WorldWideScience

Sample records for doped silica-on-silicon waveguides

  1. Fabrication of Ge nanocrystals doped silica-on-silicon waveguides and observation of their strong quantum confinement effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix is an interesting material for new optoelectronic devices. In this paper, standard silica-on-silicon waveguides with a core doped by Ge nanocrystals were fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and reactive ion etching...

  2. Continuously tunable photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Hiva; Dumais, Patrick; Yao, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable fractional Hilbert transformer (FHT) based on a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon (SOS) microring resonator (MRR). The propagation loss of a high-contrast germanium-doped SOS waveguide can be very small (0.02 dB/cm) while the lossless bend radius can be less than 1 mm. These characteristics lead to the fabrication of an MRR with a high Q-factor and a large free-spectral range (FSR), which is needed to implement a Hilbert transformer (HT). The SOS MRR is strongly polarization dependent. By changing the polarization direction of the input signal, the phase shift introduced at the center of the resonance spectrum is changed. The tunable phase shift at the resonance wavelength can be used to implement a tunable FHT. A germanium-doped SOS MRR with a high-index contrast of 3.8% is fabricated. The use of the fabricated MRR for the implementation of a tunable FHT with tunable orders at 1, 0.85, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.13 for a Gaussian pulse with the temporal full width at half-maximum of 80 ps is experimentally demonstrated.

  3. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Peter; Hoppe, Karsten; Leistiko, Otto

    2001-01-01

    -back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during...

  4. Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Svalgaard, Mikael; Kristensen, Martin

    1998-01-01

    in waveguide geometry, and excellent control of the refractive index step. Direct UV writing of waveguides became a realistic alternative to other fabrication methods when propagation losses below 0.2 dB/cm were reported in single-mode waveguides. However, the coupling loss to optical fibers remained high......, typically 1.8 dB/facet, which is significantly more than that obtained with other techniques. In this paper we present results in which the coupling loss to optical fibers has been lowered substantially. In addition, the glass photosensitivity has been increased, thus permitting shorter fabrication times......The photosensitive properties of germanosilica may be utilized to directly induce waveguide patterns into thin-film structures using ultraviolet (UV) light. The advantages of fabricating planar waveguides with UV light include the absence of photolithography and reactive ion etching, flexibility...

  5. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  6. Silica-on-silicon optical couplers and coupler based optical filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    is not an adequate description of the waveguides. A simple application for an optical couplers is as a 980/1550 nm mulitmplexer for erbium doped wavguide amplifiers. A numerical analysis shows that a directional coupler has acceptable specifications, whereas a mulit mode interference coupler does not. The wavelength......This work concerns modeling and chracterization of non ampligying silica-on-silicon optical components for wavelength division mulitplexed networks. Emphasis is placed on optical couplers and how they can be used as building blocks for devices with a larger complexity. It has been investigated how...... to construct wavelength flattened and process tolerant couplers. A thorough comparison between directional couplers, multi mode interference couplers and interferometer-based couplers has been performed. Numerically all these architectures have the ability to obtain similar wavelength-flatness, but the multi...

  7. Progress on erbium-doped waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Berendt, Martin Ole; Broeng, Jes

    1997-01-01

    The recent development in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, and fiber lasers is reviewed. Also the latest results on planar erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and high erbium concentration characterisation methods are presented...

  8. Sm 3+-doped polymer optical waveguide amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Tsang, Kwokchu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Xu, Shiqing

    2010-04-01

    Trivalent samarium ion (Sm 3+) doped SU8 polymer materials were synthesized and characterized. Intense red emission at 645 nm was observed under UV laser light excitation. Spectroscopic investigations show that the doped materials are suitable for realizing planar optical waveguide amplifiers. About 100 μm wide multimode Sm 3+-doped SU8 channel waveguides were fabricated using a simple UV exposure process. At 250 mW, 351 nm UV pump power, a signal enhancement of ˜7.4 dB at 645 nm was obtained for a 15 mm long channel waveguide.

  9. Deep glass etched microring resonators based on silica-on-silicon technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rottwitt, Karsten; Philipp, Hugh Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Microring resonators fabricated on silica-on-silicon technology using deep glass etching are demonstrated. The fabrication procedures are introduced and the transmission spectrum of a resonator is presented.......Microring resonators fabricated on silica-on-silicon technology using deep glass etching are demonstrated. The fabrication procedures are introduced and the transmission spectrum of a resonator is presented....

  10. ytterbium- & erbium-doped silica for planar waveguide lasers & amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate ytterbium doped planar components and investigate the possibilities of making erbium/ytterbium codoped planar waveguides in germano-silica glass. Furthermore, tools for modelling lasers and erbium/ytterbium doped amplifiers. The planar waveguides were...

  11. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Phillip; Battle, Philip; Suckow, William; Switzer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to spacebased applications. The key innovation in this effort is to combine recently available large, high-photorefractive-damage-threshold, z-cut 5% MgO:LN with novel ridge fabrication techniques to achieve high-optical power, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of frequency conversion structures. The proposed ridge waveguide structure should maintain the characteristics of the periodically poled bulk substrate, allowing for the efficient frequency conversion typical of waveguides and the high optical damage threshold and long lifetimes typical of the 5% doped bulk substrate. The low cost and large area of 5% MgO:LN wafers, and the improved performance of the proposed ridge waveguide structure, will enhance existing measurement capabilities as well as reduce the resources required to achieve high-performance specifications. The purpose of the ridge waveguides in MgO:LN is to provide platform technology that will improve optical power handling and conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide technology. The proposed ridge waveguide is produced using standard microfabrication techniques. The approach is enabled by recent advances in inductively coupled plasma etchers and chemical mechanical planarization techniques. In conjunction with wafer bonding, this fabrication methodology can be used to create arbitrarily shaped waveguides allowing complex optical circuits to be engineered in nonlinear optical materials such as magnesium doped lithium niobate. Researchers here have identified NLO (nonlinear optical) ridge waveguide structures as having suitable value to be the leading frequency conversion structures. Its value is based on having the low-cost fabrication necessary to satisfy the challenging pricing

  12. Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Hübner, Jörg; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations.......A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations....

  13. Induced transparencies in metamaterial waveguides doped with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R; Brzozowski, Marek; Racknor, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The light-mater interaction in quantum dots doped artificial electromagnetic materials such as metamaterial waveguides has been studied. The effect of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the absorption coefficient of quantum dots in metamaterial waveguides is investigated. The waveguides are made by sandwiching a metamaterial slab between two dielectric material layers. An ensemble of quantum dots are deposited near the waveguide interfaces. The transfer matrix method is used to calculate the SSPs in the waveguide and the density matrix method and Schrödinger equation method are used to calculate the absorption spectrum. It is found that when the thickness of the metamaterial slab is greater than the SPP wavelength the SPP energy is degenerate. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength the degeneracy of SPP state splits into odd and even SPP modes due the surface mode interaction (SMI) of the waveguide. We also found that the absorption spectrum has a minima (transparent state) which is due to strong coupling between excitons in quantum dots and SPPs in the waveguide. This transparent state is called the SPP induced transparency. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength one transparent state in the absorption spectrum split into two transparent states due to the surface mode interaction. This type of transparency is called the SMI induced transparency. Transparent states can be achieved by applying pulse stress field or an intense laser pulse field. Hence present findings can be used to fabricate the metamaterial optical sensors and switches. (paper)

  14. Fabrication of 2 × 8 power splitters in silica-on-silicon by the direct UV writing technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we present the first demonstration of 2 × 8 power splitters made in silica-on-silicon by direct ultraviolet (UV) writing. The fabricated components are compact and exhibit good performance in terms of loss, uniformity, and bandwidth, showing that direct UV writing can become...

  15. Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Organic Pyridinium Dye doped Polymeric Waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Xi; Li-Hua, Ye; Qiong, Wang; Deng, Xu; Chang-Gui, Lu; Guo-Hua, Hu; Yi-Ping, Cui

    2009-01-01

    An organic dye salt trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASPI) is doped with an electron transport organic molecule tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) in a host matrix of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is studied. By efficient Forster energy transfer from Alq3 to ASPI, it is demonstrated that the ASE threshold of ASPI:Alq3:PMMA waveguide (about 11μJ/pulse) is much lower than that of ASPI:PMMA system (about 38μJ/pulse). Meanwhile, the peak position of ASE can be controlled by the effect of film thickness on waveguide modes. We show that the ASE peak position can be tuned over 37nm. These characteristics indicate the ASPI:Alq3 system as a promising gain medium for optical amplifiers and organic semiconductor lasers

  16. Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)]. E-mail: joel.charier@univ-rennes1.fr; Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Lorrain, N. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Elhouichet, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Planar and buried channel porous silicon waveguides (WG) were prepared from p{sup +}-type silicon substrate by a two-step anodization process. Erbium ions were incorporated into pores of the porous silicon layers by an electrochemical method using ErCl{sub 3}-saturated solution. Erbium concentration of around 10{sup 20} at/cm{sup 3} was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis performed on SEM cross-section. The luminescence properties of erbium ions in the IR range were determined and a luminescence time decay of 420 {mu}s was measured. Optical losses were studied on these WG. The increased losses after doping were discussed.

  17. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  18. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA Phase I STTR effort, the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate (5% MgO:LN) will be established....

  19. Planar waveguide nanolaser configured by dye-doped hybrid nanofilm on substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. A.; Yashchuk, V. P.; Telbiz, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Dye-doped hybrid silicate/titanium nanofilms on the glass substrate structures of asymmetrical waveguides were studied by way of laser systems. The threshold, spatial and spectral features of the laser oscillation of genuine and hollow waveguides were determined. The pattern of stimulated radiation included two concurrent processes: single-mode waveguide lasing and lateral small divergence emission. Comparison of the open angle of the lateral beams and grazing angles of the waveguide lasing mode provides an insight into the effect of leaky mode emission followed by Lummer-Gehrcke interference.

  20. Optical properties of ion beam modified waveguide materials doped with erbium and silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strohhöfer, C. (Christof)

    2001-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we investigate codoping of erbium-doped waveguide materials with different ions in order to increase the efficiency of erbium-doped optical amplifiers. Codoping with ytterbium can overcome the limitations due to the small absorption cross section of Er3+ in Al2O3 at

  1. Low- and high-index sol-gel films for planar and channel-doped waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canva, Michael; Chaput, Frederic; Lahlil, Khalid; Rachet, Vincent; Goudket, Helene; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Yves

    2001-11-01

    In view of realizing integrated optic components based on effects such as electro-optic, chi(2):chi(2) cascading, stimulated emission,... one has to first synthesize materials with the proper functionality; this may be achieved by doping solid state matrices by the appropriate organic chromophores. Second, and as important, these materials have to be properly structured into the final optical guiding structures. We shall report on issues related to the realization of chromophore-doped planar waveguides as well as channel waveguides. These structures were realized by either photo-transformation such as photo- chromism and photo-bleaching or reactive ion etching technique, starting with chromophore doped sol-gel materials at high loading contents for which optical index may be controlled via the local dopant concentration. With these materials and techniques, waveguides and components characterized by propagation losses of the order of a cm-1, measured off the edge of the absorption band of the doping species, were fabricated. In order to be also able to study and use waveguide functionalized with low concentration of chromophore species, we developed new sol-gel materials of high optical index, yet low temperature processed. These new films are under study to evaluate their potential as host for organic doped waveguides devices.

  2. Optical study of Erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France) and Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia)]. E-mail: najar.adel@laposte.net; Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Lorrain, N. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Haesaert, S. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2007-06-15

    Planar waveguides were formed from porous silicon layers obtained on P{sup +} substrates. These waveguides were then doped by erbium using an electrochemical method. Erbium concentration in the range 2.2-2.5 at% was determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis performed on SEM cross sections. The refractive index of layers was studied before and after doping and thermal treatments. The photoluminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions in the IR range and the decay curve of the 1.53 {mu}m emission peak were studied as a function of the excitation power. The value of excited Er density was equal to 0.07%. Optical loss contributions were analyzed on these waveguides and the losses were equal to 1.1 dB/cm at 1.55 {mu}m after doping.

  3. Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Christian; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Rasmussen, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A model for Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers is described and numerically investigated in the small-signal regime. The amplified spontaneous emission in the ytterbium-band and the quenching process between excited erbium ions are included in the model. For pump wavelengths...

  4. Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns the investigation and development of Bragggrating-based integrated cavities for the rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 (aluminium oxide) waveguide platform, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view, with the primary purpose of realizing

  5. Planar waveguide amplifiers and laser in erbium doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index o fthe films can be controlled by germanium co...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy....

  6. Experimental investigations of optical nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glass waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannberg, P.; Possner, T.; Braeuer, A.; Bartuch, U.

    1988-01-01

    Both, thermal and electronic optical nonlinearities are studied in semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) waveguides which are fabricated in commercially available sharp-cut filters by Cs + -K + ion exchange. The relaxation time in photodarkened substrates is measured to be 30 ps. By means of a prism coupling set-up the saturation value of the nonlinear index change is determined. Furthermore, a high stability dual-beam interferometer is presented for the measurement of both, thermal and electronic nonlinear refractive index n 2 in planar waveguides. Conclusions about the application of SDG to opto-optical switching are given. (author)

  7. Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradley, J.; Pollnau, Markus

    Erbium-doped fiber devices have been extraordinarily successful due to their broad optical gain around 1.5–1.6 μm. Er-doped fiber amplifiers enable efficient, stable amplification of high-speed, wavelength-division-multiplexed signals, thus continue to dominate as part of the backbone of longhaul

  8. Praseodymium ion doped phosphate glasses for integrated broadband ion-exchanged waveguide amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.F. [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, B.J. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, H., E-mail: lhai8686@yahoo.com [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pun, E.Y.B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effective near-infrared emission (1380-1525 nm) is observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses. • Effective bandwidth of {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm. • Channel waveguides have been fabricated by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method. • Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier. - Abstract: Effective near-infrared emission covering the fifth optical telecommunication window (1380-1525 nm) has been observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate (NMAP) glasses. Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω{sub 2} (6.38 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}), Ω{sub 4} (20.30 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) and Ω{sub 6} (0.40 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) indicate a high inversion asymmetrical and strong covalent environment in the optical glasses. The effective bandwidth (Δλ{sub eff}) of the corresponding {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm, and the maximum stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub em-max}) at 1468 nm is derived to be 1.14 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}. Channel waveguide was fabricated successfully by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method with mode field diameter of 8.8 μm in the horizontal direction and 6.7 μm in the vertical direction. Broad effective bandwidth, large emission cross-section and perfect thermal ion-exchangeability indicate that Pr{sup 3+}-doped NMAP phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier, especially operating at E- and S-bands which belong to the fifth optical telecommunication window.

  9. Near-infrared optical properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glass waveguides prepared by double-energy proton implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Lv, Peng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-03-01

    We report on the preparation and properties of an optical planar waveguide structure operating at 1539 nm in the Yb3+-doped silicate glass. The waveguide was formed by using (470 + 500) keV proton implantation at fluences of (1.0 + 2.0) × 1016 ions/cm2. The waveguiding characteristics including the guided-mode spectrum and the near-field image were investigated by the m-line technique and the finite-difference beam propagation method. The energy distribution for implanted protons and the refractive index profile for the proton-implanted waveguide were simulated by the stopping and range of ions in matter and the reflectivity calculation method. The proton-implanted Yb3+-doped silicate glass waveguide is a candidate for optoelectronic elements in the near-infrared region.

  10. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ivanov, I.C. [Charles Evans & Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  11. Optical gain at 650 nm from a polymer waveguide with dye-doped cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, M. A.; Coleman, B.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; Ramon, M.; Xia, R.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    2005-12-01

    Signal amplification at the polymer optical fiber low-loss window of 650 nm is reported in an SU8 rib waveguide coated with Rhodamine-640 doped poly(methyl methacrylate). A signal beam is end-fired into the facet of a 7×100μm waveguide and amplified by top pumping of the 2-μm-thick cladding region with a pulsed pump source focused into a 9-mm-long stripe. A gain of 14dB and a minimum signal-to-noise ratio of around 2 dB are achieved in a 15-mm-long device with a low threshold pump intensity of 0.25μJ/mm2, which is an order of magnitude lower than previously reported.

  12. Nanocrystal in Er3+-doped SiO2-ZrO2 Planar Waveguide with Yb3+ Sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaki, N. Iznie; Jais, U. Sarah; Abd-Rahman, M. Kamil; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Chiasera, A.; Ferrari, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher doping of Er 3+ in glass ceramic waveguides would cause concentration and pair-induced quenching which lead to inhomogeneous line-width of luminescence spectrum thus reduce output intensity. Concentration quenching can be overcome by introducing ZrO 2 in the glass matrix while co-doping with Yb 3+ which acts as sensitizer would improve the excitation efficiency of Er 3+ . In this study, SiO 2 -ZrO 2 planar waveguides having composition in mol percent of 70SiO 2 -30ZrO 2 doped with Er 3+ and co-doped with Yb 3+ , were prepared via sol-gel route. Narrower and shaper peaks of PL and XRD shows the formation of nanocrystals. Intensity is increase with addition amount of Yb 3+ shows sensitizing effect on Er 3+ .

  13. Femtosecond laser direct writing of gratings and waveguides in high quantum efficiency erbium-doped Baccarat glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnubhatla, K C; Kumar, R Sai Santosh; Rao, D Narayana; Rao, S Venugopal; Osellame, R; Ramponi, R; Bhaktha, S N B; Mattarelli, M; Montagna, M; Turrell, S; Chiappini, A; Chiasera, A; Ferrari, M; Righini, G C

    2009-01-01

    The femtosecond laser direct writing technique was employed to inscribe gratings and waveguides in high quantum efficiency erbium-doped Baccarat glass. Using the butt coupling technique, a systematic study of waveguide loss with respect to input pulse energy and writing speed was performed to achieve the best waveguide with low propagation loss (PL). By pumping at 980 nm, we observed signal enhancement in these active waveguides in the telecom spectral region. The refractive index change was smooth and we estimated it to be ∼10 -3 . The high quantum efficiency (∼80%) and a best PL of ∼0.9 dB cm -1 combined with signal enhancement makes Baccarat glass a potential candidate for application in photonics.

  14. Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobino, M.; Marshall, G.D.; Xiong, C.; Clark, A.S.; Bonneau, D.; Natarajan, C.M.; Tanner, M.G.; Hadfield, R.H.; Dorenbos, S.N.; Zijlstra, T.; Zwiller, V.; Marangoni, M.; Ramponi, R.; Thompson, M.G.; Eggleton, B.J.; O'Brien, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate photon-pair generation in a reverse proton exchanged waveguide fabricated on a periodically poled magnesium doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate substrate. Detected pairs are generated via a cascaded second order nonlinear process where a pump laser at wavelength of 1.55 ?m is first

  15. Rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 optical waveguides grown by liquid-phase epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanyuk, Y.E.; Apostolopoulos, V.; Utke, U.; Pollnau, Markus

    High-quality KY(WO4)2 thin layers doped with rare-earth-ions were grown using liquid-phase epitaxy. A low-temperature mixture of chlorides was used as the flux and undoped KY(WO4)2 crystals as substrates. The crystalline layers possessed thicknesses up to 10 µm. Passive and active planar waveguiding

  16. Er{sup 3+} Doping conditions of planar porous silicon waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B. P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Lorrain, N., E-mail: nathalie.lorrain@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B. P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B. P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B. P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2009-11-15

    EDX and infrared photoluminescence (IR PL) analyses performed on erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides (PSWG) were studied using different doping conditions. Both parameters of the cathodisation electrochemical method used for Er incorporation and parameters of thermal treatments required for Er optical activation were taken into consideration. Firstly, by varying the current density and the time of cathodisation, we have shown that a current density of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2} for 10 min allows homogeneous Er doping to be achieved throughout the depth of the guiding layer. Then, the PL intensity at 1.53 {mu}m was studied as a function of the oxidation time at 900 deg. C and Er diffusion temperature for 60 min. Increasing the oxidation time up to 1 h allows PL to be enhanced due to active Si-O-Er complex formation whereas an oxidation time of 2 h induces a decrease in PL because of Er segregation. Moreover, an increase in the diffusion temperature induces an optimal distribution of optically active Si-Er-O complexes inside the crystallites. When the temperature is too high, a PSWG densification and Er segregation occurs inducing a decrease in PL due to energy transfer phenomena.

  17. Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shilong; Wang Xiuli; Fang Dawei; Xu Shiqing; Hu Lili

    2006-01-01

    Tungsten-tellurite glass with molar composition of 60TeO 2 -30WO 3 -10Na 2 O has been investigated for developing planar broadband waveguide amplifier application. Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er 3+ -doped tungsten-tellurite glass have been discussed. The results show that the introduction of WO 3 increases significantly the glass transition temperature and the maximum phonon energy. Er 3+ -doped tungsten-tellurite glass exhibits high glass transition temperature (377 deg. C), large emission cross-section (0.91 x 10 -20 cm 2 ) at 1532 nm and broad full width at half maximum (FWHM), which make it preferable for broadband Er 3+ -doped waveguide amplifier application

  18. Design and length optimization of an adiabatic coupler for on-chip vertical integration of rare-earth-doped double tungstate waveguide amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Jinfeng; Sefünç, Mustafa; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The integration of rare-earth doped double tungstate waveguide amplifiers onto passive technology platforms enables the on-chip amplification of very high bit rate signals. In this work, a methodology for the optimized design of vertical adiabatic couplers between a passive Si3N4 waveguide and the

  19. Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kik, P.G.; Polman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Erbium doped Al 2 O 3 waveguide amplifiers were fabricated using two different doping methods, namely Er ion implantation into sputter deposited Al 2 O 3 , and co-sputtering from an Er 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 target. Although the Er concentration in both materials is almost identical (0.28 and 0.31 at. %), the amplifiers show a completely different behavior. Upon pumping with 1.48 μm, the co-sputtered waveguide shows a strong green luminescence from the 4 S 3/2 level, indicating efficient cooperative upconversion in this material. This is confirmed by pump power dependent measurements of the optical transmission at 1.53 μm and the spontaneous emission at 1.53 and 0.98 μm. All measurements can be accurately modeled using a set of rate equations that include first order and second order cooperative upconversion. The first order cooperative upconversion coefficient C 24 is found to be 3.5x10 -16 cm 3 s -1 in the co-sputtered material, two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained in Er implanted Al 2 O 3 of 4.1x10 -18 cm 3 s -1 . It is concluded that the co-sputtering process results in a strongly inhomogeneous atomic scale spatial distribution of the Er ions. As a result, the co-sputtered waveguides do not show optical gain, while the implanted waveguides do

  20. Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by 6.0 MeV silicon ion implantation in Nd-doped phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Han-Qing; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a planar optical waveguide by silicon ion implantation into Nd-doped phosphate glass at an energy of 6.0 MeV and a dose of 5.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. The change in the surface morphology of the glass after the implantation can be clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy. The measurement of the dark mode spectrum of the waveguide is conducted using a prism coupler at 632.8 nm. The refractive index distribution of the waveguide is reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. The near-field optical intensity profile of the waveguide is measured using an end-face coupling system. The waveguide with good optical properties on the glass matrix may be valuable for the application of the Nd-doped phosphate glass in integrated optical devices.

  1. Preparation and infrared emission of silica-zirconia-alumina doped with erbium for planar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thu Huong, T.; Kim Anh, T.; Hoai Nam, M.; Barthou, C.; Strek, W.; Quoc Minh, L.

