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Sample records for doped tio2 films

  1. Effects of Ni doping on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni-doped TiO2 thin films can be used as photocatalyst for the photodegradation of methyl orange dye. It was found that, organic dye undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of non-uniformly Ni-doped TiO2 thin films when compared to uniformly doped films and pure TiO2 films under visible light. The photocatalytic ...

  2. Use of co-spray pyrolysis for synthesizing nitrogen-doped TiO2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 is well known as the most promising photocatalyst. Despite many years after discovery, seeking of efficient method to prepare TiO2 doped with nitrogen still attracts a lot of attention. In this paper, we present the result of using co-spray pyrolysis to synthesize nitrogen-doped TiO2 films ...

  3. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis for hydrogen gas detection. LALCHAND A PATIL* .... tions of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films using spray pyro- lysis. 2.4 Thickness and roughness determination of ... Electrical and gas sensing properties were measured using a static gas sensing system.

  4. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Preetam; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO 2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO 2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO 2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement

  5. Nitrogen and europium doped TiO2 anodized films with applications in photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Choong-Soo; Choi, Jinwook; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lee, Oh Yeon; Oh, Han-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation method is a useful process for mesoporous titanium dioxide films. In order to improve the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 film, N-Eu co-doped titania catalyst was synthesized by micro-arc oxidation in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 mixture solution. The specific surface area and the roughness of the anodic titania film fabricated in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 electrolyte, were increased compared to that of the anodic TiO 2 film prepared in H 2 SO 4 solution. The absorbance response of N-Eu titania film shows a higher adsorption onset toward visible light region, and the incorporated N and Eu ions during anodization as a dopant in the anodic TiO 2 film significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. After dye decomposition test for 3 h, dye removal rates for the anodic TiO 2 film were 60.7% and 90.1% for the N-Eu doped titania film. The improvement of the photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the surface enlargement and the new electronic state of the TiO 2 band gap by N and Eu co-doping.

  6. Origin of visible-light sensitivity in N-doped TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka; Morikawa, Takeshi; Ohwaki, Takeshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We report on visible-light sensitivity in N-doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 :N) films that were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 deg. C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. From transmission electron microscopic observations and optical absorption measurements, yellow-colored TiO 2 :N samples showed an enhanced granular structure and strong absorption in the visible-light region. Photoelectron spectroscopy in air measurements showed a noticeable decrease in ionization energy of TiO 2 by the N doping. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at ∼1.18 and ∼2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. The pronounced 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing of TiO 2 by mixing with the O 2p valence band. Therefore, this localized intraband is probably one origin of visible-light sensitivity in TiO 2 :N

  7. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez; Golmar, F.; Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H.; Duhalde, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO 3 substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO 2 . The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO 2

  8. A versatile new method for synthesis and deposition of doped, visible light-activated TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Kean, A.H.; Orlov, A.

    2009-01-01

    A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates.......A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates....

  9. Synthesis of TiO 2-doped SiO 2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In XRD, FT–IR, and TEM investigations of these TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films, the titanium oxide species are highly dispersed in the SiO2 matrixes and exist in a ... Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, P.R. China ...

  10. Effects of Ni doping on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Ni–TiO2 thin film; LPD technique; photodegradation. 1. Introduction. In the field of photocatalysis, the polycrystalline system formed by transition metal-ion-doped TiO2 has been the object of several studies (Palmisano et al 1988; Soria et al 1991; Karakitsou and Verykios 1993; Choi et al 1994;. Litter and Navio 1994, 1996).

  11. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    And special attention has been focused on the relationship between the local structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to provide vital information for the design and application of such highly efficient photocatalytic systems in the degradation of ...

  12. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These thin films were fired for one hour at 550 °C. The sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases such as LPG, H2, CO2, ethanol, NH3 and Cl2 (1000 ppm). The Pt-doped TiO2 (1 : 99) was observed to be most sensitive (572) to H2 at 400 °C with high selectivity against other gases. Its response time ...

  13. Chromium doped TiO2 sputtered thin films synthesis, physical investigations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hajjaji, Anouar; Gaidi, Mounir; Bessais, Brahim; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book presents co-sputtered processes ways to produce chrome doped TiO2 thin films onto various substrates such as quartz, silicon and porous silicon. Emphasis is given on the link between the experimental preparation and physical characterization in terms of Cr content. Moreover, the structural, optical and optoelectronic investigations are emphasized throughout. The book explores the potencial applications of devices based on Cr doped TiO2 thin films as gas sensors and in photocatalysis and in the photovoltaic industry. Also, this book provides extensive leads into research literature, and each chapter contains details which aim to develop awareness of the subject and the methods used. The content presented here will be useful for graduate students as well as researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry and engineering.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films produced by the inert gas condensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H. A.; Abu-Eishah, S. I.; Ayesh, A. I.; Mahmoud, S. T.

    2017-07-01

    The bandgap of thin films Cu-doped TiO2 nanoclusters prepared using the inert gas condensation (IGC) technique have been investigated at various Cu contents. The samples were characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS and UV-visible spectrophotometer. It was found that doping of TiO2 thin film nanoclusters with Cu enhance its optical activity and shift it to the visible region; which makes it useful in photocatalytic applications.

  15. Low-temperature preparation of rutile-type TiO2 thin films for optical coatings by aluminum doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Kosei; Oikawa, Itaru; Kamegawa, Atsunori; Imura, Masaaki; Kanai, Toshimasa; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    A rutile-type TiO2 thin film with a high refractive index (n), a low extinction coefficient (k) and small surface roughness (Ra) is required for use in a variety of optical coatings to improve the controllability of the reflection spectrum. In this study, Al-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and the effects of Al doping on their phases, optical properties, surface roughness and nanoscale microstructure, including Al distribution, were investigated. By doping 5 and 10 mol%Al, rutile-type TiO2 was successfully prepared under a PO2 of 0.5 Pa at 350-600 °C. The nanoscale phase separation in the Al-doped TiO2 thin films plays an important role in the formation of the rutile phase. The 10 mol%Al-doped rutile-type TiO2 thin film deposited at 350 °C showed excellent optical properties of n ≈ 3.05, k ≈ 0.01 (at λ = 400 nm) and negligible surface roughness, at Ra ≈ 0.8 nm. The advantages of the superior optical properties and small surface roughness of the 10 mol%Al-doped TiO2 thin film were confirmed by fabricating a ten-layered dielectric mirror.

  16. PHOTOCATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF Cr DOPED TiO2–SiO2 NANOSTRUCTURE THIN FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eshaghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 nanostructure thin film on glass substrates was prepared by a sol-gel dip coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UV-vis spectrophotometer were used to characterize the structural, chemical and optical properties of the thin film. The XRD showed that thin films contain only anatase phase. FE-SEM images illustrated that anatase average crystallite size in the pure TiO2 and Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 thin films are 15 nm and 10 nm, respectively. XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cr3+ in the thin film. UV-vis absorption spectra indicated that absorption edge in Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 thin film shifted to the visible light region. The photocatalytic results pointed that Cr doping in TiO2–SiO2 improved decoloring rate of methyl orange in comparison to pure TiO2 thin film.

  17. Deep-level optical spectroscopy investigation of N-doped TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka; Morikawa, Takeshi; Ohwaki, Takeshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2005-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 deg. C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at ∼1.18 and ∼2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. Additionally, the 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing by mixing with the O 2p valence band

  18. Band-gap narrowing of TiO2 films induced by N-doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Ohwaki, T.; Taga, Y.

    2006-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 o C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at 1.18 and 2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. Additionally, the 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N-doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing by mixing with the O 2p valence band

  19. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material...... for photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications can be controlled by adjusting the electrolyte composition. Compared to Fe-doped TiO2 films prepared with traditional phosphate- or silicate-based electrolytes, our newly synthesised Fe–TiO2 films contain solely Fe dopants, which results in excellent photocatalytic...... and photovoltaic performance under visible light irradiation....

  20. A Humidity Sensor Based on Nb-doped Nanoporous TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensing properties of the sensor fabricated from Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 by screen-printing on the alumina substrate with Ag-Pd interdigital electrodes have been investigated. The nanoporous thin film has been prepared by sol-gel technique. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the structure and its morphology. It is found that the impedance of this sensor changes more than four orders of magnitude in the relative humidity (RH range of 11–95 % at 25 °C. The response and recovery time of the sensor are about 19 and 25 s, respectively, during the RH variation from 11 to 95 %. The sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response and recovery, prominent stability, good repeatability and narrow hysteresis loop. These results indicate that Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 thin films have a great potential for humidity sensing applications in room temperature operations.

  1. Electric and dielectric behaviors of (Ca, Ta)-doped TiO2 thick film varistor obtained by screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Rabab Khalid

    2018-03-01

    In the current study, TiO2-based thick film varistors (TFVs) doped with 2.5 mol% Ta and various concentrations of Ca were prepared by using screen-printing technique. The effects of the different Ca concentrations (0.5-3.0 mol%) on microstructure enhancement, nonlinear behavior, and dielectric properties of TiO2-based TFVs were investigated at 2.0 mol% doping concentration. Results showed a Vb value of 513 V, a resistivity value of 157.2 kΩ.cm and an α value of 62. Furthermore, high εr value and low tan δ value at low-frequency range detected that the grain boundaries formed in 2.0 mol% doping concentration samples are good. Therefore, the doping amounts can be used to control the grain size and different properties of (Ca, Ta)-doped TiO2 TFVs with improved structural, electric, and dielectric properties.

  2. Use of co-spray pyrolysis for synthesizing nitrogen-doped TiO2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    years after discovery, seeking of efficient method to prepare TiO2 doped with nitrogen still attracts a lot of attention. In this paper, we present the result of using co-spray pyrolysis to synthesize ... the photoelectrochemical solar cell (Guo et al 2011; Zhang et al 2011; Umar et al 2012; Yun et al 2012). Nitrogen-doped TiO2 has ...

  3. Combined sonochemical/CVD method for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Kavei, Ghassem; Ahmadi, Kamran; Rahimipour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the successful synthesis of the nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin films on glass substrate by combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ultrasonic methods, for the first time. In this method the ultrasound waves act as nebulizer for converting of sonochemically prepared TiO2 sol to the mist particles. These mist particles were thermally decomposed in subsequent CVD chamber at 320 °C to produce the carbon-doped TiO2 thin films. The obtained thin films were characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the prepared thin films have anatase crystal structure and nanorod morphology, which calcination of them at 800 °C results in the conversion of nanorods to nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared samples have high transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity. The presence of the carbon element in the structure of the thin films causes the narrowing of the band-gap energy of TiO2 to about 2.8 eV, which results in the improvement of visible light absorption capabilities of the thin film.

  4. Thermal resistant efficiency of Nb-doped TiO2 thin film based glass window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Manh Quynh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The proportional relationship between the infrared (IR transmittance of a transparent material and its IR-induced heat transfer can be explained via a simple model. An agreement between the theory and the experimental work was examined by measuring the temperature rising inside a heat-insulated box with glass windows under IR irradiation, where the material of the glass windows was modified from corning glass (CG to 9 at% Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO fabricated by sputtering deposition. The fabricated TNO thin film was mostly transparent in a visible region and had a low transparency in the IR region, which, in turn, produced the self-cooling effect inside the insulated box. In comparison to the window glass made by CG, the temperature increase inside the box would be 24% less if the window was made by CG coated by TNO (TNO on CG. This suggests the possibility of manufacturing products with desirable features in the energy-cut cooling. The energy-cut was found to decline proportionally to the decrease of the glass window area.

  5. Performance of Erbium-doped TiO2 thin film grown by physical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Rini; Ghosh, Anupam; Dwivedi, Shyam Murli Manohar Dhar; Chakrabartty, Shubhro; Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2017-09-01

    Undoped and Erbium-doped TiO2 thin films (Er:TiO2 TFs) were fabricated on the n-type Si substrate using physical vapour deposition technique. Field emission scanning electron microscope showed the morphological change in the structure of Er:TiO2 TF as compared to undoped sample. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the Er doping in the TiO2 thin film (TF). The XRD and Raman spectrum showed the presence of anatase phase TiO2 and Er2O3 in the Er:TiO2 TF. The Raman scattering depicted additional number of vibrational modes for Er:TiO2 TF due to the presence of Er as compared to the undoped TiO2 TF. The UV-Vis absorption measurement showed that Er:TiO2 TF had approximately 1.2 times more absorption over the undoped TiO2 TF in the range of 300-400 nm. The main band transition, i.e., the transition between the oxygen (2p) state and the Ti (3d) state was obtained at 3.0 eV for undoped TiO2 and at 3.2 eV for Er:TiO2 TF, respectively. The photo responsivity measurement was done on both the detectors, where Er:TiO2 TF detector showed better detectivity ( D *), noise equivalent power and temporal response as compared to undoped detector under ultra-violet illumination.

  6. Optimum design of reactive sputtering parameters on the mechanical and photocatalytic properties of C-doped TiO2 films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Bo; Li, H.G.; Wen, Feng; Pei, Yutao T.

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 is widely studied for its good photocatalysis activity. In this research, CO2 gas was used as carbon and oxygen source to prepare carbon-doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) films on stainless steel using reactive magnetron sputtering. In order to grasp the relationship between sputtering process,

  7. Enhancement of the photoelectric performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using Ag-doped TiO2 nanofibers in a TiO2 film as electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, En Mei; Zhao, Xing Guan; Park, Ju-Young; Gu, Hal-Bon

    2012-02-02

    For high solar conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs], TiO2 nanofiber [TN] and Ag-doped TiO2 nanofiber [ATN] have been extended to be included in TiO2 films to increase the amount of dye loading for a higher short-circuit current. The ATN was used on affected DSSCs to increase the open circuit voltage. This process had enhanced the exit in dye molecules which were rapidly split into electrons, and the DSSCs with ATN stop the recombination of the electronic process. The conversion efficiency of TiO2 photoelectrode-based DSSCs was 4.74%; it was increased to 6.13% after adding 5 wt.% ATN into TiO2 films. The electron lifetime of DSSCs with ATN increased from 0.29 to 0.34 s and that electron recombination was reduced.

  8. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  9. Properties of Sn-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated by anodization of co-sputtered Ti–Sn thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyeremateng, Nana Amponsah; Hornebecq, Virginie; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Self-organized Sn-doped TiO 2 nanotubes (nts) were fabricated for the first time, by anodization of co-sputtered Ti and Sn thin films. This nanostructured material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Due to their remarkable properties, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts can find potential applications in Li-ion microbatteries, photovoltaics, and catalysis. Particularly, the electrochemical performance as an anode material for Li-ion microbatteries was evaluated in Li test cells. With current density of 70 μA cm −2 (1 C) and cut-off potential of 1 V, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts showed improved performance compared to simple TiO 2 nts, and differential capacity plots revealed that the material undergoes full electrochemical reaction as a Rutile-type TiO 2 .

  10. Photocatalytic Degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol using N-doped SnO2/TiO2 Thin Film Coated Glass Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerawas Kongsong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP contaminant in water was investigated. Composite SnO2/TiO2 films N-doped to varying degrees were prepared via sol-gel method, and coated on glass fibers by dipping method. The effects of nitrogen-doping on coating morphology, physical properties, and glyphosate degradation rates were experimentally determined. Nitrogen-doping shifted absorption wavelengths and narrowed the energy band gap, enhancing photocatalytic performance. The maximum efficiency of 2,4-DCP degradation was up to 93.65% for 12 h of 40N/SnO2/TiO2 composite film. The near optimal 40N/SnO2/TiO2 composite thin film exhibited about 4 folds degradation rates relative to pure TiO2, and should perform well in water purification applications.

  11. Gd, I-doped TiO2 thin films coated on solid waste material: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity under UV or visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Siwei; Yu, Jiang; Yang, Chun; Chang, Jiahua; Wang, Yizheng; Wang, Ping; Xie, Shiqian

    2017-10-01

    In this work, titanium dioxide thin films doped with different concentrations of gadolinium (Gd) and iodine (I) were synthesized using the sol-gel method and successfully coated on solid waste material (made in our lab) by dipping, resulting in the titanium dioxide thin-film-coated material (TiO2M). Then, the doped titanium dioxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy; the optimum coating cycle was evaluated by removal rates of COD and ammonia nitrogen in raw wastewater and secondary effluent. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity was determined by degradation efficiency of methyl orange. The results showed that TiO2M had desirable reusability and the photocatalytic activity was attractive under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, it is found that the amount of dopant in TiO2 was a key parameter in increasing the photoactivity. 1% Gd-doped TiO2M exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange with the removal rate reaching 85.55%. The result was in good agreement with the observed smaller crystallite size and profitable crystal structure (anatase phase). Besides, the TiO2M (0.8% Gd-doped TiO2M, 1% Gd-doped TiO2M, 10% I-doped TiO2M, and 5% I-1% Gd-doped TiO2M) with desirable photocatalytic activity at ultraviolet light irradiation was selected for the visible light photocatalytic experiments with taking methyl orange as the target pollutants. The results showed that all of them exhibited the similar photocatalytic activity after 7 h of sunlight irradiation (around 90% removal effect). In general, this research developed a very effective and environmentally friendly photocatalyst for pollutant degradation.

  12. [Study on preparation of lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanometer thin film materials and its photocatalytic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huai-li; Tang, Ming-fang; Gong, Ying-kun; Deng, Xiao-jun; Wu, Bang-hua

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanometer film materials coated on glass were prepared in Ti(OBu)4 precursor solutions by sol-gel processing. Transmittance and photocatalytic activity were respectively investigated and tested for these nanometer thin films prepared with different amount of lanthanum (La), different amount of polyethylene glycol (PEG), and different coating layer times. Some reactive mechanisms were also discussed. For one layer La-addition had little effect on the film transmissivity; but the photocatalytic activity was significantly improved due to La-addition. With increasing PEG, the transmittance of the film decreased for one layer film; but its photocatalytic activity did not rise. Increasing layer number did not affect the transmissivity of multilayer film. After coating two times, increasing layer number did not significantly improve the photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity and best transmissivity were obtained for two layer TiO2 film when the dosage of lanthanum was 0.5 g and the dosage of polyethylene was 0.2 g in the precursor solutions. These materials will probably be used in the protection of environment, waste water treatment, and air purification.

  13. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO2 for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb2S3 Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Lan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. The TiO2 electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO2 films. Compared with the undoped TiO2, Li-doped mesoporous TiO2 dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency (PCE increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage (Voc, short-circuit current (Jsc and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO2 achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a Voc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO2 can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3-based solar cells.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Ledesma, E.; Garcia-Benjume, M.L.; Espitia-Cabrera, I.; Bravo-Patino, A.; Espinoza-Beltran, F.J.; Mostaghimi, J.; Contreras-Garcia, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu) 4 and Al(s-OBu) 3 and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO 2 was demonstrated. Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  15. Growth and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthier, G.; Ferrer, F.J.; Figueras, A.; Gyoergy, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were grown on (001) SiO 2 substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 10 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the irradiations of pressed powder targets composed by both anatase and rutile phase TiO 2 . The experiments were performed in a controlled reactive atmosphere consisting of oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen gases. The obtained thin film crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, while their chemical composition as well as chemical bonding states between the elements were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An interrelation was found between nitrogen concentration, crystalline structure, bonding states between the elements, and the formation of titanium oxinitride compounds. Moreover, as a result of the nitrogen incorporation in the films a continuous red-shift of the optical absorption edge accompanied by absorption in the visible spectral range between 400 and 500 nm wavelength was observed.

  16. Synergistic effects of graphene quantum dot sensitization and nitrogen doping of ordered mesoporous TiO2 thin films for water splitting photocatalysis(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Z.; Wanninayake, Namal; Reed, Allen D.; Kim, Doo-Young; Rankin, Stephen E.

    2016-10-01

    The optical and electronic properties of TiO2 thin films provide tremendous opportunities in several applications including photocatalysis, photovoltaics and photoconductors for energy production. Despite many attractive features of TiO2, critical challenges include the innate inability of TiO2 to absorb visible light and the fast recombination of photoexcited charge carriers. In this study, we prepared ordered mesoporous TiO2 films co-modified by graphene quantum dot sensitization and nitrogen doping (GQD-N-TiO2) for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible light irradiation. First, cubic ordered mesoporous TiO2 films were prepared by a surfactant templated sol-gel method. Then, TiO2 films were treated with N2/Ar plasma for the incorporation of substitutional N atoms into the lattice of TiO2. GQDs were prepared by chemically oxidizing carbon nano-onions. The immobilization of GQDs was accomplished by reacting carboxyl groups of GQDs with amine groups of N-TiO2 developed by the prior immobilization of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). Successful immobilization of GQDs onto N-TiO2 was probed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy. Further, zeta potential and contact angle measurements showed enhanced surface charge and hydrophilicity, confirming the successful immobilization of GQDs. The GQD-N-TiO2, N-TiO2 and GQD-TiO2 films showed 400 times, 130 times and 8 times photocurrent enhancement, respectively, compared to TiO2 films for water splitting with a halogen bulb light source. This outstanding enhancement is attributed to the high surface area of mesoporous films and synergistic effects of nitrogen doping and GQD sensitization resulting in enhanced visible light absorption, efficient charge separation and transport.

  17. Anatase phase stability and doping concentration dependent refractivity in codoped transparent conducting TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T L; Furubayashi, Y; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Shimada, T; Hasegawa, T

    2007-01-01

    Nb 0.06 Sn x Ti 0.94-x O 2 (x ≤ 0.3) thin films were grown by a pulsed-laser deposition method with varying Sn concentration. Through a combinatorial technique, we find that Sn concentration can reach a maximum of about x = 0.3 while maintaining the stable anatase phase and epitaxy. A doping concentration dependence of the refractivity is revealed, in which refractivity reduction at a wavelength of λ = 500 nm is estimated to be 12.4% for Nb 0.06 Sn 0.3 Ti 0.64 O 2 thin film. Sn doping induced band-gap blue shift can be contributed to the mixing of extended Sn 5s orbitals with the conduction band of TiO 2 . Low resistivity on the order of 10 -4 Ω cm at room temperature and high internal transmittance of more than 95% in the visible light region are exhibited for Nb 0.06 Sn x Ti 0.94-x O 2 thin films (x ≤ 0.2). Optical and transport analyses demonstrate that doping Sn into Nb 0.06 Ti 0.94 O 2 can reduce the refractivity while maintaining low resistivity and high transparency

  18. Strategies to prepare TiO2 thin films, doped with transition metal ions, that exhibit specific physicochemical properties to support osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayal, Marshal; Kapoor, Renu; Sistla, Pavana Goury; Pandey, Ravi Ranjan; Kar, Satabisha; Saini, Krishan Kumar; Pande, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion doped titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) thin films, as bioactive coatings on metal or other implantable materials, can be used as surfaces for studying the cell biological properties of osteogenic and other cell types. Bulk crystallite phase distribution and surface carbon–oxygen constitution of thin films, play an important role in determining the biological responses of cells that come in their contact. Here we present a strategy to control the polarity of atomic interactions between the dopant metal and TiO 2 molecules and obtain surfaces with smaller crystallite phases and optimal surface carbon–oxygen composition to support the maximum proliferation and adhesion of osteoblast cells. Our results suggest that surfaces, in which atomic interactions between the dopant metals and TiO 2 were less polar, could support better adhesion, spreading and proliferation of cells. - Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of dopants control the nature of TiO 2 thin films. • A model explains the correlation of dopant properties and behaviour of TiO 2 films. • Dopants with less polar interaction with TiO 2 exhibit better biological activity

  19. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of Ni-doped TiO2 thin films deposited on silicon(1 0 0) substrates by sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jianjun; Gao, Huiping; Deng, Hongmei; Sun, Lin; Kong, Hui; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ni doping decreases the activation energy for the anatase-to-rutile transformation. •With increasing Ni content, the reversible ferromagnetism is found. •Sharp decrease of the E OBG at low Ni content is mainly related to phase composition. -- Abstract: Ni-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates by sol–gel technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggests that the valence of Ni ion is in +2 and oxygen vacancies increase with increasing Ni content. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ni doping catalyzes the anatase-to-rutile transformation (ART) of TiO 2 films, which is due to the decrease of the ART activation energy. The reversible ferromagnetism of the samples with Ni fraction is found, which is due to an anatase-to-rutile junction destroying an F-center bound magnetic polaron. Optical properties of Ni-doped TiO 2 films were studied by the ellipsometric spectra. With increasing Ni content, the optical band gap of TiO 2 films is decreased from 3.56 to 3.34 eV, which may be related to phase composition and impurity band

  20. Plasmon TiO2 nanotube arrays doped with silver nanoparticles act as photo-anode film in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guli, Mina; Deng, Minghan; Bimenyimana, Theogene; Hu, Zhe; Dai, Songyuan

    2018-03-01

    A simple strategy to improve the performance of a TiO2 nanotube film by use of metal nanoparticles is presented in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Metal nanoparticles modified TiO2 nanotubes through a simple soaking method. An excellent enhancement in the optical property has been observed from the TiO2 nanotube film modified with Ag nanoparticles, which is owing to the surface plasmon resonance. The plasmon effects of Ag, together with the straight pathway and porous structure of TiO2 nanotubes have been used to significantly enhance the photo-electric performance of DSSCs. The efficiency of the DSSCs increased significantly from 3.89 to 5.18%, together with corresponding enhancements in current density from 12.30 to 12.55 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage from 0.66 to 0.71 V, respectively.

  1. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    ity in order to provide vital information for the design and application of such highly efficient photocatalytic systems in the degradation of toxic compounds diluted in a liquid phase. Keywords. ... combines both the mechanical properties of silica and the chemical properties of active titania, recent studies reveal that TiO2–SiO2 ...

  2. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pınar Gökdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er- doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO33·5H2O in vanadium (V oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH32]3 and titanium (IV isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH32]4. Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR, thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA, and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively.

  3. Effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of Nb-doped anatase TiO2: recovery of high conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 (TNO). The insulating TNO films were intentionally fabricated by annealing conductive TNO films in oxygen ambient at 400 °C. Reduced free carrier absorption in the insulating TNO films indicated carrier compensation due to excess oxygen. With H 2 -annealing, both carrier density and Hall mobility recovered to the level of conducting TNO, demonstrating that the excess oxygen can be efficiently removed by the annealing process without introducing additional scattering centers. (paper)

  4. Ag-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Composite Film as a Photoanode for Enhancing the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency in DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ag-doped double-layer composite film with TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 as the underlayer and TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays with the Ag-doped nanoparticles as the overlayer was fabricated as the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Five different concentrations of Ag-doped TNT arrays photoelectrode were compared with the pure TNT arrays composite photoelectrode. It is found that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the TNT arrays composite photoanode is gradually improved from 3.00% of the pure TNT arrays composite photoanode to 6.12% of the Ag-doped TNT arrays photoanode with the increasing of the doping concentration, reaching up to the maximum in the 0.04 mol/L AgNO3 solution, and then slightly decreased to 5.43% after continuing to increase the doping concentration. The reason is mainly that the cluster structure of the Ag nanoparticles with large surface area contributes to dye adsorption and the Surface Plasmon Resonance Effect of the Ag nanoparticles improved the photocatalytic ability of the TNT arrays film.

  5. Nb-doped TiO2 thin films as photocatalytic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ) instrument was used for this purpose. The monochromatic X-ray radiation AlKα. (hν = 1486.7 eV) was the excitation source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was carried out to investigate the surface morphology of the films, by ...

  6. Exploring a new phenomenon in the bactericidal response of TiO2 thin films by Fe doping: Exerting the antimicrobial activity even after stoppage of illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibi, Sanaz; Vahed, Shohreh; Torabi, Omid; Jamshidi, Amin; Golabgir, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Highly uniform Fe–TiO 2 thin films were deposited on glass using sol–gel hot-dipping technique. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV and visible irradiation. • By Fe doping into TiO 2 structure, its microbial performance was prolonged even after stopping the illumination. • Due to Fe doping, the significant improvement in bactericidal coating was evident. - Abstract: Antibacterial properties of Fe-doped TiO 2 thin films prepared on glass by the sol–gel hot-dipping technique were studied. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under ultra violet and visible light. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisia and Aspergillus niger. The principle of incubation methods was also discussed. The results indicated that Fe doping of thin films eventuated in high antibacterial properties under visible light and this performance remained even after stoppage of illumination. This article tries to provide some explanation for this fact

  7. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped and undoped TiO2 nanostructured thin films under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, Nadir; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without solvent at 200 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films have been prepared on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, SEM, BET and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis-lights. The results showed that (a) hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, (b) the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and (c) the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film

  8. Preparation of an orthodontic bracket coated with an nitrogen-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film and examination of its antimicrobial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Baocheng; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Na; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yingjie

    2013-01-01

    A bracket coated with a nitrogen-doped (N-doped) TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film was prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the thin film were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, while the antimicrobial activity of the bracket against common oral pathogenic microbes was assessed on the basis of colony counts. The rate of antimicrobial activity of the bracket coated with nano-TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscous, and Candida albicans was 95.19%, 91.00%, 69.44%, and 98.86%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fewer microbes adhered to the surface of this newly designed bracket than to the surface of the normal edgewise bracket. The brackets coated with the N-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film showed high antimicrobial and bacterial adhesive properties against normal oral pathogenic bacterial through visible light, which is effective in prevention of enamel demineralization and gingivitis in orthodontic patients.

  9. Optical properties and structure of the TiN–nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Excessive N doping of TiO 2 produces TiN–N-doped TiO 2 nanocomposite. • Metal TiN-semiconductor TiO 2 interfaces may aid separation of photogenerated charge carriers. • Excessive N doping adds high density of new electronic states at the top of TiO 2 valence band. - Abstract: As one of the most versatile photocatalysts, TiO 2 is suitable for numerous environmental and energy-related applications, however its efficiency is limited by its wide band gap. Doping with anions such as nitrogen has been successful in extending the TiO 2 solar absorption into the visible spectrum, although the exact nature and optimal level of N doping are still debated. Present study shows that excessive and mostly substitutional N doping can result in an in situ formation of nanocomposite structure consisting of TiN nano-crystals embedded in the N-doped anatase TiO 2 , in addition to effectively doping TiO 2 by adding electronic states at the valence band edge thereby narrowing its band gap, as reported before. The metal-semiconductor interfaces in the thin film induce local band bending in the N-doped TiO 2 phase and this may assist in separating the photogenerated charge carriers. The possible interplay between the two phases is discussed. Very low levels of N doping were found not to have any impact on the band gap of TiO 2

  10. A Surface Photovoltage Study of Surface Defects on Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Wafula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface photovoltage (SPV spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying electronic defects on semiconductor surfaces, at interfaces, and in bulk for a wide range of materials. Undoped and Cobalt-doped TiO2 (CTO thin films were deposited on Crystalline Silicon (c-Si and Flourine doped Tin oxide (SnO2:F substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 400 °C. The concentration of the Co dopant in the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ranged between 0 and 4.51 at %. The amplitude of the SPV signals increased proportionately with the amount of Co in the films, which was a result of the enhancement of the slow processes of charge separation and recombination. Photogenerated holes were trapped at the surface, slowing down the time response and relaxation of the samples. The surface states were effectively passivated by a thin In2S3 over-layer sprayed on top of the TiO2 and CTO films.

  11. Silver Doped TiO2 Nanostructure Composite Photocatalyst Film Synthesized by Sol-Gel Spin and Dip Coating Technique on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New composite films (P25SGF-MC-Ag, MPC500SGF-MC-Ag, and ANPSGF-MC-Ag have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using different particle sizes of TiO2 powder and silver addition. Nanostructure TiO2/Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin and dip coating technique. while, by introducing methyl cellulose (MC porous, TiO2/Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500°C. The as-prepared TiO2 and TiO2/Ag films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methyl orange (MO under UV irradiation. After 500°C calcination, the microstructure of MC-TiO2 film without Ag addition exhibited a microstructure, while significant sintering effect was noticed with Ag additions and the films exhibited a porous microstructure. Nanostructure anatase-phase TiO2 can be observed with respect to the sharpening of XRD diffraction peaks. The photodegradation of porous TiO2 deposited with 5×10−4 mol Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency, where 69% methyl orange can be decomposed after UV exposure for 1 hour.

  12. Surface characterisation and photocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2 thin films deposited onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes by sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli, R.; Di Camillo, D.; Lozzi, L.; Horovitz, I.; Mamane, H.; Avisar, D.; Baker, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane filtration is employed for water treatment and wastewater reclamation purposes, but membranes alone are unable to remove pollutant molecules and certain pathogens. Photocatalytically active N-doped TiO 2 coatings have been deposited by sol–gel onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes for water treatment applications using two different methods, via pipette droplets or spiral bar applicator. The uncoated and coated membranes were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Both coatings showed the presence of N-doped anatase, with a surface coverage between 84 and 92%, and nitrogen concentration (predominantly interstitial) of 0.9 at.%. The spiral bar applicator deposited coatings exhibit a thicker mud-cracked surface layer with limited penetration of the porous membrane, whilst the pipette deposited coatings have mostly penetrated into the bulk of the membrane and a thinner layer is present at the surface. The photocatalytic activity (PCA), measured through the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), under irradiation of a solar simulator was 58.6% for the pipette coating and 63.3% for the spiral bar coating. These photocatalytically active N-doped sol–gel coated membranes offer strong potential in forming the fundamental basis of a sunlight based water treatment system. - Highlights: • Sol gel N-doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited on 200 nm pore size Al 2 O 3 membranes. • Two sol–gel methods have been compared – pipette drop and spiral bar deposition. • The coatings showed a similar microstructure and composition but different morphology. • The PCA (degradation of carbamazepine) was ∼60% for both sol–gel coatings. • The coated membranes are promising for use in a membrane based water treatment system

  13. Optical and electrical responses of magnetron-sputtered amorphous Nb-doped TiO2 thin films annealed at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quynh, Luu Manh; Tien, Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Pham Van; Hieu, Nguyen Minh; Doanh, Sai Cong; Thuat, Nguyen Tran; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet; Luong, Nguyen Hoang; Hoang, Ngoc Lam Huong

    2018-03-01

    Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) thin films were prepared by annealing at 300 °C for 30 min after a magnetron-sputter process. A laser-irradiated post-annealing Raman scattering analysis indirectly showed the possible formation of small size anatase TNO clusters within the thin film matrix Although the TNO thin films were not crystallized, oxygen vacancies were created by adding H2 into the sputter gas during the deposition process. This improved the conductivity and carrier concentration of the thin films. As the ratio of H2 in sputter gas is f(H2) = [H2/Ar+H2] = 10%, the carrier concentration of the amorphous TNO thin film reached 1022 (cm-3) with the resistivity being about 10-2 (Ω.cm). Even though a new methodology to decrease the fabrication temperature is not presented; this study demonstrates an efficient approach to shorten the annealing process, which ends prior to the crystallization of the thin films. Besides, in situ H2 addition into the sputter atmosphere is proven to be a good solution to enhance the electrical conductivity of semiconductor thin films like TNOs, despite the fact that they are not well crystallized.

  14. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  15. Unconventional cells of TiO2 doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Campos, R.D.; Oliveira, A.S.; Wellen, R.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da

    2016-01-01

    The technology used in TiO 2 solar cells is in constant improvement, new configurations have been developed, aiming practicality and leading to efficiency increase of photovoltaic devices. This paper proposes a new technology for the production of solar cells in order to investigate a better utilization of solar spectrum of TiO2 doped with erbium (Er 3+ ), proven by energetic conversion. The Ti 0,9 Er 0,1 O2 system was obtained by Pechini method. Nanoparticles have a crystallite size 65.30 nm and surface area 118.48 m 2 /g. These characteristics are essential for the formation of the film to be deposited on the conductive glass substrate constituting the cell's photoelectrode. The other side of the cell is the platinum counter electrode. The cell will have the faces sealed by a thermoplastic and, finally the electrolyte will be inserted, then they will be electrically evaluated through energy efficiency and confronted with the literature data base. (author)

  16. Study of Sn and Mg doping effects on TiO2/Ge stack structure by combinatorial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ogura, Atsushi; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Sn and Mg doping of a TiO2 film on a Ge substrate were investigated to improve leakage current properties and Ge diffusion into the TiO2 film. For systematic analysis, dopant-composition-spread TiO2 samples with dopant concentrations of up to 20.0 at. % were fabricated by RF sputtering and a combinatorial method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the instability of Mg doping of TiO2 at dopant concentrations above 10.5 at. %. Both Sn and Mg dopants reduced Ge diffusion into TiO2. Sn doping enhanced the crystallization of the rutile phase, which is a high-dielectric-constant phase, although the Mg-doped TiO2 film indicated an amorphous structure. Sn-doping indicated systematic leakage current reduction with increasing dopant concentration. Doping at Sn concentrations higher than 16.8 at. % improved the leakage properties (˜10-7 A/cm2 at -3.0 V) and capacitance-voltage properties of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) operation. The Sn doping of TiO2 may be useful for interface control and as a dielectric material for Ge-based MIS capacitors.

  17. TiO2 and Cu/TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 and copper (Cu doped titanium oxide (Cu/TiO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Titanium chloride (TiCl4 and copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O were used as source of Ti and Cu. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1-10 wt. %. The X-ray diffraction studies show that TiO2 thin films are tetragonal structure and Cu/TiO2 thin films implies CuO has present with monoclinic structure. The optical properties of the TiO2 thin films have been investigated as a function of Cu-doping level. The optical transmission of the thin films was found to increase from 88 % to 94 % with the addition of Cu up to 8 % and then decreases for higher percentage of Cu doping. The optical band gap (Eg for pure TiO2 thin film is found to be 3.40 eV. Due to Cu doping, the band gap is shifted to lower energies and then increases further with increasing the concentration of Cu. The refractive index of the TiO2 thin films is found to be 2.58 and the variation of refractive index is observed due to Cu doped. The room temperature resistivity of the films decreases with increasing Cu doping and is found to be 27.50 - 23.76 W·cm. It is evident from the present study that the Cu doping promoted the thin film morphology and thereby it is aspect for various applications.

  18. Degradation of TiO2 and/or SiO2 hybrid films doped with different cationic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcar, Violeta; Caprarescu, Simona; Donescu, Dan; Petcu, Cristian; Stamatin, Ioan; Ianchis, Raluca; Stroescu, Hermine

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid thin films, silica–titanium oxides and silica–aluminum oxides, designed based on the sol–gel process are evaluated as catalysts in the photo-degradation of the cationic dyes. Silica matrices from different precursors with various organic functional groups and cross-linked with titanium or aluminum agents (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and aluminum sec-butoxide) allow the surface property tailoring related to the high capacity of the dye adsorption respective, high photo-degradation activity. The cationic dyes (methylene blue, rhodamine B, crystal violet, malachite green) embedded on the hybrid silica matrix, under ultraviolet light, have a first order kinetics of photodegradation. The cross-linking agents play a key role in the photocatalytic degradation and silica matrix as dye absorbent. The photo-degradation rate for the binary system derived from methyltriethoxysilane/vinyltriethoxysilane precursors with both cross linkers showed a significant improvement by comparison with other hybrid materials. The significant increasing in the photodecomposition rate is related to the capacity to generate additional oxidizing species by each silica hybrid compounds. - Highlights: ► Dyes display different electrostatic interactions to the silica matrix. ► Cross-linking agent influences the photocatalytic degradation of dyes. ► Photodegradation reaction obeyed the rules of a pseudo-first-order kinetic reaction. ► UV radiation can be the origin of the photodegradation

  19. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    was found that chlorobenzene undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of boron doped TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to ... at different irradiation times. The solution was bubbled frequently with air during irradiation. ... X-ray diffraction spectra were obtained from an X-ray diffractometer (type PW 3710 ...

  20. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India. MS received 28 December 2007; revised 16 March 2008. Abstract. Boron doped TiO2 thin films have been successfully deposited on glass substrate and silicon wafer at 30°C from an aqueous solution of ammonium hexa-fluoro titanate and boron ...

  1. Sulphur doped nanoparticles of TiO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szatmáry, Lórant; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Bezdička, Petr; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bastl, Zdeněk; Brezová, V.; Korenko, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-28 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : photocatalyst * S-doped TiO2 * Thiourea Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  2. Polymer Photovoltaic Cell Using TiO2/G-PEDOT Nanocomplex Film as Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Xie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TiO2/G-PEDOT (PEDOT/PSS doped with glycerol nanocomplex film as a substitute for metal electrode in organic photovoltaic cell is described. Indium tin oxide (ITO worked as cathode and TiO2/G-PEDOT nanocomplex works as anode. The thickness of TiO2 layer in nanocomplex greatly affects the act of this nonmetallic electrode of the device. To enhance its performance, this inverted organic photovoltaic cell uses another TiO2 layer as electron selective layer contacted to ITO coated glass substrates. All films made by solution processing techniques are coated on the transparent substrate (glass with a conducting film ITO. The efficiency of this solar cell is compared with the conventional device using Al as electrode.

  3. Hierarchical structure and photocatalysis performance of the photo-anode TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guli, Mina; Deng, Minghan; Bimenyimana, Theogene; Hu, Zhe

    2017-11-01

    We herein present a useful technique to design photo-anode films by composing P25 nanoparticles (NPs) with TiO2 nanorod or TiO2 nanotube arrays to optimize the photocatalysis property and overall property of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After solvothermal and spin-coating process, an interesting hierarchical film containing one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 film and P25 NPs (1D TiO2/P25) was obtained on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. In our study, P25 NPs with high specific surface area can potentially adsorb large numbers of dye molecules when 1D TiO2 arrays provide a straight path for rapid transmission of photo-generated electrons. From the experiment results, the hierarchical photo-anodes indeed exhibit superior properties than that of pristine 1D films. The photoelectric conversion efficiency improves up to 3.96 and 3.69% based on 1D TiO2/P25 DSSCs, which are significantly higher than those of 3.21 and 2.70% of the DSSCs based on 1D TiO2 photoanodes.

  4. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Co-doped TiO2 materials for solar light induced current and photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, Ibram; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, P.P.; Chandra Sekhar, P.S.; Radha, K.; Padmanabham, G.; Sundararajan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Different amounts of Co-doped TiO 2 powders and thin films were prepared by following a conventional co-precipitation and sol–gel dip coating technique, respectively. The synthesized powders and thin films were subjected to thermal treatments from 400 to 800 °C and were thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive analysis with X-rays, FT-infrared, FT-Raman, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, BET surface area, zeta potential, flat band potential measurements, band-gap energy, etc. The photocatalytic ability of the powders was evaluated by methylene blue (MB) degradation studies. The thin films were characterized by photocurrent and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy techniques. The characterization results suggest that the Co-doped TiO 2 powders synthesized in this study consist mainly anatase phase, and possess reasonably high specific surface area, low band gap energy and flat band potentials amenable to water oxidation in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. The photocatalytic degradation of MB over Co-doped TiO 2 powders followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood first order reaction rate relationship. The 0.1 wt.% Co-doped TiO 2 composition provided the higher photocurrent, n-type semi-conducting behavior and higher photocatalytic activity among various Co-doped TiO 2 compositions and pure TiO 2 investigated.

  6. Characterization of TiO2 films obtained by a wet chemical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedik, Asma; Ferraria, Ana M.; Carapeto, Ana P.; Bellal, Bouzid; Trari, Mohamed; Outemzabet, Ratiba

    2017-12-01

    TiO2 has an easily tunable bandgap and a great absorption dye ability being widely used in many fields and in a number of fascinating applications. In this study, a wet chemical route, particularly a sol gel method using spin-coating is adopted to deposit TiO2 thin films onto soda lime glass and silicon substrates. TiO2 films were prepared by using an alcoholic solution of analytical reagent grade TiCl4 as titanium precursor at various experimental conditions. The accent was put on the conditions of preparation (spin time, spin speed, precursor concentration, number of coating layers etc), doping and on the post-deposit treatment namely the drying and the crystallization. The results showed a strong dependence on the drying temperature and on the temperature and duration of the crystallization. We found that the solution preparation and its color are important for getting a reproducible final product. The Raman spectra recorded at room temperature, showed the characteristic peaks of anatase which appear at 143 and around 396 cm-1. These peaks confirm the presence of TiO2. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify the crystalline characteristic of TiO2 while the chemical states and relative amounts of the main elements existing in the samples were investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology of the samples was visualized by AFM. We show by this work the feasibility to obtain different nanostructured TiO2 by changing the concentration of the solution. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films was evaluated. Rhodamine B is a recalcitrant dye and TiO2 was successfully tested for its oxidation. An abatement of 60% was obtained under sunlight for an initial concentration of 10 mg/l.

  7. Combined experimental and theoretical study of visible light active P doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin Gul, Sahar; Khan, Matiullah; Wu, Bo; Yi, Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Using the hydrothermal method, a P-doped TiO2 nano-catalyst is prepared for widening the application spectrum of TiO2. The synthesized samples are investigated using XRD, TEM, and UV-visible absorption spectra. A P-doped TiO2 system is simulated and calculations for geometrical structure, electronic and optical properties are performed based on density functional theory. Comparison of the electronic band structure of anatase TiO2 before and after doping verified that doping tuned the band structure. XRD patterns revealed that pure anatase phase is the only phase in case of pure and doped samples. TEM observations reveal spherical morphology. The P doped TiO2 experimentally as well as theoretically responded to visible light confirming the band structure findings. Photocatalytic activity of the doped samples drastically improved compared to bare TiO2.

  8. Structure and Properties of La2O3-TiO2 Nanocomposite Films for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Sun, Zhi-Hua; Yu, Feng-Mei; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of La2O3-doped TiO2 films with different concentration prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering was studied. The microstructures and blood compatibility of TiO2 films were investigated by scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, respectively. With the increasing of the La2O3 concentrations, the TiO2 films become smooth, and the grain size becomes smaller. Meanwhile, the band gap of the samples increases from 2.85 to 3.3 eV with increasing of the La2O3 content in TiO2 films from 0 to 3.64%. La2O3-doped TiO2 films exhibit n-type semiconductor properties due to the existence of Ti2+ and Ti3+. The mechanism of hemocompatibility of TiO2 film doped with La2O3 was analyzed and discussed. PMID:22162671

  9. Low temperature resistivity, thermoelectricity, and power factor of Nb doped anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, J.; Gaál, R.; Magrez, A.; Piatek, J.; Forró, L.; Nakao, S.; Hirose, Y.; Hasegawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The resistivity of a very high quality anatase TiO2 doped with 6% of Nb was measured from 300 K down to 40 mK. No sign of superconductivity was detected. Instead, a minute quantity of cation vacancies resulted in a Kondo scattering. Measurements of thermo-electric power and resistivity were extended up to 600 K. The calculated power factor has a peak value of 14 μW/(K2cm) at 350 K, which is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 [Venkatasubramanian et al., Nature 413, 597 (2001)], the archetype thermolectrics. Taking the literature value for the thermal conductivity of Nb doped TiO2 thin films, the calculated figure of merit (ZT) is in the range of 0.1 above 300 K. This value is encouraging for further engineering of the material in order to reach ZT of 1 suitable for high temperature thermoelectrics.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation properties of V-doped TiO2to automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Shen, Dongya; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Ruiling

    2017-05-15

    To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO 2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO 2 , and the optimal V dopant content of TiO 2 was 1.0% under UV light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to NOx and HC were higher than those to CO 2 and CO in AE because of the reversible reaction between CO 2 and CO. In addition, it was found that the photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were also increased under visible light irradiation. The V-doped TiO 2 also showed higher degradation efficiencies to NOx and HC than those to CO 2 and CO under visible light irradiation. The V doped TiO 2 presented higher photocatalytic activity to CO 2 than that to CO, but the reversible reaction between CO and CO 2 was not found under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactions of pure and V-doped TiO 2 samples to each component in AE followed the first order kinetic pathway under the two light irradiations. It is concluded that the V doping is a feasible method to improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of TiO 2 to AE for air purification, developing a sustainable environmental purification technology based on TiO 2 materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pure and Nb2O5-doped TiO2 amorphous thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature: Surface and photo-induced hydrophilic conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Tudose, I.V.; Vernardou, D.; Lygeraki, M.I.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Photo-induced hydrophilicity of titanium dioxide makes this material one of the most suitable for various coating applications in antifogging mirrors and self-cleaning glasses. The field of functional titanium dioxide coatings is expanding rapidly not only in applications for glass but also in applications for polymer, metal and ceramic materials. The high hydrophilic surface of TiO 2 is interesting for understanding also the basic photon-related surface science of titanium dioxide. In doing so, it is inevitably necessary to understand the relationship between the photoreaction and the surface properties. In this work, photo-induced hydrophilic conversion was evaluated on amorphous pure and niobium oxide-doped titanium dioxide thin films on Corning 1737F glass grown by dc magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. This study is focused on the influence of the Ar:O ratio during sputtering plasma deposition on thin film surface morphology and subsequent photo-induced hydrophilic conversion results. Structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has shown that our films are amorphous and extremely smooth with a surface roughness bellow 1 nm. Contact angle measurements were performed on as-deposited and during/after 10 min UV exposure. We present evidence that the photo-induced hydrophilic conversion of film surface is directly correlated with surface morphology and can be controlled by growth conditions

  12. Photocatalysis with chromium-doped TiO2: Bulk and surface doping

    KAUST Repository

    Ould-Chikh, Samy

    2014-04-15

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium are usually found to depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two series of chromium-doped titania with a chromium content of up to 1.56 wt % have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions: the first series (Cr:TiO2) is intended to dope the bulk of TiO2, whereas the second series (Cr/TiO2) is intended to load the surface of TiO2 with Cr. The catalytic properties have been compared in the photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid. Characterization data provides evidence that in the Cr/TiO2 catalysts chromium is located on the surface of TiO2 as amorphous CrOOH clusters. In contrast, in the Cr:TiO 2 series, chromium is mostly dissolved in the titania lattice, although a minor part is still present on the surface. Photocatalytic tests show that both series of chromium-doped titania demonstrate visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. Surface-doped Cr/TiO2 solids appear to be more efficient photocatalysts than the bulk-doped Cr:TiO2 counterparts. It\\'s classified! The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two types of modified titania are discussed: one with CrIII doped in the bulk and one with CrOOH clusters on the TiO2 surface (see picture). Both series show visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. However, surface modification appears to be a more efficient strategy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis of Nd3+doped TiO2 nanoparticles and Its Optical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi S.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Rare earth ion doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by Sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence emission spectra. From the UV-visible measurement, the absorption edge of Nd3+-TiO2 was shifted to a higher wavelength side with decreasing band gap. Photoluminescence emission studies reveal the energy transfer mechanism of Nd3+ doped TiO2 nanoparticles explain.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of TiO2 doped with Ag and Cu on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, O.; Stoyanova, D.; Ivanova, I.

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial effect of TiO2 doped with Ag and Cu on Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida is studied. The thin films are deposited on glass substrates without heating during the deposition by r.f. magnetron co-sputtering of TiO2 target and pieces of Ag and Cu. The studied films, thickness about 65 nm, were as deposited and annealed (5200C, 4h, N2+5%H2, 4Pa). The as deposited thin films TiO2:Ag:Cu have band gap energy of 3.56 eV little higher than the band gap of crystalline anatase TiO2 which can be explained with the quantum effect of the granular structure of r.f. magnetron sputtered films. The annealed samples have band gap of 2.52 eV due to formation of donor levels from Ag and Cu atoms near the bottom of the conduction band. The toxic effect was determined through the classical Koch's method and the optical density measurements at λ=610 nm. The as deposited TiO2:Ag:Cu thin films demonstrate stronger inhibition effect - bactericidal for P. putida and bacteriostatic for E. coli (up to the 6th hour) in comparison with the annealed samples. The both methods of study show the same trends of the bacterial growth independently of their different sensitivity which confirms the observed effect.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Ni-Doped TiO2 Materials for Photocurrent and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibram Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different amounts of Ni-doped TiO2 (Ni=0.1 to 10% powders and thin films were prepared by following a conventional coprecipitation and sol-gel dip coating techniques, respectively, at 400 to 800°C, and were thoroughly characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DRS, UV-visible, BET surface area, zeta potential, flat band potential, and photocurrent measurement techniques. Photocatalytic abilities of Ni-doped TiO2 powders were evaluated by means of methylene blue (MB degradation reaction under simulated solar light. Characterization results suggest that as a dopant, Ni stabilizes TiO2 in the form of anatase phase, reduces its bandgap energy, and adjusts its flat band potentials such that this material can be employed for photoelectrochemical (PEC oxidation of water reaction. The photocatalytic activity and photocurrent ability of TiO2 have been enhanced by doping of Ni in TiO2. The kinetic studies revealed that the MB degradation reaction follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood first-order reaction relationship.

  16. The electrical conductivity and microstructure properties of Ni-doped TiO2 ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakuphanoglu, F.; Okutan, M.; Korkmaz, K.

    2008-01-01

    The electrical, microstructure and crystal structure properties of Ni-doped TiO 2 were investigated. The microstructure and crystal structure of Ni-doped TiO 2 were analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The alternating conductivity (AC) and direct current conductivity (DC) properties of Ni-doped TiO 2 have been investigated. DC conductivity exhibits a semiconductor behavior with the temperature. AC and DC measurements suggest that variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction is dominated by hopping of carriers between localized states at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, the conduction mechanism of the sample is constant-range hopping charge transport

  17. TiO2 nanotube formation by Ti film anodization and their transport properties for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iraj, M.; Kolahdouz, M.; Asl-Soleimani, E.; Esmaeili, E.; Kolahdouz Esfahani, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays formed by anodization of Ti film deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrate by direct current magnetron sputtering. NH4F/ethylene glycol electrolyte was used to demonstrate the growth of stable nanotubes at room

  18. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  19. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  20. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical study of Mn-doped TiO2 decorated polypyrrole nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidur, M. R.; Aziz, A. R. Abdul; Basirun, W. J.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured conductive polymers are the growing interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their superior conductivity and environmental friendliness. The existence of transition metal oxides could improve their nanostructure as well as conductive properties. In this study, polypyrrole nanotubes are synthesized in the presence of TiO2 and manganese (Mn)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to investigate their electrochemical properties. Details characterization of the synthesized composites were done by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM. The TEM analysis shows that doping of TiO2 with Mn decrease the grain size of the TiO2 nanoparticles and successively its effects on the synthesis of the PPy nanotubes (PPyNTs). TEM confirmed that PPyNTs synthesized in the presence of Mn-doped TiO2 are thinner in size compare to the PPyNTs synthesized in presence of pure TiO2. The electrochemical effectiveness of the synthesized PPy nanocomposite was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CV and EIS both on a modified glassy carbon electrode reveal the better electron transportability for the Mn-doped TiO2 PPyNTs due to the synergistic effect of doping and decreased the size of PPyNTs as well as increased surface area.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of band gap engineering in anionic-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2017-01-01

    A simple yet promising strategy to modify TiO2 band gap was achieved via dopants incorporation which influences the photo-responsiveness of the photocatalyst. The mesoporous TiO2 was successfully mono-doped and co-doped with nitrogen and fluorine dopants. The results indicate that band gap engineering does not necessarily requires oxygen substitution with nitrogen or/and fluorine, but from the formation of additional mid band and Ti3+ impurities states. The formation of oxygen vacancies as a result of modified color centres and Ti3+ ions facilitates solar light absorption and influences the transfer, migration and trapping of the photo-excited charge carriers. The synergy of dopants in co-doped TiO2 shows better optical properties relative to single N and F doped TiO2 with c.a 0.95 eV band gap reduction. Evidenced from XPS, the synergy between N and F in the co-doped TiO2 uplifts the valence band towards the conduction band. However, the photoluminescence data reveals poorer electrons and holes separation as compared to F-doped TiO2. This observation suggests that efficient solar light harvesting was achievable via N and F co-doping, but excessive defects could act as charge carriers trapping sites.

