficiency, low-cost, GaN-based heterostructure devices. For the first time, the chemical exfoliation of completely TD-free, single-crystalline, ultrathin (tens of nanometers) GaN nanomembranes is demonstrated using UV-assisted electroless chemical etching

  12. A novel needle-type sampling device for flexible ultrathin bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yuji; Hayashi, Katsutoshi; Shindoh, Yuriko; Iijima, Hideya; Tanaka, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of suspected cancer in the periphery of the lung is difficult. A flexible ultrathin bronchoscope has been developed for the diagnosis of peripherally located pulmonary lesions that cannot be reached with the sampling devices for standard flexible bronchoscopes. The diagnostic yield with forceps and a brush for ultrathin bronchoscopes, however, is not adequate, especially when a lesion is not exposed to the bronchial lumen. We have thus developed a novel needle-type sampling device and tested its yield in transbronchial cytology. The device consists of an elongated dental H-file (0.4 mm in diameter and 110 cm in length), a housing sheath (1.0 mm in outer diameter), and a novel handle, which enables rapid out-and-in motion of the needle. Ten consecutive patients with a peripheral pulmonary lesion who had an indication for diagnostic procedure with a flexible ultrathin bronchoscope were enrolled. The optimal bronchial route to the lesion was analyzed with virtual bronchoscopy in a data set obtained with high-resolution computed tomography, and a novel bronchial route labeling system (prior-ridge-based relative orientation nomenclature) was employed to guide insertion of the bronchoscope. Sampling with the novel needle was performed prior to use of the forceps and brush under conventional fluoroscopy. In all the cases, sampling with the needle was successful and the amount of the specimen was sufficient for cytology. Our novel sampling system with flexible ultrathin bronchoscopes may contribute to accurate and minimally invasive diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. (author)

  13. Thickness and composition of ultrathin SiO2 layers on Si

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, C; Verheijen, M.A.; Tamminga, Y; Pijnenburg, RHW; Tombros, N; Cubaynes, F

    2004-01-01

    Ultrathin SiO2 layers are of importance for the semiconductor industry. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the chemical composition and thickness of this type of layers is x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As shown by Seah and Spencer [Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 640 (2002)], it

  14. Nanowire decorated, ultra-thin, single crystalline silicon for photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurang, Pantea; Turan, Rasit; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2017-10-06

    Reducing silicon (Si) wafer thickness in the photovoltaic industry has always been demanded for lowering the overall cost. Further benefits such as short collection lengths and improved open circuit voltages can also be achieved by Si thickness reduction. However, the problem with thin films is poor light absorption. One way to decrease optical losses in photovoltaic devices is to minimize the front side reflection. This approach can be applied to front contacted ultra-thin crystalline Si solar cells to increase the light absorption. In this work, homojunction solar cells were fabricated using ultra-thin and flexible single crystal Si wafers. A metal assisted chemical etching method was used for the nanowire (NW) texturization of ultra-thin Si wafers to compensate weak light absorption. A relative improvement of 56% in the reflectivity was observed for ultra-thin Si wafers with the thickness of 20 ± 0.2 μm upon NW texturization. NW length and top contact optimization resulted in a relative enhancement of 23% ± 5% in photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  15. Ultrathin Cu2O as an efficient inorganic hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili; Li, Feng; Wang, Hong; Alarousu, Erkki; Chen, Yin; Lin, Bin; Wang, Lingfei; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Yangyang; Wu, Kewei; Wang, Xianbin; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrathin P-type Cu2O thin films fabricated by a facile thermal oxidation method can serve as a promising hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Following a two-step method, inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite

  16. Percolation-enhanced generation of terahertz pulses by optical rectification on ultrathin gold films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, G.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Emission of pulses of electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range is observed when ultrathin gold films on glass are illuminated with femtosecond near-IR laser pulses. A distinct maximum is observed in the emitted terahertz amplitude from films of average thickness just above the percolation

  17. All-solid-state flexible ultrathin micro-supercapacitors based on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Bowen; Dong, Haibo; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-07

    Flexible, compact, ultrathin and all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors are prepared by coating H₃PO₄/PVA gel electrolyte onto micro-patterned rGO interdigitated electrodes prepared by combining photolithography with selective electrophoretic deposition. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Coupling of microphase separation and dewetting in weakly segregated diblock co-polymer ultrathin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Derong; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai; Zhang, Fajun

    2011-10-04

    We have studied the coupling behavior of microphase separation and autophobic dewetting in weakly segregated poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(L-lactide) (PCL-b-PLLA) diblock co-polymer ultrathin films on carbon-coated mica substrates. At temperatures higher than the melting point of the PLLA block, the co-polymer forms a lamellar structure in bulk with a long period of L ∼ 20 nm, as determined using small-angle X-ray scattering. The relaxation procedure of ultrathin films with an initial film thickness of h = 10 nm during annealing has been followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the experimental temperature range (100-140 °C), the co-polymer dewets to an ultrathin film of itself at about 5 nm because of the strong attraction of both blocks with the substrate. Moreover, the dewetting velocity increases with decreasing annealing temperatures. This novel dewetting kinetics can be explained by a competition effect of the composition fluctuation driven by the microphase separation with the dominated dewetting process during the early stage of the annealing process. While dewetting dominates the relaxation procedure and leads to the rupture of the ultrathin films, the composition fluctuation induced by the microphase separation attempts to stabilize them because of the matching of h to the long period (h ∼ 1/2L). The temperature dependence of these two processes leads to this novel relaxation kinetics of co-polymer thin films. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Novel self-organization mechanism in ultrathin liquid films: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Justin; Favazza, Christopher; Thomas, Dennis; Garcia, Hernando; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2008-07-04

    When an ultrathin metal film of thickness h (h*, in contrast to the classical spinodal dewetting behavior where Lambda increases monotonically as h2. These predictions agree well with experimental observations for Co and Fe films on SiO2.

  20. Solution-Processable Ultrathin Size- and Shape-Controlled Colloidal Cu2-xS Nanosheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, Ward; Akkerman, Quinten A.; Ke, Xiaoxing; van Huis, Marijn A.; Bals, Sara; Donega, Celso de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets (NSs) possess extraordinary properties that are attractive for both fundamental studies and technological devices. Solution-based bottom-up methods are emerging as promising routes to produce free-standing NSs, but the synthesis of colloidal NSs with

  1. How Do Organic Vapors Swell Ultra-Thin PIM-1 Films?

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Rahimi, Khosrow; Rauer, Sebastian Bernhard; Ghanem, Bader; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Pinnau, Ingo; Wessling, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic sorption of ethanol and toluene vapor into ultra-thin supported PIM-1 films down to 6 nm are studied with a combination of in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and in-situ X-ray reflectivity. Both ethanol and toluene significantly swell

  2. On the difference between optically and electrically determined resistivity of ultra-thin titanium nitride films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the determination and comparison of the resistivity of ultra-thin atomic layer deposited titanium nitride films in the thickness range 0.65–20 nm using spectroscopic ellipsometry and electrical test structures. We found that for films thicker than 4 nm, the resistivity values

  3. Descriptipn of giant changes of domain sizes in ultrathin magnetic films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kisielewski, M.; Maziewski, A.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 282, - (2004), s. 39-43 ISSN 0304-8853 Grant - others:SCSR(PL) 4T11B 006 24 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetic domains * ultrathin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2004

  4. D.C electrical conductivity of ultrathin Ag-Si0 superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Haija, A.J.; Madjid, A.H.

    1985-10-01

    Ultrathin multilayer structures of successive silver and silicon monoxide layer pairs were prepared using evaporation techniques. Small angle x-ray diffraction and multiple reflection interferometric techniques have been used to establish the identity periods of samples. A review of the electrical properties is presented. Both applied voltage and thermally induced resistance switching were observed. These phenomena are described from an empirical vantage. (author)

  5. COVALENTLY ATTACHED MULTILAYER ULTRA-THIN FILMS FROM DIAZORESIN AND CALIXARENES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-hui Yang; Wei-xiao Cao

    2003-01-01

    A kind of photosensitive ultra-thin film was fabricated from diazoresin (DR) and various calixarenes by using the self-assembly technique. Under UV irradiation both the ionic- and hydrogen bonds between the layers of the film will convert into covalent bonds. As a result, the stability of the film toward polar solvents increases dramatically.

  6. Ultrathin endoscopes based on multicore fibers and adaptive optics: a status review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Sivankutty, Siddharth; Tsvirkun, Viktor; Bouwmans, Géraud; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    We take stock of the progress that has been made into developing ultrathin endoscopes assisted by wave front shaping. We focus our review on multicore fiber-based lensless endoscopes intended for multiphoton imaging applications. We put the work into perspective by comparing with alternative approaches and by outlining the challenges that lie ahead.

  7. Ultrathin Limit of Exchange Bias Coupling at Oxide Multiferroic/Ferromagnetic Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, Mark; Yu, P.; Martin, L.W.; Molegraaf, Hajo; Chu, Y.H.; Holcomb, M.B.; Balke, N.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Ramesh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange bias coupling at the multiferroic- ferromagnetic interface in BiFeO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 heterostructures exhibits a critical thickness for ultrathin BiFeO3 layers of 5 unit cells (2 nm). Linear dichroism measurements demonstrate the dependence on the BiFeO3 layer thickness with a strong

  8. Ultra-thin ZnSe: Anisotropic and flexible crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacaksiz, C., E-mail: cihanbacaksiz@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir (Turkey); Senger, R.T. [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir (Turkey); Sahin, H. [Department of Photonics, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-thin ZnSe is dynamically stable. • Ultra-thin ZnSe is electronically direct-gap semiconductor. • Ultra-thin ZnSe is ultra-flexible. • Ultra-thin ZnSe is mechanically in-plane anisotropic. - Abstract: By performing density functional theory-based calculations, we investigate the structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of the thinnest ever ZnSe crystal . The vibrational spectrum analysis reveals that the monolayer ZnSe is dynamically stable and has flexible nature with its soft phonon modes. In addition, a direct electronic band gap is found at the gamma point for the monolayer structure of ZnSe. We also elucidate that the monolayer ZnSe has angle dependent in-plane elastic parameters. In particular, the in-plane stiffness values are found to be 2.07 and 6.89 N/m for the arm-chair and zig-zag directions, respectively. The angle dependency is also valid for the Poisson ratio of the monolayer ZnSe. More significantly, the in-plane stiffness of the monolayer ZnSe is the one-tenth of Young modulus of bulk zb-ZnSe which indicates that the monolayer ZnSe is a quite flexible single layer crystal. With its flexible nature and in-plane anisotropic mechanical properties, the monolayer ZnSe is a good candidate for nanoscale mechanical applications.

  9. Ultra-thin ZnSe: Anisotropic and flexible crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R.T.; Sahin, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-thin ZnSe is dynamically stable. • Ultra-thin ZnSe is electronically direct-gap semiconductor. • Ultra-thin ZnSe is ultra-flexible. • Ultra-thin ZnSe is mechanically in-plane anisotropic. - Abstract: By performing density functional theory-based calculations, we investigate the structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of the thinnest ever ZnSe crystal . The vibrational spectrum analysis reveals that the monolayer ZnSe is dynamically stable and has flexible nature with its soft phonon modes. In addition, a direct electronic band gap is found at the gamma point for the monolayer structure of ZnSe. We also elucidate that the monolayer ZnSe has angle dependent in-plane elastic parameters. In particular, the in-plane stiffness values are found to be 2.07 and 6.89 N/m for the arm-chair and zig-zag directions, respectively. The angle dependency is also valid for the Poisson ratio of the monolayer ZnSe. More significantly, the in-plane stiffness of the monolayer ZnSe is the one-tenth of Young modulus of bulk zb-ZnSe which indicates that the monolayer ZnSe is a quite flexible single layer crystal. With its flexible nature and in-plane anisotropic mechanical properties, the monolayer ZnSe is a good candidate for nanoscale mechanical applications.