    2007-01-01

    The sol-gel synthesis of Er 3+ (1-5%) doped silica(83)-zirconia(17) waveguide materials with addition of aluminum (6-20 at%) giving a FWHM ( 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 15/2 )>60 nm is reported. Zirconia with high refractive index of 1.9 and low phonon energy is a good material compared with titania. The films were deposited on silicon or silica substrate by dipcoating technique using the precursors of Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 4 (Aldrich), Zr(C 3 H 7 O) 4 , CH 3 -CH(OH)-CH 3 , C 5 H 8 O 2 , Al(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O, Er(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O and Yb(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O (Merck). The dipcoating rate of 2 and 3 mm/s were controlled by computer. Samples were calcinated at temperatures from 70 to 900 deg. C. The optical properties were studied by photoluminescent spectra and decay time. Influence of the Al 3+ concentration and the heat treatment conditions for the Er 3+ luminescent properties were studied. An energy transfer from 2 F 5/2 (Yb 3+ ) to 4 I 11/2 (Er 3+ ) multiplets is followed by a relaxation to the 4 I 13/2 (Er 3+ ) and an efficiency luminescence of Er 3+ ( 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 15/2 ) was clearly measured. It is interesting to indicate that the lifetime of few ms of Er 3+ at 1530 nm in the sample Si(83)Zr(17)Al(6%)Er(1%)Yb(1%) is longer than for the sample without Yb ions. Multilayer thin films were prepared. The thickness, refractive index, the roughness about 2 nm and a propagation loss<2.5 dB/cm were studied for active planar waveguide applications

  2. White upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped K+-Na+ ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass channel waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Baojie; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Lin, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth ions doped K+-Na+ ion-exchanged aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass channel waveguides have been designed and fabricated. Under 980 nm laser pumping, an intense upconversion white light transmission trace was observed in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped NMAG glass channel waveguide and a high-brightness light spot was achieved from the output end of the fiber connected to the waveguide channel. The fluorescent colors were diverse and located within or near the white region in CIE chromaticity diagram under various pumping powers. These admirable results indicate that Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped NMAG channel waveguide is a promising light source for medical and high-precision processing illumination.

  3. Characterization of channel waveguides and tunable microlasers in SU8 doped with rhodamine B fabricated using proton beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S Venugopal; Bettiol, A A; Watt, F

    2008-01-01

    We present our results on the fabrication and characterization of buried channel waveguides and tunable microlasers in SU8 doped with rhodamine B achieved using direct writing with a 2.0 MeV proton beam. The channel waveguides, fabricated in single exposure, had an optical propagation loss of -1 at 532 nm measured using the scattering technique while the microlasers with dimensions of 250 x 250 μm 2 had a threshold of ∼150 μJ mm -2 when pumped with 532 nm nanosecond pulses. The emitted wavelength from the microlasers was tunable to an extent of ∼15 nm with increasing pump intensity and different pumping angles. The advantages of such micro-photonic components for the realization of a lab-on-a-chip device are discussed briefly. (fast track communication)

  4. Eu-doped ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded low-loss glass-ceramic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; N, Shivakiran Bhaktha B.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the sol-gel fabrication, using a dip-coating technique, of low-loss Eu-doped 70SiO2 -(30-x) HfO2-xZnO (x = 2, 5, 7 and 10 mol%) ternary glass-ceramic planar waveguides. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incident x-ray diffraction experiments confirm the controlled growth of hybrid nanocrystals with an average size of 3 nm-25 nm, composed of ZnO encapsulated by a thin layer of nanocrystalline HfO2, with an increase of ZnO concentration from x = 2 mol% to 10 mol% in the SiO2-HfO2 composite matrix. The effect of crystallization on the local environment of Eu ions, doped in the ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded glass-ceramic matrix, is studied using photoluminescence spectra, wherein an intense mixed-valence state (divalent as well as trivalent) emission of Eu ions is observed. The existence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in the SiO2-HfO2-ZnO ternary matrix is confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Importantly, the Eu{}2+,3+-doped ternary waveguides exhibit low propagation losses (0.3 ± 0.2 dB cm-1 at 632.8 nm) and optical transparency in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which makes ZnO-HfO2 nanocrystal-embedded SiO2-HfO2-ZnO waveguides a viable candidate for the development of on-chip, active, integrated optical devices.

  5. Rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 waveguides for active integrated optical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradley, J.; Ay, F.; Blauwendraat, Tom; Worhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus; Orlovic, Valentin A.; Panchenko, Vladislav; Scherbakov, Ivan A.

    2007-01-01

    Reactively co-sputtered amorphous $Al_2O_3$ waveguide layers with low propagation losses have been deposited. In order to define channel waveguides in such $Al_2O_3$ films, the etching behaviour of $Al_2O_3$ has been investigated using an inductively coupled reactive ion etch system. The etch rate

  6. Direct imaging of optical interference in erbium-doped Al2O3 waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den G.N.; Polman, A.; Dam, van C.; Uffelen, van J.W.M.; Smit, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Interference of 1.48-mu m light in multimode interference waveguides is made visible by imaging green and infrared upconversion luminescence from Er3+ ions dispersed in the waveguide. A two-dimensional mode density image can be derived from the data and agrees well with mode calculations for this

  7. Ultra-photo-stable coherent random laser based on liquid waveguide gain channels doped with boehmite nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Dai, Jiangyun; Yin, Jiajia; Xue, Hongyan; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2018-02-01

    Construction of ultra-photo-stable coherent random laser based on liquid waveguide gain channels doped with boehmite nanosheets has been demonstrated. An Al plate uniformly coated with boehmite nanosheets was prepared by an alkali-treatment method and used as a scattering surface for the coherent random laser. Microcavity may be formed between these boehmite nanosheets owing to the strong optical feedback induced by the multiple light scattering. Many sharp peaks are observed in the emission spectra, and their laser thresholds are different, which confirms the feedback mechanism is coherent. The linewidth of the main peak at 571.74 nm is 0.28 nm, and the threshold of the main peak is about 4.96 mJ/cm2. Due to the fluidity of liquid waveguide gain medium, the photostability of this coherent random laser is better than the conventional solid state dye random lasers. The emission direction is well constrained by the waveguide effect within a certain angular range (±30°). This kind of coherent random laser can be applied in optical fluid lasers and photonic devices.

  8. Densification behavior, doping profile and planar waveguide laser performance of the tape casting YAG/Nd:YAG/YAG ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin; Li, Jiang; Qu, Haiyun; Wang, Juntao; Liu, Jiao; Dai, Jiawei; Zhou, Zhiwei; Liu, Binglong; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Pan, Yubai; Gao, Qingsong; Guo, Jingkun

    2016-10-01

    The sintering behavior and doping concentration profile of the planar waveguide YAG/Nd:YAG/YAG ceramics by the tape casting and solid-state reaction method were investigated on the basis of densification trajectory, microstructure evolution, and Nd3+ ions diffusion. The porosity of the green body by tape casting and cold isostatic pressing is about 38.6%. And the green bodies were consolidated from 1100 °C to 1800 °C for 0.5-20 h to study the densification and the doping diffusion behaviors. At the temperature higher than 1500 °C, pure YAG phase is formed, followed by the densification and grain growth process. With the increase of temperature, two sintering stages occur, corresponding to remarkable densification and significant grain growth, respectively. The mechanism controlling densification at 1550 °C is grain boundary diffusion. The diffusion of Nd3+ ions is more sensitive to temperature than the sintering time, and the minimum temperature required for the obvious diffusion of Nd3+ ions is higher than 1700 °C. Finally, planar waveguide YAG/1.5 at.%Nd:YAG/YAG transparent ceramics with in-line transmittance of 84.8% at 1064 nm were obtained by vacuum-sintering at 1780 °C for 30 h. The fluorescence lifetime of 4F3/2 state of Nd3+ in the specimen is about 259 μs. The prepared ceramic waveguide was tested in a laser amplifier and the laser pulse was amplificated from 87 mJ to 238 mJ, with the pump energy of 680 mJ.

  9. Ridge optical waveguide in an Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass produced by He+ ion implantation combined with Ar+ ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Yang; Chen Feng; Hu Lili; Xing Pengfei; Chen Yanxue; Wang Xuelin; Wang Keming

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a ridge optical waveguide in an Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped phosphate glass. The He + ion implantation (at energy of 2.8 MeV) is first applied onto the sample to produce a planar waveguide substrate, and then Ar + ion beam etching (at energy of 500 eV) is carried out to construct rib stripes on the sample surface that has been deposited by a specially designed photoresist mask. According to a reconstructed refractive index profile of the waveguide cross section, the modal distribution of the waveguide is simulated by applying a computer code based on the beam propagation method, which shows reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed waveguide mode by using the end-face coupling method. Simulation of the incident He ions at 2.8 MeV penetrating into the Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped phosphate glass substrate is also performed to provide helpful information on waveguide formation

  10. Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y. C.; Faber, A. J.; de Waal, H.; Kik, P. G.; Polman, A.

    1997-11-01

    Erbium-doped multicomponent phosphate glass waveguides were deposited by rf sputtering techniques. The Er concentration was 5.3×1020cm-3. By pumping the waveguide at 980 nm with a power of ˜21 mW, a net optical gain of 4.1 dB at 1.535 μm was achieved. This high gain per unit length at low pump power could be achieved because the Er-Er cooperative upconversion interactions in this heavily Er-doped phosphate glass are very weak [the upconversion coefficient is (2.0±0.5)×10-18 cm3/s], presumably due to the homogeneous distribution of Er in the glass and due to the high optical mode confinement in the waveguide which leads to high pump power density at low pump power.

  11. Optical Amplification at 1525 nm in BaYF5: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ Nanocrystals Doped SU-8 Polymer Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated optical amplification in BaYF5: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ (BYF nanocrystals doped polymer waveguide. BYF nanocrystals with an average size of ∼13 nm were synthesized by a high-boiling solvent process. Intense 1.53 μm fluorescence was obtained in the nanocrystals under excitation at 980 nm. An optical polymer waveguide was fabricated by using BYF nanocrystals doped SU-8 polymer as the core material. A relative optical gain of ∼10.4 dB at 1525 nm was achieved in a 1.1 cm long waveguide for an input signal power of ∼0.09 mW and a pump power of ∼212 mW.

  12. Optical gain at 1.53 {mu}m in Er{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped porous silicon waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia)], E-mail: najar.adel@laposte.net; Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Lorrain, N.; Haesaert, S. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2008-01-15

    Erbium-ytterbium (Er-Yb)-co-doped porous silicon planar waveguides were prepared from P{sup +}-type (1 0 0) oriented silicon wafer. Erbium and ytterbium ions were electrochemically introduced into the porous structure of the waveguide core. The doping profiles of erbium and ytterbium ions were determined by EDX analysis performed on sample cross-section. The mean concentration in the guiding layer is of about 1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The refractive indices were measured from co-doped porous silicon and undoped waveguides after the thermal treatments. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of optically activated erbium ions at 1.53 {mu}m was recorded. The PL enhancement is the result of the energy transfer from the excited state of Yb to the state of Er. Optical losses at 1.55 {mu}m were measured on these waveguides and were of about 2 dB/cm. An internal gain at 1.53 {mu}m of 5.8 dB/cm has been measured with a pump power of 65 mW at 980 nm.

  13. Active and passive silica waveguide integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    2001-01-01

    . The increasing complexity and functionality of optical networks prompts a demand for highly integrated optical circuits. On-board optical amplifiers, monolithically integrated with functionalities like switching or multiplexing/demultiplexing will allow flexible incorporation of optical integrated circuits...... in existing and future networks without affecting the power budget of the system. Silica on silicon technology offers a unique possibility to selectively dope sections of the integrated circuit with erbium where amplification is desired. Some techniques for active/passive integration are reviewed and a silica......Integrated optical amplifiers are currently regaining interest. Stand-alone single integrated amplifiers offer only limited advantage over current erbium doped fiber amplifiers, whereas arrays of integrated amplifiers are very attractive due to miniaturization and the possibility of mass production...

  14. Optical spectroscopy and optical waveguide fabrication in Eu3+ and Eu3+/Tb3+ doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldiño, U.; Speghini, A.; Berneschi, S.; Bettinelli, M.; Brenci, M.; Pasquini, E.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Optical and spectroscopic properties of 2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 singly doped and 5.0% Tb(PO 3 ) 3 –2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. Reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.36 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the europium singly doped glass excited at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67,0.33) standard of the National Television System Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium–zinc–aluminosilicate glass is co-doped with Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ , reddish-orange light emission, with (0.61,0.37) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb 3+ excitation at 344 nm. This reddish-orange luminescence is generated mainly by 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 and 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 emissions of Eu 3+ , europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. From an analysis of the Tb 3+ emission decay curves it is inferred that the Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ energy transfer might take place between Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism, so that an electric dipole–quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this energy transfer is about 62% upon excitation at 344 nm. In the singly doped and codoped glasses multimode optical waveguides were successfully produced by Ag + –Na + ion exchange, and they could be characterized at various wavelengths. -- Highlights: • Reddish-orange light emission can be generated from Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses excited at 344 nm. • The Eu 3+ is sensitized by Tb 3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer. • Highly multimode waveguides can be fabricated by diluted silver–sodium exchange. • This type of AlGaN LEDs pumped glass phosphors might be useful for generation of reddish-orange light

  15. Efficient active waveguiding properties of Mo6 nano-cluster-doped polymer nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeon, J.; Huby, N.; Amela-Cortes, M.; Molard, Y.; Garreau, A.; Cordier, S.; Bêche, B.; Duvail, J.-L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate 1D nanostructures based on a Mo6@SU8 hybrid nanocomposite in which photoluminescent Mo6 clusters are embedded in the photosensitive SU8 resist. Tens of micrometers long Mo6@SU8-based tubular nanostructures were fabricated by the wetting template method, enabling the control of the inner and outer diameter to about 190 nm and 240 nm respectively, as supported by structural and optical characterizations. The image plane optical study of these nanotubes under optical pumping highlights the efficient waveguiding phenomenon of the red luminescence emitted by the clusters. Moreover, the wave vector distribution in the Fourier plane determined by leakage radiation microscopy gives additional features of the emission and waveguiding. First, the anisotropic red luminescence of the whole system can be attributed to the guided mode along the nanotube. Then, a low-loss propagation behavior is evidenced in the Mo6@SU8-based nanotubes. This result contrasts with the weaker waveguiding signature in the case of UV210-based nanotubes embedding PFO (poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)). It is attributed to the strong reabsorption phenomenon, owing to overlapping between absorption and emission bands in the semi-conducting conjugated polymer PFO. These results make this Mo6@SU8 original class of nanocomposite a promising candidate as nanosources for submicronic photonic integration.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of Er+3 doped SiO2/SnO2 glass-ceramic thin films for planar waveguide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddala, S.; Chiappini, A.; Armellini, C.; Turell, S.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Glass-ceramics are a kind of two-phase materials constituted by nanocrystals embedded in a glass matrix and the respective volume fractions of crystalline and amorphous phase determine the properties of the glass-ceramics. Among these properties transparency is crucial in particular when confined structures, such as, dielectric optical waveguides, are considered. Moreover, the segregation of dopant rare-earth ions, like erbium, in low phonon energy crystalline medium makes these structures more promising in the development of waveguide amplifiers. Here we are proposing a new class of low phonon energy tin oxide semiconductor medium doped silicate based planar waveguides. Er3+ doped (100-x) SiO2-xSnO2 (x= 10, 20, 25 and 30mol%), glass-ceramic planar waveguide thin films were fabricated by a simple sol-gel processing and dip coating technique. XRD and HRTEM studies indicates the glass-ceramic phase of the film and the dispersion of ~4nm diameter of tin oxide nanocrystals in the amorphous phase of silica. The spectroscopic assessment indicates the distribution of the dopant erbium ions in the crystalline medium of tin oxide. The observed low losses, 0.5±0.2 dB/cm, at 1.54 μm communication wavelength makes them a quite promising material for the development of high gain integrated optical amplifiers.

  17. High-power Yb- and Tm-doped double tungstate channel waveguide lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalfsen, Koop; Geskus, D.; Ay, F.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Aravazhi, S.; Pollnau, Markus

    The potassium double tungstates KGd(WO4)2, KY(WO4)2, and KLu(WO4)2 are excellent candidates for solid-state lasers because of their high refractive index of ~2.0-2.1, the large transition cross-sections of rare-earth (RE3+) ions doped into these hosts, and a reasonably large thermal conductivity of

  18. NIR luminescent Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} nanostructured planar and channel waveguides: Optical and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Cesar dos Santos [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto/SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Quimica de Materiais - (GPQM), Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praca Dom Helvecio, 74, 36301-160, Sao Joao Del Rei, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Drielly Cristina de [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto/SP (Brazil); Maia, Lauro June Queiroz [Grupo Fisica de Materiais, Instituto de Fisica, UFG, Campus Samambaia, Caixa Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiania/GO (Brazil); Gomes, Anderson Stevens Leonidas [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife/PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney Jose Lima [Laboratorio de Materiais Fotonicos, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970, Araraquara/SP (Brazil); and others

    2012-09-14

    Optical and structural properties of planar and channel waveguides based on sol-gel Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} are reported. Microstructured channels with high homogeneous surface profile were written onto the surface of multilayered densified films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a femtosecond laser etching technique. The densification of the planar waveguides was evaluated from changes in the refractive index and thickness, with full densification being achieved at 900 Degree-Sign C after annealing from 23 up to 500 min, depending on the ZrO{sub 2} content. Crystal nucleation and growth took place together with densification, thereby producing transparent glass ceramic planar waveguides containing rare earth-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals dispersed in a silica-based glassy host. Low roughness and crack-free surface as well as high confinement coefficient were achieved for all the compositions. Enhanced NIR luminescence of the Er{sup 3+} ions was observed for the Yb{sup 3+}-codoped planar waveguides, denoting an efficient energy transfer from the Yb{sup 3+} to the Er{sup 3+} ion. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel high NIR luminescent nanostructured planar and channel waveguides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructured channels written by a femtosecond laser etching technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transparent glass ceramic with rare earth-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals in a silica host. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced NIR luminescence, efficient energy transfer from the Yb{sup 3+} to the Er{sup 3+} ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New planar channel waveguides to be applied as EDWA in the C telecommunication band.

  19. Processing and optical properties of Nd3+-doped SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3 planar waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qing; Zhou, Yan; Ooi, Boon Siew; Lam, Yee Loy; Chan, Yuen Chuen; Kam, Chan Hin

    2000-05-01

    We report here the processing and optical characterization of Nd3+-doped SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3 planar waveguides deposited on SOS substrates by the sol-gel route combined with spin-coating and rapid thermal annealing. The recipes used for preparing the solutions by sol-gel route are in mole ratio of 93SiO2:20AlO1.5: x ErO1.5. In order to verify the residual OH content in the films, FTIR spectra were measured and the morphology of the material by the XRD analysis. Five 2-layer films annealed at a maximum temperature of 500 degrees C, 700 degrees C, 900 degrees, 1000 degrees C, 1100 degrees C respectively were fabricated on silicon. The FTIR and XRD curves show that annealing at 1050 degrees C for 15s effectively removes the OH in the materia and keeps the material amorphous. The propagation loss of the planar waveguides was measured by using the method based on scattering in measurements and the result was obtained to be 1.54dB/cm. The fluorescence spectra were measured with 514nm wavelength of Ar+ laser by directly shining the pump beam on the film instead of prism coupling. The results show that the 1 mole Nd3+ content recipe has the strongest emission efficiency among the four samples investigated.

  20. Optical spectroscopy and optical waveguide fabrication in Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldiño, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Berneschi, S. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Brenci, M. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Pasquini, E. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Pelli, S. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Righini, G.C. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Optical and spectroscopic properties of 2.0% Eu(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} singly doped and 5.0% Tb(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}–2.0% Eu(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. Reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.36 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the europium singly doped glass excited at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67,0.33) standard of the National Television System Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium–zinc–aluminosilicate glass is co-doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}, reddish-orange light emission, with (0.61,0.37) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm. This reddish-orange luminescence is generated mainly by {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0} →{sup 7}F{sub 2} emissions of Eu{sup 3+}, europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. From an analysis of the Tb{sup 3+} emission decay curves it is inferred that the Tb{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} energy transfer might take place between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism, so that an electric dipole–quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this energy transfer is about 62% upon excitation at 344 nm. In the singly doped and codoped glasses multimode optical waveguides were successfully produced by Ag{sup +}–Na{sup +} ion exchange, and they could be characterized at various wavelengths. -- Highlights: • Reddish-orange light emission can be generated from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses excited at 344 nm. • The Eu{sup 3+} is sensitized by Tb{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer. • Highly multimode waveguides can be fabricated by diluted silver–sodium exchange. • This type of AlGaN LEDs pumped glass phosphors might be useful for generation of reddish-orange light.

  1. Ultrafast direct laser writing of cladding waveguides in the 0.8CaSiO{sub 3}-0.2Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} eutectic glass doped with Nd{sup 3+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, J., E-mail: jon.martinez@uam.es; Lifante, G. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, C-04, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28.049 Madrid (Spain); Sola, D.; Peña, J. I. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, 50.018 Zaragoza (Spain); Vázquez de Aldana, J. R. [Grupo de Investigación en Microprocesado de Materiales con Láser, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, 37.008 Salamanca (Spain); Aza, A. H. de; Pena, P. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio-CSIC, 28.049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-28

    We report on tubular cladding optical waveguides fabricated in Neodymium doped Wollastonite-Tricalcium Phosphate glass in the eutectic composition. The glass samples were prepared by melting the eutectic powder mixture in a Pt-Rh crucible at 1600 °C and pouring it in a preheated brass mould. Afterwards, the glass was annealed to relieve the inner stresses. Cladding waveguides were fabricated by focusing beneath the sample surface using a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with a pulsewidth of 120 fs working at 1 kHz. The optical properties of these waveguides have been assessed in terms of near-field intensity distribution and transmitted power, and these results have been compared to previously reported waveguides with double-line configuration. Optical properties have also been studied as function of the temperature. Heat treatments up to 700 °C were carried out to diminish colour centre losses where waveguide's modes and transmitted power were compared in order to establish the annealing temperature at which the optimal optical properties were reached. Laser experiments are in progress to evaluate the ability of the waveguides for 1064 nm laser light generation under 800 nm optical pumping.

  2. Stress-induced buried waveguides in the 0.8CaSiO3–0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass doped with Nd3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, D.; Martínez de Mendibil, J.; Vázquez de Aldana, J.R.; Lifante, G.; Balda, R.; Aza, A.H. de; Pena, P.; Fernández, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the fabrication of buried optical waveguides by femtosecond laser inscription in the 0.8CaSiO 3 –0.2Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 eutectic glass doped with Nd 3+ ions is reported. The glass samples were prepared by melting the eutectic powder mixture in a Pt–10 wt.% Rh crucible at 1600 °C and pouring it in a preheated brass mould. Afterwards, the glass was annealed to release the inner stresses. Buried waveguides were fabricated by focusing beneath the surface a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with a pulsewidth of 120 fs working at 1 kHz. Two adjacent parallel tracks were written to define a region where an increase in the refractive index occurs. The effects produced by the variation of the laser pulse energy as well as the lateral separation between tracks, scanning speed and focusing distance were studied. After the laser processing, the near-field intensity distribution at 633 nm of the waveguide's modes was studied demonstrating the confinement of both, the TE as the TM polarizations. In order to diminish the losses induced by colour centres absorption, heat treatments were carried out in the samples. The waveguide's modes were compared with respect to the samples without heat treatments. The spectroscopic properties of the neodymium ions have been characterized to evaluate in what extent their optical properties could be modified by the waveguide fabrication process and to elucidate the potential application of such waveguides as integrated laser sources.

  3. High slope efficiency and high refractive index change in direct-written Yb-doped waveguide lasers with depressed claddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guido; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Lancaster, David G; Withford, Michael J

    2013-07-15

    We report the first Yb:ZBLAN and Yb:IOG10 waveguide lasers fabricated by the fs-laser direct-writing technique. Pulses from a Titanium-Sapphire laser oscillator with 5.1 MHz repetition rate were utilized to generate negative refractive index modifications in both glasses. Multiple modifications were aligned in a depressed cladding geometry to create a waveguide. For Yb:ZBLAN we demonstrate high laser slope efficiency of 84% with a maximum output power of 170 mW. By using Yb:IOG10 a laser performance of 25% slope efficiency and 72 mW output power was achieved and we measured a remarkably high refractive index change exceeding Δn = 2.3 × 10(-2).