  4. Nanoscale Optimization and Statistical Modeling of Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Efficiency of N-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Isimjan, Tayirjan T.

    2014-12-19

    Highly ordered nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO2) nanotube array films with enhanced photo-electrochemical water splitting efficiency (PCE) for hydrogen generation were fabricated by electrochemical anodization, followed by annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere. Morphology, structure and composition of the N-doped TiO2 nanotube array films were investigated by FE-SEM, XPS, UV-Vis and XRD. The effect of annealing temperature, heating rate and annealing time on the morphology, structure, and photo-electrochemical property of the N-doped TiO2 nanotube array films were investigated. A design of experiments method was applied in order to minimize the number of experiments and obtain a statistical model for this system. From the modelling results, optimum values for the influential factors were obtained in order to achieve the maximum PCE. The optimized experiment resulted in 7.42 % PCE which was within 95 % confidence interval of the predicted value by the model. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  5. Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinlian; Wang, Yanqing; Cui, Zhendong; Li, Long; Shi, Chengwu

    2018-05-01

    To improve the electron transportation in TiO2 nanorod arrays and charge separation in the interface of TiO2/perovskite, Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 200 nm, diameter of 11 nm and areal density of 1050 μm-2 were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and the influence of Y/Ti molar ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% in the hydrothermal grown solutions on the growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays was investigated. The results revealed that the appropriate Y/Ti molar ratios can increase the areal density of the corresponding TiO2 nanorod arrays and improve the charge separation in the interface of the TiO2/perovskite. The Y-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells with the Y/Ti molar ratio of 3% exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.11% along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 22.50 mA cm-2 and fill factor (FF) of 76.16%, while the un-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells gave a PCE of 16.42% along with Voc of 1.04 V, Jsc of 21.66 mA cm-2 and FF of 72.97%.

  6. Thin film nano-photocatalyts with low band gap energy for gas phase degradation of p-xylene: TiO2 doped Cr, UiO66-NH2 and LaBO3 (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loc Luu, Cam; Thuy Van Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Tri; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Hoang, Tien Cuong; Ha, Cam Anh

    2018-03-01

    By dip-coating technique the thin films of nano-photocatalysts TiO2, Cr-doped TiO2, LaBO3 perovskites (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co) prepared by sol-gel method, and UiO66-NH2 prepared by a solvothermal were obtained and employed for gas phase degradation of p-xylene. Physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were examined by the methods of BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, Raman and UV–vis spectroscopies. The thickness of film was determined by a Veeco-American Dektek 6M instrument. The activity of catalysts was evaluated in deep photooxidation of p-xylene in a microflow reactor at room temperature with the radiation sources of a UV (λ  =  365 nm) and LED lamps (λ  =  400–510 nm). The obtained results showed that TiO2 and TiO2 doped Cr thin films was featured by an anatase phase with nanoparticles of 10–100 nm. Doping TiO2 with 0.1%mol Cr2O3 led to reduce band gap energy from 3.01 down to 1.99 eV and extend the spectrum of photon absorption to the visible region (λ  =  622 nm). LaBO3 perovkite thin films were also featured by a crystal phase with average particle nanosize of 8–40 nm, a BET surface area of 17.6–32.7 m2 g‑1 and band gap energy of 1.87–2.20 eV. UiO66-NH2 was obtained in the ball shape of 100–200 nm, a BET surface area of 576 m2 g‑1 and a band gap energy of 2.83 eV. The low band gap energy nano-photocatalysts based on Cr-doped TiO2 and LaBO3 perovskites exhibited highly stable and active for photo-degradation of p-xylene in the gas phase under radiation of UV–vis light. Perovskite LaFeO3 and Cr–TiO2 thin films were the best photocatalysts with a decomposition yield being reached up to 1.70 g p-xylene/g cat.

  7. Phosphorus doped TiO2 as oxygen sensor with low operating temperature and sensing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhizhong; Wang, Jiejie; Liao, Lan; Pan, Haibo; Shen, Shuifa; Chen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Nano-scale TiO 2 powders doped with phosphorus were prepared by sol–gel method. The characterization of the materials was performed by XRD, BET, FT-IR spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurement and XPS analysis. The results indicate that the phosphorus suppresses the crystal growth and phase transformation and, at the same time, increases the surface area and enhances the sensitivity and selectivity for the P-doped TiO 2 oxygen sensors. In this system, the operating temperature is low, only 116 °C, and the response time is short. The spectra of FT-IR and XPS show that the phosphorus dopant presents as the pentavalent-oxidation state in TiO 2 , further phosphorus can connect with Ti 4+ through the bond of Ti-O-P. The positive shifts of XPS peaks indicate that electron depleted layer of P-doped TiO 2 is narrowed compared with that of pure TiO 2 , and the results of Zeta potential illuminate that the density of surface charge carrier is intensified. The adsorptive active site and Lewis acid characteristics of the surface are reinforced by phosphorus doping, where phosphorus ions act as a new active site. Thus, the sensitivity of P-doped TiO 2 is improved, and the 5 mol% P-doped sample has the optimal oxygen sensing properties.

  8. Synthesis of Ag ion-implanted TiO2 thin films for antibacterial application and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xinggang; Ma, Huiyan; Liu, Feng; Deng, Jianhua; Ai, Yukai; Zhao, Xinlei; Mao, Dong; Li, Dejun; Liao, Bin

    2015-12-15

    TiO2 thin films were deposited by spin coating method. Silver ions were implanted into the films using a Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc implanter. The antibacterial ability of implanted films was tested using Escherichia coli removal under fluorescent irradiation and in the dark. The concentration of E. coli was evaluated by plating technique. The photocatalytic efficiency of the implanted films was studied by degradation of methyl orange under fluorescent illumination. The surface free energy of the implanted TiO2 films was calculated by contact angle testing. Vitamin C was used as radical scavengers to explore the antibacterial mechanism of the films. The results supported the model that both generation of reactive oxygen species and release of silver ions played critical roles in the toxic effect of implanted films against E. coli. XPS experimental results demonstrated that a portion of the Ag(Ag(3+)) ions were doped into the crystalline lattice of TiO2. As demonstrated by density functional theory calculations, the impurity energy level of subtitutional Ag was responsible for enhanced absorption of visible light. Ag ion-implanted TiO2 films with excellent antibacterial efficiency against bacteria and decomposed ability against organic pollutants could be potent bactericidal surface in moist environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High Mobility of Graphene-Based Flexible Transparent Field Effect Transistors Doped with TiO2 and Nitrogen-Doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsien; Tseng, Po-Yuan; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Chou, Hung-Tao; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2015-05-13

    Graphene with carbon atoms bonded in a honeycomb lattice can be tailored by doping various species to alter the electrical properties of the graphene for fabricating p-type or n-type field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, large-area and single-layer graphene was grown on electropolished Cu foil using the thermal chemical vapor deposition method; the graphene was then transferred onto a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate to produce flexible, transparent FETs. TiO2 and nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanoparticles were doped on the graphene to alter its electrical properties, thereby enhancing the carrier mobility and enabling the transistors to sense UV and visible light optically. The results indicated that the electron mobility of the graphene was 1900 cm(2)/(V·s). Dopings of TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 (1.4 at. % N) lead to n-type doping effects demonstrating extremely high carrier mobilities of 53000 and 31000 cm(2)/(V·s), respectively. Through UV and visible light irradiation, TiO2 and N-TiO2 generated electrons and holes; the generated electrons transferred to graphene channels, causing the FETs to exhibit n-type electric behavior. In addition, the Dirac points of the graphene recovered to their original state within 5 min, confirming that the graphene-based FETs were photosensitive to UV and visible light. In a bending state with a radius of curvature greater than 2.0 cm, the carrier mobilities of the FETs did not substantially change, demonstrating the application possibility of the fabricated graphene-based FETs in photosensors.

  10. Influence of Sn Doping on Phase Transformation and Crystallite Growth of TiO2 Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sn doped TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized via a single-step hydrothermal method and the influences of Sn doping on TiO2 have been investigated. It is found that Sn doping not only facilitates the crystal transfer from anatase to rutile but also facilitates the morphology change from sphere to rod. The states of Sn were studied by XPS and the creation of oxygen vacancies by Sn doping is confirmed. Moreover, the HRTEM results suggest that Sn facilitates preferential growth of resulting nanocrystals along (110 axis, which results in the formation of rod-like rutile nanocrystals.

  11. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 doped with boron and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Dallacasa, V.; Falcomer, D.; Fornasiero, P.; Gombac, V.; Montini, T.; Romano, L.; Speghini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Boron (B)- and vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized using modified sol-gel reaction processes and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and N 2 physisorption (BET). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the materials possess high surface area. The addition of B favored the transformation of anatase to rutile, while in the presence of V, anatase was the only phase detected. The MB degradation on V-doped TiO 2 was significantly affected by the preparation method. In fact while the presence of V in the bulk did not influence strongly the photoreactivity under visible irradiation, an increase of surface V doping lead to improved photodegradation of MB. The degradation of MB dye indicated that the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 increased as the boron doping increased, with high conversion efficiency for 9 mol% B doping

  12. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  13. Influence of the Porosity of the TiO2 Film on the Performance of the Perovskite Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2 films is crucial to the performance of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs. In this study, we fabricated highly porous mp-TiO2 films by doping polystyrene (PS spheres in TiO2 paste. The composition of the perovskite films was effectively improved by modifying the mass fraction of the PS spheres in the TiO2 paste. Due to the high porosity of the mp-TiO2 film, PbI2 and CH3NH3I could sufficiently infiltrate into the network of the mp-TiO2 film, which ensured a more complete transformation to CH3NH3PbI3. The surface morphology of the mp-TiO2 film and the photoelectric performance of the perovskite solar cells were investigated. The results showed that an increase in the porosity of the mp-TiO2 film resulted in an improvement in the performance of the PSCs. The best device with the optimized mass fraction of 1.0 wt% PS in TiO2 paste exhibited an efficiency of 12.69%, which is 25% higher than the efficiency of the PSCs without PS spheres.

  14. Dense TiO2 films grown by sol–gel dip coating on glass, F-doped SnO2, and silicon substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Jan; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Janda, Pavel; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Poruba, A.; Bedu, M.; Döbbelin, M.; Tena-Zaera, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2013), s. 385-393 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814 Grant - others:OpenAIRE(XE) EC 7th FP project SANS, NMP-246124; Open AIRE(XE) EC 7th FP projekt ORION , NMP-229036 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanium dioxide * thin films * silicon Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2013

  15. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mo-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-guo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The undoped and Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, diffuse reflectance UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under irradiation of a 500 W xenon lamp and natural solar light outdoor. Effects of calcination temperatures and Mo doping amounts on crystal phase, crystallite size, lattice distortion, and optical properties were investigated. The results showed that most of Mo6+ took the place of Ti4+ in the crystal lattice of TiO2, which inhibited the growth of crystallite size, suppressed the transformation from anatase to rutile, and led to lattice distortion of TiO2. Mo doping narrowed the band gap (from 3.05 eV of TiO2 to 2.73 eV of TiMo0.02O and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. Mo doping was shown to be an efficient method for degradation of methylene blue under visible light, especially under solar light. When the calcination temperature was 550°C and the Mo doping amount was 2.0%, the Mo-doped TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  16. Preparation and characterisation of visible light responsive iodine doped TiO2 electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Szybowska, Katarzyna; Jasulaitiene, Vitalija

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics are presented of new iodine doped TiO 2 (I-TiO 2 ) prepared via the hydrothermal method, where titania (IV) complexes with a ligand containing an iodine atom have been used as a precursor. The structure of samples has been examined by XPS, XRD, UV-vis and FT-IR-ATR techniques. These studies confirm that the obtained powder exhibits a decrease in the bandgap energy value (E g = 2.8 eV). The report presents electrochemical studies of I-TiO 2 films on a Pt electrode, which allow determination of the flatband potential E fb = -0.437 V vs. SCE (in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 ). Cyclic voltammetry measurements show anodic and cathodic activities under Vis and UV-vis radiation. The photocurrent enhancement due to visible light radiation reached 30% of the whole photoacitivity exhibited under UV-vis illumination.

  17. Combination of TiO2-Film Photocatalysis and Ultrafiltration to Treat Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hai You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a combination of TiO2-film photocatalysis reactor and ultrafiltration was used treat the secondary effluent from the manufacturing of thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD. TiO2 particles, as a photocatalyst, were immobilized on silica glass to form TiO2-film by the sol-gel and dip coating methods. TiO2-film photocatalysis was done within three parameters, including number of coating times of TiO2-film, wavelengths of UV light source, and operating time. During ultrafiltration, the operating pressure and feed water temperature were controlled at 300 KN/m2 and 25°C, respectively. It was found that TiO2-film photocatalysis followed by ultrafiltration increased the removal of total organic carbon (TOC to 47.13% and 49.94% for 5 KDa and 10 KDa membranes, respectively. It was also found that the process increased the permeate flux rate (ca 23% for 10 KDa membrane after 6 hours of operation, since some larger organic matter had been broken into small organic matter and some small organic matter had been mineralized into CO2 following TiO2-film photocatalysis. Therefore, combining TiO2-film photocatalysis reactor and ultrafiltration can improve organic wastewater quality and increase the permeate flux of ultrafiltration membrane, which may enhance the recycling and reuse of wastewater.

  18. Decolorization of crystal violet over TiO2 and TiO2 doped with zirconia photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasic Marija B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania based catalyst and TiO2 doped with zirconia were prepared by modified sol–gel method. The synthesized catalysts samples were characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and FTIR techniques. Photocatalytic activity was tested in the reaction of crystal violet (CV dye decolorization/decomposition under UV light irradiation. The effect of several operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial dye concentrations, duration of UV irradiation treatment and number of reaction cycles were also considered. The obtained results indicated faster dye decolorization with the increase of the catalyst amount and a decrease of initial CV concentrations. An influence of doping with zirconia on the physico-chemical properties of bare titania was studied. The doping procedure had affected photocatalytic properties of the final catalytic material, and had improved photocatalytic performances of doped catalyst on crystal violet decolorization/degradation in comparison to bare titania. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 1612008, Grant no. 45012 and Grant no. 172061

  19. Effect of band gap engineering in anionic-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Band gap engineering using anion dopants. • Mid band energy level. • Ti 3+ and oxygen vacancies as impurities states. • Valence band tail extension due to doping. • Wider solar light absorption. - Abstract: A simple yet promising strategy to modify TiO 2 band gap was achieved via dopants incorporation which influences the photo-responsiveness of the photocatalyst. The mesoporous TiO 2 was successfully mono-doped and co-doped with nitrogen and fluorine dopants. The results indicate that band gap engineering does not necessarily requires oxygen substitution with nitrogen or/and fluorine, but from the formation of additional mid band and Ti 3+ impurities states. The formation of oxygen vacancies as a result of modified color centres and Ti 3+ ions facilitates solar light absorption and influences the transfer, migration and trapping of the photo-excited charge carriers. The synergy of dopants in co-doped TiO 2 shows better optical properties relative to single N and F doped TiO 2 with c.a 0.95 eV band gap reduction. Evidenced from XPS, the synergy between N and F in the co-doped TiO 2 uplifts the valence band towards the conduction band. However, the photoluminescence data reveals poorer electrons and holes separation as compared to F-doped TiO 2 . This observation suggests that efficient solar light harvesting was achievable via N and F co-doping, but excessive defects could act as charge carriers trapping sites.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Fe3+-doped TiO2 on fly ash cenospheres for photocatalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Li Qin; Wang Wei; Li Ying; Zhai Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Fe 3+ -doped TiO 2 film deposited on fly ash cenosphere (Fe-TiO 2 /FAC) was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. These fresh photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The XRD results showed that Fe element can maintain metastable anatase phase of TiO 2 , and effect of temperature showed rutile phase appears in 650 deg. C for 0.01% Fe-TiO 2 /FAC. The SEM analysis revealed the Fe-TiO 2 films on the surface of a fly ash cenosphere with a thickness of 2 μm. The absorption threshold of Fe-TiO 2 /FACs shifted to a longer wavelength compared to the photocatalyst without Fe 3+ -doping in the UV-vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity and kinetics of Fe-TiO 2 /FAC with varying the iron content and the calcination temperatures were investigated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) during visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO 2 /FAC and Fe 3+ -doped TiO 2 powder (Fe-TiO 2 ), the degradation ratio using Fe-TiO 2 /FAC increased by 33% and 30%, respectively, and the best calcined temperature was 450 deg. C and the optimum doping of Fe/Ti molar ratio was 0.01%. The Fe-TiO 2 /FAC particles can float in water due to the low density of FAC in favor of phase separation to recover these photocatalyst after the reaction, and the recovery test shows that calcination contributes to regaining photocatalytic activity of Fe-TiO 2 /FAC photocatalyst.

  1. Fe doped TiO2–graphene nanostructures: synthesis, DFT modeling and photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Ayissi, Serge; Charpentier, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, Fe-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles ranging from a 0.2 to 1 weight % were grown from the surface of graphene sheet templates containing –COOH functionalities using sol–gel chemistry in a green solvent, a mixture of water/ethanol. The assemblies were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques, with the coordination mechanism examined theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed excellent decoration of the Fe-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets >5 nm in diameter. The surface area and optical properties of the Fe-doped photocatalysts were measured by BET, UV and PL spectrometry and compared to non-graphene and pure TiO 2 analogs, showing a plateau at 0.6% Fe. Interactions between graphene and Fe-doped anatase TiO 2 were also studied theoretically using the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package based on DFT. Our first-principles theoretical investigations validated the experimental findings, showing the strength in the physical and chemical adsorption between the graphene and Fe-doped TiO 2 . The resulting assemblies were tested for photodegradation under visible light using 17β-estradiol (E2) as a model compound, with all investigated catalysts showing significant enhancements in photocatalytic activity in the degradation of E2. (paper)

  2. Fe doped TiO2-graphene nanostructures: synthesis, DFT modeling and photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Ayissi, Serge; Charpentier, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    In this work, Fe-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles ranging from a 0.2 to 1 weight % were grown from the surface of graphene sheet templates containing -COOH functionalities using sol-gel chemistry in a green solvent, a mixture of water/ethanol. The assemblies were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques, with the coordination mechanism examined theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed excellent decoration of the Fe-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets >5 nm in diameter. The surface area and optical properties of the Fe-doped photocatalysts were measured by BET, UV and PL spectrometry and compared to non-graphene and pure TiO(2) analogs, showing a plateau at 0.6% Fe. Interactions between graphene and Fe-doped anatase TiO(2) were also studied theoretically using the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package based on DFT. Our first-principles theoretical investigations validated the experimental findings, showing the strength in the physical and chemical adsorption between the graphene and Fe-doped TiO(2). The resulting assemblies were tested for photodegradation under visible light using 17β-estradiol (E2) as a model compound, with all investigated catalysts showing significant enhancements in photocatalytic activity in the degradation of E2.

  3. A fast and effective method for N-doping TiO2 by post treatment with liquid ammonia: visible light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Michael J.; Palgrave, Robert G.; Dunnill, Charles W.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films prepared by sol–gel synthesis were N-doped by post treating with liquid ammonia and annealing at 500 °C. Characterisation by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the anatase crystal type was retained and present in all samples. Scanning electron microscopy showed that treatment with liquid ammonia had no significant effect on the film morphology. Functional testing under filtered while light conditions involving water contact angle, and the photo destruction of both Resazurin and Stearic acid showed the ammonia treated samples to be active visible light photocatalysts in contrast to the pure TiO 2 and the blank controls. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies indicate the presence of interstitial nitrogen (N 1s = 400 eV) suggesting that the origin of the enhanced photocatalytic activity is most likely due to oxygen vacancies created by the interstitial nitrogen incorporation. This synthesis method utilises a simple, inexpensive and highly effective post treatment route to N-dope TiO 2 and produces visible light photocatalysts with potential applications in self-cleaning and healthcare environments. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterisation of N-doped TiO 2 thin films • N-doping by a post treatment with liquid ammonia • Enhanced photocatalytic activity • Easy enhancement of current TiO 2 based technologies

  4. Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinfa Luka Domtau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt% of carbon black were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300–900 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350–900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance, and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased (i.e., increase in pore size. Currents and voltages (I-V characteristics of the films were measured by a 4-point probe. Resistivity (ρ and conductivity (σ of the films were computed from the I-V values. It was observed that resistivity increased with carbon black concentrations while conductivity decreased as the pore size of the films increased.

  5. Microwave-assisted synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid nanostructured materials as quantum-dots sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Mendez, Jose R.; Matos, Juan; Cházaro-Ruiz, Luis F.; González-Castillo, Ana C.; Barrios-Yáñez, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    The microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid materials was performed. Saccharose, titanium isopropoxide and zinc acetate were used as organic and inorganic sources for the synthesis. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the textural and optoelectronic properties of the hybrid materials was verified. Carbon quantum-dots of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured spheres were obtained in a second pot by controlled calcination steps of the precursor hybrid materials. A carefully characterization by adsorption-desorption N2 isotherms, XRD, XPS, SEM, UV-vis/DR and electro- and photo-electrochemistry properties of the carbon quantum-dots TiO2 and ZnO spheres was performed. The photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2-C and ZnO-C films proved to be dependent on the conditions of synthesis. It was found a red-shift in the energy band gap of the semiconductors with values of 3.02 eV and 3.13 eV for the TiO2-C and ZnO-C, respectively, clearly lower than those on bare semiconductors, which is associated with the C-doping effect. From the photo-electrochemistry characterization of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO films can be concluded that the present materials have potential applications as photoelectrodes for quantum-dots sensitized solar cells.

  6. A comparative study of two techniques for determining photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 nanotubes under visible light irradiation: Photocatalytic reduction of dye and photocatalytic oxidation of organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-Il; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Abrams, Billie

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen-doping (N-doping) is a popular strategy for promoting the absorption of visible light in TiO2 and other photocatalysts. We have grown TiO2 nanotubes onto non-conducting Pyrex in a one step process via single layer titanium films. In an attempt to improve the self-cleaning ability...... of vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays under visible light irradiation we have doped them with nitrogen and tested the resulting nanotube films by two representative test methods. The first method is an established dye-test which is typically used as a “quick-and-dirty” screening for activity. The second...

  7. The directed preparation of TiO2 nanotubes film on FTO substrate via hydrothermal method for gas sensing application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van Viet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we directly synthesized TiO2 nanotubes film on Fluorine doped Tin oxide (FTO substrate via hydrothermal method from commercial TiO2 in NaOH solution at 135 ℃ for 24 hours. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmitting electron microscopy (TEM. The average diameter of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs is about 10–12 nm and their length is about a few hundred nanometers. The sensitivity ability of TNTs increases as the gas concentration increases and developing to the highest sensitivity of TNTs is 2.4 at 700 ppm of the ethanol concentration. The same as the gas concentration, the sensitivity of TNTs increases when the temperature increases. Besides, the sensitivity of samples at 250 ℃ is doubled compared to samples determined at 100 ℃.

  8. Visible light active photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A using nitrogen doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, N; Vinu, A; Anandan, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Murugesan, V

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen doped titania was prepared by low temperature sol-gel method using titanium precursor and nitrogen containing bases like triethylamine and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide compounds. The materials were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, XPS, DRS-UV, and FT-IR techniques. DRS-UV study substantially indicates shift of the absorption edge of TiO2 to lower energy region. The phase composition, crystallinity, specific surface area, and visible light activity of nitrogen doped titania depend upon the preparation conditions. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A in aqueous medium was investigated by TiO2 and nitrogen doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation in a batch photocatalytic reactor. The results indicate higher visible light activity for nitrogen doped TiO2 than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) for bisphenol-A degradation. The influence of various parameters such as initial concentration of bisphenol-A, catalyst loading and pH was examined for maximum degradation efficiency.

  9. Effect of Graphite Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles on Smoke Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshasnorlyza Hazan; Mohamad Shahrizal Md Zain; Natrah Syafiqah Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke affects in the same way as regular smoker. The best solution is to purify the air efficiently and effectively. In this study, we were successfully doped TiO 2 nanoparticle with graphite to accelerate the degradation of cigarette smoke. The graphite doped and undoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared from synthetic rutile using alkaline fusion method and their photo catalytic activity were investigated under visible light irradiation. The photo catalytic activity of the TiO 2 nanoparticles was analyzed in terms of their particle size analysis, crystallization and optical band gap. TiO 2 nanoparticle act as photo catalyzer by utilization of light energy to excite electron-hole pairs in smoke degradation processes. With the aided from graphite in TiO 2 nanoparticles, the smoke degradation was accelerate up to 44.4 %. In this case, graphite helps to reduce optical band gap of TiO 2 nanoparticle, thus increasing excitation of electron from valence band to conduction band. (author)

  10. Dielectric response and room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Wasi; Khan, Shakeel; Husain, Shahid; Ahmad, Abid

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, nanocrystalline samples of Ti1-xCrxO2 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were synthesized in anatase phase through simple and cost effective acid modified sol gel method. The influence of Cr doping on thermal, microstructural, electrical and magnetic properties was investigated in TiO2 host matrix. The surface morphology has revealed less agglomeration and considerable reduction in particle size in case of Cr doped TiO2 as compared to undoped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) established high purity, appropriate stoichiometry and oxidation states of the compositions. The dielectric properties of the nanoparticles were altered by the doping concentration, applied frequency as well as temperature variation. The variation in dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (δ) and ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature at different doping concentration of Cr were interpreted in the light of Maxwell Wagner theory, space charge polarization mechanism and drift mobility of charge carriers. Both undoped and Cr doped TiO2 samples exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) that remarkably influenced by means of the Cr content. The significant enhancement in the magnetization was observed at 4% Cr doping. However, decrease in magnetization for higher doping signify antiferromagnetic interactions between Cr ions or superexchange mechanism. These results reveal that the oxygen vacancies play a crucial role to initiate the RTFM. Therefore, the present investigation suggests the potential applications of Cr doped TiO2 nanoparticles for spintronics application.

  11. Properties of TiO2 films with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, S A; Nikolaev, N E; Trofimov, N S; Chekhlova, T K

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and optical properties of titanium dioxide films, made by gel technology and doped with gold nanoparticles, were investigated. The structures of the titanium dioxide films synthesized by different techniques have been compared. Using methods of high-resolution microscopy and the results of X-ray diffraction analysis it was shown, that the developed gel technology allows getting almost 100% nanostructured anatase phase. Titanium dioxide was modified by nanoparticles of gold with different concentration and transmittance spectra of the samples were studied. (paper)

  12. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-06-01

    A double-layered TiO2 film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO2 flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO2 nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO2 flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO2 nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  13. Antimicrobial and Barrier Properties of Bovine Gelatin Films Reinforced by Nano TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nassiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nano titanium dioxide incorporation were investigated on the water vaporpermeability, oxygen permeability, and antimicrobial properties of bovine gelatin films. The nano TiO2 (TiO2-N was homogenized by sonication and incorporated into bovine gelatin solutions at different concentrations(e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 5% w/w of dried gelatin. The permeability of the films to water vapor and oxygen wassignificantly decreased by incorporating of low concentration TiO2-N to gelatin solutions. TiO2-N gelatin filmsshowed an excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Theseproperties suggest that TiO2-N has the potential as filler in gelatin-based films for using as an active packagingmaterials in pharmaceutical and food packaging industries.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of TiO 2 nanoparticle films coated with organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika; Rahman, M. Y. A.; Salleh, M. M.; Umar, A. A.; Ahmad, A.

    2009-05-01

    The synthesis and characterization of TiO 2 nanoparticle coated with organic dyes, coumarin and methyl orange was reported. The films were deposited onto ITO-covered glass substrate by controlled hydrolysis technique asssited with spin coating technique. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray dispersive (XRD) technique and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. The average grain size of the TiO 2 films is about 76 nm. The uncoated TiO 2 film is crystalline with anatase and rutile structure. The coated TiO 2 films with dye are also crystalline since the diffraction peaks have been observed at three angles. The maximum absorption of the film coated with coumarine dye is at 480 nm.

  15. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped and W-La-Codoped TiO2 Nanomaterials under Simulated Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghe Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 nanomaterials were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of W and La results in significant red shift of absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The weight ratios of La and W in the composites play important roles in the absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activities of both W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts for decolorization of methyl orange solution were evaluated under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed that both W-doped and W-La-codoped can effectively improve the photocatalytic behaviors of TiO2 nanomaterials ascribed to the improved photoinduced charge carriers separation, enhanced light absorption, and large surface area. Furthermore, W-La-codoped TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than W-doped TiO2. Considering their high photocatalytic activity, the doped TiO2 nanomaterials could be applied in wastewater treatment and environmental purification.

  16. Application of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Thinh Troung, Trieu; Pham Phan, Thu Anh

    2017-01-01

    Our research aimed to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSCs by applying nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (N-TNT) for the preparation of DSCs photo-anodes. The none-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (TNTs) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 particles in 10 M...

  17. TiO2 Nanotubes on Transparent Substrates: Control of Film Microstructure and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus Zelny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of semiconductor thin films on transparent and or flexible substrates is a highly desirable process to enable photonic, catalytic, and sensing technologies. A promising approach to fabricate nanostructured TiO2 films on transparent substrates is self-ordering by anodizing of thin metal films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO. Here, we report pulsed direct current (DC magnetron sputtering for the deposition of titanium thin films on conductive glass substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 450 °C. We describe in detail the influence that deposition temperature has on mechanical, adhesion and microstructural properties of titanium film, as well as on the corresponding TiO2 nanotube array obtained after anodization and annealing. Finally, we measure the photoelectrochemical water splitting activity of different TiO2 nanotube samples showing that the film deposited at 150 °C has much higher activity correlating well with the lower crystallite size and the higher degree of self-organization observed in comparison with the nanotubes obtained at different temperatures. Importantly, the film showing higher water splitting activity does not have the best adhesion on glass substrate, highlighting an important trade-off for future optimization.

  18. Effect of zinc doping on the bandgap and photoluminescence of Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Trinh Thi; Huong, Vu Hoang; Tham, Vu Thi; Long, Nguyen Ngoc

    2018-03-01

    This study was focused on the effect of Zn2+ dopant concentration on the absorption edge and photoluminescence of anatase TiO2 nanowires synthesized by hydrothermal technique. For the undoped anatase TiO2 nanowires, the indirect band gap of 3.26 eV and the direct band gap of 3.58 eV are assigned to the indirect Γ3 → X1b and direct X2b → X1b transitions, respectively. The Zn2+-doping makes the absorption edge of TiO2:Zn2+ nanowires shift towards the lower energy side (red shift). On the other hand, the replacing Ti4+ ions with Zn2+ ions creates oxygen vacancies (VO) and shallow defects associated with VO. Just these defects are responsible for the enhanced luminescence of Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanowires.

  19. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical characteristics of In2S3 nano-flower films on TiO2 nanorods arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minmin; Yu, Limin; Chen, Wenyuan; Wang, Wenzhen; Jia, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    The In2S3 nano-flower films on TiO2/FTO (Fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates were synthesized via hydrothermal method and the photoelectrochemical performances of In2S3/TiO2 photoelectrodes were characterized. The roles of PSS (poly(sodium-p-styrenesul-fonate)) and PEG (polyethylene glycol) on the structure controlling of In2S3 films were also discussed. The results show that the In2S3 nano-flower films consisted of ultrathin nanoflakes with a thickness of 5 nm are successfully grew on the surface of TiO2 nanorod arrays. PEG could play a role as the morphology-directing agent by confining crystal growth in certain directions, while PSS could provide coordination sites with long chains and lead to the formation of spherical structure. The energy conversion efficiency of In2S3 nano-flower/TiO2 photoelectrodes enhances thrice compared with that of bare TiO2 photoelectrode. This research presents further insight for improving the efficiency of semiconductors by using the suitable electron transfer channels, which may be promising for rational construction of solar conversion and storage devices.

  20. Performance and stability studies of inverted polymer solar cells with TiO2 film as a buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruixiang; Yang, Feng; Ouyang, Xinhua; Liu, Ying; Kim, Yong-Sang; Ge, Ziyi

    2014-02-01

    TiO2 based inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag presented excellent air stabilities,; the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices exhibited only 15 % decay as compared to the highest value while being exposed in air-condition for more than 20 days. Interestingly, an overall enhancement of PCE from 3.5 % to 3.9 % was observed while the PSCs were exposed in air-condition up to 3 days; the improvement of performance was attributed to the TiO2 films' oxygen and water protection effect and the oxidation of Ag, which will benefit to form an effective work function match with the HOMO of P3HT leading to improved ohmic contact. However, the performance slowly decreased when the exposure time remains longer due to the physical adsorbed oxygen. UV-ozone treatment on the TiO2 films' leads to the formation of a metal-deficient oxide that results in a decreased PCE for the devices. Finally, X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the compositional changes of the TiO2 films while they were exposed in air-condition or treated by UV-ozone.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticle-Coated Film for Potential Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2 have involved various applications which include the food industry. This study aims to develop TiO2 nanoparticle-coated film for potential food packaging applications due to the photocatalytic antimicrobial property of TiO2. The TiO2 nanoparticles with varying concentrations (0–0.11 g/ 100 mL organic solvent were coated on food packaging film, particularly low density polyethylene (LDPE film. The antimicrobial activity of the films was investigated by their capability to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli in an actual food packaging application test under various conditions, including types of light (fluorescent and ultraviolet (UV and the length of time the film was exposed to light (one–three days. The antimicrobial activity of the TiO2 nanoparticle-coated films exposed under both types of lighting was found to increase with an increase in the TiO2 nanoparticle concentration and the light exposure time. It was also found that the antimicrobial activity of the films exposed under UV light was higher than that under fluorescent light. The developed film has the potential to be used as a food packaging film that can extend the shelf life, maintain the quality, and assure the safety of food.

  2. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haiping; Liao, Jianhua; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO 2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO 2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  3. Photocatalytic Hydrogen or Oxygen Evolution from Water over S- or N-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumoto Nishijima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available S- or N-doping of TiO2 powder having an anatase or rutile phase extended the photocatalytic activity for water oxidation and reduction under UV light and visible light irradiation. For the reduction of water, anatase-doped TiO2 showed higher level of activity than that of doped TiO2 having a rutile phase using ethanol as an electron donor. Furthermore, the activity level of S-doped TiO2 for hydrogen evolution was higher than that of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light. Photocatalytic oxidation of water on doped TiO2 having a rutile phase proceeded with fairly high efficiency when Fe3+ ions were used as electron acceptors compared to that on doped TiO2 having an anatase phase. In addition, water splitting under visible light irradiation was achieved by construction of a Z-scheme photocatalysis system employing the doped TiO2 having anatase and rutile phases for H2 and O2 evolution and the I−/IO3− redox couple as an electron relay.

  4. Production and Characterization of (004) Oriented Single Anatase TiO2 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Ferhunde; Akyuz, Idris; Cergel, Muge Soyleyici; Erdogan, Banu

    2018-02-01

    Highly (004) oriented anatase TiO2 films have been successfully obtained by an inexpensive ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique at low substrate temperatures and without additional annealing. X-ray diffraction analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the structural, optical and surface properties of the films. By using the less reported TiCl4 solution, the optical band gap values falling into the visible region (between 2.70 eV and 2.92 eV) have been obtained for all films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry technique has been used to determine the dispersive refractive index and extinction coefficient of TiO2 films. Possible electrical conduction mechanisms in TiO2 films have been examined using temperature dependent conductivity measurements in the temperature range of 78-300 K. At room temperature, electrical resistivity values of TiO2 films change between 1.68 × 104 Ω cm and 5.88 × 104 Ω cm. Considering the analyzed parameters with respect to substrate temperature, this work refers to the properties of anatase TiO2 films that are strongly correlated to the growth direction, namely (004). As a result, (004) oriented anatase TiO2 films with appropriate optical band gap values are promising materials for technological applications, especially for photocatalysts.

  5. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  6. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  7. Rapid erasing of wettability patterns based on TiO2-PDMS composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kazuya; Udagawa, Keizo; Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Murakami, Taketoshi; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → TiO 2 -PDMS composite films are prepared using the sol-gel method. → The films show wettability conversion by irradiation with oxygen plasma. → Hydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterns based on the TiO 2 -PDMS films are fabricated. → The wettability patterns are rapidly erasable upon plasma irradiation for 1 s. - Abstract: TiO 2 -polydimethylsiloxane (TiO 2 -PDMS) composite films are prepared using the sol-gel method from a Ti(OBu) 4 -benzoylacetone solution containing PDMS. The prepared films are cured by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Structural changes in the films after UV irradiation are confirmed by UV-vis absorption experiments, which show that an absorption band characteristic of the benzoylacetonate chelate rings disappears. This finding is ascribed to structural changes associated with the dissociation of the chelate rings. The IR spectra of the thin films exhibit a broad absorption band after UV irradiation, indicating that a Ti-O-Ti network forms in the thin film. Contact angles are measured for the TiO 2 -PDMS thin films, showing wettability conversion from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic states by irradiation with oxygen plasma for 1 s. This phenomenon is explained by XPS experiments which reveal that the number of carbon atoms decreases, whereas the number of oxygen atoms increases on the surface of the TiO 2 -PDMS composite films. Finally, hydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterns are fabricated based on a patterned TiO 2 -PDMS composite film. The film displays a rapid change to superhydrophilicity over the whole film surface upon plasma irradiation for 1 s, which means that the wettability patterns are rapidly erasable.

  8. SnO2/TiO2 bilayer thin films exhibiting superhydrophilic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talinungsang, Nibedita Paul; Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured thin films of TiO2, SnO2, and SnO2/TiO2 have been deposited by sol-gel method. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, wettability and optical properties. In the present work, we have achieved a way of converting hydrophilic to super-hydrophilic state by incorporating TiO2 buffer layer in between substrate and SnO2 film, which has its utility in anti-fogging surfaces. The decrease in contact angle of water over SnO2/TiO2 bilayer is attributed to the increase in roughness of the film as well as surface energy of the substrate.

  9. SAXS Studies of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Polymer Electrolytes and in Nanostructured Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Bernstorff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolytes as nanostructured materials are very attractive components for batteries and opto-electronic devices. (PEO8ZnCl2 polymer electrolytes were prepared from PEO and ZnCl2. The nanocomposites (PEO8ZnCl2/TiO2 themselves contained TiO2 nanograins. In this work, the influence of the TiO2 nanograins on the morphology and ionic conductivity of the nanocomposite was systematically studied by transmission small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS simultaneously recorded with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC at the synchrotron ELETTRA. Films containing nanosized grains of titanium dioxide (TiO2 are widely used in the research of optical and photovoltaic devices. The TiO2 films, prepared by chemical vapor deposition and e-beam epitaxy, were annealed in hydrogen atmospheres in the temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C in order to study anatase-rutile phase transition at 740 °C. Also, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS spectra for each TiO2 film were measured in reflection geometry at different grazing incident angles. Environmentally friendly galvanic cells, as well as solar cells of the second generation, are to be constructed with TiO2 film as working electrode, and nanocomposite polymer as electrolyte.

  10. Research Update: Doping ZnO and TiO2 for solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Z. Hoye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ZnO and TiO2 are two of the most commonly used n-type metal oxide semiconductors in new generation solar cells due to their abundance, low-cost, and stability. ZnO and TiO2 can be used as active layers, photoanodes, buffer layers, transparent conducting oxides, hole-blocking layers, and intermediate layers. Doping is essential to tailor the materials properties for each application. The dopants used and their impact in solar cells are reviewed. In addition, the advantages, disadvantages, and commercial potential of the various fabrication methods of these oxides are presented.

  11. Nanostructured nitrogen and carbon codoped TiO2 thin films: Synthesis, structural characterization and optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzybayev, Inci

    TiO2 is widely used in applications like photocatalysis, sensors, solar cells, and memory devices because it is inexpensive, abundant, nontoxic and stable in aqueous solution. Another exciting application where TiO 2 has the potential to be a very useful catalyst is the clean hydrogen generation using solar radiation. Energy consumption is increasing every year and, as a result, renewable and sustainable alternative energy sources are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, clean hydrogen generation research is becoming more and more important. This study aims at the preparation and characterization of nitrogen and carbon (N-C) codoped TiO2 photoanode material that could potentially be used in photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen generation. The solar spectrum peaks around 500 nm (2.48 eV) which is in the visible part of the spectrum. The photoanode material to be used for solar hydrogen generation should absorb visible light photons to yield high efficiency. The challenge with TiO2 is that the wide band gap (3.00--3.20 eV) absorbs only ultra-violet (UV) photons and only a small percentage of the solar spectrum is in the UV range. There are various ways to overcome the challenge of sensitizing the material to visible light absorption and this study focuses on one of the most promising ways: band modification of TiO2 by N-C codoping. The role of pure oxygen pressure on pulsed laser deposited N-C codoped TiO2 films were investigated. At low pressures rutile phase of TiO2 was dominant and a microstructure with densely packed grains was obtained. However, at high pressures anatase phase became dominant and columnar structure was favored. Therefore, the anatase-rutile phase ratio as well as the microstructure of the films can be controlled by adjusting oxygen pressure and introducing N and C into the TiO2 matrix. Optimized oxygen pressure and higher doping concentrations yielded films with more effective absorption in the visible region. The preparation and

  12. Preparation of Fluorine-Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts with Controlled Crystalline Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Todorova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline F-doped TiO2 powders were prepared by sol-gel route. The thermal behavior of the powders was recorded by DTA/TG technique. The crystalline phase of the fluorinated TiO2 powders was determined by X-ray diffraction technique. It was demonstrated that F-doping using CF3COOH favors the formation of rutile along with anatase phase even at low temperature. Moreover, the rutile's phase content increases with the increase of the quantity of the fluorine precursor in the starting solution. The surface area of the powders and the pore size distribution were studied by N2 adsorption-desorption using BET and BJH methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS revealed that the fluorine is presented in the TiO2 powders mainly as metal fluoride in quantities ∼16 at %. The F-doped TiO2 showed a red-shift absorption in UV-vis region which was attributed to the increased content of rutile phase in the powders. The powders exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in decomposition of acetone.

  13. In3+-doped TiO2 and TiO2/In2S3 nanocomposite for photocatalytic and stoichiometric degradations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, Václav; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    A novel In(3+)-doped TiO(2) and TiO(2)/In(2)S(3) nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants and stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and thioacetamide, respectively. The prepared samples series TiInTAA were annealed at 600°C. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination. The method of UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band-gap energies. The photocatalytic activity (PCA) was tested by degradation of Orange dye, whereas stoichiometric activity was studied by degradation of sulfur mustard. Incorporation of In(3+) into titania lattice increases PCA of TiO(2) in the visible light and increases stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard against nondoped TiO(2) as well. PCA of TiO(2)/In(2)S(3) composite depends on the optimal ratio of TiO(2):In(2)S(3) in composite, while the activity for stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustards depends on the content of In(2)S(3) in nanocomposite. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen-doped Nano TiO2/Tourmaline Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xin-wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Ti(OC4H94 as precursor, CO(NH22 as nitrogen source, tourmaline as support, the nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were synthesized by sol-gel method with ultrasound assisted.The structure and performance of composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis DRS, SEM, EDS.The effects of calcining temperature, nitrogen-doped content, tourmaline amount, catalyst system on the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were studied.The results show that the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites calcined under 500℃, the nitrogen doped amount of 5% (mole fraction, tourmaline added in an amount of 10% (mass fraction, catalyst dosage of 3g/L, under 500W UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic degradation effect of TNT(10mg/L is the best, and has a good recycling performance.

  15. Multi-Layered TiO2 Films towards Enhancement of Escherichia coli Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorachon Yoriya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline TiO2 has shown its great photocatalytic properties in bacterial inactivation. This work presents a design fabrication of low-cost, layered TiO2 films assembled reactors and a study of their performance for a better understanding to elucidate the photocatalytic effect on inactivation of E. coli in water. The ability to reduce the number of bacteria in water samples for the layered TiO2 composing reactors has been investigated as a function of time, while varying the parameters of light sources, initial concentration of bacteria, and ratios of TiO2 film area and volume of water. Herein, the layered TiO2 films have been fabricated on the glass plates by thermal spray coating prior to screen printing, allowing a good adhesion of the films. Surface topology and crystallographic phase of TiO2 for the screen-printed active layer have been characterized, resulting in the ratio of anatase:rutile being 80:20. Under exposure to sunlight and a given condition employed in this study, the optimized film area:water volume of 1:2.62 has shown a significant ability to reduce the E. coli cells in water samples. The ratio of surface area of photocatalytic active base to volume of water medium is believed to play a predominant role facilitating the cells inactivation. The kinetic rate of inactivation and its behavior are also described in terms of adsorption of reaction species at different contact times.

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells using TiO2/reduced graphene oxide films as electron transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Andreia; Alves, João Paulo C.; Lima, Francisco Anderson S.; Lira-Cantu, Monica; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the following configuration: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) |TiO2/RGO|P3HT:PC61BM|V2O5 or PEDOT:PSS|Ag. The TiO2/GO dispersions were prepared by sol-gel method, employing titanium isopropoxide and graphene oxide (GO) as starting materials. The GO concentration was varied from 0.1 to 4.0 wt%. The corresponding dispersions were spin-coated onto FTO substrates and a thermal treatment was performed to remove organic materials and to reduce GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The TiO2/RGO films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the addition of RGO significantly changes the morphology of the TiO2 films, with loss of uniformity and increase in surface roughness. Independent of the use of V2O5 or PEDOT: PSS films as the hole transport layer, the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO into TiO2 films was the optimal concentration for the best organic photovoltaic performance. The solar cells based on TiO2/RGO (2.0 wt%) electrode exhibited a ˜22.3% and ˜28.9% short circuit current density (Jsc) and a power conversion efficiency enhancement, respectively, if compared with the devices based on pure TiO2 films. Kelvin probe force microscopy images suggest that the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 films can promote the appearance of regions with different charge dissipation capacities.

  17. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camacho-Lopez, Marco Antonio; Casados, Dora A. Solis

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO 2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO 2 and nitrided TiO 2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO 2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  18. Thin-film dye sensitization and impurity effects on TiO2 and SrTiO3 electrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackor, A.; Schoonman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals of TiO2 and SrTiO3 are sensitized by thin films of a ruthenium surfactant dye, which is able to sustain catalytic oxidation of water upon irradiation with visible light. Calculated turnover numbers exceed 2000. Doping of the crystals with niobium does not improve the suitability of

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet by thiourea-doped TiO2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimisation of the photocatalytic behaviour of crystal violet (CV) by thiourea (Tu)-codoped TiO2 thin film in fixed bed photoreactor was investigated by central composite designs (CCDs). The effective variables were pH, the concentration of CV dye, flow rate and reaction time. The results of the CCD model ...

  20. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  1. Silver doped TiO2 nano crystallites for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T.; Ashok Kumar, K.; Ramanathan, Rajajeyaganthan; Senthilselvan, J.; Jagannathan, K.

    2017-12-01

    This communication deals with the synthesis of Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles with different doping concentrations prepared by reduction method for the possible usage of photo anode material in DSSC. The prepared nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray diffraction to study their structural properties which confirms the formation of mixed anatase-rutile crystalline phases. The particulate size, shape and surface morphology are examined using FESEM which indicates agglomerated nanostructures with the average particle size of 20–25 nm. The UV–visible absorption spectra showed enhanced absorption in the visible range in accordance with the doping concentration of Ag with a red shift in their absorption edge. The interfacial charge transport phenomena of the DSSCs are determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the corresponding efficiencies are calculated using J–V curve. In the present work, the UV active TiO2 and Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles are employed as photoanode for the fabrication of DSSCs based on N3 dye and maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.544% is realized.

  2. Photoelectrochemical oxidation of ibuprofen via Cu2O-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiannan; Peng, Yen-Ping; Chen, Hanlin; Chang, Ken-Lin; Qiu, Yang-Neng; Lai, Shiau-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A p–n junction material was synthesized to enhance photocatalytic ability. • Cu 2 O-doped TiO 2 nanotube arrays works as a photoanode in a PEC system. • Recombination of photo-generated holes and electrons were greatly reduced. • Synergetic effect was quantified in PEC degradation. • Recombination of photogenerated holes and electrons was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: A p–n junction based Cu 2 O-doped TiO 2 nanotube arrays (Cu 2 O-TNAs) were synthesized and used as a working anode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system. The results revealed that the Cu 2 O-TNAs were dominated by the anatase phase and responded significantly to visible light. XPS analyses indicated that with an amount of 24.79% Cu doping into the structure, the band gap of Cu 2 O-TNAs was greatly reduced. SEM images revealed that the supported TiO 2 nanotubes had diameters of approximately 80 nm and lengths of about 2.63 μm. Upon doping with Cu 2 O, the TiO 2 nanotubes maintained their structural integrity, exhibiting no significant morphological change, favoring PEC applications. Under illumination, the photocurrent from Cu 2 O/TNAs was 2.4 times larger than that from TNAs, implying that doping with Cu 2 O significantly improved electron mobility by reducing the rate of recombination of electron-hole pairs. The EIS and Bode plot revealed that the estimated electron lifetimes, τ el , of TNAs and Cu 2 O/TNAs were 6.91 and 26.26 ms, respectively. The efficiencies of degradation of Ibuprofen by photoelectrochemical, photocatalytic (PC), electrochemical (EC) and photolytic (P) methods were measured.

  3. FTIR study of formic acid interaction with TiO2 and TiO2 doped with Pd and Cu in photocatalytic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J.; Garriga i Cabo, C.; Dona-Rodriguez, J.M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, O.; Herrera-Melian, J.A.; Perez-Pena, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the different processes occurring on the TiO 2 and Pd and Cu doped TiO 2 surfaces during the photocatalytic formic acid degradation in the presence or absence of S 2 O 8 2- or H 2 O 2 have been investigated. FTIR studies have shown the relevance of the H-bounded hydroxyl groups. It has been observed that formate molecules interact simultaneously with the dopants and surfacial Ti atoms yielding an intermediate species which plays an important role in the phototacatalytic degradation mechanism. Also, it has been determined that Pd or Cu oxides may act as receptors or transmitters of the TiO 2 photogenerated electrons and thus modify the degradation mechanism. Different redox reactions have been proposed according to the obtained results

  4. Stability and Electronic Properties of TiO2 Nanostructures With and Without B and N Doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2009-01-01

    We address one of the main challenges to TiO2 photocatalysis, namely band gap narrowing, by combining nanostructural changes with doping. With this aim we compare TiO2’s electronic properties for small 0D clusters, 1D nanorods and nanotubes, 2D layers, and 3D surface and bulk phases using differe...

  5. Investigation on the structural and nonlinear optical properties of Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahulan, K. Mani; Padmanathan, N.; Vinitha, G.; Kanakam, Charles Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The open aperture Z-scan traces of Pt doped TiO 2 nanoparticles at different Pt concentrations were carried out at an irradiation wavelength of 532 nm. It was numerically found that, two photon absorption (TPA) type process gives the best fit to the obtained open aperture Z-scan data. The nonlinear transmission was found to be of third order as it fits to a two-photon absorption. The optical limiting performances of nanoparticles were greatly enhanced with increased volume ratio of Pt. Increasing particle size reduced the limiting threshold and enhanced the optical limiting performance. - Highlights: • Pt doped TiO 2 nanoparticles with different concentrations of Pt have been synthesized by sol–gel method. • The average fluorescence lifetime decreases as the volume fraction of Pt dopant increases. • The effects of Pt content on the optical limiting property were investigated by open aperture Z-scan measurements done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses. • The values of the third-order nonlinearities of nanoparticles are interesting from the application point of view which could be used as a potential candidate for the application of nonlinear optical device. - Abstract: Pt doped TiO 2 nanoparticles with different concentrations of Pt were prepared by sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals that the samples have a homogeneous anatase phase tetragonal system and the lattice parameter analysis indicates that Pt ions substitute into the lattice of TiO 2 . The addition of dopant increases the growth of TiO 2 grains, agglomerates them and shifts the absorption band of TiO 2 from ultraviolet to visible region. The incorporation of Pt in TiO 2 is also confirmed by fluorescence quenching and the fluorescence lifetime decreases as the volume fraction of Pt dopant increases. Open aperture Z-scan measurements done at 532 nm using 7 ns laser pulses show nonlinear absorption which arises from an effective two photon absorption process

  6. Doping of TiO2 nano-particles in Y 123 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharipour, H.R.; Mohammadizadeh, M.R.; Kameli, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In order to improve transport properties of superconductors, there have been lots of efforts like doping, irradiation, and heat treatment. There are a few reports about doping of nano-particles in high temperature superconductors. In this work we have doped TiO 2 nano-particles in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-d (Y 123) which was made by solid state method. We have prepared samples with two synthesis processes; Four samples which will be referred as 'standard' were prepared with doping of TiO 2 nano-particles with 0, 3, 6, and 9 %wt to calcined (Oxygen uncompleted) Y 123 sample. The other samples named 'reference' were prepared with doping of TiO 2 nano-particles with 0, 3, 6, and 9 % wt to sintered (Oxygen completed) Y 123 sample. These samples were annealed at 450 o C for one hour. In the standard samples, due to high temperature process, there is a probability of chemical reaction of TiO 2 nano-particles with Y 123. So, the annealing temperature of the reference samples was chosen low such that TiO 2 and Y 123 do not react with each other. Some measurements like XRD, SEM, R(T), Meissner effect, magnetic susceptibility, and I-V were performed. The XRD patterns showed the existence of YBa 3 Ti 2 O 8.5 impurity phase and the intense increase of it with doping in the standard samples, consisted with susceptibility experiments. The XRD experiment in the reference samples confirmed the existence of TiO 2 phase without any reaction with Y 123. In the SEM images of the standard samples some areas with different contrasts were observed, which seems to be the impurity secondary phase. In addition, in the SEM images of the reference samples, nano-metric particles (TiO 2 ) beside micro-metric particles (Y 123) were observed. This means that TiO 2 nano-particles have no any reaction with Y 123 phase, which is in agreement with XRD analysis. The Meissner effect for pure standard sample and all the reference samples was observed. The results of R(T) showed that just pure standard

  7. Enhanced bolometric properties of TiO2-x thin films by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Shin, Young Bong; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on the bolometric properties of TiO2-x films was investigated. The test-patterned TiO2-x samples were annealed at 300 °C temperature in order to enhance their structural and electrical properties for effective infrared image sensor device applications. The crystallinity was changed from amorphous to rutile/anatase in annealed TiO2-x films. Compared to the as-deposited samples, a decrement of the band gap and a decrease of the electrical resistivity were perceived in annealed samples. We found that the annealed samples show linear current-voltage (I-V) characteristic performance, which implies that ohmic contact was well formed at the interface between the TiO2-x and the Ti electrode. Moreover, the annealed TiO2-x sample had a significantly low 1/f noise parameter (1.21 × 10-13) with a high bolometric parameter (β) value compared to those of the as-deposited samples. As a result, the thermal annealing process can be used to prepare TiO2-x film for a high-performance bolometric device.