  10. A Simple Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Ultrathin Nickel Cobaltite Nanosheets for Electrochemical Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Youqi; Cao, Chuanbao

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple microwave-assisted method to fabricate high-quality two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets with a geometrically graphene-like architecture. The unique large-area nanostructures represent an ultrahigh surface atomic ratio with almost all active elements exposed outside for surface-dependent electrochemical reaction processes. Experimental results reveal that the as-synthesized ultrathin NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets show excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage application. The ultrathin NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets could deliver a high first discharge capacity (1287.1 mAh g −1 ) with initial Coulombic efficiency of 80.0% at 200 mA g −1 current density. The reversible lithium storage capacity still retains at 804.8 mAh g −1 in the 100th cycle, suggesting a good cycling stability. The excellent electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets could be ascribed to the unique ultrathin 2D architecture, which could offer large exposed active surface with more lithium-insertion channels and significantly reduce lithium ion diffusion distance. The cost-efficient synthesis and excellent lithium storage properties make the 2D NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets as a promising anode material for high-performance lithium ion batteries

  11. Opto-electrical approaches for high efficiency and ultra-thin c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The need for cost reduction requires using less raw material and cost-effective processes without sacrificing the conversion efficiency. For keeping high the generated photo-current, an advanced light trapping scheme for ultra-thin silicon wafers is here proposed, exhibiting absorptances up to 99%

  12. Nano-Photonic Structures for Light Trapping in Ultra-Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Pathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thick wafer-silicon is the dominant solar cell technology. It is of great interest to develop ultra-thin solar cells that can reduce materials usage, but still achieve acceptable performance and high solar absorption. Accordingly, we developed a highly absorbing ultra-thin crystalline Si based solar cell architecture using periodically patterned front and rear dielectric nanocone arrays which provide enhanced light trapping. The rear nanocones are embedded in a silver back reflector. In contrast to previous approaches, we utilize dielectric photonic crystals with a completely flat silicon absorber layer, providing expected high electronic quality and low carrier recombination. This architecture creates a dense mesh of wave-guided modes at near-infrared wavelengths in the absorber layer, generating enhanced absorption. For thin silicon (<2 μm and 750 nm pitch arrays, scattering matrix simulations predict enhancements exceeding 90%. Absorption approaches the Lambertian limit at small thicknesses (<10 μm and is slightly lower (by ~5% at wafer-scale thicknesses. Parasitic losses are ~25% for ultra-thin (2 μm silicon and just 1%–2% for thicker (>100 μm cells. There is potential for 20 μm thick cells to provide 30 mA/cm2 photo-current and >20% efficiency. This architecture has great promise for ultra-thin silicon solar panels with reduced material utilization and enhanced light-trapping.

  13. Interaction of Light with Metallized Ultrathin Silicon Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Krishanu

    Freestanding metallized structures, a few tens of nanometer thick, show promise in creating flow-through sensors, single molecule detectors and novel solar cells. In this thesis we study test structures that are a step towards creating such devices. Finite- difference time-domain simulations have been used to understand and predict the interaction of light with such devices. Porous nanocrystalline silicon membrane is a novel freestanding layer structure that has been used as a platform to fabricate and study sensors and novel slot nanohole devices. Optical mode studies of the sensing structures, together with the method of fabrication inspired the creation of ultrathin freestanding hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n junctions solar cells. All the freestanding structures used in this thesis are just a few tens of nanometers in thicknesses. In the first part of the thesis the sensing properties of the metallized porous nanocrystalline structure are studied. The surprising blueshift associated with the sensing peak is observed experimentally and predicted theoretically with the help of simulations. Polarization dependence of the membranes is predicted and confirmed for angled deposition of metal on the membranes. In the next part, a novel slot structure is fabricated and modeled to study the slot effect in nanohole metal-insulator-metal structures. Atomic layer deposition of alumina is used to conformally deposit alumina within the nanohole to create the slot structure. Simulation models were used to calculate the lowest modal volume of 4x10-5 mum3 for an optimized structure. In the last part of the thesis, freestanding solar cells are fabricated by effectively replacing the porous nanocrystalline silicon layer of the membranes with a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n junction with metal layers on both sides of the p-i-n junction. The metal layers act both as electrical contacts as well as mirrors for a Fabry Perot cavity resonator. This helps in tuning the

  14. Ultra-thin Polyethylene glycol Coatings for Stem Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Samantha K.

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a widely accessible and a clinically relevant cell type that are having a transformative impact on regenerative medicine. However, current clinical expansion methods can lead to selective changes in hMSC phenotype resulting from relatively undefined cell culture surfaces. Chemically defined synthetic surfaces can aid in understanding stem cell behavior. In particular we have developed chemically defined ultra-thin coatings that are stable over timeframes relevant to differentiation of hMSCs (several weeks). The approach employs synthesis of a copolymer with distinct chemistry in solution before application to a substrate. This provides wide compositional flexibility and allows for characterization of the orthogonal crosslinking and peptide binding groups. Characterization is done in solution by proton NMR and after crosslinking by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The solubility of the copolymer in ethanol and low temperature crosslinking, expands its applicability to plastic substrates, in addition to silicon, glass, and gold. Cell adhesive peptides, namely Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) fragments, are coupled to coating via different chemistries resulting in the urethane, amide or the thioester polymer-peptide bonds. Development of azlactone-based chemistry allowed for coupling in water at low peptide concentrations and resulted in either an amide or thioester bonds, depending on reactants. Characterization of the peptide functionalized coating by XPS, infrared spectroscopy and cell culture assays, showed that the amide linkages can present peptides for multiple weeks, while shorter-term presentation of a few days is possible using the more labile thioester bond. Regardless, coatings promoted initial adhesion and spreading of hMSCs in a peptide density dependent manner. These coatings address the following challenges in chemically defined cell culture simultaneously: (i) substrate adaptability, (ii) scalability over large areas

  15. Structure Formation of Ultrathin PEO Films at Solid Interfaces—Complex Pattern Formation by Dewetting and Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans-Georg; Meyer, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    The direct contact of ultrathin polymer films with a solid substrate may result in thin film rupture caused by dewetting. With crystallisable polymers such as polyethyleneoxide (PEO), molecular self-assembly into partial ordered lamella structures is studied as an additional source of pattern formation. Morphological features in ultrathin PEO films (thickness dewetting patterns and diffusion limited growth pattern of ordered lamella growing within the dewetting areas. Besides structure formation of hydrophilic PEO molecules, n-alkylterminated (hydrophobic) PEO oligomers are investigated with respect to self-organization in ultrathin films. Morphological features characteristic for pure PEO are not changed by the presence of the n-alkylgroups. PMID:23385233

  16. Ge nanocrystals embedded in ultrathin Si3N4 multilayers with SiO2 barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahariqushchi, R.; Gundogdu, Sinan; Aydinli, A.

    2017-04-01

    Multilayers of germanium nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in thin films of silicon nitride matrix separated with SiO2 barriers have been fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SiGeN/SiO2 alternating bilayers have been grown on quartz and Si substrates followed by post annealing in Ar ambient from 600 to 900 °C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as well as Raman spectroscopy show good crystallinity of Ge confined to SiGeN layers in samples annealed at 900 °C. Strong compressive stress for SiGeN/SiO2 structures were observed through Raman spectroscopy. Size, as well as NC-NC distance were controlled along the growth direction for multilayer samples by varying the thickness of bilayers. Visible photoluminescence (PL) at 2.3 and 3.1 eV with NC size dependent intensity is observed and possible origin of PL is discussed.

  17. Effects of 6 MeV electron irradiation on the electrical properties and device parameters of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/n-Si MOS capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, P.; Banerjee, I.; Barhai, P.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215 (India); Das, A.K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Mahapatra, S.K., E-mail: skm@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electron irradiation effects make variation in the device parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The device parameters changes due to percentage of defects and charge trapping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leakage current of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/n-Si changes due to interface dangling bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leakage current mechanism of MOS structures is due to Poole-Frenkel effect. - Abstract: The effects of 6 MeV electron irradiation on the electrical properties and device parameter characteristics of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/n-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors have been studied. Twelve Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/n-Si MOS capacitors were fabricated using r.f. magnetron sputtering and divided into four groups. The first group was not irradiated and treated as virgin. The rest were irradiated with 6 MeV electrons at doses 10, 20, and 30 kGy, maintaining the dose rate at {approx}1 kGy/min. Variations in crystallinity of the virgin and irradiated capacitors were studied using grazing incident X-ray diffraction. The thickness and in-depth elemental distributions of individual layers were determined using secondary ion mass apectrometry. Capacitance-voltage, conductance-voltage and leakage current-voltage characteristics of the virgin and irradiated samples were studied. The device parameters (flat band voltage, surface charge density and interface trap density of the virgin and irradiated structures) were determined. The electrical properties of the capacitors were investigated and the Poole-Frenkel coefficient of the capacitors was determined from leakage current measurements. The leakage current mechanism has been explained.

  18. Effects of 6 MeV electron irradiation on the electrical properties and device parameters of Al/Al2O3/TiO2/n-Si MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, P.; Banerjee, I.; Barhai, P.K.; Das, A.K.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Mahapatra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electron irradiation effects make variation in the device parameters. ► The device parameters changes due to percentage of defects and charge trapping. ► Leakage current of Al/Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 /n-Si changes due to interface dangling bonds. ► The leakage current mechanism of MOS structures is due to Poole–Frenkel effect. - Abstract: The effects of 6 MeV electron irradiation on the electrical properties and device parameter characteristics of Al/Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 /n-Si metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitors have been studied. Twelve Al/Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 /n-Si MOS capacitors were fabricated using r.f. magnetron sputtering and divided into four groups. The first group was not irradiated and treated as virgin. The rest were irradiated with 6 MeV electrons at doses 10, 20, and 30 kGy, maintaining the dose rate at ∼1 kGy/min. Variations in crystallinity of the virgin and irradiated capacitors were studied using grazing incident X-ray diffraction. The thickness and in-depth elemental distributions of individual layers were determined using secondary ion mass apectrometry. Capacitance–voltage, conductance–voltage and leakage current–voltage characteristics of the virgin and irradiated samples were studied. The device parameters (flat band voltage, surface charge density and interface trap density of the virgin and irradiated structures) were determined. The electrical properties of the capacitors were investigated and the Poole–Frenkel coefficient of the capacitors was determined from leakage current measurements. The leakage current mechanism has been explained.

  19. Tunable magnetic properties by interfacial manipulation of L1(0)-FePt perpendicular ultrathin film with island-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Wang, S G; Yang, M Y; Zhang, E; Zhan, Q; Jiang, Y; Li, B H; Yu, G H

    2012-02-01

    Based on interfacial manipulation of the MgO single crystal substrate and non-magnetic AIN compound, a L1(0)-FePt perpendicular ultrathin film with the structure of MgO/FePt-AIN/Ta was designed, prepared, and investigated. The film is comprised of L1(0)-FePt "magnetic islands," which exhibits a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), tunable coercivity (Hc), and interparticle exchange coupling (IEC). The MgO substrate promotes PMA of the film because of interfacial control of the FePt lattice orientation. The AIN compound is doped to increase the difference of surface energy between FePt layer and MgO substrate and to suppress the growth of FePt grains, which takes control of island growth mode of FePt atoms. The AIN compound also acts as isolator of L1(0)-FePt islands to pin the sites of FePt domains, resulting in the tunability of Hc and IEC of the films.

  20. Impact of ultra-thin Al2O3-y layers on TiO2-x ReRAM switching characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapatseli, Maria; Cortese, Simone; Serb, Alexander; Khiat, Ali; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2017-05-01

    Transition metal-oxide resistive random access memory devices have demonstrated excellent performance in switching speed, versatility of switching and low-power operation. However, this technology still faces challenges like poor cycling endurance, degradation due to high electroforming (EF) switching voltages and low yields. Approaches such as engineering of the active layer by doping or addition of thin oxide buffer layers have been often adopted to tackle these problems. Here, we have followed a strategy that combines the two; we have used ultra-thin Al2O3-y buffer layers incorporated between TiO2-x thin films taking into account both 3+/4+ oxidation states of Al/Ti cations. Our devices were tested by DC and pulsed voltage sweeping and in both cases demonstrated improved switching voltages. We believe that the Al2O3-y layers act as reservoirs of oxygen vacancies which are injected during EF, facilitate a filamentary switching mechanism and provide enhanced filament stability, as shown by the cycling endurance measurements.

  1. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  2. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    nese doped BaTiO3 ceramics, sintered at 1400°C in air, changes from tetragonal to hexagonal between 0⋅5 and. 1⋅7 mole% of manganese (Langhammer et al 2000). As a driving force of the transformation from the cubic to the hexagonal crystal structure, the influence of the Jahn–. Teller distortion is proposed. The grain ...