  4. Enhanced Cherenkov phase matching terahertz wave generation via a magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate ridged waveguide crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Takeya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When combined with a nonlinear waveguide crystal, Cherenkov phase matching allows for highly effective generation of high power and broadband terahertz (THz waves. Using a ridged Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 waveguide coupled with a specially designed silicon lens, we successfully generated THz waves with intensity of approximately three orders of magnitude stronger than those from conventional photoconductive antenna. The broadband spectrum was from 0.1 THz to 7 THz with a maximum dynamic range of 80 dB. The temporal shape of time domain pulse is a regular single cycle which could be used for high depth resolution time of flight tomography. The generated THz wave can also be easily monitored by compact room-temperature THz camera, enabling us to determine the spatial characteristics of the THz propagation.

  5. Bi-directional triplexer with butterfly MMI coupler using SU-8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, David; Jeřábek, Vítězslav; Prajzler, Václav

    2015-01-01

    We report about a design of a bi-directional planar optical multiplex/demultiplex filter (triplexer) for the optical part of planar hybrid WDM bi-directional transceiver in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) PON applications. The triplex lightwave circuit is based on the Epoxy Novolak Resin SU-8 waveguides on the silica-on-silicon substrate with Polymethylmethacrylate cladding layer. The triplexer is comprised of a linear butterfly concept of multimode interference (MMI) coupler separating downstream optical signals of 1490 nm and 1550 nm. For the upstream channel of 1310 nm, an additional directional coupler (DC) is used to add optical signal of 1310 nm propagating in opposite direction. The optical triplexer was designed and optimized using beam propagation method. The insertion losses, crosstalk attenuation, and extinction ratio for all three inputs/outputs were investigated. The intended triplexer was designed using the parameters of the separated DC and MMI filter to approximate the idealized direct connection of both devices.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the more suitable rare earth to achieve high gain in waveguide based on silica containing silicon nanograins doped with either Nd³+ or Er³+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafin, Alexandre; Cardin, Julien; Dufour, Christian; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2014-05-19

    We present a comparative study of the gain achievement in a waveguide whose active layer is constituted by a silica matrix containing silicon nanograins acting as sensitizer of either neodymium ions (Nd3+) or erbium ions (Er3+). By means of an auxiliary differential equation and finite difference time domain (ADE-FDTD) approach that we developed, we investigate the steady states regime of both rare earths ions and silicon nanograins levels populations as well as the electromagnetic field for different pumping powers ranging from 1 to 104 mW/mm2. Moreover, the achievable gain has been estimated in this pumping range. The Nd3+ doped waveguide shows a higher gross gain per unit length at 1064 nm (up to 30 dB/cm) than the one with Er3+ doped active layer at 1532 nm (up to 2 dB/cm). Taking into account the experimental background losses we demonstrate that a significant positive net gain can only be achieved with the Nd3+ doped waveguide.

  7. Stress-induced buried waveguides in the 0.8CaSiO{sub 3}–0.2Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} eutectic glass doped with Nd{sup 3+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, D., E-mail: dsola@unizar.es [Centro de Física de Materiales, CSIC-UPV/EHU, P° Manuel de Lardizabal, 5, 20.018 San Sebastián (Spain); Martínez de Mendibil, J. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, C-04, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28.049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez de Aldana, J.R. [Grupo de Óptica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37.008 Salamanca (Spain); Lifante, G. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, C-04, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28.049 Madrid (Spain); Balda, R. [Centro de Física de Materiales, CSIC-UPV/EHU, P° Manuel de Lardizabal, 5, 20.018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, E.T.S. Ingeniería de Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. de Urquijo s/n, 48.013 Bilbao (Spain); Aza, A.H. de; Pena, P. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28.049 Madrid (Spain); Fernández, J. [Centro de Física de Materiales, CSIC-UPV/EHU, P° Manuel de Lardizabal, 5, 20.018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, E.T.S. Ingeniería de Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. de Urquijo s/n, 48.013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    In this work the fabrication of buried optical waveguides by femtosecond laser inscription in the 0.8CaSiO{sub 3}–0.2Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} eutectic glass doped with Nd{sup 3+} ions is reported. The glass samples were prepared by melting the eutectic powder mixture in a Pt–10 wt.% Rh crucible at 1600 °C and pouring it in a preheated brass mould. Afterwards, the glass was annealed to release the inner stresses. Buried waveguides were fabricated by focusing beneath the surface a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with a pulsewidth of 120 fs working at 1 kHz. Two adjacent parallel tracks were written to define a region where an increase in the refractive index occurs. The effects produced by the variation of the laser pulse energy as well as the lateral separation between tracks, scanning speed and focusing distance were studied. After the laser processing, the near-field intensity distribution at 633 nm of the waveguide's modes was studied demonstrating the confinement of both, the TE as the TM polarizations. In order to diminish the losses induced by colour centres absorption, heat treatments were carried out in the samples. The waveguide's modes were compared with respect to the samples without heat treatments. The spectroscopic properties of the neodymium ions have been characterized to evaluate in what extent their optical properties could be modified by the waveguide fabrication process and to elucidate the potential application of such waveguides as integrated laser sources.

  8. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  9. Wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, George

    2012-01-01

    This work primarily aims to fabricate and use two photon polymerization (2PP) microstructures capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. We have integrated optical waveguides into the structures and therefore have freestanding waveguides, which can be positioned anywhe...... bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the subwavelength domain....

  10. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  11. Nanofocusing in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Yunyun; Zhu, Xiaolong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    Gated or doped graphene can support plasmons making it a promising plasmonic material in the terahertz regime. Here, we show numerically that in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide mid- and far-infrared light can be focused in nanometer scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. The underlying...... physics lies in that when propagating along the direction towards the tip both the group and phase velocities of the plasmons supported by the tapered graphene waveguide are reduced accordingly, eventually leading to nanofocusing at the tip with a huge enhancement of optical fields. The nanofocusing...... of optical fields in tapered graphene plasmonic waveguides could be potentially exploited in the enhancement of light–matter interactions....

  12. Waveguide source of amplified spontaneous emission ASE 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razik, M.; Budnicki, A.; Abramski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Light source of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) type has been built on the base of double-clad waveguide doped with ytterbium and erbium. The characteristics and applications of the ASE source have been also presented

  13. Fabrication, operation, and applications of efficient dielectric waveguide lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; van Dalfsen, Koop; Bernhardi, Edward; Geskus, D.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    This paper reviews our recent results on rare-earth-ion-doped integrated lasers. We have concentrated our efforts on crystalline potassium double tungstates and amorphous aluminum oxide. In the former material class we have demonstrated channel waveguide lasers based on Yb3+ doping, operating near 1

  14. Quantum waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.

  15. Growth, characterization, and waveguide lasing of Yb3+, Lu3+, Gd3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravazhi, S.; Geskus, D.; Günther, D.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Monoclinic crystals of KY(WO4)2 (KYW) doped with different rare-earth ions are among the highly promising materials for building compact solid-state lasers. We report the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth of 3-5 µm thick KYW:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ layers for Yb3+ concentrations of 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 mol%

  16. Low-temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion-doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanyuk, Y.E.; Utke, I.; Ehrentraut, D.; Apostolopoulos, V.; Pollnau, Markus; Garcia-Revilla, S.; Valiente, B.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline $KY(WO_{4})_{2}$ thin layers doped with different rare-earth ions were grown on b-oriented, undoped $KY(WO_{4})_{2}$ substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy employing a low-temperature flux. The ternary chloride mixture of NaCl, KCl, and CsCl with a melting point of 480°C was used as a

  17. New configurations for short-pulses high power solid-state lasers: conception and realization of highly doped waveguide amplifiers/lasers grown by liquid phase epitaxy and demonstration of Y2SiO5: Yb and Lu2SiO5: Yb femtosecond lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, F.

    2006-04-01

    Yb-doped yttrium and lutetium ortho-silicates, Y 2 SiO 5 :Yb and Lu 2 SiO 5 :Yb respectively, exhibit spectroscopic properties favorable to an efficient laser operation in both high power cw and femtosecond regime. Their first diode-pumped femtosecond operation demonstration lead to exceptional performances in terms of output power and efficiency. In order to realize compact and efficient solid-state laser devices using those materials, we chose a configuration with an Yb-doped medium planar waveguide geometry, grown by liquid phase epitaxy, face-pumped by a single laser diode bar. The growth of highly doped Y 2 SiO 5 :Yb layers, within a large range of compositions and thicknesses, was demonstrated. The refractive index increase due to the substitution of the various dopants is analyzed. The layers spectroscopic properties are similar to the bulk ones, with an noticeably higher crystalline quality. The Yb ion lifetime evolution with respect to its doping shows up a particularly low decrease, proof of a low concentration of extrinsic quenching centers. The covered YSO:24%Yb waveguides exhibit lower than 0.3 dB/cm propagation losses, and provided up to 2.9 dB/cm net amplification at 1082 nm with a single mode output. The realization of the first diode-pumped monolithic cw waveguide lasers was also demonstrated. For a 4% output coupler, they provided up to 340 mW at 1082 nm with a 14% slope efficiency. (author)

  18. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  19. Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kjartan Ullitz; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    Power splitters and directional couplers fabricated by direct UV writing in index matched silica-on-silicon samples can suffer from an asymmetrical device performance, even though the UV writing is carried out in a symmetrical fashion. This effect originates from a reduced photosensitivity...

  20. Ultraviolet transparent silicon oxynitride waveguides for biochemical microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Friis, Peter; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    The UV wavelength region is of great interest in absorption spectroscopy, which is employed for chemical analysis, since many organic compounds absorb in only this region. Germanium-doped silica, which is often preferred as the waveguide core material in optical devices for telecommunication....... The applicability of these waveguides was demonstrated in a biochemical microsystem consisting of multimode buried-channel SiOxNy waveguides that were monolithically integrated with microfluidic channels. Absorption measurements of a beta -blocking agent, propranolol, at 212-215 nm were performed. The detection...

  1. Planar optical waveguide sensor of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Boykin, Courtney; Diggs, Darnell E.; Grote, James G.; Hopkins, Frank K.

    2004-12-01

    We describe a novel sensor of ammonia based on a planar optical waveguide made of a thin film of polymer polyimide doped with indicator dye bromocresol purple. The film of dye-doped polyimide demonstrated reversible increase of absorption with a peak near 600 nm in response to presence of ammonia in ambient air. Coupling of input and output optic fibers with the waveguide was done by means of coupling prisms or coupling grooves. The latter configuration has the advantage of low cost, less sensitivity to temperature variation, and the possibility of coupling from both sides of the waveguide. Special experimental setup was built to test the sensor. It included test gas chamber with sealed optic fiber feed-throughs, gas filling line, laser source, photodetector, and signal processing hardware and software. The sensor was capable of detecting 100 ppm of ammonia in air within 8 seconds. Further increase of sensitivity can be achieved by adding more dye dopant to the polymer, increase of the length of the waveguide, and suppression of noise. Overexposure of the sensor to more than 5000 ppm of ammonia led to the saturation of the polymer film and, as a result, significant decrease of sensitivity and increase of the response time. The sensor can be used as low cost component of a distributed optical network of chemical sensors for monitoring presence of hazardous industrial pollutants in air.

  2. Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er{sup 3+}-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazabal, V., E-mail: virginie.nazabal@univ-rennes1.f [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Nemec, P. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Legions Sq. 565, 53210, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Jurdyc, A.M [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents (LPCML), UMR CNRS 5620, Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Zhang, S.; Charpentier, F. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Lhermite, H. [IETR-Microelectronique, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Charrier, J. [FOTON, UMR 6082-ENSSAT, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Guin, J.P. [LARMAUR, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Moreac, A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Frumar, M. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Legions Sq. 565, 53210, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Adam, J.-L. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2010-06-30

    Amorphous chalcogenide films play a motivating role in the development of integrated planar optical circuits due to their potential functionality in near infrared (IR) and mid-IR spectral regions. More specifically, the photoluminescence of rare earth ions in amorphous chalcogenide films can be used in laser and amplifier devices in the IR spectral domain. The aim of the present investigation was to optimize the deposition conditions for the fabrication of undoped and Er{sup 3+} doped sulphide and selenide thin films with nominal composition Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S(Se){sub 65} or Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 67} by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The study of compositional, morphological and structural characteristics of the layers was realized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy analyses, respectively. Some optical properties (transmittance, index of refraction, optical band gap, etc.) of prepared chalcogenide films and optical losses were investigated as well. The clear identification of near-IR photoluminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions was obtained for both selenide and sulphide films. The decay of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition at 1.54 {mu}m in Er{sup 3+} doped Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 65} PLD sulphide films was studied to assess the effects of film thickness, rare earth concentration and multilayer PLD deposition on their spectroscopic properties.

  3. Loss-Less planar waveguide 1:4 power splitter at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sckerl, Mads W.; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Laurent-Lund, Christian

    1999-01-01

    By a unique desposition/etching technique an erbuim-doped planar silica waveguide with intergrated splitter on a silicon substrate was produced and is demonstrated to show net gain at 1550 nm and good saturation and noise characteristics....

  4. Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Yitao; Marckmann, Carl Johan; Jacobsen, Rune Shim

    2004-01-01

    Germanium-doped multi-layer waveguides containing a silicon oxy-nitride layer as a charge trapper are thermally poled in an air environment. Compared to the waveguides without the trapping layer, the induced linear electro-optic coefficient increases more than 20%. A comparable rise in the intern...

  5. Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguide lasers in Nd:LiYF4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Ling; Huang, Ze-Ping; Ye, Yong-Kai; Wang, Hai-Long

    2018-06-01

    Depressed circular cladding, buried waveguides were fabricated in Nd:LiYF4 crystals with an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber master-oscillator power amplifier laser. Waveguides were optimized by varying the laser writing conditions, such as pulse energy, focus depth, femtosecond laser polarization and scanning velocity. Under optical pump at 799 nm, cladding waveguides showed continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1047 nm. Single- and multi-transverse modes waveguide laser were realized by varying the waveguide diameter. The maximum output power in the 40 μm waveguide is ∼195 mW with a slope efficiency of 34.3%. The waveguide lasers with hexagonal and cubic cladding geometry were also realized.

  6. Interconnect Between a Waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide Comprising an Impedance Matched Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Chahat, Nacer (Inventor); Tang, Adrian J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A lens for interconnecting a metallic waveguide with a dielectric waveguide is provided. The lens may be coupled a metallic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide, and minimize a signal loss between the metallic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide.

  7. Graphene antidot lattice waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...

  8. Impurity-doped micro-lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Recently rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric channel waveguides have proven their ability to generate highly efficient laser output in the fundamental mode. Here we review our recent achievements obtained in crystalline potassium double tungstates and amorphous aluminum oxide.

  9. Optical waveguide demultiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdaj, Yu.O.; Maslyukyivs'kij, R.M.; Sirota, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    For channels division in fibre-optical networks with wavelength multiplexing, the planar waveguide together with a prism coupler is offered for using. The planar waveguide fulfils a role of a dispersing unit, and prism coupler is the selector of optical channels. The parameters of the planar waveguide which provide maximal space division of adjacent information channels in networks with coarse wavelength multiplexing are calculated

  10. Experiences with rectangular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Sepulveda, J. J.; Navarro, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and didactic experimental arrangement is presented to show wave propagation along a structure with translational symmetry, particularly the rectangular waveguide. Parameters of this waveguide as cutoff frequency, guide wavelength and field distribution of fundamental mode can be measured. For this purpose a large paralelepipedical waveguide structure is designed and built, its dimensions can be varied in order to change its parameters. (Author) 9 refs

  11. Evanescent-wave coupled right angled buried waveguide: Applications in carbon nanotube mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, R.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K.; Brown, G.; Beecher, S. J.; Popa, D.; Sun, Z.; Torrisi, F.; Hasan, T.; Milana, S.; Bonaccorso, F.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an evanescent-field device based on a right-angled waveguide. This consists of orthogonal waveguides, with their points of intersection lying along an angled facet of the chip. Light guided along one waveguide is incident at the angled dielectric-air facet at an angle exceeding the critical angle, so that the totally internally reflected light is coupled into the second waveguide. By depositing a nanotube film on the angled surface, the chip is then used to mode-lock an Erbium doped fiber ring laser with a repetition rate of 26 MHz, and pulse duration of 800 fs

  12. Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Kulkova, Irina V.; Malureanu, Radu

    2012-01-01

    . The modulation is achieved by changing the gain of the core that results in different transmittance through the waveguides. A MSM waveguide enables high field localization and therefore high modulation speed. Bulk semiconductor, quantum wells and quantum dots, arranged in either horizontal or vertical layout......, are considered as the core of the MSM waveguide. Dependences on the waveguide core size and gain values of various active materials are studied. The designs consider also practical aspects like n- and p-doped layers and barriers in order to obtain results as close to reality. The effective propagation constants...

  13. Investigation and modelling of rare-earth activated waveguide structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinski, W.; Malinowski, M.; Mossakowska-Wyszynska, A.; Piramidowicz, R.; Szczepanski, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the overview of the recent study on the rare-earth activated waveguides performed in the Optoelectronic Department of IMiO is presented. We reported on the development of rare earth-doped fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) glass fibers that allow a construction of a new family of visible and ultraviolet fiber lasers pumped by upconversion. Especially the performance of holmium devices is presented. The properties of laser planar waveguides obtained by the LPE process and the growth conditions of rare earths doped YAG layers are presented. In this paper we present also the theoretical study of the nonlinear operation of planar waveguide laser, as an example the microdisk Nd:YAG structure is discussed. We derived an approximate formula which relates the small signal gain in the Nd:YAG active medium and the laser characteristics, obtained for whispering-gallery modes and radial modes, to the output power and real parameters of the laser structure (authors)

  14. Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in zinc phosphate glasses [Invited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, L.B.; Witcher, J.J.; Troy, N.; Reis, S.T.; Brow, R.K.; Martinez Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Krol, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the initial glass composition and the structural changes associated with laser-induced refractive index modification in a series of Er-Yb doped and undoped zinc phosphate glasses. White light microscopy and waveguide experiments are used together with Raman

  15. Femtosecond laser written waveguides deep inside silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, I; Tokel, O; Pavlova, S; Kadan, V; Makey, G; Turnali, A; Yavuz, Ö; Ilday, F Ö

    2017-08-01

    Photonic devices that can guide, transfer, or modulate light are highly desired in electronics and integrated silicon (Si) photonics. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the creation of optical waveguides deep inside Si using femtosecond pulses at a central wavelength of 1.5 μm. To this end, we use 350 fs long, 2 μJ pulses with a repetition rate of 250 kHz from an Er-doped fiber laser, which we focused inside Si to create permanent modifications of the crystal. The position of the beam is accurately controlled with pump-probe imaging during fabrication. Waveguides that were 5.5 mm in length and 20 μm in diameter were created by scanning the focal position along the beam propagation axis. The fabricated waveguides were characterized with a continuous-wave laser operating at 1.5 μm. The refractive index change inside the waveguide was measured with optical shadowgraphy, yielding a value of 6×10 -4 , and by direct light coupling and far-field imaging, yielding a value of 3.5×10 -4 . The formation mechanism of the modification is discussed.

  16. Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2008-01-01

    Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling...... of in-plane curved or helically wound waveguides with use of available simulators for straight waveguides without the restrictions of the known approximate equivalent-index formulas....

  17. Near infrared emission and multicolor tunability of enhanced upconversion emission from Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals embedded in silica-based nanocomposite and planar waveguides for photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Felipe Thomaz [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, 36301-160 São João Del Rei, MG (Brazil); Maia, Lauro June Queiroz [Grupo Física de Materiais, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus II, C.P. 131, CEP 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima [Institute of Chemistry- São Paulo State University- UNESP, Araraquara, SP 14800-900 (Brazil); Ferrier, Alban [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech - CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    This work reports on the Yb{sup 3+} ion addition effect on the near infrared emission and infrared-to-visible up conversion from planar waveguides based on Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2}-based nanocomposite prepared by a sol–gel process with controlled crystallization in situ. Planar waveguides and xerogels containing Si/Nb molar ratio of 90:10 up to 50:50 were prepared. Spherical-like orthorhombic or monoclinic Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals were grown in the amorphous SiO{sub 2}-based host depending on the niobium content and annealing temperature, resulting in transparent glass ceramics. Crystallization process was intensely affected by rare earth content increase. Enhancement and broadening of the NIR emission has been achieved depending on the rare earth content, niobium content and annealing temperature. Effective Yb{sup 3+}→Er{sup 3+} energy transfer and a high-intensity broad band emission in the near infrared region assigned to the Er{sup 3+} ions {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition, and longer {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} lifetimes were observed for samples containing orthorhombic Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals. Intense green and red emissions were registered for all Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped waveguides under 980 nm excitation, assigned to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (525 nm),{sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (545nm) and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (670 nm) transitions, respectively. Different relative green and red intensities emissions were observed, depending upon niobium oxide content and the laser power. Upconversion dynamics were determined by the photons number, evidencing that ESA or ETU mechanisms are probably occurring. The 1931 CIE chromaticity diagrams indicated interesting color tunability based on the waveguides composition and pump power. The nanocomposite waveguides are promising materials for photonic applications as optical amplifiers and

  18. Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2012-08-13

    We report on the fabrication of depressed cladding waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG (neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Nd:Y3Al5O12) ceramics microstructured by femtosecond laser pulses. Full control over the confined light spatial distribution is demonstrated by the fabrication of high contrast waveguides with hexagonal, circular and trapezoidal configurations. The confocal fluorescence measurements of the waveguides reveal that the original luminescence features of Nd3+ ions are well-preserved in the waveguide regions. Under optical pump at 808 nm, cladding waveguides showed continuous wave efficient laser oscillation. The maximum output power obtained at 1064.5 nm is ~181 mW with a slope efficiency as high as 44%, which suggests that the fabricated Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides are promising candidates for efficient integrated laser sources.

  19. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  20. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  1. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  2. Omnidirectional optical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-08-02

    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  3. Nd:Ta2O5 rib waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Bayram; Tai, C.-Y.; Shepherd, David P.; Wilkinson, James S.; Perney, Nicolas M.B.; Netti, M. Caterina; Parker, Gregory J.

    2005-01-01

    Ta 2 O 5 waveguides offer great potential for high-density active photonic crystal circuits and their combination with rare-earth dopants for active devices is of interest for increasing their potential functionality. To this end, neodymium-doped Ta 2 O 5 rib waveguide lasers have been fabricated on an oxidized silicon wafer by rf sputtering and argon ion-beam milling and laser action in this material has been demonstrated. Lasing was observed at wavelenghts between 1060 and 1080 nm and an absorbed pump power threshold of 87 mW was obtained

  4. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  5. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  6. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  7. Apodized coupled resonator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Muñoz, P; Domenech, J D; Muriel, M A

    2007-08-06

    In this paper we propose analyse the apodisation or windowing of the coupling coefficients in the unit cells of coupled resonator waveguide devices (CROWs) as a means to reduce the level of secondary sidelobes in the bandpass characteristic of their transfer functions. This technique is regularly employed in the design of digital filters and has been applied as well in the design of other photonic devices such as corrugated waveguide filters and fiber Bragg gratings. The apodisation of both Type-I and Type-II structures is discussed for several windowing functions.

  8. Waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser exploiting both depressed cladding and stress-induced guiding core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Wu, Zheng-Xiang; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Huai-Hai; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of stress-induced optical channel waveguides and waveguide splitters with laser-depressed cladding by femtosecond laser. The laser beam was focused into neodymium doped phosphate glass by an objective producing a destructive filament. By moving the sample along an enclosed routine in the horizontal plane followed by a minor descent less than the filament length in the vertical direction, a cylinder with rarified periphery and densified center region was fabricated. Lining up the segments in partially overlapping sequence enabled waveguiding therein. The refractive-index contrast, near- and far-field mode distribution and confocal microscope fluorescence image of the waveguide were obtained. 1-to-2, 1-to-3 and 1-to-4 splitters were also machined with adjustable splitting ratio. Compared with traditional femtosecond laser writing methods, waveguides prepared by this approach showed controllable mode conduction, strong field confinement, large numerical aperture, low propagation loss and intact core region.