  8. Mossbauer study of mechanical alloyed Fe-doped TiO2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Torres, C.E.; Cabrera, A.F.; Fernandez van Raap, M.B.; Sanchez, F.H.

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to produce massive magnetic semiconductors by doping TiO 2 with 5at% of Fe using the ball milling technique is presented here. Local environment surrounding magnetic impurity atoms in the partially reacted alloys have been investigated using Mossbauer spectroscopy. Results indicate that fully reacted samples cannot be achieved under the different experimental conditions tested and that the only resulting phase that displays magnetism at room temperature is the unreacted α-Fe

  9. Effect of Silver Doping on the TiO2 for Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Matějů, K.; Obalová, L.; Krejčíková, Simona; Lacný, Z.; Plachá, D.; Čapek, L.; Hospodková, Alice; Šolcová, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, 3-4 (2010), s. 239-244 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Ag doping * TiO2 * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.749, year: 2010

  10. Raman spectra of TiO2 thin films deposited electrochemically and by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishiyanu, S.; Vartic, V.; Shishiyanu, T.; Stratan, Gh.; Rusu, E.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our experimental results concerning the fabrication of TiO 2 thin films by spray pyrolysis and electrochemical deposition method onto different substrates - Corning glass, Si and optical fibers. The surface morphology of the TiO 2 thin films have been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Raman shift spectra measurements have been done for the optical characterization of the fabricated titania thin films. The post-growth rapid photothermal processing (RPP) at temperatures of 100-800 degrees Celsius for 1-3 min have been applied. Our experimental results prove that by the application of post-growth RPP is possible to essentially improve the crystallinity of the deposited TiO 2 films. (authors)

  11. Unconventional cells of TiO2 doped with erbium; Celulas nao convencionais de TiO2 dopado com erbio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Campos, R.D.; Oliveira, A.S.; Wellen, R., E-mail: pollyana@cear.ufpb.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The technology used in TiO{sub 2} solar cells is in constant improvement, new configurations have been developed, aiming practicality and leading to efficiency increase of photovoltaic devices. This paper proposes a new technology for the production of solar cells in order to investigate a better utilization of solar spectrum of TiO2 doped with erbium (Er{sup 3+}), proven by energetic conversion. The Ti{sub 0,9}Er{sub 0,1}O2 system was obtained by Pechini method. Nanoparticles have a crystallite size 65.30 nm and surface area 118.48 m{sup 2}/g. These characteristics are essential for the formation of the film to be deposited on the conductive glass substrate constituting the cell's photoelectrode. The other side of the cell is the platinum counter electrode. The cell will have the faces sealed by a thermoplastic and, finally the electrolyte will be inserted, then they will be electrically evaluated through energy efficiency and confronted with the literature data base. (author)

  12. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-08

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs) was selected as the base photoelectrode. The self-doped TiO2 NTPCs demonstrated a 10-fold increase in visible-light photocurrent density compared to the nondoped one, and the optimized saturation photocurrent density under simulated AM 1.5G illumination was identified to be 2.5 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is comparable to the highest values ever reported for TiO2-based photoelectrodes. The significant enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance can be ascribed to the rational coupling of morphological and electronic features of the self-doped TiO 2 NTPCs: (1) the periodically morphological structure of the photonic crystal layer traps broadband visible light, (2) the electronic interband state induced from self-doping of Ti3+ can be excited in the visible-light region, and (3) the captured light by the photonic crystal layer is absorbed by the self-doped interbands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of polycrystalline Co-doped TiO2 synthesized by solid-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouaine, Abdelhamid; Schmerber, G.; Ihiawakrim, D.; Derory, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Influence of Co doping on the TiO 2 tetragonal structure. ► Decrease of the energy band gap after doping with Co atoms. ► Appearance of ferromagnetism in Co-doped TiO 2 diluted magnetic semiconductors. - Abstract: We have used a solid-state method to synthesize polycrystalline Co-doped TiO 2 diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with Co concentrations of 0, and 0.5 at.%. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that Co doped TiO 2 crystallizes in the rutile tetragonal structure with no additional peaks. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) did not indicate the presence of magnetic parasitic phases and confirmed that Co ions are uniformly distributed inside the samples. Optical absorbance measurements showed an energy band gap which decreases after doping with the Co atoms into the TiO 2 matrix. Magnetization measurements revealed a paramagnetic behavior for the as-prepared Co-doped TiO 2 and a ferromagnetic behavior for the same samples after annealed under a mixture of H 2 /N 2 atmosphere.

  14. Improved conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell using Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Laxmi J.; Bhatt, Piyush J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, B. S.; Panchal, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X -ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. XRD results revealed the formation of material in nano size. The average crystallite size is 22.32 nm, 17.41 nm and 6.31 nm for TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites respectively. The optical bandgap varies from 2.04 eV to 3.75 eV. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the prepared material. Pomegranate juice was used as a sensitizer and graphite coated conducting glass plate was used as counter electrode. The I - V characteristics were recorded to measure photo response of DSSC. Photovoltaic parameter like open circuit voltage, power conversion efficiency, and fill factor were evaluated for fabricated solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were found 0.71%, 1.97% and 4.58% respectively.

  15. Nanostructured TiO2 Doped with Nb as a Novel Support for PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the major issues of the PEMFC concerns the durability. Historically, carbon has been used as a catalyst support in PEMFC; nevertheless, under the environmental conditions of the cell, the carbon is oxidized, leaving the catalyst unsupported. In order to increase the stability and durability of the catalyst in the PEMFC, a novel nanostructured metallic oxide support is proposed. In this work, TiO2 was doped with Nb to obtain a material that combines chemical stability, high surface area, and an adequate electronic conductivity in order to be a successful catalyst support candidate for long-term PEMFC applications. The TiO2-Nb nanostructured catalyst support was physically and electrochemically characterized. According to the results, the TiO2-Nb offers high surface area and good particle dispersion; also, the electrochemical activity and stability of the support were evaluated under high potential conditions, where the TiO2-Nb proved to be much more stable than carbon.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  17. Nano-tribological characteristics of TiO2 films on 3-mercaptopropyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silane coupling reagent (3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS)) was used to prepare twodimensional self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on silicon substrate. The terminal –SH group was in situ oxidized to –SO3H group to endow the film with good chemisorption ability. Then TiO2 thin films were deposited on the ...

  18. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    films can be used as a photocatalyst to clean up organohalides, a class of compound in pesticides that pollute the ground water. Photocatalytic degradation experiments show that indanthrene golden orange dye under- goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to ultraviolet ...

  19. Improved visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 co-doped with copper and iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraj, Masoumeh; Goh, Boon Tong; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Woi, Pei Meng; Basirun, Wan Jefrey

    2018-05-01

    Cu-I-co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts active to visible light absorption were prepared by hydrothermal method and calcined at various temperatures (350 °C, 450 °C, and 550 °C). The co-doped powders at 350 °C displayed the highest experimental Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and lowest photoluminescence intensity, which demonstrated that a decrease in electron-hole recombination process. The synthesis of co-doped TiO2 was performed at this optimized temperature. In the co-doped sample, the Cu2+ doped TiO2 lattice created a major "red-shift" in the absorption edge due to the presence of the 3d Cu states, whereas the amount of red-shift from the I5+ doping in the TiO2 lattice was minor. Interestingly, the presence of Cu2+ species also boosted the reduction of I5+ ions to the lower multi-valance state I- in the TiO2 lattice by trapping the photogenerated electrons, which resulted in effective separation of the photogenerated charges. The Cu-I-co-doped TiO2 was able to degrade methyl orange dye under visible-light irradiation with improved photocatalytic activity compared with the single metal-doped TiO2 and pure TiO2 because of the strong visible light absorption and effective separation of photogenerated charges caused by the synergistic effects of Cu and I co-dopants.

  20. The influence of metal interlayers on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline TiO 2 films

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    TiO 2-M-TiO 2 (M = W, Co and Ag) multilayer films have been deposited on glass substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, then annealed in air for 2 h at 500°C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TiO 2-W-TiO 2 and TiO 2-Co-TiO 2 films showed crystalline phases, whereas the TiO 2-Ag-TiO 2 films remained in the amorphous state. The crystallization temperature for the TiO 2-M-TiO 2 films decreased significantly compared with pure TiO 2 film deposited on quartz. Detailed analysis of the Raman spectra suggested that the crystallization of TiO 2-M-TiO 2 films was associated with the large structural deformation imposed by the oxidation of intermediate metal layers. Moreover, the optical band gap of the films narrowed due to the appearance of impurity levels as the metal ions migrated into the TiO 2 matrix. These results indicate that the insertion of intermediate metal layers provides a feasible access to improve the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO 2 films, leading to promising applications in the field of photocatalysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of iron doped TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Rohini; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with synthesis of Fe (III) doped TiO 2 catalyst using the ultrasound assisted approach and conventional sol-gel approach with an objective of establishing the process intensification benefits. Effect of operating parameters such as Fe doping, type of solvent, solvent to precursor ratio and initial temperature has been investigated to get the best catalyst with minimum particle size. Comparison of the catalysts obtained using the conventional and ultrasound assisted approach under the optimized conditions has been performed using the characterization techniques like DLS, XRD, BET, SEM, EDS, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis band gap analysis. It was established that catalyst synthesized by ultrasound assisted approach under optimized conditions of 0.4mol% doping, irradiation time of 60min, propan-2-ol as the solvent with the solvent to precursor ratio as 10 and initial temperature of 30°C was the best one with minimum particle size as 99nm and surface area as 49.41m 2 /g. SEM analysis, XRD analysis as well as the TEM analysis also confirmed the superiority of the catalyst obtained using ultrasound assisted approach as compared to the conventional approach. EDS analysis also confirmed the presence of 4.05mol% of Fe element in the sample of 0.4mol% iron doped TiO 2 . UV-Vis band gap results showed the reduction in band gap from 3.2eV to 2.9eV. Photocatalytic experiments performed to check the activity also confirmed that ultrasonically synthesized Fe doped TiO 2 catalyst resulted in a higher degradation of Acid Blue 80 as 38% while the conventionally synthesized catalyst resulted in a degradation of 31.1%. Overall, the work has clearly established importance of ultrasound in giving better catalyst characteristics as well as activity for degradation of the Acid Blue 80 dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sol-gel TiO2 films as NO2 gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Grechnikov, A; Donkov, N; Sendova-Vassileva, M; Kirilov, R; Stefanov, P

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 films were prepared by a sol-gel technique with commercial TiO 2 powder as a source material (P25 Degussa AG). After a special treatment, printing paste was prepared. The TiO 2 layers were formed by means of drop-coating on Si-control wafers and on the Au-electrodes of quartz resonators. The surface morphology of the films was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their structure was studied by Raman spectroscopy and the surface composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The layers had a grain-like surface morphology and consisted mainly of anatase TiO 2 phase. The sensitivity of the TiO 2 films to NO 2 was assessed by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. To this end, the films were deposited on both sides of a 16-MHz QCM. The sensing characteristic of the TiO 2 -QCM structure was investigated by measuring the resonant frequency shift (ΔF) of the QCM due to the mass loading caused by NO 2 adsorption. The Sauerbrey equation was applied to establish the correlation between the QCM frequency changes measured after exposure to different NO 2 concentrations and the mass-loading of the QCM. The experiments were carried out in a dynamic mode on a special laboratory setup with complete control of the process parameters. The TiO 2 films were tested in the NO 2 concentration interval from 10 ppm to 5000 ppm. It was found that a TiO 2 loading of the QCM by 5.76 kHz corresponded to a system sensitive to NO 2 concentrations above 250 ppm. On the basis of the frequency-time characteristics (FTCs) measured, AF at different NO 2 concentrations was defined, the adsorption/desorption cycles were studied and the response and recovery times were estimated. The results obtained show that the process is reversible in the NO 2 interval investigated. The results further suggested that TiO 2 films prepared by a sol-gel method on a QCM can be used as a sensor element for NO 2 detection.

  3. A DFT study on modification mechanism of (N,S) interstitial co-doped rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Xuechao; Wan, Rundong; Kao-Walter, Sharon; Lei, Ying; Leng, Chongyan

    2018-03-01

    To obtain a more efficient (N,S) co-doping scheme, we systematically analyze the geometrical parameters, density of states, charge densities, relative dielectric functions and UV-Vis absorption spectra for pure, N/S substitution/interstitial doped and (N,S) substitution/interstitial co-doped TiO2 by using density functional calculations. Compared with (N,S) substitution co-doping, (N,S) interstitial co-doping TiO2 exhibits a more obvious red-shift of absorption edge, because of the band gap is further reduced. Furthermore, there are shallow impurity levels coupling with the top of valence band. The calculated UV-Vis absorption spectra illustrate that (N,S) interstitial co-doping TiO2 has much higher photocatalytic activity in the visible light region.

  4. Asymmetric photoelectric property of transparent TiO2 nanotube films loaded with Au nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly transparent films of TiO 2 nanotube arrays were directly fabricated on FTO glasses. • Semitransparent TNT-Au composite films were obtained and exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic ability. • Back-side of TNT-Au composite films was firstly irradiated and tested to compare with front-side of films. - Abstract: Semitransparent composite films of Au loaded TiO 2 nanotubes (TNT-Au) were prepared by sputtering Au nanoparticles on highly transparent TiO 2 nanotubes films, which were fabricated directly on FTO glasses by anodizing the Ti film sputtered on the FTO glasses. Compared with pure TNT films, the prepared TNT-Au films possessed excellent absorption ability and high photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. It could be concluded that Au nanoparticles played important roles in improving the photoelectrochemical performance of TNT-Au films. Moreover, in this work, both sides of TNT-Au films were researched and compared owing to theirs semitransparency. It was firstly found that the photoelectric activity of TNT-Au composite films with back-side illumination was obviously superior to front-side illumination.

  5. Effects of filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) conditions on photovoltaic TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramwit, C.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Tippawan, U.; Supsermpol, B.; Seanphinit, N.; Ruangkul, W.; Yu, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Titanium dioxide films were synthesized using the FCVAD technique. • Various FCVAD conditions were tested. • The TiO 2 films were characterized. • The FCVAD condition effects on the film characteristics were studied. • The O 2 pressure had the most important effect on the film quality. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films for photovoltaic applications were synthesized using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) technique. Various deposition conditions were tested for an optimal film formation. The conditions included the oxygen (O 2 ) pressure which was varied from a base pressure 10 −5 to 10 −4 , 10 −3 , 10 −2 and 10 −1 Torr, sample holder bias varied using 0 or −250 V, deposition time varied from 10, 20 to 30 min, and deposition distance varied from 1 to 3 cm. The deposited films were also annealed and compared with unannealed ones. The films under various conditions were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The film transparency increased and thickness decreased to a nanoscale with increasing of the O 2 pressure. The transparent deposited films contained stoichiometric titanium and oxygen under the medium O 2 pressure. The as-deposited films were TiO 2 containing some rutile but no anatase which needed annealing to form

  6. Paramagnetism and clustering in Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Torres, C.E.; Stewart, S.J.; Adan, C.; Cabrera, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of Fe-doped TiO 2 anatase nanoparticles (2.8 and 5.4 at.%) was investigated throughout magnetizations versus applied field measurements between 2 and 300 K temperatures. The experimental results were well-fitted by using the Brillouin function, giving rise to a moment per isolated Fe atom of about 5 μ B . The thermal evolution of the number of magnetic ions shows that a decrease of ions in paramagnetic state occurs below 50 K for the most diluted sample. However for the 5.4 at.% sample the fall even at room temperature is evident. These moments probably order antiferromagnetically via superexchange interactions. Taking into account the low concentration of dopant and the high fraction of interacting ions, a correlated substitution of Fe in cation sites of TiO 2 structure needs to be considered.

  7. Obtaining, characterization and fibre use of nanostructured TiO2 doped with tungsten as photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The use and applicability of nanomaterials are increasingly common in our day to day, due to propitiate more effective end products, lightweight and low cost. The nanomaterials used preferably in various applications is due to properties such as reduced particle size, diversified and high surface area. In this work nanostructured fibers of TiO 2 and TiO 2 /WO 3 were obtained by electrospinning, annealed at temperatures between 650 deg C and 800 deg C, and its photocatalytic activity was evaluated. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystalline structure and crystallite size. The morphology of nanomaterials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preliminary results indicate that the nano-doped tungsten presented more efficient in bleaching methyl orange dye, indicating a higher catalytic activity of this material compared to a standard catalyst. This phenomenon can be explained through the phases present and morphological characteristics of the fibers. (author)

  8. Visible light active TiO 2 films prepared by electron beam deposition of noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xing-Gang; Ma, Jun; Liu, An-Dong; Li, De-Jun; Huang, Mei-Dong; Deng, Xiang-Yun

    2010-03-01

    TiO 2 films prepared by sol-gel method were modified by electron beam deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Ag). Effects of noble metals on the chemical and surface characteristics of the films were studied using XPS, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 films was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye solution under visible light UV irradiation. The result of TEM reveals that most of the surface area of TiO 2 is covered by tiny particles of noble metals with diameter less than 1 nm. Broad red shift of UV-Visible absorption band of modified photocatalysts was observed. The catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions under visible light illumination demonstrates a significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity of these films compared with the un-loaded films. The photocatalytic efficiency of modified TiO 2 films by this method is affected by the concentration of impregnating solution.

  9. Photo catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene using nanocrystalline TiO2 photo catalyst doped with Zn ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso S, E. A.; Perez S, S.; Reyes C, A. P.; Castro R, C. L.; Felix N, R. M.; Lin H, S. W.; Paraguay D, F.; Alonso N, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photo catalysis is a method widely used in the degradation of organic pollutants of the environment. The development of new materials is very important to improve the photo catalytic properties and to find new applications for TiO 2 as a photo catalyst. In this article we reported the synthesis of a photo catalyst based on TiO 2 doped with Zn 2+ ions highly efficient in the degradation of nitrobenzene. The results of photo catalytic activity experiments showed that the Zn 2+ doped TiO 2 is more active that un-doped TiO 2 catalyst with an efficiency of 99% for the nitrobenzene degradation at 120 min with an apparent rate constant of 35 x 10 -3 min -1 . For the characterization of photo catalyst X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used. (Author)

  10. Modification of physicochemical and thermal properties of starch films by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Zahedi, Younes; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Moayedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-08-01

    In this research, potato starch and TiO2 nanoparticles (0.5, 1 and 2wt%) films were developed. Influences of different concentrations of TiO2 on the functional properties of nanocomposite films (water-related properties, mechanical characteristics, and UV transmittance) were investigated. XRD, FTIR, and DSC analyses were used to characterize the morphology and thermal properties of the films. The results revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles dramatically decreased the values of water-related properties (water vapor permeability: 11-34%; water solubility: 1.88-9.26%; moisture uptake: 2.15-11.18%). Incorporation of TiO2 led to a slight increment of contact angle and tensile strength, and a decrease in elongation at break of the films. TiO2 successfully blocked more than 90% of UV light, while opacity and white index of the films were enhanced. Glass transition temperature and melting point of the films were positively affected by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. The result of XRD study exhibited that due to a limited agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles, the mean crystal size of TiO2 increased. Formation of new hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of starch and nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. In conclusion, TiO2 nanoparticles improved the functional properties of potato starch film and extended the potential for food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influences of Mg Doping on the Electrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanodots Based Biosensor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Al-Furjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical biosensors are essential for health monitors to help in diagnosis and detection of diseases. Enzyme adsorptions on biosensor electrodes and direct electron transfer between them have been recognized as key factors to affect biosensor performance. TiO2 has a good protein adsorption ability and facilitates having more enzyme adsorption and better electron transfer. In this work, Mg ions are introduced into TiO2 nanodots in order to further improve electrode performance because Mg ions are considered to have good affinity with proteins or enzymes. Mg doped TiO2 nanodots on Ti substrates were prepared by spin-coating and calcining. The effects of Mg doping on the nanodots morphology and performance of the electrodes were investigated. The density and size of TiO2 nanodots were obviously changed with Mg doping. The sensitivity of 2% Mg doped TiO2 nanodots based biosensor electrode increased to 1377.64 from 897.8 µA mM−1 cm−2 and its KMapp decreases to 0.83 from 1.27 mM, implying that the enzyme achieves higher catalytic efficiency due to better affinity of the enzyme with the Mg doped TiO2. The present work could provide an alternative to improve biosensor performances.

  12. Characterization and mechanism analysis of N doped TiO2 with visible light response and its enhanced visible activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiuwen; Yu Xiujuan; Xing Zipeng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized through a hydrolysis-precipitation process using ammonia water as the doping species. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, DRS, SPS, XPS and FT-IR. Further, the activity enhanced-mechanism was discussed in detail. XRD results showed that doping with nitrogen could effectively retard the phase transformation of TiO 2 from anatase to rutile and increase the anatase crystallinity. DRS and SPS results indicated that the light absorbance edge of nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanoparticle was obviously red-shifted to visible light region and the separation rates of photogenerated charge carriers were greatly improved, respectively. XPS and FT-IR analysis implied that the contents of surface hydroxyl groups were improved significantly and the VBM (valance bond maximum) of O2p was 2.3 eV. Under the visible light irradiation with 120 min, a 65.3% degradation rate of phenol could be achieved. The photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO 2 was 2.08 and 1.97 times than that of pure TiO 2 and P25 TiO 2 , respectively. The enhanced visible light activity was attributed to the well anatase crystallinity, small crystallite size, intense light absorbance edge in visible region, more content of surface hydroxyl groups and high separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers.

  13. Analysis of the activity of photocatalytic TiO2 nanofilms of pure tungsten doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium oxide semiconductor is an n-type widely used in advanced oxidation processes and purification processes of the environment. However, due to the fact that their structures are activated only under UV irradiation, limiting the use of sunlight, several alternatives are being sought aiming to overcome this limitation. Among them, the construction of bicomponent films of TiO 2 (3.0-3.2 eV) coupled to a lower band gap semiconductor such as WO 3 (2.5-2.8 eV) semiconductors such as oxides have electronic properties, optical and photoelectrochemical complementary, forming a film with the possibility of photoexcitation in a wider region of the spectrum. In this work nanofilms TiO 2 and TiO 2 /WO 3 were obtained by a spin coater and photoactivity was assessed. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed in determining the formed crystallite size and the morphology and crystal structure of the films was analyzed by scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. (author)

  14. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  15. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Santoso; Tjipto Sujitno; Sayono

    2002-01-01

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO 2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10 -4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 o C, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO 2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 o C and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  16. Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline TiO2 by co-doping with fluorine and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miao, Guashuai; Ma, Xingping; Wang, Bei; Zheng, Haiwu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (F, Y)-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. • The highest photocatalytic activity (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ) was exhibited in the codoped TiO 2 with 0.05% Y doping level. • The Y doping induced oxygen vancancies played a duel role on the photocatalyic activity of the codoped TiO 2 . • The photocatalytic reactive oxygen species are critical to the photocatalytic degradation processes. - Abstract: Fluorine and yttrium codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared using a simple sol–gel method. The products were characterized with various spectroscopic and analytical techniques to determine their structural, morphological, optical absorption and photocatalytic properties. The results reveal that neither F nor Y doping causes obvious absorption edge shift in TiO 2 . Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra present that the PL signal is enhanced, suggesting a decrease of photo-generated charge carrier separation efficiency, after the F or Y doping. The synergistic action by the F and Y doping leads to the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution in the 0.05% (F, Y)-codoped sample (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ). With the increase of Y doping level, the photocatalytic performance in the codoped samples increases firstly and then decreases. The photocatalytic activity variations after the F and Y doping were interpreted by the formation of photocatalytic reactive oxygen species induced by the dopings

  17. Structural, optical, and magnetic study of Ni-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M.; Rafiq, A.; Ikram, M.; Nafees, M.; Ali, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this research, the effects of transition metal (Ni) doping to metal-oxide nanoparticles (TiO2) were studied. Various weight ratios (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of Ni-to-TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol-gel technique. These doped nanoparticles were prepared using titanium butoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and methanol as a solvent. The effects of Ni doping to TiO2 were examined using a variety of characterization techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD reveals that the Ni-doped TiO2 crystallizes in a tetragonal structure with anatase phase. The particle size and lattice strain were calculated by Williamson-Hall equation. The presence of strong chemical bonding and functional groups at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The optical properties of undoped and doped samples were recorded by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization (M s) was found higher for undoped as compared to doped samples. The surface morphology and the element structure of the Ni-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were examined by FESEM.

  18. Bolometric properties of reactively sputtered TiO2-x films for thermal infrared image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Kang, In-Ku; Shin, Young Bong; Lee, Hee Chul

    2015-09-01

    A heat-sensitive layer (TiO2-x ) was successfully deposited by RF reactive magnetron sputtering for infrared (IR) image sensors at different relative mass flow of oxygen gas (R O2) levels. The deposition rate was decreased with an increase in the percentage of R O2 from 3.4% to 3.7%. TiO2-x samples deposited at room temperature exhibited amorphous characteristics. Oxygen deficiency causes a change in the oxidation state and is assumed to decrease the Ti4+ component on the surfaces of TiO2-x films. The oxygen stoichiometry (x) in TiO2-x films decreased from 0.35 to 0.05 with increasing the R O2 level from 3.4% to 3.7%, respectively. In TiO2-x -test-patterned samples, the resistivity decreased with the temperature, confirming the typical semiconducting property. The bolometric properties of the resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the flicker (1/ f) noise parameter were determined at different x values in TiO2-x samples. The rate of TCR dependency with regard to the 1/ f noise parameter is a universal bolometric parameter (β), acting as the dynamic element in a bolometer. It is high when a sample has a relatively low resistivity (0.82 Ω·cm) and a lower 1/ f noise parameter (3.16   ×   10-12). The results of this study indicate that reactively sputtered TiO2-x is a viable bolometric material for uncooled IR image sensor devices.

  19. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Erdemoglu, Sema; Ozmen, Nesrin; Asilturk, Meltem

    2015-08-01

    The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO2. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO2 increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2-4h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO2 and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn-doped TiO2 should be considered due to nanomaterial applications and for spilled nanoparticles in an aquatic ecosystem. Also, the risk of nanoparticles should be considered using indicator reference biochemical markers to verify the environmental health impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Low Loss Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Films for Waveguiding Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by “dip-coating” on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h. The morphological properties of the prepared films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The optical waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperature using m-lines spectroscopy. The refractive indices and the film thickness were determined from the measured effective indices. The results show that the synthesized planar waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.5 and 0.8 dB/cm for annealing temperature 350 and 500 °C, respectively.

  1. Preparation and Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Phosphate-modified TiO2 Anatase Powders and Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Uroš; Škofic, Irena Kozjek

    2017-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the anatase-to-rutile phase transition of TiO2 powders and thin films was studied. In order to shift the phase transition to higher temperature, samples were doped with a different amount of phosphate ions and their influence on the structure and thermal stability of the anatase phase was investigated. In addition, the effect of the catalyst form (powders or thin films) on the temperature of the anatase-to-rutile phase transition was observed. TiO2 thin films and powders were prepared using a simple sol-gel method with an alkoxide precursor and citric acid. The thin films were deposited on silicon and aluminum substrates using the dip-coating technique. The content of the anatase phase and the crystallite size at different annealing temperatures were monitored using X-ray diffraction. The course of the thermal decomposition was followed using thermal analyses. The morphology, particle size, shape and elemental makeup of the samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that the phosphate ions successfully inhibited the growth of the anatase nanoparticles and delayed the phase transition to the rutile phase.

  2. Tailoring optical properties of TiO2-Cr co-sputtered films using swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ratnesh; Sen, Sagar; Phase, D. M.; Avasthi, D. K.; Gupta, Ajay

    2018-05-01

    Effect of 100 MeV Au7+ ion irradiation on structure and optical properties of Cr-doped TiO2 films has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. X-ray reflectivity measurement implied that film thickness reduces as a function of ion fluence while surface roughness increases. The variation in surface roughness is well correlated with AFM results. Ion irradiation decreases the band gap energy of the film. Swift heavy ion irradiation enhances the oxygen vacancies in the film, and the extra electrons in the vacancies act as donor-like states. In valence band spectrum, there is a shift in the Ti3d peak towards lower energies and the shift is equivalent to the band gap energy obtained from UV spectrum. Evidence for band bending is also provided by the corresponding Ti XPS peak which exhibits a shift towards lower energy due to the downward band bending. X-ray absorption studies on O Kand Cr L3,2 edges clearly indicate that swift heavy ion irradiation induces formation of Cr-clusters in TiO2 matrix.

  3. TiO2 doped UO2 fuels sintered by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiankai; Scott, Spencer M.; Xin, Guoqing; Lian, Jie

    2016-02-01

    UO2 fuels doped with oxide additives Cr2O3 and TiO2 display larger grain size, improving fission product retention capability and thus accident tolerance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to consolidate TiO2-doped UO2 fuel pellets with 0.5 wt % dopant concentration, above its solubility, in order to induce eutectic phase formation and promote sintering kinetics. The grain size can reach 80 μm by sintering at 1700 °C for 20 min, and liquid U-Ti-O eutectic phase occurs at the triple junction of grain boundaries and significantly improves grain growth during sintering. The oxide additive also impedes the reduction of the initial hyperstoichiometric fuel powders to more stoichiometric fuel pellets upon SPS process. Thermal-mechanical properties of the sintered doped fuel pellets including thermal conductivity and hardness are measured and compared with undoped fuel pellets. The enlarged grain size (80 μm) and densification within short sintering duration highlight the immense possibility of SPS in fabricating large grained UO2 fuel pellets to improve fuel performance.

  4. Sprayed nanostructured TiO2 films for efficient photocatalytic degradation of textile azo dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolova, Irina; Shipochka, Capital Em Cyrillicaria; Blaskov, Vladimir; Loukanov, Alexandrе; Vassilev, Sasho

    2012-12-05

    Spray pyrolysis procedure for preparation of nanostructured TiO(2) films with higher photocatalytic effectiveness and longer exploitation life is presented in this study. Thin films of active nanocrystalline TiO(2) were obtained from titanium isopropoxide, stabilized with acetyl acetone and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The activity of sprayed nanostructured TiO(2) is tested for photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye with concentrations up to 80 ppm. Interesting result of the work is the reduction of toxicity after photocatalytic treatment of RB5 with TiO(2), which was confirmed by the lower percentage of mortality of Artemia salina. It was proved that the film thickness, conditions of post deposition treatment and the type of the substrate affected significantly the photocatalytic reaction. Taking into account that the parameters are interdependent, it is necessary to optimize the preparation conditions in order to synthesize photocatalytic active films. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved light harvest in diffraction grating-embedded TiO2 nanoparticle film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2017-12-01

    We show that a high-efficiency diffraction grating can be embedded into nanoparticulate TiO2 film via imprinting combined with TiCl4 treatment. The grating-embedded film consists of two layers in intimate contact. A thin TiO2 layer was first patterned on a glass substrate by imprinting. The patterned layer was TiCl4-treated with a higher concentration than the over-coated thicker layer, so that it diffracts incident light as a refractive-index grating. Gratings with a period scaled down to 1 µm could be embedded into the film. Diffraction efficiency increased with an increasing grating height and an efficiency over 80% was achieved in the near-ultraviolet and visible range. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using a grating-embedded TiO2 photoanode exhibited much better photovoltaic performance than those without a grating. It was also found that the incorporation of a diffraction grating greatly enhances the photocatalytic activity of nanoparticulate TiO2 film. All these are attributed to improved light harvest.

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A transparent, high purity titanium dioxide thin film composed of densely packed nanometer sized grains has been successfully deposited on a glass substrate at 30°C from an aqueous solution of TiO2–HF with the addition of boric acid as a scavenger by liquid phase deposition technique. From X-ray diffraction ...

  7. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/boms/031/01/0043-0048 ... TiO2 thin films can be used as a photocatalyst to clean up organohalides, a class of compound in pesticides that pollute the ground water. Photocatalytic degradation experiments show that indanthrene ...

  8. Effect of W doping level on TiO2 on the photocatalytic degradation of Diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foura, Ghania; Soualah, Ahcène; Robert, Didier

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, three compositions of W-doped titania nano-photocatalyst are synthesized via the sol-gel method. The powders obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the different photocatalysts are tested with respect to the degradation of Diuron in water solutions under simulated solar light and visible light irradiation. The W 0.03 Ti 0.97 O 2 catalyst exhibits better photoactivity than the pure TiO 2 even under simulated solar light and visible light. This improvement in activity was attributed to photoelectron/hole separation efficiency.

  9. Enhancement removal of tartrazine dye using HCl-doped polyaniline and TiO2-decorated PANI particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M. A.; Gobara, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    HCl-doped polyaniline (HCl-PANI) and titanium dioxide decorated with polyaniline (TiO2-decorated PANI) with different TiO2:PANI ratios were chemically prepared and utilized for the removal of tartrazine (TZ) dye from a synthetic aqueous solution. The mechanism of preparation of the sample suggested that aniline was adsorbed on the TiO2 surface before the polymerization process took place. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that HCl-PANI and TiO2-decorated PANI have an amorphous structure. The thermal stability of the prepared samples was characterized using thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. HCl-PANI is stable up to 200 °C and the relative weight per cent of PANI in the TiO2-decorated PANI was 20, 25, 40 and 45%. The removal activity of TiO2-decorated PANI via TZ azo dye was investigated under UV light irradiations and compared with HCl-PANI and TiO2 particles. The results indicated the superiority of the TiO2-decorated PANI over pure HCl-PANI and TiO2. However, the excessive PANI percentage tends to form a relatively thick layer, and even aggregates on the surface of TiO2. This hinders the migration of excited electrons from the outer PANI layer to the inner TiO2 particles, which consequently leads to a decrease in the removal efficiency. A possible mechanism for the removal oxidative degradation is also mentioned.

  10. Two-component transparent TiO2/SiO2 and TiO2/PDMS films as efficient photocatalysts for environmental cleaning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, P.; Zita, J.; Krýsa, J.; Kalousek, Vít; Rathouský, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2007), s. 179-185 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : TiO2 * SiO2 * PDMS * thin film Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2007

  11. Thin Films Prepared from Nanometer Size TiO2 Absorbs Millimeter Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Yesil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of average 10 nm size TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on glass surfaces as a thin film using convective assembly technique and drop-casting is studied in the millimeter wave range from 26 GHz to 40 GHz. The millimeter wave responses of the fabricated samples were obtained using a vector network analyzer. Reflection properties of the prepared samples were also measured. Absorption and reflection of TiO2 nanoparticles were more pronounced between 35 GHz and 40 GHz compared to glass-only sample.

  12. N-doped carbon coated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles as superior Na-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Guiyu; Fan, Kaili; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Beibei; Jiang, Jianbo; Qian, Dong; Yang, Chunming; Li, Junhua

    2018-05-01

    N-doped carbon coated TiO 2 nanoparticles (TiO 2 @NC) were synthesized through a simple two-step route, in which dopamine was simultaneously utilized as both nitrogen and carbon sources. With TiO 2 @NC applied in the Na-ion battery (SIB) anodes, the continuous and uniform N-doped carbon layer can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of TiO 2 and facilitate the surface pseudocapacitive process, but also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the volume expansion during the sodiation-desodiation processes. The as-prepared TiO 2 @NC exhibits excellent electrochemical performance when utilized as the SIB anodes, which delivers a remarkably high reversible capacity of 250.2 mAh g -1 at a rate of 0.25C (84 mA g -1 ) after 200 cycles and still retains 122.1 mAh g -1 at 10C (3.35 A g -1 ) even after 3000 cycles accompanied with a 95.3% retention of the maximum capacity, outperforming most of the reported TiO 2 /C-based composites as SIB anodes. To our best knowledge, the preparation of TiO 2 @NC with dopamine as both nitrogen and carbon sources and its application in the SIB anodes are reported for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Flame-Made Pt-Loaded TiO2 Thin Films and Their Application as H2 Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerasak Chomkitichai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen gas sensors were developed successfully using flame-made platinum-loaded titanium dioxide (Pt-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles as the sensing materials. Pt-loaded TiO2 thin films were prepared by spin-coating technique onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. Structural and gas-sensing characteristics were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and showed surface morphology of the deposited film. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns can be confirmed to be the anatase and rutile phases of TiO2. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM showed that Pt nanoparticles deposited on larger TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 films loaded with Pt nanoparticles were used as conductometric sensors for the detection of H2. The gas sensing of H2 was studied at the operating temperatures of 300, 350, and 400°C in dry air. It was found that 2.00 mol% Pt-loaded TiO2 sensing films showed higher response towards H2 gas than the unloaded film. In addition, the responses of Pt-loaded TiO2 films at all operating temperatures were higher than that of unloaded TiO2 film. The response increased and the response time decreased with increasing of H2 concentrations.

  14. Blue to Yellow Photoluminescence Emission and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen Doping in TiO2 Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Byzynski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The defects caused by doping are important for understanding the increased photocatalytic activities of TiO2:N in organic reactions and in the evaluation of OH radical production after doping. TiO2:N was therefore synthesized using a modified polymeric method and N doping was performed by calcination with urea. The resulting powders were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL. N doping did not alter the morphology of the nanoparticles, and the anatase phase predominated, with the retention of the rutile phase. The band gap values, superficial areas, and crystallite sizes of the powders decreased after doping. The PL results showed an additional energy level in the TiO2:N band gap structure as a result of TiO2 lattice defects caused by doping. At low N contents, the powders showed continuous emissions from the blue region to the yellow region and a high N content shifted the PL emissions to the red region. These results suggest that the use of these powders could increase the efficiencies of solar cells and water-splitting processes. The photocatalytic activity of the powders under UVC illumination was confirmed for different organic dye molecules. The OH radical production did not change extensively after doping, as shown by experiments with terephthalic acid, and higher photocatalytic efficiencies in Rhodamine-B degradation under UVC illumination were achieved using the doped samples.

  15. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Cervantes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm. Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science.

  16. Nano structured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel Grando; Giraldi, Tania Regina; Leite, Edson Roberto; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO 2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and NMR were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m 2 /g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm. (author)

  17. Synthesis of ultrathin TiO2/Ti films with tunable structural color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlu; Han, Rushuai; Qi, Liqian; Liu, Lihu; Sun, Huiyuan

    2016-12-10

    A series of ultrathin TiO2/Ti films with iridescent structural colors were fabricated on high-purity titanium sheets via a one-step anodization procedure. Tunable color in the films can be obtained by adjusting the anodization time and can be adjusted across the entire visible range. It was found that all the films displayed highly saturated colors. Trichromatic coordinates of color x, y were delineated, and the color was identified by positioning the x and y values in the Commission International de I'Eclairage chromaticity diagram. Theoretical and experimental results of the changes in the structural color according to the principle of complementary colors are consistent with the experimental results. The TiO2/Ti films may have potential in color displays, decoration, and anticounterfeiting technology.

  18. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) with evaporated TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fissi, Lamia; Vandormael, Denis; Houssiau, Laurent; Francis, Laurent A.

    2016-02-01

    Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a new class of thermoplastic polymers used for a variety of applications ranging from bio-sensing to optics. However, the hydrophobicity of native COC hampers the further development and application of this material [1]. In this work, we report the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the TiO2/COC hybrid material, which provides a desirable substrate for optical devices and subsequent surface modifications. The TiO2 film on COC substrate was deposited by the evaporation method, and it was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometry and atomic force microscope (AFM). Using an UV-vis spectrophotometer, we found that the transmittance of the TiO2/COC hybrid material in the visible domain reached 80%. The TiO2/COC hybrid appeared to be stable in most of the assessed polar solvents and acid/basic solutions. The new TiO2/COC hybrid material and the robust fabrication method are expected to enable a variety of BioMEMS applications.

  19. Effect of H2 Exposure on TiO2-based Ceramic Thick Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frade, J. R.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick-film sensors based on TiO2 (anatase and rutile and composites of TiO2-Al2O3 and TiO2-Y2O3 have been tested for their electrical response on exposure to H2. Film d.c. resistance was measured in the temperature range 500-650ºC as a function of time and gas-phase composition (air, N2 and 10% H2 in an N2-based stream; the equilibrium gas-phase Po2 was simultaneously monitored with a ZrO2-based oxygen sensor. The detection mechanism of TiO2 to H2 involves the formation of fully ionised oxygen vacancies for both anatase and rutile. The addition of Al2O3 and Y2O3 did little to affect film sensitivity at the tested H2 concentration levels.Los sensores de lámina gruesa basados en TIO2 (Anatasa y rutilo y materiales compuestos de TiO2-Al203 y TiO2-Y2O3 han sido evaluados en función de su respuesta eléctrica a la exposición de H2. La resistencia d.c. de las láminas fue medida en el rango de temperaturas de 500-560ºC en función del tiempo y la composición de la fase gaseosa (aire, N2 y 10% H2 en un vapor basado en N2; el equilibrio de P02 de la fase gaseosa fue simultáneamente monitorizado con un sensor de oxígeno basado en ZrO2. El mecanismo de detección del H2 por el TiO2 incluye la formación de vacantes de oxígeno totalmente ionizadas por la anatasa y el rutilo. La adición de Al2O3 y Y2O3 apenas afecta la sensibilidad de la lámina en los niveles de H2 evaluados.

  20. Characterization of TiO2 thin films obtained by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriel, Rodrigo Crociati

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were grown on silicon substrate (100) by MOCVD process (chemical deposition of organometallic vapor phase). The films were grown at 400, 500, 600 and 700 ° C in a conventional horizontal equipment. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as source of both oxygen and titanium. Nitrogen was used as carrier and purge gas. X-ray diffraction technique was used for the characterization of the crystalline structure. Scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun was used to evaluate the morphology and thickness of the films. The films grown at 400 and 500°C presented anatase phase. The film grown at 600ºC presented rutile besides anatase phase, while the film grown at 700°C showed, in addition to anatase and rutile, brookite phase. In order to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of the films cyclic voltammetry technique was used. The tests revealed that the TiO2 films formed exclusively by the anatase phase exhibit strong capacitive character. The anodic current peak is directly proportional to the square root of the scanning rate for films grown at 500ºC, suggesting that linear diffusion is the predominant mechanism of cations transport. It was observed that in the film grown during 60 minutes the Na+ ions intercalation and deintercalation easily. The films grown in the other conditions did not present the anodic current peak, although charge was accumulated in the film. (author)

  1. Fabrication of TiO2/PU Superhydrophobic Film by Nanoparticle Assisted Cast Micromolding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Jianyong; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Lotus-like surfaces have attracted great attentions in recent years for their wide applications in water repellency, anti-fog and self-cleaning. This paper introduced a novel process, nanoparticle assisted cast micromolding, to create polymer film with superhydrophobic surface. Briefly, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) sol and nano TiO2/WPU sol were each cast onto the featured surfaces of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from the stamps, PU and TiO2/WPU replica films were created respectively. To the former, only high hydrophobic property was observed with static water contact angle (WCA) at 142.5 degrees. While to the later, superhydrophobic property was obtained with WCA more than 150 degrees and slide angle less than 3 degrees. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the PU replica film only had the micro-papillas and the TiO2/PU replica film not only had micro papillas but also had a large number of nano structures distributed on and between the micro-papillas. Such nano and micro hierarchical structures were very similar with those on the natural lotus leaf surface, thus was the main reason for causing superhydrophobic property. Although an elastic PDMS stamp from lotus leaf was used in herein process, hard molds may also be used in theory. This study supplied an alternative technique for large scale production of polymeric films with superhydrophobic.

  2. Selective Detection of Formaldehyde Gas Using a Cd-Doped TiO2-SnO2 Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ikuhara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the microstructure and gas-sensing properties of a nonequilibrium TiO2-SnO2 solid solution prepared by the sol-gel method. In particular, we focus on the effect of Cd doping on the sensing behavior of the TiO2-SnO2 sensor. Of all volatile organic compound gases examined, the sensor with Cd doping exhibits exclusive selectivity as well as high sensitivity to formaldehyde, a main harmful indoor gas. The key gas-sensing quantities, maximum sensitivity, optimal working temperature, and response and recovery time, are found to meet the basic industrial needs. This makes the Cd-doped TiO2-SnO2 composite a promising sensor material for detecting the formaldehyde gas.

  3. Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Properties of N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays from TiN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs were prepared by annealing the TiN nanorod arrays (NRAs which were deposited by using oblique angle deposition (OAD technique. The TiN NRAs were annealed at 330°C for different times (5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The band gaps of annealed TiN NRAs (i.e., N-doped TiO2 NRAs show a significant variance with annealing time, and can be controlled readily by varying annealing time. All of the N-doped TiO2 NRAs exhibit an enhancement in photocurrent intensity in visible light compared with that of pure TiO2 and TiN, and the one annealed for 15 min shows the maximum photocurrent intensity owning to the optimal N dopant concentration. The results show that the N-doped TiO2 NRAs, of which the band gap can be tuned easily, are a very promising material for application in photocatalysis.

  4. Half metallic antiferromagnetic behavior in doped TiO2 rutile with double impurities (Os, Mo) from ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhim Lamrani, A.; Ouchri, M.; Belaiche, M.; El Kenz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic and magnetic calculations were based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation for II–VI compound semiconductor TiO 2 doped with single impurity Os and Mo; these compounds are half-metallic ferromagnets in their ground state with a total magnetic moment of 2μ B for both systems. Then, doping TiO 2 with double impurities (Os, Mo) was performed. As a result, Ti 1−2x Os x Mo x O 2 with x = 0.065 is a half-metallic antiferromagnet with 100% spin polarization of the conduction electrons crossing the Fermi level, without showing a net magnetization. Moreover, the Ti 14 OsMoO 32 compound is stable energetically than Ti 1−x Mo x O 2 and Ti 1−x Os x O 2 . The antiferromagnetic interaction in the Ti 1−2x Os x Mo x O 2 system is attributed to the double exchange mechanism, and the latter could also be the origin of their half-metallic behavior. - Highlights: • TiO 2 codoped with Os and Mo exhibits half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic behavior. • TiO 2 doped with Mo exhibits half-metallic diluted ferromagnetic behavior. • TiO 2 doped with Os exhibits half-metallic diluted ferromagnetic behavior

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Sonocatalytic Activity of Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12 /TiO2 Film for the Degradation of Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes (C.I. 50040, C.I. Reactive Red 1, C.I. Acid Orange 7 catalysed by Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films was studied. For the preparation of Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films, the sol-gel coating process was used. The phase composition, morphology, precursor at different temperatures and emitting light properties of the calcined powders were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, absorption spectra and upconversion emission spectra. The X-ray diffraction of powder samples of Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 took on anatase mine peaks and upconversion luminous agent, respectively. Analysis of absorption spectra of amorphous Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 showed that doping N stretching vibration peak of water or hydroxyl adsorption, Co2+ ion had very strong absorption in 1.0–1.7 μm wavelength range, the transition luminescence of Er3+ ions was just on Co2+ ions absorption band. The emission spectrum indicated that Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 could launch green 500–560 nm and red 650–700 nm, 525, 550 and 660 nm peaks corresponding to 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4H9/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+. Doping Co and N enhanced the upconversion luminescence and absorption effect. Sonocatalytic degradation effect of organic dyes loading Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 was better when ultrasonic intensity was equal to 15 W cm–2. The degradation ratios of aqueous solutions of these three kinds of organic dyes by ultrasonic irradiation were obviously lower than by ultrasonic irradiation together with Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films in the same conditions. Degradation kinetics of organic dyes by ultrasonic irradiation and by ultrasonic irradiation cooperating with Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films followed the first-order reaction.

  6. Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution over Platinum and Boron Co-doped TiO2 Photoatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang JIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the new photocatalyst, Ptx-/TiO2-yBy was prepared by impregnation method via coupling with a inorganic water splitting system, namely, a ternary system K+,Na+/B4O72- - H2O for hydrogen evolution. The integration process of the preparation for B doping Pt/TiO2 with the significant photocatalytic hydrogen evolution in the ternary system K+,Mg2+/B4O72- - H2O and K+,Na+/B4O72- - H2O were accomplished by impregnation in situ. The photocatalyst Ptx-/TiO2-yBy synthesis and the photocatalytic hydrogen production of the isothermal solubility of the ternary system K+,Mg2+/B4O72- - H2O and K+,Na+/B4O72- - H2O at 25 ºC have been studied. Thus, the present challenge is not only to demonstrate a suitable photocatalytical system that can efficiently produce hydrogen under the borate exsited, but also research that the addition of borate to the suspensions greatly enhanced the stability of the  photocatalysts over semiconductor catalysts.The results show that borate solution is a suitable for B doped TiO2 photocatalysts preparation and a novel photocatalyst Ptx-/TiO2-yBy was successfully prepared by this way. XRD and XPS characterization showed that both anatase and rutile are coexisted and the B is incorporated into the crystal of the TiO2.So the TiO2 can be denoted as TiO2-xBx. The effect of borate on the photocatalytic properties were investigated. The results showed that the amount of hydrogen evolved is enhanced by factors of 4 with the addition of H3BO3 to the ethanol/water reaction solutions. The role of boron anion does not act as a sacrificial electron donors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6412

  7. A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Silvia; Gómez, Luis A; Reyes, Karina; Teresa Leal, Ma

    2006-10-01

    The scope of this study is the assessment of the efficiency of solar disinfection by heterogeneous photocatalysis with sol-gel immobilized (titanium dioxide) TiO2 films over glass cylinders. The solar disinfection process known as SODIS was considered as a reference. Spring water naturally polluted with coliform bacteria was exposed to sunlight in plastic bottles with and without TiO2 over simple solar collectors and the disinfection effectiveness was measured. Total and fecal coliforms quantification was performed by means of the chromogenic substrate method in order to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The disinfection with TiO2 was more efficient than the SODIS process, inactivating total coliforms as well as fecal coliforms. On a sunny day (more than 1000 W m(-2) irradiance), it took the disinfection with immobilized TiO2 15 min of irradiation to inactivate the fecal coliforms to make them undetectable. For inactivation of total coliforms, 30 min was required, so that in less than half the time it takes SODIS, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water in Mexico. Another important part of this study has been to determine the bacterial regrowth in water after the disinfection processes were tested. After SODIS, bacterial regrowth of coliforms was observed. In contrast, when using the TiO2 catalyst, coliforms regrowth was not detected, neither for total nor for fecal coliforms. The disinfection process using TiO2 kept treated water free of coliforms at least for seven days after sun irradiation. This demonstration opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries.

  8. Transparent Conducting Nb-Doped TiO2 Electrodes Activated by Laser Annealing for Inexpensive Flexible Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    A KrF excimer laser (λ= 248 nm) has been adopted for annealing cost-effective Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) films. Sputtered NTO layers were annealed on SiO2-coated flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. This local laser annealing technique is very useful for the formation of anatase NTO electrodes used in flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). An amorphous NTO film with a high resistivity and a low transparency was transformed significantly into a conductive and transparent anatase NTO electrode by laser irradiation. The 210 nm anatase NTO film shows a sheet resistance of 50 Ω and an average optical transmittance of 83.5% in the wavelength range from 450 to 600 nm after annealing at 0.25 J/cm2. The activation of Nb dopants and the formation of the anatase phase contribute to the high conductivity of the laser-annealed NTO electrode. Nb activation causes an increase in the optical band gap due to the Burstein-Moss effect. The electrical properties are in agreement with the material characteristics determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The irradiation energy for the NTO electrode also affects the performance of the organic solar cell. The laser annealing technique provides good properties of the anatase NTO film used as a transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) without damage to the PET substrate or layer delamination from the substrate.

  9. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Formaldehyde and Oxytetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively photodegradate organic pollutants, ZnO composite and Co-B codoped TiO2 films were successfully deposited on glass substrates via a modified sol-gel method and a controllable dip-coating technique. Combining with UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and photoluminescence spectra (PL analyses, the multi-modification could not only extend the optical response of TiO2 to visible light region but also decrease the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. XRD results revealed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had an anatase-brookite biphase heterostructure. FE-SEM results indicated that the multi-modified TiO2 film without cracks was composed of smaller round-like nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2. BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of pure TiO2 and the multi-modified TiO2 sample was 47.8 and 115.8 m2/g, respectively. By degradation of formaldehyde and oxytetracycline, experimental results showed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had excellent photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation.

  10. SELF-CLEANING GLASS BASED ON ACID-TREATED TiO2 FILMS WITH PALMITIC ACID AS MODEL POLLUTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayat Aprilita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of self-cleaning glass based on acid-treated TiO2 films as well as evaluation on their self-cleaning properties have been carried out. Palmitic acid photodegradation was used as model pollutant. Acid-treated TiO2 powders were deposited on glass surface by using spraying technique. The XRD results showed that acid-treated TiO2 film exhibited decreased anatase crystalline size. The corresponding SEM images showed porous surface morphology. Layer densification was observed as the film thickness increased. TiO2 photocatalytic activity increased as the length of UV radiation increased. Best results were obtained at experimental condition of 35 hours UV radiation time. It is also observed that the thickness of TiO2 layers influenced the efficiency of palmitic acid photodegradation. The film with 1.661 µm thick TiO2 layers and 6.933 mg weight (0.7164 mg/cm2 could degrade 97.54 % mg palmitic acid/cm2 thin film.   Keywords: TiO2 films, acid treatment, self-cleaning glass

  11. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  12. Ultrasonic Preparation of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Nan crystalline Photo catalysts and Evaluation of Photo catalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifang; Lu, Zixin; Tang, Mengyao; Cao, Wenping; Cai, Kangni; Liu, Hanhu

    2017-12-01

    Pure TiO2 and N-doped nano-TiO2 photo catalysts were individually prepared following the sol-gel method under ultrasonic conditions. The photo catalytic decomposition of methyl orange (MO) solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation was used as a probe reaction to estimate their photo catalytic activities. The particle size, crystal structure, and optical properties of the prepared TiO2 were performed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results suggest that ultrasound significantly reduced the size of the TiO2 particles, improved particle dispersion, which in turn improve the photo catalytic activity of TiO2 under ultraviolet light. Ultrasound also promoted the doping of non-metal nitrogen and markedly enhanced the visible light absorption capacity of the N-doped nano-TiO2. Compared with pure TiO2, the degradation rate for MO under visible light of U-N-TiO2 was increased by 70%.