  3. Ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries. Performances and applications; Microaccumulateurs ultra minces au lithium. Performances et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.; Terrat, J.P. [Hydromecanique et frottement (HEF), 42 - Andrezieux Boutheon (France); Levasseur, A.; Vinatier, P.; Meunier, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee et Physique de Bordeaux

    1996-12-31

    This short paper (abstract) describes the characteristics and performances of prototypes of ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries (thickness < 0.2 mm) which can be incorporated into microelectronic circuits. (J.S.)

  4. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo; Car, Anja; Wind, Jan; Peinemann, Klaus Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform

  5. Ultra-thin solution-based coating of molybdenum oxide on multiwall carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-02-01

    Uniform and conformal coating of ultrathin molybdenum oxide (MoO 3) thin film onto conducting MWCNTs was successfully synthesized through a facile, nontoxic and generally applicable precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment. The ultrathin MoO3 coating enables a fast and reversible redox reaction which improves the specific capacitance by utilizing the maximum number of active sites for the redox reaction, while the high porosity of the MWCNTs facilitates ion migration in the electrolyte and shorten the ion diffusion path. The ultrathin MoO3 coated MWCNTs electrodes show a very high specific capacitance of 1145 Fg -1 in 2 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution when 5 nm thick MoO3 was considered alone despite the low weight percentage of the MoO3 (16wt%). Furthermore, the ultrathin MoO3 coated MWCNTs supercapacitor electrodes exhibited excellent cycling performance of > 97% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Labram, John G.; Lin, Yenhung; Zhao, Kui; Li, Ruipeng; Thomas, Stuart R.; Semple, James; Androulidaki, Maria; Sygellou, Lamprini; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Amassian, Aram; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    reports of the growth of uniform, ultrathin (<5 nm) metal-oxide semiconductors from solution, however, have potentially opened the door to such phenomena manifesting themselves. Here, a theoretical framework is developed for energy quantization

  7. Ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries. Performances and applications; Microaccumulateurs ultra minces au lithium. Performances et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M; Terrat, J P [Hydromecanique et frottement (HEF), 42 - Andrezieux Boutheon (France); Levasseur, A; Vinatier, P; Meunier, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee et Physique de Bordeaux

    1997-12-31

    This short paper (abstract) describes the characteristics and performances of prototypes of ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries (thickness < 0.2 mm) which can be incorporated into microelectronic circuits. (J.S.)

  8. Structural studies on Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin films on tin (IV) stearate using X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Deraman; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Mohd Ali Sulaiman; Mohd Ali Sufi

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin films of tin (IV) stearate for different numbers of layers. The structural information such as interplanar spacing, unit cells spacing, molecular length and orientation of molecular chains were obtained from the diffraction data. This information is discussed and compared with that previously published for LB ultra-thin films of manganese stearate and cadmium stearate

  9. Enhancement of photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2 induced by plasma doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sungjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Guo, L Jay; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-05-27

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides hold promise for making ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices with a combination of excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, long lifetime, and low manufacturing cost. Engineering the proper band structures of such layered materials is essential to realize such potential. Here, we present a plasma-assisted doping approach for significantly improving the photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2. In this work, we fabricated and characterized photovoltaic devices with a vertically stacked indium tin oxide electrode/multilayer MoS2/metal electrode structure. Utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach, we are able to form p-n junctions in MoS2 layers that facilitate the collection of photogenerated carriers, enhance the photovoltages, and decrease reverse dark currents. Using plasma-assisted doping processes, we have demonstrated MoS2-based photovoltaic devices exhibiting very high short-circuit photocurrent density values up to 20.9 mA/cm(2) and reasonably good power-conversion efficiencies up to 2.8% under AM1.5G illumination, as well as high external quantum efficiencies. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for leveraging the optoelectronic properties of emerging atomically layered two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  10. Reliability assessment of ultra-thin HfO2 films deposited on silicon wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wei-En; Chang, Chia-Wei; Chang, Yong-Qing; Yao, Chih-Kai; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano-mechanical properties on annealed ultra-thin HfO 2 film are studied. ► By AFM analysis, hardness of the crystallized HfO 2 film significantly increases. ► By nano-indention, the film hardness increases with less contact stiffness. ► Quality assessment on the annealed ultra-thin films can thus be achieved. - Abstract: Ultra-thin hafnium dioxide (HfO 2 ) is used to replace silicon dioxide to meet the required transistor feature size in advanced semiconductor industry. The process integration compatibility and long-term reliability for the transistors depend on the mechanical performance of ultra-thin HfO 2 films. The criteria of reliability including wear resistance, thermal fatigue, and stress-driven failure rely on film adhesion significantly. The adhesion and variations in mechanical properties induced by thermal annealing of the ultra-thin HfO 2 films deposited on silicon wafers (HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si) are not fully understood. In this work, the mechanical properties of an atomic layer deposited HfO 2 (nominal thickness ≈10 nm) on a silicon wafer were characterized by the diamond-coated tip of an atomic force microscope and compared with those of annealed samples. The results indicate that the annealing process leads to the formation of crystallized HfO 2 phases for the atomic layer deposited HfO 2 . The HfSi x O y complex formed at the interface between HfO 2 and SiO 2 /Si, where the thermal diffusion of Hf, Si, and O atoms occurred. The annealing process increases the surface hardness of crystallized HfO 2 film and therefore the resistance to nano-scratches. In addition, the annealing process significantly decreases the harmonic contact stiffness (or thereafter eliminate the stress at the interface) and increases the nano-hardness, as measured by vertically sensitive nano-indentation. Quality assessments on as-deposited and annealed HfO 2 films can be thereafter used to estimate the mechanical properties and adhesion of ultra-thin HfO 2

  11. Reliability assessment of ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} films deposited on silicon wafer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wei-En [Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Room 216, Building 8, 321 Kuang Fu Road Sec. 2, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yong-Qing [Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Room 216, Building 8, 321 Kuang Fu Road Sec. 2, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yao, Chih-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Jiunn-Der, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-mechanical properties on annealed ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} film are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By AFM analysis, hardness of the crystallized HfO{sub 2} film significantly increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By nano-indention, the film hardness increases with less contact stiffness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quality assessment on the annealed ultra-thin films can thus be achieved. - Abstract: Ultra-thin hafnium dioxide (HfO{sub 2}) is used to replace silicon dioxide to meet the required transistor feature size in advanced semiconductor industry. The process integration compatibility and long-term reliability for the transistors depend on the mechanical performance of ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} films. The criteria of reliability including wear resistance, thermal fatigue, and stress-driven failure rely on film adhesion significantly. The adhesion and variations in mechanical properties induced by thermal annealing of the ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} films deposited on silicon wafers (HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si) are not fully understood. In this work, the mechanical properties of an atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} (nominal thickness Almost-Equal-To 10 nm) on a silicon wafer were characterized by the diamond-coated tip of an atomic force microscope and compared with those of annealed samples. The results indicate that the annealing process leads to the formation of crystallized HfO{sub 2} phases for the atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2}. The HfSi{sub x}O{sub y} complex formed at the interface between HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Si, where the thermal diffusion of Hf, Si, and O atoms occurred. The annealing process increases the surface hardness of crystallized HfO{sub 2} film and therefore the resistance to nano-scratches. In addition, the annealing process significantly decreases the harmonic contact stiffness (or thereafter eliminate the stress at the interface) and increases the nano-hardness, as measured by vertically

  12. Influence of the number of layers on ultrathin CsSnI3 perovskite: from electronic structure to carrier mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Long, Mengqiu; Cai, Meng-Qiu; Yang, Junliang

    2018-03-01

    Inorganic halide perovskites have attracted great attention in recent years as promising materials for optoelectronic devices, with ultrathin inorganic halide perovskites showing excellent properties and great potential applications. Herein, the intrinsic electronic and optical properties of ultrathin cesium tin tri-iodide (CsSnI3) perovskite with a varying number of layers are explored using first-principles calculations. The results reveal that ultrathin CsSnI3 is a direct band gap semiconductor, and the band gap continues to increase to 1.83 eV from 1.28 eV as the number of layers is reduced to one layer from the bulk. By decreasing the number of layers, the effective mass of ultrathin CsSnI3 increases, and the optical absorption intensity along the x and y directions shows that the linear dichroism becomes stronger and stronger. Furthermore, the carrier mobilities (µ) can be predicted, and they show obvious in-plane anisotropy. The µ of the electrons is higher than that of the holes, and the electron mobility along the y direction is higher than that along the x direction. The layer thickness does not distinctly influence the µ. The difference in the atomic orbital distribution has the nature of obvious anisotropy in ultrathin CsSnI3. This work suggests that ultrathin inorganic perovskite could be a potential candidate for future nano-optoelectronic devices.

  13. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y., E-mail: wangyy@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, C., E-mail: songcheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, J.Y. [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Pan, F. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics. - Highlights: • An alternative for manipulating antiferromagnet by interface engineering is provided. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers are vital in elevating the blocking temperature of IrMn. • Perpendicular exchange coupling in IrMn/[Co/Pt] can be modulated by seed layers. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers enable electrical control of perpendicular exchange coupling.

  14. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J.Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-01-01

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics. - Highlights: • An alternative for manipulating antiferromagnet by interface engineering is provided. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers are vital in elevating the blocking temperature of IrMn. • Perpendicular exchange coupling in IrMn/[Co/Pt] can be modulated by seed layers. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers enable electrical control of perpendicular exchange coupling.

  15. The synthesis of SrTiO3 nanocubes and the analysis of nearly ideal diode application of Ni/SrTiO3 nanocubes/n-Si heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal Taşyürek, Lütfi; Sevim, Melike; Çaldıran, Zakir; Aydogan, Sakir; Metin, Önder

    2018-01-01

    A perovskite type of strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanocubes (NCs) were synthesized by using a hydrothermal process and the thin films of these NCs were deposited on an n-type silicon wafer by spin coating technique. As-synthesized SrTiO3 NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive x-ray, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. After evaporation of 12 Ni dots on the SrTiO3 NCs thin films deposited on n-Si, the Ni/SrTiO3 NCs/n-Si heterojunction devices were fabricated for the first time. The ideality factors of the twelve fabricated devices were vary from 1.05 to 1.22 and the barrier height values varied from 0.64 to 0.68 eV. Furthermore, since all devices yielded similar characteristics, only the current-voltage and the capacitance-voltage of one selected device (named H1) were investigated in detailed. The series resistance of this device was calculated as 96 Ω.

  16. Alumina and Hafnia ALD Layers for a Niobium-Doped Titanium Oxide Photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Al Dahoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Niobium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles were used as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. They showed a high photocurrent density due to their higher conductivity; however, a low open-circuit voltage was exhibited due to the back-reaction of photogenerated electrons. Atomic layer deposition is a useful technique to form a conformal ultrathin layer of Al2O3 and HfO, which act as an energy barrier to suppress the back electrons from reaching the redox medium. This resulted in an increase of the open-circuit voltage and therefore led to higher performance. HfO showed an improvement of the light-to-current conversion efficiency by 74%, higher than the 21% enhancement obtained by utilizing Al2O3 layers.

  17. Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Yong Lee, Jae; Jay Guo, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present transmission visible wavelength filters based on strong interference behaviors in an ultrathin semiconductor material between two metal layers. The proposed devices were fabricated on 2 cm × 2 cm glass substrate, and the transmission characteristics show good agreement with the design. Due to a significantly reduced light propagation phase change associated with the ultrathin semiconductor layer and the compensation in phase shift of light reflecting from the metal surface, the filters show an angle insensitive performance up to ±70°, thus, addressing one of the key challenges facing the previously reported photonic and plasmonic color filters. This principle, described in this paper, can have potential for diverse applications ranging from color display devices to the image sensors.

  18. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, F.O.; Willis, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic structure of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films as a function of Fe concentration by measuring the linear dichroism of the 3p-core levels in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The alloy films, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Cu(001) surfaces, were fcc and approximately four monolayers thick. The intensity of the Fe dichroism varied with Fe concentration, with larger dichroisms at lower Fe concentrations. The implication of these results to an ultrathin film analogue of the bulk Invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys will be discussed. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Light Source.