  9. Progress in planar optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianping; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of various slab waveguide structures ranged from graded-index waveguide to symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. In this book, the transfer Matrix method is developed and applied to analyze the simplest case and the complex generalizations. A novel symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is proposed and systematically investigated for several issues of interest, such as biochemical sensing, Goos-Hänchen shift and the slow light effect, etc. Besides, this book summarizes the authors’ research works on waveguides over the last decade. The readers who are familiar with basic optics theory may find this book easy to read and rather inspiring.

  10. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-09-30

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  11. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  12. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  13. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.benayas@emt.inrs.ca [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  14. Design of application specific long period waveguide grating filters using adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, Girish; Rastogi, Vipul

    2014-01-01

    We present design optimization of wavelength filters based on long period waveguide gratings (LPWGs) using the adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) technique. We demonstrate optimization of the LPWG parameters for single-band, wide-band and dual-band rejection filters for testing the convergence of APSO algorithms. After convergence tests on the algorithms, the optimization technique has been implemented to design more complicated application specific filters such as erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) flattening, erbium doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) gain flattening and pre-defined broadband rejection filters. The technique is useful for designing and optimizing the parameters of LPWGs to achieve complicated application specific spectra. (paper)

  15. Waveguide-based optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnutsch, Christian; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Monat, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    blocks in many applications, from microlasers and biomedical sensor systems to optical switches and integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that PhC microcavities can be formed by infusing a liquid into a selected section of a uniform PhC waveguide and that the optical properties of these cavities...... and highlight the benefits of an optofluidic approach, focusing on optofluidic cavities created in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platforms. These cavities can be spatially and spectrally reconfigured, thus allowing a dynamic control of their optical characteristics. PhC cavities are major building...... can be tuned and adapted. By taking advantage of the negative thermo-optic coefficient of liquids, we describe a method which renders PhC cavities insensitive to temperature changes in the environment. This is only one example where the fluid-control of optical elements results in a functionality...

  16. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  17. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  18. Low crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Grating with Cascaded Waveguide Grating Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yang; Liu Yuan; Gao Dingshan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a highly compact and low crosstalk arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with cascaded waveguide grating (CWGF). The side lobes of the silicon nanowire AWG, which are normally introduced by fabrication errors, can be effectively suppressed by the CWGF. And the crosstalk can be improved about 15dB.

  19. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  20. Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Cesar; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of straight dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polaritons waveguides doped with lead-sulfide quantum dots as a near infra-red gain medium. A loss compensation of ~33% (an optical gain of ~143 cm^−1) was observed in the guided mode. The mode propaga...

  1. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van der Werf, Kees; Hollink, Anton; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped aluminium oxide is presented. Single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are detected.

  2. Stationary and coherent spectroscopy of 167Er3+ in waveguides in 7LiYF4 crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnegaliev Mansur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a spectroscopic investigation of 167Er3+ ions in optical waveguides on an optical transition between the hyperfine sublevels of 4I15/2 and 4I9/2 multiplets. Waveguides with diameters ranging from 20 to 100 µm were produced in the crystal by a femtosecond laser using the depressed-cladding approach. The spectroscopy results of 167Er3+ ions inside the waveguides show additional broadening and an overall shifts of the spectra compared to the bulk spectrum of ions. The sign of the observed frequency shift depends on the diameter of the specific waveguide. We have also observed a two-pulse photon echo in several waveguides. The acquired results show the possibility for integrated quantum schemes in rare-earth ions doped crystals.

  3. Freeform Phononic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gkantzounis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We employ a recently introduced class of artificial structurally-disordered phononic structures that exhibit large and robust elastic frequency band gaps for efficient phonon guiding. Phononic crystals are periodic structures that prohibit the propagation of elastic waves through destructive interference and exhibit large band gaps and ballistic propagation of elastic waves in the permitted frequency ranges. In contrast, random-structured materials do not exhibit band gaps and favour localization or diffusive propagation. Here, we use structures with correlated disorder constructed from the so-called stealthy hyperuniform disordered point patterns, which can smoothly vary from completely random to periodic (full order by adjusting a single parameter. Such amorphous-like structures exhibit large band gaps (comparable to the periodic ones, both ballistic-like and diffusive propagation of elastic waves, and a large number of localized modes near the band edges. The presence of large elastic band gaps allows the creation of waveguides in hyperuniform materials, and we analyse various waveguide architectures displaying nearly 100% transmission in the GHz regime. Such phononic-circuit architectures are expected to have a direct impact on integrated micro-electro-mechanical filters and modulators for wireless communications and acousto-optical sensing applications.

  4. Towards rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 active integrated optical devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ay, F.; Bradley, J.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum oxide planar waveguides with low loss (0.11 dB/cm at 1523 nm) are fabricated. Channel waveguides are obtained by reactive ion etching. Erbium-doped layers show no upconversion luminescence, a hint that ion clustering is small.

  5. Evanescent fields of laser written waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Dario; Pohl, Thomas; Götte, Jörg B.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evanescent field at the surface of laser written waveguides. The waveguides are written by a direct femtosecond laser writing process into fused silica, which is then sanded down to expose the guiding layer. These waveguides support eigenmodes which have an evanescent field reaching into the vacuum above the waveguide. We study the governing wave equations and present solution for the fundamental eigenmodes of the modified waveguides.

  6. Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliman, R.G.; Forcales, M.; Wilkinson, A.R.; Smith, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The optical properties of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon-oxide waveguides containing amorphous silicon nanoclusters and/or silicon nanocrystals are reported. Both amorphous nanoclusters and nanocrystals are shown to act as effective sensitizers for Er, with nanocrystals being more effective at low pump powers and nanoclusters being more effective at higher pump powers. All samples are shown to exhibit photo-induced absorption, as measured for a guided 1.5 μm probe beam while the waveguide was illuminated from above with a 477 nm pump beam. At a given pump power samples containing silicon nanocrystals exhibited greater attenuation than samples containing amorphous nanoclusters. The absorption is shown to be consistent with confined-carrier absorption due to photoexcited carriers in the nanocrystals and/or nanoclusters

  7. Monolithic integration of SOI waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Tarr, N. Garry; Ye, Winnie N.

    2018-02-01

    In the absence of commercial foundry technologies offering silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics combined with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, monolithic integration of conventional electronics with SOI photonics is difficult. Here we explore the implementation of lateral bipolar junction transistors (LBJTs) and Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) in a commercial SOI photonics technology lacking MOS devices but offering a variety of n- and p-type ion implants intended to provide waveguide modulators and photodetectors. The fabrication makes use of the commercial Institute of Microelectronics (IME) SOI photonics technology. Based on knowledge of device doping and geometry, simple compact LBJT and JFET device models are developed. These models are then used to design basic transimpedance amplifiers integrated with optical waveguides. The devices' experimental current-voltage characteristics results are reported.

  8. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Semenova, Elizaveta; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other...... materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP: Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons...... excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above...

  9. Grating-Coupled Waveguide Cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jia-Fu; Qu Shao-Bo; Ma Hua; Wang Cong-Min; Wang Xin-Hua; Zhou Hang; Xu Zhuo; Xia Song

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a grating-coupled waveguide (GCW), a new strategy for realizing EM cloaking is presented. Using metallic grating, incident waves are firstly coupled into the effective waveguide and then decoupled into free space behind, enabling EM waves to pass around the obstacle. Phase compensation in the waveguide keeps the wave-front shape behind the obstacle unchanged. Circular, rectangular and triangular cloaks are presented to verify the robustness of the GCW cloaking. Electric field animations and radar cross section (RCS) comparisons convincingly demonstrate the cloaking effect

  10. Optical waveguide theory

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Allan W

    1983-01-01

    This text is intended to provide an in-depth, self-contained, treatment of optical waveguide theory. We have attempted to emphasize the underlying physical processes, stressing conceptual aspects, and have developed the mathematical analysis to parallel the physical intuition. We also provide comprehensive supplementary sections both to augment any deficiencies in mathematical background and to provide a self-consistent and rigorous mathematical approach. To assist in. understanding, each chapter con­ centrates principally on a single idea and is therefore comparatively short. Furthermore, over 150 problems with complete solutions are given to demonstrate applications of the theory. Accordingly, through simplicity of approach and numerous examples, this book is accessible to undergraduates. Many fundamental topics are presented here for the first time, but, more importantly, the material is brought together to give a unified treatment of basic ideas using the simplest approach possible. To achieve such a goa...

  11. Polymer Waveguide Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Delvan A.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of integrated optic systems to compete in signal processing aplications with more traditional analog and digital electronic systems is discussed. The Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer is an example which motivated the particular work discussed herein. Provided real time processing is more critical than absolute accuracy, such integrated optic systems fulfill a design need. Fan-out waveguide arrays allow crosstalk in system detector arrays to be controlled without directly limiting system resolution. A polyurethane pattern definition process was developed in order to demonstrate fan-out arrays. This novel process is discussed, along with further research needs. Integrated optic system market penetration would be enhanced by development of commercial processes of this type.

  12. Bragg gratings: Optical microchip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sam

    2010-07-01

    A direct UV writing technique that can create multiple Bragg gratings and waveguides in a planar silica-on-silicon chip is enabling sensing applications ranging from individual disposable sensors for biotechnology through to multiplexed sensor networks in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  13. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  14. MHD waveguides in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, ω) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.

  15. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Marquez, H, E-mail: gvvazquez@cio.mx [Departamento de Optica, CICESE, Km 107 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb{sup 3+} ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  16. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E; Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R; Marquez, H

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb 3+ ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm 3+ and Er 3+ traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  17. M-line spectroscopic, spectroscopic ellipsometric and microscopic measurements of optical waveguides fabricated by MeV-energy N{sup +} ion irradiation for telecom applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Conti, G. Nunzi; Righini, G.C.; Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Zolnai, Z. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-08-31

    Irradiation with N{sup +} ions of the 1.5–3.5 MeV energy range was applied to optical waveguide formation. Planar and channel waveguides have been fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass, and in both types of bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals: Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (eulytine) and Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} (sillenite). Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used for the characterisation of the ion beam irradiated waveguides. Planar waveguides fabricated in the Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass using irradiation with N{sup +} ions at 3.5 MeV worked even at the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength. 3.5 MeV N{sup +} ion irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine-type BGO worked up to 1550 nm and those in sillenite-type BGO worked up to 1330 nm. - Highlights: ► Waveguides were fabricated in glass and crystals using MeV energy N{sup +} ions. ► SRIM simulation and spectroscopic ellipsometry yielded similar waveguide structures. ► Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy was used to study the waveguides. ► Waveguides fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass worked up to 1.5 μm. ► Waveguides in Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} remained operative up to 1.5 μm.

  18. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper

  19. Plasmon enhanced light amplification in metal–insulator–metal waveguides with gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the loss compensation and light amplification properties of metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguides that are doped with gain material in the dielectric core. An analytical approach based on Maxwell’s equations is developed to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the gain coefficient on the loss compensation and light amplification efficiencies of the waveguide under different values of the waveguide width and working wavelengths. The analytical results agree excellently with all-numerical calculations that directly solve Maxwell’s equations. The results show that the light amplification efficiency obeys a strict linear relationship with the gain coefficient, and MIM waveguides with narrower widths and under shorter wavelengths have better efficiencies. In addition, the MIM waveguides have higher light amplification efficiencies than usual dielectric waveguides, which suggests a very positive role of the plasmonic structure in enhancing the light amplification when gain is introduced. These loss and gain behaviors can be well explained by looking at the modal profile of each transport mode and the corresponding light energy confinement effect and slow light effect. (paper)

  20. Index-antiguided planar waveguide lasers with large mode area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanye

    The on-going research and application interests with high power large-mode-area (LMA) waveguide lasers, especially in fiber geometry, at the beginning of this century drive the development of many novel waveguide designs. Index antiguiding, proposed by Siegman in 2003, is among one of them. The goal for index antiguiding is to introduce transversal modal loss with the relative simple waveguide design while maintain single transverse mode operation for good beam quality. The idea which is selectively support of fundamental mode is facilitated by involving certain level of signal regeneration inside the waveguide core. Since the modal loss is closed associated with waveguide design parameters such as core size and refractive index, the amount of gain inside the core provides active control of transverse modes inside index-antiguiding waveguide. For example, fundamental transverse mode inside such waveguide can be excited and propagate lossless when sufficient optical gain is provided. This often requires doped waveguide core and optical pumping at corresponding absorption band. However, the involvement of optical pumping also has its consequences. Phenomena such as thermal-optic effect and gain spatial hole-burning which are commonly found in bulk lasers request attention when scaling up output power with LMA index-antiguided waveguide amplifiers and resonators. In response, three key challenges of index-antiguided planar waveguide lasers, namely, guiding mechanism, power efficiency and transverse mode discrimination, are analyzed theoretically and experimentally in this dissertation. Experiments are based on two index-antiguided planar waveguide chips, whose core thickness are 220 microm and 400 microm respectively. The material of waveguide core is 1% Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium garnet, or Nd:YAG while the cladding is made from Terbium Gallium garnet, or TGG. Due to the face pumping and limited pump power, it is found, with 220 microm-thick-core chip, that

  1. Photonic crystal waveguides in artificial opals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Kiyan, Roman; Neumeister, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    3D photonic crystals based on Si inverted-opals are numerically explored as hosts for effective air-channel waveguides, which can serve as parts of photonic circuits. Two basic shapes of straight waveguides are considered: cylindrical and a chain of spheres. Modelling shows that transmission...... is heavily dependent on the lattice position of the waveguide and its direction. Our experiments of defect inscription by 2-photon polymerization for the production of straight and bent waveguides in opal templates are reported....

  2. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  3. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaee Panah, Mohammad Esmail; Semenova, Elizaveta S; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2017-06-08

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP:Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above a dielectric substrate. Low losses in InP:Si result in a big propagation length. The induced deflection can be detected by measuring the phase change of the light when passing through the waveguide, which enables all-optical functioning, and paves the way towards integration and miniaturization of micro-cantilevers. In addition, tunability of the ENZ and the SPP excitation wavelength ranges, via adjusting the carrier concentration, provides an extra degree of freedom for designing MEMS devices.

  4. Light-emitting waveguide-plasmon polaritions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Murai, S.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of light in an optical waveguide strongly coupled to a periodic array of metallic nanoantennas. This coupling gives rise to hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons (WPPs), which undergo a transmutation from plasmon to waveguide mode and vice versa as the eigenfrequency

  5. Theoretical study of the folded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.L.; Owens, T.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have applied a three-dimensional (3-D) algorithm for solving Maxwell's equations to the analysis of foleded waveguides used for fusion plasma heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency. A rigorous analysis of the magnetic field structure in the folded waveguide is presented. The results are compared to experimenntal measurements. Optimum conditions for the folded waveguide are discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs

  6. Fabrication of plasmonic waveguides for device applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    and thickness-modulated gold strips different waveguide components including reflecting gratings can be realized. For applications where polarization is random or changing, metal nanowire waveguides are shown to be suitable candidates for efficient guiding of arbitrary polarized light. Plasmonic waveguides...

  7. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  8. High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, Mustafa; Segerink, Franciscus B.; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth ion doped KY(WO4)2 amplifiers are proposed to be a good candidate for many future applications by benefiting from the excellent gain characteristics of rare-earth ions, namely high bit rate amplification (waveguide

  9. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet......Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex...

  10. Waveguiding with surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhanghua; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    the diffraction limit, i.e., on the nanoscale, while enhancing local field strengths by several orders of magnitude. This unique feature of SPP modes along with ever increasing demands for miniaturization of photonic components and circuits generates an exponentially growing interest to SPP-mediated radiation...... guiding and SPP-based waveguide components. Here we review the current status of this rapidly developing field, starting with a brief presentation of main planar SPP modes, and then describing in detail various SPP-based waveguide configurations that ensure two-dimensional mode confinement. Excitation...

  11. Observation and investigation of narrow optical transitions of 167Er3+ ions in femtosecond laser printed waveguides in 7LiYF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnegaliev, M. M.; Dyakonov, I. V.; Gerasimov, K. I.; Kalinkin, A. A.; Kulik, S. P.; Moiseev, S. A.; Saygin, M. Yu; Urmancheev, R. V.

    2018-04-01

    We produced optical waveguides in the 167Er3+:7 LiYF4 crystal with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 μm by using the depressed-cladding approach with femtosecond laser. Stationary and coherent spectroscopy was performed on the 809 nm optical transitions between the hyperfine sublevels of 4I15/2 and 4I9/2 multiplets of 167Er3+ ions both inside and outside of waveguides. It was found that the spectra of 167Er3+ were slightly broadened and shifted inside the waveguides compared to the bulk crystal spectra. We managed to observe a two-pulse photon echo on this transition and determined phase relaxation times for each waveguide. The experimental results show that the created crystal waveguides doped by rare-earth ions can be used in optical quantum memory and integrated quantum schemes.

  12. Coupled nanopillar waveguides: optical properties and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    , while guided modes dispersion is strongly affected by the waveguide structure. We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of coupled nanopillar waveguides and discuss their possible applications for integrated optics. (C) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim......In this paper we review basic properties of coupled periodic and aperiodic nanopillar waveguides. A coupled nanopillar waveguide consists of several rows of periodically or aperiodically placed dielectric rods (pillars). In such a waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection...

  13. Lasing in silicon–organic hybrid waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Dietmar; Lauermann, Matthias; Koeber, Sebastian; Appel, Patrick; Alloatti, Luca; Palmer, Robert; Dumon, Pieter; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Koos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics enables large-scale photonic–electronic integration by leveraging highly developed fabrication processes from the microelectronics industry. However, while a rich portfolio of devices has already been demonstrated on the silicon platform, on-chip light sources still remain a key challenge since the indirect bandgap of the material inhibits efficient photon emission and thus impedes lasing. Here we demonstrate a class of infrared lasers that can be fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integration platform. The lasers are based on the silicon–organic hybrid (SOH) integration concept and combine nanophotonic SOI waveguides with dye-doped organic cladding materials that provide optical gain. We demonstrate pulsed room-temperature lasing with on-chip peak output powers of up to 1.1 W at a wavelength of 1,310 nm. The SOH approach enables efficient mass-production of silicon photonic light sources emitting in the near infrared and offers the possibility of tuning the emission wavelength over a wide range by proper choice of dye materials and resonator geometry. PMID:26949229

  14. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  15. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  16. Waveguides with asymptotically diverging twisting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, AUG (2015), s. 7-10 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguide * exploding twisting * Quasi-bounded * Quasi-cylindrical * discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2015

  17. Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Têtu, Amélie; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A photonic-crystal waveguide sensor is presented for biosensing. The sensor is applied for refractive index measurements and detection of protein-concentrations. Concentrations around 10 μg/ml (0.15μMolar) are measured with excellent signal to noise ratio, and a broad, dynamic refractive index se...

  18. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  19. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  20. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banyasz, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havránek, Vladimír; Veres, M.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 331, JUL (2014), s. 157-162 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : channel optical waveguides * ion beam irradiation * focussed ion beam * Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass * Bismuth germanate * Micro Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  1. Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate wavelength conversion of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals, including 32-GBd quadrature phase-shift keying and 10-GBd 16-QAM, in a 50-cm long high index doped glass spiral waveguide. The quality of the generated idlers for up to 20 nm of wavelength shift is sufficient...... to achieve a BER performance below the hard decision forward error correction threshold BER performance (...

  2. Nitrogen doped germania glasses with enhanced optical and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Poulsen, Christian; Leistiko, Otto

    1997-01-01

    A new type of ultraviolet photosensitive germanium doped glass has been developed for use in the fabrication of optical waveguide structures. By adding ammonia to the source gases during a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of these glasses, ultraviolet induced refractive index changes of ...

  3. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...... index of the waveguide substrate less than the refractive index of the medium covering the waveguiding film (n(water) = 1.33). This is opposed to the conventional waveguide geometry, where the substrate is usually glass or polymers with refractive indices of approximate to1.5. The reverse configuration...... are combined with air-grooved polymer supports to form freestanding single-material polymer waveguides of reverse symmetry capable of guiding light....

  4. Metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina

    This work concerns planar optical waveguide sensors for biosensing applications, with the focus on deep-probe sensing for micron-scale biological objects like bacteria and whole cells. In the last two decades planar metal-clad waveguides have been brieflyintroduced in the literature applied...... for various biosensing applications, however a thorough study of the sensor configurations has not been presented, but is the main subject of this thesis. Optical sensors are generally well suited for bio-sensing asthey show high sensitivity and give an immediate response for minute changes in the refractive...... index of a sample, due to the high sensitivity of optical bio-sensors detection of non-labeled biological objects can be performed. The majority of opticalsensors presented in the literature and commercially available optical sensors are based on evanescent wave sensing, however most of these sensors...

  5. Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available for waveguides excited by piezoelectric patch actuators. The waveguide is modelled using specially developed waveguide finite elements. These elements are formulated using a complex exponential to describe the wave propagation along the structure and finite...

  6. Multilayer cladding with hyperbolic dispersion for plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of plasmonic waveguides with a dielectric core and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings that possess hyperbolic dispersion. The waveguides hyperbolic multilayer claddings show better performance in comparison to conventional plasmonic waveguides. © OSA 2015....

  7. Pulsed Laser Deposition: passive and active waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Flory, F.; Escoubas, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 438-449 ISSN 0268-1900 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PLD * pulsed laser deposition * laser ablation * passive waveguides * active waveguides * waveguide laser * sensors * thin films * butane detection Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  8. All silicon waveguide spherical microcavity coupler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifré-Pérez, E; Domenech, J D; Fenollosa, R; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J; Meseguer, F

    2011-02-14

    A coupler based on silicon spherical microcavities coupled to silicon waveguides for telecom wavelengths is presented. The light scattered by the microcavity is detected and analyzed as a function of the wavelength. The transmittance signal through the waveguide is strongly attenuated (up to 25 dB) at wavelengths corresponding to the Mie resonances of the microcavity. The coupling between the microcavity and the waveguide is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically modeled with the help of FDTD calculations.

  9. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  10. Talbot Effect in Three Waveguide Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Li; Hai-Feng, Zhou; Jian-Yi, Yang; Xiao-Qing, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    By taking the coupling between the non-neighbourhood waveguides into account, the coupling characteristic of three waveguide arrays is analysed. The strong coupling equation of three waveguides is dealt with Laplace transform and LU decomposition. The general field evolution equation is obtained by inversion of the Laplace transform. The results show that the self-imaging conditions (Talbot effect) do not satisfy in general. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the BPM simulations. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  11. Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Ohad; Katz, Moti; Atar, Gil; Paltiel, Yossi; Sicron, Noam

    2017-07-01

    Optical losses in c-plane (0001) GaN ridge waveguides, containing Mg-doped layers, were measured at 1064 nm, using the Fabry-Perot method. The losses increase linearly with the modal content of the p-layer, indicating that the absorption in these waveguides is dominated by p-layer absorption. The p-layer absorption is strongly anisotropic with E⊥c losses 4 times higher than E∥c. The absorption is temperature independent between 10 °C and 60 °C, supporting the possibility that it is related to Mg-bound holes.

  12. Guided modes in silicene-based waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengzhuo; He, Ying; Yang, Yanfang; Zhang, Huifang

    2018-02-01

    Silicene is a new Dirac-type electron system similar to graphene. A monolayer silicene sheet forms a quantum well induced by an electrostatic potential, which acts as an electron waveguide. The guided modes in the silicene waveguide have been investigated. Electron waves can propagate in the silicene-based waveguide in the cases of Klein tunneling and classical motion. The behavior of the wave function depends on the spin and valley indices. The amplitude of the electron wave function in the silicene waveguide can be controlled by the external electric field. These phenomena may be helpful for the potential applications of silicene-based electronic devices.

  13. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  14. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  15. Optimization of E r-density profile for efficient pumping and high signal gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzi, E.; Hassani, A.; Esmaili Seraji, F.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier has been shown to have a great potentiality in Fiber-Optics Communication. A model is suggested for calculating the E r-density profile, using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier, such that efficient pumping and high signal gain is achieved for different fiber waveguide structure. The result of this numerical calculation shows that the gain, compared with the gain of the existing Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier, is higher by a factor of 3.5. This model is applicable in all active waveguides and any other dopant as well

  16. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  17. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering...