  13. Characterization of ALD Processed Gallium Doped TiO2 Hole Blocking Layer in an Inverted Organic Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Sang Ouk

    2017-02-01

    To improve power conversion efficiency (PCE) of inverted structure organic solar cells a buffer layer, a hole blocking layer (HBL) was introduced between cathode and active photovoltaic layer. Gallium (Ga) doped TiO2 as a HBL was fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the highest Ga-Ti complex binding characteristics was achieved at 5% doping concentration. Gallium doped TiO2 layer exhibited over 94% of optical transmittance at the process temperature of 200°C. The resulting PCE of inverted structure organic solar cell having 5% doping in the hole block layer was 2.7%. The PCE was improved 35% compared to the cell without gallium doping.

  14. Novel Synthesis of the TiO2(B) Multilayer Templated Films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Jan; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Frank, Otakar; Kalbáč, Martin; Zukal, Arnošt; Klementová, Mariana; Carbone, D.; Graetzel, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 8 (2009), s. 1457-1464 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA AV ČR KAN100500652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : TiO2(B) * synthesis * films Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.368, year: 2009

  15. Mesoporous films of TiO2 as efficient photocatalysts for the purification of water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rathouský, Jiří; Kalousek, Vít; Kolář, Michal; Jirkovský, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2011), s. 419-424 ISSN 1474-905X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0435; GA ČR GD203/08/H032; GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : TiO2 * mesoporous films * photocatalyst Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.584, year: 2011

  16. Wastewater treatment by sonophotocatalysis using PEG modified TiO2film in a circular Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qi; Gu, Zhibin; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Na; Stanislaus, Mishma S; Li, Dawei; Yang, Yingnan

    2017-05-01

    TiO 2 photocatalyst film recently has been utilized as the potential candidate for the wastewater treatment, due to its high stability and low toxicity. In order to further increase the photocatalytic ability and stability, different molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used to modify TiO 2 structure to synthesize porous thin film used in the developed Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system in this work. The results showed that PEG2000 modified TiO 2 calcinated under 450°C for 2h exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, attributed to the smallest crystallite size and optimal particle size. Over 95.0% of rhodamine B (Rh B) was photocatalytically degraded by optimized PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film after 60min of UV irradiation, while only about 50.8% of Rh B was decolored over pure TiO 2 film. Furthermore, optimized PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film was used in a circular Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system, and the obtained synergy (0.6519) of sonophotocatalysis indicated its extremely high efficiency for Rh B degradation. In this Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system, larger amount of PEG 2000 -TiO 2 coated glass beads, stronger ultrasonic power and longer experimental time could result to higher degradation efficiency of Rh B. In addition, repetitive experiments showed that about 97.2% of Rh B were still degraded in the fifth experiment by sonophotocatalysis using PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film. Therefore, PEG 2000 -TiO 2 film used in Photocatalytic-Ultrasonic system has promising potential for wastewater treatment, due to its excellent photocatalytic activity and high stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication and investigation of gas sensing properties of Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubular arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galstyan, Vardan; Comini, Elisabetta; Faglia, Guido; Vomiero, Alberto; Borgese, Laura; Bontempi, Elza; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2012-06-01

    Synthesis of Nb-containing titania nanotubular arrays at room temperature by electrochemical anodization is reported. Crystallization of pure and Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubes was carried out by post-growth annealing at 400 °C. The morphology of the tubes obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crystal structure and composition of tubes were investigated by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). For the first time gas sensing characteristics of Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubes were investigated and compared to those of undoped nanotubes. The functional properties of nanotubular arrays towards CO, H2, NO2, ethanol and acetone were tested in a wide range of operating temperature. The introduction of Nb largely improves conductivity and enhances gas sensing performances of TiO2 nanotubes.

  18. Visible active N-doped TiO2/reduced graphene oxide for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinde; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Yue

    2018-01-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets were successfully prepared by a photoreduction method. The synthesized N-TiO2/rGO composite was characterized by XRD, SERS, XPS, TEM, UV-vis DRS and PL, and its visible-light photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The results showed that N-TiO2/rGO composites exhibited a more enhanced photodegradation activity compared to pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2. Trapping tests indicated that not radOH and h+ but radO2- was chiefly responsible for the photodegradation process. The reusable experiments showed that the prepared N-TiO2/rGO catalyst was stable during the photodegradation of TC.

  19. Microcystin-LR removal from aqueous solutions using a magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 was found to be significantly improved when compared with a non-magnetic N-doped TiO2 for the aqueous removal of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity may be related to the presence of ferri...

  20. Chemically synthesized TiO2 and PANI/TiO2 thin films for ethanol sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawri, Isha; Ridhi, R.; Singh, K. P.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol sensing properties of chemically synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyaniline/titanium dioxide nanocomposites (PANI/TiO2) had been performed at room temperature. In-situ oxidative polymerization process had been employed with aniline as a monomer in presence of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The prepared samples were structurally and morphologically characterized by x-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectra, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite was revealed by XRD and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of chemical bonding between the polymer chains and metal oxide nanoparticles. HR-TEM micrographs depicted that TiO2 particles were embedded in polymer matrix, which provides an advantage over pure TiO2 nanoparticles in efficient adsorption of vapours. These images also revealed that the TiO2 nanoparticles were irregular in shape with size around 17 nm. FE-SEM studies revealed that in the porous structure of PANI/TiO2 film, the intercalation of TiO2 in PANI chains provides an advantage over pure TiO2 film for uniform interaction with ethanol vapors. The sensitivity values of prepared samples were examined towards ethanol vapours at room temperature. The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited better sensing response and faster response-recovery examined at different ethanol concentrations ranging from 5 ppm to 20 ppm in comparison to pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The increase in vapour sensing of PANI/TiO2 sensing film as compared to pure TiO2 film had been explained in detail with the help of gas sensing mechanism of TiO2 and PANI/TiO2. This provides strong evidence that gas sensing properties of TiO2 had been considerably improved and enhanced with the addition of polymer matrix.

  1. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang; Yu, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanorod array being prepared by an in situ method on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process and surface modification with coated TiO 2 by sol–gel methods to form a superhydrophobic TiO 2 /ZnO composite film the anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules. - Highlights: • This work combines, for the first time, the advantage of the TiO 2 /ZnO composite film on photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition, and puts forward a solution to satisfy weatherability of quartz crystal microbalance in long-term application. • The anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film with pencil structure exhibit excellent super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle can reach 155°), no-sticking water properties and self-cleaning property under UV irradiation. • The photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition of the TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film is stable in long-term application. - Abstract: The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO 2 /ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO 2 via sol–gel methods. Results show the anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod

  2. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  3. Fibroblast responses and antibacterial activity of Cu and Zn co-doped TiO2 for percutaneous implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Guo, Jiaqi; Yan, Ting; Han, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to enhance skin integration and antibacterial activity of Ti percutaneous implants, microporous TiO2 coatings co-doped with different doses of Cu2+ and Zn2+ were directly fabricated on Ti via micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The structures of coatings were investigated; the behaviors of fibroblasts (L-929) as well as the response of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated. During the MAO process, a large number of micro-arc discharges forming on Ti performed as penetrating channels; O2-, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and PO43- delivered via the channels, giving rise to the formation of doped TiO2. Surface characteristics including phase component, topography, surface roughness and wettability were almost the same for different coatings, whereas, the amount of Cu doped in TiO2 decreased with the increased Zn amount. Compared with Cu single-doped TiO2 (0.77 Wt% Cu), the co-doped with appropriate amounts of Cu and Zn, for example, 0.55 Wt% Cu and 2.53 Wt% Zn, further improved proliferation of L-929, facilitated fibroblasts to switch to fibrotic phenotype, and enhanced synthesis of collagen I as well as the extracellular collagen secretion; the antibacterial properties including contact-killing and release-killing were also enhanced. By analyzing the relationship of Cu/Zn amount in TiO2 and the behaviors of L-929 and S. aureus, it can be deduced that when the doped Zn is in a low dose (<1.79 Wt%), the behaviors of L-929 and S. aureus are sensitive to the reduced amount of Cu2+, whereas, Zn2+ plays a key role in accelerating fibroblast functions and reducing S. aureus when its dose obviously increases from 2.63 to 6.47 Wt%.

  4. TiO2 thin film growth using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M.I.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 thin films were obtained using the MOCVD method. In this report we discuss the properties of a film, produced using a ordinary deposition apparatus, as a function of the deposition time, with constant deposition temperature (90 °C, oxygen flow (7,0 L/min and substrate temperature (400 °C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and visible and ultra-violet region spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The films deposited on Si (100 substrates showed the anatase polycrystalline phase, while the films grown on glass substrates showed no crystallinity. Film thickness increased with deposition time as expected, while the transmittance varied from 72 to 91% and the refractive index remained close to 2.6.

  5. Influence of Co-Doping of Ni (II on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 for Pathogenic Bacteria Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Shaleh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2 has most attention in the past decade, since it can be applied as alternative material on sterilization photocatalyst process. This research focused on increasing performance of titania such as structure, particles size and surface area through Ni ion doped on TiO2 surface by sol-gel technique. Product were used to design of a photobioreactor for sterilization process from pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Product were characterized using TG-DTA, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS and BET. Titanium dioxide with anatase structure have 12.1 nm in particles size and surface area 49.6 m2/ g that have higher inhibition rate to bacteria cell. Photobiocatalytic reaction was carried out in various TiO2-Ni concentration and UV irradiation times. The anti bacteria from TiO2-Ni to all bacteria cell suspension after UV irradiated at λm : 365 nm has good synergistic effect. Effect of mechanical treatment by sonicator showed the increasing inhibition rate around 4% for 120 minute irradiation. Inhibition rate optimization for each bacteria gave different efficiency inhibition to TiO2-Ni concentration 1.5-2.0 g/L. TiO2-Ni inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus around ≥ 95% for 120 minute irradiation, while Bacillus subtilis resistance with inhibition percentage rate only 88.1%.

  6. Nitrogen-doped carbon-embedded TiO2 nanofibers as promising oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, D.; Shenashen, M. A.; El-Safty, S. A.; Selim, M. M.; Isago, H.; Elmarakbi, A.; El-Safty, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2016-10-01

    The development of inexpensive and effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a substitute for commercial Pt/C catalyst is an important issue in fuel cells. In this paper, we report on novel fabrication of self-supported nitrogen-doped carbon-supported titanium nanofibers (Nsbnd TiO2@C) and carbon-supported titanium (TiO2@C) electrocatalysts via a facile electrospinning route. The nitrogen atom integrates physically and homogenously into the entire carbon-titanium structure. We demonstrate the catalytic performance of Nsbnd TiO2@C and TiO2@C for ORR under alkaline conditions in comparison with Pt/C catalyst. The Nsbnd TiO2@C catalyst shows excellent ORR reactivity and durability. Interestingly, among all the catalysts used in this ORR, Nsbnd TiO2@C-0.75 exhibits remarkable competitive oxygen reduction activity in terms of current density and onset potential, as well as superior methanol tolerance. Such tolerance attributes to maximizing the diffusion of trigger pulse electrons during catalytic reactions because of enhanced electronic features. Results indicate that our fabrication strategy can provide an opportunity to produce a simple, efficient, cost-effective, and promising ORR electrocatalyst for practical applications in energy conversion and storage technologies.

  7. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  8. Thin TiO2 films deposited by implantation and sputtering in RF inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The achievement of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films in the rutile crystalline phase is reported. The samples result from the implantation of oxygen ions of Ti in argon/oxygen plasma generated by inductively coupled RF at a commercial 13.56 MHz frequency. Simultaneously, a sputtering process is conducted on the titanium target in order to produce TiO 2 thin films in the anatase phase over silicon and glass substrates. Both implantation and sputtering processes shared the same 500 W plasma with the target, polarized between 0 and -3 kV. The substrates were placed between 2 and 3 cm from the target, this distance being found to be determinant of the TiO 2 deposition rate. The rutile phase in the target was obtained at temperatures in the order of 680 degrees C and the anatase (unbiased) one at about 300 degrees C without any auxiliary heating. The crystalline phases were characterized by x ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and average roughness were established by means of scanning electronic and atomic force microscopy, whereas the reaction products generated during the oxidation process were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Finally, the stoichiometric composition was measured by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  9. Tio2 Nanoparticles Coated With Porphyrin Dye Thin Film As Fluorescence Gas Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Huda Yusoff; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Muhammad Yahaya

    2008-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of using fluorescence technique to detect the presence of volatile organic compounds based on a single sensing material. The material used was TiO 2 nanoparticles coated with porphyrin dye. The TiO 2 nanoparticles colloid is in a sol-gel form synthesized from titanium (IV) ethoxide in ethanol with addition of potassium chloride (KCl) as stabilizer. TiO 2 nanoparticles were then coated with porphyrin dye, Manganese (III) 5,10,15,20 tetra (4-pyridyl)-21H, 23H porphine chloride tetrakis (meta chloride). The coated nanoparticles were deposited on quartz substrate using self-assembly through dip coating technique. The sensing properties of the thin film toward volatile organic compounds; ethanol, acetone, cyclohexane and 2-propanol were studied using luminescence spectrometer. It was found that the thin film produced different emission spectra peaks for different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hence, it eases chemical identification process and potentially be use as fluorescence gas sensor. (author)

  10. Nitrogen and Fluorine Codoped, Colloidal TiO2Nanoparticle: Tunable Doping, Large Red-Shifted Band Edge, Visible Light Induced Photocatalysis, and Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aritra; Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2018-01-17

    Visible light photocatalysis by TiO 2 requires efficient doping of other elements with red-shifted band edge to the visible region. However, preparation of such TiO 2 with tunable doping is challenging. Here we report a method of making nitrogen (N) and fluorine (F) codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle with tunable doping between 1 and 7 at. %. The preparation of N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle involves reaction of colloidal TiO 2 nanorods with an ammonium fluoride-urea mixture at 300 °C, and the extent of N/F doping is tuned by varying the amount of ammonium fluoride-urea and the reaction time. Resultant colloidal N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles show doping dependent shifting of the band edge from the UV to near-IR region, visible light induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and visible light photodegradation of bisphenol A. A colloidal form of doped TiO 2 nanoparticle offers labeling of cells, visible light induced ROS generation inside a cell, and successive cell death. This work shows the potential advantage of anisotropic nanoparticle precursor for tunable doping and colloidal form of N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle as a visible light photocatalyst.

  11. Photocatalytic TiO2 and Doped TiO2 Coatings to Improve the Hygiene of Surfaces Used in Food and Beverage Processing—A Study of the Physical and Chemical Resistance of the Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnia Navabpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering and spray coating methods, as well as Ag- and Mo-doped TiO2 coatings were investigated as self-cleaning surfaces for beverage processing. The mechanical resistance and retention of the photocatalytic properties of the coatings were investigated over a three-month period in three separate breweries. TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering showed better mechanical durability than the spray coated surfaces, whilst the spray-deposited coating showed enhanced retention of photocatalytic properties. The presence of Ag and Mo dopants improved the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 as well as the retention of these properties. The spray-coated TiO2 was the only coating which showed light-induced hydrophilicity, which was retained in the coatings surviving the process conditions.

  12. Highly Crystalline Nanoparticle Suspensions for Low-Temperature Processing of TiO2 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watté, Jonathan; Lommens, Petra; Pollefeyt, Glenn; Meire, Mieke; De Buysser, Klaartje; Van Driessche, Isabel

    2016-05-25

    In this work, we present preparation and stabilization methods for highly crystalline TiO2 nanoparticle suspensions for the successful deposition of transparent, photocatalytically active TiO2 thin films toward the degradation of organic pollutants by a low temperature deposition method. A proof-of-concept is provided wherein stable, aqueous TiO2 suspensions are deposited on glass substrates. Even if the processing temperature is lowered to 150-200 °C, the subsequent heat treatment provides transparent and photocatalytically active titania thin layers. Because all precursor solutions are water-based, this method provides an energy-efficient, sustainable, and environmentally friendly synthesis route. The high load in crystalline titania particles obtained after microwave heating opens up the possibility to produce thin coatings by low temperature processing, as a conventional crystallization procedure is in this case superfluous. The impact of the precursor chemistry in Ti(4+)-peroxo solutions, containing imino-diacetic acid as a complexing ligand and different bases to promote complexation was studied as a function of pH, reaction time and temperature. The nanocrystal formation was followed in terms of colloidal stability, crystallinity and particle size. Combined data from Raman and infrared spectroscopy, confirmed that stable titanium precursors could be obtained at pH levels ranging from 2 to 11. A maximum amount of 50.7% crystallinity was achieved, which is one of the highest reported amounts of anatase nanoparticles that are suspendable in stable aqueous titania suspensions. Decoloring of methylene blue solutions by precipitated nanosized powders from the TiO2 suspensions proves their photocatalytic properties toward degradation of organic materials, a key requisite for further processing. This synthesis method proves that the deposition of highly crystalline anatase suspensions is a valid route for the production of photocatalytically active, transparent

  13. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Honghui; Xu, Shukun; Sun, Dandan; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region co...

  14. Improve efficiency of perovskite solar cells by using Magnesium doped ZnO and TiO2 compact layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktash, Ardeshir; Amiri, Omid; Sasani, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Here the effect of Magnesium doped TiO2 and ZnO as hole blocking layers (HBLs) are investigated by using solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS). The Impact of Magnesium concentration into the TiO2 and ZnO and effect of operating temperature on the performance of the perovskite solar cell are investigated. Best cell performance for both TiO2 and ZnO HBLs (with cell efficiencies of 19.86% and 19.57% respectively) are concluded for the doping level of 10% of Mg into the structure of HBLs. Increase in operating temperature from 300 K to 400 K are decreased the performance of the perovskite solar cell with both pure and Mg-doped HBLs. However, the cells with pure ZnO layer and with Zn0.9 Mg0.1O layer show the highest (with a decline of 8.88% in efficiency) and the lowest stability (with a decline of 50.49% in efficiency) at higher temperatures respectively. Moreover, the cell with Ti0.9 Mg0.1O2 layer shows better stability (with 21.85% reduction in efficiency) than the cell with pure TiO2 compact layer (with 23.28% reduction in efficiency) at higher operating temperatures.

  15. Influence of interface layer on optical properties of sub-20 nm-thick TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yue-Jie; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Li, Da-Hai; Zhan, Yi-Qiang; Lu, Hong-Liang; Jiang, An-Quan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2018-02-01

    The sub-20 nm ultrathin titanium dioxide (TiO2) films with tunable thickness were deposited on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The structural and optical properties were acquired by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Afterwards, a constructive and effective method of analyzing interfaces by applying two different optical models consisting of air/TiO2/Ti x Si y O2/Si and air/effective TiO2 layer/Si, respectively, was proposed to investigate the influence of interface layer (IL) on the analysis of optical constants and the determination of band gap of TiO2 ultrathin films. It was found that two factors including optical constants and changing components of the nonstoichiometric IL could contribute to the extent of the influence. Furthermore, the investigated TiO2 ultrathin films of 600 ALD cycles were selected and then annealed at the temperature range of 400-900 °C by rapid thermal annealing. Thicker IL and phase transition cause the variation of optical properties of TiO2 films after annealing and a shorter electron relaxation time reveals the strengthened electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the TiO2 ultrathin films at high temperature. The as-obtained results in this paper will play a role in other studies of high dielectric constants materials grown on Si substrates and in the applications of next generation metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  16. Influence of Nb-doped TiO2 blocking layers as a cascading band structure for enhanced photovoltaic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Ryul; Oh, Dong-Hyeun; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2018-03-01

    Nb-doped TiO2 (Nb-TiO2) blocking layers (BLs) were developed using horizontal ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (HUSPD). In order to improve the photovoltaic properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), we optimized the Nb doping level of the Nb-TiO2 BLs by controlling the Nb/Ti molar ratio (0, 5, 6, and 7) of the precursor solution for HUSPD. Compared to bare TiO2 BLs, the Nb-TiO2 BLs formed a cascading band structure using the positive shift of the conduction band minimum of the Nb-TiO2 positioned between fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and TiO2. This results in the increase of the potential current and the suppression of the electron recombination. Hence, it led to the improvement of the electrical conductivity, due to the increased electron concentration by the Nb doping into TiO2. Therefore, the DSSC fabricated with the Nb-TiO2 BLs at a Nb/Ti molar ratio of 6 showed superior photoconversion efficiency (∼7.50 ± 0.20%) as a result of the improved short-circuit current density. This is higher than those with the other Nb-TiO2 BLs and without BL. This improvement of the photovoltaic properties for the DSSCs can be attributed to the synergistic effects of uniform and compact BL relative to the prevention of the backward electron transport at the FTO/electrolyte interface, efficient electron transport at interfaces relative to a cascading band structure of FTO/Nb-TiO2/TiO2 multilayers and the facilitated electron transport at the BLs relative to the increased electrical conductivity of the optimized Nb-TiO2 BLs.

  17. Increased photocatalytic activity induced by TiO2/Pt/SnO2 heterostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Glaucio O.; Amoresi, Rafael A. C.; Lustosa, Glauco M. M. M.; Costa, João P. C.; Nogueira, Marcelo V.; Ruiz, Miguel; Zaghete, Maria A.; Perazolli, Leinig A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a high photocatalytic activity was attained by intercalating a Pt layer between SnO2 and TiO2 semiconductors, which yielded a TiO2/Pt/SnO2 - type heterostructure used in the discoloration of blue methylene (MB) solution. The porous films and platinum layer were obtained by electrophoretic deposition and DC Sputtering, respectively, and were both characterized morphologically and structurally by FE-SEM and XRD. The films with the Pt interlayer were evaluated by photocatalytic activity through exposure to UV light. An increase in efficiency of 22% was obtained for these films compared to those without platinum deposition. Studies on the reutilization of the films pointed out high efficiency and recovery of the photocatalyst, rendering the methodology favorable for the construction of fixed bed photocatalytic reactors. A proposal associated with the mechanism is discussed in this work in terms of the difference in Schottky barrier between the semiconductors and the electrons transfer and trapping cycle. These are fundamental factors for boosting photocatalytic efficiency.

  18. Effects of TiO2 film thickness on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cell and its enhanced performance by graphene combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenguang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yiming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • DSSC based on TiO 2 film with 8 printing layers showed the highest efficiency. • The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC increased from 5.52% to 6.49% by graphene combination. • A mechanism for the enhanced performance of the DSSC was proposed. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO 2 films with different printing layers (6-10) were fabricated by screen printing method. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The effects of thickness on the photoelectric conversion performance of the as-fabricated DSSCs were investigated. An optimum photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.52% was obtained in a DSSC with 8 printing layers. Furthermore, after a moderate amount of graphene was combined with TiO 2 , the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on graphene/TiO 2 composite film rose from 5.52% to 6.49%, with an increase of η by 17.6%. The results indicated that graphene not only enhances the transport of electrons from the film to the fluorine doped tin oxide substrates and reduces the charge recombination rate, but also reduces the electrolyte–electrode interfacial resistance, clearly increasing the photoelectric conversion efficiency

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic water-splitting performance using Fe-doped hierarchical TiO2 ball-flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Tong; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin; Chen, Changxin

    2018-01-01

    The photocatalytic water-splitting behavior of hierarchically structured TiO2 ball-flowers with different Fe ion contents was studied, in order to elucidate the effects of Fe doping on their water-splitting performance. It was found that with the increase of Fe doping content, the hydrogen evolution rate increased initially and then decreased. The highest hydrogen evolution of 697 μmol g-1 is observed for 2Fe/TiO2, after 4 h of light irradiation, which was five times greater than that in the case of pure TiO2 who has 140 μmol g-1 hydrogen evolution after 4 h of light irradiation. This improvement in the water-splitting efficiency owing to optimized Fe doping could be attributed to an enhancement in the visible-light absorption characteristics and an increase in the number of oxygen vacancies, which act as the reaction sites for water splitting.

  20. The interplay between dopants and oxygen vacancies in the magnetism of V-doped TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Grau-Crespo, Ricardo

    2011-08-03

    Density functional theory calculations indicate that the incorporation of V into Ti lattice positions of rutile TiO2 leads to magnetic V 4 + species, but the extension and sign of the coupling between dopant moments confirm that ferromagnetic order cannot be reached via low-concentration doping in the non-defective oxide. Oxygen vacancies can introduce additional magnetic centres, and we show here that one of the effects of vanadium doping is to reduce the formation energies of these defects. In the presence of both V dopants and O vacancies all the spins tend to align with the same orientation. We conclude that V doping favours the ferromagnetic behaviour of TiO2 not only by introducing spins associated with the dopant centres but also by increasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies with respect to the pure oxide. © 2001 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Facile synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiekun; Fu, Fang; Yu, Dongsheng; Cao, Jianliang; Sun, Guang

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafine anatase N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals modified with carbon (denoted as N-doped TiO2/C) were successfully prepared via a facile and low-cost approach, using titanium tetrachloride, aqueous ammonia and urea as starting materials. The phase composition, surface chemical composition, morphological structure, electronic and optical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts were well characterized and analyzed. On the basis of Raman spectral characterization combining with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it could be concluded that N dopant ions were successfully introduced into TiO2 crystal lattice and carbon species were modified on the surface or between the nanoparticles to form N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites. Compared with that of bare TiO2, the adsorption band edge of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites were found to have an evident red-shift toward visible light region, implying that the bandgap of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites is narrowed and the visible light absorption capacity is significantly enhanced due to N doping and carbon modification. The photoactivity of the as-prepared photocatalytsts was tested by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (λ > 420 nm), and the results showed that the N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites exhibited much higher photodegradation rate than pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced light harvesting, augmented catalytic active sites and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  2. Surface Hydrophilicity and Antifungal Properties of TiO2 Films Coated on a Co-Cr Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to deposit a thin layer of TiO2 on a Co-Cr substrate, serving as a deactivation film protecting the metallic fitting surface. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of the film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. A scratch tester was used to examine the adhesion strength between the TiO2 film and the Co-Cr substrate. The water contact angles and antifungal efficacy against C. albicans of the TiO2-deposited Co-Cr samples were investigated and further compared with those of uncoated Co-Cr substrates. The results indicated that a pure anatase microstructure and dense and smooth surface texture as well as strong binding to the underlying metallic surface were obtained. The originally hydrophobic Co-Cr alloy surface turned hydrophilic after TiO2 film coating. Most importantly, the TiO2-coated surface showed a superior antifungal capability under UV-irradiation compared to those without TiO2 coating. This work contains meaningful results for the development of a new metallic framework coating with improved hydrophilicity and antifungal properties.

  3. Magnetic, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of nonmetal- and halogen-doped anatase TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    The structure stability, magnetic, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of nonmetal (B, C, N, P, and S), and halogen (F, Cl, Br, and I)-doped anatase TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have been investigated using spin polarized density functional theory. The N- and F-doped TNTs are the most stable among other doped TNTs. It is found that the magnetic moment of doped TNT is the difference between the number of the valence electrons of the dopant and host anion. All dopants decrease the band gap of TNT. The decrease in the band gap of nonmetal (C, N, P, and S)-doped TNTs, in particular N and P, is larger than that of halogen-doped TNTs due to the created states of the nonmetal dopant in the band gap. There is a good agreement between the calculation results and the experimental observations. Even though C-, N-, and P-doped TNTs have the lowest band gap, they cannot be used as a photocatalysis for water splitting. The B-, S-, and I-doped TiO2 nanotubes are of great potential as candidates for water splitting in the visible light range.

  4. Structure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by ALD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szindler Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on titanium dioxide thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition method on a silicon substrate. The changes of surface morphology have been observed in topographic images performed with the atomic force microscope (AFM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Obtained roughness parameters have been calculated with XEI Park Systems software. Qualitative studies of chemical composition were also performed using the energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The structure of titanium dioxide was investigated by X-ray crystallography. A variety of crystalline TiO2 was also confirmed by using the Raman spectrometer. The optical reflection spectra have been measured with UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

  5. Electrochemical reduction induced self-doping of Ti3+ for efficient water splitting performance on TiO2 based photoelectrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-01-01

    Hetero-element doping (e.g., N, F, C) of TiO2 is inevitably accompanied by significantly increased structural defects due to the dopants\\' nature being foreign impurities. Very recently, in situ self-doping with homo-species (e.g., Ti3+) has been emerging as a rational solution to enhance TiO2 photoactivity within both UV and visible light regions. Herein we demonstrate that conventional electrochemical reduction is indeed a facile and effective strategy to induce in situ self-doping of Ti3+ into TiO2 and the self-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes showed remarkably improved and very stable water splitting performance. In this study, hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were chosen as TiO2 substrates and then electrochemically reduced under varying conditions to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 NTs (ECR-TiO2 NTs). The optimized saturation photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency on the ECR-TiO2 NTs under simulated AM 1.5G illumination were identified to be 2.8 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 1.27% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported for TiO 2 based photoelectrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectra measurement confirms that the electrochemical induced Ti3+ self-doping improved the electrical conductivity of the ECR-TiO2 NTs. The versatility and effectiveness of the electrochemical reduction method for Ti3+ self-doping in P25 based TiO2 was also examined and confirmed. This journal is © 2013 the Owner Societies.

  6. TiO 2 Thin Films Prepared via Adsorptive Self-Assembly for Self-Cleaning Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xi, Baojuan

    2012-02-22

    Low-cost controllable solution-based processes for preparation of titanium oxide (TiO 2) thin films are highly desirable, because of many important applications of this oxide in catalytic decomposition of volatile organic compounds, advanced oxidation processes for wastewater and bactericidal treatments, self-cleaning window glass for green intelligent buildings, dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state semiconductor metal-oxide solar cells, self-cleaning glass for photovoltaic devices, and general heterogeneous photocatalysis for fine chemicals etc. In this work, we develop a solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach to fabricate anatase TiO 2 thin films on different glass substrates such as simple plane glass and patterned glass at variable compositions (normal soda lime glass or solar-grade borofloat glass). By tuning the number of process cycles (i.e., adsorption-then-heating) of TiO 2 colloidal suspension, we could facilely prepare large-area TiO 2 films at a desired thickness and with uniform crystallite morphology. Moreover, our as-prepared nanostructured TiO 2 thin films on glass substrates do not cause deterioration in optical transmission of glass; instead, they improve optical performance of commercial solar cells over a wide range of incident angles of light. Our as-prepared anatase TiO 2 thin films also display superhydrophilicity and excellent photocatalytic activity for self-cleaning application. For example, our investigation of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange indicates that these thin films are indeed highly effective, in comparison to other commercial TiO 2 thin films under identical testing conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Structural Properties of Nanoparticles TiO2/PVA Polymeric Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara A. Madhloom

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, X-ray diffraction of the powder (PVA polymer, titanium dioxide with two parti-cle sizes and (TiO2 (15.7 nm/PVA and TiO2 (45.7 nm/PVA films have been studied,the amount of polymer is (0.5 g and (0.01g from each particle sizes of nanoparticles will be used. Casting method is used to prepare homogeneous films on glass petri dishes. All parameters ac-counted for the X-ray diffraction; full width half maximum (FWHM, Miller indices (hkl, size of crystalline (D, Specific Surface Area (S and Dislocation Density (δ. The nature of the structural of materials and films will be investigated. The XRD pattern of PVA polymer has semi-crystalline nature and the titanium dioxide with two particle sizes have crystalline structure; ana-tase type. While the mixture between these materials led to appearing some crystalline peaks into XRD pattern of PVA polymer

  8. Structural characterisation of sprayed TiO2 films for extremely thin absorber layer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.D.; Lane, D.W.; Painter, J.D.; Chapman, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have examined in detail the structural features of TiO 2 films fabricated by spray pyrolysis. The spray solution was produced from the dissolution of Ti powder in a hydrogen peroxide and ammonium hydroxide solution. The resulting peroxo-polytitanic acid solution was diluted in water and sprayed onto heated substrates through an air-atomizing nozzle. Each sample was characterised principally by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of spray solution composition and rate has been studied and a brief comparison to films produced by an alternative route ('doctor blade') provided. The films were shown to consist of almost single phase anatase and to be porous. It has been demonstrated that the growth process was uniform although the degree of preferred orientation could be controlled through the concentration of the spray solution. The lattice parameters are both shown to increase slightly with concentration and volume of solution deposited. Semi-quantitative microstructural analyses showed that the crystallites formed are consistently larger than those formed by the doctor blade process although they contain significantly more microstrain. Further, it is demonstrated that thin window layers of copper indium disulfide, also formed by spray pyrolysis, have a conformal relationship with the TiO 2

  9. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  10. Influences of Silver-Doping on the Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2011-01-01

    Doping of titanium dioxide nanofibers by silver nanoparticles revealed distinct improvement in the photocatalytic activ-ity; however other influences have not been investigated. In this work, effect of sliver-doping on the crystal structure, the nanofibrous morphology as well as the photocatalytic...... activity of titanium oxide nanofibers has been studied. Sil-ver-doped TiO2 nanofibers having different silver contents were prepared by calcination of electrospun nanofiber mats consisting of silver nitrate, titanium isopropoxide and poly(vinyl acetate) at 600°C. The results affirmed formation of silver...

  11. Nanostructured TiO2/carbon nanosheet hybrid electrode for high-rate thin-film lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Moitzheim, Sébastien; Nimisha, C S; Deng, Shaoren; Cott, Daire J; Detavernier, Christophe; Vereecken, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous nanostructured electrodes using carbon nanosheets (CNS) and TiO2 exhibit high electronic and ionic conductivity. In order to realize the chip level power sources, it is necessary to employ microelectronic compatible techniques for the fabrication and characterization of TiO2-CNS thin-film electrodes. To achieve this, vertically standing CNS grown through a catalytic free approach on a TiN/SiO2/Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) was ...

  12. Fabrication of Novel High Potential Chromium-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticulate Electrode-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehteram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, pure TiO2 and Cr-doped TiO2 (Cr@TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method and the resulting materials were applied to prepare the porous TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. It is hypothesized that the advantages of the doping of the metal ions into TiO2 lattice are the temporary rapping of the photogenerated electron-hole (charge carriers by the metal dopants and the retarding charge recombination during electron migration from TiO2 to the electrode surface. Spectroscopic and microscopic findings showed that all the prepared samples consist of only anatse phase with average size of 10-15nm. In addition, relative to the bare TiO2, Cr@TiO2 absorption in visible light region was considerably improved due to the surface Plasmon phenomenon. Current-voltage (I-V curves exhibited that the solar cells made of Cr@TiO2 nanoparticles results in higher photocurrent density than the cells made of bare TiO2. The large improvement of photovoltaic performance of the Cr-doped TiO2 cell stems from negative shift of TiO2 conduction band and retarding charge recombination. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed route in the current study is an effective way to enhance the energy conversion efficiency and overall performance of DSSC.

  13. Designed fabrication of fluorine-doped carbon coated mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres for improved lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ming, Hai; Ge, Danhua; Zheng, Junwei; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hollow TiO 2 with mesoporous shell (MHTO) was successfully fabricated by a novel and controllable route, followed by fluorine-doped carbon coating the MHTO (MHTO-C/F), with the aim of enhancing the conductivity and stability of structures. - Highlights: • Anatase TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO) was fabricated via a facile and controllable route, to improve the lithium ion mobility as well as the stability of the architecture. • Fluorine-doped carbon derived from polyvinylidene difluoride was further encapsulated onto TiO 2 hollow spheres to improve the conductivity. • The composites could provide excellent electrochemical performance, which was desirable for the application of TiO 2 as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: In this manuscript, we demonstrated a facile route for the controllable design of “Fluorine (F)-doped carbon” (C/F)-treated TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO-C/F). The fabrication of this distinct mesoporous hollow structures and the C/F coating could effectively improve the electrolyte permeability and architectural stability, as well as electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility. As anticipated, MHTO-C/F has several remarkable electrochemical properties, such as a high specific reversible capacity of 252 mA h g −1 , outstanding cycling stability of more than 210 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C, and good rate performance of around 123 mA h g −1 at 5 C (1 C = 168 mA g −1 ). These properties are highly beneficial for lithium storage

  14. Elaboration of TiO2 films by PECVD for use in photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lalla, N; Lasorsa, C; Pineda Ramos, P

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results in the production of films of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) deposited by Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The films are destined for use in photocatalysis for water treatment. The deposits were made on glass from titanium isopropoxide as precursor (Ti[OCH(CH 3 ) 2 ]4) and a controlled flow of O 2 . The films were grown at room temperature and 300 o C to compare properties. The characterization of the deposits was performed using scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible transmittance and infrared absorbance. The deposits were obtained with very good adhesion to substrates showing energy values of band gap of 2.83 eV

  15. Nucleation and Growth of Crystalline Grains in RF-Sputtered TiO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 thin films were radio frequency sputtered onto siliconmonoxide and carbon support films on molybdenum transmission electron microscope (TEM grids and observed during in situ annealing in a TEM heating stage at 250∘C. The evolution of crystallization is consistent with a classical model of homogeneous nucleation and isotropic grain growth. The two-dimensional grain morphology of the TEM foil allowed straightforward recognition of amorphous and crystallized regions of the films, for measurement of crystalline volume fraction and grain number density. By assuming that the kinetic parameters remain constant beyond the onset of crystallization, the final average grain size was computed, using an analytical extrapolation to the fully crystallized state. Electron diffraction reveals a predominance of the anatase crystallographic phase.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of malathion using Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: statistical analysis and optimization of operating parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Omidvar Borna, Mohammad; Esrafili, Ali; Rezaei Kalantary, Roshanak; Kakavandi, Babak; Sillanpää, Mika; Asadi, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    A Zn2+-doped TiO2 is successfully synthesized by a facile photodeposition method and used in the catalytic photo-degradation of organophosphorus pesticide, malathion. The obtained photocatalysts are characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results confirm the formation of the anatase and rutile phases for the Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes of 12.9 nm. Zn2+-doped TiO2 that was synthesized by 3.0%wt Zn doping at 200 °C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity. 60 sets of experiments were conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) by adjusting five operating parameters, i.e. initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH, reaction time at five levels and presence or absence of UV light. The analysis revealed that all considered parameters are significant in the degradation process in their linear terms. The optimum values of the variables were found to be 177.59 mg/L, 0.99 g/L, 10.99 and 81.04 min for initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH and reaction time, respectively, under UV irradiation (UV ON). Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values of degradation and mineralization were 98 and 74%, respectively. Moreover, the effects of competing anions and H2O2 on photocatalyst process were also investigated.

  17. Nb-doped TiO2 cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Arashi, Takuya

    2014-09-01

    Nb-doped TiO2 particles were studied as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under acidic conditions. The Nb-doped TiN nanoparticles were first synthesized by meso-porous C3N4 and then fully oxidized to Nb-doped TiO2 by immersing in 0.1 M H 2SO4 at 353 K for 24 h. Although the ORR activity of the as-obtained sample was low, a H2 treatment at relatively high temperature (1173 K) dramatically improved the ORR performance. An onset potential as high as 0.82 VRHE was measured. No degradation of the catalysts was observed during the oxidation-reduction cycles under the ORR condition for over 127 h. H2 treatment at temperatures above 1173 K caused the formation of a Ti4O7 phase, resulting in a decrease in ORR current. Elemental analysis indicated that the Nb-doped TiO 2 contained 25 wt% residual carbon. Calcination in air at 673 or 973 K eliminated the residual carbon in the catalyst, which was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in ORR activity. This post-calcination process may reduce the conductivity of the sample by filling the oxygen vacancies, and the carbon residue in the particle aggregates may enhance the electrocatalytic activity for ORR. The feasibility of using conductive oxide materials as electrocatalysts is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Yeniyol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness Ra and Rz were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting TiO2 films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by  Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2–5 µm and protruding hills (10–50 µm on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher Ra and Rz surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization.

  19. Tuning the Phase and Microstructural Properties of TiO2 Films Through Pulsed Laser Deposition and Exploring Their Role as Buffer Layers for Conductive Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Haseman, M. S.; Leedy, K. D.; Winarski, D. J.; Saadatkia, P.; Doyle, E.; Zhang, L.; Dang, T.; Vasilyev, V. S.; Selim, F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a semiconducting oxide of increasing interest due to its chemical and thermal stability and broad applicability. In this study, thin films of TiO2 were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire and silicon substrates under various growth conditions, and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. XRD patterns revealed that a sapphire substrate is more suitable for the formation of the rutile phase in TiO2, while a silicon substrate yields a pure anatase phase, even at high-temperature growth. AFM images showed that the rutile TiO2 films grown at 805°C on a sapphire substrate have a smoother surface than anatase films grown at 620°C. Optical absorption spectra confirmed the band gap energy of 3.08 eV for the rutile phase and 3.29 eV for the anatase phase. All the deposited films exhibited the usual high resistivity of TiO2; however, when employed as a buffer layer, anatase TiO2 deposited on sapphire significantly improves the conductivity of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films. The study illustrates how to control the formation of TiO2 phases and reveals another interesting application for TiO2 as a buffer layer for transparent conducting oxides.

  20. Relationship between nano/micro structure and physical properties of TiO2-sodium caseinate composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-de-Oca-Ávalos, Juan Manuel; Altamura, Davide; Candal, Roberto Jorge; Scattarella, Francesco; Siliqi, Dritan; Giannini, Cinzia; Herrera, María Lidia

    2018-03-01

    Films obtained by casting, starting from conventional emulsions (CE), nanoemulsions (NE) or their gels, which led to different structures, with the aim of explore the relationship between structure and physical properties, were prepared. Sodium caseinate was used as the matrix, glycerol as plasticizer, glucono-delta-lactone as acidulant to form the gels, and TiO 2 nanoparticles as reinforcement to improve physical behavior. Structural characterization was performed by SAXS and WAXS (Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering, respectively), combined with confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of the lipid phase does not notably modify the mechanical properties of the films compared to solution films. Films from NE were more stable against oil release than those from CE. Incorporation of TiO 2 improved mechanical properties as measured by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) and uniaxial tensile tests. TiO 2 macroscopic spatial distribution homogeneity and the nanostructure character of NE films were confirmed by mapping the q-dependent scattering intensity in scanning SAXS experiments. SAXS microscopies indicated a higher intrinsic homogeneity of NE films compared to CE films, independently of the TiO 2 load. NE-films containing structures with smaller and more homogeneously distributed building blocks showed greater potential for food applications than the films prepared from sodium caseinate solutions, which are the best known films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Saikia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te, electron density (ne, ion density (ni, degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  2. The Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen Dopant and Calcination Temperature on the Visible-Light-Induced Photoactivity of N-Doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nitrogen content and calcinations temperature on the N-doped TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method was investigated. The phase and structure, chemical state, optical properties, and surface area/pore distribution of N-doped TiO2 were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area. Finding showed that the photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was greatly enhanced compared to pure TiO2 under visible irradiation. N dopants could retard the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. Namely, N-doping effect is attributed to the anatase phase stabilization. The results showed nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the interstitial positions of the TiO2 lattice. Ethylene was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of samples under visible-light illumination. The results suggested good anatase crystallization, smaller particle size, and larger surface are beneficial for photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared with ammonia to titanium isopropoxide molar ratio of 2.0 and calcinated at 400°C showed the best photocatalytic ability.

  3. Variable range hopping conduction and microstructure properties of semiconducting Co-doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutan, Mustafa; Bakan, Halil I.; Korkmaz, Kemal; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2005-01-01

    The surface morphology, phases existing in the microstructure and conductivity behavior of Co-doped TiO2 have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical conductivity measurements and X-ray diffraction technique. The semiconducting phase is found to obey Mott's variable range hopping mechanism of the conduction. The conduction mechanism of the ceramic shows a crossover from the, exp[-(T0/T)1/4] law to a simply activated law, exp(-ΔE/kT). This behavior is attributed to temperature-induced transition from 3D to thermally activated behavior. The hopping conduction parameters such as the characteristic temperature (T0), localization length (α), hopping distance (R), activation energy (ΔE) and density of states at Fermi level (N(EF) have been calculated. Surface morphology shows that the ceramic has a regular surface. The SEM study indicates that there are grains which have a certain type in the microstructure. Rutile phases with different plane in microstructure were found

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-N-S-tri-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst and Its Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-N-S-tri-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by one step in the presence of ammonium ferrous sulfate. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-Vis DRS. XPS analysis indicated that Fe (III and S6+ were incorporated into the lattice of TiO2 through substituting titanium atoms, and N might coexist in the forms of substitutional N (O-Ti-N and interstitial N (Ti-O-N in tridoped TiO2. XRD results showed that tri-doping with Fe, N, and S elements could effectively retard the phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile and growth of crystallite size. DRS results revealed that the light absorbance edge of TiO2 in visible region was greatly improved by tri-doping with Fe, N, and S elements. Further, the photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated by the degradation of phenol under visible light irradiation. It was found that Fe-N-S-tri-doped TiO2 catalyst exhibited higher visible light photocatalytic activity than that of pure TiO2 and P25 TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the small crystallite size, intense light absorbance in visible region, and narrow bandgap energy.

  5. The effect of surface OH-population on the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped P25-TiO2 in methylene blue degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, P.; Bueno-López, A.; Verbaas, M.; Almeida, A.R.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.; Mul, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Commercial TiO2 (P25, from Degussa) was modified with variable amounts of La, Ce, Y, Pr, Sm (generally rare earth (RE)), by thermal treatment of physical mixtures of TiO2 and the nitrates of the various RE. Doping of P25 with RE, combined with calcination at 600 or 800 °C, yields materials with

  6. Understanding the synergistic effects, optical and electronic properties of ternary Fe/C/S-doped TiO2 anatase within the DFT 1 U approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Opoku, F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available property of TiO2doped with Fe, C, and S are investigated in detail using the density functional theory + U method. The calculated band gap (3.21 eV) of TiO2anatase agree well with the experimental band gap (3.20 eV). The defect formation energy shows...

  7. Study of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films on p-type silicon substrate using different alcoholic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, sol-gel method spin coating technique is adopted to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films. The prepared TiO 2 sol was synthesized using titanium butoxide act as a precursor and subjected to deposited on the p-type silicon oxide (p-SiO 2 ) and glass slide substrates under room temperature. The effect of different alcoholic solvents of methanol and ethanol on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. The coated TiO 2 thin films were annealed in furnace at 773 K for 1 h. The structural properties of the TiO 2 films were examined with X-ray Diffraction (XRD). From the XRD analysis, both solvents showing good crystallinity with anatase phase were the predominant structure. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the morphological of the thin films. The optical properties were investigated by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were found that ethanol as a solvent give a higher optical transmittance if compare to the methanol solvent. The electrical properties of the nanoparticles TiO 2 thin films were measured using two-point-probe technique.

  8. Effects of donor doping and acceptor doping on rutile TiO2 particles for photocatalytic O2 evolution by water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Fumiaki; Tosaki, Ryosuke; Sato, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Yamato

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline defects of photocatalyst particles may be considered to be the recombination center of photoexcited electrons and holes. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic activity of cation-doped rutile TiO2 photocatalysts for O2 evolution from an aqueous silver nitrate solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 was enhanced by donor doping of Ta5+ and Nb5+ with a valence higher than that of Ti4+, regardless of increased density of electrons and Ti3+ species (an electron trapped in Ti4+ sites). Conversely, acceptor doping of lower valence cations such as In3+ and Ga3+ decreased photocatalytic activity for O2 evolution by water oxidation. The doping of equal valence cations such as Sn4+ and Ge4+ hardly changed the activity of non-doped TiO2. This study demonstrates that Ti3+ species, which is a crystalline defect, enhanced the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor oxides, for example rutile TiO2 with large crystalline size.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of dimethoate using LbL fabricated TiO2/polymer hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D Neela; Modak, Jayant M; Trebše, Polonca; Zabar, Romina; Raichur, Ashok M

    2011-11-15

    Degradation of dimethoate under UV irradiation using TiO(2)/polymer films prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method was investigated. The thin films were fabricated on glass slides and the surface morphology and roughness of the thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of lamp intensity, catalyst loading in the layers, number of bilayers, pH and initial dimethoate concentration on the degradation of dimethoate was systematically studied. The degradation was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements as a function of irradiation time, to see the change in concentration of dimethoate and mineralization, respectively. Complete degradation of dimethoate was achieved under TiO(2) optimum loading of 4 g/L at an UV irradiation time of 180 min. Increase in the lamp intensity, catalyst loading and number of bilayers increased the rate of degradation. At a pH of 4.62, complete degradation of dimethoate was observed. The degradation efficiency decreased with increase in initial dimethoate concentration. The degradation byproducts were analyzed and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). Toxicity of the irradiated samples was measured using the luminescence of bacteria Vibrio fischeri after 30 min of incubation and the results showed more toxicity than the parent compound. Catalyst reusability studies revealed that the fabricated thin films could be repeatedly used for up to ten times without affecting the photocatalytic activity of the films. The findings of the present study are very useful for the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with pesticides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAT) multilayer films with optical and electrical properties enhanced by using Cr-added Ag film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2017-09-01

    The dielectric-metal-dielectric tri-layer films have attracted much attention by virtue of their low-cost and high quality device performance as a transparent conductive electrode. Here, we report the deposition of Cr doped Ag films sandwiched between thin TiO2 layers and investigation on the surface microstructure, optical and electrical properties depending on the thickness of the Ag(Cr). The activation energy (1.18 eV) for grain growth of Ag was calculated from the Arrhenius plot using the law Dn -D0n = kt , which was comparable to the bulk diffusion of Ag. This result indicated the grain growth of Ag was effectively retarded by the Cr addition, which was presumed to related with blocking the surface and grain boundary diffusion due to Cr segregation. Based on thermal stability of Cr added Ag film, we deposited TiO2/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 (TAT) multilayer thin films and with a 10 nm thick Ag(Cr), the TAT films showed high optical transmittance in the visible region (94.2%), low electrical resistivity (8.66 × 10-5 Ω cm), and hence the high figure of merit 57.15 × 10-3 Ω-1 was achieved. The high transmittance of the TAT film was believed to be attributed to the low optical loss due to a reduction in the Ag layer thickness, the surface plasmon effect, and the electron scattering reduced by the Ag layer with a low electrical resistivity.

  11. Time effects on the stability of the induced defects in TiO2 nanoparticles doped by different nitrogen sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadavecchia, F.; Ardizzone, S.; Cappelletti, G.; Oliva, C.; Cappelli, S.

    2012-12-01

    N-doped TiO2 samples are claimed to be the most promising among the so-called second-generation photocatalysts, but their success in photocatalysis is still under debate. In this study, N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals are obtained by a simple, quick, and effortless procedure, starting from titanium alkoxide as the precursor for the sol-gel route, with the N source being either inorganic (NH3) or organic (triethylamine, urea). Structural, morphological, and optical characterizations are compared with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data to give an integrated picture of such materials. No literature data on the "aging" features in the dry state of the fresh calcined samples on the EPR and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) measurements are reported. Our N-doped TiO2 powders show different stabilities of paramagnetic and optical signals. The photocatalytic activity is tested, toward the degradation of ethanol in aqueous media, under both visible and UV irradiation, in this latter case resembling the same trend of the paramagnetic species decay.

  12. Magnetic and optical properties of Al-doped anatase TiO2 (101) surface from density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dandan; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yanyu; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Al-doping on the magnetic and optical properties of anatase TiO 2 (101) surface have been investigated with LDA+U calculations. The incorporation of Al atom induces a total magnetic moment of 1.00 μ B , which mainly originates from the hole in 2p orbital of the oxygen atom. The room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) of doping on the surface is more stabilized than that of doping in bulk by the hole-mediated double exchange between the nearest neighbor O atoms. Besides, it is shown that the excess electron associated with the oxygen vacancy can be captured by the nearest Ti ion, which reduces the Ti 4+ –Ti 3+ with a spin magnetic moment of 1.00 μ B . The existence of oxygen vacancy changes the magnetic mechanism from hole-mediated to electron-mediated. Additionally, the impurity states introduced by Al doping are conducive to enhancing the visible light absorption. - Highlights: • Magnetic and optical properties of Al-doped TiO 2 (101) surface were investigated. • The ferromagnetism is driven by the hole-mediated double exchange between O atoms. • The room-temperature ferromagnetism of doped surface is more stabilized than bulk. • The existence of oxygen vacancy will change the magnetic mechanism. • The incorporation of Al can lead to the red shift of absorption edge.

  13. Production of TiO2 films with bactericidal properties deposited on paper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, A.J.T.; Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, A.C.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Rangel, J.H.G.; Oliveira, M.M.O.; Longo, E.; Varela, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to obtain anatase-phase titanium oxide films deposited on paper substrates, using the polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. The oxide was mixed with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and deposited on a paper substrate. The samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), to check their surface phase. Bactericidal assays using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria for the anatase TiO2 film deposited on paper substrate indicated that the method was efficient, since the bacteria were eliminated after a given exposure time. However, the method proved to be more efficient when exposing samples contaminated with E. coli to UV irradiation for 30 and 45 min and then to sunlight for 90 min, since this resulted in the elimination of all the bacteria. (author)

  14. Production of TiO2 films with bactericidal properties deposited on paper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa, A.J.T.; Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, A.C.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Rangel, J.H.G.; Oliveira, M.M.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranha (UFMA), MA (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to obtain anatase-phase titanium oxide films deposited on paper substrates, using the polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. The oxide was mixed with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and deposited on a paper substrate. The samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), to check their surface phase. Bactericidal assays using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria for the anatase TiO2 film deposited on paper substrate indicated that the method was efficient, since the bacteria were eliminated after a given exposure time. However, the method proved to be more efficient when exposing samples contaminated with E. coli to UV irradiation for 30 and 45 min and then to sunlight for 90 min, since this resulted in the elimination of all the bacteria. (author)

  15. Stereospecific growth of densely populated rutile mesoporous TiO2 nanoplate films: a facile low temperature chemical synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Go-Woon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Cho, Young-Jin; Mane, Rajaram S.; Shashikala, V.; Yadav, Jyotiprakash; Gaikwad, Rajendra S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Han, Sung-Hwan; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2010-03-01

    We report for the first time, using a simple and environmentally benign chemical method, the low temperature synthesis of densely populated upright-standing rutile TiO2 nanoplate films onto a glass substrate from a mixture of titanium trichloride, hydrogen peroxide and thiourea in triply distilled water. The rutile TiO2 nanoplate films (the phase is confirmed from x-ray diffraction analysis, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and Raman shift) are 20-35 nm wide and 100-120 nm long. The chemical reaction kinetics for the growth of these upright-standing TiO2 nanoplate films is also interpreted. Films of TiO2 nanoplates are optically transparent in the visible region with a sharp absorption edge close to 350 nm, confirming an indirect band gap energy of 3.12 eV. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area, Barret-Joyner-Halenda pore volume and pore diameter, obtained from N2 physisorption studies, are 82 m2 g - 1, 0.0964 cm3 g - 1 and 3.5 nm, respectively, confirming the mesoporosity of scratched rutile TiO2 nanoplate powder that would be ideal for the direct fabrication of nanoscaled devices including upcoming dye-sensitized solar cells and gas sensors.