  19. Wafer-scale integrated micro-supercapacitors on an ultrathin and highly flexible biomedical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jimin; Meng, Chuizhou; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2015-02-01

    We present wafer-scale integrated micro-supercapacitors on an ultrathin and highly flexible parylene platform, as progress toward sustainably powering biomedical microsystems suitable for implantable and wearable applications. All-solid-state, low-profile (supercapacitors are formed on an ultrathin (~20 μm) freestanding parylene film by a wafer-scale parylene packaging process in combination with a polyaniline (PANI) nanowire growth technique assisted by surface plasma treatment. These micro-supercapacitors are highly flexible and shown to be resilient toward flexural stress. Further, direct integration of micro-supercapacitors into a radio frequency (RF) rectifying circuit is achieved on a single parylene platform, yielding a complete RF energy harvesting microsystem. The system discharging rate is shown to improve by ~17 times in the presence of the integrated micro-supercapacitors. This result suggests that the integrated micro-supercapacitor technology described herein is a promising strategy for sustainably powering biomedical microsystems dedicated to implantable and wearable applications.

  20. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guijun, E-mail: gliad@connect.ust.hk; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing [State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-06-09

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400–800 nm) and bottom (800–1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  1. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-01-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta 2 O 5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta 2 O 5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta 2 O 5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta 2 O 5 . This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices. (orig.)

  2. Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L B; Hu, X L; Zhang, D X; Zeng, Beibei; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Jiang, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic subtractive color filters through patterning periodic nanostructures on ultrathin Ag films deposited on a glass substrate, exhibiting good durability, simple fabrication, and flexible color tunability, have attracted considerable attention due to their tremendous potential applications. While previous studies have mainly focused on their extraordinary physical mechanisms, color purity, which is another key parameter for high quality imaging applications, has been much less investigated. In this work, we demonstrate that the relative position of nanoholes patterned on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the color purity of plasmonic subtractive color filters. The calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental data, revealing that the purity of subtractive colors can be improved by changing the nanohole arrays from square lattice to triangular lattice without reducing transmission at visible frequencies. In addition, underlying mechanisms are clarified by systematically analyzing the dominant valley in transmission spectra. (paper)

  3. Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Viventi, Jonathan; Amsden, Jason J; Xiao, Jianliang; Vigeland, Leif; Kim, Yun-Soung; Blanco, Justin A; Panilaitis, Bruce; Frechette, Eric S; Contreras, Diego; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Huang, Yonggang; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zakin, Mitchell R; Litt, Brian; Rogers, John A

    2010-06-01

    Electronics that are capable of intimate, non-invasive integration with the soft, curvilinear surfaces of biological tissues offer important opportunities for diagnosing and treating disease and for improving brain/machine interfaces. This article describes a material strategy for a type of bio-interfaced system that relies on ultrathin electronics supported by bioresorbable substrates of silk fibroin. Mounting such devices on tissue and then allowing the silk to dissolve and resorb initiates a spontaneous, conformal wrapping process driven by capillary forces at the biotic/abiotic interface. Specialized mesh designs and ultrathin forms for the electronics ensure minimal stresses on the tissue and highly conformal coverage, even for complex curvilinear surfaces, as confirmed by experimental and theoretical studies. In vivo, neural mapping experiments on feline animal models illustrate one mode of use for this class of technology. These concepts provide new capabilities for implantable and surgical devices.

  4. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guijun; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-01-01

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400–800 nm) and bottom (800–1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  5. Ultra-thin alumina and silicon nitride MEMS fabricated membranes for the electron multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, V.; Chan, H. W.; Graaf, H. V. D.; Sarro, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of large arrays of ultrathin freestanding membranes (tynodes) for application in a timed photon counter (TiPC), a novel photomultiplier for single electron detection. Low pressure chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride (Si x N y ) and atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) with thicknesses down to only 5 nm are employed for the membrane fabrication. Detailed characterization of structural, mechanical and chemical properties of the utilized films is carried out for different process conditions and thicknesses. Furthermore, the performance of the tynodes is investigated in terms of secondary electron emission, a fundamental attribute that determines their applicability in TiPC. Studied features and presented fabrication methods may be of interest for other MEMS application of alumina and silicon nitride as well, in particular where strong ultra-thin membranes are required.

  6. Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Guan, Ming; Liu, Jia; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Shaw, Leo; McGuire, Allister F; Huang, Tsung-Ching; Shao, Leilai; Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-05-16

    Increasing performance demands and shorter use lifetimes of consumer electronics have resulted in the rapid growth of electronic waste. Currently, consumer electronics are typically made with nondecomposable, nonbiocompatible, and sometimes even toxic materials, leading to serious ecological challenges worldwide. Here, we report an example of totally disintegrable and biocompatible semiconducting polymers for thin-film transistors. The polymer consists of reversible imine bonds and building blocks that can be easily decomposed under mild acidic conditions. In addition, an ultrathin (800-nm) biodegradable cellulose substrate with high chemical and thermal stability is developed. Coupled with iron electrodes, we have successfully fabricated fully disintegrable and biocompatible polymer transistors. Furthermore, disintegrable and biocompatible pseudo-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) flexible circuits are demonstrated. These flexible circuits are ultrathin (<1 μm) and ultralightweight (∼2 g/m 2 ) with low operating voltage (4 V), yielding potential applications of these disintegrable semiconducting polymers in low-cost, biocompatible, and ultralightweight transient electronics.

  7. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-09-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta2O5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta2O5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta2O5. This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices.

  8. A wearable and highly sensitive pressure sensor with ultrathin gold nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shu; Schwalb, Willem; Wang, Yongwei; Chen, Yi; Tang, Yue; Si, Jye; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cheng, Wenlong

    2014-02-01

    Ultrathin gold nanowires are mechanically flexible yet robust, which are novel building blocks with potential applications in future wearable optoelectronic devices. Here we report an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive, flexible pressure sensor by sandwiching ultrathin gold nanowire-impregnated tissue paper between two thin polydimethylsiloxane sheets. The entire device fabrication process is scalable, enabling facile large-area integration and patterning for mapping spatial pressure distribution. Our gold nanowires-based pressure sensors can be operated at a battery voltage of 1.5 V with low energy consumption (1.14 kPa-1) and high stability (>50,000 loading-unloading cycles). In addition, our sensor can resolve pressing, bending, torsional forces and acoustic vibrations. The superior sensing properties in conjunction with mechanical flexibility and robustness enabled real-time monitoring of blood pulses as well as detection of small vibration forces from music.

  9. Use of resonance ionization spectroscopy to detect DNA bands on ultrathin spin-coated gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, M J; Gibson, W A; Arlinghaus, H F; Allen, R C; Jacobson, K B

    1993-01-01

    Development of alternative electrophoresis procedures are necessary for large volume sequencing and mapping studies. The use of stable isotopes as DNA labels and ultrathin gels promises to greatly increase the rate of sequencing. Spin coating is presented as an alternative method for producing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The technique has the potential of producing gels of micron to submicron thicknesses by varying the viscosity of the acrylamide solution and the spinning speed. Thirty micron thick 6% (weight %) gels were produced in this manner. Tin-labeled DNA oligomers were electrophoresed and detected using sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS). The usefulness of SIRIS and laser atomization RIS (LARIS) to sample the surface and deeper layers of 240 microns thick gels was investigated. With LARIS, whole cross-sections of the gel can be atomized, possibly allowing complete sampling of labels.

  10. Magnetic properties of ultrathin Co/Ge(111) and Co/Ge(100) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, W. C.; Tsay, J. S.; Yao, Y. D.; Lin, K. C.; Yang, C. S.; Lee, S. F.; Tseng, T. K.; Neih, H. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The orientation of the magnetization and the occurrence of interfacial ferromagnetic inactive layers for ultrathin Co films grown on Ge(111) and Ge(100) surfaces have been studied using the in situ surface magneto-optic Kerr effect. On a Ge(111) substrate, cobalt films (≤28 monolayers) with in-plane easy axis of magnetization have been observed; however, on a Ge(100) substrate, ultrathin Co films (14 - 16 monolayers) with canted out-of-plane easy axis of magnetization were measured. The ferromagnetic inactive layers were formed due to the intermixing of Co and Ge and lowering the Curie temperature by reducing Co film thickness. The Co - Ge compound inactive layers were 3.8 monolayers thick for Co films grown on Ge(111) and 6.2 monolayers thick for Co films deposited on Ge(100). This is attributed to the difference of the density of surface atoms on Ge(111) and Ge(100). [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. Ultrathin mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kangwen; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Jinbing; Yan, Hailong; Hou, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Deyang; Lu, Min; Liu, Xianming; Luo, Yongsong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin Co 3 O 4 nanosheets with a mesoporous structure and a large surface area are hydrothermally grown on a three dimensional nickel foam. The ultrathin mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanosheets are grown on Ni foam with robust adhesion, which endows fast ion and electron transport, large electroactive surface area, and excellent structural stability. Such unique nanoarchitecture exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life. When evaluate as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets electrode is able to deliver high specific capacitance of 2194 F g −1 at a current density of 1 A g −1 in 1 M KOH aqueous solution. The electrode also exhibits excellent cycling stability by retaining 93.1% of the maximum capacitance after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. The fabrication strategy presented here is facile, cost-effective, and can offer a way for energy storage device applications

  12. Ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe embedded in a dissolvable maltose-coated microneedle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Zhang, Songsong; Lee, Chengkuo; Xue, Ning; Sun, Tao; Tsang, Wei Mong; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish V

    2014-01-01

    The ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe can reduce the glial sheath growth on the probe body while its flexibility can minimize the micromotion between the probe and brain tissue. To provide sufficient stiffness for penetration purposes, we developed a drawing lithography technology for uniform maltose coating to make the maltose-coated polyimide neural probe become a stiff microneedle. The coating thicknesses under different temperature and the corresponding stiffness are studied. It has been proven that the coated maltose is dissolved by body fluids after implantation for a few seconds. Moreover, carbon nanotubes are coated on the neural probe recording electrodes to improve the charge delivery ability and reduce the impedance. Last but not least, the feasibility and recording characteristic of this ultra-thin polyimide neural probe embedded in a maltose-coated microneedle are further demonstrated by in vivo tests. (paper)

  13. Ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe embedded in a dissolvable maltose-coated microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Xue, Ning; Sun, Tao; Mong Tsang, Wei; Zhang, Songsong; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish V.; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-06-01

    The ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe can reduce the glial sheath growth on the probe body while its flexibility can minimize the micromotion between the probe and brain tissue. To provide sufficient stiffness for penetration purposes, we developed a drawing lithography technology for uniform maltose coating to make the maltose-coated polyimide neural probe become a stiff microneedle. The coating thicknesses under different temperature and the corresponding stiffness are studied. It has been proven that the coated maltose is dissolved by body fluids after implantation for a few seconds. Moreover, carbon nanotubes are coated on the neural probe recording electrodes to improve the charge delivery ability and reduce the impedance. Last but not least, the feasibility and recording characteristic of this ultra-thin polyimide neural probe embedded in a maltose-coated microneedle are further demonstrated by in vivo tests.

  14. Field emission mechanism from a single-layer ultra-thin semiconductor film cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiqiang; Wang Ruzhi; Yuan Ruiyang; Yang Wei; Wang Bo; Yan Hui

    2007-01-01

    Field emission (FE) from a single-layer ultra-thin semiconductor film cathode (SUSC) on a metal substrate has been investigated theoretically. The self-consistent quantum FE model is developed by synthetically considering the energy band bending and electron scattering. As a typical example, we calculate the FE properties of ultra-thin AlN film with an adjustable film thickness from 1 to 10 nm. The calculated results show that the FE characteristic is evidently modulated by varying the film thickness, and there is an optimum thickness of about 3 nm. Furthermore, a four-step FE mechanism is suggested such that the distinct FE current of a SUSC is rooted in the thickness sensitivity of its quantum structure, and the optimum FE properties of the SUSC should be attributed to the change in the effective potential combined with the attenuation of electron scattering

  15. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanakis, I., E-mail: galanakis@upatras.gr

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co{sub 2}MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co{sub 2}MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Ab-initio study of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. • Large values of spin-polarization at the Fermi are retained. • Route for novel spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  16. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanakis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co 2 MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co 2 MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co 2 MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Ab-initio study of ultrathin Co 2 MnSi/CoPd multilayers. • Large values of spin-polarization at the Fermi are retained. • Route for novel spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices

  17. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-08-01

    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  18. Genetic doping and health damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Aa; Ravasi, Aa; Farhud, Dd

    2011-01-01

    Use of genetic doping or gene transfer technology will be the newest and the lethal method of doping in future and have some unpleasant consequences for sports, athletes, and outcomes of competitions. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) defines genetic doping as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance ". The purpose of this review is to consider genetic doping, health damages and risks of new genes if delivered in athletes. This review, which is carried out by reviewing relevant publications, is primarily based on the journals available in GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED in fields of genetic technology, and health using a combination of keywords (e.g., genetic doping, genes, exercise, performance, athletes) until July 2010. There are several genes related to sport performance and if they are used, they will have health risks and sever damages such as cancer, autoimmunization, and heart attack.