  18. Systematic Design of Slow Light Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen

    it is vulnerable to manufacturing disorders. This thesis aims to design novel waveguides to alleviate signal distortions and propagation loss using optimization methodologies, and to explore the design robustness with respect to manufacturing imperfections. To alleviate the signal distortions in waveguides...

  19. Discontinuities during UV writing of waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour.......UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour....

  20. Testing Born-Infeld Electrodynamics in Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Waveguides can be employed to test nonlinear effects in electrodynamics. We solve Born-Infeld equations for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide. We show that the energy velocity acquires a dependence on the amplitude, and harmonic components appear as a consequence of the nonlinear behavior

  1. Fundamental losses in planar Bragg waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinogradov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, A. N.; Popov, A. V.; Fedin, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a planar Bragg waveguide. The guided modes and their dissipation due to the fundamental absorption are described. In the interacting-wave approximation, an analytical relation between the characteristics of the modes and parameters of the Bragg-waveguide geometry was

  2. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  3. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  4. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... in the local density of states (LDOS) in PhC waveguides. From decay rate measurements on quantum dot lines temperature tuned in the vicinity of the waveguide band edge, a β-factor for a single quantum dot of more then 85% has been extracted. Finite difference time domain simulations (FDTD) for disordered Ph...... is shown to increase from 3 − 7 um for no intentional disorder to 25 um for 6% disorder. A distribution of losses is seen to be necessary to explain the measured Q-factor distributions. Finally we have performed a cavity QED experiment between single quantum dots and an Anderson localized mode, where a β...

  5. Perturbation measurement of waveguides for acoustic thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic thermometers normally embed small acoustic transducers in the wall bounding a gas-filled cavity resonator. At high temperature, insulators of transducers loss electrical insulation and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. One essential solution to this technical trouble is to couple sound by acoustic waveguides between resonator and transducers. But waveguide will break the ideal acoustic surface and bring perturbations(Δf+ig) to the ideal resonance frequency. The perturbation model for waveguides was developed based on the first-order acoustic theory in this paper. The frequency shift Δf and half-width change g caused by the position, length and radius of waveguides were analyzed using this model. Six different length of waveguides (52˜1763 mm) were settled on the cylinder resonator and the perturbation (Δf+ig) were measured at T=332 K and p=250˜500 kPa. The experiment results agreed with the theoretical prediction very well.

  6. Photonic waveguides theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the principles of non-linear integrated optics. The first objective is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of integrated optics so that they may be able to develop the theoretical and experimental tools to study and control the linear and non-linear optical properties of waveguides.The potential use of these structures can then be determined in order to realize integrated optical components for light modulation and generation. The theoretical models are accompanied by experimental tools and their setting in order to characterize the studied phenomenon. Th

  7. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  8. Airplane dopes and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  9. Silicon Photonic Waveguides for Near- and Mid-Infrared Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, S.; Milosevic, M.; Timotijevic, B.; Yang, P. Y.; Teo, E. J.; Crnjanski, J.; Matavulj, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2007-11-01

    The basic building block of every photonic circuit is a waveguide. In this paper we investigate the most popular silicon waveguide structures in the form of a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. We also analyse two structures that can find applications in mid- and long-wave infrared regions: free-standing and hollow core omnidirectional waveguides.

  10. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Bragg Waveguides in GLS Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillen Ben

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present work on the fabrication of Bragg waveguides in gallium-lanthanum-sulfide chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides were written with a single pass while modulating the writing beam. The spatial and temporal profile of the writing beam was ontrolled during waveguide fabrication in order to control the shape and size of the waveguide cross-section.

  11. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-15

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  12. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-01

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  13. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  14. Er3+ phosphate glass optical waveguide amplifiers at 1.5 μm on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingchao; Faber, Anne J.; de Waal, Henk

    1996-01-01

    RF-sputtering techniques were employed to produce Er-doped phosphate glass films on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. Film compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As-deposited films showed very low Er luminescence lifetimes. By postannealing of deposited films in pure oxygen, Er photoluminescence emission lifetime of the 4I13/2 - 4I15/2 transition could be increased from 1 - 2 ms to 8 - 9 ms. The long Er lifetime of the deposited films is very promising for achieving an optical gain. A dependence of measured lifetimes on pump power was observed which are related to a up-conversion quenching process. After postannealing, the sputtered waveguides showed relatively low attenuation loss at the potential pumping and signaling wavelengths. The loss spectrum from 700 nm to 1600 nm was measured by two-prism coupling. The films were easy to be patterned by lithography and ridge channel waveguides were developed by argon plasma etching.

  15. Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Pashinin, P.P.; Grivas, C.; Laversenne, L.; Wilkinson, J.S.; Eason, R.W.; Shepherd, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-doped sapphire is one of the most prominent laser materials and is appreciated for its excellent heat conductivity and broadband gain spectrum, allowing for a wide wavelength tunability and generation of ultrashort pulses. As one of the hardest materials, it can also serve as a model system

  16. Evaluation of slot-to-slot coupling between dielectric slot waveguides and metal-insulator-metal slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deqing; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2015-07-27

    We numerically analyzed the power-coupling characteristics between a high-index-contrast dielectric slot waveguide and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic slot waveguide as functions of structural parameters. Couplings due mainly to the transfer of evanescent components in two waveguides generated high transmission efficiencies of 62% when the slot widths of the two waveguides were the same and 73% when the waveguides were optimized by slightly different widths. The maximum transmission efficiency in the slot-to-slot coupling was about 10% higher than that in the coupling between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. Large alignment tolerance of the slot-to-slot coupling was also proved. Moreover, a small gap inserted into the interface between two waveguides effectively enhances the transmission efficiency, as in the case of couplings between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. In addition, couplings with very wideband transmissions over a wavelength region of a few hundred nanometers were validated.

  17. Guided modes of elliptical metamaterial waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open elliptical metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity ε and permeability μ are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide

  18. A self-repairing polymer waveguide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young J; Peters, Kara J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental demonstrations of a self-repairing strain sensor waveguide created by self-writing in a photopolymerizable resin system. The sensor is fabricated between two multi-mode optical fibers via lightwaves in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range and operates as a sensor through interrogation of the power transmitted through the waveguide in the infrared (IR) wavelength range. After failure of the sensor occurs due to loading, the waveguide re-bridges the gap between the two optical fibers through the UV resin. The response of the original sensor and the self-repaired sensor to strain are measured and show similar behaviors

  19. The waveguide Free-Electron Laser. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The general characteristics of free-electron lasers (FELs) which employ a waveguiding structure to confine electromagnetic fields and to couple them to the electron beam is discussed. The mode structure of the basic parallel plate waveguide and its adaptation via quasi-optical techniques to FEL resonator design are considered in detail. A summary of the theory of FEL systems which depend intrinsically on a guide structure (micro-undulator, Cerenkov and metal-grating FELs) and a review of progress on waveguide FEL experiments are also presented. (author). 44 refs.; 16 figs

  20. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  1. Highly efficient channel waveguide lasers at 1 µm and 2 µm in refractive-index-engineered potassium double tungstates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalfsen, Koop; Geskus, D.; García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus

    Epitaxial growth of rare-earth-ion-activated KY(1-x-y)Gd(x)Lu(y)(WO4)2 co-doped thin layers onto KY(WO4)2 substrates has enabled lattice-matched waveguides with high refractive-index contract and large variation of the active rare-earth-ion concentration. In Yb3+-activated micro-structured channel

  2. Rare-earth-ion-doped ultra-narrow-linewidth lasers on a silicon chip and applications to intra-laser-cavity optical sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; de Ridder, R.M.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    We report on diode-pumped distributed-feedback (DFB) and distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) channel waveguide lasers in Er-doped and Yb-doped Al2O3 on standard thermally oxidized silicon substrates. Uniform surface-relief Bragg gratings were patterned by laser-interference lithography and etched into

  3. Waveguide silicon nitride grating coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvik, Jan; Dolnak, Ivan; Dado, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Grating couplers are one of the most used elements for coupling of light between optical fibers and photonic integrated components. Silicon-on-insulator platform provides strong confinement of light and allows high integration. In this work, using simulations we have designed a broadband silicon nitride surface grating coupler. The Fourier-eigenmode expansion and finite difference time domain methods are utilized in design optimization of grating coupler structure. The fully, single etch step grating coupler is based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer with 0.55 μm waveguide Si3N4 layer. The optimized structure at 1550 nm wavelength yields a peak coupling efficiency -2.6635 dB (54.16%) with a 1-dB bandwidth up to 80 nm. It is promising way for low-cost fabrication using complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor fabrication process.

  4. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  5. Silica suspended waveguide splitter-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. C.; Hawk, R. M.; Armani, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a novel integrated optical waveguide 50/50 splitter was developed. It is fabricated using standard lithographic methods, a pair of etching steps and a laser reflow step. However, unlike other integrated waveguide splitters, the waveguide is elevated off of the silicon substrate, improving its interaction with biomolecules in solution and in a flow field. Additionally, because it is fabricated from silica, it has very low optical loss, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio, making it ideal for biosensing. By functionalizing the device using an epoxy-silane method using small samples and confining the protein solutions to the device, we enable highly efficient detection of CREB with only 1 μL of solution. Therefore, the waveguide coupler sensor is representative of the next generation of ultra-sensitive optical biosensors, and, when combined with microfluidic capabilities, it will be an ideal candidate for a more fully-realized lab-on-a-chip device.

  6. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  7. Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Marchewka, Astrid; Kurz, Heinrich

    2006-10-01

    A new type of dielectric THz waveguide based on recent approaches in the field of integrated optics is presented with theoretical and experimental results. Although the guiding mechanism of the low-index discontinuity (LID) THz waveguide is total internal reflection, the THz wave is predominantly confined in the virtually lossless low-index air gap within a high-index dielectric waveguide due to the continuity of electric flux density at the dielectric interface. Attenuation, dispersion and single-mode confinement properties of two LID structures are discussed and compared with other THz waveguide solutions. The new approach provides an outstanding combination of high mode confinement and low transmission losses currently not realizable with any other metal-based or photonic crystal approach. These exceptional properties might enable the breakthrough of novel integrated THz systems or endoscopy applications with sub-wavelength resolution.

  8. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  9. Strong doping of the n-optical confinement layer for increasing output power of high- power pulsed laser diodes in the eye safe wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Boris S.; Avrutin, Eugene A.; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model for internal optical losses at high power in a 1.5 μm laser diode with strong n-doping in the n-side of the optical confinement layer is created. The model includes intervalence band absorption by holes supplied by both current flow and two-photon absorption (TPA), as well as the direct TPA effect. The resulting losses are compared with those in an identical structure with a weakly doped waveguide, and shown to be substantially lower, resulting in a significant improvement in the output power and efficiency in the structure with a strongly doped waveguide.

  10. Hybrid numerical calculation method for bend waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier , Lucas; Saavedra , C.; Castro-Beltran , Rigoberto; Lucio , José Luis; Bêche , Bruno

    2017-01-01

    National audience; The knowledge of how the light will behave in a waveguide with a radius of curvature becomes more and more important because of the development of integrated photonics, which include ring micro-resonators, phasars, and other devices with a radius of curvature. This work presents a numerical calculation method to determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of curved waveguides. This method is a hybrid method which uses at first conform transformation of the complex plane gene...

  11. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  12. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  13. Optimization of metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, N.; Horvath, R.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the optimization of metal-clad waveguides for sensor applications to achieve high sensitivity for adlayer and refractive index measurements. By using the Fresnel reflection coefficients both the angular shift and the width of the resonances in the sensorgrams are taken...... into account. Our optimization shows that it is possible for metal-clad waveguides to achieve a sensitivity improvement of 600% compared to surface-plasmon-resonance sensors....

  14. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  15. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  16. Concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    1994-01-01

    A critical key point of the ITER IC antenna is ceramics support of an internal conductor of a coaxial antenna feeder close to the plasma, because dielectric loss tangent of ceramics enhanced due to neutron irradiation limits significantly the antenna injection power. This paper presents a ceramics-free waveguide to overcome this problem by a T-shaped ridged waveguide with arms for the mechanical support. This ridged waveguide has a low cutoff frequency for its small cross section, which has been proposed for the conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) IC system and the high frequency supplementary IC system for ITER. This paper presents the concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide consisting of the coaxial-line and the ridged waveguide. This paper also presents the cutoff frequency and the electric field distribution of the ridged waveguide calculated by a finite element method and an approximate method. The power handling capability more than 3 MW is evaluated by using the transmission-line theory and the optimized antenna impedance considering the ITER plasma parameters. We verify this transmission-line model by one-tenth scale models experimentally. (author)

  17. Linear and nonlinear properties of segmented waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1998-07-01

    This dissertation deals with Periodically Segmented Waveguides (PSW), which are applied on KTiOP0 4 (KTP) crystals, by chemical ion-exchange process. In these waveguides, the crystal polarity and refractive index are periodically modulated to obtain Quasi Phase Matching (QPM) between the fundamental and second-harmonic waves. PSW is a relatively new optical device which exhibits unique optical properties in comparison with a continuous waveguide. The possibility of utilizing the KTP-PSW as a compact, cw, blue-violet, source by doubling infra-red light, is the main motivation for studying the optical properties of KTP segmented waveguides. Nevertheless, much attention in this work is also given to the study of linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, most of which, to my best knowledge, has not been studied yet. Controlling and understanding the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, are required, for applying the PSW as an optical device by its own, and for control and characterization of the non-linear optical properties of the waveguide. In this work the dependence of the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW on geometrical parameters (period size, duty cycle and waveguide width) were studied. The experimental measured parameters include the PSW near field and the Bragg reflections, which appear due lo the grating structure of the waveguide. The possibility of controlling the wavelength and intensity, of the segmented waveguide Bragg reflections of regular period and super-period, is shown theoretically and experimentally. An unexpected dependence was found, by the experimental measurement, between the index profile and the ion-exchanged segment area,. The segmented waveguide dispersion curve, n eff (λ) in the infra-red region was found, A main part of the research work is dedicated to the study of nonlinear characteristics of PSW. The different factors, which effect the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), are measured experimentally and analyzed. The experimental

  18. Summary of radiation-induced transient absorption and recovery in fiber optic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoog, C.D.

    1976-11-01

    The absorption induced in fiber optic waveguides by pulsed electron and X-ray radiation has been measured as a function of optical wavelength from 450 to 950 nm, irradiation temperature from -54 to 71 0 C, and dose from 1 to 500 krads. The fibers studied are Ge-doped silica core fibers (Corning Low Loss), ''pure'' vitreous silica core fibers (Schott, Bell Laboratories, Fiberoptic Cable Corp., and Valtec Fiberoptics), polymethyl-methacrylate core fibers (DuPont CROFON and PFX), and polystyrene core fibers (International Fiber Optics and Polyoptics). Models that have been developed to account for the observed absorption recovery are also summarized

  19. Doping droops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aditi; Chaturvedi, Harish; Kalra, Juhi; Kalra, Sudhanshu

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major concern in the athletic world. The misconception among athletes and their coaches is that when an athlete breaks a record it is due to some "magic ingredient" and not because of training, hard work, mental attitude and championship performance. The personal motivation to win in competitive sports has been intensified by national, political, professional and economic incentives. Under this increased pressure athletes have turned to finding this "magic ingredient". Athlete turns to mechanical (exercise, massage), nutritional (vitamins, minerals), pharmacological (medicines) or gene therapies to have an edge over other players. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has already asked scientists to help find ways to prevent gene therapy from becoming the newest form of doping. The safety of the life of athletes is compromised with all forms of doping techniques, be it a side effect of a drug or a new technique of gene doping.

  20. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80%......% booster quantum conversion efficiency can be reached for an input power of 10 dBm and a pump power of 100 mW by the use of one filter...

  1. Optical gain of LaF3:Nd nanoparticle doped polymers for active integrated optical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwdam, J.W.; Klunder, D.J.W.; Borreman, A.; Diemeer, Mart; Worhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, A.; de Ridder, R.M.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G; Altena, G.; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R; Dekker, R.

    2003-01-01

    We report on rare earth doped LaF3 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA and SU-8 photosensitive polymers. We observed optical gain after we applied these materials for waveguides. Experimental results on various samples will be discussed. We theoretically discuss the improvements that can be obtained and

  2. Absorption spectroscopy of complex rare earth ion doped hybrid materials over a broad wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Stouwdam, J.W.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work we applied a measurement setup to determine several relevant properties of rare-earth doped nanoparticles dispersed in polymer slab waveguides in a single absorption measurement: background absorption of the polymer host material, water absorption, polymer composition

  3. Absorption spectroscopy of complex rare earth ion doped hybrid materials over a broad wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Stouwdam, J.W.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.

    In the present work we applied a measurement setup to determine several relevant properties of rare-earth doped nanoparticles dispersed in polymer slab waveguides in a single absorption measurement: background absorption of the polymer host material, water absorption, polymer composition

  4. Evanescent Waveguide Apparatus and Method for Measurement of Dielectric Constant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tonn, David A

    2005-01-01

    .... In one embodiment, a metal septum is inserted between two samples of the unknown material to thereby reduce the cross-sectional area of the waveguide aperture by splitting width a of the rectangular waveguide in half...

  5. Launching transverse-electric Localized Waves from a circular waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Niver, Edip

    2011-01-01

    Axially symmetric transverse electric (TE) modes of a circular waveguide section are used to synthesize the vector TE Localized Wave (LW) field at the open end of the waveguide section. The necessary excitation coefficients of these modes

  6. Fiber-Drawn Metamaterial for THz Waveguiding and Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Stefani, Alessio; Li, Haisu

    2017-01-01

    and sub-diffraction imaging. We show the experimental demonstration of THz radiation guidance through hollow core waveguides with metamaterial cladding, where substantial improvements were realized compared to conventional hollow core waveguides, such as reduction of size, greater flexibility, increased...

  7. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  8. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogeniz......Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any...

  9. Position dependent spin wave spectrum in nanostrip magnonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Ma, Guokun; Liao, Yulong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion curves of propagating spin wave along different positions in nanostrip magnonic waveguides were studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results show that the modes of spin wave in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide are dependent on the position and the weak even modes of spin wave are excited even by symmetric excitation fields in a nanostrip magnonic waveguide. The reasons of the position dependent dispersion curve are explained by associating with geometrical confinement in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide

  10. Quantum Key Distribution using Phase Encoding in Double-Pass Silica-on-Silicon Circuits with Grating Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Maack, Johan; Thomasen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of D-shape fiber in combination with an optical analog of Ramsey fringes using LPGs are presented. The mode-profiles of the sensor were characterized experimentally to provide deeper knowledge about improved functionality....

  11. Numerical characterization of nanopillar photonic crystal waveguides and directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically characterize a novel type of a photonic crystal waveguide, which consists of several rows of periodically arranged dielectric cylinders. In such a nanopillar photonic crystal waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection. A nanopillar waveguide is a multimode...

  12. Utilization of optical waveguides in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darikova, A.; Vanickova, M.; Matejec, V.; Pospisilova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Some optical waveguides used for communication purposes are very sensitive to ionizing radiation.Ionizing radiation radiation affects the optical waveguides by creating color centers that are responsible for the transmission loss.This transmission loss is the function of wavelength of the passing light. The dose of ionizing radiation will manifest itself not only in the magnitude of the transmission loss value but even in changing the position of maximum of the transmission loss curve with respect to the wavelength. The position of the maximum is stable in time and temperature and independent of dose rate. The study of effects of ionizing radiation on the optical waveguides leads to the possibility of utilizing them not only as sensors of ionizing radiation but even as a dosimeters. 4 figs., 2 refs. (author)

  13. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...

  14. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    of developing new material platforms for integrated plasmonic devices. Furthermore, novel plasmonic materials such as transparent conductive oxides and transition metal nitrides can offer a variety of new opportunities. In particular, they offer adjustable/tailorable and nonlinear optical properties, dynamic...... modulators based on ultra-compact waveguides with different active cores. Plasmonic modulators with the active core such as indium phosphides or ferroelectrics sandwiched between metal plates have promising characteristics. Apart from the speed and dimensions advantages, the metal plates can serve...... as electrodes for electrical pumping of the active material making it easier to integrate. Including an additional layer in the plasmonic waveguide, in particular an ultrathin transparent conductive oxide film, allows the control of the dispersive properties of the waveguide and thus the higher efficiency...

  15. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  16. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  17. Nanoparticle sorting in silicon waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. T.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Yap, P. H.; Wang, K.; Ser, W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the optical fractionation of nanoparticles in silicon waveguide arrays. The optical lattice is generated by evanescent coupling in silicon waveguide arrays. The hotspot size is tunable by changing the refractive index of surrounding liquids. In the experiment, 0.2-μm and 0.5-μm particles are separated with a recovery rate of 95.76%. This near-field approach is a promising candidate for manipulating nanoscale biomolecules and is anticipated to benefit the biomedical applications such as exosome purification, DNA optical mapping, cell-cell interaction, etc.

  18. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui; Decker, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.decker@anu.edu.au; Staude, Isabelle; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing.

  19. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  20. Chaotic behavior of a quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Aguilar, H., E-mail: hiperezag@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Francisco J. Mújica S/N 58030, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mendoza-Suárez, A.; Tututi, E.S. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Francisco J. Mújica S/N 58030, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Herrera-González, I.F. [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    In this work we consider an infinite quantum waveguide composed of two periodic, hard walls, one-dimensional rippled surfaces. We find that, under certain conditions, the proposed system presents some traces of quantum chaos, when the corresponding classical limit has chaotic behavior. Thus, it is possible to obtain disordered probability densities in a system with smooth surfaces. When the system has chaotic behavior we show numerically that the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the probability density goes to zero. To corroborate some properties obtained for infinite waveguide that are physically admissible, we study the corresponding finite version of this system.

  1. Chaotic behavior of a quantum waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aguilar, H.; Mendoza-Suárez, A.; Tututi, E.S.; Herrera-González, I.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider an infinite quantum waveguide composed of two periodic, hard walls, one-dimensional rippled surfaces. We find that, under certain conditions, the proposed system presents some traces of quantum chaos, when the corresponding classical limit has chaotic behavior. Thus, it is possible to obtain disordered probability densities in a system with smooth surfaces. When the system has chaotic behavior we show numerically that the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the probability density goes to zero. To corroborate some properties obtained for infinite waveguide that are physically admissible, we study the corresponding finite version of this system

  2. Experimental investigations on channelized coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Ponchak, George E.; Martzaklis, Konstantinas S.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A new variant of coplanar waveguide (CPW) which was termed channelized coplanar waveguide (CCPW) is presented. Measured propagation characteristics for CCPW such as epsilon(eff) and unloaded Q as a function of geometrical parameters and frequency are presented. The measured and modeled epsilon(eff) are also compared. Equivalent circuit model element values are presented for a CCPW open circuit and a CCPW right angle bend. A CCPW matched T-junction, matched 1:3 junction, and a novel coax-to-CCPW in-phase, N-way, radial power divider are also demonstrated.

  3. Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in Waveguide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun

    between the Kerr nonlinear effects and the dispersive effects in the medium. A Kerr-like nonlinearity is produced through the cascaded phase mismatched quadratic process, e.g. the second harmonic generation process, which can be flexibly tuned in both the sign and the amplitude, making possible a strong......-phase-matching technology is not necessarily needed. In large-RI-changed waveguides, CQSC is extended to the mid-infrared range to generate single-cycle pulses with purely nonlinear interactions, since an all-normal dispersion profile could be achieved within the guidance band. We believe that CQSC in quadratic waveguides...

  4. Ultrafast Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling....

  5. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    numerical simulations of the nonlinear problem and in this case localized excitations are found to persist. We found also interesting relaxational dynamics. Analogies of the present problem in context related to atomic physics and particularly to Bose–Einstein condensation are discussed.......Motivated by the examples of a curved waveguide embedded in a photonic crystal and cold atoms moving in a waveguide created by a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we examine the effects of geometry in a 'quantum channel' of parabolic form. Starting with the linear case we derive exact...