  16. The effect of bulk/surface defects ratio change on the photocatalysis of TiO2 nanosheet film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fangfang; Ge, Wenna; Shen, Tong; Ye, Bangjiao; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The defect behaviors of TiO 2 nanosheet array films were studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. • Different bulk/surface defect ratios were realized by annealing at different temperature. • It was concluded that bulk defects are mainly Ti 3+ vacancy defects. • The separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes could be significantly improved by optimizing the bulk/surface defects ratio. - Abstract: The photocatalysis behavior of TiO 2 nanosheet array films was studied, in which the ratio of bulk/surface defects were adjusted by annealing at different temperature. Combining positron annihilation spectroscopy, EPR and XPS, we concluded that the bulk defects belonged to Ti 3+ related vacancy defects. The results show that the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes could be significantly improved by optimizing the bulk/surface defects ratio of TiO 2 nanosheet films, and in turn enhancing the photocatalysis behaviors.

  17. Fabrication Of TiO2 , V2O5 Thin Film (Super Hydrophobic Surface By Powder Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Hamzah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, deposition of titanium oxide (TiO2 and vanadium oxide (V2O5 thin film in different mixing percentage (0, 25 ,50, 75 and100% on the substrate of glass .The coating thickness was ( 50 nm . In this research contact angle was measured and the effect of weather conditions. Results showed that the value of the contact angle of the prepared films reached its highest value at 50% (TiO2+V2O5 was 160º. The results showed that the optical transmittance of TiO2 and V2O5 thin film decrease with increasing the deposition angle and decrease with increasing V2O5 proportion.

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles: photocatalytic activity of powders and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, G. S.; Borlaf, M.; López-Muñoz, M. J.; Fariñas, J. C.; Rodrigues Neto, J. B.; Moreno, R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective synthesis methodology for the preparation of high-performance TiO2 nanoparticles and thin films by combining colloidal sol-gel and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis was developed. The obtained results indicate that the heating with microwaves at 180 °C for 20 min was enough to synthesize crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles, presenting anatase as a major phase with a crystal size of 7 nm and a specific surface area of 220 m2 g-1. A secondary thermal treatment improved the crystallinity and induced the anatase-to-rutile transformation. The highest photocatalytic activity was found for the as-synthesized powder without any additional thermal treatment. Thin films were also prepared by dip-coating and its high photocatalytic activity showed a kinetic curve comparable to that of a thin film of commercial TiO2 powder prepared under similar conditions.

  19. Preparation of cross sections of TiO2 thin films for TEM by ultramicrotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.; Bostrom, T.; Tesfamichael, T.; Bell, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Considerable research is being carried out on dye-sensitised solar cells, the most extensively studied of which are based on a nanostructured titania semiconducting film deposited on a conducting glass substrate. The preparation of cross-sections of these films is essential for investigating of the shape, size and distribution of the TiO 2 particles by TEM. In the present work, we have used a relatively simple and rapid procedure involving ultramicrotomy to prepare cross-sections of the films for initial TEM examination. Titania thin films were produced by screen-printing a nanoparticle titania paste onto SnO 2 -coated glass substrates, followed by heating in air at 500 deg C for 1 hour. The nanoporous films are optically transparent, have a high surface area, and are 7 to 8 μm thick. The thickness could be checked with a confocal laser scanning microscope using x-z scans in reflection mode. The method for preparing cross-sections was adapted from one used with tissue culture cells on substrates, and which has also been employed with clay minerals. A BEEM capsule half filled with embedding resin was inverted over the glass substrate and TiO 2 film, so that the resin was in contact with the film. After polymerisation at 60 deg C overnight, the block was pried away from the glass using a single edged razor blade, leaving the titania film in the resin. The final height of block was about 4-5 mm, and could be directly fitted into an ultramicrotome chuck for sectioning without requiring re-embedding. Ultrathin 60-80 nm sections were cut with a diamond knife, collected on 200 mesh copper grids, then coated with carbon to stabilise the unsupported resin. The sections were examined at 200kV in a Philips CM200 TEM. It was found that the film had detached fully from the glass. The TiO 2 grains were observed as mixtures of tetrahedral and rhombohedral geometries with a size distribution in the range 10-25 nm. Anatase and brookite phases present could be identified

  20. Enhanced Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activities of Co-Doped TiO2 Immobilized on Silica for Paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Negishi, Nobuaki; Hue, Nguyen Thi

    2018-01-01

    We studied the adsorption and photocatalysis of paraquat in an aqueous solution with cobalt-doped TiO2 supported on mesoporous silica gel. With Co concentration increasing from 0% to 9%, it was found that the TiO2 anatase phase remained unchanged and the Co was uniformly distributed, while the band gap energy decreased from 3.32 eV to 2.64 eV. The drop in band gap energy leads to the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst oxidation of paraquat to NH4 + and NO3 - products under visible light. Relative to TiO2, the incorporation of Co into TiO2 led to an increase in the adsorption ability against the paraquat. A possible mechanism of the paraquat degradation may be that the paraquat was selectively adsorbed onto the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst before light irradiation and after that the paraquat was continuously photodecomposed.

  1. A new coral structure TiO2/Ti film electrode applied to photoelectrocatalytic degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Xiaoshe; Zhang Yijie; Ma Naiheng; Li Xianfeng; Wang Haowei

    2009-01-01

    A novel structure TiO 2 /Ti film was prepared on a titanium matrix using anodic oxidation technique and applied to degrade Reactive Brilliant Red (RBR) dye in simulative textile effluents. The film was characterized by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Laser Micro-Raman Spectrometer (LMRS), UV-vis spectrophotometer (UVS) and Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) experiment. The results show that the surface morphology of the film is coral structure, and the crystal structure of the film is anatase. The absorbency of the coral structure TiO 2 /Ti film is 87-93% in the UV light region, and 77-87% in the visible light region. PEC experiment indicates that the photocurrent density of the coral structure TiO 2 /Ti film electrode achieves 160 μA/cm 2 . The color and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies of RBR achieve 73% and 60% in 1 h, respectively. These are 16% and 58% higher than those of nanotube TiO 2 /Ti film electrode. These were attributed to that these electrodes with different surface morphologies exhibit distinct surface areas and light absorption rate.

  2. Horseradish peroxidase immobilized in TiO2 nanoparticle films on pyrolytic graphite electrodes: direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; He Pingli; Hu Naifei

    2004-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-TiO 2 film electrodes were fabricated by casting the mixture of HRP solution and aqueous titania nanoparticle dispersion onto pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes and letting the solvent evaporate. The HRP incorporated in TiO 2 films exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.35 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in pH 7.0 buffers, characteristic of HRP-Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. The electron exchange between the enzyme and PG electrodes was greatly enhanced in the TiO 2 nanoparticle film microenvironment. The electrochemical parameters such as apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and formal potential (E deg. ') were estimated by fitting the data of square wave voltammetry with nonlinear regression analysis. The HRP-TiO 2 film electrodes were quite stable and amenable to long-time voltammetric experiments. The UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that the position and shape of Soret absorption band of HRP in TiO 2 films kept nearly unchanged and were different from those of hemin or hemin-TiO 2 films, suggesting that HRP retains its native-like tertiary structure in TiO 2 films. The electrocatalytic activity of HRP embedded in TiO 2 films toward O 2 and H 2 O 2 was studied. Possible mechanism of catalytic reduction of H 2 O 2 with HRP-TiO 2 films was discussed. The HRP-TiO 2 films may have a potential perspective in fabricating the third-generation biosensors based on direct electrochemistry of enzymes

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Mn/N Co-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber and Its Visible Light Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source and urea as nitrogen source, Mn/N co-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/Ti-N-WACF was prepared by sol–gel method. Mn/Ti-N-WACF with different Mn doping contents was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Results showed that the loading rate of TiO2 in Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved by Mn/N co-doping. After calcination at 450 °C, the degree of crystallinity of TiO2 was reduced due to Mn/N co-doption in the resulting Mn/Ti-N-WACF samples, but the TiO2 crystal phase was not changed. XPS spectra revealed that some Ti4+ ions from the TiO2 lattice of Mn/Ti-N-WACF system were substituted by doped Mn. Moreover, new bonds formed within N–Ti–N and Ti–N–O because of the doped N that substituted some oxygen atoms in the TiO2 lattice. Notably, the degradation rate of methylene blue for Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved because of the co-doped Mn/N under visible-light irradiation.

  4. A theoretical investigation of the interaction of Immucillin-A with N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles: Applications to nanobiosensors and nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirali Abbasi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Adsorption of IMMUCILLIN-A (BCX4430 molecule on the pristine and N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles were studied using the density functional theory (DFT calculations. The adsorption energy analysis indicated that TiO2+IMMUCILLIN-A complexes including OC-substituted TiO2 have higher adsorption energy than the complexes with OT substituted TiO2, thus providing more stable configurations. Methods: The structural properties including bond lengths, adsorption energies and bond angles were analysed. The electronic structure of the adsorption system were investigated in view of the density of states, molecular orbitals and Mulliken charge analysis.Results: The results show that, the interaction of IMMUCILLIN-A drug with N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is more energetically favorable than the interaction with the pristine ones, suggesting that the N-doped nanoparticles can react with IMMUCILLIN-A drug more efficiently. The Mulliken charge analysis also suggests a charge transfer from IMMUCILLIN-A molecule to the TiO2 nanoparticle.Conclusions: Based on obtained results, it can be concluded that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle could be utilized as an efficient candidate for application as highly sensitive nanobiosensors and efficient nanocarriers for IMMUCILLIN-A drugs.

  5. Impact of time-dependent annealing on TiO2 films for CMOS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyanan, Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-05-01

    Post-deposition annealing (PDA) is the inherent part of sol-gel fabrication process to achieve the optimum device performance, especially in CMOS applications. The annealing removes the oxygen vacancies and improves the structural order of dielectric films. The process also reduces the interface related defects and improves the interfacial properties. In this work, we have integrated the sol-gel spin-coating deposited high-κ TiO2 films in MOS. The films are fired at 400°C for the duration of 20, 40, 60 and 80 min. The thicknesses of the films were found to be of ˜ 30 nm using ellipsometry. The (Al/TiO2/p-Si) devices were examined with current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) at room temperature to understand the influence of firing time. The C-V and I-V characteristic showed a significant dependence on annealing time such as variation in dielectric constant and leakage current. The accumulation capacitance (Cox), dielectric constant (κ) and the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the film fired for 60 min were found to be 458 pF, 33, and 4.25nm, respectively with a low leakage current density (1.09 × 10-6 A/cm2) fired for 80 min at +1 V.

  6. TiO2 nanoparticle thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Capone, S.; Ciccarella, G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Romano, F.; Spadavecchia, J.; Taurino, A.; Tunno, T.; Valerini, D.

    2007-01-01

    The MAPLE technique has been used for the deposition of nanostructured titania (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles thin films to be used for gas sensors applications. An aqueous solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles, synthesised by a novel chemical route, was frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed ArF excimer laser in a vacuum chamber. A uniform distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm was deposited on Si and interdigitated Al 2 O 3 substrates as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy-field emission gun inspection (SEM-FEG). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed the presence of only the titanium and oxygen signals and FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) revealed the TiO 2 characteristic composition and bond. A comparison with a spin coated thin film obtained from the same solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles is reported. The sensing properties of the films deposited on interdigitated substrates were investigated, too

  7. Structural and Visible-Near Infrared Optical Properties of Cr-Doped TiO2 for Colored Cool Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Qingyong; Deng, Longjiang

    2017-11-01

    Chromium-doped TiO2 pigments were synthesized via a solid-state reaction method and studied with X-ray diffraction, SEM, XPS, and UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy. The incorporation of Cr3+ accelerates the transition from the anatase phase to the rutile phase and compresses the crystal lattice. Moreover, the particle morphology, energy gap, and reflectance spectrum of Cr-doped TiO2 pigments is affected by the crystal structure and doping concentration. For the rutile samples, some of the Cr3+ ions are oxidized to Cr4+ after sintering at a high temperature, which leads to a strong near-infrared absorption band due to the 3A2 → 3 T1 electric dipole-allowed transitions of Cr4+. And the decrease of the band gap causes an obvious redshift of the optical absorption edges as the doping concentration increases. Thus, the VIS and near-infrared average reflectance of the rutile Ti1 - x Cr x O2 sample decrease by 60.2 and 58%, respectively, when the Cr content increases to x = 0.0375. Meanwhile, the color changes to black brown. However, for the anatase Ti1 - x Cr x O2 pigments, only the VIS reflection spectrum is inhibited by forming some characteristic visible light absorption peaks of Cr3+. The morphology, band gap, and NIR reflectance are not significantly affected. Finally, a Cr-doped anatase TiO2 pigment with a brownish-yellow color and 90% near-infrared reflectance can be obtained.

  8. Formation of TiO2 domains in Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) thin film by hydrolysis-condensation of a metal alkoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier, V.; Bounor-Legare, V.; Alcouffe, P.; Boiteux, G.; Davenas, J.

    2007-01-01

    New organic-inorganic hybrid thin films based on Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) (P9VK) and Dioxide titanium (TiO 2 ) bulk-heterojunction were obtained by a hydrolysis-condensation (H-C) process of titanium (IV) isopropoxide in thin film. The TiO 2 distribution in the film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that homogeneous TiO 2 particles around 100 nm were formed on the surface of the polymer thin film. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the charge transfer efficiency in the photoactive layer and results were compared with a simplest elaboration route, the dispersion of TiO 2 anatase in a P9VK solution before spin coating. Results showed that TiO 2 elaborated by H-C exhibits a competitive quenching effect with TiO 2 anatase

  9. Phase structure and luminescence properties of Eu3+-doped TiO2 nanocrystals synthesized by Ar/O2 radio frequency thermal plasma oxidation of liquid precursor mists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Guang; Wang, Xiaohui; Watanabe, Kenji; Ishigaki, Takamasa

    2006-01-26

    Eu3+-doped TiO2 luminescent nanocrystals have been synthesized in this work via Ar/O2 thermal plasma oxidizing mists of liquid precursors containing titanium tetra-n-butoxide and europium(III) nitrate, with varied O2 input in the plasma sheath (10-90 L/min) and Eu3+ addition in the precursor solution (Eu/(Ti + Eu) = 0-5 atom%). The resultant nanopowders are mixtures of the anatase (30-36 nm) and rutile (64-83 nm) polymorphs in the studied range, but the rutile fraction increases steadily at a higher Eu3+ addition, as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, because of the creation of oxygen vacancies in the TiO2 gas clusters by substitutional Eu3+ doping. The amount of Eu3+ that can be doped into a TiO2 lattice was limited up to 0.5 atom%, above which Eu2Ti2O7 pyrochlore was formed in the final products. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation indicates that the particles are dense and have sizes ranging from several nanometers up to 180 nm. Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from the TiO2 host to Eu3+ ions, which was seldom reported in the wet-chemically derived nanoparticles or thin films of the current system, was confirmed by combined studies of excitation, UV-vis (ultraviolet-visible), and PL (photoluminescence) spectroscopy. As a consequence of this, bright red emissions were observed from the plasma-generated nanopowders either by exciting the TiO2 host with UV light shorter than 405 nm or by directly exciting Eu3+ at a wavelength beyond the absorption edge (405 nm) of TiO2.

  10. Screened coulomb hybrid DFT study on electronic structure and optical properties of anionic and cationic Te-doped anatase TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-06-27

    The origin of the enhanced visible-light optical absorption in Te-doped bulk anatase TiO2 is investigated in the framework of DFT and DFPT within HSE06 in order to ensure accurate electronic structure and optical transition predictions. Various oxidation states of Te species are considered based on their structural location in bulk TiO2. In fact, TiO (2-x)Tex (with isolated Te2- species at Te-Te distance of 8.28 Å), TiO2Tex (with isolated TeO 2- species at Te-Te distance of 8.28 Å), TiO2Te 2x (with two concomitant TeO2- species at Te-Te distance of 4.11 Å), and Ti(1-2x)O2Te2x (with two neighboring Te4+ species at nearest-neighbor Te-Te distance of 3.05 Å) show improved optical absorption responses in the visible range similarly as it is experimentally observed in Te-doped TiO2 powders. The optical absorption edges of TiO(2-x)Tex, TiO 2Tex, and TiO2Te2x are found to be red-shifted by 400 nm compared with undoped TiO2 whereas that of Ti(1-2x)O2Te2x is red-shifted by 150 nm. On the basis of calculated valence and conduction band edge positions of Te-doped TiO2, only TiO(2-x)Tex and Ti (1-2x)O2Te2x show suitable potentials for overall water splitting under visible-light irradiation. The electronic structure analysis revealed narrower band gaps of 1.12 and 1.17 eV with respect to undoped TiO2, respectively, resulting from the appearance of new occupied electronic states in the gap of TiO2. A delocalized nature of the gap states is found to be much more pronounced in TiO (2-x)Tex than that with Ti(1-2x)O 2Te2x due to the important contribution of numerous O 2p orbitals together with Te 5p orbitals. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. A hierarchically porous anatase TiO2 coated-WO3 2D IO bilayer film and its photochromic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wu, Huazhong; Xiao, Jiajia; Su, Yanli; Robichaud, Jacques; Brüning, Ralf; Djaoued, Yahia

    2016-01-18

    A hierarchically porous anatase TiO2 coated-WO3 2D inverse opal (IO) bilayer film was fabricated on ITO glass using a layer by layer route with a hierarchically porous TiO2 top layer and an ordered super-macroporous WO3 2D IO bottom layer. This novel TiO2 coated-WO3 2D IO bilayer film was evaluated for photochromic applications.

  12. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterization of different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes for the immobilization of Cytochrome c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiaounis, Stavros; Tiflidis, Christina; Tsekoura, Christina; Topoglidis, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    In this work three different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes were prepared and used for the immobilization of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c). Films prepared via a standard sol-gel route (SG-films) were compared with commercially available benchmark nanotitania materials, namely P25 Degussa (P25-films) and Dyesol nanopaste (Dyesol films). Their properties, film deposition characteristics and their abilities to adsorb protein molecules in a stable and functional way were examined. We investigated whether it is possible, rather than preparing TiO2 films using multistep, lengthy and not always reproducible sol-gel procedures, to use commercially available nanotitania materials and produce reproducible films faster that exhibit all the properties that make TiO2 films ideal for protein immobilization. Although these materials are formulated primarily for dye-sensitized solar cell applications, in this study we found out that protein immobilization is facile and remarkably stable on all of them. We also investigated their electrochemical properties by using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry and found out that not only direct reduction of Fe(III)-heme to Fe(II)-heme of immobilized Cyt-c was possible on all films but that the adsorbed protein remained electroactive.

  13. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterization of different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes for the immobilization of Cytochrome c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiaounis, Stavros; Tiflidis, Christina; Tsekoura, Christina; Topoglidis, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    In this work three different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes were prepared and used for the immobilization of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c). Films prepared via a standard sol-gel route (SG-films) were compared with commercially available benchmark nanotitania materials, namely P25 Degussa (P25-films) and Dyesol nanopaste (Dyesol films). Their properties, film deposition characteristics and their abilities to adsorb protein molecules in a stable and functional way were examined. We investigated whether it is possible, rather than preparing TiO2 films using multistep, lengthy and not always reproducible sol-gel procedures, to use commercially available nanotitania materials and produce reproducible films faster that exhibit all the properties that make TiO2 films ideal for protein immobilization. Although these materials are formulated primarily for dye-sensitized solar cell applications, in this study we found out that protein immobilization is facile and remarkably stable on all of them. We also investigated their electrochemical properties by using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry and found out that not only direct reduction of Fe(III)-heme to Fe(II)-heme of immobilized Cyt-c was possible on all films but that the adsorbed protein remained electroactive.

  14. TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid heterojunction with photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhu, Hailing; Zheng, Shukai; Pan, Feng; Wang, Tianmin

    2009-10-01

    Coupling a narrow-band-gap semiconductor with TiO(2) is an effective method to produce photocatalysts that work under UV-vis light irradiation. Usually photocatalytic coupled-semiconductors exist mainly as powders, and photocatalytic activity is only favored when a small loading amount of narrow-band-gap semiconductor is used. Here we propose a heavy-loading photocatalyst configuration in which 51% of the surface of the TiO(2) film is covered by a Cu(2)O microgrid. The coupled system shows higher photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation than TiO(2) and Cu(2)O films. This improved performance is due to the efficient charge transfer between the two phases and the similar opportunity each has to be exposed to irradiation and adsorbates.

  15. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region compared to the pure TNT. The Fe-TNTs were provided with good photocatalytic activities and photostability and under visible light irradiation, and the optimum molar ratio of Ti : Fe was found to be 100 : 1 in our experiments.

  16. Effect of the microstructural characteristics of a Ga-doped TiO2 hole block layer on an inverted structure organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Sang Ouk

    2016-09-01

    Inverted-structure organic solar cells (OSCs) were fabricated using atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) processed Ga-doped TiO2 as hole blocking layer (HBL). Measured photovoltaic efficiencies were greatly related to the crystallinity of the TiO2 films. However, the efficiencies of the OSCs and the crystallinity of the HBL did not show a linear relationship. The HBL was fully crystallized at a deposition temperature of 200 °C or above, and the power conversion efficiency was measured to be 2.7% with for the HBL processed at 200 °C, but the efficiency decreased to 2.4% for the HBL processed at 250 °C. On the other hand, the surface roughness of the crystallized films was found be increased to two fold in the studied temperature range. Once the HBL had been fully crystallized, the major factor that determined the overall performance of OSCs was the surface roughness of the HBL.

  17. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/TiO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprakob, Natkritta; Wetchakun, Natda; Phanichphant, Sukon; Waxler, David; Sherrell, Peter; Nattestad, Andrew; Chen, Jun; Inceesungvorn, Burapat

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) using graphitic carbon nitride/titanium dioxide (g-C3N4/TiO2) catalyst films has been demonstrated in this present work. The g-C3N4/TiO2 composites were prepared by directly heating the mixture of melamine and pre-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles in Ar gas flow. The g-C3N4 contents in the g-C3N4/TiO2 composites were varied as 0, 20, 50 and 70 wt%. It was found that the visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation of MB was remarkably increased upon coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4 and the best degradation performance of ~70% was obtained from 50 wt% g-C3N4 loading content. Results from UV-vis absorption study, Electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the improved photoactivity is due to a decrease in band gap energy, an increased light absorption in visible light region and possibly an enhanced electron-hole separation efficiency as a result of effective interfacial electron transfer between TiO2 and g-C3N4 of the g-C3N4/TiO2 composite film. Based on the obtained results, the possible MB degradation mechanism is ascribed mainly to the generation of active species induced by the photogenerated electrons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual roles of a flouride-doped SnO2/TiO2 bilayer based on inverse opal/nanoparticle structure for water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gun; Balamurugan, Maheswari; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kang, Soon Hyung; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2018-01-01

    Fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated on a template of polystyrene (PS) beads (diameter = 400 nm (±20 nm)) by using a spin-coating method. The concentration of the FTO precursor, in particular, the 1.0 M FTO concentration solution significantly influenced the morphology of the IO film. The FTO nanoparticles upon the FTO IO film were sparsely formed relative to these formed from the 0.5 M FTO solution. To compensate for the large band gap ( E g = 3.8 eV) of FTO in the photoelectrochemical (PEC) reaction, we deposited a photoactive TiO2 shell on the FTO IO film by using the sol-gel method. The morphological change and the crystalline properties of the FTO IO and TiO2-coated FTO IO (hereafter referred to as FTO IO/TiO2) films, were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The PEC behaviors of the samples were tested in a 0.1 M KOH solution under one sun illumination (100 mW/cm2 with an AM 1.5 filter). The highest PEC performance was obtained with the 1.0 M FTO IO/TiO2 film, which produced a photocurrent density (Jsc) of 3.28 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V (vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), as briefly expressed to 1.23 VNHE) compared to 2.42 mA/cm2 at 1.23 VNHE with the 0.5 M FTO IO/TiO2 film. The approximately 30% enhanced performance of the 1.0 M FTO IO/TiO2 film was mainly attributed to the peculiar structure comprised of the FTO nanoparticle layer and IO films to form a bilayer structure, providing a much larger surface area, as well as complete coverage of the photoactive TiO2 nanoparticles through the FTO IO skeleton in the proper band alignment to boost the charge separation/transfer phenomenon, finally resulting in the enhanced PEC activity.

  19. In situ modification of cell-culture scaffolds by photocatalysis of visible-light-responsive TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Sho; Furusawa, Kohei; Kurotobi, Atsushi; Hattori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel process to modify the cell affinity of scaffolds in a cell-culture environment using the photocatalytic activity of visible-light (VL)-responsive TiO2. The proposed process is the improved version of our previous demonstration in which ultraviolet (UV)-responsive TiO2 was utilized. In that demonstration, we showed that cell-repellent molecules on TiO2 were decomposed and replaced with cell-permissive molecules upon UV exposure in the medium where cells are being cultured. However, UV irradiation involves taking the risk of inducing damage to the cells. In this work, a TiO2 film was sputter-deposited on a quartz coverslip at 640 °C without O2 gas injection to create a rutile structure containing oxygen defects, which is known to exhibit photocatalytic activity upon VL exposure. We show that the cell adhesion site and migration area can be controlled with the photocatalytic activity of the VL-responsive TiO2 film, while the cellular oxidative stress is reduced markedly by the substitution of VL for UV.

  20. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Phase Change Memory Cell with Thin TiO2 Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Liu; Zhi-Tang, Song; Yun, Ling; Song-Lin, Feng

    2010-01-01

    A thin TiO 2 layer inserted in a phase change memory (PCM) cell to form a deep sub-micro bottom electrode (DBE) is proposed and its electro-thermal characteristics are investigated with the three-dimensional finite element analysis. Compared with the conventional PCM cell with a SiN stop layer, the reset threshold current of the PCM cell with the TiO 2 layer is reduced from 1.8 mA to 1.2 mA and the ratio of the amorphous resistance and crystalline resistive increases from 65 to 100. The optimum thickness of the TiO 2 layer and the optimum height of DBE are 10 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Therefore, the PCM cell with the TiO 2 layer can decrease the programming power consumption and increase heating efficiency. The TiO 2 film is a better candidate for the SiN film in the PCM cell structure to prepare DBE and to reduce programming power in the reset operation. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domtau, D. L.; Simiyu, J.; Ayieta, E. O.; Nyakiti, L. O.; Muthoka, B.; Mwabora, J. M.

    Effects of film thickness and electrolyte concentration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were studied. Nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with varying thicknesses (3.2-18.9μm) have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by screen printing method as work electrodes for DSSC. The prepared samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy/Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (AFM/STM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optimal thickness of the TiO2 photoanode is 13.5μm. Short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) increases with film thickness due to enlargement of surface area whereas open-circuit voltage decreases with increase in thickness due to increase in electron diffusion length to the electrode. However, the Jsc and Voc of DSSC with a film thickness of 18.9μm (7.5mA/cm2 and 0.687V) are smaller than those of DSSC with a TiO2 film thickness of 13.5μm (9.9mA/cm2 and 0.734V). This is because the increased thickness of TiO2 thin film resulted in the decrease in the transmittance of TiO2 thin films hence reducing the incident light intensity on the N719 dye. Photovoltaic performance also depends greatly on the redox couple concentration in iodide∖triiodide. Jsc decreases as the redox concentration increases as a result of increased viscosity of the solution which lowers ion mobility. Similarly, Voc decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases due to enhanced back electron transfer reaction. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 4.3% was obtained in a DSSC with the TiO2 film thickness of 13.5μm and redox concentration of 0.03mol dm-3 under AM 1.5G illumination at 100mW/cm2.

  2. Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structure and photoelectrochemical properties of porphyrin and fullerene composites on nanostructured TiO 2 electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, Aiko; Tanaka, Masanobu; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Matano, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Naoki; Zhang, Yi; Ye, Shen; Lehtivuori, Heli; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonding effects on film structures and photophysical, photoelectrochemical, and photovoltaic properties have been examined in mixed films of porphyrin and fullerene composites with and without hydrogen bonding on nanostructured TiO2 electrodes. The nanostructured TiO2 electrodes modified

  3. Obtenção de filmes finos de TiO2 nanoestruturado pelo método dos precursores poliméricos Nanostructured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grando Stroppa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and RMN were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m²/g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm.

  4. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of sol–gel TiO2 films of controlled thickness and porosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Baudyš, M.; Zlámal, M.; Krýsová, Hana; Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 2-7 ISSN 0920-5861 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : TiO2 film * Sol-gel * Thickness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  5. Single step synthesis of rutile TiO2 nanoflower array film by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandayuthapani, T.; Sivakumar, R.; Ilangovan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanostructures such as nanorod arrays, nanotube arrays and nanoflower arrays have been extensively investigated by the researchers. Among them nanoflower arrays has shown superior performance than other nanostructures in Dye sensitized solar cell, photocatalysis and energy storage applications. Herein, a single step synthesis for rutile TiO2 nanoflower array films suitable for device applications has been reported. Rutile TiO2 nanoflower thin film was synthesized by chemical bath deposition method using NaCl as an additive. Bath temperature induced evolution of nanoflower thin film arrays was observed from the morphological study. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the presence of rutile phase polycrystalline TiO2. Micro-Raman study revealed the presence of surface phonon mode at 105 cm-1 due to the phonon confinement effect (finite size effect), in addition with the rutile Raman active modes of B1g (143 cm-1), Eg (442 cm-1) and A1g (607 cm-1). Further, the FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of Ti-O-Ti bonding vibration. The Tauc plot showed the direct energy band gap nature of the film with the value of 2.9 eV.

  6. SiO $ _2 $/TiO $ _2 $ multi-layered thin films with self-cleaning and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self-cleaning, high transmittance glazing was obtained by cold spray deposition for glazings. The thin films contain TiO 2 , SiO 2 and Au nanoparticles in different structures which allow for tailoring the optical, hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties. The crystallinity, morphology and surface energy were correlated with the ...

  7. Spin Speed and Duration Dependence of TiO2 Thin Films pH Sensing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AlHadi Zulkefle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were applied as the sensing membrane of an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET pH sensor. TiO2 thin films were deposited by spin coating method and the influences of the spin speed and spin duration on the pH sensing behavior of TiO2 thin films were investigated. The spin coated TiO2 thin films were connected to commercial metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET to form the extended gates and the MOSFET was integrated in a readout interfacing circuit to complete the EGFET pH sensor system. For the spin speed parameter investigation, the highest sensitivity was obtained for the sample spun at 3000 rpm at a fixed spinning time of 60 s, which was 60.3 mV/pH. The sensitivity was further improved to achieve 68 mV/pH with good linearity of 0.9943 when the spin time was 75 s at the speed of 3000 rpm.

  8. Role of oxygen vacancies in anodic TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Halley, J.W.

    1992-05-01

    Defects play an important role in the electronic and optical properties of amorphous solids in general. Here we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the nature and origin of defect states in anodic rutile TiO 2 thin films (of thickness 5nm to 20nm). There is experimental evidence that the observed gap state at 0.7eV below the edge of conduction-band is due to an oxygen vacancy. For this reason, oxygen vacancies are used in our model. A comparison of the calculated bulk-photoconductivity to photospectroscopy experiment reveals that the films have bulk-like transport properties. On the other hand a fit of the surface density of states to the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on the (001) surfaces has suggested a surface defect density of 5% of oxygen vacancies. To resolve this discrepancy, we calculated the dc-conductivity where localization effects are included. Our results show an impurity band formation at about p c =9% of oxygen vacancies. We concluded that the gap states seen in STM are localized and the oxygen vacancies are playing the role of trapping centers (deep levels) in the studied films. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  9. Pr3+ doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays grown on activated carbon fibers: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Praseodymium-doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays (Pr-TiO2 NRAs) were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal reaction on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) which pre-coated with TiO2 nanoparticles at first step. The bicrystalline arrays grown on ACFs are primarily constructed by the well-aligned TiO2 nanorods growing along [0 0 1] direction, which were indicated by the results of SEM and XRD. The nanorods are uniform in diameter and length with about 250 nm and 2.5 μm. The composite photocatalyst with high specific surface area and well-aligned nanostructure are beneficial to enhance the adsorption capacity and even help to suppress electron-hole recombination effectively, which consequently revealed much better (2 times) catalytic performance than that of commercially available P25 TiO2 on methylene blue(MB) photodegradation. In addition, the existence of praseodymium in TiO2 gives rise to shift of absorption edge towards long wavelength, which was indicated by the results of UV-vis DRS. Photodegradation results reveal that Pr-doping significantly improves the activity of TiO2, which was 20% higher than that of undoped TiO2 NRAs for the photodegradation of MB in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the doped amount of Pr had a tiny influence on the photocatalytic performance of the composites. In our experiment, 3% Pr-doped molar concentration was proven to be the relatively optimal dopant concentration for the doping of TiO2 NRAs. Moreover, the photocatalyst grown on ACFs substrates is favorable to reuse and photodegradation rate kept on 76% even after 4 times of reuse.

  10. Characterization and photocatalytic performance evaluation of various metal ion-doped microstructured TiO2 under UV and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available microcrystalline TiO2 was doped with silver, ferrous and ferric ion (1.0 mol %) using silver nitrate, ferrous sulfate and ferric nitrate solutions following the liquid impregnation technology. The catalysts prepared were characterised by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, DRS, particle size and micropore analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was tested on the degradation of two model dyes, methylene blue (3,7-bis (Dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, a cationic thiazine dye) and methyl blue (disodium;4-[4-[[4-(4-sulfonatoanilino)phenyl]-[4-(4-sulfonatophenyl)azaniumylidenecyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]anilino]benzene sulfonate, an anionic triphenyl methane dye) under irradiation by UV and visible light in a batch reactor. The efficiency of the photocatalysts under UV and visible light was compared to ascertain the light range for effective utilization. The catalysts were found to have the anatase crystalline structure and their particle size is in a range of 140-250 nm. In the case of Fe(2+) doped TiO2 and Fe(3+) doped TiO2, there was a greater shift in the optical absorption towards the visible range. Under UV light, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient catalyst and the corresponding decolorization was more than 99% for both the dyes. Under visible light, Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient photocatalyst with more than 96% and 90% decolorization for methylene blue and methyl blue, respectively. The kinetics of the reaction under both UV and visible light was investigated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Kinetic measurements confirmed that, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the UV range, while Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the visible range.

  11. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron; Leung, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Design guidelines for optimizing the sensing performance of nanoimprinted second order distributed feedback dye lasers are presented. The guidelines are verified by experiments and simulations. The lasers, fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography into Pyrromethene doped Ormocomp thin films on glass...

  13. Effect of Ce doping of TiO2 support on NH3-SCR activity over V2O5-WO3/CeO2-TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianmei; Zhao, Zhen; Wei, Yuechang; Jiang, Guiyuan; Duan, Aijun

    2014-10-01

    CeO2-TiO2 composite supports with different Ce/Ti molar ratios were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method, and V2O5-WO3/CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 were prepared by an incipient-wetness impregnation method. These catalysts were characterized by means of BET, XRD, UV-Vis, Raman and XPS techniques. The results showed that the catalytic activity of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 was greatly enhanced by Ce doping (molar ratio of Ce/Ti=1/10) in the TiO2 support. The catalysts that were predominantly anatase TiO2 showed better catalytic performance than the catalysts that were predominantly fluorite CeO2. The Ce additive could enhance the surface adsorbed oxygen and accelerate the SCR reaction. The effects of O2 concentration, ratio of NH3/NO, space velocity and SO2 on the catalytic activity were also investigated. The presence of oxygen played an important role in NO reduction. The optimal ratio of NH3/NO was 1/1 and the catalyst had good resistance to SO2 poisoning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 using collagen fiber as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Wan, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Shang-Xuan; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Hong, Zheng-Qu; Liu, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 were prepared using collagen fiber as template. Morphology, crystalline structure, surface area, element content, chemical composition and elemental chemical status, microstructure and element distribution of the prepared samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and element mapping, respectively. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by following degradation of methyl orange. The results showed that the fiber structure of collagen template was fully preserved when the calcination temperature was 500-800 °C. However, with the increase of calcination temperature, crystallinity and average particle size were increased, and the photocatalytic performance was decreased. For 2% Tb3+-TiO2 calcined at 500 °C, the degradation rate of methyl orange reached 93.87% after 6 h when a high-pressure mercury lamp (150 W) was used as the light source for photocatalytic degradation. Titanium tanning agent performance was excellent, the yield of TiO2 was high, and the fiber structure was presented when 0.2 mol/L citric acid/sodium citrate buffer solution was used.

  15. Glancing angle synthesized indium nanoparticles covered TiO2 thin film and its structural, optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, B.; Mondal, A.; Ganguly, A.; Saha, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance is one of the most interesting phenomena shown by noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) in nanoscale dimension. Gold, silver NPs used to show enhancement in absorption at their selective plasmon resonance frequency. But indium (In) shows broader resonance, and hence, In NPs can be employed for the purpose of wideband detection. Here, glancing angle deposition is incorporated in an e-beam chamber to obtain controlled growth of 5, 10 and 30 nm In NPs array over TiO2 thin film (TF) on ITO-coated glass plate. The 5-nm In NPs on TiO2 TF process superior performances in terms of enhanced Raman scattering and optical absorption. Optical absorption spectrophotometry shows averagely two times enhancement in absorption for 5-nm In NPs compared to bared TiO2 TF on Si substrate. The plasmonic detector (TiO2 TF/5-nm In NPs/TiO2 TF/Si) produced dark current of 0.36 µA/cm2 at 5 V, which increased to 0.51 µA/cm2 under white light illumination. The maximum 116 times photosensitivity at -2 V was calculated for the plasmonic device. The NPs-designed plasmonic device shows twofold photoresponsivity in visible region (400-650 nm) with respect to the bared TiO2TF device. The external quantum efficiency for plasmonic device was calculated to be 65 %.

  16. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  17. Effect of Aging Time and Film Thickness on the Photoelectrochemical Properties of TiO2 Sol-Gel Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Regonini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has focused on the investigation of a non-aqueous based sol-gel process to produce TiO2 based photoelectrodes for solar water splitting. In particular, the effect of the aging time of the sol and TiO2 film thickness on the photoelectrochemical properties of the photoanodes has been investigated. In order to achieve optimal performances (i.e., photocurrent density up to 570 µA/cm2 and IPCE of 26% at 300 nm, the sol needs to be aged for 3 to 6 h, before being dip-coated to produce the photoanodes. The importance of the aging time can also be appreciated from the optical properties of the TiO2 films; the absorbance threshold of the sol-gel aged for 3–6 h is slightly shifted towards longer wavelenghts in comparison to 0 h aging. Aging is necessary to build up a well-interconnected sol-gel network which finally leads to a photoelectrode with optimized light absorption and electron collection properties. This is also confirmed by the higher IPCE signal of aged photoelectrodes, especially below 340 nm. Among thicknesses considered, there is no apparent significant difference in the photoresponse (photocurrent density and IPCE of the TiO2 sol-gel films.

  18. Synthesis and nanostructural investigation of TiO2 nanorods doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    photo-splitting of water [1], photocatalysis, [2] photovoltaic devices, [3] etc. It is known to have three natural polymorphs, i.e. rutile, anatase and brookite. Only anatase is gener- ally accepted to have significant photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic performance of this compound depends on the characteristics of the TiO2 ...

  19. Photocatalyzed degradation of flumequine by doped TiO2 and simulated solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, J.; Freer, J.; Contreras, D.; Candal, R.J.; Sileo, E.E.; Mansilla, H.D.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium dioxide was obtained in its pure form (TiO 2 ) and in the presence of urea (u-TiO 2 ) and thiourea (t-TiO 2 ) using the sol-gel technique. The obtained powders were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Infrared Spectroscopy, Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and the Rietveld refinement of XRD measurements. All the prepared catalysts show high anatase content (>99%). The a and b-cell parameters of anatase increase in the order TiO 2 2 2 , while the c-parameter presents the opposite trend. Because of the interplay in cell dimensions, the cell grows thicker and shorter when prepared in the presence of urea and thiourea, respectively. The cell volume decreases in the order t-TiO 2 > u-TiO 2 > TiO 2 . The photocatalytic activities of the samples were determined on flumequine under solar-simulated irradiation. The most active catalysts were u-TiO 2 and t-TiO 2 , reaching values over 90% of flumequine degradation after 15 min irradiation, compared with values of 55% for the pure TiO 2 catalyst. Changing simultaneously the catalyst amount (t-TiO 2 ) and pH, multivariate analysis using the response surface methodology was used to determine the roughly optimal conditions for flumequine degradation. The optimized conditions found were pH below 7 and a catalyst amount of 1.6 g L -1

  20. Feasibility of Silver Doped TiO2/Glass Fiber Photocatalyst under Visible Irradiation as an Indoor Air Germicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Dong Pham

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using Ag-TiO2 photocatalyst supported on glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF prepared by a sol-gel method as an indoor air germicide. An experimental model was designed to investigate the bacterial disinfection efficiency of Staphylococcus (Staph, the most popular bacterium in hospitals in Korea, by the Ag-TiO2/GF photocatalyst. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1 to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF for photocatalytic disinfection of Staph. This study confirmed that Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF could work as an electron sink or donor to increase photocatalytic activity and promote the charge separation of electron-hole pairs generated from TiO2 after photon absorption. Ag also acts as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band of TiO2 to an acceptor (O2 gas to promote photo-oxidation processes. The photocatalytic disinfection activity of Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then slightly decreased with further increasing silver content. The highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of Staph using 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF were 75.23% and 20 (CFU∙s−1∙cm−2 respectively. The medium level of humidity of 60% ± 5% showed better photocatalytic disinfection than the lower (40% ± 5% or higher (80% ± 5% levels.

  1. The properties of metal contacts on TiO2 thin films produced by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brus V. V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research on volt-ampere characteristics of metal contacts (Al, Cr, In, Mo, Ti on titanium dioxide thin films and influence of annealing in vacuum on their electric properties. Volt-ampere characteristics measurements were taken by three-probe method. There was established that indium contact on TiO2 thin films possessed sharply defined ohmic properties.

  2. The influence of alizarin and fluorescein on the photoactivity of Ni, Pt and Ru-doped TiO2 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Marcela-Corina; Suciu, Ramona-Crina; Lazar, Mihaela D.; Bratu, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The Ni, Pt, Ru-doped TiO 2 materials and sensitized with alizarin and fluorescein dyes were prepared by wet chemical route. ► The samples were characterized by: UV–vis spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, FT/IR spectroscopy and microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N 2 physisorption measurements. ► A combined influence of the dopants and dyes was observed, leading to a beneficial effect to TiO 2 photoactivity. -- Abstract: The doping with different metal ions and sensitization with organic compounds are two well known methods used to improve the photoactivity of TiO 2 . In this respect, the metallic ions-doped TiO 2 samples were prepared by embedding Ni, Pt and Ru ions into TiO 2 crystalline network and then, each sample was sensitized with alizarin and fluorescein dyes. The qualitative evaluation of prepared TiO 2 -based materials was made by: UV–vis spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, FT/IR spectroscopy and microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N 2 physisorption measurements. The optoelectronic properties investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy show that the optical response of Ni-doped TiO 2 layer shifts to visible. The X-ray spectra do not show peaks of nickel, platinum and ruthenium oxide crystals or pure metals. The FT/IR spectra proved the presence of dye molecules adsorbed on titania nanoparticles surface. These results demonstrated that the studied dopants and dyes have potential to promote modified TiO 2 -based materials as good candidates to be used in photolectrocatalytic processes

  3. Study of Optical Humidity Sensing Properties of Sol-Gel Processed TiO2 and MgO Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Yadav

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper reports a comparative study of humidity sensing properties of TiO2 and MgO films fabricated by Sol-gel technique using optical method. One sensing element of the optical humidity sensor presented here consists of rutile structured two-layered TiO2 thin film deposited on the base of an isosceles glass prism. The other sensing element consists of a film of MgO deposited by same technique on base of the prism. Light from He-Ne laser enters prism from one of refracting faces of the prism and gets reflected from the glass-film interface, before emerging out from its other isosceles face. This emergent beam is allowed to pass through an optical fiber. Light coming out from the optical fiber is measured with an optical power meter. Variations in the intensity of light caused by changes in humidity lying in the range 5%RH to 95%RH have been recorded. MgO film shows better sensitivity than TiO2 film.

  4. Electrospun polystyrene fibres on TiO2 nanostructured film to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    layer on SS substrates. This protective bilayer is fabricated from a dip-coated TiO2 layer and an electrospun polystyrene (PS) microfibres. Contact angle (CA) measurements indicate that the produced bilayer has superhydrophobic properties (CA ∼ 148. ◦). 2. Experimental details. 2.1 Synthesis and coating of TiO2 colloidal ...

  5. Liquid-phase non-thermal plasma-prepared N-doped TiO(2) for azo dye degradation with the catalyst separation system by ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Hui; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Tseng, Wei-Lun; Wang, Yi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    This study strived to improve the photocatalytic activity by using liquid-phase non-thermal plasma (LPNTP) technology for preparing N-doping TiO(2) as well as to separate/recover the N-dope TiO(2) particles by using ceramic ultrafiltration membrane process. The yellow color N-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts, obtained through the LPNTP process, were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The UV-Vis spectrum of N-doped TiO(2) showed that the absorption band was shifted to 439 nm and the band gap was reduced to 2.82 eV. The structure analysis of XRD spectra showed that the peak positions and the crystal structure remained unchanged as anatase after plasma-treating at 13.5 W for 40 min. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO(2) was evaluated by azo dyes under visible light, and 63% of them was degraded after 16 hours in a continuous-flow photocatalytic system. For membrane separation/recover system, the recovery efficiency reached 99.5% after the ultrafiltration had been carried out for 90 min, and the result indicated that the photocatalyst was able to be separated/recovered completely.

  6. Degradation of selected industrial dyes using Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales under natural sun light as an alternative driving energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraju, H. P.; Midhun, G.; Anil Kumar, K. M.; Pallavi, S.; Pallavi, N.; Behzad, Shahmoradi

    2017-11-01

    Designing photocatalytic materials with modified functionalities for the utilization of renewable energy sources as an alternative driving energy has attracted much attention in the area of sustainable wastewater treatment applications. Catalyst-assisted advanced oxidation process is an emerging treatment technology for organic pollutants and toxicants in industrial wastewater. Preparation of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst such as Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales was carried out under mild sol-gel technique. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, and optical and photocatalytic activity techniques. The Mg-doped TiO2 showed a mixed phase of anatase and rutile with an excellent crystallinity, structural elucidations, polyscales morphology, consequent shifting of bandgap energy and adequate photocatalytic activities under visible range of light. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were investigated for their efficiencies in the degradation of most commonly used industrial dyes in the real-time textile wastewater. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales showed excellent photocatalytic degradation efficiency in both model industrial dyes (65-95%) and textile wastewater (92%) under natural sunlight as an alternative and renewable driving energy.

  7. Modeling energy band gap of doped TiO2 semiconductor using homogeneously hybridized support vector regression with gravitational search algorithm hyper-parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Taoreed O.; Akande, Kabiru O.; Olatunji, Sunday O.; Aldhafferi, Nahier; Alqahtani, Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor is characterized with a wide band gap and attracts a significant attention for several applications that include solar cell carrier transportation and photo-catalysis. The tunable band gap of this semiconductor coupled with low cost, chemical stability and non-toxicity make it indispensable for these applications. Structural distortion always accompany TiO2 band gap tuning through doping and this present work utilizes the resulting structural lattice distortion to estimate band gap of doped TiO2 using support vector regression (SVR) coupled with novel gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for hyper-parameters optimization. In order to fully capture the non-linear relationship between lattice distortion and band gap, two SVR models were homogeneously hybridized and were subsequently optimized using GSA. GSA-HSVR (hybridized SVR) performs better than GSA-SVR model with performance improvement of 57.2% on the basis of root means square error reduction of the testing dataset. Effect of Co doping and Nitrogen-Iodine co-doping on band gap of TiO2 semiconductor was modeled and simulated. The obtained band gap estimates show excellent agreement with the values reported from the experiment. By implementing the models, band gap of doped TiO2 can be estimated with high level of precision and absorption ability of the semiconductor can be extended to visible region of the spectrum for improved properties and efficiency.

  8. N-Doped TiO2 Nanobelts with Coexposed (001) and (101) Facets and Their Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuchao; Gao, Peng; Yang, Yurong; Yang, Piaoping; Chen, Yujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-07-20

    To narrow the band gap (3.2 eV) of TiO2 and extend its practical applicability under sunlight, the doping with nonmetal elements has been used to tune TiO2 electronic structure. However, the doping also brings new recombination centers among the photoinduced charge carriers, which results in a quantum efficiency loss accordingly. It has been proved that the {101} facets of anatase TiO2 are beneficial to generating and transmitting more reductive electrons to promote the H2-evolution in the photoreduction reaction, and the {001} facets exhibit a higher photoreactivity to accelerate the reaction involved of photogenerated hole. Thus, it was considered by us that using the surface heterojunction composed of both {001} and {101} facets may depress the disadvantage of N doping. Fortunately, we successfully synthesized anatase N-doped TiO2 nanobelts with a surface heterojunction of coexposed (101) and (001) facets. As expected, it realized the charge pairs' spatial separation and showed higher photocatalytic activity under a visible-light ray: a hydrogen generation rate of 670 μmol h(-1) g(-1) (much higher than others reported previously in literature of N-doped TiO2 nanobelts).

  9. Fabrication of predominantly Mn4+ -doped TiO2 nanoparticles under equilibrium conditions and their application as visible-light photocatalyts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijie; Fan, Jiajie; Cao, Zetan; Zheng, Yichao; Yao, Zhiqiang; Shao, Guosheng; Hu, Junhua

    2014-07-01

    The chemical state of a transition-metal dopant in TiO(2) can intrinsically determine the performance of the doped material in applications such as photocatalysis and photovoltaics. In this study, manganese-doped TiO2 is fabricated by a near-equilibrium process, in which the TiO(2) precursor powder precipitates from a hydrothermally obtained transparent mother solution. The doping level and subsequent thermal treatment influence the morphology and crystallization of the TiO(2) samples. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicate that the manganese dopant is substitutionally incorporated by replacing Ti(4+) cations. The absorption band edge can be gradually shifted to 1.8 eV by increasing the nominal manganese content to 10 at %. Manganese atoms doped into the titanium lattice are associated with the dominant 4+ valence oxidation state, which introduces two curved, intermediate bands within the band gap and results in a significant enhancement in photoabsorption and the quantity of photogenerated hydroxyl radicals. Additionally, the high photocatalytic performance of manganese-doped TiO(2) is also attributed to the low oxygen content, owing to the equilibrium fabrication conditions. This work provides an important strategy to control the chemical and defect states of dopants by using an equilibrium fabrication process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The influence of preparation method, nitrogen source, and post-treatment on the photocatalytic activity and stability of N-doped TiO2 nanopowder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaozheng; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping

    2011-11-30

    NH(3) plasma, N(2) plasma, and annealing in flowing NH(3) were used to prepare N doped TiO(2), respectively. XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption, FT-IR, Zeta-potential measurement, and XP spectra were used to characterize the prepared TiO(2) samples. The nitridation procedure did not change the phase composition and particle sizes of TiO(2) samples, but extended its absorption edges to the visible light region. The photocatalytic activities were tested in the degradation of an aqueous solution of a reactive dyestuff, methylene blue, under visible light. The photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO(2) prepared by NH(3) plasma were much higher than that of samples prepared by other nitridation procedures. The visible light activity of the prepared N doped TiO(2) was improved by increasing the lattice-nitrogen content and decreasing adsorbed NH(3) on catalyst surface. The lattice-nitrogen stability of N-doped TiO(2) samples improved after HCl solution washing. The possible mechanism for the photocatalysis was proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural, morphological and local electric properties of TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, E; Pino, A Perez del; Sauthier, G; Figueras, A; Alsina, F; Pascual, J

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were synthesized on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A frequency quadrupled Nd : YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 5 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source was used for the irradiations of metallic Ti targets. The experiments were performed in controlled oxygen atmosphere. Crystallinity, surface morphology and local electric properties of the obtained oxide thin films were investigated by x-ray diffractometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. An inter-relation was found between the surface morphology, the crystalline structure and the nano-scale electric properties which open the possibility of synthesizing by the PLD technique TiO 2 thin films with tunable functional properties for future applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors or solar energy converters

  12. Synergistic reinforcing effect of TiO2 and montmorillonite on potato starch nanocomposite films: Thermal, mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Moayedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-11-05

    In this study, ternary potato starch (PS) bionanocomposite films containing two types of nanoparticles, sodium montmorillonite (MMT), one-dimensional (1D) clay platelets, (3 and 5wt%) and TiO2, three-dimensional (3D) nanospheres, (0.5, 1 and 2wt%), are prepared using solvent casting method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) test confirms the completely exfoliated structure formed in the PS-MMT nanocomposites containing 3 and 5% MMT. The success of the formation of new hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of starch and nanofillers is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), glass transition temperature (Tg), and melting point (Tm) of the films are also enhanced after MMT and TiO2 incorporation. The water vapor permeability (WVP) and the visible, UVA, UVB and UVC lights transmittance decreases upon TiO2 and MMT content increasing. Generally, a synergistic effect is observed between MMT and TiO2 at lower concentrations of MMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Origin of the Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption in N-Doped Bulk Anatase TiO 2 from First-Principles Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2011-10-06

    Extension of the absorption properties of TiO2 photocatalytic materials to the visible part of the solar spectrum is of major importance for energy and cleaning up applications. We carry out a systematic study of the N-doped anatase TiO2 material using spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) and the range-separated hybrid HSE06 functional. The thermodynamic stability of competitive N-doped TiO2 structural configurations is studied as a function of the oxygen chemical potential and of various chemical doping agents: N2, (N2 + H2), NH3, N2H4. We show that the diamagnetic TiO (2-3x)N2x system corresponding to a separated substitutional N species (with 2-4% N impurities) and formation of one-half concentration of O vacancies (1-2 atom %) is an optimal configuration thermodynamically favored by NH3, N2H4, and (N2 + H2) chemical doping agents presenting a dual nitrating-reducing character. The simulated UV-vis absorption spectra using the perturbation theory (DFPT) approach demonstrates unambiguously that the diamagnetic TiO(2-3x)N2x system exhibits the enhanced optical absorption in N-doped TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. Electronic analysis further reveals a band gap narrowing of 0.6 eV induced by delocalized impurity states located at the top of the valence band of TiO 2. A fruitful comparison with experimental data is furnished. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Synthesis and electrorheological performance of particle materials of doped TiO2 with Er2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Kun; Shang Yanli; Li Junran; Wang Juan; Zhang Shaohua

    2006-01-01

    A new class of doped electrorheological (ER) materials with rare earth (RE), TiO 2 material doped with Er 2 O 3 that belongs to the heavy rare earth oxide, was synthesized by the means of the hydrolysis and their compositions were determined by elemental analyses. The effects of the microstructure including the surface areas, pore volumes, pore size and crystal structure of the particles on the ER property of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, BET surface area analyses, dielectric property and rheological measurement. The new results have shown that the microstructure, especially crystal lattice state plays an important role in influencing the dielectric property and ER property of the particle materials, which is propitious to further understanding the mechanism of ER effect and enhancing the ER activity of a material

  15. Direct view at colossal permittivity in donor-acceptor (Nb, In) co-doped rutile TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Suman; Pal, Somnath; Hazarika, Abhijit; Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Topical observations of colossal permittivity (CP) with low dielectric loss in donor-acceptor cations co-doped rutile TiO 2 have opened up several possibilities in microelectronics and energy-storage devices. Yet, the precise origin of the CP behavior, knowledge of which is essential to empower the device integration suitably, is highly disputed in the literature. From spectromicroscopic approach besides dielectric measurements, we explore that microscopic electronic inhomogeneities along with the nano-scale phase boundaries and the low temperature polaronic relaxation are mostly responsible for such a dielectric behavior, rather than electron-pinned defect-dipoles/grain-boundary effects as usually proposed. Donor-acceptor co-doping results in a controlled carrier-hopping inevitably influencing the dielectric loss while invariably upholding the CP value.