  19. Doped Parton Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Valerio; Rojo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Calculations of high-energy processes involving the production of b-quarks are typically performed in two different ways, the massive four-flavour scheme (4FS) and the massless five-flavour scheme (5FS). For processes where the combination of the 4FS and 5FS results into a matched calculation is technically difficult, it is possible to define a hybrid scheme known as the doped scheme, where above the b-quark threshold the strong coupling runs with $n_f=5$, as in the massless calculation, while the DGLAP splitting functions are those of the $n_f=4$ scheme. In this contribution we present NNPDF3.0 PDF sets in this doped scheme, compare them with the corresponding 4FS and 5FS sets, and discuss their relevance for LHC phenomenology.

  20. Nucleation of ultrathin silver layer by magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulíř, Jiří; Novotný, Michal; Lančok, Ján; Fekete, Ladislav; Drahokoupil, Jan; Musil, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 1 (2013), S86-S90 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrathin silver * magnetron sputtering * spectral ellipsometry * in-situ monitoring Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2013

  1. High optical transmittance of aluminum ultrathin film with hexagonal nanohole arrays as transparent electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Qing Guo; Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Lau, Wah Tung; Ren, Hengjiang; Li, Er-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We fabricate samples of aluminum ultrathin films with hexagonal nanohole arrays and characterize the transmission performance. High optical transmittance larger than 60% over a broad wavelength range from 430 nm to 750 nm is attained experimentally. The Fano-type resonance of the excited surface plasmon plaritons and the directly transmitted light attribute to both of the broadband transmission enhancement and the transmission suppression dips. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  2. The structure of ultrathin iron films on tungsten single-crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films vapour deposited onto the surface of a cylindrical tungsten single crystal are discussed. Results from work function change, Auger electron spectroscopic and low energy electron diffraction techniques are combined for a comparison of the initial stages of film growth on four low index planes. Advantage is taken of the opportunity to evaporate onto and simultaneously to make measurements on all surface orientations of the zone. (Auth.)

  3. Proximity effect in ultrathin Pb/Ag multilayers within the Cooper limit

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, O.; Frydman, A.; Dynes, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on transport and tunneling measurements performed on ultra-thin Pb/Ag (strong coupled superconductor/normal metal) multilayers evaporated by quench condensation. The critical temperature and energy gap of the heterostructures oscillate with addition of each layer, demonstrating the validity of the Cooper limit model in the case of multilayers. We observe excellent agreement with a simple theory for samples with layer thickness larger than 30\\AA . Samples with single layers thinner t...

  4. Angularly resolved characterization of ion beams from laser-ultrathin foil interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, C.; Doria, D.; Romagnani, L.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Ettlinger, O. C.; Gray, R. J.; Green, J.; Hicks, G. S.; Jung, D.; Naughton, K.; Padda, H.; Poder, K.; Scott, G. G.; Symes, D. R.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Neely, D.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-09-01

    Methods and techniques used to capture and analyze beam profiles produced from the interaction of intense, ultrashort laser pulses and ultrathin foil targets using stacks of Radiochromic Film (RCF) and Columbia Resin #39 (CR-39) are presented. The identification of structure in the beam is particularly important in this regime, as it may be indicative of the dominance of specific acceleration mechanisms. Additionally, RCF can be used to deconvolve proton spectra with coarse energy resolution while mantaining angular information across the whole beam.

  5. Angularly resolved characterization of ion beams from laser-ultrathin foil interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scullion, C.; Doria, D.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Jung, D.; Naughton, K.; Kar, S.; Zepf, M.; Romagnani, L.; Ettlinger, O.C.; Hicks, G.S.; Poder, K.; Najmudin, Z.; Gray, R.J.; Padda, H.; McKenna, P.; Green, J.; Scott, G.G.; Symes, D.R.; Neely, D.

    2016-01-01

    Methods and techniques used to capture and analyze beam profiles produced from the interaction of intense, ultrashort laser pulses and ultrathin foil targets using stacks of Radiochromic Film (RCF) and Columbia Resin #39 (CR-39) are presented. The identification of structure in the beam is particularly important in this regime, as it may be indicative of the dominance of specific acceleration mechanisms. Additionally, RCF can be used to deconvolve proton spectra with coarse energy resolution while mantaining angular information across the whole beam.

  6. High optical transmittance of aluminum ultrathin film with hexagonal nanohole arrays as transparent electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Qing Guo

    2016-02-24

    We fabricate samples of aluminum ultrathin films with hexagonal nanohole arrays and characterize the transmission performance. High optical transmittance larger than 60% over a broad wavelength range from 430 nm to 750 nm is attained experimentally. The Fano-type resonance of the excited surface plasmon plaritons and the directly transmitted light attribute to both of the broadband transmission enhancement and the transmission suppression dips. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  7. Decrease in electrical contact resistance of Sb-doped n+-BaSi2 layers and spectral response of an Sb-doped n+-BaSi2/undoped BaSi2 structure for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Komomo; Takabe, Ryota; Yachi, Suguru; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated how the electron concentration n in a 300-nm-thick Sb-doped n+-BaSi2 layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy affected the contact resistance R C to surface electrodes (Al, indium-tin-oxide). As the n of n-BaSi2 increased, R C decreased and reached a minimum of 0.019 Ω cm2 at n = 2.4 × 1018 cm-3 for the Al electrodes. This value was more than 1 order of magnitude smaller than that obtained for Al/B-doped p-BaSi2. We believe that this significant decrease in R C came from Sb segregation. Furthermore, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) spectrum was evaluated for an Sb-doped n+-BaSi2 (20 nm)/undoped BaSi2 (500 nm)/n+-Si(111) structure. Its IQE reached as high as ˜50% over a wide wavelength range under a small bias voltage of 0.1 V applied between the top and bottom electrodes.

  8. [Doping and urologic tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F; Sacco, E; Volpe, A; Gardi, M; Totaro, A; Calarco, A; Racioppi, M; Gulino, G; D'Addessi, A; Bassi, P F

    2010-01-01

    Several substances such as growth hormone (GH), erythropoietin (Epo), and anabolic steroids (AS) are improperly utilized to increase the performance of athletes. Evaluating the potential cancer risk associated with doping agents is difficult since these drugs are often used at very high doses and in combination with other licit or illicit drugs. The GH, via its mediator, the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), is involved in the development and progression of cancer. Animal studies suggested that high levels of GH/IGF-1 increase progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Clinical data regarding prostate cancer are mostly based on epidemiological studies or indirect data such as IGF-1 high levels in patients with prostate cancer. Even if experimental studies showed a correlation between Epo and cancer, no clinical data are currently available on cancer development related to Epo as a doping agent. Androgens are involved in prostate carcinogenesis modulating genes that regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Most information on AS is anecdotal (case reports on prostate, kidney and testicular cancers). Prospective epidemiologic studies failed to support the hypothesis that circulating androgens are positively associated with prostate cancer risk. Currently, clinical and epidemiological studies supporting association between doping and urological neoplasias are not available. Nowadays, exposure to doping agents starts more prematurely with a consequent longer exposition period; drugs are often used at very high doses and in combination with other licit or illicit drugs. Due to all these elements it is impossible to predict all the side effects, including cancer; more detailed studies are therefore necessary.

  9. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  10. Corrosion behavior of aluminum doped diamond-like carbon thin films in NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Al) thin films were deposited on n-Si(100) substrates by co-sputtering a graphite target under a fixed DC power (650 W) and an aluminum target under varying DC power (10-90 W) at room temperature. The structure, adhesion strength and surface morphology of the DLC:Al films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-scratch testing and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The corrosion performance of the DLC:Al films was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 0.6 M NaCl aqueous solution. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DLC:Al films increased from about 18 to 30.7 k(omega) though the corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values with increased Al content in the films.

  11. Electrolytic charge inversion at the liquid-solid interface in a nanopore in a doped semiconductor membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, Maria E [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Leburton, Jean-Pierre [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2007-04-11

    The electrostatics of a nanopore in a doped semiconductor membrane immersed in an electrolyte is studied with a numerical model. Unlike dielectric membranes that always attract excess positive ion charges at the electrolyte/membrane interface whenever a negative surface charge is present, semiconductor membranes exhibit more versatility in controlling the double layer at the membrane surface. The presence of dopant charge in the semiconductor membrane, the shape of the nanopore and the negative surface charge resulting from the pore fabrication process have competing influences on the double layer formation. The inversion of the electrolyte surface charge from negative to positive is observed for n-Si membranes as a function of the membrane surface charge density, while no such inversion occurs for dielectric and p-Si membranes.

  12. Neutron transmutation doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Jin

    2001-09-01

    HE OVERALL STATE OF THE ART RELATED WITH NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING(NCT) IS SURVEYED. ITEMS RELATED FOR THE REALIZATION OF NTD IN HANARO IS FOCUSED. IN ADDITION TO THE UNIFORM IRRADIATION AND ACHIEVING THE TARGET RESISTIVITY WHICH ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NTD, OTHER ITEMS SUCH AS THE FUNCTION AND ROLE OF NTD, MARKET TREND, QUALITY CONTROL ARE INCLUDED. MEANWHILE THE ONLY ADVANTAGE OF NTD IS ACHIEVING VERY HIGH UNIFORMITY OF DOPING, IT HAS SEVERAL DISADVANTAGES DUE TO THE USE OF NUCLEAR REACTOR. THEREFORE THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY HAS CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY TO REPLACE NTD, AND THE DEMAND OF NTD HAD BEEN DECREASED A LOT DURING 1990S. AS THE DEMAND FOR LARGE CRYSTAL INCREASES, HOWEVER, THE NTD DEMAND BEGAN TO INCREASE AGAIN FROM 2000. SINCE THE DEMAND FOR THE LARGER CRYSTAL WILL BE CONTINUED IN THE FUTURE, THE ROLE OF NTD WOULD BE NEEDED FOR THE LONGER TIME. IN ORDER TO MITIGATE THIS TREND OF DEMAND, THE REACTOR SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF ACCEPTING LARGE CRYSTAL AND THE EFFORT TO IMPROVE DOPING UNIFORMITY AND TO REDUCE THE COST SHOULD CONTINUED.

  13. Determining surface coverage of ultra-thin gold films from X-ray reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoy, A.; Simakov, D.; Olafsson, S.; Leosson, K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes usage of X-ray reflectivity for characterization of surface coverage (i.e. film continuity) of ultra-thin gold films which are widely studied for optical, plasmonic and electronic applications. The demonstrated method is very sensitive and can be applied for layers below 1 nm. It has several advantages over other techniques which are often employed in characterization of ultra-thin metal films, such as optical absorption, Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy or Scanning Electron Microscopy. In contrast to those techniques our method does not require specialized sample preparation and measurement process is insensitive to electrostatic charge and/or presence of surface absorbed water. We validate our results with image processing of Scanning Electron Microscopy images. To ensure precise quantitative analysis of the images we developed a generic local thresholding algorithm which allowed us to treat series of images with various values of surface coverage with similar image processing parameters. - Highlights: • Surface coverage/continuity of ultra-thin Au films (up to 7 nm) was determined. • Results from X-ray reflectivity were verified by scanning electron microscopy. • We developed local thresholding algorithm to treat non-homogeneous image contrast

  14. Ultrathin coatings of nanoporous materials as property enhancements for advanced functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a five-month LDRD project funded through Sandia's NTM Investment Area. The project was aimed at providing the foundation for the development of advanced functional materials through the application of ultrathin coatings of microporous or mesoporous materials onto the surface of substrates such as silicon wafers. Prior art teaches that layers of microporous materials such as zeolites may be applied as, e.g., sensor platforms or gas separation membranes. These layers, however, are typically several microns to several hundred microns thick. For many potential applications, vast improvements in the response of a device could be realized if the thickness of the porous layer were reduced to tens of nanometers. However, a basic understanding of how to synthesize or fabricate such ultra-thin layers is lacking. This report describes traditional and novel approaches to the growth of layers of microporous materials on silicon wafers. The novel approaches include reduction of the quantity of nutrients available to grow the zeolite layer through minimization of solution volume, and reaction of organic base (template) with thermally-oxidized silicon wafers under a steam atmosphere to generate ultra-thin layers of zeolite MFI.