  6. Effect of patterns and inhomogeneities on the surface of waveguides used for optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Voros, J.; Graf, R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that patterns acid inhomogeneities on the surface of the waveguide used fur optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications can produce broadening and fine structure in the incoupled light peak spectra. During cell spreading on the waveguide, a broadening of the incoupling...

  7. Coaxial waveguide mode reconstruction and analysis with THz digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Xiong, Wei; Sun, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yan

    2012-03-26

    Terahertz (THz) digital holography is employed to investigate the properties of waveguides. By using a THz digital holographic imaging system, the propagation modes of a metallic coaxial waveguide are measured and the mode patterns are restored with the inverse Fresnel diffraction algorithm. The experimental results show that the THz propagation mode inside the waveguide is a combination of four modes TE₁₁, TE₁₂, TM₁₁, and TM₁₂, which are in good agreement with the simulation results. In this work, THz digital holography presents its strong potential as a platform for waveguide mode charactering. The experimental findings provide a valuable reference for the design of THz waveguides.

  8. Gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisma, H J; de Hon, O

    2006-04-01

    Together with the rapidly increasing knowledge on genetic therapies as a promising new branch of regular medicine, the issue has arisen whether these techniques might be abused in the field of sports. Previous experiences have shown that drugs that are still in the experimental phases of research may find their way into the athletic world. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have expressed concerns about this possibility. As a result, the method of gene doping has been included in the list of prohibited classes of substances and prohibited methods. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge gained in the field of genetic therapies may be misused in elite sports. Many genes are readily available which may potentially have an effect on athletic performance. The sporting world will eventually be faced with the phenomena of gene doping to improve athletic performance. A combination of developing detection methods based on gene arrays or proteomics and a clear education program on the associated risks seems to be the most promising preventive method to counteract the possible application of gene doping.

  9. Diffraction of an Electromagnetic Wave on a Dielectric Rod in a Rectangular Waveguide. A Method of Partial Waveguide Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zav'yalov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    A variant of the method of partial waveguide filling is considered in which a sample is put into a waveguide through holes in wide waveguide walls at the distance equal to a quarter of the wavelength in the waveguide from a short-circuiter, and the total input impedance of the sample in the waveguide is directly measured. The equivalent circuit of the sample is found both without and with account of the hole. It is demonstrated that consideration of the edge effect makes it possible to obtain more exact values of the dielectric permittivity.

  10. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.

  11. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...

  12. Finite mode analysis through harmonic waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Wolf, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode analysis of signals in a multimodal shallow harmonic waveguide whose eigenfrequencies are equally spaced and finite can be performed by an optoelectronic device, of which the optical part uses the guide to sample the wave field at a number of sensors along its axis and the electronic part

  13. Chaotic waveguide-based resonators for microlasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Šeba, Petr; Pichugin, K. N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 16 (2003), 161104/1-161104/4 ISSN 0163-1829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : waveguide * laser * resonators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  14. UV Defined Nanoporous Liquid Core Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous liquid core waveguides, where both core and cladding are made from the same material, are presented. The nanoporous polymer used is intrinsically hydrophobic, but selective UV exposure enables it to infiltrate with an aqueous solution, thus raising the refractive index from 1.26 to 1...

  15. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  16. Novel concepts for terahertz waveguide spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    . With such waveguides we demonstrate that it is possible to perform quantitative spectroscopy on very small volumes of sample material inside the PPWG. Using continuous-wave as well as femtosecond excitation we inject carriers into semiconductor material in the transparent PPWG, and perform static as well as transient...

  17. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy; Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Kryzhanovskiy, Volodymyr; Pazynin, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three

  18. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  19. Hardy Inequalities in Globally Twisted Waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briet, Ph.; Hammedi, H.; Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 7 (2015), s. 939-958 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguides * twisted tubes * Dirichlet Laplacian * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  20. Efficient waveguide coupler based on metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Huanyu

    2015-10-01

    Because of the diffraction limit of light, the scale of optical element stays in the order of wavelength, which makes the interface optics and nano-electronic components cannot be directly matched, thus the development of photonics technology encounters a bottleneck. In order to solve the problem that coupling of light into the subwavelength waveguide, this paper proposes a model of coupler based on metal materials. By using Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) wave, incident light can be efficiently coupled into waveguide of diameter less than 100 nm. This paper mainly aims at near infrared wave band, and tests a variety of the combination of metal materials, and by changing the structural parameters to get the maximum coupling efficiency. This structure splits the plane incident light with wavelength of 864 nm, the width of 600 nm into two uniform beams, and separately coupled into the waveguide layer whose width is only about 80 nm, and the highest coupling efficiency can reach above 95%. Using SPPs structure will be an effective method to break through the diffraction limit and implement photonics device high-performance miniaturization. We can further compress the light into small scale fiber or waveguide by using the metal coupler, and to save the space to hold more fiber or waveguide layer, so that we can greatly improve the capacity of optical communication. In addition, high-performance miniaturization of the optical transmission medium can improve the integration of optical devices, also provide a feasible solution for the photon computer research and development in the future.

  1. Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF{sub 2} crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banyasz, I., E-mail: bakonyjako@yahoo.es [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' , Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); MDF-Lab, ' ' Nello Carrara' ' Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Khanh, N.Q.; Lohner, T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lengyel, K. [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Peter, A. [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Petrik, P.; Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Watterich, A. [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nunzi-Conti, G.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G.C. [MDF-Lab, ' ' Nello Carrara' ' Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2012-09-01

    Ion implantation, compared with other waveguide fabrication methods, has some unique advantages. It has proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. The authors of the present article reported fabrication of channel and slab waveguides in an Erbium-doped tungsten tellurite glass by implantation of MeV energy N{sup +} ions. The present article reports successful adaptation of the same technique to the fabrication of slab waveguides in eulytine type bismuth germanate (BGO) and CaF{sub 2} crystals. This is the first report on successful waveguide fabrication in these materials using 3.5 MeV N{sup +} ions at implanted fluences between 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements revealed the existence of guiding structures in both materials. M-line spectroscopic measurements indicated guiding effect in the as-implanted BGO up to 1550 nm and up to 980 nm in the as-implanted CaF{sub 2}. Ion implantation induced the appearance of three peaks in the UV/Vis absorption spectrum of CaF{sub 2}, that can be attributed to colour centres.

  2. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  3. FDTD simulation of amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, A.; Lourenço, P.; Pinho, P.; Vieira, M.,

    2017-05-01

    In this work we correlate the dimension of the waveguide with small variations of the refractive index of the material used for the waveguide core. We calculate the effective modal refractive index for different dimensions of the waveguide and with slightly variation of the refractive index of the core material. These results are used as an input for a set of Finite Difference Time Domain simulation, directed to study the characteristics of amorphous silicon waveguides embedded in a SiO2 cladding. The study considers simple linear waveguides with rectangular section for studying the modal attenuation expected at different wavelengths. Transmission efficiency is determined analyzing the decay of the light power along the waveguides. As far as near infrared wavelengths are considered, a-Si:H shows a behavior highly dependent on the light wavelength and its extinction coefficient rapidly increases as operating frequency goes into visible spectrum range. The simulation results show that amorphous silicon can be considered a good candidate for waveguide material core whenever the waveguide length is as short as a few centimeters. The maximum transmission length is highly affected by the a-Si:H defect density, the mid-gap density of states and by the waveguide section area. The simulation results address a minimum requirement of 300nm×400nm waveguide section in order to keep attenuation below 1 dB cm-1.

  4. Low-temperature liquid phase epitaxy of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanyuk, Y.E.; Utke, I.; Ehrentraut, D.; Pollnau, Markus; Garcia-Revilla, S.; Valiente, R.; Kuleshov, N.V.

    2004-01-01

    Rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 (hereafter KYW) is a promising material for novel solid-state lasers. Low laser threshold, high efficiency, high output powers, and third-order nonlinear effects have stimulated research towards miniaturized thin-film waveguide lasers and amplifiers for future photonic

  5. Synthesis of the Thickness Profile of the Waveguide Layer of the Thin Film Generalized Waveguide Luneburg Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayryan E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A local variation in the thickness of the waveguide layer of integrated optics waveguide causes a local decrease of phase velocity, and hence bending of rays and of the wave front. The relationship of the waveguide layer thickness profile h (y, z with the distribution of the effective refractive index of the waveguide β (y, z is described in terms of a particular model of waveguide solutions of the Maxwell equations. In the model of comparison waveguides the support of the thickness irregularity of the waveguide layer Δh coincides with the support of inhomogeneity of the effective refractive index Δβ. A more adequate but more cumbersome model of the adiabatic waveguide modes allows them to mismatch supp Δh ⊃ supp Δβ. In this paper, we solve the problem of the Δh reconstruction on the base of given Δβ of the thin film generalized waveguide Luneburg lens in a model of adiabatic waveguide modes. The solution is found in the form of a linear combination of Gaussian exponential functions and in the form of a cubic spline for the cylindrically symmetric Δh (r and in the form of a cubic spline for Δβ (r.

  6. X-ray and gamma ray waveguide, cavity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vali, V.; Krogstad, R.S.; Willard, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    An x-ray and gamma ray waveguide, cavity, and method for directing electromagnetic radiation of the x-ray, gamma ray, and extreme ultraviolet wavelengths are described. A hollow fiber is used as the waveguide and is manufactured from a material having an index of refraction less than unity for these wavelengths. The internal diameter of the hollow fiber waveguide and the radius of curvature for the waveguide are selectively predetermined in light of the wavelength of the transmitted radiation to minimize losses. The electromagnetic radiation is obtained from any suitable source ad upon introduction into the waveguide is transmitted along a curvilinear path. The waveguide may be formed as a closed loop to create a cavity or may be used to direct the electromagnetic radiation to a utilization site

  7. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P.; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm 2 , using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass

  8. A Broadband Terahertz Waveguide T-Junction Variable Power Splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.; Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    In order for the promise of terahertz (THz) wireless communications to become a reality, many new devices need to be developed, such as those for routing THz waves. We demonstrate a power splitting router based on a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) T-junction excited by the TE1 waveguide mode. By integrating a small triangular septum into the waveguide plate, we are able to direct the THz light down either one of the two output channels with precise control over the ratio between waveguide outputs. We find good agreement between experiment and simulation in both amplitude and phase. We show that the ratio between waveguide outputs varies exponentially with septum translation offset and that nearly 100% transmission can be achieved. The splitter operates over almost the entire range in which the waveguide is single mode, providing a sensitive and broadband method for THz power splitting.

  9. Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibres and waveguides: a quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, S.T.; Mulvaney, P.; Roberts, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of preferential etching and atomic force microscopy to measure refractive index profiles of optical fibres is investigated. Both the etch rate and the position of lateral features are shown to be independent of etch time. An elliptical core fibre has been studied and the resultant profile found to be in qualitative agreement with the preform index profile. It is shown, however, that the ellipticity of the core has changed during the drawing process. The method has been extended to fluorine and germanium doped planar waveguides and the results correlated with the fabrication process

  10. Summary of radiation-induced transient absorption and recovery in fiber optic waveguides. [Pulsed electrons and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoog, C.D.

    1976-11-01

    The absorption induced in fiber optic waveguides by pulsed electron and X-ray radiation has been measured as a function of optical wavelength from 450 to 950 nm, irradiation temperature from -54 to 71/sup 0/C, and dose from 1 to 500 krads. The fibers studied are Ge-doped silica core fibers (Corning Low Loss), ''pure'' vitreous silica core fibers (Schott, Bell Laboratories, Fiberoptic Cable Corp., and Valtec Fiberoptics), polymethyl-methacrylate core fibers (DuPont CROFON and PFX), and polystyrene core fibers (International Fiber Optics and Polyoptics). Models that have been developed to account for the observed absorption recovery are also summarized.

  11. The LHC Beam Pipe Waveguide Mode Reflectometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Caspers, Friedhelm; Sulek, Z; Williams, L R

    2007-01-01

    The waveguide-mode reflectometer for obstacle detection in the LHC beam pipe has been intensively used for more than 18 months. The â€ワAssembly” version is based on the synthetic pulse method using a modern vector network analyzer. It has mode selective excitation couplers for the first TE and TM mode and uses a specially developed waveguide mode dispersion compensation algorithm with external software. In addition there is a similar â€ワIn Situ” version of the reflectometer which uses permanently installed microwave couplers at the end of each of the nearly 3 km long LHC arcs. During installation a considerable number of unexpected objects have been found in the beam pipes and subsequently removed. Operational statistics and lessons learned are presented and the overall performance is discussed.

  12. Surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Robert J; McWhorter, Christopher S; Murph, Simona H

    2015-04-14

    A waveguide for use with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is provided that includes a base structure with an inner surface that defines a cavity and that has an axis. Multiple molecules of an analyte are capable of being located within the cavity at the same time. A base layer is located on the inner surface of the base structure. The base layer extends in an axial direction along an axial length of an excitation section. Nanoparticles are carried by the base layer and may be uniformly distributed along the entire axial length of the excitation section. A flow cell for introducing analyte and excitation light into the waveguide and a method of applying nanoparticles may also be provided.

  13. Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity....... Single-mode and multimode operations are studied, and dispersion relations are computed for different waveguide widths. Both strong positive, strong negative, and zero dispersion an possible. It is shown that geometric parameters such as the nature of the lattice, the line defect orientation, the defect...... width, and the branching-point geometry have a significant influence on the electrodynamics. These are important issues for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures....

  14. Planar Silicon Optical Waveguide Light Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistiko, Otto; Bak, H.

    1994-01-01

    that values in the nanosecond region should be possible, however, the measured values are high, 20 microseconds, due to the large area of the injector junctions, 1× 10¿2 cm2, and the limitations imposed by the detection circuit. The modulating properties of these devices are impressive, measurements......The results of an experimental investigation of a new type of optical waveguide based on planar technology in which the liglht guiding and modulation are achieved by exploiting free carrier effects in silicon are presented. Light is guided between the n+ substrate and two p+ regions, which also...... serve as carrier injectors for controling absorption. Light confinement of single mode devices is good, giving spot sizes of 9 ¿m FWHM. Insertion loss measurements indicate that the absorption losses for these waveguides are extremely low, less 1 dB/cm. Estimates of the switching speed indicate...

  15. Two-Dimentional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    1999-01-01

    possible a novel class of optical microcavities, whereas line defects make possible a novel class of waveguides. In this paper we will analyze two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides based on photonic crystals with rods arranged on a triangular and a square lattice using a plane-wave expansion method......In the recent years a new class of periodic high-index contrast dielectric structures, known as photonic bandgap structures, has been discovered. In these structures frequency intervals, known as photonic bandgaps, where propagation of electromagnetic waves is not allowed, exist due to the periodic...... dielectric function. This is analogous to semiconductors, where electronic bandgaps exist due to the periodic arrangement of atoms. As is also the case for semiconductor structures, photonic bandgap structures may become of even greater value when defects are introduced. In particular, point defects make...

  16. "Unmanned” optical micromanipulation using waveguide microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2013-01-01

    be shaped more arbitrarily, engineered light deflection could lead to more control in the resulting motion. We demonstrated this principle with the autonomous translation of bent waveguides though pre-defined light tracks. In our experiment, incoming light makes a near 90 degree turn, hence the resulting......As researchers meet the demands of real world problems, there is a trend for experiments to get multidisciplinary. For example, health monitoring, cell sorting or lab on a chip devices would require optical tools for vision or characterization and engineered fluidic chambers for loading...... that could be microfabricated, the study of how optical forces behave in such structures become useful in the emerging field of optofludics. Recently, we have shown how optically maneuverable tapered waveguide microstructures can augment beam shaping experiments by delivering strongly focused light...

  17. Efficient shortcut techniques in evanescently coupled waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2016-10-01

    Shortcut to Adiabatic Passage (SHAPE) technique, in the context of coherent control of atomic systems has gained considerable attention in last few years. It is primarily because of its ability to manipulate population among the quantum states infinitely fast compared to the adiabatic processes. Two methods in this regard have been explored rigorously, namely the transitionless quantum driving and the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant approach. We have applied these two methods to realize SHAPE in adiabatic waveguide coupler. Waveguide couplers are integral components of photonic circuits, primarily used as switching devices. Our study shows that with appropriate engineering of the coupling coefficient and propagation constants of the coupler it is possible to achieve efficient and complete power switching. We also observed that the coupler length could be reduced significantly without affecting the coupling efficiency of the system.

  18. Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berini, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Three figures of merit are proposed as quality measures for surface plasmon waveguides. They are defined as benefit-to-cost ratios where the benefit is confinement and the cost is attenuation. Three different ways of measuring confinement are considered, leading to three figures of merit. One of the figures of merit is connected to the quality factor. The figures of merit were then used to assess and compare the wavelength response of hree popular 1-D surface plasmon waveguides: the single metal-dielectric interface, the metal slab bounded by dielectric and the dielectric slab bounded by metal. Closed form expressions are given for the figures of merit of the single metal-dielectric interface.

  19. Blood typing using microstructured waveguide smart cuvette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanishevskaya, Anastasiya A; Shuvalov, Andrey A; Skibina, Yulia S; Tuchin, Valery V

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a sensitive method that allows one to distinguish positive and negative agglutination reactions used for blood typing and determination of Rh affinity with a high precision. The method is based on the unique properties of photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., microstructured waveguides (MSWs). The transmission spectrum of an MSW smart cuvette filled by a specific or nonspecific agglutinating serum depends on the scattering, refractive, and absorptive properties of the blood probe. This concept was proven in the course of a laboratory clinical study. The obtained ratio of the spectral-based discrimination parameter for positive and negative reactions (I+/I-) was found to be 16 for standard analysis and around 2 for used sera with a weak activity.

  20. Novel hard mask fabrication method for hybrid plasmonic waveguide and metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Sajid; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid plasmonic waveguide fabrication technique has been developed and waveguides fabricated using this technique have been demonstrated experimentally. The developed technique can be utilized for creating similar hybrid waveguide structures and metasurfaces with an array of material platforms...

  1. Spectra of definite type in waveguide models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Siegl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 3 (2017), s. 1231-1246 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spectral points of definite and of type pi * weakly coupled bound states * pertrubations of essential spectrum * PT-symmetric waveguide Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2016

  2. A four waveguide grill experiment in Petula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlange, F.

    1980-09-01

    A four waveguide grill has been used to launch lower hybrid waves with power up to 300 kW. Reflected power was found to be unexpectedly low after grill conditionning. Effects on a 80 kA, 2.7 Tesla discharge are presented with special emphasis on ion heating. Temperature increase is a linear function of RF power up to 200 kW where saturation occurs

  3. A holographic waveguide based eye tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Pazzucconi, Beatrice; Liu, Juan; Liu, Lei; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of using holographic waveguide for eye tracking. A custom-built holographic waveguide, a 20 mm x 60 mm x 3 mm flat glass substrate with integrated in- and out-couplers, was used for the prototype development. The in- and out-couplers, photopolymer films with holographic fringes, induced total internal reflection in the glass substrate. Diffractive optical elements were integrated into the in-coupler to serve as an optical collimator. The waveguide captured images of the anterior segment of the eye right in front of it and guided the images to a processing unit distant from the eye. The vector connecting the pupil center (PC) and the corneal reflex (CR) of the eye was used to compute eye position in the socket. An eye model, made of a high quality prosthetic eye, was used prototype validation. The benchtop prototype demonstrated a linear relationship between the angular eye position and the PC/CR vector over a range of 60 horizontal degrees and 30 vertical degrees at a resolution of 0.64-0.69 degrees/pixel by simple pixel count. The uncertainties of the measurements at different angular positions were within 1.2 pixels, which indicated that the prototype exhibited a high level of repeatability. These results confirmed that the holographic waveguide technology could be a feasible platform for developing a wearable eye tracker. Further development can lead to a compact, see-through eye tracker, which allows continuous monitoring of eye movement during real life tasks, and thus benefits diagnosis of oculomotor disorders.

  4. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyken B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  5. Design Issues for Therapeutic Ultrasound Angioplasty Waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Noone, Declan; Gavin, Graham; McGuinness, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound angioplasty is a new minimally invasive cardiovascular procedure for disrupting atherosclerotic lesions. Mechanical energy is transmitted in the form of ultrasound waves via long, flexible wire waveguides navigated to the lesion site through the vascular system. The underpinning principle of this technology is that plaque may be disrupted through a combination of direct contact ablation, pressure waves, cavitation and acoustic streaming, which all depend on the amplitud...

  6. The cross waveguide grating: proposal, theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pascual; Pastor, Daniel; Capmany, José

    2005-04-18

    In this paper a novel grating-like integrated optics device is proposed, the Cross Waveguide Grating (XWG). The device is based upon a modified configuration of a traditional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG). The Arrayed Waveguides part is changed, as detailed along this document, giving the device both the ability of multi/demultiplexing and power splitting/coupling. Design examples and transfer function simulations show good agreement with the presented theory. Finally, some of the envisaged applications are outlined.

  7. Waveguiding properties of individual electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuya; Kaminose, Ryohei; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2013-09-01

    Optical circuits are needed to achieve high-speed, high-capacity information processing. An optical waveguide is an essential element in optical circuits. Electrospun polymer fibers have diameters in the nanometer range and high aspect ratios, so they are prime candidates for small waveguides. In this work, we fabricate uniform electrospun polymer nanofibers and characterize their optical waveguiding properties. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions of different concentration that contain a small amount of Nile Blue A perchlorate (NBA) are electrospun. Uniform PMMA/NBA nanofibers are obtained from the 10 wt% solution. The fibers are covered with transparent cladding and their ends cut vertically. A laser beam with a wavelength of 533 nm is irradiated onto the fiber from the direction vertical to the fiber axis so that it scans along the fiber. Photoluminescence (PL) at the end face of individual fibers is then measured. The PL intensity decreases with increasing distance (d) between the end face of a fiber and irradiating point of the laser beam as ~exp(-αd) with a loss coefficient (α). Measurements of five individual fibers reveal α is in the range of 17-75 cm-1.

  8. An ultrasonic waveguide for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.D.; Gillespie, A.B.; Deighton, M.O.; Pike, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The value of ultrasonic techniques in nuclear plants is well established. However, in most cases nuclear power plants present an extremely hostile environment for an ultrasonic transducer. The paper presents a novel technique for introducing an ultrasound into hostile liquid environments using a new form of ultrasonic waveguide. Using this approach, a standard transducer arrangement is sited in a hospitable area and conveys the ultrasound along the guide to the required beam-emission collection position. The design of a single-mode ultrasonic waveguide is described. The ultrasound is conveyed along a stainless steel strip of rectangular cross-section. The transference of energy between the strip and the liquid is achieved through a highly efficient mode-conversion process. This process overcomes the usual problems of mis-match of acoustic impedances of stainless steel and liquids, and also produces a highly collimated beam of ultrasound. Tests of a 10-m-long waveguide using these techniques are described, achieving signal-to-noise ratios in the region of 40 dB. (author)

  9. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS.

  10. Analysis of Waveguides on Lithium Niobate Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Waveguides formed by etching, proton-exchange (PE, and strip-loaded on single-crystal lithium niobate (LN thin film were designed and simulated by a full-vectorial finite difference method. The single-mode condition, optical power distribution, and bending loss of these kinds of waveguides were studied and compared systematically. For the PE waveguide, the optical power distributed in LN layer had negligible change with the increase of PE thickness. For the strip-loaded waveguide, the relationships between optical power distribution in LN layer and waveguide thickness were different for quasi-TE (q-TE and quasi-TM (q-TM modes. The bending loss would decrease with the increase of bending radius. There was a bending loss caused by the electromagnetic field leakage when the neff of q-TM waveguide was smaller than that of nearby TE planar waveguide. LN ridge waveguides possessed a low bending loss even at a relatively small bending radius. This study is helpful for the understanding of waveguide structures as well as for the optimization and the fabrication of high-density integrated optical components.