  16. Photochemical quenching of aqueous methylene blue by N, Nb co-doped TiO2 nanomaterials under visible light: a confirmatory UV/LC-MS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kamini; Pandey, Ashutosh; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Nanodimensional un-doped, Nb doped, N doped and N,Nb co-doped TiO2 particles have been prepared by the sol-gel procedure. Phase identification of the anatase particles was done by X-ray powder diffraction and Deby–Scherrer calculations revealed their particle sizes to range from 20 to 30 nm. The band gap energies of the samples were measured by UV–Vis-diffuse reflectance (UV-DRS) spectra. While un-doped TiO2 showed wide optical absorption in the UV region. The co-doped TiO2 particles exhibited narrow band gaps of ~2.7 eV, which showed absorption in the visible region. A decline in charge carrier recombination rates in the prepared samples was confirmed through photoluminescence (PL). The morphological appearances of the particles have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the samples confirmed the incorporations of N and Nb into the TiO2 matrices. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the prepared particles have been determined by the degradation of the non-biodegradable dye methylene blue (MB) under electromagnetic radiation. The co-doped sample showed superior photocatalytic activity under the visible light (λ  >  400) over the other samples. Photochemical quenching of aqueous MB was further analysed by UV/LC-MS which confirmed the attenuation of methylene blue.

  17. Fabrication of doped Titania (TiO2) nano-catalysts in the shape of nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Silva, Rafael Hubert; Zhang, Wenjing (Angela)

    -to-volume ratios [1]. The “nanomaterial” approach enables to achieve structures with incredible large exposed surface area. When nanofibers are used as nano-catalysts, the further advantage of a quite open porous structure is further achieved. In this work, nanomaterial approach was adopted to fabricate nano......, XRD, to analyze fiber diameter, morphology, composition, specific surface area, crystallization phases of TiO2 functionalized, atomic percentage of elements in fiber respectively. Catalytic activity was also measured....

  18. Hysteretic current-voltage characteristics in RF-sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, Manuel; Juarez, Gabriel; Heluani, Silvia P. de; Comedi, David

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature of a nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin film fabricated by reactive RF-sputtering deposition and sandwiched between ITO (indium-tin-oxide)-buffered glass substrate and an indium top electrode. The I-V characteristics are ohmic for low voltages and become non-linear, hysteretic and asymmetric as the voltage is increased. The system is shown to be well represented by two distinct resistance states in the non-ohmic region. Current transient evolutions were also measured for constant voltage excitations. The resistance is stable in time for voltages in the ohmic regime. In contrast, for voltages in the non-ohmic regime, the resistance has a small variation for a short period of time (order of tens seconds) and then increases with time. For those transients, long characteristic times (on the order of tens of minutes up to hours) were found. The behavior of the system is discussed on the basis of experimental results reported in the literature for similar systems and existing models for electric-field induced resistive switching

  19. Fine control of the amount of preferential <001> orientation in DC magnetron sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, B; Granqvist, C G; Österlund, L

    2014-01-01

    Different crystal facets of anatase TiO 2 are known to have different chemical reactivity; in particular the {001} facets which truncates the bi-tetrahedral anatase morphology are reported to be more reactive than the usually dominant {101} facets. Anatase TiO 2 thin films were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in Ar/O 2 atmosphere and were characterized using Rietveld refined grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy. By varying the partial O2 pressure in the deposition chamber, the degree of orientation of the grains in the film could be systematically varied with preferred <001> orientation changing from random upto 39% as determined by March-Dollase method. The orientation of the films is shown to correlate with their reactivity, as measured by photo-degradation of methylene blue in water solutions. The results have implications for fabrication of purposefully chemically reactive thin TiO 2 films prepared by sputtering methods

  20. Effect of Annealing Process on CH3NH3PbI3-XClX Film Morphology of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells with Optimal Compact TiO2 Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of compact TiO2 film used as an electron-selective layer and perovskite film used as a light absorption layer in planar perovskite solar cells has a significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of the devices. In this paper, the spin coating speed of the compact TiO2 is investigated in order to get a high-quality film and the compact TiO2 film exhibits pinhole- and crack-free films treated by 2000 rpm for 60 s. Furthermore, the effect of annealing process, including annealing temperature and annealing program, on CH3NH3PbI3-XClX film morphology is studied. At the optimal annealing temperature of 100°C, the CH3NH3PbI3-XClX morphology fabricated by multistep slow annealing method has smaller grain boundaries and holes than that prepared by one-step direct annealing method, which results in the reduction of grain boundary recombination and the increase of Voc. With all optimal procedures, a planar fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO substrate/compact TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-XClX/Spiro-MeOTAD/Au cell is prepared for an active area of 0.1 cm2. It has achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE of 14.64%, which is 80.3% higher than the reference cell (8.12% PCE without optimal perovskite layer. We anticipate that the annealing process with optimal compact TiO2 layer would possibly become a promising method for future industrialization of planar perovskite solar cells.

  1. Structural and photocatalytic properties of iron- and europium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamandescu, L.; Vasiliu, F.; Tarabasanu-Mihaila, D.; Feder, M.; Vlaicu, A.M.; Teodorescu, C.M.; Macovei, D.; Enculescu, I.; Parvulescu, V.; Vasile, E.

    2008-01-01

    Iron- and europium-doped (≤1 at.%) TiO 2 nanoparticles powders have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route at 200 deg. C, starting with TiCl 4 , FeCl 3 .6H 2 O and EuCl 3 .6H 2 O. The structure, morphology and optical peculiarities were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), Moessbauer spectroscopy and UV-vis measurements. The photocatalytic performance was analysed in the photodegradation reaction of phenol. Rietveld refinements of XRD patterns reveal that the as-prepared samples consist in iron- and europium-doped TiO 2 in the tetragonal anatase structural shape, with particle size as low as 15 nm. By means of Moessbauer spectroscopy on both 57 Fe and 151 Eu isotopes as well as by EXAFS analyses, the presence of Fe 3+ and/or Eu 3+ ions in the nanosized powders has been evidenced. It was found that iron and europium ions can substitute for titanium in the anatase structure. From the UV-vis reflection spectra, by using the transformed Kubelka-Munk functions, the band gap energy (E g ) of the hydrothermal samples has been determined in comparison with that of Degussa P-25 photocatalyst. A decrease of E g from 2.9 eV found for Degussa photocatalyst to 2.8 eV for the titania doped with 1 at.% Fe has been evidenced, indicating a valuable absorption shift (∼20 nm) towards visible light region. However, the best photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation reaction of phenol was evidenced for the hydrothermal sample, TiO 2 : 1 at.% Fe, 0.5 at.% Eu, in both UV and visible light regions. The photocatalytic activities of iron-doped and iron-europium-codoped samples are high and practically the same only in visible light. The photocatalytic properties in correlation with the structural and optical peculiarities of the hydrothermal samples are discussed

  2. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of V2O5 Cluster Modified N-Doped TiO2 for Degradation of Toluene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available V2O5 cluster-modified N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2/V2O5 nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by a facile impregnation-calcination method. The effects of V2O5 cluster loading content on visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples were investigated for degradation of toluene in air. The results showed that the visible light activity of N-doped TiO2 was significantly enhanced by loading V2O5 clusters. The optimal V2O5 loading content was found to be 0.5 wt.%, reaching a removal ratio of 52.4% and a rate constant of 0.027 min−1, far exceeding that of unmodified N-doped TiO2. The enhanced activity is due to the deposition of V2O5 clusters on the surface of N-doped TiO2. The conduction band (CB potential of V2O5 (0.48 eV is lower than the CB level of N-doped TiO2 (−0.19 V, which favors the photogenerated electron transfer from CB of N-doped TiO2 to V2O5 clusters. This function of V2O5 clusters helps promote the transfer and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. The present work not only displays a feasible route for the utilization of low cost V2O5 clusters as a substitute for noble metals in enhancing the photocatalysis but also demonstrates a facile method for preparation of highly active composite photocatalyst for large-scale applications.

  3. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic)/SiO2-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Yu, Yang-Yen; Chen, Po-Kan; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, poly(acrylic)/SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films were successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted polymerization. The coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MSMA) was hydrolyzed with colloidal SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles, and then polymerized with two acrylic monomers and initiator to form a precursor solution. The results of this study showed that the spin-coated hybrid films had relatively good surface planarity, high thermal stability, a tunable refractive index (1.525 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films, for potential use in optical applications.

  4. Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells with TiO_2 Scaffold in Perovskite Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Zeng, Zhaobing; Huang, Xiaokun; Wang, Liming; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin

    2017-01-01

    TiO_2 nanoparticle is employed as mesoporous scaffold under low temperature in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI_3) perovskite layer for planar heterojunction solar cells (PH PSCs). It has been found that the high quality perovskite crystalline is obtained by adding TiO_2 nanoparticles into perovskite layer. The incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) has been significantly improved due to the enhanced light scattering of TiO_2 nanoparticles and efficient electron transport in perovskite layer. Specially, interconnected TiO_2 nanoparticles improves the electron transport property, leading to reducing hysteresis and obtaining the much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) (12.96%) with V_o_c = 0.99 V, J_s_c = 22.9 mA/cm"2 and FF = 0.562. This fabrication method is promising for flexible PH PSCs application and reducing the preparation cost.

  5. Atomic force microscopy study of TiO2 sol-gel films thermally treated under NH3 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapalis, C.; Todorova, N.; Anastasescu, M.; Anastasescu, C.; Stoica, M.; Gartner, M.; Zaharescu, M.; Stoica, T.

    2009-01-01

    Multilayered TiO 2 films were obtained by sol-gel and dipping deposition on quartz substrate followed by thermal treatment under NH 3 atmosphere. In an attempt to understand the close relationship between microstructural characteristics and the synthesis parameters, a systematic research of the structure and the morphology of NH 3 modified TiO 2 sol-gel films by XRD and Atomic Force Microscopy is reported. The surface morphology has been evaluated in terms of grains size, fractal dimension and surface roughness. For each surface, it was found a self-similar behavior (with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.67-3.00) related to an optimum morphology favorable to maintain a nano-size distribution of the grains. The root mean square (RMS) roughness of the samples was found to be in the range of 0.72-6.02 nm.

  6. Nanoscale self-recovery of resistive switching in Ar+ irradiated TiO2‑x films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A.; Saini, C. P.; Sarkar, P. K.; Das, D.; Dhar, S.; Singh, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Gupta, M.; Phase, D. M.; Kanjilal, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nanoscale evidence of self-recovery in resistive switching (RS) behavior was found in TiO2‑x film by conductive atomic force microscopy when exposed to Ar+-ions above a threshold fluence of 1  ×  1016 ions cm‑2. This revealed an evolution and gradual disappearance of bipolar RS-loops, followed by reappearance with increasing number of voltage sweep. This was discussed in the realm of oxygen vacancy (OV) driven formation, dissolution and reformation of conducting filaments. The presence of OVs in ion-beam irradiated TiO2‑x films was evidenced by decreasing trend of work function in scanning-Kelvin probe microscopy, and was further verified by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy at Ti and O-K edges.

  7. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets: synthesis, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Quanjun; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2011-03-21

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped TiO(2) nanosheets with exposed {001} facets (N-S-TiO(2)) were prepared by a simple mixing-calcination method using the hydrothermally prepared TiO(2) nanosheets powder as a precursor and thiourea as a dopant. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The electronic properties of N,S co-doped TiO(2) were studied using the first-principle density functional theory (DFT). The photocatalytic activity of N-S-TiO(2) was evaluated by degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The production of hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) on the surface of visible-light-irradiated samples was detected by photoluminescence technique using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule. The results show that nitrogen and sulfur atoms were successfully incorporated into the lattice of TiO(2), which resulted in N-S-TiO(2) samples exhibiting stronger absorption in the UV-visible range with a red shift in the band gap transition. The first-principle DFT calculations further confirm that N and S co-dopants can induce the formation of new energy levels in the band gap, which is associated with the response of N-S-TiO(2) nanosheets to visible light irradiation. Surprisingly, pure TiO(2) nanosheets show the visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of 4-CP mainly due to the substrate-surface complexation of TiO(2) and 4-CP, which results in extending absorption of titania to visible light region through ligand-to-titanium charge transfer. The N-S-TiO(2) samples studied exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2). Especially, the doped TiO(2) sample at the nominal weight ratio of thiourea to TiO(2) powder of 2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which was about twice greater than that of Degussa P25. The enhanced activity of

  8. Effect of reaction conditions on methyl red degradation mediated by boron and nitrogen doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galenda, A.; Crociani, L.; Habra, N. El; Favaro, M.; Natile, M.M.; Rossetto, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Boron and/or nitrogen-doped TiO 2 for photocatalytic wastewater treatment. • Methyl red degradation/mineralisation as a function of pH, acids and dopants. • Adsorption time influence on photocatalytic process. • Recovery of worn-out catalyst. - Abstract: Nowadays the employment of renewable and sustainable energy sources, and solar light as main option, becomes an urgent need. Photocatalytic processes received great attention in wastewater treatment due to their cheapness, environmental compatibility and optimal performances. Despite the general low selectivity of the photocatalysts, an accurate optimisation of the operational parameters needs to be carried out in order to maximise the process yield. Because of this reason, the present contribution aims to deepen either the knowledge in boron and/or nitrogen doped TiO 2 -based systems and their employment in methyl red removal from aqueous solutions. The samples were obtained by coprecipitation and characterised by XRD, SEM, BET specific surface area, UV–vis and XPS techniques. The catalytic activity was for the first time carefully evaluated with respect to methyl red photodegradation in different conditions as a function of working pH, counter-ions and pre-adsorption time. An ad-hoc study was performed on the importance of the pre-adsorption of the dye, suggesting that an extended adsorption is useless for the catalyst photoactivity, while a partial coverage is preferable. The photocatalytic tests demonstrate the positive influence of boron doping in photo-activated reactions and the great importance of the operational parameters with respect to the simple methyl red bleaching rather than the overall pollutant mineralisation. It is proved, indeed, that different working pH, acidifying means and substrate pre-adsorption time can enhance or limit the catalyst performances with respect to the complete pollutant degradation rather than its partial breakage

  9. Synthesis of calcium-phosphorous doped TiO2 nanotubes by anodization and reverse polarization: A promising strategy for an efficient biofunctional implant surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Sofia A.; Patel, Sweetu B.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Filho, Paulo N.; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new surface modification methodology for bio-functionalization of TiO2 NTs is addressed • Bone-like structured TiO2 nanotubular surfaces containing Ca and P were synthesized. • Ca/P-doped TiO2 NTs enhanced adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastic-like cells. • The bio-functionalization granted improved bio-electrochemical stability to TiO2 NTs. - Abstract: The modification of surface features such as nano-morphology/topography and chemistry have been employed in the attempt to design titanium oxide surfaces able to overcome the current dental implants failures. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of bone-like structured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes enriched with Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) able to enhance osteoblastic cell functions and, simultaneously, display an improved corrosion behavior. To achieve the main goal, TiO 2 nanotubes were synthetized and doped with Ca and P by means of a novel methodology which relied, firstly, on the synthesis of TiO 2 nanotubes by anodization of titanium in an organic electrolyte followed by reverse polarization and/or anodization, in an aqueous electrolyte. Results show that hydrophilic bone-like structured TiO 2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized presenting a highly ordered nano-morphology characterized by non-uniform diameters. The chemical analysis of such nanotubes confirmed the presence of CaCO 3 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaHPO 4 and CaO compounds. The nanotube surfaces submitted to reverse polarization, presented an improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to smooth titanium. Furthermore, these surfaces displayed a significantly lower passive current in artificial saliva, and so, potential to minimize their bio-degradation through corrosion processes. This study addresses a very simple and promising multidisciplinary approach bringing new insights for the development of novel methodologies to improve the outcome of osseointegrated implants.

  10. Mechanical characterization of thin TiO2 films by means of microelectromechanical systems-based cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, A.; Decarli, M.; Bartali, R.; Micheli, V.; Laidani, N.; Lorenzelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of mechanical parameters by means of microcantilever structures offers a reliable and accurate alternative to traditional methods, especially when dealing with thin films, which are extensively used in microfabrication technology and nanotechnology. In this work, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based piezoresistive cantilevers were realized and used for the determination of Young's modulus and residual stress of thin titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) deposited by sputtering from a TiO 2 target using a rf plasma discharge. Films were deposited at different thicknesses, ranging from a few to a hundred nanometers. Dedicated silicon microcantilevers were designed through an optimization of geometrical parameters with the development of analytical as well as numerical models. Young's modulus and residual stress of sputtered TiO 2 films were assessed by using both mechanical characterization based on scanning profilometers and piezoresistive sensing elements integrated in the silicon cantilevers. Results of MEMS-based characterization were combined with the tribological and morphological properties measured by microscratch test and x-ray diffraction analysis.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hydrogenated and vanadium doped TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by anodization of sputtered Ti layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motola, Martin; Satrapinskyy, Leonid; Čaplovicová, Mária; Roch, Tomáš; Gregor, Maroš; Grančič, Branislav; Greguš, Ján; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Plesch, Gustav

    2018-03-01

    TiO2 nanotube (TiNT) arrays were grown on silicon substrate via electrochemical anodization of titanium films sputtered by magnetron. To improve the photocatalytic activity of arrays annealed in air (o-TiNT), doping of o-TiNT with vanadium was performed (o-V/TiNT). These non-doped and doped TiNT arrays were also hydrogenated in H2/Ar atmosphere to r-TiNT and r-V/TiNT samples, respectively. Investigation of composition and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the presence of well-ordered arrays of anatase nanotubes with average diameter and length of 100 nm and 1.3 μm, respectively. In both oxidized and reduced V-doped samples, vanadium is partly dissolved in the structure of anatase and partly deposited in form of oxide on the nanotube surface. Vanadium-doped and reduced samples exhibited higher rates in the photodegradation of organic dyes (compared to non-modified o-TiNT sample) and this is caused by limitation of electron-hole recombination rates and by shift of the energy gap into visible region. The photocatalytic activity was measured under UV, sunlight and visible irradiation, and the corresponding efficiency increased in the order (o-TiNT) < (r-TiNT) < (o-V/TiNT) < (r-V/TiNT). Under visible light, only r-TiNT and r-V/TiNT showed significant photocatalytic activity.

  12. Self-organized nanocrack networks: a pathway to enlarge catalytic surface area in sputtered ceramic thin films, showcased for photocatalytic TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, B.; Vahl, A.; Aktas, O. C.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.

    2018-01-01

    Sputter deposited photocatalytic thin films offer high adherence and mechanical stability, but typically are outperformed in their photocatalytic properties by colloidal TiO2 nanostructures, which in turn typically suffer from problematic removal. Here we report on thermally controlled nanocrack formation as a feasible and batch applicable approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance of well adhering, reactively sputtered TiO2 thin films. Networks of nanoscopic cracks were induced into tailored columnar TiO2 thin films by thermal annealing. These deep trenches are separating small bundles of TiO2 columns, adding their flanks to the overall catalytically active surface area. The variation of thin film thickness reveals a critical layer thickness for initial nanocrack network formation, which was found to be about 400 nm in case of TiO2. The columnar morphology of the as deposited TiO2 layer with weak bonds between respective columns and with strong bonds to the substrate is of crucial importance for the formation of nanocrack networks. A beneficial effect of nanocracking on the photocatalytic performance was experimentally observed. It was correlated by a simple geometric model for explaining the positive impact of the crack induced enlargement of active surface area on photocatalytic efficiency. The presented method of nanocrack network formation is principally not limited to TiO2 and is therefore seen as a promising candidate for utilizing increased surface area by controlled crack formation in ceramic thin films in general.

  13. Comparative Study of Two Different TiO2 Film Sensors on Response to H2 under UV Light and Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Peng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An anatase TiO2 film sensor was prepared by a facile in-situ method on the interdigitated Au electrode deposited on the alumina substrate. The structure, morphology and the optical properties of the in-situ TiO2 film sensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photo-assisted gas sensitivities of the prepared film towards H2 gas were evaluated at room temperature in N2 and synthetic air atmospheres. As compared to TiO2 film sensor prepared by drop-coating method, this in-situ TiO2 film sensor exhibited a more compact structure composed of uniform TiO2 microspheres as well as a better gas sensitivity towards H2 under UV irradiation, especially in synthetic air. The photo-electrochemical measurements suggest that these improvements may be associated with the efficient charge transfer in the TiO2 interface induced by the TiO2 microsphere structure. This study might offer a feasible approach to develop photo-assisted gas sensors at ambient temperature.

  14. Photocatalytic performance of Cu-doped TiO2 nanofibers treated by the hydrothermal synthesis and air-thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lin, Ting-Han; Lin, Tz-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Series of transition metal-doped TiO2 (metal/TiO2) is prepared by combining the hydrothermal synthesis and air-thermal treatment without any reduction process. The selected transition metal precursors, including Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Y, and Zn, were individually doped into TiO2 nanofibers to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation activity and photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Consider the photocatalytic performance of these synthesized metal/TiO2 under UV-A irradiation, copper doped TiO2 nanofibers (Cu/TiO2 NFs) was chosen for further study due to its extraordinary reactivity. Systematical studies were spread to optimize the doping concentration and the calcination condition for much higher photocatalytic activity Cu/TiO2 NFs. In the photocatalytic degradation test, 0.5 mol%-Cu/TiO2 NFs calcined at 650 °C exhibits the highest activity, which is even higher than commercial TiO2-AEROXIDE® TiO2 P25 under UV-A irradiation. The synthesized 0.5 mol%-Cu/TiO2-650 NFs also have the capability in the photocatalytic hydrogen production. The hydrogen evolution rates are 200 μmol/g·h under UV-A irradiation and 280 μmol/g·h under UV-B irradiation. The density of state calculated by CASTEP for Cu/TiO2 indicates that Cu doping contributes to the states near valence band edge and narrows the band gap. The disclosed process in this study is industrial safe, convenient and cost-effective. We further produce a significant amount of TiO2-based catalysts without any hydrogen reduction treatment.

  15. Synergistic Effects of Sm and C Co-Doped Mixed Phase Crystalline TiO2 for Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchang Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles with element doping by Sm and C were prepared via a facile sol-gel procedure. The UV-Vis light-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorption region of co-doped TiO2 was shifted to the visible-light region, which was attributed to incorporation of samarium and carbon into the TiO2 lattice during high-temperature reaction. Samarium effectively decreased the anatase-rutile phase transformation. The grain size can be controlled by Sm doping to achieve a large specific surface area useful for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. The degradation rate of MB over the Sm-C co-doped TiO2 sample was the best. Additionally, first-order apparent rate constants increased by about 4.3 times compared to that of commercial Degusssa P25 under the same experimental conditions. Using different types of scavengers, the results indicated that the electrons, holes, and •OH radicals are the main active species for the MB degradation. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to low recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes which originated from the synergistic effect of the co-doped ions and the heterostructure.

  16. Surface Modification of Aerosol-Assisted CVD Produced TiO2 Thin Film for Dye Sensitised Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPei Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple and convenient method for the preparation of Ag/TiO2 thin films supported on indium tin oxide, which was achieved by sonochemical deposition of Ag+ on aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposited TiO2 thin films. Posttreatment was performed on the film by immersion in HCl. The as-prepared composite film was characterised by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements and J-V characterisation showed approximately fivefold increase in photocurrent density generation and approximately sevenfold enhancement in dye sensitiser solar cell (DSSC conversion efficiency, which was achieved after modification of the TiO2 film with HCl posttreatment and Ag particle deposition. The improved photocurrent density of 933.30 μA/cm2, as well as DSSC power conversion efficiency of 3.63% with high stability, is an indication that the as-synthesised thin film is a potential candidate for solar energy conversion applications.

  17. Control of the optical and crystalline properties of TiO2 in visible-light active TiO2/TiN bi-layer thin-film stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Wilson; Fakhouri, Houssam; Pulpytel, Jerome; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Multi-layered thin films of TiO 2 and TiN were created by rf reactive magnetron sputtering, and their crystalline, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties were measured. The overall composition of the films (TiO 2 -to-TiN ratio) was kept constant with the height of each film. The number of layers and thickness of each layer was controlled to create bi-layer thin films that were composed of: 9 bi-layers, 18 bi-layers, 27 bi-layers, 36 bi-layers, and 45 bi-layers. XRD patterns were observed for each film after annealing to measure the grain size and composition of anatase and rutile as a function of temperature. It was found that the phase-transition temperature is able to be substantially controlled (between 550 deg. C and 850 deg. C) for the anatase to rutile transition by varying the number of layers/thickness of each layer. In addition, bi-layer stacking significantly affected the film's optical properties by lowering the bandgap into the visible-light region, and also showed up to three times the improvement in photoelectrochemical performance under uv and visible irradiation. Overall, bi-layer stacking of TiO 2 /TiN films has shown a unique and highly desirable control over several important physical characteristics that can be beneficial for many applications, such as high-temperature sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Synthesis of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO2 with high-active visible light degradation property via solid state reaction route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaoyou; Tang Qunli; Feng Qingge

    2011-01-01

    S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-TiO 2 , Cr-TiO 2 , S-Cr-TiO 2 ) were successfully synthesized via a simple, effective and environmental benign solid state reaction route. The low angle XRD patterns demonstrated that the resulting samples possess mesostructures. The further characterizations via N 2 adsorption-desorption and XPS showed that the typical S/Cr co-doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr)) possesses mesopore with the high specific surface area of 118.4 m 2 /g and narrow pore size distribution, and both S and Cr have been incorporated into the lattice of TiO 2 with the amounts of 4.16% sulfur and 7.88% chromium, respectively. And Raman spectroscopy shows that the surface of S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr) material possesses stretching vibrational peaks at ∼709, ∼793 cm -1 are assignable to the Ti-O-Cr, O-Cr (Ti)-OH bonds, respectively. Interestingly, the UV-vis displayed that the absorption regions of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 cover the visible light region. As for the series of S-Cr-TiO 2 samples, the absorption region even extends to near infrared region with strong adsorption. Moreover, compared with the pure titanium dioxide (P25-TiO 2 ), the photodegradation properties of bromocresol green (BCG) on the S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 showed excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation. Within 50 min visible light irradiation, 82.6% of the initial BCG was degraded for the S-Cr-TiO 2 (6S-4Cr) photocatalyst.

  19. In situ coating of flame-made TiO2 particles with nanothin SiO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleki, Alexandra; Heine, Martin C; Krumeich, Frank; Akhtar, M Kamal; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2008-11-04

    Rutile TiO2 particles made by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) were coated in a single step with SiO2 layers in an enclosed flame reactor. This in situ particle coating was accomplished by a hollow ring delivering hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapor (precursor to SiO2) through multiple jets in swirl cross-flow to Al-doped nanostructured rutile TiO2 aerosol freshly made by FSP of a solution of titanium tetraisopropoxide and aluminum sec-butoxide in xylene. The as-prepared powders were characterized by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (STEM and TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, electrophoretic mobility, DC plasma optical emission (DCP-OES), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The coating quality was assessed further by the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropyl alcohol to acetone. The effect of HMDSO injection point and vapor concentration on product particle morphology was investigated. The titania particles were uniformly SiO2-coated with controlled and uniform thickness at a production rate of about 30 g h(-1) and exhibited limited, if any, photoactivity. In contrast, spraying and combusting equivalent mixtures of the above Si/Al/Ti precursors in the above reactor (without delivering HMDSO through the hollow ring) resulted in particles segregated in amorphous (SiO2) and crystalline (TiO2) domains which exhibited high photocatalytic activity.

  20. Influence of the growth parameters on TiO2 thin films deposited using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M. I. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis of TiO2 thin films by the Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD method. The influence of deposition parameters used during the growth in the obtained structural characteristics was studied. Different temperatures of the organometallic bath, deposition time, temperature and type of the substrate were combined. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy associated to Electron Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction, the strong influence of these parameters in the thin films final microstructure was verified.

  1. Tailoring of TiO2films by H2SO4treatment and UV irradiation to improve anticoagulant ability and endothelial cell compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuzhen; Li, Linhua; Chen, Jiang; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Ansha; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2017-07-01

    Surfaces with dual functions that simultaneously exhibit good anticoagulant ability and endothelial cell (EC) compatibility are desirable for blood contact materials. However, these dual functions have rarely been achieved by inorganic materials. In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films were treated by sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation successively (TiO 2 H 2 SO 4 -UV), resulting in good anticoagulant ability and EC compatibility simultaneously. We found that UV irradiation improved the anticoagulant ability of TiO 2 films significantly while enhancing EC compatibility, though not significantly. The enhanced anticoagulant ability could be related to the oxidation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons and increased hydrophilicity. The H 2 SO 4 treatment improved the anticoagulant ability of TiO 2 films slightly, while UV irradiation improved the anticoagulant ability strongly. The enhanced EC compatibility could be related to the increased surface roughness and positive charges on the surface of the TiO 2 films. Furthermore, the time-dependent degradation of the enhanced EC compatibility and anticoagulant ability of TiO 2 H 2 SO 4 -UV was observed. In summary, TiO 2 H 2 SO 4 -UV expressed both excellent anticoagulant ability and good EC compatibility at the same time, which could be desirable for blood contact materials. However, the compatibility of TiO 2 H 2 SO 4 -UV with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages was also improved. More effort is still needed to selectively improve EC compatibility on TiO 2 films for better re-endothelialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Situ Fluorine Doping of TiO2 Superstructures for Efficient Visible-Light Driven Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Tachikawa, Takashi; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-03-21

    With the aid of breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is imperative to develop metal oxide semiconductors through visible light-driven hydrogen generation. In this study, TiOF2 was incorporated as an n-type F-dopant source to TiO2 mesocrystals (TMCs) with visible-light absorption during the topotactic transformation. The crystal growth, structural change, and dynamic morphological evolution, from the initial intermediate NH4 TiOF3 to HTiOF3, TiOF2, and F-doped TMCs, were verified through in situ temperature-dependent techniques to elucidate the doping mechanism from intermediate TiOF2. The visible-light efficiencies of photocatalytic hydrogen were dependent on the contents of the dopant as compared with the pure TMC and a controled reference. Using femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the charge-transfer dynamics were monitored to confirm the improvement of charge separation after doping. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Antimicrobial property, cytocompatibility and corrosion resistance of Zn-doped ZrO2/TiO2coatings on Ti6Al4V implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyun; He, Xiaojing; Gao, Yuee; Zhang, Xiangyu; Yao, Xiaohong; Tang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Zn-doped ZrO 2 /TiO 2 porous coatings (Zn-ZrO 2 /TiO 2 ) were prepared on the surface of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) by a hybrid approach of magnetron sputtering and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The microstructures, phase constituents and elemental states of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrate that the Zn-ZrO 2 /TiO 2 coatings are porous and its thickness is approximately 13μm. The major phases in the oxidation coating are tetragonal ZrO 2 (t-ZrO 2 ), cubic ZrO 2 (c-ZrO 2 ) and rutile TiO 2 . XPS result reveals that Zn exists as ZnO in the Zn-ZrO 2 /TiO 2 coatings. The biological experiments indicate that Zn-ZrO 2 /TiO 2 coatings exhibit not only excellent antibacterial property against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), but also favorable cytocompatibility. In addition, the corrosion resistance of the coating is also appreciably improved in the simulated body fluids (SBF), which can ensure better biocompatibility in body fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag microgrid connected TiO2 nanocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Zhang Junying; Zhang Weiwei; Wang Tianmin; Cai Chao

    2007-01-01

    One reason for the high degree of photogenerated carrier recombination was found to be the charge accumulation caused by the uneven reaction area on the photocatalyst surface. The authors connected TiO 2 nanoparticles with conducting Ag microgrid. Obvious photocatalytic activity improvement (81%) over the pure TiO 2 was observed, which is attributed to the electron-hole pairs separation by the metal-semiconductor contact and the large specific area of metal grid, which increased the O 2 absorption and transported the electrons to the sites needed for the deoxidize reactions. This structure lowers the electron accumulation on the particles and improves the utilization ratio of the photoexcited carriers

  5. Physiochemical properties of TiO2 nanoparticle thin films deposited on stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Basiaga, M.; Walke, W.; Nakonieczny, D.; Hyla, A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of TiO2 layer to improve hemocompatibility of 316LVM stainless steel. The TiO2 layers studied in this work were deposited from TiCl4 and H2O in a low-pressure Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) reactor taking into account number of cycles and process temperature. As a part of the research electrochemical studies of the layer after 28 days exposure to artificial plasma were carried out. In particular, potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and imped...

  6. One-Step Formation of WO3-Loaded TiO2 Nanotubes Composite Film for High Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Hong Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High aspect ratio of WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays have been successfully synthesized using the electrochemical anodization method in an ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 0.5 wt% ammonium fluoride in a range of applied voltage of 10–40 V for 30 min. The novelty of this research works in the one-step formation of WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays composite film by using tungsten as the cathode material instead of the conventionally used platinum electrode. As compared with platinum, tungsten metal has lower stability, forming dissolved ions (W6+ in the electrolyte. The W6+ ions then move towards the titanium foil and form a coherent deposit on titanium foil. By controlling the oxidation rate and chemical dissolution rate of TiO2 during the electrochemical anodization, the nanotubular structure of TiO2 film could be achieved. In the present study, nanotube arrays were characterized using FESEM, EDAX, XRD, as well as Raman spectroscopy. Based on the results obtained, nanotube arrays with average pore diameter of up to 74 nm and length of 1.6 µm were produced. EDAX confirmed the presence of tungsten element within the nanotube arrays which varied in content from 1.06 at% to 3.29 at%. The photocatalytic activity of the nanotube arrays was then investigated using methyl orange degradation under TUV 96W UV-B Germicidal light irradiation. The nanotube with the highest aspect ratio, geometric surface area factor and at% of tungsten exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity due to more photo-induced electron-hole pairs generated by the larger surface area and because WO3 improves charge separation, reduces charge carrier recombination and increases charge carrier lifetime via accumulation of electrons and holes in the two different metal oxide semiconductor components.

  7. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    -doped TiO2 nanofibers for all formulations. The nanoparticles were prepared from the same sol–gels, however, instead of spinning the gels were dried, grinded and sintered at 700 °C. Photodegradation under UV irradiation for the rhodamine B at 5, 15, 25, 45 and 55 °C were performed. For the nanoparticles...

  8. Influence of Ce Doping on the Electrical and Optical Properties of TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Activity for the Degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles doped with different concentrations of Cerium (Ce, 1–10% have been synthesized using sol-gel method. The prepared particles were characterized by standard analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The XRD analysis shows no change in crystal structure of TiO2 after doping with different concentrations of Ce, which indicates the single-phase polycrystalline material. The SEM analysis shows the partial crystalline nature of undoped, and doped TiO2 and TEM analysis shows the particle sizes were in the range of 9–14 nm in size. The a.c. analysis shows that the dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss tan δ decrease with the increase in frequency. The dielectric property decreases with the increase in dopant concentration. It is also observed that the impedance increases with an increase in dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles (Ce-doped TiO2 with dopant concentration of 9% (Ce showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the dye derivative Remazol Brilliant Blue R in an immersion well photochemical reactor with 500 W halogen linear lamp in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

  9. Synergetic Effect of Ti3+and Oxygen Doping on Enhancing Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2/g-C3N4Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Huang, Zhenyu; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Huang, Baibiao; Gao, Shanmin; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-05

    To improve the utilization of visible light and reduce photogenerated electron/hole recombination, Ti 3+ self-doped TiO 2 /oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Ti 3+ -TiO 2 /O-g-C 3 N 4 ) heterojunctions were prepared via hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of g-C 3 N 4 and titanium oxohydride sol obtained from the reaction of TiH 2 with H 2 O 2 . In this way, exfoliated O-g-C 3 N 4 and Ti 3+ -TiO 2 nanoparticles were obtained. Simultaneously, strong bonding was formed between Ti 3+ -TiO 2 nanoparticles and exfoliated O-g-C 3 N 4 during the hydrothermal process. Charge transfer and recombination processes were characterized by transient photocurrent responses, electrochemical impedance test, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances were investigated through rhodamine B degradation test under an irradiation source based on 30 W cold visible-light-emitting diode. The highest visible-light photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities were observed from the heterojunction with 1:2 mass ratio of Ti 3+ -TiO 2 to O-g-C 3 N 4 . The photodegradation reaction rate constant based on this heterojuction is 0.0356 min -1 , which is 3.87 and 4.56 times higher than those of pristine Ti 3+ -TiO 2 and pure g-C 3 N 4 , respectively. The remarkably high photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of the heterojunctions are mainly attributed to the synergetic effect of efficient photogenerated electron-hole separation, decreased electron transfer resistance from interfacial chemical hydroxy residue bonds, and oxidizing groups originating from Ti 3+ -TiO 2 and O-g-C 3 N 4 .

  10. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance of Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Doped with CdS Quantum Dots for Cancer-Cell Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS quantum-dots-(QDs-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, UV-Vis, and FS. They were then used as a new “photosensitizer” based on photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer-cell treatment. The photocatalytic activities of CdS-TiO2 on leukemia tumors were investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. The ultrastructural morphology of treated cells was also studied by AFM. The experimental results indicated that an obvious inhibition of tumor growth would be observed in groups treated with CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites, and the PDT efficiency in the presence of CdS-doped TiO2 was significantly higher than that of TiO2, revealing that the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 could be effectively enhanced by the modification of CdS QDs. Additionally, CdS- TiO2 can exhibit a very high photodynamic efficiency of 80.5% at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL under visible-light irradiation. CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites in this case were regarded as a promising application for cancer-cell treatment.

  11. The Effect of TiO2 Doped Photocatalytic Nano-Additives on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland and High Alumina Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez-Nicolás

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortars with two different binders (Portland cement (PC and high alumina cement (HAC were modified upon the bulk incorporation of nano-structured photocatalytic additives (bare TiO2, and TiO2 doped with either iron (Fe-TiO2 or vanadium (V-TiO2. Plastic and hardened state properties of these mortars were assessed in order to study the influence of these nano-additives. Water demand was increased, slightly by bare TiO2 and Fe-TiO2, and strongly by V-TiO2, in agreement with the reduction of the particle size and the tendency to agglomerate. Isothermal calorimetry showed that hydration of the cementitious matrices was accelerated due to additional nucleation sites offered by the nano-additives. TiO2 and doped TiO2 did not show pozzolanic reactivity in the binding systems. Changes in the pore size distribution, mainly the filler effect of the nano-additives, accounted for the increase in compressive strengths measured for HAC mortars. A complex microstructure was seen in calcium aluminate cement mortars, strongly dependent on the curing conditions. Fe-TiO2 was found to be homogeneously distributed whereas the tendency of V-TiO2 to agglomerate was evidenced by elemental distribution maps. Water absorption capacity was not affected by the nano-additive incorporation in HAC mortars, which is a favourable feature for the application of these mortars.

  12. Photocatalytic Inactivation Effect of Gold-Doped TiO2 (Au/TiO2 Nanocomposites on Human Colon Carcinoma LoVo Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Jiang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic inactivation effecting of gold-doped TiO2 (Au/TiO2 nanocomposites on human colon carcinoma LoVo cells was investigated for the first time. The Au/TiO2 samples containing different amounts of Au (1–4 wt% were prepared by deposition-precipitation (DP method. These synthesized Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. It was found that the photocatalytic inactivation effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on LoVo cancer cells could be greatly improved by the surface modification of Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the loading amount of Au on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles affects the photocatalytic inactivation efficiency strongly, and it was found that the most efficient nanocomposites were TiO2 nanoparticles doped with 2 wt% Au. When 50 μg/mL 2 wt% Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were used, all of the LoVo cancer cells were killed under the irradiation of UV light (λmax = 365 nm, Intensity = 1.8 mW/cm2 within 100 minutes. But for 50 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles, only 40% cancer cells were killed under the same condition.

  13. Unique bar-like sulfur-doped C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite: Excellent visible light driven photocatalytic activity and mechanism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Xu, Shiping; Sun, Xiang; Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite of TiO2 nanoparticles coupled with sulfur-doped C3N4 (S-C3N4) laminated layer was successfully fabricated using a facile impregnation method and the nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity in pollutant removal under visible light irradiation, compared to bare TiO2, g-C3N4 and binary C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposite. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was benefited from the efficient migration and transformation of electron-hole (e--h+) pairs, improved visible light absorption capability, and relatively large specific surface area induce by sulfur doping. Interestingly, the introduction of sulfur changes regulated the morphology of g-C3N4 leading to the formation of ultrathin g-C3N4 layer nanosheet assemblies and unique bar-like g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite, which is beneficial for the outstanding performance of the product. In addition, trapping experiment was carried out to identify the main active species in the photocatalytic reaction over the S-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalyst, and functional mechanism of the composite was proposed. This work may provide new ideas for the fabrication and utilization of highly efficient photocatalyst with excellent visible light response in environmental purification applications.

  14. The role of energetic ion bombardment during growth of TiO2 thin films by reactive sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A.; Köhl, D.; Wuttig, M.

    2010-10-01

    TiO2 thin films have been deposited by several different sputtering processes: (i) dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) employing various geometrical conditions, (ii) ion-assisted dc magnetron sputtering where additional ion bombardment of the growing films was performed with an auxiliary ECR ion source and (iii) high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Films have been investigated mainly by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the highly energetic oxygen ions inherent in reactive sputtering of metal oxides are the dominant energetic species governing structure formation of TiO2 films by their kinetic impact. The trajectories of these energetic oxygen ions strongly depend on the shape of the erosion trace and hence on the age of the target, which therefore has a strong influence on structure formation. Furthermore, in a HiPIMS discharge the role of this energetic oxygen ion bombardment is strongly intensified due to the increased target voltage and the lower deposition rate compared with a dcMS discharge. It is also demonstrated that films with pure rutile structure which are stable under a post-deposition thermal treatment can be deposited under intense energetic ion bombardment at low temperatures either by HiPIMS at high peak power densities or by ion-assisted dcMS.

  15. Research on Hydrothermal Decoration of TiO2 Nanotube Films with Nanoplatelet MoS2 Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kovger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel electrodes were prepared via decoration of nanotubed TiO2 (TiNT films with crystalline two- dimensional (2D MoS2 species by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis approach. Obtained products were characterized in detail by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectro‐ scopy, U-I measurements and X-ray diffraction techniques. The influence of hydrothermal synthesis conditions on the composition and morphology of the products formed in the solution and within the TiNT film are also discussed. For the first time, acceptable decoration of TiNT films, by tethering 2D layered MoS2 leaflets onto the TiO2 nanotubes, and on the film surface was obtained in the low concentra‐ tion solutions, while the performance of these heterostruc‐ tures in relation to electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER was tested. Stable catalytic activity of the obtained 2D MoS2-in-TiNT films was demonstrated under intense HER conditions within the potential window [-0.2 to - 0.4 V] vs. RHE with a notably low Tafel slope of 33 mV/ decade.

  16. Fabrication of high refractive index TiO2 films using electron beam evaporator for all dielectric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Salman Ahmed, Qazi; Akram, Mahreen; Abbas, Naseem; Khalid, Ayesha; Khalil, Arslan; Luqman Khalid, Muhammad; Mudassar Mehar, Muhammad; Riaz, Kashif; Qasim Mehmood, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Flat optics suffer meager efficiency due to plasmonic losses at visible wavelengths. This issue has been addressed in this study by the substitution of dielectric materials. For this purpose, optical parameters (real and imaginary parts of refractive index) and surface roughness of TiO2 films were optimized, which are pre-requisite for the development of highly efficient dielectric metasurface devices. Electron beam evaporator was employed to deposit various ultrathin TiO2 films with subwavelength thickness. These deposited films were further processed via annealing at various temperatures to achieve the appropriate optical parameters. SEM analysis confirmed the absence of craters, cracks and rugged type features, whereas, AFM analysis revealed the smoothness of deposited films with least roughness. High refractive index above 2.2 with minimum absorption coefficient in the visible region was studied through ellipsometry analysis. FTIR spectroscopy showed transmission over 90% from the deposited thin film on glass substrate. The results of this study would have significant implications for material processing at nanoscale and dielectric metasurface fabrication which would in turn eliminate the requirement of costly and sophisticated setups for such fabrications.

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    al 2000; Mayer and Obare 2004). Figure 6a shows a decrease in the concentration of IGOR with time. After 70 min, the concentration almost reduces to 0⋅02 g. Unfortunately, the large bandgap of TiO2 lies in. UV range, so that only 5–8% of sunlight photons have the requisite energy to activate the catalyst. A visible light.

  18. Understanding the antimicrobial mechanism of TiO2-based nanocomposite films in a pathogenic bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubacka, A.; Suarez Diez, M.; Rojo, D.; Bargiela, R.; Ciordia, S.; Zapico, I.; Albar, J.P.; Barbas, C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Fernández-García, M.; Ferrer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Titania (TiO2)-based nanocomposites subjected to light excitation are remarkably effective in eliciting microbial death. However, the mechanism by which these materials induce microbial death and the effects that they have on microbes are poorly understood. Here, we assess the low dose

  19. Primary cortical neurons on PMCS TiO2films towards bio-hybrid memristive device: A morpho-functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncador, Alessandro; Jimenez-Garduño, Aura Matilde; Pasquardini, Laura; Giusti, Giovanni; Cornella, Nicola; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Potrich, Cristina; Bartali, Ruben; Aversa, Lucrezia; Verucchi, Roberto; Serra, Mauro Dalla; Caponi, Silvia; Iannotta, Salvatore; Macchi, Paolo; Musio, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the biocompatibility and neurocompatibility of titanium dioxide films (TiO 2 ) prepared by Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS). This technique uses supersonic pulsed beams seeded by clusters of the metal oxide synthesized in a plasma discharge. The final stoichiometry of the TiO 2 thin films is tuned changing the gas mixture, achieving stoichiometric or oxygen overstoichiometric films. All the films showed consistent biocompatibility and a spontaneous absorption of poly-d-lysine (PDL) that favors the adhesion and growth of murine cortical neurons. Moreover, the bioelectrical activity of the neuronal culture grown on the TiO 2 film can be modulated by changing the chemistry of the surface. This work paves the way to develop a bio-hybrid neuromorphic device, where viable nerve cells are grown directly over a titanium dioxide film showing a network of memristors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TiO2 Films Modified with Au Nanoclusters as Self-Cleaning Surfaces under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we applied cluster beam deposition (CBD as a new approach for fabricating efficient plasmon-based photocatalytic materials. Au nanoclusters (AuNCs produced in the gas phase were deposited on TiO2 P25-coated silicon wafers with coverage ranging from 2 to 8 atomic monolayer (ML equivalents. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images of the AuNCs modified TiO2 P25 films show that the surface is uniformly covered by the AuNCs that remain isolated at low coverage (2 ML, 4 ML and aggregate at higher coverage (8 ML. A clear relationship between AuNCs coverage and photocatalytic activity towards stearic acid photo-oxidation was measured, both under ultraviolet and green light illumination. TiO2 P25 covered with 4 ML AuNCs showed the best stearic acid photo-oxidation performance under green light illumination (Formal Quantum Efficiency 1.6 × 10−6 over a period of 93 h. These results demonstrate the large potential of gas-phase AuNCs beam deposition technology for the fabrication of visible light active plasmonic photocatalysts.

  1. TiO2 Films Modified with Au Nanoclusters as Self-Cleaning Surfaces under Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Nathalie; Yadav, Anupam; Bals, Sara

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we applied cluster beam deposition (CBD) as a new approach for fabricating efficient plasmon-based photocatalytic materials. Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) produced in the gas phase were deposited on TiO2 P25-coated silicon wafers with coverage ranging from 2 to 8 atomic monolayer (ML) equivalents. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the AuNCs modified TiO2 P25 films show that the surface is uniformly covered by the AuNCs that remain isolated at low coverage (2 ML, 4 ML) and aggregate at higher coverage (8 ML). A clear relationship between AuNCs coverage and photocatalytic activity towards stearic acid photo-oxidation was measured, both under ultraviolet and green light illumination. TiO2 P25 covered with 4 ML AuNCs showed the best stearic acid photo-oxidation performance under green light illumination (Formal Quantum Efficiency 1.6 × 10−6 over a period of 93 h). These results demonstrate the large potential of gas-phase AuNCs beam deposition technology for the fabrication of visible light active plasmonic photocatalysts. PMID:29316728

  2. Morphologically controlled electrodeposition of CdSe on mesoporous TiO2 film for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xiaohui; Wang, Minqiang; Zhang, Hao; Deng, Jianping; Yang, Zhi; Ran, Chenxin; Yao, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • CdSe QDs were deposited onto mesoporous TiO 2 film via a one-step electrodeposition method. • The morphology and microstructure of TiO 2 /CdSe photoanodes can be controlled by electrodeposition current density. • A ZnS coating layer and thermal annealing could further enhance the performance of the TiO 2 /CdSe photoanodes. • A maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.72% was achieved with the optimum TiO 2 /CdSe/ZnS photoanodes. -- Abstract: CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-sensitized mesoporous TiO 2 (TiO 2 /CdSe) films were fabricated using a facile one-step electrodeposition method in an aqueous electrolyte. This technique has the advantage of being simple, low cost, and easily scalable to the sensitization of large-area panels. By adjusting the electrodeposition current density, the morphology and microstructure of the prepared TiO 2 /CdSe films can be precisely controlled, which influences the photovoltaic performances of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on the TiO 2 /CdSe films. At a moderate current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 , CdSe QDs can penetrate deep into the inner pores of the mesoporous TiO 2 film, thus leading to a dense and uniform distribution of QDs throughout the whole TiO 2 matrix, while higher current densities result in growth of larger, isolated CdSe nanoclusters. Furthermore, a ZnS passivation layer coated on TiO 2 /CdSe photoanodes and thermal annealing could significantly improve the photovoltaic performance. As a result, a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell based on a TiO 2 /CdSe/ZnS photoanode (350 °C, 30 min calcination), polysulfide electrolyte and Pt counter electrode achieves a power conversion efficiency of 2.72% under AM 1.5 G one sun illumination

  3. Strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ion irradiated anatase TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stiller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of epitaxial, undoped anatase TiO2 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Low-energy ion irradiation was used to modify the surface of the films within a few nanometers, yet with high enough energy to produce oxygen and titanium vacancies. The as-prepared thin film shows ferromagnetism which increases after irradiation with low-energy ions. An optimal and clear magnetic anisotropy was observed after the first irradiation, opposite to the expected form anisotropy. Taking into account the experimental parameters, titanium vacancies as di-Frenkel pairs appear to be responsible for the enhanced ferromagnetism and the strong anisotropy observed in our films. The magnetic impurities concentrations was measured by particle-induced X-ray emission with ppm resolution. They are ruled out as a source of the observed ferromagnetism before and after irradiation.

  4. Visible-light sensitization of TiO2 photocatalysts via wet chemical N-doping for the degradation of dissolved organic compounds in wastewater treatment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Baoping; Wang, Qiuze; Dionysiou, Dionysois

    2015-01-01

    Increased pollution of ground and surface water and emerging new micropollutants from a wide variety of industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources has increased demand on the development of innovative new technologies and materials whereby challenges associated with the provision of safe potable water can be addressed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using visible-light sensitized TiO 2 photocatalysts has attracted a lot of attention as it can effectively remove dissolved organic compound in water without generating harmful by-products. On this note, recent progress on visible-light sensitive TiO 2 synthesis via wet chemical N-doping method is reviewed. In a typical visible-light sensitive TiO 2 preparation via wet chemical methods, the chemical (e.g., N-doping content and states) and morphological properties (e.g., particle size, surface area, and crystal phase) of TiO 2 in as-prepared resultants are sensitively dependent on many experimental variables during the synthesis. This has also made it very difficult to provide a universal guidance at this stage with a certainty for each variable of N-doping preparation. Instead of one-factor-at-a-time style investigation, a statistically valid parameter optimization investigation for general optima of photocatalytic activity will be certainly useful. Optimization of the preparation technique is envisaged to be beneficial to many environmental applications, i.e., dissolved organic compounds removal in wastewater treatment

  5. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes under Visible Light on N-Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the application of white and blue light emitting diodes (LEDs as sources for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in liquid phase with visible light. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped titanium dioxide, synthesized by direct hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide with ammonia, was evaluated by means of a batch photoreactor. The bandgap energy of titanium dioxide was moved in the visible range from 3.3 eV to 2.5 eV. The visible light responsive photocatalysts showed remarkably effective activity in decolorization process and in the removal of total organic carbon. Methylene blue was also used as a model dye to study the influence of several parameters such as catalyst weight and initial concentration. The effect of dye on the photocatalytic performance was verified with methyl orange (MO. The results demonstrated that the right selection of operating conditions allows to effectively degrade different dyes with the N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts irradiated with visible light emitted by LEDs.