  15. Ab initio study on mechanical-bending-induced ferroelectric phase transition in ultrathin perovskite nanobelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.F.; Zhang, G.H.; Zheng, Yue; Wang, Biao; Chen, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the structural, ferroelectric (FE), energetic and electronic properties of bended ultrathin PbTiO 3 and BaTiO 3 nanobelts in between flat sheet and nanotube configurations. It is found that both PbTiO 3 and BaTiO 3 ultrathin nanobelts can possess axial antiferrodistortive structural distortion (AFD distortion), and the magnitude of the AFD rotation angle is obviously determined by the bending curvature of the nanobelts. Meanwhile, spontaneous polarization can be retained in these single-unit-cell-thick nanobelts with contributions from the axial improper ferroelectricity and the radial flexoelectricity, which indicates that ultrathin perovskite nanobelts do not have a critical thickness. On the other hand, we found that the AFD distortion is stable and significant in PbTiO 3 nanobelts while it is metastable in BaTiO 3 nanobelts in comparison with the stable non-AFD structure without AFD distortion. This is due to the competition between AFD distortion and circumferential lattice extension in releasing the elastic energy in BaTiO 3 material. Moreover, we found that the electronic structure and bandgap of the nanobelts can be tuned by the bending curvature, indicating potential control of transport properties by mechanical bending. Our results gave more insight into the inherence of improper ferroelectricity in low-dimensional perovskite ferroelectrics

  16. The Effect of the Pore Entrance on Particle Motion in Slit Pores: Implications for Ultrathin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Armin; Baltus, Ruth

    2017-08-10

    Membrane rejection models generally neglect the effect of the pore entrance on intrapore particle transport. However, entrance effects are expected to be particularly important with ultrathin membranes, where membrane thickness is typically comparable to pore size. In this work, a 2D model was developed to simulate particle motion for spherical particles moving at small Re and infinite Pe from the reservoir outside the pore into a slit pore. Using a finite element method, particles were tracked as they accelerated across the pore entrance until they reached a steady velocity in the pore. The axial position in the pore where particle motion becomes steady is defined as the particle entrance length (PEL). PELs were found to be comparable to the fluid entrance length, larger than the pore size and larger than the thickness typical of many ultrathin membranes. Results also show that, in the absence of particle diffusion, hydrodynamic particle-membrane interactions at the pore mouth result in particle "funneling" in the pore, yielding cross-pore particle concentration profiles focused at the pore centerline. The implications of these phenomena on rejection from ultrathin membranes are examined.

  17. Designable ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphases of three alkali metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Yi-Juan; Wu, Qi-Hui; Tang, Shuai; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Wu, De-Yin; Fan, Chun-Hai; Hu, Wei-Qiang; Chen, Zhao-Bin; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Dong, Quan-Feng; Mao, Bing-Wei

    2018-04-09

    Dendrite growth of alkali metal anodes limited their lifetime for charge/discharge cycling. Here, we report near-perfect anodes of lithium, sodium, and potassium metals achieved by electrochemical polishing, which removes microscopic defects and creates ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase layers at metal surfaces for providing a homogeneous environment. Precise characterizations by AFM force probing with corroborative in-depth XPS profile analysis reveal that the ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase can be designed to have alternating inorganic-rich and organic-rich/mixed multi-layered structure, which offers mechanical property of coupled rigidity and elasticity. The polished metal anodes exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability, specifically the lithium anodes can cycle for over 200 times at a real current density of 2 mA cm -2 with 100% depth of discharge. Our work illustrates that an ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase may be robust enough to suppress dendrite growth and thus serve as an initial layer for further improved protection of alkali metal anodes.

  18. Important factors for the three-dimensional reconstruction of neuronal structures from serial ultrathin sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kubota

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of anatomical synaptic connectivity in microcircuits depends upon accurate 3-dimentional reconstructions of synaptic ultrastructure using electron microscopy of serial ultrathin sections. Here we address two pitfalls in current methodology that lead to inaccurate reconstructions and compromise conclusions drawn from the data. The first pitfall is inaccurate determination of ultrathin section thickness, which negatively affects the three-dimensional shape of reconstructions and therefore impairs quantitative measurement of synaptic structures. Secondly, current methodology significantly underestimates the number of synaptic junctions, with only two-thirds or less of genuine synaptic contacts being identified in dendrites that radiate within the plane of section. Here we propose a new methodology utilizing precise optical measurements of section thickness and successive observations of synaptic elements across serial ultrathin sections that corrects for these limitations to allow accurate 3-dimentional reconstruction of synaptic ultrastructure. We use this methodology to reveal that parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons have a much higher synaptic density than previously shown. This result suggests that this technique will be useful for re-examining synaptic connectivity of other cell types.

  19. Glutatione modified ultrathin SnS2 nanosheets with highly photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Renjie; Zhou, Tengfei; Hu, Juncheng; Li, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    L-Glutatione (GSH) modified ultrathin SnS 2 nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a one-pot, facile and rapid solvothermal approach. During the process, the GSH not only served as the sulfur sources, the structure-directing agent, but also as the surface modified ligands. The as-synthesized samples mainly consist of ultrathin nanosheets with the thickness of about 10 nm. Inspiringly, even under the visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, the as-synthesized products exhibited highly photocatalytic activities for both the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and the reductive conversion of Cr (VI) in aqueous solution. The superior performance was presented by completely removed the methyl orange and aqueous Cr(VI) in 20 min and 60 min, respectively. It was much higher than the pure samples, which suggested that these obtained photocatalysts have the potential for wastewater treatment in a green way. The high-efficiency of photocatalytic properties could attribute to the ultrathin size of the photocatalysts and the chelation between GSH and Sn (IV), which have the advantages of electron–hole pairs separation. Moreover, modified organic compounds with common electron donors would also enhance the spectral response even to the near infrared region through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) mechanism. (papers)

  20. Synergistically Enhanced Performance of Ultrathin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells Embedded in Plasmonically Assisted, Multispectral Luminescent Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Dhar, Purnim; Chen, Huandong; Montenegro, Angelo; Liaw, Lauren; Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Benderskii, Alexander V.; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-04-12

    Ultrathin silicon solar cells fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of single-crystalline wafer materials represent an attractive materials platform that could provide many advantages for realizing high-performance, low-cost photovoltaics. However, their intrinsically limited photovoltaic performance arising from insufficient absorption of low-energy photons demands careful design of light management to maximize the efficiency and preserve the cost-effectiveness of solar cells. Herein we present an integrated flexible solar module of ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells capable of simultaneously exploiting spectral upconversion and downshifting in conjunction with multispectral luminescent waveguides and a nanostructured plasmonic reflector to compensate for their weak optical absorption and enhance their performance. The 8 μm-thick silicon solar cells incorporating a hexagonally periodic nanostructured surface relief are surface-embedded in layered multispectral luminescent media containing organic dyes and NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals as downshifting and upconverting luminophores, respectively, via printing-enabled deterministic materials assembly. The ultrathin nanostructured silicon microcells in the composite luminescent waveguide exhibit strongly augmented photocurrent (~40.1 mA/cm2) and energy conversion efficiency (~12.8%) than devices with only a single type of luminescent species, owing to the synergistic contributions from optical downshifting, plasmonically enhanced upconversion, and waveguided photon flux for optical concentration, where the short-circuit current density increased by ~13.6 mA/cm2 compared with microcells in a nonluminescent medium on a plain silver reflector under a confined illumination.

  1. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-08-28

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O{sub 2} and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ∼ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality

  2. Mg Doping Effect on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanocrystalline Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Lin Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent Zn1-xMgxO (x=0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 nanocrystalline films were prepared by sol-gel method followed by thermal annealing treatment of 700°C. Mg doping effect on the microstructural and optical properties of the Zn1-xMgxO films is investigated. From SEM images of all films, mean sizes of uniform spherical grains increase progressively. Pure wurtzite structure is obtained from the results of XRD. Grain sizes increase from 34.7 nm for x=0.01 and 37.9 nm for x=0.03 to 42.1 nm for x=0.05 deduced from the XRD patterns. The photoluminescence spectra of the films show a strong ultraviolet emission and a weak visible light emission peak. The enhancement of ultraviolet emission and reduction of visible emission are observed due to the increase of Mg doping concentration and the corresponding decrease of oxygen vacancy defects. Besides, the characteristics of the dark/photo currents with n-Zn1-xMgxO/n-Si heterojunction are studied for photodetector application.

  3. Influence of B doping on the carrier transport mechanism and barrier height of graphene/ZnO Schottky contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yapeng; Li, Yingfeng; Zhang, Jianhua; Tong, Ting; Ye, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The ZnO films were fabricated on the surface of n-Si(1 1 1) substrate using the sol-gel method, and the graphene was then transferred to its surface for the fabrication of the graphene/ZnO Schottky contact. The results showed that ZnO films presented a strong (0 0 2) preferred direction, and that the particle sizes on the surface decreased as the doping concentration of B ions increased. The electrical properties of the graphene/ZnO Schottky contact were measured by using current-voltage measurements. It was found that the graphene/ZnO Schottky contact showed a fine rectification behavior when the doping concentration of B ions was increased. However, when the doping concentration of the B ions increased to 0.15 mol l-1, the leakage current increased and rectification behavior weakened. This was due to the Fermi level pinning caused by the presence of the O vacancy at the interface of the graphene/ZnO Schottky contact.

  4. Understanding the role of ultra-thin polymeric interlayers in improving efficiency of polymer light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jim; Wang, Xuhua; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Kim, Ji-Seon, E-mail: ji-seon.kim@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wright, Edward N.; Walker, Alison B. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-28

    Insertion of ultra-thin polymeric interlayers (ILs) between the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate hole injection and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) light emission layers of polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) can significantly increase their efficiency. In this paper, we investigate experimentally a broad range of probable causes of this enhancement with an eye to determining which IL parameters have the most significant effects. The importance of hole injection and electron blocking was studied through varying the IL material (and consequently its electronic energy levels) for both PLED and hole-only diode structures. The role of IL conductivity was examined by introducing a varying level of charge-transfer doping through blending the IL materials with a strong electron-accepting small molecule in concentrations from 1% to 7% by weight. Depositing ILs with thicknesses below the exciton diffusion length of ∼15 nm allowed the role of the IL as a physical barrier to exciton quenching to be probed. IL containing PLEDs was also fabricated with Lumation Green Series 1300 (LG 1300) light emission layers. On the other hand, the PLEDs were modeled using a 3D multi-particle Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation coupled with an optical model describing how light is extracted from the PLED. The model describes charge carrier transport and interactions between electrons, holes, singlets, and triplets, with the current density, luminance, and recombination zone (RZ) locations calculated for each PLED. The model shows F8BT PLEDs have a narrow charge RZ adjacent to the anode, while LG 1300 PLEDs have a wide charge RZ that is evenly distributed across the light emitting layer. Varying the light emitting layer from F8BT to Lumation Green Series 1300, we therefore experimentally examine the dependence of the IL function, specifically in regard to anode-side exciton quenching, on the location of the RZ. We found an exponential dependence of

  5. Effects of Interfaces on the Structure and Novel Physical Properties in Epitaxial Multiferroic BiFeO3 Ultrathin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwei Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In functional oxide films, different electrical/mechanical boundaries near film surfaces induce rich phase diagrams and exotic phenomena. In this paper, we review some key points which underpin structure, phase transition and related properties in BiFeO3 ultrathin films. Compared with the bulk counterparts, we survey the recent results of epitaxial BiFeO3 ultrathin films to illustrate how the atomic structure and phase are markedly influenced by the interface between the film and the substrate, and to emphasize the roles of misfit strain and depolarization field on determining the domain patterns, phase transformation and associated physical properties of BiFeO3 ultrathin films, such as polarization, piezoelectricity, and magnetism. One of the obvious consequences of the misfit strain on BiFeO3 ultrathin films is the emergence of a sequence of phase transition from tetragonal to mixed tetragonal & rhombohedral, the rhombohedral, mixed rhombohedral & orthorhombic, and finally orthorhombic phases. Other striking features of this system are the stable domain patterns and the crossover of 71° and 109° domains with different electrical boundary conditions on the film surface, which can be controlled and manipulated through the depolarization field. The external field-sensitive enhancements of properties for BiFeO3 ultrathin films, including the polarization, magnetism and morphotropic phase boundary-relevant piezoelectric response, offer us deeper insights into the investigations of the emergent properties and phenomena of epitaxial ultrathin films under various mechanical/electrical constraints. Finally, we briefly summarize the recent progress and list open questions for future study on BiFeO3 ultrathin films.