  11. ICRF waveguide coupler research. Progress report, July 1983-July 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharer, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This report highlights results we have obtained on our ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) waveguide launcher research during the past year. We have completed an analysis of waveguide aperture launching of waves into a hot plasma with any prescribed edge density and temperature profile. The model Fourier analyzes the waveguide aperture fields and calculates the incident and reflected fast magnetosonic wave fields in the plasma edge region utilizing a stratified slab model. The requirement that the total wave fields at the waveguide-plasma interface match provides the boundary conditions which allow the solution for the plasma input impedance and reflection coefficient

  12. Rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguide with improved nonlinear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zengzhi; Huang, Qingzhong; Wang, Yi; Xia, Jinsong

    2018-04-01

    Silicon slot waveguides have great potential in hybrid silicon integration to realize nonlinear optical applications. We propose a rectangular-cladding hybrid silicon slot waveguide. Simulation result shows that, with a rectangular-cladding, the slot waveguide can be formed by narrower silicon strips, so the two-photon absorption (TPA) loss in silicon is decreased. When the cladding material is a nonlinear polymer, the calculated TPA figure of merit (FOMTPA) is 4.4, close to the value of bulk nonlinear polymer of 5.0. This value confirms the good nonlinear performance of rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguides.

  13. Resonant Photonic States in Coupled Heterostructure Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarinathan J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.

  14. Diffractive beam shaping, tracking and coupling for wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    techniques to create multiple focal spots that can be coupled into light manipulated WOWs. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to project the necessary phase to generate the multiple coupling light spots. We incorporate a diffractive setup in our Biophotonics Workstation (BWS) and demonstrate......We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). The full strength of this structure-mediated paradigm can be harnessed by addressing multiple WOWs and manipulating them to work in tandem. We propose the use of diffractive...

  15. Rectangular waveguide-to-coplanar waveguide transitions at U-band using e-plane probe and wire bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents rectangular waveguide-to-coplanar waveguide (CPW) transitions at U-band (40–60 GHz) using E-plane probe and wire bonding. The designs of CPWs based on quartz substrate with and without aluminum cover are explained. The single and double layer rectangular waveguide-to-CPW trans......This paper presents rectangular waveguide-to-coplanar waveguide (CPW) transitions at U-band (40–60 GHz) using E-plane probe and wire bonding. The designs of CPWs based on quartz substrate with and without aluminum cover are explained. The single and double layer rectangular waveguide......-to-CPW transitions using E-plane probe and wire bonding are designed. The proposed rectangular waveguide-to-CPW transition using wire bonding can provide 10 GHz bandwidth at U-band and does not require extra CPWs or connections between CPWs and chips. A single layer rectangular waveguide-to-CPW transition using E......-plane probe with aluminum package has been fabricated and measured to validate the proposed transitions. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first time that a wire bonding is used as a probe for rectangular waveguide-to-CPW transition at U-band....

  16. Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems with Integrated Waveguides in Cyclin Olefin Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    , in a collaboration with IMTEK in Freiburg, Germany, an optical detection principle was developed. Using the principle of total internal reflection of a laser beam incident on a fluidic channel, detection of air bubbles is possible. The principle was used on a rotating platform as well as on non-moving systems....... the substrate, optical layers and the lid in the microfluidic systems. • Thermal bonding of polymer structures, including roll lamination of foil onto substrates. • Laser bonding of two polymer layers, including transparent on black, and transparent on transparent with a particle doped spin coating. • Thermal...... treatment of waveguides to improve the surface roughness and lower the propagation loss. The fabrication methods have been characterised, and have been optimised to minimise parameters like fabrication time, surface roughness and interface bonding strength. Using these fabrication methods, microfluidic...

  17. Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimczak, M., E-mail: m.klimczak@elka.pw.edu.p [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Malinowski, M. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Sarnecki, J. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Telekomunikacja Polska Research and Development Centre, Obrzezna 7, 02-691 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    In this work, we investigate visible emission properties of dysprosium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) waveguides prepared by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method, which allowed obtaining samples of activator concentrations ranging from 0.2 at% up to ca. 18 at%. This unique set of Dy:YAG/YAG waveguides has been carefully examined by means of highly resolved laser spectroscopy to explore the luminescence properties in the visible (yellow-blue) part of spectrum. In particular, the low-temperature absorption spectra have been recorded and analyzed, giving a more detailed information on energy levels' positions in these crystals. The concentration-dependant emission spectra and fluorescence dynamics profiles have been collected under direct excitation, enabling analysis of multi-ion processes responsible for concentration quenching. This, in turn, enabled optimization of activator concentration with respect to yellow emission efficiency. Additionally, the possible IR to visible up-conversion pathways have been discussed, giving a starting point for further investigations.

  18. Propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Effects of band tail absorption and waveguide dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigal, F.; Joanesarson, Kristoffer Bitsch; Lyasota, A.

    2017-01-01

    Propagation losses in GaAs-based photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides are evaluated near the semiconductor band-edge by measuring the finesse of corresponding Ln cavities. This approach yields simultaneously the propagation losses and the mode reflectivity at the terminations of the cavities. We dem...

  19. Near-coast tsunami waveguiding: phenomenon and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Adytia, D.; Adytia, D.; Andonowati, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that shallow, elongated parts in a sloping bottom toward the coast will act as a waveguide and lead to large enhanced wave amplification for tsunami waves. Since this is even the case for narrow shallow regions, near-coast tsunami waveguiding may contribute to an explanation

  20. A Waveguide Transverse Broad Wall Slot Radiating Between Baffles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael; Rengarajan, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the self impedance of waveguide-fed transverse slots radiating between baffles is presented. The region exterior to the slot is treated as a parallel plate (PP) waveguide which radiates into half space through an aperture in an infinite ground plane. The slot problem is analyzed...

  1. Waveguide superconducting single-photon autocorrelators for quantum photonic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, D.; Gaggero, A.; Frucci, G.; Jahanmirinejad, S.; Sprengers, J.P.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Beetz, J.; Lermer, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Fiore, A.; Hasan, Z.U.; Hemmer, P.R.; Lee, H.; Santori, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel component for integrated quantum photonic applications, a waveguide single-photon autocorrelator. It is based on two superconducting nanowire detectors patterned onto the same GaAs ridge waveguide. Combining the electrical output of the two detectors in a correlation card enables

  2. Tailoring Dispersion properties of photonic crystal waveguides by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    based design updates. The goal of the optimization process is to come up with slow light, zero group velocity dispersion photonic waveguides or photonic waveguides with tailored dispersion properties for dispersion compensation purposes. Two examples concerning reproduction of a specific dispersion...

  3. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Shoji, Yuya; Takei, Ryohei

    2012-05-24

    This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO₃. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range.

  4. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Takei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO3. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range.

  5. Dispersion characteristics of plasmonic waveguides for THz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markides, Christos; Viphavakit, Charusluk; Themistos, Christos; Komodromos, Michael; Kalli, Kyriacos; Quadir, Anita; Rahman, Azizur

    2013-05-01

    Today there is an increasing surge in Surface Plasmon based research and recent studies have shown that a wide range of plasmon-based optical elements and techniques have led to the development of a variety of active switches, passive waveguides, biosensors, lithography masks, to name just a few. The Terahertz (THz) frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum is located between the traditional microwave spectrum and the optical frequencies, and offers a significant scientific and technological potential in many fields, such as in sensing, in imaging and in spectroscopy. Waveguiding in this intermediate spectral region is a major challenge. Amongst the various THz waveguides suggested, the metal-clad waveguides supporting surface plasmon modes waves and specifically hollow core structures, coated with insulating material are showing the greatest promise as low-loss waveguides for their use in active components and as well as passive waveguides. The H-field finite element method (FEM) based full-vector formulation is used to study the vectorial modal field properties and the complex propagation characteristics of Surface Plasmon modes of a hollow-core dielectric coated rectangular waveguide structure. Additionally, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to estimate the dispersion parameters and the propagation loss of the rectangular waveguide.

  6. Magnetosonic Waveguide Model of Solar Wind Flow Tubes A. K. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of plasma velocity or due to sudden variation of Alfvén or sound speed. Surface mag- netosonic wave is evanescent both inside and outside of waveguide, while the body magnetosonic wave is oscillatory inside the waveguide and evanescent outside. Both the wave modes are localized and non-leaky. Nakariakov et al.

  7. Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Arentoft, J.

    2002-01-01

    Using near-field optical microscopy, we directly map the propagation of light in the wavelength range of 1510-1560 nm along bent photonic crystal waveguides formed by removing a single row of holes in the triangular 400-nm-period lattice and connected to access ridge waveguides, the structure being...

  8. Electromagnetic fields of ionospheric point dipoles in the earthionosphere waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybachek, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of excitation of the spherical earth-anisotropic ionosphere waveguide by ionospheric dipole sources. The solution obtained is based on a generalized reciprocity theorem which provides a relationship to the problem of finding electromagnetic fields in the ionosphere created by sources located in the waveguide. Some results of the calculations are presented

  9. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  10. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  11. Design and Measurement of Metallic Post-Wall Waveguide Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.J.; Bekers, D.J.; Tauritz, J.L.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper we discuss the design and measurement of a set of metallic post-wall waveguide components for antenna feed structures. The components are manufactured on a single layer printed circuit board and excited by a grounded coplanar waveguide. For a straight transmission line, a 90°

  12. Slow Light at High Frequencies in an Amplifying Semiconductor Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz.......We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz....

  13. Slow light in quantum dot photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of pulse propagation in a semiconductor quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency is presented. The slow light mechanism considered here is based on both material and waveguide dispersion. The group index n...

  14. Polarization effects in silicon-clad optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. F.; Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    By changing the thickness of a semiconductor cladding layer deposited on a planar dielectric waveguide, the TE or TM propagating modes may be selectively attenuated. This polarization effect is due to the periodic coupling between the lossless propagating modes of the dielectric slab waveguide and the lossy modes of the cladding layer. Experimental tests involving silicon claddings show high selectivity for either polarization.

  15. Matrix method for two-dimensional waveguide mode solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguang; Cai, Congzhong; Venkatesh, Balajee Seshasayee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the transfer matrix theory of multilayer optics can be used to solve the modes of any two-dimensional (2D) waveguide for their effective indices and field distributions. A 2D waveguide, even composed of numerous layers, is essentially a multilayer stack and the transmission through the stack can be analysed using the transfer matrix theory. The result is a transfer matrix with four complex value elements, namely A, B, C and D. The effective index of a guided mode satisfies two conditions: (1) evanescent waves exist simultaneously in the first (cladding) layer and last (substrate) layer, and (2) the complex element D vanishes. For a given mode, the field distribution in the waveguide is the result of a 'folded' plane wave. In each layer, there is only propagation and absorption; at each boundary, only reflection and refraction occur, which can be calculated according to the Fresnel equations. As examples, we show that this method can be used to solve modes supported by the multilayer step-index dielectric waveguide, slot waveguide, gradient-index waveguide and various plasmonic waveguides. The results indicate the transfer matrix method is effective for 2D waveguide mode solution in general.

  16. Fabrication of raised and inverted SU8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Anthony S.; Mitchell, Arnan; Balkunje, Vishal S.; Austin, Mike W.; Raghunathan, Mukund K.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer films with high optical transmission have been investigated for making optical devices for several years. SU8 photoresist and optical adhesives have been investigated for use as thin films for optical devices, not what they were originally designed for. Optical adhesives are typically a one component thermoset polymer and are convenient to use for making thin film optical devices such as waveguides. They are prepared in minutes as thin films unlike SU8, which has to be carefully thermally cured over several hours for optimum results. However SU8 can be accurately patterned to form the geometry of structures required for single mode optical waveguides. SU8 in combination with the lower refractive index optical adhesive films such as UV15 from Master Bond are used to form single and multi mode waveguides. SU8 is photopatternable but we have also used dry etching of the SU8 layer or the other polymer layers e.g. UV15 to form the ribs, ridges or trenches required to guide single modes of light. Optical waveguides were also fabricated using only optical adhesives of different refractive indices. The resolution obtainable is poorer than with SU8 and hence multi mode waveguides are obtained. Loss measurements have been obtained for waveguides of different geometries and material combinations. The process for making polymer waveguides is demonstrated for making large multi mode waveguides and microfluidic channels by scaling the process up in size.

  17. Optical vortex propagation in few-mode rectangular polymer waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Chipouline, Arkadi; Zywietz, Urs

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that rectangular few-mode dielectric waveguides, fabricated with standard lithographic technique, can support on-chip propagation of optical vortices. We show that specific superpositions of waveguide eigenmodes form quasi-degenerate modes carrying light with high purity states...

  18. COMPACT ATHERMAL OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE USING THERMAL EXPANSION AMPLIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method of temperature stabilising optical waveguides having positive thermal optical path length expansion, in particular fiber Bragg gratings or optical fiber DFB lasers or optical fiber DBR lasers, comprising affixing the optical waveguide to at least two points of a negative expanding fixture...

  19. Laser performance and modeling of RE3+:YAG double-clad crystalline fiber waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Lee, Huai-Chuan; Meissner, Stephanie K.; Meissner, Helmuth E.

    2018-02-01

    We report on laser performance of ceramic Yb:YAG and single crystal Tm:YAG double-clad crystalline fiber waveguide (CFW) lasers towards the goal of demonstrating the design and manufacturing strategy of scaling to high output power. The laser component is a double-clad CFW, with RE3+:YAG (RE = Yb, Tm respectively) core, un-doped YAG inner cladding, and ceramic spinel or sapphire outer cladding. Laser performance of the CFW has been demonstrated with 53.6% slope efficiency and 27.5-W stable output power at 1030-nm for Yb:YAG CFW, and 31.6% slope efficiency and 46.7-W stable output power at 2019-nm for Tm:YAG CFW, respectively. Adhesive-Free Bond (AFB®) technology enables a designable refractive index difference between core and inner cladding, and designable core and inner cladding sizes, which are essential for single transverse mode CFW propagation. To guide further development of CFW designs, we present thermal modeling, power scaling and design of single transverse mode operation of double-clad CFWs and redefine the single-mode operation criterion for the double-clad structure design. The power scaling modeling of double-clad CFW shows that in order to achieve the maximum possible output power limited by the physical properties, including diode brightness, thermal lens effect, and simulated Brillion scattering, the length of waveguide is in the range of 0.5 2 meters. The length of an individual CFW is limited by single crystal growth and doping uniformity to about 100 to 200 mm lengths, and also by availability of starting crystals and manufacturing complexity. To overcome the limitation of CFW lengths, end-to-end proximity-coupling of CFWs is introduced.

  20. Vector pulsing soliton of self-induced transparency in waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamashvili, G.T.

    2015-01-01

    A theory of an optical resonance vector pulsing soliton in waveguide is developed. A thin transition layer containing semiconductor quantum dots forms the boundary between the waveguide and one of the connected media. Analytical and numerical solutions for the optical vector pulsing soliton in waveguide are obtained. The vector pulsing soliton in the presence of excitonic and bi-excitonic excitations is compared with the soliton for waveguide TM-modes with parameters that can be used in modern optical experiments. It is shown that these nonlinear waves have significantly different parameters and shapes. - Highlights: • An optical vector pulsing soliton in a planar waveguide is presented. • Explicit form of the optical vector pulsing soliton are obtained. • The vector pulsing soliton and the soliton have different parameters and profiles

  1. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua

    2017-05-25

    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  2. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Chunxiu; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  3. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-12-11

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  4. Dry-film polymer waveguide for silicon photonics chip packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Han; Nakagawa, Shigeru

    2014-09-22

    Polymer waveguide made by dry film process is demonstrated for silicon photonics chip packaging. With 8 μm × 11.5 μm core waveguide, little penalty is observed up to 25 Gbps before or after the light propagate through a 10-km long single-mode fiber (SMF). Coupling loss to SMF is 0.24 dB and 1.31 dB at the polymer waveguide input and output ends, respectively. Alignment tolerance for 0.5 dB loss increase is +/- 1.0 μm along both vertical and horizontal directions for the coupling from the polymer waveguide to SMF. The dry-film polymer waveguide demonstrates promising performance for silicon photonics chip packaging used in next generation optical multi-chip module.

  5. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettotti, Paolo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Rigo, Eveline; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers) to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies. PMID:22164020

  6. General coupled mode theory in non-Hermitian waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Yuntian

    2015-08-24

    In the presence of loss and gain, the coupled mode equation on describing the mode hybridization of various waveguides or cavities, or cavities coupled to waveguides becomes intrinsically non-Hermitian. In such non-Hermitian waveguides, the standard coupled mode theory fails. We generalize the coupled mode theory with a properly defined inner product based on reaction conservation. We apply our theory to the non-Hermitian parity-time symmetric waveguides, and obtain excellent agreement with results obtained by finite element fullwave simulations. The theory presented here is typically formulated in space to study coupling between waveguides, which can be transformed into time domain by proper reformulation to study coupling between non-Hermitian resonators. Our theory has the strength of studying non-Hermitian optical systems with inclusion of the full vector fields, thus is useful to study and design non-Hermitian devices that support asymmetric and even nonreciprocal light propagations.

  7. Systematic design of loss-engineered slow-light waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs topology optimization to systematically design free-topology loss-engineered slow-light waveguides with enlarged group index bandwidth product (GBP). The propagation losses of guided modes are evaluated by the imaginary part of eigenvalues in complex band structure calculations......, where the scattering losses due to manufacturing imperfections are represented by an edge-related effective dissipation. The loss engineering of slow-light waveguides is realized by minimizing the propagation losses of design modes. Numerical examples illustrate that the propagation losses of free......-topology dispersion-engineered waveguides can be significantly suppressed by loss engineering. Comparisons between fixed- and free-topology loss-engineered waveguides demonstrate that the GBP can be enhanced significantly by the free-topology loss-engineered waveguides with a small increase of the propagation losses....

  8. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pavesi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies.

  9. Competition and transformation of modes of unidirectional air waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-xin; Kong, Xiang-kun; Fang, Yun-tuan

    2016-10-01

    In order to study the mode excitation of the unidirectional air waveguide, we place a line source at different positions in the waveguide. The source position plays an important role in determining the result of the competition of the even mode and the odd mode. For the source at the edge of the waveguide, the odd mode gets advantage over the even mode. As a result, the odd mode is excited, but the even mode is suppressed. For the source at the center of the waveguide, the even mode is excited, but the odd mode is suppressed. With two sources at two edges of the waveguide, the even mode is released because the two odd modes are canceled.

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, H K; Liu, Y

    2008-01-01

    Recent work on two-photon absorption (TPA), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and optical Kerr effect in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is reviewed and some potential applications of these optical nonlinearities, including silicon-based autocorrelation detectors, optical amplifiers, high speed optical switches, optical wavelength converters and self-phase modulation (SPM), are highlighted. The importance of free carriers generated by TPA in nonlinear devices is discussed, and a generalized definition of the nonlinear effective length to cater for nonlinear losses is proposed. How carrier lifetime engineering, and in particular the use of helium ion implantation, can enhance the nonlinear effective length for nonlinear devices is also discussed

  11. Quantum waveguide theory of a fractal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhiping; Hou Zhilin; Liu Youyan

    2007-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of fractal quantum waveguide networks in the presence of a magnetic field are studied. A Generalized Eigen-function Method (GEM) is used to calculate the transmission and reflection coefficients of the studied systems unto the fourth generation Sierpinski fractal network with node number N=123. The relationship among the transmission coefficient T, magnetic flux Φ and wave vector k is investigated in detail. The numerical results are shown by the three-dimensional plots and contour maps. Some resonant-transmission features and the symmetry of the transmission coefficient T to flux Φ are observed and discussed, and compared with the results of the tight-binding model

  12. Strategies for waveguide coupling for SRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Despite widespread use of coaxial couplers in SRF cavities, a single, simple waveguide coupling can be used both to transmit generator power to a cavity, and to remove a large class of Higher Order Modes (HOMs, produced by the beam). There are balances and tradeoffs to be made, such as the coupling strength of the various frequencies, the transverse component of the coupler fields on the beam axis, and the magnitude of the surface fields and currents. This paper describes those design constraints, categories of solutions, and examples from the CEBAF Energy Upgrade studies

  13. Development of planar waveguides in zinc telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, Serge

    1977-02-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is one of the most attractive semi-conductors for monolithic integrated optics. In this study, the general characteristics of the planar optical waveguides achieved by implantation of light ions in ZnTe are investigated. Different aspects of prism-coupling and coherent light guiding have been taken up theoretically and experimentally. Some assumptions about the physical origin of these structures are discussed in order to explain all these results and the weak losses which have been measured. [fr

  14. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Mark David; Naether, Uta; Ciria, Miguel; Zueco, David; Luis, Fernando, E-mail: fluis@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, Javier [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Atkinson, James; Barco, Enrique del [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Sánchez-Azqueta, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Majer, Johannes [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-20

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  15. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-11

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  16. Laser generated soliton waveguides in photorefractive crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, V.I.; Fazio, E.; Bertolotti, M.; Bosco, A.; Petris, A.

    2005-01-01

    Non-linear photo-excited processes using the photorefractive effect are revisited with emphasis on spatial soliton generation in special laser beam propagation conditions. The soliton beams can create reversible or irreversible single-mode waveguides in the propagating materials. The important features are the 3D orientation and graded index profile matched to the laser fundamental mode. Bright spatial solitons are theoretically demonstrated and experimentally observed for the propagation of c.w. and pulsed femtosecond laser beams in photorefractive materials such as Bi 12 SiO 20 (BSO) and lithium niobate crystals. Applications in high coupling efficiency, adaptive optical interconnections and photonic crystal production are possible

  17. Absorption spectroscopy of complex rare earth ion doped hybrid materials over a broad wavelength range

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, R.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Stouwdam, J.W.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work we applied a measurement setup to determine several relevant properties of rare-earth doped nanoparticles dispersed in polymer slab waveguides in a single absorption measurement: background absorption of the polymer host material, water absorption, polymer composition (overtones), rare earth concentration, and ligand contribution (increase of exponential loss trend in the UV). Furthermore, nanoparticle size and concentration in case of a refractive index mismatch (1//spl l...

  18. High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Dan; Qu, Chunyang; Wang, Xibin; Yi, Yunji; Cassan, Eric; Zhang, Daming

    2016-11-01

    Waveguide amplifiers have always been significant key components for optical communication. Unfortunately, the low concentration of rare earth ions doped in the host material and the inadequate optimization of the waveguide structure have been the common bottleneck limitations. Here, a novel material, NaYF4/NaLuF4: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ nanoparticle-Polymeric Methyl Methacrylate covalent-linking nanocomposite, was synthesized. The concentrations of Er3+ and Yb3+ doping increased an order of magnitude. Under a 980 nm laser excitation, highly efficient emission at 1.53 μm was obtained. The characteristic parameters of the single mode waveguide were carefully designed and optimized by using a finite difference method. A formulized iteration method is presented for solving the rate equations and the propagation equations of the EYCDWA, and both the steady state behavior and the gain were numerically simulated. The optimal Er3+ and Yb3+ concentrations are 2.8 × 1026 m-3 and 2.8 × 1027 m-3, and the optimal waveguide length is 1.3 cm. Both theoretical and experimental results indicated that, for an input signal power of 0.1 mW and a pump power of 400 mW, a net gain of 15.1 dB at 1530 nm is demonstrated. This result is the highest gain ever reported in polymer-based waveguide amplifiers doped with inorganic Er3+-Yb3+ codoped nanocrystals.

  19. Waveguide quantum electrodynamics in squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jieyu; Liao, Zeyang; Li, Sheng-Wen; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2018-02-01

    We study the dynamics of a general multiemitter system coupled to the squeezed vacuum reservoir and derive a master equation for this system based on the Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. In this theory, we include the effect of positions of the squeezing sources which is usually neglected in the previous studies. We apply this theory to a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide case where the squeezing in one dimension is experimentally achievable. We show that while dipole-dipole interaction induced by ordinary vacuum depends on the emitter separation, the two-photon process due to the squeezed vacuum depends on the positions of the emitters with respect to the squeezing sources. The dephasing rate, decay rate, and the resonance fluorescence of the waveguide-QED in the squeezed vacuum are controllable by changing the positions of emitters. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the stationary maximum entangled NOON state for identical emitters can be reached with arbitrary initial state when the center-of-mass position of the emitters satisfies certain conditions.