  6. In situ construction of g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction films with enhanced photocatalytic activity over magnetic-driven rotating frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao; Jia, Jia; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun; Liu, Enzhou

    2018-02-01

    Corn-shaped TiO2 nanofilms were fabricated by a glycerol-assisted hydrothermal method, and then g-C3N4 was deposited on the surface of TiO2 films using melamine as precursor under air atmosphere by an in site microwave-heating technique. The investigations indicate that microwave-heating process is a facile strategy to obtain g-C3N4 by thermal polymerization of melamine, which can achieve in situ constructing of g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction films with high stability. The as-prepared TiO2 films with crack and holes have visible light scattering capability, and the scattering light overlaps with the intrinsic absorption of g-C3N4, leading to an absorption plateau in the range of 400-550 nm. Besides, a magnetic-driven rotating frame was developed to enhance the mass transfer processes during the photocatalytic water splitting. The result shows that g-C3N4/TiO2 films exhibit excellent activities under simulated-sunlight irradiation, in addition to the enhanced mass transfer, the overlapped visible light absorption, stable contact and effective charge transfer between g-C3N4 and TiO2 can facilitate the hydrogen production and light utilization efficiency as well. The hydrogen production rate can reach 13.8 mmol h-1 m-2 over g-C3N4/TiO2 films prepared using 0.5 g of melamine and 16.0 cm2 of TiO2.

  7. Efficient Solar-Induced Photoelectrochemical Response Using Coupling Semiconductor TiO2-ZnO Nanorod Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azimah Abd Samad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient solar driven photoelectrochemical (PEC response by enhancing charge separation has attracted great interest in the hydrogen generation application. The formation of one-dimensional ZnO nanorod structure without bundling is essential for high efficiency in PEC response. In this present research work, ZnO nanorod with an average 500 nm in length and average diameter of about 75 nm was successfully formed via electrodeposition method in 0.05 mM ZnCl2 and 0.1 M KCl electrolyte at 1 V for 60 min under 70 °C condition. Continuous efforts have been exerted to further improve the solar driven PEC response by incorporating an optimum content of TiO2 into ZnO nanorod using dip-coating technique. It was found that 0.25 at % of TiO2 loaded on ZnO nanorod film demonstrated a maximum photocurrent density of 19.78 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl under UV illumination and 14.75 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl under solar illumination with photoconversion efficiency ~2.9% (UV illumination and ~4.3% (solar illumination. This performance was approximately 3–4 times higher than ZnO film itself. An enhancement of photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency occurred due to the sufficient Ti element within TiO2-ZnO nanorod film, which acted as an effective mediator to trap the photo-induced electrons and minimize the recombination of charge carriers. Besides, phenomenon of charge-separation effect at type-II band alignment of Zn and Ti could further enhance the charge carrier transportation during illumination.

  8. Electrophoretic deposition of nanocrystalline TiO2 films on Ti substrates for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Weiwei; Yin Xiong; Zhou Xiaowen; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Lin Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 films were prepared on flexible Ti-metal sheets by electrophoretic deposition followed by chemical treatment with tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBT) and sintering at 450 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that TBT treatment led to the formation of additional anatase TiO 2 , which plays an important role in improving the interconnection between TiO 2 particles, as well as the adherence of the film to the substrate, and in modifying the surface properties of the nanocrystalline particles. The effect of TBT treatment on the electron transport in the nanocrystalline films was studied by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). An increase in the conversion efficiency was obtained for the dye-sensitized solar cells with TBT-treated nanocrystalline TiO 2 films. The cell performance was further optimized by designing nanocrystalline TiO 2 films with a double-layer structure composed of a light-scattering layer and a transparent layer. The light-scattering effect of the double-layer nanocrystalline films was evaluated by diffuse reflectance spectra. Employing the double-layer nanocrystalline films as the photoelectrodes resulted in a significant improvement in the incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency of the corresponding cells due to enhanced solar absorption by light scattering. A high conversion efficiency of 6.33% was measured under illumination with 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5) simulated sunlight.

  9. Super-hydrophobic Silver-Doped TiO2 @ Polycarbonate Coatings Created on Various Material Substrates with Visible-Light Photocatalysis for Self-Cleaning Contaminant Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjian; Sun, Zongzhao; Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Rui; Yang, Yanli; Wang, Jingyi; Lv, Xiaoxia; Qi, Wei; Wang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, a facile and efficient fabrication method has been developed for creating super-hydrophobic coatings of silver-doped TiO2@polycarbonate (TiO2 (Ag)@PC) on the substrates of different materials with photocatalytic self-cleaning performances simply by the “dipping and drying” process. The substrates were first patterned with glue and then deposited with the dopamine-capped TiO2 (Ag)@PC (DA-TiO2 (Ag)@PC) nanocomposites, followed by the further etching with dimethylbenzene. The so prepared super-hydrophobic E-DA-TiO2(Ag)@PC coatings could present the lotus leaf-like porous architectures, high adhesion stability, and especially the visible-light photocatalysis for organic contaminant degradation, thus promising the wide outdoor and indoor applications like water proofing, metal erosion protection, and surface self-cleaning. PMID:28218285

  10. SiO2/TiO2 multi-layered thin films with self-cleaning and enhanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using a TEOS:EtOH:HCl:H2O in 1:8:3:0.5 volume ratio. The as-prepared SiO2 gel was then calcinated at 600 ... 0.25 g SiO2 powder in 50 ml ethanol:water (1:1 v/v), respec- tively, 0.05 g TiO2 powder in 50 ml ethanol. ... cleaned by ultra-sonication in alcohol and then dried using compressed air. The multi-layered thin films ...

  11. Physiochemical properties of TiO2 nanoparticle thin films deposited on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Basiaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of TiO2 layer to improve hemocompatibility of 316LVM stainless steel. The TiO2 layers studied in this work were deposited from TiCl4 and H2O in a low-pressure Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD reactor taking into account number of cycles and process temperature. As a part of the research electrochemical studies of the layer after 28 days exposure to artificial plasma were carried out. In particular, potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and impedance studies were conducted. The obtained results were the basis for selection of surface treatment method dedicated to blood-contacting stainless steel implants.

  12. Enhancement of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles doped with CeO2 and supported on SiO2 for phenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Chunjing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zailei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhan, Hanhui; Xiao, Fangxing; Wang, Dan; Liu, Bin; Su, Fabing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared via a facile co-precipitation method. • Introduction of SiO 2 support increases the dispersion of CeO 2 -TiO 2 . • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for phenol degradation. • Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ pair coexisting in CeO 2 improves electron–hole pairs separation efficiency. - Abstract: A series of CeO 2 -TiO 2 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared with TiCl 4 and Ce (NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursors via a facile co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (N 2 -BET), Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TiO 2 doped with CeO 2 and supported on SiO 2 could reduce the crystallite size, inhibit the phase transformation, enhance the thermal stability, and effectively extend the spectral response from UV to visible range. When applied to the phenol photodegradation on a homemade batch reactor with an external cooling jacket, the CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photodegradation efficiency in comparison with commercial Degussa P25 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 . The unique catalytic properties of CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 were ascribed to improved electron–hole pairs separation efficiency and formation of more reactive oxygen species owing to the presence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ , as well as high dispersion of active component of CeO 2 -TiO 2 as a result of the introduction of SiO 2 support. Furthermore, the catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction solution by centrifugation and reused for four cycles without significant loss of activity

  13. Structure, Morphology and Optical Properties of TiO2 Films Formed by Anodizing in a Mixed Solution of Citric Acid and Sulfamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Sarkar, P.; Biswas, A.; Mishra, P.; Abraham, G. J.; Sastry, P. U.; Kain, V.

    2017-08-01

    TiO2 films of 50-180 nm thickness were formed at room temperature by anodization of titanium metal in a mixture of citric acid and sulfamic acid in the potential range of 5-30 V. The films so obtained were characterized for their crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical properties. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and micro-laser Raman spectroscopy measurements of the anodic films confirmed the formation of brookite phase of TiO2 at anodizing potentials of 15, 20, 25 and 30 V and amorphous structure at 5 and 10 V. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed non-porous microstructure of the films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements evaluated the band gap of TiO2 at around 3.3 eV, whereas the refractive index of the films was found to be in the range of 2-2.35, in the visible range of spectrum.

  14. Photocatalytic Anatase TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Optical Fiber Using Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Choquet, Patrick; Boscher, Nicolas D

    2017-04-19

    Due to the undeniable industrial advantages of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma processes, such as low cost, low temperature, easy implementation, and in-line process capabilities, they have become the most promising next-generation candidate system for replacing thermal chemical vapor deposition or wet chemical processes for the deposition of functional coatings. In the work detailed in this article, photocatalytic anatase TiO 2 thin films were deposited at a low temperature on polymer optical fibers using an atmospheric-pressure plasma process. This method overcomes the challenge of forming crystalline transition metal oxide coatings on polymer substrates by using a dry and up-scalable method. The careful selection of the plasma source and the titanium precursor, i.e., titanium ethoxide with a short alkoxy group, allowed the deposition of well-adherent, dense, and crystalline TiO 2 coatings at low substrate temperature. Raman and XRD investigations showed that the addition of oxygen to the precursor's carrier gas resulted in a further increase of the film's crystallinity. Furthermore, the films deposited in the presence of oxygen exhibited a better photocatalytic activity toward methylene blue degradation assumedly due to their higher amount of photoactive {101} facets.

  15. Effective Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction over Metals (Fe-, Co-, Ni-, and Cu- Incorporated TiO2/Basalt Fiber Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Yeon Do

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical basalt fibers as a complementary adsorbent were introduced to improve the adsorption of CO2 over the surfaces of photocatalysts. TiO2 photocatalysts (M-TiO2 incorporated with 5.0 mol.% 3d-transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu were prepared using a solvothermal method and mixed with basalt fibers for applications to CO2 photoreduction. The resulting 5.0 mol.% M-TiO2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller surface area, and CO2-temperature-programmed desorption. A paste composed of two materials was coated and fixed on a Pyrex plate by a thermal treatment. The 5.0 mol.% M-TiO2/basalt fiber films increased the adsorption of CO2 significantly, indicating superior photocatalytic behavior compared to pure TiO2 and basalt fiber films, and produced 158~360 μmol gcat-1 L−1 CH4 gases after an 8 h reaction. In particular, the best performance was observed over the 5.0 mol.% Co-TiO2/basalt fiber film. These results were attributed to the effective CO2 gas adsorption and inhibition of photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination.

  16. Photodegradation of phenol by N-Doped TiO2 anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microsphere under UV and visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Salleh, W.N.W.; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A.F.; Nor, Nor Azureen Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microspheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and direct sol–gel method containing titanium-n-butoxide Ti(OBu) 4 as a precursor material, nitric acid as a catalyst, and isopropanol as a solvent. By manipulating calcination temperature, the photocatalyst consisting of different phase compositions of anatase and rutile was obtained. The prepared TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The results from UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy and FTIR revealed the direct incorporation of nitrogen in TiO 2 lattice since visible absorption capability was observed at 400–600 nm. XPS study indicated the incorporation of nitrogen as dopant in TiO 2 at binding energies of 396.8, 397.5, 398.7, 399.8, and 401 eV. Calcination temperature was observed to have a great influence on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 nanorods. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared mixed phase of anatase/rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles was measured by photodegradation phenol in an aqueous solution under UV and visible irradiations. N-doped TiO 2 anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microsphere (consists of 38.3% anatase and 61.7% rutile) that was prepared at 400 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity after irradiated under visible and UV light for 540 min. The high performance of photocatalyst materials could be obtained by adopting a judicious combination of anatase/rutile prepared at optimum calcination conditions. - Highlights: • Synthesis of N-Doped TiO 2 Anatase/Rutile Nanorods via simple preparation method. • Direct incorporation of HNO 3 as the nitrogen dopant source. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV and visible light irradiation. • The optimum calcination temperature is 400 °C for

  17. Mechanism of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Degradation under Solar Light in Presence of a TiO2-Polymeric Film Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Debjani Mukherjee; Ajay K. Ray; Shahzad Barghi

    2016-01-01

    Application of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a photocatalyst has presented a promising avenue for the safe photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Increasing levels of the release of pharmaceuticals in the environment and formation of the intermediates during their degradation may impose health and environmental risks and therefore require more attention. Photocatalytic degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) was carried out in the presence of the TiO2-filled polymeric film as a photocat...

  18. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using F doped TiO2photoelectrode under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Tian, Renwen; Wang, Jianqiao; Nie, Er; Piao, Xianqing; Li, Xin; Sun, Zhuo

    2017-10-01

    Photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) has attracted great interest due to cost effectiveness and high efficiency in water treatment. In this study, F doped TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) photoelectrodes with honeycomb like morphology were prepared, and the PEC performance was investigated. F-TiO 2 particles that showed enhanced absorption of visible light were synthesized via a sol-gel method. F-TiO 2 particles were anchored onto the surface of F-doped SnO 2 glass by a screen-printing method to prepare the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes. The PEC performance of the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes was investigated via the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results show that the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes exhibited an excellent PEC performance that was affected by the F doping content, applied bias and solution pH. A maximum decolorization percentage of 97.8% was achieved by the FT-15 photoelectrode, with a 1.4 V bias at pH 9.94 after 4.0 h of visible light irradiation. The high PEC performance of the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes is mainly ascribed to the efficient separation of electron-hole (e - -h + ) pairs and the creation of active radicals such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The PEC decolorization kinetic data were analyzed using the first-order kinetic model and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model. The data indicates that the PEC degradation of MB molecules mainly occurred on the surface of the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes, and the MB molecules were discolored mainly by h + (41.5%) and OH (46.5%). In addition, 8.2% of the MB molecules were discolored by other oxidative species, and 3.8% of the MB molecules were discolored by self-sensitized oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tunable dielectric properties of TiO2 thin film based MOS systems for application in microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyanan; Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-12-01

    Post-deposition annealing (PDA) is an inherent part of a sol-gel fabrication process to achieve the optimum device performance, especially in CMOS applications. Annealing removes the oxygen vacancies and improves the structural order of the dielectric films. The process also reduces the interface related defects and improves the interfacial properties. Here, we applied a sol-gel spin-coating technique to prepare high-k TiO2 films on the p-Si substrate. These films were fired at 400 °C for the duration of 20, 40, 60 and 80 min to know the effects of annealing time on the device characteristics. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of annealed TiO2 films were examined in Al/TiO2/p-Si device configuration at room temperature. The 60 min annealed film gives the optimum performance and contained 69.5% anatase and 39.5% rutile phase with refractive index 2.40 at 550 nm. The C-V and I-V characteristic showed a significant dependence on annealing time such as variation in dielectric constant and leakage current. This allows us to tune the various electrical properties of MOS systems. The accumulation capacitance (Cox), dielectric constant (κ) and the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the film fired for 60 min were found to be 458 pF, 33, and 4.25 nm, respectively with a low leakage current density (3.13 × 10-7 A/cm2) fired for 80 min at -1 V. The current conduction mechanisms at high bias voltage were dominated by trap-charge limited current (TCLC), while at small voltages, space charge limited current (SCLC) was more prominent.

  20. Study on the water durability of zinc boro-phosphate glasses doped with MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Moon Kyung; Ryu, Bong Ki

    2016-07-01

    The water durability of zinc boro-phosphate (PZB) glasses with the composition 60P2O5-20ZnO-20B2O3- xMeO ( x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and MeO = MgO, Fe2O3, or TiO2) (mol%) was measured, and PZB glass was studied in terms of its thermal properties, density, and FTIR characteristics. The surface conditions and corrosion byproducts were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. When MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were doped into the PZB glass, Q2 was decreased and Q1 was increased in the phosphate structure, while the number of BO4 structures increased with increasing MeO content. The density of the PZB glass was increased by the addition of Fe2O3 and TiO2, while the glass transition temperature ( T g ) and dilatometric softening temperature ( T d ) were increased when additional MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were added. From the weight loss analysis (95 ◦ C, 96 h), TiO2 doped glass showed the lowest weight loss (1.70 × 10 -3 g/cm2) while MgO doped glass showed the highest value (2.44 × 10 -3 g/cm2), compared with PZB glass (3.07 × 10 -3 g/cm2). These results were discussed in terms of the Me n+ ions in the glass structure, and their different coordination numbers and bonding strengths.

  1. SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by N-doped carbon and TiO2 for high-performance Na-ion storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by porous N-doped carbon and TiO2 (TiO2@SnS2@N-C on flexible carbon cloth are prepared and tested as a free-standing anode for high-performance sodium ion batteries. The as-obtained TiO2@SnS2@N-C composite delivers a remarkable capacity performance (840 mA h g−1 at a current density of 200 mA g−1, excellent rate capability and long-cycling life stability (293 mA h g−1 at 1 A g−1 after 600 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of each component of the unique hybrid structure, in which the SnS2 nanosheets with open framworks offer high capacity, while the porous N-doped carbon nanoplates arrays on flexible carbon cloth are able to improve the conductivity and the TiO2 passivation layer can keep the structure integrity of SnS2 nanosheets.

  2. Improved performance of dye sensitized solar cells using Cu-doped TiO2 as photoanode materials: Band edge movement study by spectroelectrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Xia, Xue; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jia; Luan, Tianzhu

    2016-08-01

    Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and used as semiconductor materials of photoanode to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable temperature spectroelectrochemistry study are used to characterize the influence of copper dopant with different concentrations on the band gap energies of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Cu-doped TiO2 semiconductor has avoided the formation of CuO during hydrothermal process and lowered the conduction band position of TiO2, which contribute to increase the short circuit current density of DSSCs. At the optimum Cu concentration of 1.0 at.%, the short circuit current density increased from 12.54 to 14.98 mA cm-2, full sun solar power conversion efficiencies increased from 5.58% up to 6.71% as compared to the blank DSSC. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs leads to improvements of up to 20% in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  3. Ce-doped nanoparticles of TiO2: Rutile-to-brookite phase transition and evolution of Ce local-structure studied with XRD and XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kityakarn, Sutasinee; Worayingyong, Attera; Suramitr, Anwaraporn; Smith, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal and electronic structural changes undergone by TiO 2 nanoparticles when Ce is introduced were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). A small amount of Ce (less than 1% molar concentration) resulted in i/a significant reduction of the average size of the TiO 2 nanoparticles and ii/a phase transition in which brookite replaced rutile as the minority phase component (anatase was the majority phase component at all Ce concentrations studied up to 10% molar concentration). The Ce L3 edge XANES revealed changes in the local environment of Ce impurities. As Ce concentration was increased the fraction of Ce that have formal valence of +3 decreased and, for the remaining Ce with valence +4, the 4f orbitals became less-strongly hybridized with the p-orbitals of oxygen neighbors. The results have implications for photocatalytic and gas sensing properties of Ce-doped TiO 2 . - Highlights: ► Ce-doping: TiO 2 nanoparticles shrink and minority phase changes rutile-> brookite. ► XANES reveals phase change for arbitrarily small particles (while XRD fails). ► As Ce added: fraction of Ce +3 dopants falls, hybridization of Ce +4 with O weakens

  4. Improving Visible Light-Absorptivity and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of a TiO2 Nanotube Anode Film by Sensitization with Bi2O3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglei Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel visible light-active TiO2 nanotube anode film by sensitization with Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The uniform incorporation of Bi2O3 contributes to largely enhancing the solar light absorption and photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2 nanotubes. Due to the energy level difference between Bi2O3 and TiO2, the built-in electric field is suggested to be formed in the Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 hybrid, which effectively separates the photo-generated electron-hole pairs and hence improves the photocatalytic activity. It is also found that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 nanotubes is not in direct proportion with the content of the sensitizer, Bi2O3, which should be carefully controlled to realize excellent photoelectrical properties. With a narrower energy band gap relative to TiO2, the sensitizer Bi2O3 can efficiently harvest the solar energy to generate electrons and holes, while TiO2 collects and transports the charge carriers. The new-type visible light-sensitive photocatalyst presented in this paper will shed light on sensitizing many other wide-band-gap semiconductors for improving solar photocatalysis, and on understanding the visible light-driven photocatalysis through narrow-band-gap semiconductor coupling.

  5. Characteristics and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Thin Film Prepared by Sputter Deposition and Post-N+ Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider A. Shukur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films of a rutile, an anatase, and a mixture type with anatase and rutile were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method. The fabricated films were irradiated by N+ ions with several doses using the Freeman ion source. Atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer were employed to investigate morphology, structure, chemical state, and optical characteristics, respectively. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of a methylene blue solution using UV and visible light. TiO2 thin films with each structure irradiated by N+ ions showed the different N concentration in the same N+ ion dose and the chemical state of XPS results suggested that an O atom in TiO2 lattice replaced by an N atom. Therefore the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films was improved under visible light. The maximum photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films with each structure was indicated at N concentration of 2.1% for a rutile type, of 1.0% for an anatase type, and of 3.8% for a mixture type under the condition of 2.5×1015 ions/cm2 in N+ ion dose.

  6. Enhanced photoelectrochemical efficiency and stability using a conformal TiO2 film on a black silicon photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanhao; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Xin; Kvit, Alexander; Liao, Qingliang; Kang, Zhuo; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xudong

    2017-06-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) is a surface-nanostructured Si with extremely efficient light absorption capability and is therefore of interest for solar energy conversion. However, intense charge recombination and low electrochemical stability limit the use of b-Si in photoelectrochemical solar-fuel production. Here we report that a conformal, ultrathin, amorphous TiO2 film deposited by low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of b-Si can simultaneously address both of these issues. Combined with a Co(OH)2 thin film as the oxygen evolution catalyst, this b-Si/TiO2/Co(OH)2 heterostructured photoanode was able to produce a saturated photocurrent density of 32.3 mA cm-2 at an external potential of 1.48 V versus reversible reference electrode (RHE) in 1 M NaOH electrolyte. The enhanced photocurrent relative to planar Si and unprotected b-Si photoelectrodes was attributed to the enhanced charge separation efficiency as a result of the effective passivation of defective sites on the b-Si surface. The 8-nm ALD TiO2 layer extends the operational lifetime of b-Si from less than half an hour to four hours.

  7. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor’s output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  8. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of F-containing TiO2 sphere thin film induced by its novel hierarchical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiang; Tao Jie; Li Yingying; Zhu Hong

    2009-01-01

    The novel nanostructured F-containing TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) sphere was directly synthesized on the surface of Ti foil in the solution of NH 4 F and HCl by one-step hydrothermal approach under low-temperature condition. The samples were characterized respectively by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the F-TiO 2 sphere was hierarchical structure, which composed of porous octahedron crystals with one truncated cone, leading to a football-like morphology. XPS results indicated that F - anions were just physically adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 microspheres. The studies on the optical properties of the F-TiO 2 were carried out by UV-vis light absorption spectrum. The surface fluorination of the spheres, the unique nanostructure induced accessible macropores or mesopores, and the increased light-harvesting abilities were crucial for the high photoelectrochemical activity of the synthesized F-TiO 2 sphere for water-splitting. The photocurrent density of the F-TiO 2 sphere thin film was more than two times than that of the P25 thin film. Meanwhile, a formation mechanism was briefly proposed. This approach could provide a facile method to synthesize F-TiO 2 microsphere with a special morphology and hierarchical structure in large scale.

  9. Oxidation behaviors of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) on indium tin oxide surfaces without and with additional TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Han; Kim, Young Dok

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) layers spin-coated on bare and TiO 2 -coated indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with two different TiO 2 film thicknesses were exposed to visible light and humid atmosphere, and the oxidation behaviors these layers were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. S atoms in P3HT were oxidized to sulfoxide without ring opening of P3HT under our experimental conditions. When the mean thickness of TiO 2 on ITO was ⁓19 nm, oxidation of the S atoms on this substrate was more pronounced than on bare ITO and ITO covered with thinner TiO 2 films (mean thickness: ⁓7 nm). Studies using photoluminescence (PL) suggest that electron–hole pairs created in P3HT on bare ITO can be transferred into the ITO and most likely recombine efficiently in ITO by electron–electron scattering. Relatively thin TiO 2 films on ITO do not show much change in PL with respect to the case of bare ITO; however, when a thicker TiO 2 film is deposited between ITO and P3HT, charge transfer from optically excited P3HT to ITO seems to be suppressed. Therefore, the probability for charge transfer from optically excited P3HT to O 2 and H 2 O, forming strong oxidizing agents such as math formula and OH radicals, can be increased in the presence of a thicker TiO 2 film on ITO

  10. Photoinduced reversible lattice expansion in W-doped TiO2 through the change of its electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Yang, Weiyi; Gao, Shuang; Zhu, Linggang; Li, Qi

    2018-02-01

    External stimulations of applied force or voltage have been reported to induce crystal lattice dimension changes with the order of 0.1% or above by imposing external mechanical or electric forces on atoms forming the lattice for various types of materials, including oxides, metals, polymers, and carbon nanostructures. As far as we know, however, no report is available for similar level changes in oxides from their internal electronic structure changes induced by photoirradiation. We show that reversible lattice expansion comparable to those by applied force or voltage can be induced by UV-irradiation on an oxide of W-doped TiO2 nanotubes through the reversible changes of its internal electronic structure by the accumulation and release of photogenerated electrons in W-dopants when UV-illumination is on and off. This photoirradiation-induced reversible lattice expansion and subsequent optical, electric, and magnetic property changes may also be present in other material systems by proper material design if they possess one component that is able to produce electrons upon photoirradiation and the other component that is able to accumulate photogenerated electrons to induce lattice changes and release them after the photoirradiation is off.

  11. Low temperature self-assembled growth of rutile TiO2/manganese oxide nanocrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenya; Zhou, Daokun; Du, Jianhua; Xie, Yuxing

    2017-10-01

    We report formation of rutile TiO2 nanocrystal at low temperature range in the presence of α-MnO2 which self-assembled onto sulfanyl radical activated silicon oxide substrate. SEM, HRTEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the morphology and oxidation state of synthesised crystals. The results showed that when the α-MnO2 was reduced to Mn3O4, it induced the formation of rutile instead of anatase phase in the TiCl4-HCl aqueous system. The finding will promote the understanding of phase transformation mechanism when manganese oxide and titanium oxide co-exist in soil and water environment.

  12. The effect of Co-doping on the humidity sensing properties of ordered mesoporous TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Haidry, Azhar Ali; Gao, Bin; Wang, Tao; Yao, ZhengJun

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring of humidity is of utmost importance as it is essential part of almost every process in our life. Many commercial humidity sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors are available in the market, but there is still need to synthesize low-cost, fast and highly sensitive humidity sensors with no interference from background environment. The aim of this work was to fabricate the ordered mesoporous un-doped and Co-doped TiO2 (0.1-5 mol% Co) and to analyze its humidity sensing properties at room temperatures. The ordered mesoporous powders with high specific surface area (SSA) were prepared by multicomponent self-assembly procedure and then spray-coated onto the sensor substrates with interdigitated gold electrodes. The sensors exhibited excellent stability and reproducible resistance change under various relative humidity percentages (9-90% RH) with negligible effect of background environment. For instance, the response to 90% RH at room temperature was about five orders of magnitude (∼1.39 × 105) and the response time (Tres) was ∼24 s. The reaction/recovery times of the sensors were compared with commercial humidity sensor to show that the reaction times in this work are not given by the surface reaction of water vapor on the sensor surfaces, rather these are mainly influenced by the experimental setup. The sensor response increased up to 3 mol% Co-contents and then decreased for 5 mol% Co-contents. Based on the experimental results, the surface reaction of humidity is discussed related to specific surface area, average grain size and cobalt contents to understand the humidity sensing mechanism.

  13. Tunable optical properties of hybrid inorganic-organic [(TiO2)m(Ti-O-C6H4-O-)k]n superlattice thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-14

    A combined atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) process was developed to fabricate inorganic-organic [(TiO2)m(Ti-O-C6H4-O-)k]n thin films from TiCl4, water and hydroquinone (HQ) precursors, and in particular, superlattice structures where single-molecular organic layers (k = 1) are periodically sandwiched between thicker TiO2 layers (m > 1). The incorporation of organic layers was found to systematically blue-shift the optical band gap of TiO2 with decreasing superlattice period and--most importantly--to sensitize the TiO2 layers to visible light over a considerable part of the visible range below 700 nm, a fact that could be of substantial interest for photocatalysis and solar cell applications.

  14. Comparative study of the anchorage and the catalytic properties of nanoporous TiO2 films modified with ruthenium (II) and rhenium (I) carbonyl complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Diego P.; Chardon-Noblat, Sylvie; Linarez Pérez, Omar E.; López Teijelo, Manuel; Zúñiga, César; Zarate, Ximena; Shott, Eduardo; Carreño, Alexander; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro

    2018-02-01

    In this article we study the anchoring of cis-[Ru(bpyC4pyr)(CO)2(CH3CN)2]2+, cis-[Ru(bpy)2(CO)2]2+ and cis-[Ru(bpyac)(CO)2Cl2], onto nanoporous TiO2 employing electropolymerization, electrostatic interaction and chemical bonding. Also, the [Re(bpyac)(CO)3Cl] rhenium(I) complex for chemical anchorage was analyzed. The characterization of TiO2/Ru(II) and TiO2/Re(I) nanocomposite films was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, for the more stable nanocomposites obtained, the catalytic properties (solar energy conversion and CO2 reduction) were evaluated. The efficiency improvement in redox process derived from the (photo)electrochemical evidence indicates that modified nanoporous TiO2 structures enhance the rate of charge transfer reactions.

  15. Solvothermal syntheses of Bi and Zn co-doped TiO2 with enhanced electron-hole separation and efficient photodegradation of gaseous toluene under visible-light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan-Juan; Cai, Song-Cai; Xu, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jin; Jia, Hong-Peng; Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi-Zn co-doped TiO 2 catalysts were prepared by solvothermal route. • The incorporation of Bi doping into the TiO 2 generates intermediate energy levels. • Bi and Zn doping showed the enhanced absorption in visible-light region. • Zn dopant acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer. • TiBi 1.9% Zn 1% O 2 exhibited high photocatalytic degradation for toluene. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of Bi doped and Bi-Zn co-doped TiO 2 on photodegradation of gaseous toluene. The doped TiO 2 with various concentration of metal was prepared using the solvothermal route and characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, BET, DRS, XPS, PL and EPR. Their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation were drastically influenced by the dopant content. The results showed that moderate metal doping levels were obviously beneficial for the toluene degradation, while high doping levels suppressed the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over TiBi 1.9% O 2 and TiBi 1.9% Zn 1% O 2 can reach to 51% and 93%, respectively, which are much higher than 25% of TiO 2 . Bi doping into TiO 2 lattice generates new intermediate energy level of Bi below the CB edge of TiO 2 . The electron excitation from the VB to Bi orbitals results in the decreased band gap, extended absorption of visible-light and thus enhances its photocatalytic efficiency. Zn doping not only further enhances the absorption in this visible-light region, but also Zn dopant exists as the form of ZnO crystallites located on the interfaces of TiO 2 agglomerates and acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer to suppress the electron-hole recombination. These synergistic effects are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  16. Photocatalytic oxidation of toluene in presence of water vapor using sol-gel synthesized N-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sau, Nguyen; An, Ngo Thanh; Long, Nguyen Quang

    2017-09-01

    Toluene removal by photocatalytic oxidation in presence of water vapor was investigated on N-doped TiO2. The photocatalyst was prepared by a sol-gel method and characterized by various techniques. The conversion of toluene by photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of water vapor was reported at different reaction conditions, such as various reaction temperatures, various toluene/ water vapor concentrations. By using Langmuir- Hinshelwood model the activation energy (Ea) of the reaction of 1.33 kcal/mol was obtained. The heat of toluene adsorption and the heat of water vapor adsorption on the N-doped TiO2 catalyst were approximately -3.47 kcal/mol and -3.30 kcal/mol, respectively.

  17. On the thermal growth and properties of doped TiO2 and In2O3 elongated nanostructures and nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremades, A.; Herrera, M.; Bartolomé, J.; Vásquez, G.C.; Maestre, D.; Piqueras, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the driving forces behind the growth mechanisms of In 2 O 3 and TiO 2 micro- and nano-structures grown by an evaporation–solidification method are discussed. Effective or limited doping incorporation and its influence on the growth and morphology of the low dimensional structures are also assessed. A dislocation driven growth mechanism is proposed for indium oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc doped indium oxide (IZO) nanowires. This growth mechanism is extended to the growth of IZO nano-plates. On the other hand, different low dimensional TiO 2 morphologies, mainly nanowires, needles, and bidimensional leaf-like nanostructures, have been obtained by an anisotropic induced growth. By introducing Cr in the precursor mixture, needles are formed showing stepped lateral faces related to oxygen defect stoichiometry areas as observed by EDS mapping

  18. Sol-Gel to Prepare Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals with Exposed {001} Facets and High Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets was prepared successfully by sol-gel method for the first time. The physicochemical properties of these resultant photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, and DRS, and their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue solution under visible light (λ>420 nm irradiation. The results showed that the N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets showed higher photocatalytic activity than P25. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to synergistic effects of several factors, such as good crystallinity, better light response characteristic, and high reactivity of {001} facets.

  19. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  20. UV and visible activation of Cr(III)-doped TiO2catalyst prepared by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method during MCPA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, S Y; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Turnes-Palomino, G; Maya-Alejandro, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2017-05-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solution using Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 under UV and visible light was investigated. The semiconductor material was synthesized by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method with Cr(III) doping contents of 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 wt%. The catalyst was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen physisorption, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of MCPA was followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The intermediates formed during degradation were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloride ion evolution was measured by ion chromatography. Characterization results showed that Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 materials possessed a small crystalline size, high surface area, and mesoporous structure. UV-Vis DRS showed enhanced absorption in the visible region as a function of the Cr(III) concentration. The Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 catalyst with 0.04 wt% of Cr(III) was more active than bare TiO 2 for the degradation of MCPA under both UV and visible light. The intermediates identified during MCPA degradation were 4-chloro-2-methylphenol (CMP), 2-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid (HMPA), and 2-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,4-diyl-bis (oxy)dimethanol (HBDM); the formation of these intermediates depended on the radiation source.

  1. Facile Synthesis and Characterization of N-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst and Its Visible-Light Activity for Photo-Oxidation of Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile wet chemical method was adopted for preparing highly photoactive nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 powders with visible responsive capability, which could be achieved by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP in the ammonium hydroxide precursor solution in various concentrations and then calcined at different temperatures. The N-TiO2 powders were characterized, and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the photocatalytic oxidation of ethylene gas under visible light irradiation to optimize the synthesizing conditions of N-TiO2 catalyst. The N-TiO2 photocatalytic powders were calcined in a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C and obviously found to have greater photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 P25. The strong absorption in the visible light region could be ascribed to good crystallization and adapted sinter temperature of as prepared sample. XPS test demonstrated that the N was doped into TiO2 lattice and made an interstitial formation (Ti-O-N, and N doping also retarded the phase transformation from anatase to rutile as well. The N-TiO2 catalyst prepared with 150 mL ammonium hydroxide added and calcined at 500°C showed the best photocatalytic activity. The experimental results also proved the enhanced photoactivity of N-TiO2 material depends on the synthesizing conditions.

  2. Tm-doped TiO2 and Tm2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanoparticles: enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile with a pyrochlore phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré M. De los Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tm-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a water-controlled hydrolysis reaction. Analysis was performed in order to determine the influence of the dopant concentration and annealing temperature on the phase, crystallinity, and electronic and optical properties of the resulting material. Various characterization techniques were utilized such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. For the samples annealed at 773 and 973 K, anatase phase TiO2 was obtained, predominantly internally doped with Tm3+. ICP–AES showed that a doping concentration of up to 5.8 atom % was obtained without reducing the crystallinity of the samples. The presence of Tm3+ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy: the incorporation of Tm3+ was confirmed by the generation of new absorption bands that could be assigned to Tm3+ transitions. Furthermore, when the samples were annealed at 1173 K, a pyrochlore phase (Tm2Ti2O7 mixed with TiO2 was obtained with a predominant rutile phase. The photodegradation of methylene blue showed that this pyrochlore phase enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the rutile phase.

  3. Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and coating of the nanoparticles on the ceramic pellets for photocatalytic study: Surface properties and photoactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Avciata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Ag doped nano TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized in powder form by hydrothermal method at 180 ºC in 120 min using different reduction agents. The synthesized powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Surface area measurements (BET, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. The effect of reduction agents on the morphological properties of Ag doped nano TiO2 has been studied. We have been observed that the use of different reduction agents affects the particle size and surface area. Ag doped nano TiO2 photocatalysts were coated to the ceramic pellets by dip coating technique for photocatalytic study. Photocatalytic properties of the synthesized powder were examined in a circulating aquarium filled with indigo blue (IB solution under UV irradiation. Periodical UV spectrophotometric analysis showed that indigo blue (IB has been degraded and its concentration has decreased under UV irradiation by time.

  4. Investigation of various properties of HfO2-TiO2 thin film composites deposited by multi-magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, M.; Poniedziałek, A.; Kaczmarek, D.; Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Gibson, D.

    2017-11-01

    In this work the properties of hafnium dioxide (HfO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and mixed HfO2-TiO2 thin films with various amount of titanium addition, deposited by magnetron sputtering were described. Structural, surface, optical and mechanical properties of deposited coatings were analyzed. Based on X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measuremets it was observed that there was a significant influence of titanium concentration in mixed TiO2-HfO2 thin films on their microstructure. Increase of Ti content in prepared mixed oxides coatings caused, e.g. a decrease of average crystallite size and amorphisation of the coatings. As-deposited hafnia and titania thin films exhibited nanocrystalline structure of monoclinic phase and mixed anatase-rutile phase for HfO2 and TiO2 thin films, respectively. Atomic force microscopy investigations showed that the surface of deposited thin films was densely packed, crack-free and composed of visible grains. Surface roughness and the value of water contact angle decreased with the increase of Ti content in mixed oxides. Results of optical studies showed that all deposited thin films were well transparent in a visible light range. The effect of the change of material composition on the cut-off wavelength, refractive index and packing density was also investigated. Performed measurements of mechanical properties revealed that hardness and Young's elastic modulus of thin films were dependent on material composition. Hardness of thin films increased with an increase of Ti content in thin films, from 4.90 GPa to 13.7 GPa for HfO2 and TiO2, respectively. The results of the scratch resistance showed that thin films with proper material composition can be used as protective coatings in optical devices.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting

  6. Kinetic analysis on photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on nanosized porous TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Sopyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the UV illumination-assisted degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia on highly active nanostructured-anatase and rutile films were investigated. It was found that the anatase film showed a higher photocatalytic activity than the counterpart did, however, the magnitude of difference in the photocatalytic activity of both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide. To elucidate the reasons for the observation, the adsorption characteristics and the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of the three reactants on both films were analyzed. The adsorption analysis examined using a simple Langmuir isotherm, showed that adsorbability on both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide, which can be explained in terms of the decreasing electron-donor capacity. Acetaldehyde and ammonia adsorbed more strongly and with higher coverage on anatase film (1.2 and 5.6 molecules/nm2, respectively than on rutile (0.6 and 4.7 molecules/nm2, respectively. Conversely, hydrogen sulfide molecules adsorbed more strongly on rutile film (0.7 molecules/nm2 than on anatase (0.4 molecules/nm2. Exposure to UV light illumination brought about the photocatalytic oxidation of the three gases in contact with both TiO2 films, and the decrease in concentration were measured, and their kinetics are analyzed in terms of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. From the kinetic analysis, it was found that the anatase film showed the photocatalytic activities that were factors of ~8 and ~5 higher than the rutile film for the degradation of gaseous ammonia and acetaldehyde, respectively. However, the activity was only a factor of ~1.5 higher for the photodegradation of hydrogen sulfide. These observations are systematically explained by the charge separation efficiency and the adsorption characteristics of each catalyst as well as by the physical and electrochemical properties of each

  7. Effectively Improved SiO2-TiO2 Composite Films Applied in Commercial Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite silicon dioxide-titanium dioxide (SiO2-TiO2 films are deposited on a large area of 15.6 × 15.6 cm2 textured multicrystalline silicon solar cells to increase the incident light trapped within the device. For further improvement of the antireflective coatings (ARCs quality, dimethylformamide (DMF solution is added to the original SiO2-TiO2 solutions. DMF solution solves the cracking problem, thus effectively decreasing reflectance as well as surface recombination. The ARCs prepared by sol-gel process and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD on multicrystalline silicon substrate are compared. The average efficiency of the devices with improved sol-gel ARCs is 16.3%, only 0.5% lower than that of devices with PECVD ARCs (16.8%. However, from equipment depreciation point of view (the expiration date of equipment is generally considered as 5 years, the running cost (USD/watt of sol-gel technique is 80% lower than that of PECVD method for the first five years and 66% lower than that of PECVD method from the start of the sixth year. This result proves that sol-gel-deposited ARCs process has potential applications in manufacturing low-cost, large-area solar cells.

  8. Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO2 films under above-band-gap illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. D.; Son, B. H.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Sang Yong; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO 2 nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 μm as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 μm. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency

  9. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  10. Thermo-Optical Properties of Thin-Film TiO2–Al2O3 Bilayers Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optical and thermo-optical properties of amorphous TiO\\(_2\\–Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ thin-film bilayers fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD. Seven samples of TiO\\(_2\\–Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ bilayers are fabricated by growing Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ films of different thicknesses on the surface of TiO\\(_2\\ films of constant thickness (100 nm. Temperature-induced changes in the optical refractive indices of these thin-film bilayers are measured by a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer VASE\\textsuperscript{\\textregistered}. The optical data and the thermo-optic coefficients of the films are retrieved and calculated by applying the Cauchy model and the linear fitting regression algorithm, in order to evaluate the surface porosity model of TiO\\(_2\\ films. The effects of TiO\\(_2\\ surface defects on the films' thermo-optic properties are reduced and modified by depositing ultra-thin ALD-Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ diffusion barrier layers. Increasing the ALD-Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ thickness from 20 nm to 30 nm results in a sign change of the thermo-optic coefficient of the ALD-TiO\\(_2\\. The thermo-optic coefficients of the 100 nm-thick ALD-TiO\\(_2\\ film and 30 nm-thick ALD-Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ film in a bilayer are (0.048 \\(\\pm\\ 0.134 \\(\\times 10 ^{-4} {^\\circ}\\mathrm {C}^{-1}\\ and (0.680 \\(\\pm\\ 0.313 \\(\\times 10^{-4} {^\\circ} \\mathrm {C}^{-1}\\, respectively, at a temperature \\(T = 62 ^\\circ \\mathrm{C}\\.

  11. Synthesis of calcium-phosphorous doped TiO2 nanotubes by anodization and reverse polarization: A promising strategy for an efficient biofunctional implant surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sofia A.; Patel, Sweetu B.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Filho, Paulo N.; Celis, Jean-Pierre; Rocha, Luís A.; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-03-01

    The modification of surface features such as nano-morphology/topography and chemistry have been employed in the attempt to design titanium oxide surfaces able to overcome the current dental implants failures. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of bone-like structured titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes enriched with Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) able to enhance osteoblastic cell functions and, simultaneously, display an improved corrosion behavior. To achieve the main goal, TiO2 nanotubes were synthetized and doped with Ca and P by means of a novel methodology which relied, firstly, on the synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes by anodization of titanium in an organic electrolyte followed by reverse polarization and/or anodization, in an aqueous electrolyte. Results show that hydrophilic bone-like structured TiO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized presenting a highly ordered nano-morphology characterized by non-uniform diameters. The chemical analysis of such nanotubes confirmed the presence of CaCO3, Ca3(PO4)2, CaHPO4 and CaO compounds. The nanotube surfaces submitted to reverse polarization, presented an improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to smooth titanium. Furthermore, these surfaces displayed a significantly lower passive current in artificial saliva, and so, potential to minimize their bio-degradation through corrosion processes. This study addresses a very simple and promising multidisciplinary approach bringing new insights for the development of novel methodologies to improve the outcome of osseointegrated implants.

  12. Growth of TiO2 thin films on chemically textured Si for solar cell applications as a hole-blocking and antireflection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranveer; Kumar, Mohit; Saini, Mahesh; Singh, Avanendra; Satpati, Biswarup; Som, Tapobrata

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the broad-band photoabsorption of an n-TiO2 thin film and its hole-blocking properties when a heterostructure is grown on a chemically textured p-Si substrate. We demonstrate that average specular reflectance of conformally grown TiO2 thin films on chemically prepared pyramidally textured Si substrates can be brought down to ∼0.2% (in the wavelength range of 300-1200 nm), which increases up to ∼0.53% after annealing at 673 K in air for 1 h. X-ray diffraction data reveal the amorphous nature of as-grown TiO2 thin films which undergoes a transition to a crystalline one after annealing. In addition, bulk current-voltage characteristics show that the leakage current increases after annealing which corroborates well a with change in the band gap, as is measured from the optical absorption spectra, due to a transition from amorphous to crystalline (anatase phase) of TiO2. Moreover, TiO2/Si heterojunction allows the transport of electrons but blocks the transport of holes. The present results are not only important for the fundamental understanding of the charge transport across TiO2/Si heterostructures but also to design hole-blocking solar cells.

  13. Surface modification of porous nanocrystalline TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cell application by various gas plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Yoon, Chang-Ho; Kim, Kang-Jin; Lee, Yeonhee

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has surface defects such as oxygen vacancies created during the annealing process. The authors used a plasma treatment technique to reduce defects on TiO 2 surfaces. They investigated the influence of different gas plasma treatments of TiO 2 film on the photoelectric performance of DSSC. Short-circuit photocurrent density (J sc ), open-circuit photovoltage (V oc ), and the amount of adsorbed dye for DSSCs were measured. As a result, the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of the O 2 - and N 2 -treated cells increased by 15%-20% compared to untreated cells. On the other hand, solar energy conversion efficiency of CF 4 -plasma treated cells decreased drastically. The increased amount of adsorbed dye on the TiO 2 film was measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. TiO 2 surfaces modified by plasma treatment were characterized using analytical instruments such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure

  14. The synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a solvent-thermal process followed by the calcination with thiourea at an optimum heat treatment temperature. Under current experimental conditions, the optimum heat treatment temperature was found at 300°C, which successfully introduced nitrogen and sulfur dopants into the anatase lattice to replace a small portion of oxygen atoms while preserving the geometry of these anatase TiO2 nanocrystals to maintain a high percentage of {001} facets. These nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals demonstrated a largely enhanced light absorption in the whole visible-light range and exhibited much higher photocatalytic performance than both P25 TiO2 nanoparticles and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high percentage of {001} facets under visible-light illumination. PMID:23095371

  15. Fe doped TiO2 photocatalyst for the removal of As(III) under visible radiation and its potential application on the treatment of As-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza-Arévalo, J.I.; García-Montes, I.; Reyes, M.Hinojosa; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.; Rodríguez-González, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Incorporation of Fe in TiO 2 lattice extended absorption to visible light region. • TiO 2 –Fe 1.0 in anatase crystalline form was synthesized by sol–gel method. • TiO 2 –Fe 1.0 showed the highest photocatalytic activity for As(III) oxidation. • TiO 2 –Fe 1.0 had the highest adsorption capacity for the removal of generated As(V). • TiO 2 –Fe is a promising material on the treatment of As contaminated groundwater. - Abstract: The Fe doped TiO 2 catalyst was evaluated under visible radiation for As(III) removal. The TiO 2 –Fe was synthesized by sol–gel technique at 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt% iron doping concentrations. The semiconductors were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance UV–vis, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen physisorption, SEM–EDS and potentiometric titration for point of zero charge determination. The photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) was assessed in aqueous suspension contained 5 mg L −1 As(III) at pH 7 with 0.25 g L −1 catalyst loading. The incorporation of iron ions in TiO 2 lattice extended the absorption to visible light region and create surface oxygen vacancies which favor photocatalytic oxidation reaction of As(III) using a small doping amount of Fe (1.0 wt%) in TiO 2 powder. Additionally, TiO 2 –Fe 1.0 showed the highest adsorption capacity for As(V) removal compared to sol–gel TiO 2 and P25 indicating that this catalyst is a promising material for As contaminated groundwater treatment.

  16. Laser synthesis of hierarchically organized nanostructured TiO2 films on microfibrous carbon paper substrate: Characterization and electrocatalyst supporting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youling; Tabet-Aoul, Amel; Mohamedi, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide is cheap, non-toxic, exhibits a high mechanical resistance, very stable in acidic and oxidative environments is being studied as alternative to carbon as catalyst support in low-temperature fuel cells. Herein, via pulsed laser deposition, various morphologies of TiO2 thin films are synthesized at room temperature onto conductive microfibrous carbon paper substrate, which is the type of substrate, employed in energy storage and conversion devices. TiO2 films deposited under vacuum and in the presence of mild pressure of oxygen are very smooth and dense. Instead, TiO2 films deposited in the presence of helium atmosphere are of porous structures and vertically aligned. An increase in the helium pressure leads to the formation of forest-like vertically aligned nanostructures. Micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that the films are amorphous and of rutile phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that Ti is in fully oxidized state of Ti4+. The electrocatalytic supporting properties to Pt are investigated in H2SO4 and O2-saturated H2SO4 solution. It is found that regardless of the film morphology, all the synthesized TiO2 films dramatically increase the electroactive surface area of Pt and enhance its electroactivity towards oxygen reduction reaction as compared with bare Pt electrode.

  17. Charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells based on hybrid films of TiO2 particles/TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Peng; Que Wenxiu; Zhang Jin; Jia Qiaoying; Wang Wenjuan; Liao Yulong; Hu, X.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → The electron lifetime increases with increasing the nanotube concentration. → The electron transport time is shortest at 10 wt% TiO 2 nanotubes. → The electron collection efficiency achieves maxima at 10 wt% nanotubes. → The energy conversion efficiency obtains the highest value at 10 wt% nanotubes. - Abstract: In this paper, anodic TiO 2 nanotubes are blended into the TiO 2 mesoporous films based on P25 nanoparticles to assemble a list of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with different nanotube concentrations. The electron properties of transport and recombination in the fabricated DSSCs are studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the open-circuit voltage decay technique under AM 1.5 illumination. Results indicate that the electron lifetime increases with increasing the concentration of the anodic TiO 2 nanotubes, the electron transport time at a blending level of 10 wt% TiO 2 nanotubes is short as compared to that at 0 wt%, and above 10 wt%, the electron transport time has a trend of becoming large. Due to the combining effects of the electron transport and recombination, the electron collecting efficiency and the electron diffusion length obtain maxima at a blending level of 10 wt% nanotubes, which results in a highest short circuit current and a maximum energy conversion efficiency at this point in the DSSCs. This study gives a clear explanation for the performance enhancement of TiO 2 particle-based DSSCs at a blending level of 10 wt% anodic TiO 2 nanotubes and for the performance decrease at a blending level over 10 wt% anodic TiO 2 nanotubes from the angle of the electron transport and recombination. This study also supplies a feasible and easy way to improve the performance of particle-based DSSCs by restraining electron recombination and accelerating electron transportation.

  18. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO 2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag–S and disulfide bonds (R–S–S–R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated • OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling. (paper)

  19. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  20. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  1. Probability of Two-Step Photoexcitation of Electron from Valence Band to Conduction Band through Doping Level in TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masami; Shiroishi, Wataru; Honghao, Hou; Suizu, Hiroshi; Nagai, Hideyuki; Saito, Nobuo

    2017-08-17

    For an Ir-doped TiO 2 (Ir:TiO 2 ) photocatalyst, we examined the most dominant electron-transfer path for the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance. The Ir:TiO 2 photocatalyst showed a much higher photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation than nondoped TiO 2 after grafting with the cocatalyst of Fe 3+ . For the Ir:TiO 2 photocatalyst, the two-step photoexcitation of an electron from the valence band to the conduction band through the Ir doping level occurred upon visible-light irradiation, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The two-step photoexcitation through the doping level was found to be a more stable process with a lower recombination rate of hole-electron pairs than the two-step photoexcitation process through an oxygen vacancy. Once electrons are photoexcited to the conduction band by the two-step excitation, the electrons can easily transfer to the surface because the conduction band is a continuous electron path, whereas the electrons photoexcited at only the doping level could not easily transfer to the surface because of the discontinuity of this path. The observed two-step photoexcitation from the valence band to the conduction band through the doping level significantly contributes to the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and degradation of Bisphenol A using Pr, N co-doped TiO 2 with highly visible light activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Dai, Jun; Li, Jiantong

    2011-08-01

    Praseodymium and nitrogen co-doped titania (Pr/N-TiO 2) photocatalysts, which could degrade Bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, were prepared by the modified sol-gel process. Tetrabutyl titanate, urea and praseodymium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen and praseodymium, respectively. The resulting materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). It was found that Pr doping inhibited the growth of crystalline size and the transformation from anatase to rutile. The degradation of BPA under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photo-activity of the co-doped photocatalyst. In our experiments, the optimal dopant amount of Pr was 1.2 mol% and the calcination temperature was 500 °C for the best photocatalytic activity. Pr/N-TiO 2 samples exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared to N-TiO 2, undoped TiO 2 and commercial P25. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. Pr doping could slow the radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO 2. The improvement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen and Pr co-doping.

  3. Polaron variable range hopping in TiO2-δ(-0.04=<δ=<0.2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heluani, S.P.; Comedi, D.; Villafuerte, M.; Juarez, G.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrical conduction in TiO 2-δ (-0.04= 2 +Ar gas atmospheres where changes in δ and film structure had been achieved by varying the O 2 flow rate and the substrate temperature. The electrical transport properties of these samples were investigated by measuring the conductivity as a function of temperature between 17K and room temperature. At the temperature range between 200 and 290K the best fit to the experimental data was obtained assuming a dependence characteristic of adiabatic variable range hopping. At lower temperature the activation energy for the conductivity tends to zero. The results suggest that the conduction mechanism is adiabatic small polaron hopping, which switches to conduction in a polaron band at low temperatures

  4. Phase transformation and particle growth in nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 films analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendorz, A.; Brodyanski, A.; Lösch, J.; Bai, L. H.; Chen, Z. H.; Le, Y. K.; Ziegler, C.; Gnaser, H.