  6. Nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multilayer protective coatings on carbon obtained by TVA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Jepu, Ionut; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana; Nicolescu, Virginia; Cupsa, Ovidiu; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2017-08-01

    Protective nitrogen doped Si-C multilayer coatings on carbon, used to improve the oxidation resistance of carbon, were obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The initial carbon layer having a thickness of 100nm has been deposed on a silicon substrate in the absence of nitrogen, and then a 3nm Si thin film to cover carbon layer was deposed. Further, seven Si and C layers were alternatively deposed in the presence of nitrogen ions, each having a thickness of 40nm. In order to form silicon carbide at the interface between silicon and carbon layers, all carbon, silicon and nitrogen ions energy has increased up to 150eV . The characterization of microstructure and electrical properties of as-prepared N-Si-C multilayer structures were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM) techniques, Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and electrical measurements. Oxidation protection of carbon is based on the reaction between oxygen and silicon carbide, resulting in SiO2, SiO and CO2, and also by reaction involving N, O and Si, resulting in silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) with a continuously variable composition, and on the other hand, since nitrogen acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. To perform electrical measurements, 80% silver filled two-component epoxy-based glue ohmic contacts were attached on the N-Si-C samples. Electrical conductivity was measured in constant current mode. The experimental data show the increase of conductivity with the increase of the nitrogen content. To explain the temperature behavior of electrical conductivity we assumed a thermally activated electric transport mechanism.

  7. Phase equilibria in M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal, X,X'-B,C,N,Si) and crystal chemistry of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The data on phase equilibria in the M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal of 3 to 8 groups, X-B,C, N, Si) have been considered and summarized. modern oxygen-free advanced ceramics is based on these ternary systems. Phase diagrams of the 130 ternary systems have been discussed, more than two hundred ternary phases forming in these systems have been systematized and described. The typical crystal structures of ternary compounds and phase have been considered, the common and distinctive features of these structures have been analysed. It has been shown that the ternary compounds with octahedral atomic groups XM 6 have a regions of homogeneity. Refs. 240

  8. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  9. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  10. Photoresponsive layer-by-layer ultrathin films prepared from a hyperbranched azobenzene-containing polymeric diazonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyang; Fan Pengwei; Tuo Xinlin; He Yaning; Wang Xiaogong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a hyperbranched diazonium salt (HB-DAS), prepared through azo-coupling reaction of an AB 2 monomer (N, N-bis[2-(4-aminobenzoyloxy)ethyl]aniline), was used to prepare self-assembled multilayers and ultrathin films. Multilayer films were fabricated by dipping substrates in HB-DAS and other polyelectrolyte solutions alternately in a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner. It was somewhat surprising to observe that HB-DAS forms multilayer films with either a polyanion (poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt), PSS) or a polycation (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDAC) through alternate deposition in the solutions. Ultrathin films were formed in a sequential growth manner by dipping the substrates in the HB-DAS solution, washing with deionized water and drying repeatedly. In all the processes, the absorbance and thickness of the thin films linearly increase as the number of the dipping cycle increases. HB-DAS/PSS multilayer possesses an obviously larger bilayer thickness and lower density compared with the other two counterparts. The drying step after each deposition is necessary for the HB-DAS ultrathin film growth through the repeated dip-coating of HB-DAS. The multilayer and ultrathin films prepared by the above methods all show high resistance to erosion by organic solvents. The multilayers and ultrathin films exhibit photoinduced dichroism upon the irradiation of a polarized Ar + laser beam

  11. Photoresponsive layer-by-layer ultrathin films prepared from a hyperbranched azobenzene-containing polymeric diazonium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinyang; Fan Pengwei; Tuo Xinlin; He Yaning [Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang Xiaogong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: wxg-dce@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2009-01-30

    In this work, a hyperbranched diazonium salt (HB-DAS), prepared through azo-coupling reaction of an AB{sub 2} monomer (N, N-bis[2-(4-aminobenzoyloxy)ethyl]aniline), was used to prepare self-assembled multilayers and ultrathin films. Multilayer films were fabricated by dipping substrates in HB-DAS and other polyelectrolyte solutions alternately in a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner. It was somewhat surprising to observe that HB-DAS forms multilayer films with either a polyanion (poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt), PSS) or a polycation (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDAC) through alternate deposition in the solutions. Ultrathin films were formed in a sequential growth manner by dipping the substrates in the HB-DAS solution, washing with deionized water and drying repeatedly. In all the processes, the absorbance and thickness of the thin films linearly increase as the number of the dipping cycle increases. HB-DAS/PSS multilayer possesses an obviously larger bilayer thickness and lower density compared with the other two counterparts. The drying step after each deposition is necessary for the HB-DAS ultrathin film growth through the repeated dip-coating of HB-DAS. The multilayer and ultrathin films prepared by the above methods all show high resistance to erosion by organic solvents. The multilayers and ultrathin films exhibit photoinduced dichroism upon the irradiation of a polarized Ar{sup +} laser beam.

  12. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  13. Ultrathin silicon oxynitride layer on GaN for dangling-bond-free GaN/insulator interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Yayama, Tomoe; Miyazaki, Takehide; Taoka, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-23

    Despite the scientific and technological importance of removing interface dangling bonds, even an ideal model of a dangling-bond-free interface between GaN and an insulator has not been known. The formation of an atomically thin ordered buffer layer between crystalline GaN and amorphous SiO 2 would be a key to synthesize a dangling-bond-free GaN/SiO 2 interface. Here, we predict that a silicon oxynitride (Si 4 O 5 N 3 ) layer can epitaxially grow on a GaN(0001) surface without creating dangling bonds at the interface. Our ab initio calculations show that the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure is more stable than silicon-oxide-terminated GaN(0001) surfaces. The electronic properties of the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure can be tuned by modifying the chemical components near the interface. We also propose a possible approach to experimentally synthesize the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure.

  14. Doped beryllium lanthanate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Monocrystals of doped beryllium lanthanate, Be 2 Lasub(2-2x)Zsub(2x)O 5 --where Z may be any rare earth, but preferably neodymium, and x may have values between 0.001 and 0.2, but preferably between 0.007 and 0.015-- are recommended as laser hosts. They are softer and may be grown at a lower temperature than Y 3 A1 5 O 12 :Nd (YAG:Nd). Their chemical composition and preparation are described. An example of an optically pumped laser apparatus with this type of monocrystal as laser host is presented

  15. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  16. Role Models on Dope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Gleaves, John

    2014-01-01

    Compared to football-players cyclists are virtuous role models. Yes, Lance Armstrong, Michael Rasmussen and other riders have doped, and because of this they have received the predicate as the most immoral athletes in the sporting world. But if morality is not only a question of whether a person ...... has enhanced his or hers performances by the use of various drugs (and lied about it), but also is about human beings’ relations and interactions, then cycling isn’t as depraved as we like to tell each other. Football is much worse....

  17. Synthesis of metal free ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride sheet for photocatalytic dye degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shakeelur; Momin, Bilal; Higgins M., W.; Annapure, Uday S.; Jha, Neetu

    2018-04-01

    In recent times, low cost and metal free photocatalyts driven under visible light have attracted a lot of interest. One such photo catalyst researched extensively is bulk graphitic carbon nitride sheets. But the low surface area and weak mobility of photo generated electrons limits its photocatalytic performance in the visible light spectrum. Here we present the facile synthesis of ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride using a cost effective melamine precursor and its application in highly efficient photocatalytic dye degradation of Rhodamine B molecules. Compared to bulk graphitic carbon nitride, the synthesized ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride shows an increase in surface area, a a decrease in optical band gap and effective photogenerated charge separation which facilitates the harvest of visible light irradiation. Due to these optimal properties of ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride, it shows excellent photocatalytic activity with photocatalytic degradation of about 95% rhodamine B molecules in 1 hour.

  18. Structure Formation of Ultrathin PEO Films at Solid Interfaces—Complex Pattern Formation by Dewetting and Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Braun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The direct contact of ultrathin polymer films with a solid substrate may result in thin film rupture caused by dewetting. With crystallisable polymers such as polyethyleneoxide (PEO, molecular self-assembly into partial ordered lamella structures is studied as an additional source of pattern formation. Morphological features in ultrathin PEO films (thickness < 10 nm result from an interplay between dewetting patterns and diffusion limited growth pattern of ordered lamella growing within the dewetting areas. Besides structure formation of hydrophilic PEO molecules, n-alkylterminated (hydrophobic PEO oligomers are investigated with respect to self-organization in ultrathin films. Morphological features characteristic for pure PEO are not changed by the presence of the n-alkylgroups.

  19. Synthesizing new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxide nanosheets via half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linjie; Li, Yaguang; Xiao, Mu; Wang, Shufang; Fu, Guangsheng; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) metal oxide nanosheets have demonstrated their great potential in a broad range of applications. The existing synthesis strategies are mainly preparing 2D nanosheets from layered and specific transition metal oxides. How to prepare the other types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets remains unsolved, especially for metal oxides containing alkali, alkaline earth metal, and multiple metal elements. Herein, we developed a half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, which could synthesize those types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets. The synthesized 2D metal oxides nanosheets are within 1 nm level thickness and 500 m2 · g-1 level surface area. This method allows us to develop many new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxides nanosheets that have never been prepared before.

  20. Low temperature synthesis of Mo2C/W2C superlattices via ultra-thin modulated reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Johnson, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The authors report here a synthesis method of preparing carbide superlattices using ultra-thin modulated reactants. Initial investigations into the synthesis of the binary systems, Mo 2 C and W 2 C using ultra-thin modulated reactants revealed that both can be formed at relatively low temperatures (500 and 600 C respectively). DSC and XRD data suggested a two step reaction pathway involving interdiffusion of the initial modulated reactant followed by crystallization of the final product, if the modulation length is on the order of 10 angstrom. This information was used to form Mo 2 C/W 2 C superlattices using the structure of the ultra-thin modulated reactant to control the final superlattice period. Relatively large superlattice modulations were kinetically trapped by having several repeat units of each binary within the total repeat of the initial reactant. DSC and XRD data again are consistent with a two step reaction pathway leading to the formation of carbide superlattices

  1. Synchrotron-radiation XPS analysis of ultra-thin silane films: Specifying the organic silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Paul M., E-mail: paul.dietrich@yahoo.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Glamsch, Stephan [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Fabeckstr. 34/36, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Ehlert, Christopher [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Lippitz, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Kulak, Nora [Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Fabeckstr. 34/36, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Unger, Wolfgang E.S. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und – prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A synchrotron-based XPS method to analyze ultra-thin silane films is presented. • Specification and quantification of organic next to inorganic silicon is demonstrated. • Non-destructive chemical depth profiles of the silane monolayers were obtained. - Abstract: The analysis of chemical and elemental in-depth variations in ultra-thin organic layers with thicknesses below 5 nm is very challenging. Energy- and angle-resolved XPS (ER/AR-XPS) opens up the possibility for non-destructive chemical ultra-shallow depth profiling of the outermost surface layer of ultra-thin organic films due to its exceptional surface sensitivity. For common organic materials a reliable chemical in-depth analysis with a lower limit of the XPS information depth z{sub 95} of about 1 nm can be performed. As a proof-of-principle example with relevance for industrial applications the ER/AR-XPS analysis of different organic monolayers made of amino- or benzamidosilane molecules on silicon oxide surfaces is presented. It is demonstrated how to use the Si 2p core-level region to non-destructively depth-profile the organic (silane monolayer) – inorganic (SiO{sub 2}/Si) interface and how to quantify Si species, ranging from elemental silicon over native silicon oxide to the silane itself. The main advantage of the applied ER/AR-XPS method is the improved specification of organic from inorganic silicon components in Si 2p core-level spectra with exceptional low uncertainties compared to conventional laboratory XPS.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Novel Back Surface Field for High Efficiency Ultrathin CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Matin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically explores the possibility of high efficiency, ultrathin, and stable CdTe cells with different back surface field (BSF using well accepted simulator AMPS-1D (analysis of microelectronics and photonic structures. A modified structure of CdTe based PV cell SnO2/Zn2SnO4/CdS/CdTe/BSF/BC has been proposed over reference structure SnO2/Zn2SnO4/CdS/CdTe/Cu. Both higher bandgap materials like ZnTe and Cu2Te and low bandgap materials like As2Te3 and Sb2Te3 have been used as BSF to reduce minority carrier recombination loss at the back contact in ultra-thin CdTe cells. In this analysis the highest conversion efficiency of CdTe based PV cell without BSF has been found to be around 17% using CdTe absorber thickness of 5 μm. However, the proposed structures with different BSF have shown acceptable efficiencies with an ultra-thin CdTe absorber of only 0.6 μm. The proposed structure with As2Te3 BSF showed the highest conversion efficiency of 20.8% ( V,  mA/cm2, and . Moreover, the proposed structures have shown improved stability in most extents, as it was found that the cells have relatively lower negative temperature coefficient. However, the cell with ZnTe BSF has shown better overall stability than other proposed cells with temperature coefficient (TC of −0.3%/°C.

  3. Controlling fuel crossover and hydration in ultrathin proton exchange membrane-based fuel cells using Pt-nanosheet catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Rujie; Zhang, Wenjing (Angela); He, Gaohong

    2014-01-01

    and provided in situ hydration inside Nafion membranes to maintain their proton conductivity level. Furthermore, LDH nanosheets reinforced the Nafion membranes, with 181% improvement in tensile modulus and 166% improvement in yield strength. In a hydrogen fuel cell running with dry fuel, the membrane......An ultra-thin proton exchange membrane with Pt-nanosheet catalysts was designed for a self-humidifying fuel cell running on H2 and O2. In this design, an ultra-thin Nafion membrane was used to reduce ohmic resistance. Pt nanocatalysts were uniformly anchored on exfoliated, layered double hydroxide...

  4. Orbital hybridization, crystal structure and anomalous resistivity of ultrathin CrZrx alloy films on polymeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Drew; Zuber, Kamil; Merkens, Kerstin; Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The orbital hybridization and crystal structure are experimentally explored for ultrathin chrome zirconium (CrZr x ) alloy films co-sputtered on precoated polymeric substrates. We determine the level of orbital hybridization and crystal structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron diffraction. Body-centred cubic and Ω-hexagonally close-packed phases are observed to coexist in the sputtered Cr-based films. Experiments reveal the orbital hybridization and crystal structure combine to produce anomalous resistivity for these ultrathin films.

  5. Exploitation of a self-limiting process for reproducible formation of ultrathin Ni1-xPtx silicide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhu Yu; Rossnagel, Steve; Murray, Conal; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yang, Bin; Gaudet, Simon; Desjardins, Patrick; Kellock, Andrew J.; Ozcan, Ahmet; Zhang Shili; Lavoie, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This letter reports on a process scheme to obtain highly reproducible Ni 1-x Pt x silicide films of 3-6 nm thickness formed on a Si(100) substrate. Such ultrathin silicide films are readily attained by sputter deposition of metal films, metal stripping in wet chemicals, and final silicidation by rapid thermal processing. This process sequence warrants an invariant amount of metal intermixed with Si in the substrate surface region independent of the initial metal thickness, thereby leading to a self-limiting formation of ultrathin silicide films. The crystallographic structure, thickness, uniformity, and morphological stability of the final silicide films depend sensitively on the initial Pt fraction.

  6. The spontaneous formation and plasmonic properties of ultrathin gold–silver nanorods and nanowires stabilized in oleic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Crespo, Julian

    2015-10-02

    Ultrathin Au-Ag alloy nanorods and nanowires of different lengths and ca. 1.9 nm diameter are prepared through a low-temperature decomposition of the precursor [AuAg(CF)(OEt)] in oleic acid. This nanostructure formation has been studied through TEM, HRTEM, EDS, HS-SPME-GC-MS and F NMR spectroscopy. The UNRs and UNWs display a length-dependent broad band in the mid-IR region that is related to the longitudinal mode of the surface plasmon resonance of the ultrathin nanostructures.

  7. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsun Su, Yen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien [Science and Technology of Accelerator Light Source, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei [Department of Resource Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-05

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  8. The spontaneous formation and plasmonic properties of ultrathin gold–silver nanorods and nanowires stabilized in oleic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Crespo, Julian; Ló pez-De-Luzuriaga, José M.; Monge, Miguel; Elena Olmos, M.; Rodrí guez-Castillo, Marí a; Cormary, Benoî t; Soulantica, Katerina; Sestu, Matteo; Falqui, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin Au-Ag alloy nanorods and nanowires of different lengths and ca. 1.9 nm diameter are prepared through a low-temperature decomposition of the precursor [AuAg(CF)(OEt)] in oleic acid. This nanostructure formation has been studied through TEM, HRTEM, EDS, HS-SPME-GC-MS and F NMR spectroscopy. The UNRs and UNWs display a length-dependent broad band in the mid-IR region that is related to the longitudinal mode of the surface plasmon resonance of the ultrathin nanostructures.

  9. Effect of localized electron states on superconductivity of ultrathin beryllium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutov, V.I.; Semenenko, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A wide spectrum of distortions is induced in ultrathin beryllium films of thickness less than 10 A, which are responsible for the system transition from the strong localization state completely suppressing superconductivity (in this case R □ of the layer reaches 97600 Ohm) to the weak localization stae coexisting with superconductivity at comparatively high T c (5 K). The resistance per square R □ of the films decreases more than by an order of magnitude. The superconductivity with T c =1.7 K occurs at rather strong localization, when R □ of the layer is 34000 Ohm

  10. Bottom Extreme-Ultraviolet-Sensitive Coating for Evaluation of the Absorption Coefficient of Ultrathin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Hayato; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Takei, Satoshi

    2009-06-01

    A bottom extreme-ultraviolet-sensitive coating (BESC) for evaluation of the absorption coefficients of ultrathin films such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists was developed. This coating consists of a polymer, crosslinker, acid generator, and acid-responsive chromic dye and is formed by a conventional spin-coating method. By heating the film after spin-coating, a crosslinking reaction is induced and the coating becomes insoluble. A typical resist solution can be spin-coated on a substrate covered with the coating film. The evaluation of the linear absorption coefficients of polymer films was demonstrated by measuring the EUV absorption of BESC substrates on which various polymers were spin-coated.

  11. Thermal-driven evolution of magnetic domain structures in ultrathin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Maziewski, A.; Polyakova, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 112, - (2006), s. 101-108 ISSN 1012-0394. [International School on Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter /17./ and International Symposium on Physics in Material Science /5./. Bialoweza, 21.06.2005-29.06.2005] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 3177 - NANOMAG- LAB Grant - others:PSCSR(PL) 4T11B00624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ultrathin magnetic films * magnetic domain * phase transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2005

  12. Film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, J S; Stamm, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films prepared from solution. As a model system we used binary blends of statistical poly(styrene-co-p-bromostyrene) copolymers of different degrees of bromination. Ultra-thin-film samples differing in miscibility and film thickness were prepared via spin coating of common toluene solutions onto silicon (100) substrates. The resulting morphologies were investigated with scanning force microscopy, reflectometry and grazing-incidence scattering techniques using both X-rays and neutrons in order to obtain a picture of the sample structure at and below the sample surface. (orig.)

  13. Ultra-thin smart acoustic metasurface for low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xiao, Yong; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen

    2016-04-01

    Insulating low-frequency sound is a conventional challenge due to the high areal mass required by mass law. In this letter, we propose a smart acoustic metasurface consisting of an ultra-thin aluminum foil bonded with piezoelectric resonators. Numerical and experimental results show that the metasurface can break the conventional mass law of sound insulation by 30 dB in the low frequency regime (sound insulation performance is attributed to the infinite effective dynamic mass density produced by the smart resonators. It is also demonstrated that the excellent sound insulation property can be conveniently tuned by simply adjusting the external circuits instead of modifying the structure of the metasurface.

  14. Phase diagram of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} ultrathin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, Yu.A. [V.I. Vernadskiy Taurida National University, Vernadskiy Avenue 4, Simferopol, Crimea 95007 (Ukraine)], E-mail: frid@tnu.crimea.ua; Klevets, Ph.N.; Voytenko, A.P. [V.I. Vernadskiy Taurida National University, Vernadskiy Avenue 4, Simferopol, Crimea 95007 (Ukraine)

    2008-12-15

    Concentration-driven reorientation phase transitions in ultrathin magnetic films of FeCo alloy have been studied. It is established that, in addition to the easy-axis and easy-plane phases, a spatially inhomogeneous phase (domain structure), a canted phase, and also an 'in-plane easy-axis' phase can exist in the system. The realization of the last phase is associated with the competition between the single-ion anisotropy and the magnetoelastic interaction. The critical values of Co concentration corresponding to the phase transitions are evaluated, the types of phase transitions are determined, and the phase diagrams are constructed.

  15. Structural and electronic properties of polar MnO ultrathin film grown on Ag(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Asish K., E-mail: asish.kundu@saha.ac.in; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 70064 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Surface electronic structure of ultrathin polar MnO film was studied by Low-energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Photoemission Spectroscopic (PES) techniques. Epitaxial monolayer to facet formation with increasing film thickness has been observed by LEED. Our LEED result shows p(2x2) surface reconstruction along with facet formation, stabilize the polar MnO(111) surface. The core levels and the valence band electronic structure of MnO films have been studied as a function of film thickness using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy techniques.

  16. Nanotwin-enhanced fatigue resistance of ultrathin Ag films for flexible electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, H.Y. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Shenyang 110016 (China); Luo, X.M.; Li, X.; Liu, W. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, G.P., E-mail: gpzhang@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-10-31

    Fatigue strength and cracking behavior of ultrathin Ag films on flexible polyimide substrates were investigated. The experimental results show that the enhanced fatigue strength of the 50 nm-thick Ag films not only is caused by the increase in the yield stress and the suppression of cyclic strain localization, but also results from the severe crack deflection induced by the formation of nanotwins, which delays the fatigue crack initiation and enhances the resistance to the fatigue crack growth. The fatigue cracking mechanism for the nanocrystalline metal films is evaluated.

  17. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  18. Insulator at the ultrathin limit: MgO on Ag(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintke, S; Messerli, S; Pivetta, M; Patthey, F; Libioulle, L; Stengel, M; De Vita, A; Schneider, W D

    2001-12-31

    The electronic structure and morphology of ultrathin MgO films epitaxially grown on Ag(001) were investigated using low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Layer-resolved differential conductance (dI/dU) measurements reveal that, even at a film thickness of three monolayers, a band gap of about 6 eV is formed corresponding to that of the MgO(001) single-crystal surface. This finding is confirmed by layer-resolved calculations of the local density of states based on density functional theory.

  19. Growth and hydrogenation of ultra-thin Mg films on Mo(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Davies, Jonathan Conrad; Vegge, Tejs

    2005-01-01

    . Hydrogen cannot be adsorbed on magnesium films under UHV conditions. However, when evaporating Mg in a hydrogen background, a hydrogen overlayer is seen to adsorb at the Mg surface, due to the catalytic interaction with the Mo(1 1 1) substrate and subsequent spill-over. We show that two monolayers of Mg......The growth and hydrogenation of ultra-thin magnesium overlayers have been investigated on a Mo(1 1 1) single crystal substrate. For increasing magnesium coverages we observe intermediate stages in the TPD and LEISS profiles, which illustrate the transition from one monolayer to multilayer growth...

  20. Electrical properties of single crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet ultra-thin films at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Nicolas; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Vila, Laurent; Marty, Alain; Brenac, Ariel; Jacquot, Jean-François; de Loubens, Grégoire; Viret, Michel; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Cros, Vincent; Youssef, Jamal Ben; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Klein, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We report a study on the electrical properties of 19 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient are measured in the high temperature range [300,400]~K using a Van der Pauw four-point probe technique. We find that the electrical resistivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature following an activated behavior corresponding to a band-gap of $E_g\\approx 2$ eV, indicating that epitaxial YIG ultra-thin film...