    2007-09-01

    Nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 films were prepared from colloidal suspensions using particles with a nominal size of 12 nm. Their structure was examined by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as-prepared specimens exhibit exclusively features due to the anatase phase of TiO 2 (e.g., the Eg, B1g and A1g vibration modes in Raman spectroscopy and the characteristic diffraction peaks in XRD). Isochronal annealing of the films in air at temperatures of up to 1320 K effected clear structural changes, observed both in Raman and XRD: the crystallite size increases from ˜13 nm to ˜125 nm between 470 K and 1220 K, with the crystallites remaining in the anatase phase. A phase transition to the rutile phase of TiO 2 occurs gradually in the temperature range 1220-1320 K and the average crystallite size increases to ˜160 nm.

  5. Influence of ambient gas on the photoluminescence of sol-gel derived TiO2:Sm3+ films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedo, Valter; Lange, Sven; Kiisk, Valter; Lukner, Argo; Tätte, Tanel; Sildos, Ilmo

    2005-08-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) of TiO2:Sm3+ thin films was studied at RT. The films were prepared by the sol-gel spin-coating technique or by atomic layer deposition (ALD) followed by ion implantation. The PL was excited with a Nd:YAG pulse laser emitting at 355 nm. The spectrum of PL consists of intense Sm3+-specific emission lines with a well-pronounced fme structure. The influence of different gaseous environments (air, oxygen, nitrogen) or vacuum on the Sm3+ emission was investigated. In the case of a permanent irradiation of sol-gel films in an oxygen-containing environment, the PL intensity increased. The increase was significantly large but slow. The subsequent evacuation of the measurement chamber led to a rapid decrease of the emission below the detection limit. When the oxygen-containing gas was without any intermediate evacuation replaced by nitrogen, the PL intensity descended to an almost vacuum level. The subsequent exposure to oxygen led to a rather fast emission recovery. The ALD-prepared films exhibited a similar but markedly slower response. The fast response observed was attributed to the adsorption of oxygen on the surface, and the slower one, to the diffbsion of oxygen vacancies taking place under the irradiation in the bulk.

  6. Study on plasma pre-functionalized PVC film grafted with TiO2/PVP to improve blood compatible and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arjunan; Shanmugavelayutham, Gurusamy; Serra Rodríguez, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Research into the design of new biopolymers/polymer functionalized with nanoparticles is of tremendous interest to the medical sector, particularly with regard to blood-contacting devices. In this present study, a steady blood compatible and active antibacterial coating was fabricated by the grafting of titanium dioxide (TiO2)/polyvinylpyyrolidone (PVP) onto a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film surface via the direct-current glow discharge plasma method. To enhance the chemical interaction between TiO2/PVP and PVC, the surfaces of the PVC films were functionalized by different plasmas (air, argon, and oxygen) before coating. In this study, the plasma parameters were varied, such as treatment time of about 5-20 min for a constant power of 100 W, potential 300 V, and a constant gas pressure of 2 Pa for air, argon, and oxygen gas environment. Then, the different plasma treatments on the PVC films, TiO2/PVP were grafted using a simple dip-coating method. In addition, the TiO2/PVP-grafted PVC films were characterized by contact angle, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Importantly, TiO2/PVP is grafted onto the PVC surface due to the plasma-based retained functionality and demonstrates adhesive efficiency, which was observed by XPS. The bio-stability of the TiO2/PVP-modified PVC film was evaluated by in vitro platelet activation analysis and protein adsorption analysis. Then, the antibacterial properties were evaluated by the agar diffusion method against Escherichia coli. The result reveals that the grafting of TiO2/PVP was slightly higher for the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC, which significantly decreases the platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC with TiO2/PVP-grafted film is also greatly improved compared with an air- and argon-functionalized surface

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Visible-Light-Activated Fe-N Co-Doped TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Inactivation Effect on Leukemia Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe-N co-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol-gel method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Then the photocatalytic inactivation of Fe-N-doped TiO2 on leukemia tumors was investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. Additionally, the ultrastructural morphology and apoptotic percentage of treated cells were also studied. The experimental results showed that the growth of leukemic HL60 cells was significantly inhibited in groups treated with TiO2 nanoparticles and the photocatalytic activity of Fe-N-TiO2 was significantly higher than that of Fe-TiO2 and N-TiO2, indicating that the photocatalytic efficiency could be effectively enhanced by the modification of Fe-N. Furthermore, when 2 wt% Fe-N-TiO2 nanocomposites at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL were used, the inactivation efficiency of 78.5% was achieved after 30-minute light therapy.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T.; Kaloudis, T.; Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P.; Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M.; Hiskia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► N-TiO 2 exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. ► Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. ► The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N-TiO 2 ) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO 2 , Kronos and reference TiO 2 nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO 2 followed by N-TiO 2 with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO 2 nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO 2 for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO 2 displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO 2 − , NO 3 − and NH 4 + ) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  9. Factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by UV laser irradiation: TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, or concentration in the film, and the irradiated UV laser power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshiteru

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to study factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation: particle size, crystal structure, or concentration of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in film, and irradiated UV laser power. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films containing 4.0% of TiO2, of which BET particle sizes were ranging from 126.1 to 219.8 nm, were irradiated 3.14W of UV laser at a wavelength 355 nm to study effects of TiO2 particle size and crystal structure on the printing. The films containing TiO2 concentration ranging from 1.0 to 7.7% were irradiated 3.14 or 5.39W of the UV laser to study effect of TiO2 concentration on the printing. The film containing 4.0% of TiO2, was irradiated the UV laser up to 6.42W to study effect of the UV laser power on the printing. The color strength of the printed films was estimated by a spectrophotometer as total color difference (dE). Particle size, crystal structure, and concentration of TiO2 in the films did not affect the printing. In the relationship between the irradiated UV laser power and dE, there found an inflection point (1.6W). When the UV laser power was below 1.6W, the films were not printed. When it was beyond the point, total color difference increased linearly in proportion with the irradiated laser power. The color strength of the printing on film was not changed by TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, and concentration, but could be controlled by regulating the irradiated UV laser power beyond the inflection point.

  10. Study on mechanism of photocatalytic performance of La-doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrodes by theoretical and experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Yanjun; Liu Huiling

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 photoelectrodes with various nanostructures have been successfully prepared by the anodization method. The morphology, microstructure and optical properties of as-prepared photoelectrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet/visible light diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and photocurrent. The electronic structure and optical properties of La doped/undoped TiO 2 photoelectrodes with different crystal structures were calculated by the density function theory. The photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities of as-prepared photoelectrodes were evaluated. The results showed that the anodization potentials played a crucial role in the surface morphology and microstructure. Both results of theoretical calculations and experimental tests demonstrated that La-doped photoelectrodes were more sensitive to light than undoped one. The difference of photoelectrodes performance was ascribed to the crystal configuration, impurity energy levels and long-range orientation moving of photogenerated carriers. - Graphical abstract: Photophysical chemistry processes in as-prepared TiO 2 photoelectrodes. Overall scheme of TiO 2 photoelectrodes: (A) movement of photoelectrons and holes without bias potentials; (B) movement of photoelectrons and holes at applied bias potentials; (a) and (b) were the transmission of photogenerated electrons and holes of local enlargement of (A) (black open circle): (a) photoelectrons movement in P-TiO 2 photoelectrodes and La-TiO 2 photoelectrodes, the red dot line denotes the top of valence band (VB) and the bottom of conduction band (CB) of pure photoelectrodes; (b) photoelectrons movement in P-160 and La-160 TiO 2 photoelectrodes (mixed crystal phase). The number refers to as follows: (1) transmission process of photoelectrons and holes; (2) recombination process of photoelectrons and holes. Arrows represent the moving direction of

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Eu3+-doped nanoparticulate TiO2 sols and thermal stability of the resulting xerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlaf, Mario; Moreno, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Angel L.; Colomer, María T.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticulate TiO 2 sols without and with Eu 3+ doping (1, 2, or 3 mol%) by the colloidal sol–gel method in aqueous media was investigated, with emphasis on the effect of the Eu 3+ doping on the peptization time and rheological properties of the sols. It was found that the addition of Eu 3+ increasingly retards the peptization process, and also results in sols with greater aggregate sizes which are therefore more viscous, although in all cases the distributions of aggregate sizes are unimodal and the flow behavior is Newtonian. The shifting of the isoelectric point of the sols toward greater pH with increasing Eu 3+ doping indicates that the aforementioned trends are due to the chemical adsorption of europium ionic complexes in the form of solvated species. Furthermore, the effect of Eu 3+ doping on the ultraviolet–visible spectrum and photocatalytic activity of the peptized sols was also explored. It was found that the Eu 3+ doping increasingly shifts slightly the absorption edge from the ultraviolet to the visible range, and that its effect on the photocatalytic activity is certainly complex because this is enhanced only if the Eu 3+ cations have some electronic transition (charge transfer transition or transitions between the ground state and the excited states) at the wavelength of the incident radiation, in which case the photocatalytic activity first increases with increasing Eu 3+ content and then decreases perhaps due to occurrence of Eu–Eu interactions or simply to the greater aggregation state. Finally, the influence of the Eu 3+ doping on the thermal stability of the nanoparticulate xerogels resulting from the drying of the peptized sols was also examined by X-ray thermo-diffractometry together with transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffractometry, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry. It was found that although the xerogels crystallize all as anatase phase, this is increasingly more thermally stable

  12. Réponses transitoires de films de TiO{2}, capteurs résistifs du gaz oxygène

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérisian, R.; Loup, J. P.; Gautron, J.

    1991-07-01

    We analyse the mecanisms of the transient response of TiO2-film EGO (Exhaust Gas Oxygen) sensors to partial oxygen pressure. This analysis, in agreement with the steady-state behaviour, is based upon the diffusion theory. Moreover, our results corroborate the decrease of the response time when Pt is incorporated to the film or when the thickness of the film is lessened. Nous analysons les réponses transitoires de capteurs résistifs de films de TiO2 soumis à des changements de pression partielle d'oxygène. Cette analyse fait appel à la théorie de la diffusion et reste en accord avec l'étude du comportement statique de ces capteurs. Les temps de réponse mesurés décroissent avec l'incorporation de Pt ou la diminution de l'épaisseur du film.

  13. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reaction magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 films have been prepared by DC reaction magnetron sputtering technique on different substrates (glass, SiO2, platinum electrode-Pt, Silicon-Si. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that all TiO2 films were grown along the preferred orientation of (110 plane. Samples on Si and Pt substrates are almost monophasic rutile, however, samples on glass and SiO2 substrates accompanied by a weak anatase structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed uniform grain distribution except for films on Pt substrates. Photoluminescence (PL spectra showed obvious intrinsic emission band, but films on glass was accompanied by a distinct defect luminescence region. Raman spectroscopy suggested that all samples moved to high wavenumbers and films on glass moved obviously.

  14. An in-situ real-time optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for monitoring the growth of TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Shih, Wen-Ching; Wu, Mu-Shiang

    2013-07-23

    An optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed for monitoring the thickness of deposited nano-thin films. A side-polished multimode SPR optical fiber sensor with an 850 nm-LD is used as the transducing element for real-time monitoring of the deposited TiO2 thin films. The SPR optical fiber sensor was installed in the TiO2 sputtering system in order to measure the thickness of the deposited sample during TiO2 deposition. The SPR response declined in real-time in relation to the growth of the thickness of the TiO2 thin film. Our results show the same trend of the SPR response in real-time and in spectra taken before and after deposition. The SPR transmitted intensity changes by approximately 18.76% corresponding to 50 nm of deposited TiO2 thin film. We have shown that optical fiber sensors utilizing SPR have the potential for real-time monitoring of the SPR technology of nanometer film thickness. The compact size of the SPR fiber sensor enables it to be positioned inside the deposition chamber, and it could thus measure the film thickness directly in real-time. This technology also has potential application for monitoring the deposition of other materials. Moreover, in-situ real-time SPR optical fiber sensor technology is in inexpensive, disposable technique that has anti-interference properties, and the potential to enable on-line monitoring and monitoring of organic coatings.

  15. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3 films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on multiple grams of TiO2 powder at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a fluidized bed reactor, resulting in the growth of uniform and conformal Al2O3 films with thickness control at sub-nanometer level. The as-deposited Al2O3 films exhibited excellent photocatalytic suppression ability. Accordingly, an Al2O3 layer with a thickness of 1 nm could efficiently suppress the photocatalytic activities of rutile, anatase, and P25 TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting their bulk optical properties. In addition, the influence of high-temperature annealing on the properties of the Al2O3 layers was investigated, revealing the possibility of achieving porous Al2O3 layers. Our approach demonstrated a fast, efficient, and simple route to coating Al2O3 films on TiO2 pigment powders at the multigram scale, and showed great potential for large-scale production development.

  16. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Bui, H.V.; Valdesueiro Gonzalez, D.; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; van Ommen, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on

  17. Bioinspired TiO2 Nanostructure Films with Special Wettability and Adhesion for Droplets Manipulation and Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yue-Kun; Tang, Yu-Xin; Huang, Jian-Ying; Pan, Fei; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Fuchs, Harald; Chi, Li-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Patterned surfaces with special wettability and adhesion (sliding, sticky or patterned superoleophobic surface) can be found on many living creatures. They offer a versatile platform for microfluidic management and other biological functions. Inspired by their precise arrangement of structure and chemical component, we described a facile one-step approach to construct large scale pinecone-like anatase TiO2 particles (ATP) film. The as-prepared ATP film exhibits excellent superamphiphilic property in air, changes to underwater superoleophobicity with good dynamical stability. In addition, erasable and rewritable patterned superamphiphobic ATP films or three-dimensional (3D) Janus surfaces were constructed for a versatile platform for microfluidic management and biomedical applications. In a proof-of-concept study, robust super-antiwetting feet for artificial anti-oil strider at the oil/water interface, novel superamphiphobic surface for repeatable oil/water separation, and multifunctional patterned superamphiphobic ATP template for cell, fluorecent probe and inorganic nanoparticles site-selective immobilization were demonstrated.

  18. Radiation-free superhydrophilic and antifogging properties of e-beam evaporated TiO2 films on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlisi, Corrado; Palmisano, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we show the unique wettability properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation on glass and treated at 500 °C. The deposited materials exhibited compact non-porous structures and their non-UV activated superwetting behavior was characterized, emphasizing the better performance compared to the bare glass substrate and to a commercial self-cleaning glass (Pilkington Activ™) even in terms of antifogging and optical properties. The results demonstrate how the superhydrophilic character arises from the used deposition technique inducing a large amount of oxygen vacancies further boosted by the annealing treatment, allowing for the fabrication of a pioneering material in the area of multifunctional coatings. The superhydrophilic character was maintained even at an extremely small thickness (20 nm), similarly to the adhesion of the film to the glass substrate, as confirmed by ultrasound stress tests and the cross-cut test performed according to ISO 2409 standard. The photocatalytic activity of the e-beam evaporated film was also assessed by degradation of methanol, 2-propanol and toluene under UV light in a gas phase reactor and the performance was found to be in most cases superior compared to Pilkington Activ™.

  19. Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Electrical and Optical Properties of DC Magnetron Sputtered Amorphous TiO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were deposited on p-Si (100 and Corning glass substrates held at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures in the range 9 × 10−3–9 × 10−2 Pa. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the deposited films was systematically studied. XPS studies confirmed that the film formed at an oxygen partial pressure of 6×10−2 Pa was nearly stoichiometric. TiO2 films formed at all oxygen partial pressures were X-ray amorphous. The optical transmittance gradually increased and the absorption edge shifted towards shorter wavelengths with the increase of oxygen partial pressure. Thin film capacitors with configuration of Al/TiO2/p-Si have been fabricated. The results showed that the leakage current density of films formed decreased with the increase of oxygen partial pressure to 6×10−2 Pa owing to the decrease in the oxygen defects in the films thereafter it was increased. The current transport mechanism in the TiO2 thin films is shown to be Schottky effect and Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling currents.

  20. Spectroscopic evidence of the formation of (V,Ti)O2 solid solution in VO2 thinner films grown on TiO2(001) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Y.; Saeki, K.; Eguchi, R.; Wakita, T.; Hirai, M.; Yokoya, T.; Shin, S.

    2011-02-01

    We have prepared VO2 thin films epitaxially grown on TiO2(001) substrates with thickness systematically varied from 2.5 to 13 nm using a pulsed laser deposition method, and studied the transport property and electronic states of the films by means of resistivity and in situ synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES). In resistivity measurements, the 13-nm-thick film exhibits a metal-insulator transition at around 290 K on cooling with change of three orders of magnitudes in resistivity. As the film thickness decreases, the metal-insulator transition broadens and the transition temperature increases. Below 4 nm, the films do not show the transition and become insulators. In situ SRPES measurements of near the Fermi level valence band find that the electronic state of the 2.5-nm-thick film is different than that of the temperature-induced insulator phase of VO2 itself although these two states are insulating. Ti 2p core-level photoemission measurements reveal that Ti ions exist near the interface between the films and TiO2 substrates, with a chemical state similar to that in (V,Ti)O2 solid solution. These results indicate that insulating (V,Ti)O2 solid solution is formed in the thinner films. We propose a simple growth model of a VO2 thin film on a TiO2(001) substrate. Near the interface, insulating (V,Ti)O2 solid solution is formed due to the diffusion of Ti ions from the TiO2 substrate into the VO2 film. The concentration of Ti in (V,Ti)O2 is relatively high near the interface and decreases toward the surface of the film. Beyond a certain film thickness (about 7 nm in the case of the present 13-nm-thick film), the VO2 thin film without any Ti ions starts to grow. Our work suggests that developing a technique for preparing the sharp interface between the VO2 thin films and TiO2 substrates is a key issue to study the physical property of an ultrathin film of "pure" VO2, especially to examine the presence of the novel electronic state called a semi-Dirac point

  1. Cellulose acetate-based SiO2/TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films for water-in-oil emulsion separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Ma, Jianjun; Ling, Jing; Li, Na; Wang, Di; Yue, Fan; Xu, Shimei

    2018-03-01

    The cellulose acetate (CA)/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films were successfully fabricated via water vapor-induced phase inversion of CA solution and simultaneous hydrolysis/condensation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) at room temperature. Micro-nano hierarchical structure was constructed on the surface of the film. The film could separate nano-sized surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions only under gravity. The flux of the film for the emulsion separation was up to 667 L m-2 h-1, while the separation efficiency was up to 99.99 wt%. Meanwhile, the film exhibited excellent stability during multiple cycles. Moreover, the film performed excellent photo-degradation performance under UV light due to the photocatalytic ability of TiO2. Facile preparation, good separation and potential biodegradation maked the CA/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films a candidate in oil/water separation application.

  2. Optimization of time on CF4/O2 etchant for inductive couple plasma reactive ion etching of TiO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzhri, R.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Foo, K. L.; Nuzaihan, M. N. M.; Azman, A. H.; Zaki, M.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Hashim, U.; Ayub, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the optimum etching of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) using inductive couple plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) on our fabricated devices. By using a combination of CF 4 /O 2 gases as plasma etchant with ratio of 3:1, three samples of TiO 2 thin film were etched with different time duration of 10 s, 15 s and 20 s. The ion bombardment of CF 4 gases with plasma enhancement by O 2 gas able to break the oxide bond of TiO 2 and allow anisotropic etch profile with maximum etch rate of 18.6 nm/s. The sample was characterized by using optical profilometer to determine the depth of etched area and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for etch profile characterization.

  3. The Effect of Dye Density on the Efficiency of Photosensitization of TiO2 Films: Light-Harvesting by Phenothiazine-Labelled Dendritic Ruthenium Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yong Zhu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A family of dendritic tris-bipyridyl ruthenium coordination complexes incorporating two or four carboxylate groups for binding to a TiO2 surface site and another dendritic linker between the metal complex and highly absorptive dyes were formulated as thin films on TiO2 coated glass. The family included phenothiazine-substituted dendrons of increasing structural complexity and higher optical density. The dye-loaded films were characterized by steady-state emission and absorption measurements and by kinetic studies of luminescence and transient absorption. Upon photoexcitation of the bound dyes, rapid electron injection into the metal oxide film was the dominant observed process, producing oxidized dye that persisted for hundreds of milliseconds. Complex decay profiles for emission, transient absorption, and optical bleaching of the dendritic dyes point to highly heterogeneous behavior for the films, with observed persistence lifetimes related directly to structurally enhance electronic coupling between the metal oxide support and the dendritic dyes.

  4. Floating growth of large-scale freestanding TiO2 nanorod films at the gas-liquid interface for additive-free Li-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hua-Rong; Li, Jia; Peng, Chen; Sun, Wen-Tao; Li, Long-Wei; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-10-22

    The floating growth process of large-scale freestanding TiO2 nanorod films at the gas-liquid interface was investigated. On the basis of the experiments, a self-templated growth scenario was developed to account for the self-assembly process. In the scenario, titanium complexes function not only as the Ti source for the growth of TiO2 but also as a soft template provider for the floating growth. According to the scenario, several new recipes of preparing freestanding TiO2 nanorod films at the gas-liquid interface were developed. The freestanding film was applied to a lithium ion battery as a binder-free and conducting agent-free anode, and good cyclability was obtained. This work may pave a new way to floating and freestanding TiO2 and other semiconductor materials, which has great potential not only in basic science but also in the applications such as materials engineering, Li-ion battery, photocatalyst, dye-sensitized solar cell, and flexible electronics.

  5. Homogeneous growth of TiO2-based nanotubes on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide and its enhanced performance as a Li-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraeen, Shayan; Taşdemir, Adnan; Gürsel, Selmiye Alkan; Yürüm, Alp

    2018-06-22

    The pursuit of a promising replacement candidate for graphite as a Li-ion battery anode, which can satisfy both engineering criteria and market needs has been the target of researchers for more than two decades. In this work, we have investigated the synergistic effect of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NrGO) and nanotubular TiO 2 to achieve high rate capabilities with high discharge capacities through a simple, one-step and scalable method. First, nanotubes of hydrogen titanate were hydrothermally grown on the surface of NrGO sheets, and then converted to a mixed phase of TiO 2 -B and anatase (TB) by thermal annealing. Specific surface area, thermal gravimetric, structural and morphological characterizations were performed on the synthesized product. Electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and cyclic charge/discharge tests. The prepared anode showed high discharge capacity of 150 mAh g -1 at 1 C current rate after 50 cycles. The promising capacity of synthesized NrGO-TB was attributed to the unique and novel microstructure of NrGO-TB in which long nanotubes of TiO 2 have been grown on the surface of NrGO sheets. Such architecture synergistically reduces the solid-state diffusion distance of Li + and increases the electronic conductivity of the anode.

  6. TiO2structures doped with noble metals and/or graphene oxide to improve the photocatalytic degradation of dichloroacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribao, Paula; Rivero, Maria J; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2017-05-01

    Noble metals have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . Noble metal nanoparticles prevent charge recombination, facilitating electron transport due to the equilibration of the Fermi levels. Furthermore, noble metal nanoparticles show an absorption band in the visible region due to a high localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect, which contributes to additional electron movements. Moreover, systems based on graphene, titanium dioxide, and noble metals have been used, considering that graphene sheets can carry charges, thereby reducing electron-hole recombination, and can be used as substrates of atomic thickness. In this work, TiO 2 -based nanocomposites were prepared by blending TiO 2 with noble metals (Pt and Ag) and/or graphene oxide (GO). The nanocomposites were mainly characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent analysis. Here, the photocatalytic performance of the composites was analyzed via oxidizing dichloroacetic acid (DCA) model solutions. The influence of the noble metal load on the composite and the ability of the graphene sheets to improve the photocatalytic activity were studied, and the composites doped with different noble metals were compared. The results indicated that the platinum structures show the best photocatalytic degradation, and, although the presence of graphene oxide in the composites is supposed to enhance their photocatalytic performance, graphene oxide does not always improve the photocatalytic process. Graphical abstract It is a schematic diagram. Where NM is Noble Metal and LSPR means Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

  7. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Obtained by the Sputtering RF in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Bedoya, Jairo Armando; Sanchez Velandia, Wilmer Asmed; Delgado Rosero, Miguel Iban; Florido Cuellar, Alex Enrique; Zelaya Angel, Orlando; Mendoza Alvarez, Julio G.

    2011-03-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 thin films in wastewater, under an UV irradiation, is studied. The films were prepared on corning glass substrates by the sputtering RF technique. We present evidence on the photocatalytic degradation, carried out by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in domestic wastewater pretreated with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Ti O2 films were illuminated with ultraviolet light during a time of 4 hours (λ ≅ 264 nm). We could see the effect of degraded operation in the absorbance measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results show an increased rate of degradation of the wastewater by 30% compared to the values reflected biologically treated wastewater by anaerobic reactors.

  8. Selective Photocatalytic Reduction of NOx with Fe-doped TiO2 : A New Approach Towards Photocatalyst Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional TiO2 based photocatalysts oxidize NOx to nitrates which do not automatically desorb and have to be washed away from the catalyst surface. To avoid this, the research described in this thesis aims to design new photocatalysts that can photo-reduce NO into N2 and O2. Previous efforts in

  9. Energetic, electronic and optical properties of lanthanide doped TiO2: An ab initio LDA+U study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulwa, WM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available , M. Shahid, I. Muneer, S. Javaid, M. Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, Influence of gadolinium precursor on the enhanced red shift of Gd/SnO2--TiO2 nanoparticles and catalytic activity, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (n.d.) 1–9. [58] A. Podhorodecki, G. Zatryb...

  10. Evaluation of the properties of TiO2 films on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizza, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of laboratory tests concerning the characterization of photo catalytic properties of titanium dioxide films obtained on titanium substrates by using three different techniques for anodizing. Been investigated in scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis cyclic voltammetry. [it

  11. Perturbation of the Electron Transport Mechanism by Proton Intercalation in Nanoporous TiO2 Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, A. F.; Zhu, K.; Erslev, P. T.; Kim, J. Y.; Neale, N. R.; Frank, A. J.

    2012-04-11

    This study addresses a long-standing controversy about the electron-transport mechanism in porous metal oxide semiconductor films that are commonly used in dye-sensitized solar cells and related systems. We investigated, by temperature-dependent time-of-flight measurements, the influence of proton intercalation on the electron-transport properties of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films exposed to an ethanol electrolyte containing different percentages of water (0-10%). These measurements revealed that increasing the water content in the electrolyte led to increased proton intercalation into the TiO{sub 2} films, slower transport, and a dramatic change in the dependence of the thermal activation energy (E{sub a}) of the electron diffusion coefficient on the photogenerated electron density in the films. Random walk simulations based on a microscopic model incorporating exponential conduction band tail (CBT) trap states combined with a proton-induced shallow trap level with a long residence time accounted for the observed effects of proton intercalation on E{sub a}. Application of this model to the experimental results explains the conditions under which E{sub a} dependence on the photoelectron density is consistent with multiple trapping in exponential CBT states and under which it appears at variance with this model.

  12. Influence of charged defects on the interfacial bonding strength of tantalum- and silver-doped nanograined TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmanjiri, Jalal; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher C; Kapoor, Ajay; Zhu, De Ming; Ang, Andrew S M; Srivastava, Vijay K

    2017-05-17

    A nano-grained layer including line defects was formed on the surface of a Ti alloy (Ti alloy , Ti-6Al-4V ELI). Then, the micro- and nano-grained Ti alloy with the formation of TiO 2 on its top surface was coated with a bioactive Ta layer with or without incorporating an antibacterial agent of Ag that was manufactured by magnetron sputtering. Subsequently, the influence of the charged defects (the defects that can be electrically charged on the surface) on the interfacial bonding strength and hardness of the surface system was studied via an electronic model. Thereby, material systems of (i) Ta coated micro-grained titanium alloy (Ta/MGTi alloy ), (ii) Ta coated nano-grained titanium alloy (Ta/NGTi alloy ), (iii) TaAg coated micro-grained titanium alloy (TaAg/MGTi alloy ) and (iv) TaAg coated nano-grained titanium alloy (TaAg/NGTi alloy ) were formed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to probe the electronic structure of the micro- and nano-grained Ti alloy , and so-formed heterostructures. The thin film/substrate interfaces exhibited different satellite peak intensities. The satellite peak intensity may be related to the interfacial bonding strength and hardness of the surface system. The interfacial layer of TaAg/NGTi alloy exhibited the highest satellite intensity and maximum hardness value. The increased bonding strength and hardness in the TaAg/NGTi alloy arises due to the negative core charge of the dislocations and neighbor space charge accumulation, as well as electron accumulation in the created semiconductor phases of larger band gap at the interfacial layer. These two factors generate interfacial polarization and enhance the satellite intensity. Consequently, the interfacial bonding strength and hardness of the surface system are improved by the formation of mixed covalent-ionic bonding structures around the dislocation core area and the interfacial layer. The bonding strength relationship by in situ XPS on the metal/TiO 2 interfacial layer may

  13. Composite TiO2/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by magnetron sputtering of TiO2 and poly(propylene)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Hanuš, J.; Kousal, J.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Macková, Anna; Pešička, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6 (2007), s. 654-663 ISSN 1612-8850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite thin films * magnetron * poly(propylene) (PP) Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.132, year: 2007

  14. Sensitive Photodetection with Photomultiplication Effect in an Interfacial Eu2+/3+Complex on a Mesoporous TiO2Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ayumi; Sakai, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Riku; Ogata, Shuhei; Kondo, Kazuki; Kondo, Takahiro; Iwasawa, Daichi; Mizushima, Soichi; Yoshihara, Koushi; Hasegawa, Miki

    2018-02-14

    A simple device structure composed of an interfacial Eu 2+/3+ complex on a mesoporous TiO 2 film is developed by a solution process and acts as the high-performance photodetector with photomultiplication phenomena. The electron transfer from the photoexcited organic ligand, 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (terpy), as a photosensitizer to TiO 2 is accelerated by the reduction level of Eu 3+/2+ ions chemically bonding among terpy and TiO 2 , resulting in the generation of a large photocurrent. It is worth noting that its external quantum efficiency is in excess of 10 5 % under applied reverse bias. The corresponding responsivity of the device is also determined to be 464 A/W at an irradiation light intensity of 0.7 mW/cm 2 (365 nm), which is more than 3 orders of magnitude larger than those of inorganic photodetectors. A dark current of the device can be reduced to 10 -9 A/cm 2 by introducing a Eu oxide thin-film layer as a carrier blocking layer at the interface between transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and the TiO 2 layer, and the specific detectivity reaches 5.2 × 10 15 jones at 365 nm with -3 V. The performance of our organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector surpasses those of existing ultraviolet photodetectors.

  15. Mechanism of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin Degradation under Solar Light in Presence of a TiO2-Polymeric Film Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Mukherjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of titanium dioxide (TiO2 as a photocatalyst has presented a promising avenue for the safe photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Increasing levels of the release of pharmaceuticals in the environment and formation of the intermediates during their degradation may impose health and environmental risks and therefore require more attention. Photocatalytic degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin was carried out in the presence of the TiO2-filled polymeric film as a photocatalyst under solar light irradiation. The polymeric film incorporates TiO2 in the matrix, which acts as a photocatalyst under solar illumination and degrades the acetyl salicylic acid (ASA into a range of organic compounds before complete demineralization (formation of carbon dioxide and water as final products. Among the intermediates, acetic acid was found to be present in a larger amount compared to other organic acids. The qualitative/quantitative analyses of the intermediates resulted in the determination of the most probable reaction’s mechanism in the degradation process. The mechanism of degradation of acetylsalicylic acid and its reaction pathway were developed from liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR and UV spectrophotometric analysis. It was found that hydroxyl groups were dominant in the degradation process compared to electrons and holes generated by TiO2. The total organic carbon (TOC analysis was also carried out to analyze the organic carbon content of the intermediates formed during the course of degradation.

  16. Photocatalytic properties of different TiO2 thin films of various porosity and titania loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zita, J.; Krýsa, J.; Černigoj, U.; Lavrenčič-Štangar, U.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Rathouský, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 29-34 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577; GA ČR GA104/08/0435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : sol-gel * titanium dioxide film * porosity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  17. TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nano-tube structures; ZnO structures. PACS Nos 61.46.+w; 87.83.+a; 81.07.-b; 65.80.+n; 68.37.Lp; 68.37.Hk. 1. Introduction. Nanostructure materials show lots of promise due ... The as-deposited film has been used as the electrode dipped ... We have synthesized self-organized structures of CNT (conventional and bamboo-.

  18. Multilayer films from templated TiO2 and structural changes during their thermal treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Jan; Kavan, Ladislav; Shklover, V.; Zukalová, Markéta; Frank, Otakar; Kalbáč, Martin; Zukal, Arnošt; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Mocek, Karel; Klementová, Mariana; Carbone, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2008), s. 2985-2993 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk 1P05OC069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : sensitized solar-cells * titania thin films * mesoporous metal oxides Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.046, year: 2008

  19. Co3O4/TiO2 films obtained by laser ablation and sol-gel for the reaction of oxygen liberation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez A, J.; Fernandez V, S. M.; Escobar A, L.; Jimenez B, J.

    2008-01-01

    The laser ablation technique known as Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is used for obtaining thin films of TiO 2 /SnO 2 , which was later modified with Co 3 O 4 by PLD or by sol-gel technique. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet Vis and Raman spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and energy analysis of the dispersed X-rays produced by Auger decay. The anatase phase with particles of nano metric size was obtained by depositing the titanium dioxide in argon atmosphere. The Co 3 O 4 films obtained by PLD on the TiO 2 showed the same morphology. The electrocatalytic activity of the films that were used as photo anodes for the reaction of oxygen liberation was carried out in the darkness, with environment light and the light emitted by a xenon lamp. The current density was higher for films of Co 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /SnO 2 obtained by PLD that for cobalt dioxide of mixed valence obtained by sol-gel. (Author)

  20. Preparation and optical properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by a two-step sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, I.; Lu, G.Q.; Meredith, P.; Zhao, X.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns the preparation of mesoporous titania nanopowders and thin films for use in next generation photoelectrochemical solar cells. We have recently developed a novel method for preparing mesoporous TiO 2 powders using a Two-Step Sol-gel method (TSS). These materials have crystalline domains characteristic of anatase. The first step of the process involves the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide in a basic aqueous solution mediated by neutral surfactant. The solid product resulting from Step-1 is then treated in acidified ethanol solution containing a titanium precursor to yield anatase TiO 2 . The resultant powder exhibits a high surface area and large pore volume with uniform mesopores. Slurries made from the resultant powder of Steps 1 and 2 have been used to produce thin titania films on glass slides. The optical and structural properties of these films have been compared to the films made of a commercial titania (Degussa P25, BASF). We will discuss these properties with respect to the possible use of such mesoporous titania films as the wide band gap semiconductor in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells

  1. Preparation of Transparent TiO2 Nanoporous Coating with Highly Photocatalytic Activity by Anodizing Ti Film with Loose Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Yin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ti film with special structure was deposited onto glass substrate by magnetron sputtering, then via the process of electrochemical anodization and annealing, a transparent TiO2 nanoporous coating (denoted as TNP with high photocatalytic activity can be directly formed on glass substrate. The crystal structure of the TNP was detected by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and the morphology of the coating was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The transmittance, wettability and adhesion of TNP were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, contact angle meter and scratch tester respectively. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of TNP was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue solution under UV illumination. The results show that the prepared TNP coating has a nanoporous structure and only anatase can be found after annealing, the transmittance of TNP coating can reach 80% or more in visible region, with a super hydrophilic surface (contact angleC0=1×10-5mol/L can reach 94% in 2 hours and the photocatalysis reaction rate constant is 1.47h-1.

  2. RBS and XRD analysis of silicon doped titanium diboride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollica, S.; Sood, D.K.; Ghantasala, M.K.; Kothari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Titanium diboride is a newly developed material suitable for protective coatings. Its high temperature oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 deg C and beyond is limited due to its poor oxidative behaviour. This paper presents a novel approach to improving the coatings' oxidative characteristics at temperatures of 700 deg C by doping with silicon. Titanium diboride films were deposited onto Si(100) wafer substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering system. Films were deposited in two different compositions, one at pure TiB 2 and the other with 20 % Si doping. These samples were vacuum annealed at 700 deg C at 1x10 -6 Torr to investigate the anaerobic behaviour of the material at elevated temperatures and to ensure that they were crystalline. Samples were then oxidised in air at 700 deg C to investigate their oxidation resistance. Annealing the films at 700 deg C in air results in the oxidation of the film as titanium and boron form TiO 2 and B 2 O 3 . Annealing is seen to produce only minor changes in the films. There is some silicon diffusion from the substrate at elevated temperatures, which is related to the porous nature of the deposited film and the high temperature heat treatments. However, silicon doped films showed relatively less oxidation characteristics after annealing in air compared with the pure TiB 2 samples

  3. Anionic or Cationic S-Doping in Bulk Anatase TiO 2 : Insights on Optical Absorption from First Principles Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-05-02

    Using first principles calculations, we investigate the structural, electronic, optical, and energetic properties of S-doped anatase TiO2 bulk systems. To ensure accurate band gap predictions, we use the HSE06 exchange correlation functional, and the absorption spectra are obtained with density functional perturbation (DFPT) theory by employing HSE06. Various oxidation states (anionic and cationic) of sulfur are considered depending on the location in bulk TiO2: in interstitial position or in substitution for either oxygen or titanium atoms. Among the explored structures, two anionic and one cationic configurations induce an improved optical absorption response in the visible region as observed experimentally. Moreover, we undertake a thermodynamic analysis as a function of the chemical potential of oxygen and considering three relevant sulfur chemical doping agents (S 2, H2S, and thiourea). It highlights that cationic configurations (S4+ and S6+) are strongly stabilized in a wide range of oxygen chemical potential (including standard conditions), whereas anionic species are stabilized only at very low chemical potential of oxygen. The metastable cationic Ti(1-2x)O2S2x system involving the presence of S4+ species in substitution for Ti 4+, with the formation of SO2 units, should offer the best compromise between the thermodynamic conditions and the expected optical properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. The Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Alkaline-Earth Metals Doped Anatase TiO2: A Comparative Study of Screened Hybrid Functional and Generalized Gradient Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Gang Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-earth metallic dopant can improve the performance of anatase TiO2 in photocatalysis and solar cells. Aiming to understand doping mechanisms, the dopant formation energies, electronic structures, and optical properties for Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba doped anatase TiO2 are investigated by using density functional theory calculations with the HSE06 and PBE functionals. By combining our results with those of previous studies, the HSE06 functional provides a better description of electronic structures. The calculated formation energies indicate that the substitution of a lattice Ti with an AEM atom is energetically favorable under O-rich growth conditions. The electronic structures suggest that, AEM dopants shift the valence bands (VBs to higher energy, and the dopant-state energies for the cases of Ca, Sr, and Ba are quite higher than Fermi levels, while the Be and Mg dopants result into the spin polarized gap states near the top of VBs. The components of VBs and dopant-states support that the AEM dopants are active in inter-band transitions with lower energy excitations. As to optical properties, Ca/Sr/Ba are more effective than Be/Mg to enhance absorbance in visible region, but the Be/Mg are superior to Ca/Sr/Ba for the absorbance improvement in near-IR region.

  5. Synthesis of ceramic powder of TiO2 doped with Zr by the Pechini Method applied in ceramic membranes for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, R.F.V.; Fernandes, M.S.M.; Silva, R.S.; Franca, K.B.; Lira, H.L.; Bonifacio, M.A.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of ceramic powder of TiO2 doped with Zr by the polymeric precursor method, also known as Pechini method applied in ceramic membranes for water treatment. Three compositions were synthesized according to the molar ratio Ti x -1Zr x O 2 (x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 moles), calcined at 700° C/1h. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microbiological analysis. The presence of the doping element was not decisive in the average size of crystallite, which ranged from 5.5 to 11.3 nm. The SEM images showed clusters with uniform surface and granular aspect, it is still possible to see a clearly porous structure formed by clusters of uniform size for all samples. The microbiological analyses of powders have revealed that they have bactericidal properties. (author)

  6. Very high photoresponse towards low-powered UV light under low-biased condition by nanocrystal assembled TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sulakshana; Basak, Durga

    2018-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in harvesting photoejected electrons for highly sensitive photodetectors, by interfacial engineering rather than the classic semiconductors. However, the widely employed device structures involving a p-n junction that causes photogenerated electron-hole separation to enhance the response are usually complex with a high fabrication challenge. Here, we present TiO2-based highly efficient ultraviolet (UV) photodetection by achieving its nanocrystal assembled film having high surface defects. The sol-gel derived TiO2 films have been subjected to a post-growth annealing at 500 °C in air (SA) and vacuum (SB) and one subjected to UV treatment (SC) to tune the surface defects. The UV photoresponse results show that the nanocrystal assembled UV cured TiO2 film shows as high as 1.7 × 103 UV-to-visible rejection ratio and photo-to-dark current ratio of 1.2 × 104 under 10 V bias and 10 μW incident light power. Most interestingly, unprecedently high photo-to-dark current ratio of the order of ∼104 at as low as 1 V bias condition and only 10 μW incident light without device fabrication has been observed. Moreover, the films show stable response cyclibility under UV radiation. Therefore, simple UV curing improves UV photoresponse properties of TiO2 film enormously without the need to form conventional devices and opens the pathway for high-performance, low-cost, low-power consumption UV photodetector.

  7. Large-Scale Synthesis of Transition-Metal-Doped TiO2 Nanowires with Controllable Overpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Chong; Andrews, Sean; Han, Chris; Yang, Peidong

    2013-03-13

    Practical implementation of one-dimensional semiconductors into devices capable of exploiting their novel properties is often hindered by low product yields, poor material quality, high production cost, or overall lack of synthetic control. Here, we show that a molten-salt flux scheme can be used to synthesize large quantities of high-quality, single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires with controllable dimensions. Furthermore, in situ dopant incorporation of various transition metals allows for the tuning of optical, electrical, and catalytic properties. With this combination of control, robustness, and scalability, the molten-salt flux scheme can provide high-quality TiO2 nanowires to satisfy a broad range of application needs from photovoltaics to photocatalysis.

  8. DEPOSIÇÃO DE FILMES DE CARBONO COM TIO2 PELA TÉCNICA DE DEPOSIÇÃO PLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Augusto Manfroi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Revestimentos de filmes carbonosos são estudados para reduzir desgaste e aumentar biocompatibilidade, condutividade elétrica ou aumentar a aderência de metais, dentre as diversas técnicas de deposição há a deposição por laser pulsado (PLD que é uma técnica rápida e eficaz de deposição. O dióxido de titânio (TiO2 é um material cerâmico que apresenta inúmeras possibilidades de aplicação, tais como sua eficiência na destruição e inibição de microrganismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo de filmes carbonosos depositados pela técnica PLD sobre a liga de Ti-6Al-4V, é uma liga muito utilizada nas indústrias aeronáutica e aeroespacial. Para a deposição os substratos de liga de titânio foram polidos e aspergidos com carbono e TiO2, sendo sequentemente irradiadas com laser e analisadas as características químicas e morfológicas, além, de testes de atrito e desgaste dos filmes. Em que observamos um significativo aumento da dureza do filme decorrente da presença do TiO2

  9. Effect of annealing process in TiO2 thin films: Structural, morphological, and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, A.; Bohórquez, A.; Quiroz, Heiddy P.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a study of the structural, morphological, and optical properties of titanium dioxide thin films prepared via chemical bath deposition method, after being submitted to annealing processes varying the temperature from 373 to 723 K. The presence of the Rutile phase in all the samples was identified using X-ray diffraction measurements. When the annealing temperature increased to 723 K, the presence of the Anatase phase was observed. From scanning electron microscopy measurements, the formation of nanoflowers was also perceived; these flower-like structures are composed of nanorods of around ∼10 nm in length. With increasing annealing temperature, these structures disappear trans-forming into platelets distributed over the whole surface. A gap energy (Eg) of 3.0 eV was determined, and this value decreased to 2.98 eV after the temperature of T = 723 K was implemented, which is also where the Anatase phase was observed.

  10. Study of directionally solidified eutectic Al2O3-ZrO2(3%Y2O3 doped with TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, J. I.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An study of directionally grown samples of the eutectic composition in the Al2O3-ZrO2 (3 mol% Y2O3 system, with small TiO2 additions (1 wt%, is presented. The microstructural changes induced by this addition are analysed using SEM (EDX techniques. The mechanical changes, when TiO2 is added, are studied by measuring the flexural strength by three point bending. Also, the toughness is determined by Vickers indentation method. When slow growth rates (10 mm/h are used, interpenetratred and homogeneous microstructure is obtained, independently of the TiO2 doping. When growth rates are higher (300 and 1000 mm/h the structure changes and the phases are organized in form of colonies or cells, which have smaller size when TiO2 is present. This size reduction is accompanied with an increase of the toughness.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de muestras crecidas direccionalmente del sistema Al2O3-ZrO2 (3 mol% Y2O3 en su composición eutéctica con pequeñas adiciones de óxido de titanio (1% de TiO2 en peso. Se analizan los cambios microestructurales inducidos por esta adición mediante SEM (EDX y se estudian los cambios en su comportamiento mecánico medido por flexión en tres puntos, así como la tenacidad de fractura mediante indentación Vickers. Con velocidades lentas de solidificación (10 mm/h se obtiene en ambos casos una microestructura homogénea e interpenetrada, mientras que a velocidades mayores, 300 y 1000 mm/h, se forma una estructura en las que las fases se organizan en forma de colonias o células, siendo éstas de menor tamaño en las muestras dopadas. Esta disminución en el tamaño viene acompañada de un aumento de la tenacidad de fractura medida por indentación.

  11. Synthesis and magnetotransport studies of CrO2 films grown on TiO2 nanotube arrays by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Caiping; Wang, Lu; Lin, Tao; Wen, Gehui

    2018-04-01

    The CrO2 films have been prepared on the TiO2 nanotube array template via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition method. And the growth procedure was studied. In the beginning of the deposition process, the CrO2 grows on the cross section of the TiO2 nanotubes wall, forms a nanonet-like layer. And the grain size of CrO2 is very small. With the increase of the deposition time, the grain size of CrO2 also increases, and the nanonet-like layer changes into porous film. With the further increase of the deposition time, all the nanotubes are covered by CrO2 grains and the surface structure becomes polycrystalline film. The average grain size on the surface of the CrO2 films deposited for 1 h, 2 h and 5 h is about 190 nm, 300 nm and 470 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that the rutile CrO2 film has been synthesized on the TiO2 nanotube array template. The CrO2 films show large magnetoresistance (MR) at low temperature, which should originate from spin-dependent tunneling through grain boundaries between CrO2 grains. And the tunneling mechanism of the CrO2 films can be well described by the fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) model. The CrO2 film deposited for 2 h shows insulator behavior from 5 k to 300 K, but the CrO2 film deposited for 5 h shows insulator-metal transition around 140 K. The reason is briefly discussed.

  12. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  13. Effect of binder molecular weight on morphology of TiO2 films prepared by tape casting and their photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium(IV oxide in the form of anatase has proven to be the best choice for photoanodic material in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The aim of the work was to study the influence of binder molecular weight on the morphology of deposited films, and consequently, DSC parameters. For this study, five different TiO2 tape casting slips were prepared from commercially available nanoanatase powder and polyethylene glycol (PEG as a binder. The process of drying and sintering was carefully designed, so that the organic template was slowly decomposed, leaving favorable crack-free, porous structure. It was found that there is an optimal region of binder molecular weight for obtaining homogeneous, nonagglomerated and porous microstructure which is a necessary condition for application of TiO2 films in DSCs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45007

  14. One-step preparation of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 single crystals with internal-pores and highly exposed {001} facets for improved photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yulei; Liu, Qingxia; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Yufeng

    2017-12-01

    For the first time, a one-step synthetic strategy has been developed towards the preparation of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with internal-pores and highly exposed {001} facets using ethylene glycol (EG) and HF as control agents. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, HAADF-STEM, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy. The synergistic effect of EG and HF plays a vital role in the formation of synthesized TiO2 with Ti3+ self-doping, internal-pores and highly exposed {001} facets. As-synthesized TiO2 exhibit much higher activity than commercial P25 on photocatalytic degradation of phenol and the outstanding performance is attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ doping, internal-pores, and facets heterojunction.

  15. Fabrication of TiO2/EP super-hydrophobic thin film on filter paper surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhengxin; Zhai, Xianglin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Ming; Zang, Deli; Wang, Chengyu

    2015-09-05

    A composite filter paper with super-hydrophobicity was obtained by adhering micro/nano structure of amorphous titanium dioxide on the filter paper surface with modifying low surface energy material. By virtue of the coupling agent, which plays an important part in bonding amorphous titanium dioxide and epoxy resin, the structure of super-hydrophobic thin film on the filter paper surface is extremely stable. The microstructure of super-hydrophobic filter paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the images showed that the as-prepared filter paper was covered with uniform amorphous titanium dioxide particles, generating a roughness structure on the filter paper surface. The super-hydrophobic performance of the filter paper was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The observations showed that the wettability of filter paper samples transformed from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 153 ± 1°. Some experiments were also designed to test the effect of water-oil separation and UV-resistant by the super-hydrophobic filter paper. The prepared super-hydrophobic filter paper worked efficiently and simply in water-oil separation as well as enduringly in anti-UV property after the experiments. This method offers an opportunity to the practical applications of the super-hydrophobic filter paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved UV Photodetection by Indium Doped TiO₂ Thin Film Based Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mitra Barun; Choudhuri, Bijit; Bhattacharya, P; Barman, R N; Ghosh, A; Dwivedi, S M M Dhar; Chakrabartty, S; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2018-07-01

    Indium (In) was doped into TiO2 thin film (TF) using the electron beam evaporation technique followed by an annealing process. The high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis revealed lower angle diffraction peak (2) shifting of Rutile (002) phases of TiO2 from 61.9 to 61.56 for an increased In doped samples. Calculated average grain size from FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) gradually decreased from 21.12 nm to 17.03 mm with an increase in In content ranging from 1.45~17.30 at%. HRXRD data revealed that crystallite sizes also reduced from 21.79 nm to 16.93 nm with an increased In doping concentration. Doping of In leads to the formation of inhomogeneous InxTiy O2 alloy that enhances the transition between 3.3-3.42 eV energy levels with variation in doping concentration. The photo-efficiencies for increased doping concentration of In with 3.47 at% and 17.30 at% were enhanced by 2.56 and 2.76 times, respectively, compared to the undoped TiO2 TF detector and both were larger than low doped In with 1.45 at% sample. The ratio of main band detection intensity to oxygen defect level was also increased from 0.22 to 2.22 with the gradual increase in In content.

  17. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2layer (~50 nm thick were improved by 3.9–12.5 and 2.4–41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film–electrolyte interface and the substrate–electrolyte interface.

  18. In situ investigation of dye adsorption on TiO2 films using a quartz crystal microbalance with a dissipation technique

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2012-01-01

    Dye adsorption plays a crucial role in dye-sensitized solar cells. Herein, we demonstrate an in situ liquid-phase analytical technique to quantify in real time adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on flat and mesoporous TiO 2 films. For the first time, a molar ratio of co-adsorbed Y123 and chenodeoxycholic acid has been measured. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  19. Fabrication of CoTiO3-TiO2 composite films from a heterobimetallic single source precursor for electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Naeem, Rabia; Khaledi, Hamid; Sohail, Manzar; Hakeem Saeed, Abbas; Mazhar, Muhammad

    2016-06-21

    Cobalt titanate-titania composite oxide films have been grown on FTO-coated glass substrates using a single-source heterometallic complex [Co2Ti4(μ-O)6(TFA)8(THF)6]·THF () which was obtained in quantitative yield from the reaction of diacetatocobalt(ii) tetrahydrate, tetraisopropoxytitanium(iv), and trifluoroacetic acid from a tetrahydrofuran solution. Physicochemical investigations of complex have been carried out by melting point, FT-IR, thermogravimetric and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. CoTiO3-TiO2 films composed of spherical objects of various sizes have been grown from by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures of 500, 550 and 600 °C. Thin films characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis have been explored for electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). The cyclic voltammetry with the CoTiO3-TiO2 electrode showed a DA oxidation peak at +0.215 V while linear sweep voltammetry displayed a detection limit (LoD) of 0.083 μM and a linear concentration range of 20-300 μM for DA. Thus, the CoTiO3-TiO2 electrode is a potential candidate for the sensitive and selective detection of DA.

  20. Nanocrystalline proprieties of TiO2 thin film deposited by ultrasonic spray pulverization as an anti-reflection coating for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, Samira; Kermadi, Salim; Zougar, Lyes; Benzaoui, Bouthina; Saoula, Nadia; Mahdid, Khadija; Aitameur, Fatiha; Boumaour, Messaoud

    2017-12-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) films have been synthesized on quartz, silicon and textured silicon substrates by chemical ultrasonic spray deposition. The textured silicon substrate was carried out using Na2CO3 solution. The sample surface exhibits uniform pyramids with an average height of 5 µm. In this paper, particular attention is given to the TiO2 films prepared by spray ultrasonic system using Tetra iso-Propoxide Orthotitanate Titanium (TPOT) as a precursor. The solutions were sprayed onto substrates heated at various temperatures 350 - 550 °C. The properties of films as a function of temperature parameter were investigated using structural and optical analysis. According to XRD, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopies, the anatase phase was found and exhibits nanograins of 9 to 15 nm in size. The indirect and direct bad gap were found to increase by increasing substrate temperature due to the decreasing of nanograins size and were estimated to be around 3.28 and 3.38 eV. A transmittance higher than 80% was found. This paper reports on anti-reflection coating application of TiO2 layers due to its good transparency and appropriate refractive index varies between 2.19 - 2.40 at λ = 632.8 nm as a function of temperature determined by UVVisNIR spectrophotometer and Ellipsometry. To achieve optimum anti-reflection characteristics different anti-reflection designs were experimentally examined with polished and textured substrates. The average reflectance of the polished silicon used in this study is 39%, with TiO2 it decreases to 9%. The textured surface reduces the average reflectance of silicon to be around 14% and it decreases dramatically to 5% after deposition of a single layer of TiO2 as an anti-reflection coating. The gain in density of the short-circuit photocurrent assigned to the reduction of reflection losses up to 44% and 58% were predicted with TiO2 single-coating in polished and textured silicon substrates respectively.