  20. Zero-Dispersion Slow Light with Wide Bandwidth in Photonic Crystal Coupled Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yu, Mao; Geng-Yan, Zhang; Yi-Dong, Huang; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2008-01-01

    By introducing an adjustment waveguide besides the incident waveguide, zero-dispersion slow light with wide bandwidth can be realized due to anticrossing of the incident waveguide mode and the adjustment waveguide mode. The width of the adjustment waveguide (W 2 ) and the hole radii of the coupling region (r') will change the dispersion of incident waveguide mode. Theoretical investigation reveals that zero dispersion at various low group velocity ν g in incident waveguide can be achieved. In particular, proper W 2 and r' can lead to the lowest ν g of 0.0085c at 1550 nm with wide bandwidth of 202 GHz for zero dispersion

  1. Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor with a Layer-Structured Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2010-01-01

    In-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors had developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In the previous studies, the Ultrasonic waveguide sensor module had been designed and manufactured. And the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been performed. To Improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module in the under-sodium application, the dispersion effect due to the 10 m long distance propagation of the A 0 -mode Lamb wave should be minimized and the longitudinal leaky wave in a liquid sodium should be generated within the range of the effective radiation angle. In this study, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a layered-structured plate is suggested for the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the effective generation of leaky wave in a liquid sodium

  2. Analysis and synthesis of (SAR) waveguide phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, H. J.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes work performed due to ESA contract No. 101 34/93/NL/PB. Started is with a literature study on dual polarized waveguide radiators, resulting in the choice for the open ended square waveguide. After a thorough description of the mode matching infinite waveguide array analysis method - including finiteness effects - that forms the basis for all further described analysis and synthesis methods, the accuracy of the analysis software is validated by comparison with measurements on two realized antennas. These antennas have centered irises in the waveguide apertures and a dielectric wide angle impedance matching sheet in front of the antenna. A synthesis method, using simulated annealing and downhill simplex, is described next and different antenna designs, based on the analysis of a single element in an infinite array environment, are presented. Next, designs of subarrays are presented. Shown is the paramount importance of including the array environment in the design of a subarray. A microstrip patch waveguide exciter and subarray feeding network are discussed and the depth of the waveguide radiator is estimated. Chosen is a rectangular grid array with waveguides of 2.5 cm depth without irises and without dielectric sheet, grouped in linear 8 elements subarrays.

  3. Quasi-phase matching and quantum control of high harmonic generation in waveguides using counterpropagating beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2010-11-09

    All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.

  4. Doped Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Keum, Chang-Min; Kasemann, Daniel; Naab, Ben; Bao, Zhenan; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-23

    Organic field-effect transistors hold the promise of enabling low-cost and flexible electronics. Following its success in organic optoelectronics, the organic doping technology is also used increasingly in organic field-effect transistors. Doping not only increases device performance, but it also provides a way to fine-control the transistor behavior, to develop new transistor concepts, and even improve the stability of organic transistors. This Review summarizes the latest progress made in the understanding of the doping technology and its application to organic transistors. It presents the most successful doping models and an overview of the wide variety of materials used as dopants. Further, the influence of doping on charge transport in the most relevant polycrystalline organic semiconductors is reviewed, and a concise overview on the influence of doping on transistor behavior and performance is given. In particular, recent progress in the understanding of contact doping and channel doping is summarized.

  5. Quantitative study of rectangular waveguide behavior in the THz.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowen, Adam M.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement

    2009-10-01

    This report describes our efforts to quantify the behavior of micro-fabricated THz rectangular waveguides on a configurable, robust semiconductor-based platform. These waveguides are an enabling technology for coupling THz radiation directly from or to lasers, mixers, detectors, antennas, and other devices. Traditional waveguides fabricated on semiconductor platforms such as dielectric guides in the infrared or co-planar waveguides in the microwave regions, suffer high absorption and radiative losses in the THz. The former leads to very short propagation lengths, while the latter will lead to unwanted radiation modes and/or crosstalk in integrated devices. This project exploited the initial developments of THz micro-machined rectangular waveguides developed under the THz Grand Challenge Program, but instead of focusing on THz transceiver integration, this project focused on exploring the propagation loss and far-field radiation patterns of the waveguides. During the 9 month duration of this project we were able to reproduce the waveguide loss per unit of length in the waveguides and started to explore how the loss depended on wavelength. We also explored the far-field beam patterns emitted by H-plane horn antennas attached to the waveguides. In the process we learned that the method of measuring the beam patterns has a significant impact on what is actually measured, and this may have an effect on most of the beam patterns of THz that have been reported to date. The beam pattern measurements improved significantly throughout the project, but more refinements of the measurement are required before a definitive determination of the beam-pattern can be made.

  6. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation at telecommunications wavelengths in a precisely dispersion- and length-controlled silicon-wire waveguide with a double taper structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Atsushi; Goto, Takahiro; Kou, Rai; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Hitachi, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Koji; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate on-chip octave-spanning supercontinuum (SC) generation with a Si-wire waveguide (SWG). We precisely controlled the SWG width so that the group velocity becomes flat over a wide wavelength range. By adjusting the SWG length, we could reduce the optical losses due to two-photon absorption and pulse propagation. In addition, for efficient coupling between the laser pulse and waveguide, we fabricated a two-step inverse taper at both ends of the SWG. Using a 600-nm-wide SWG, we were able to generate a broadband SC spectrum at wavelengths from 1060 to 2200 nm at a -40 dB level with only 50-pJ laser energy from an Er-doped fiber laser oscillator. We found that we can generate an on-chip broadband SC spectrum with an SWG with a length even as small as 1.7 mm.

  7. 16 channel 200 GHz arrayed waveguide grating based on Si nanowire waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lei; An Junming; Zhang Jiashun; Song Shijiao; Wu Yuanda; Hu Xiongwei

    2011-01-01

    A 16 channel arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer with 200 GHz channel spacing based on Si nanowire waveguides is designed. The transmission spectra response simulated by transmission function method shows that the device has channel spacing of 1.6 nm and crosstalk of 31 dB. The device is fabricated by 193 nm deep UV lithography in silicon-on-substrate. The demultiplexing characteristics are observed with crosstalk of 5-8 dB, central channel's insertion loss of 2.2 dB, free spectral range of 24.7 nm and average channel spacing of 1.475 nm. The cause of the spectral distortion is analyzed specifically. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Cherenkov interaction of hollow electron beam with a dielectric waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbushev, N.I.; Shlapakovskij, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The waveguide excitation methods are used to study magnetized hollow electron beam interaction with electromagnetic waves of a waveguide with a dielectric bush. Characteristic equation with explicit presentation of depression coefficients and the beam coupling with the synchronous wave is derived. Dependences of depression and coupling coefficients on the beam and waveguide parameters are studied. the current limiting values of small and large space charge regimes are determined. Coefficients of synchronous wave amplification by a beam and oscillation set up conditions in the considered finite length system are determined

  9. Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Horvath, Robert; Thinggaard, S.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of metal-clad waveguide biosensors, so-called dip-type and peak-type, are analyzed and tested. Their performances are benchmarked against the well-known surface-plasmon resonance biosensor, showing improved probe characteristics for adlayer thicknesses above 150-200 nm. The dip-type metal-clad...... waveguide sensor is shown to be the best all-round alternative to the surface-plasmon resonance biosensor. Both metal-clad waveguides are tested experimentally for cell detection, showing a detection linut of 8-9 cells/mm(2). (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Investigation for connecting waveguide in off-planar integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Feng, Zhifang

    2017-09-01

    The transmission properties of a vertical waveguide connected by different devices in off-planar integrated circuits are designed, investigated, and analyzed in detail by the finite-difference time-domain method. The results show that both guide bandwidth and transmission efficiency can be adjusted effectively by shifting the vertical waveguide continuously. Surprisingly, the wide guide band (0.385[c/a]∼0.407[c/a]) and well transmission (-6  dB) are observed simultaneously in several directions when the vertical waveguide is located at a specific location. The results are very important for all-optical integrated circuits, especially in compact integration.

  11. Photonic Choke-Joints for Dual-Polarization Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.; U-yen, Kongpop; Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic choke joint (PCJ) structures for dual-polarization waveguides have been investigated for use in device and component packaging. This interface enables the realization of a high performance non-contacting waveguide joint without degrading the in-band signal propagation properties. The choke properties of two tiling approaches, symmetric square Cartesian and octagonal quasi-crystal lattices of metallic posts, are explored and optimal PCJ design parameters are presented. For each of these schemes, the experimental results for structures with finite tilings demonstrate near ideal transmission and reflection performance over a full waveguide band.

  12. Planar optical waveguides for civil and military applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, C R

    2009-01-01

    There is significant military and civil interest in being able to detect chemical species adsorbed from air or present in aqueous solutions. Planar optical waveguide transmission properties are sensitive to changes in parameters such as refractive index or absorption and to light-emitting processes such as fluorescence. These changes modulate light travelling in optical waveguides, and so may be used as sensors for detecting biological and chemical agents, non-ionizing and ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Several waveguide systems have been studied theoretically and experimentally, and their responses to basic influences such as alcohol and UV radiation, and gamma rays determined.

  13. Elaboration by epitaxy in liquid phase and monocrystalline layers of doped Yag. Realisation of wave guides lasers neodymium and ytterbium at low thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelenc, D.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis reports on the prototype development of a new laser waveguide fabrication technique, Liquid Phase Epitaxy, as part of the research on diode-pumped compact laser devices. This technique has been applied to the growth of single crystal thin layers of neodymium and ytterbium doped YAG on pure YAG substrates. In order to obtain good quality waveguides, we have defined the growth conditions, and demonstrated the advantage of the growth of an undoped YAG cladding layer. Two extra dopings have been studied: gallium, in order to control the refractive index of the layer, and lutetium, in order to control their lattice mismatch. The determination of the segregation coefficient of these four dopants has required the development of a model that takes into account the evolution of the melt with time. We have measured the refractive index increase for each dopant and proposed a mechanism that explains this increase. The spectroscopic characterisation of the layers has shown that the neodymium and ytterbium ions have the same properties as in the bulk material of the same composition. The laser characterisation has shown very low propagation losses (around 0.1 dB/cm), comparable to those of bulk. For the neodymium laser transition at 1064 nm, we have demonstrated the laser effect for an absorbed power threshold of 700μW and measured a slope efficiency of 40% for a threshold of 14 mW in diode pumping. For quasi 3 level transitions, a significant reduction in threshold with respect to unguided lasers has been obtained: at 946 nm in a neodymium doped waveguide, at 1029 nm in an ytterbium doped waveguide, with a 1W diode bar pump. A slope efficiency of 80% has also been measured in an ytterbium doped waveguided emitting at 1048nm

  14. Single- and double energy N{sup +} ion irradiated planar optical waveguides in Er: Tungsten–tellurite oxide glass and sillenite type Bismuth Germanate crystals working up to telecommunications wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Righini, G.C. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Ion implantation proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Fabrication of channel waveguides in such a material via N{sup +} ion implantation was reported recently. Sillenite type Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals are good nonlinear optical materials. Parameters of waveguide fabrication in both materials via implantation of MeV-energy N{sup +} ions were optimized. First single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in both materials. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.1 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width. Improvement of waveguide characteristics was found by m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  15. Effect of structural evolution of ZnO/HfO2 nanocrystals on Eu2+/Eu3+ emission in glass-ceramic waveguides for photonic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Bhaktha B N, Shivakiran

    2018-06-01

    Eu-doped 70SiO 2 -23HfO 2 -7ZnO (mol%) glass-ceramic waveguides have been fabricated by sol-gel method as a function of heat-treatment temperatures for on-chip blue-light emitting source applications. Structural evolution of spherical ZnO and spherical as well as rod-like HfO 2 nanocrystalline structures have been observed with heat-treatments at different temperatures. Initially, in the as-prepared samples at 900 ◦ C, both, Eu 2+ as well as Eu 3+ ions are found to be present in the ternary matrix. With controlled heat-treatments of up to 1000 ◦ C for 2 h, local environment of Eu-ions become more crystalline in nature and the reduction of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ takes place in such ZnO/HfO 2 crystalline environments. In these ternary glass-ceramic waveguides, heat-treated at higher temperatures, the blue-light emission characteristic, which is the signature of 4f 6 5d [Formula: see text] 4f 7 energy level transition of Eu 2+ ions is found to be greatly enhanced. The as-prepared glass-ceramic waveguides exhibit a propagation loss of 0.4 ± 0.2 dB cm -1 at 632.8 nm. Though the propagation losses increase with the growth of nanocrystals, the added functionalities achieved in the optimally heat-treated Eu-doped 70SiO 2 -23HfO 2 -7ZnO (mol%) waveguides, make them a viable functional optical material for the fabrication of on-chip blue-light emitting sources for integrated optic applications.

  16. Effect of structural evolution of ZnO/HfO2 nanocrystals on Eu2+/Eu3+ emission in glass-ceramic waveguides for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; N, Shivakiran Bhaktha B.

    2018-06-01

    Eu-doped 70SiO2–23HfO2–7ZnO (mol%) glass-ceramic waveguides have been fabricated by sol-gel method as a function of heat-treatment temperatures for on-chip blue-light emitting source applications. Structural evolution of spherical ZnO and spherical as well as rod-like HfO2 nanocrystalline structures have been observed with heat-treatments at different temperatures. Initially, in the as-prepared samples at 900 ◦C, both, Eu2+ as well as Eu3+ ions are found to be present in the ternary matrix. With controlled heat-treatments of up to 1000 ◦C for 2 h, local environment of Eu-ions become more crystalline in nature and the reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ takes place in such ZnO/HfO2 crystalline environments. In these ternary glass-ceramic waveguides, heat-treated at higher temperatures, the blue-light emission characteristic, which is the signature of 4f 65d \\to 4f 7 energy level transition of Eu2+ ions is found to be greatly enhanced. The as-prepared glass-ceramic waveguides exhibit a propagation loss of 0.4 ± 0.2 dB cm‑1 at 632.8 nm. Though the propagation losses increase with the growth of nanocrystals, the added functionalities achieved in the optimally heat-treated Eu-doped 70SiO2–23HfO2–7ZnO (mol%) waveguides, make them a viable functional optical material for the fabrication of on-chip blue-light emitting sources for integrated optic applications.

  17. Circular waveguide mode converters at 140 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trulsen, J.; Woskoboinikow, P.; Temkin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unified derivation of the coupled mode equations for circular waveguide is presented. Also, approximate design criteria for TE/sub 0n/ to TE/sub 0n'/ axisymmetric, TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle, and TE 01 to TM 11 bend converters are reviewed. Numerically solving the coupled mode equations, an optimized set of mode converters has been designed for conversion of a 2 millimeter wave TE 03 mode into TE 11 . This set consists of axisymmetric TE 03 to TE 02 and TE 02 to TE 01 converters followed by a wriggle TE 01 to TE 11 converter. This mode converter set was fabricated and tested using a 3 kW, 137 GHz gyrotron. A TE 11 mode purity of better than 97% was achieved. The TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle converter was experimentally optimized for a measured conversion efficiency of better than 99% not including ohmic losses

  18. Thermal limiting effects in optical plasmonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A.E.; Gerasimov, V.S.; Gavrilyuk, A.P.; Karpov, S.V.; Zakomirnyi, V.I.; Rasskazov, I.L.; Polyutov, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied thermal effects occurring during excitation of optical plasmonic waveguide (OPW) in the form of linear chain of spherical Ag nanoparticles by pulsed laser radiation. It was shown that heating and subsequent melting of the first irradiated particle in a chain can significantly deteriorate the transmission efficiency of OPW that is the crucial and limiting factor and continuous operation of OPW requires cooling devices. This effect is caused by suppression of particle's surface plasmon resonance due to reaching the melting point temperature. We have determined optimal excitation parameters which do not significantly affect the transmission efficiency of OPW. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic model was developed to study thermal effects at nanoscale. • Developed model considers temperature-dependent permittivity of the nanoparticles. • Thermal effects significantly suppress transmission efficiency of plasmonic chains. • Optimal parameters for stable operation of plasmonic chains were defined.

  19. Slow and fast light in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Xue, Weiqi

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides entail interesting physics and point to a number of promising applications. In this review we give an overview of recent progress in the field, in particular focusing on the physical mechanisms of electromagnetically induced...... transparency and coherent population oscillations. While electromagnetically induced transparency has been the most important effect in realizing slowdown effects in atomic gasses, progress has been comparatively slow in semiconductors due to inherent problems of fast dephasing times and inhomogeneous...... broadening in quantum dots. The physics of electromagnetically induced transparency in semiconductors is discussed, emphasizing these limitations and recent suggestions for overcoming them. On the other hand, the mechanism of coherent population oscillations relies on wave mixing effects and is well suited...

  20. Gratings in passive and active optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole

    1999-01-01

    will not only couple to the backward propagating fundamental mode, but also to cladding modes. Cladding modes are strongly bound, but slightly leaky, higher-order modes in the core-cladding-air index structure. If the waveguide is not surrounded by air, but by a recoating the cladding modes become highly...... attenuated. In either case the cladding mode coupling gives loss on the short wavelength side of the reflection band. The cladding mode coupling loss is a major problem for the utilization of fiber Bragg gratings in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system. In this project, a numerical model for cladding...... mode coupling has been developed. The model can predict the spectral location and size of coupling, for various fiber designs. By the aid of this modeling tool, a fiber has been optimized to give low cladding-mode losses. The optimized fiber has been produced and the predicted reduction of cladding...

  1. Soap Films as 1D waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser light is injected in a free standing horizontal draining soap film through the glass frame sustaining the film. Two propagation regimes are clearly identified depending on the film thickness. At the beginning of the drainage, the soap film behaves as a multimode-one dimensional optofiuidic waveguide. In particular, we observe that the injected light creates a bottleneck in the film and part of the injected light is refracted leading to whiskers. At the end of the drainage where the film thickness is below 1μm, there is a strong selection among the various possible optical modes in the film, and part of the light is defiected. This leads to a self selection of the mode propagation inside the film.

  2. Phonon heat transport through periodically stubbed waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenxia; Chen Keqiu

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance in a periodically stubbed waveguide structure by use of the transfer matrix method and the scattering matrix method. We find that the existence of stop-frequencies or dips in the transmission spectrum, which corresponds to the stop bands or gaps in the acoustic band structure. The dependence of the stop band width and the dip width on the stub height is also demonstrated. We also find that the universal quantum thermal conductance can be clearly observed and the thermal conductance increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Our results show that the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance can be artificially controlled by adjusting the height of the stub

  3. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  4. Confinement-induced resonances in anharmonic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shiguo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We develop the theory of anharmonic confinement-induced resonances (ACIRs). These are caused by anharmonic excitation of the transverse motion of the center of mass (c.m.) of two bound atoms in a waveguide. As the transverse confinement becomes anisotropic, we find that the c.m. resonant solutions split for a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) system, in agreement with recent experiments. This is not found in harmonic confinement theories. A new resonance appears for repulsive couplings (a{sub 3D}>0) for a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) system, which is also not seen with harmonic confinement. After inclusion of anharmonic energy corrections within perturbation theory, we find that these ACIRs agree extremely well with anomalous 1D and 2D confinement-induced resonance positions observed in recent experiments. Multiple even- and odd-order transverse ACIRs are identified in experimental data, including up to N=4 transverse c.m. quantum numbers.

  5. Nonlinear waves in waveguides with stratification

    CERN Document Server

    Leble, Sergei B

    1991-01-01

    S.B. Leble's book deals with nonlinear waves and their propagation in metallic and dielectric waveguides and media with stratification. The underlying nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) are derived giving also their solutions for specific situations. The reader will find new elements to the traditional approach. Various dispersion and relaxation laws for different guides are considered as well as the explicit form of projection operators, NEEs, quasi-solitons and of Darboux transforms. Special points relate to: 1. the development of a universal asymptotic method of deriving NEEs for guide propagation; 2. applications to the cases of stratified liquids, gases, solids and plasmas with various nonlinearities and dispersion laws; 3. connections between the basic problem and soliton- like solutions of the corresponding NEEs; 4. discussion of details of simple solutions in higher- order nonsingular perturbation theory.

  6. Coupled-Mode Theory derivation of the formal equivalence between a three-mode waveguide and a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher Yann G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal identification between a two-mode waveguide and a system of two mutually coupled single-mode waveguides stems from the symmetries of the evolution operator. When the gap tends to zero, the super-modes of the coupled system merge continuously into the modes of the multimode waveguide. For modelling purposes, it is very tempting to extend the analogy to three-mode waveguides (and beyond. But not without some precautions…

  7. A miniature magnetic waveguide for cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.G.

    2000-09-01

    This thesis presents the first demonstration of a guide for cold atoms based on a miniature structure of four current-carrying wires. The four wires are embedded within a hollow silica fibre. Atoms are guided along the centre of a fifth hole on the axis of the fibre by the Stern-Gerlach force. A vapour cell Magneto Optical Trap (MOT), formed 1 cm above the mouth of the waveguide is the source of cold 85 Rb atoms. After cooling the atoms to 25 μK in optical molasses they fall under the influence of gravity through a magnetic funnel into the waveguide. After propagating for 2 cm, the atoms are reflected by the field of a small pinch coil wound around the base of the guide. The atoms then travel back up the fibre and out into the funnel, where they can be imaged either in fluorescence or by recapturing in the MOT. A video sequence of atoms falling into the guide and re-emerging after reflection from the pinch coil graphically illustrates the operation of the guide. The coupling efficiency and transverse temperature of the atoms is measured experimentally and in a Monte-Carlo simulation. We find an optimum coupling efficiency of 12% and we measure the spatial extent of the cloud within the fibre to be of order 100 μm. We find good agreement between experimental data and results from the numerical simulation. We have also been able to observe different thresholds for the reflection of different positive m F levels. In another experiment we are able to trap the atoms in an elongated Ioffe trap for up to two seconds, increasing the distance over which the atoms are guided. We are able to guide the atoms over distances of 40 cm with a loss rate indistinguishable from the free space loss rate. (author)

  8. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M L; Roberts, A; Nugent, K; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  9. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  10. Launching transverse-electric Localized Waves from a circular waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Axially symmetric transverse electric (TE) modes of a circular waveguide section are used to synthesize the vector TE Localized Wave (LW) field at the open end of the waveguide section. The necessary excitation coefficients of these modes are obtained by the method of matching, taking advantage of the modal power orthogonality relations. The necessary excitation of modes provided by a number of coaxial loop antennas inserted inside the waveguide section. The antennas currents are computed from the solution of the waveguide excitation inverse problem. The accuracy of the synthesized wave field (compared to the mathematical model) and the power efficiency of the generation technique are evaluated in order to practically realize a launcher for LWs in the microwave regime. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Waveguide image-slicers for ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas; Andersen, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Waveguide image-slicer prototypes with resolutions up to 310.000 for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 30 μm have been manufactured. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of 7 and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 4.6 μm, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image-slicer stacks can be used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to be implemented in a set of four, measurements indicate an overall efficiency of above 80% for them.

  12. Multi-resolution waveguide image slicer for the PEPSI instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Harnisch, Gerd; Hornaff, Marcel; Weber, Michael; Barnes, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    A waveguide image slicer with resolutions up to 270.000 (planned: 300.000) for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 70 μm has been manufactured and tested. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of seven and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 3.6 μm, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image slicer stacks are used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to enable implementation in a set of 2x8. The overall efficiency is between 92 % and 96 %.

  13. Long-range hybrid ridge and trench plasmonic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Yusheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-23

    We report a class of long-range hybrid plasmon polariton waveguides capable of simultaneously achieving low propagation loss and tight field localization at telecommunication wavelength. The symmetric (quasi-symmetric) hybrid configurations featuring high-refractive-index-contrast near the non-uniform metallic nanostructures enable significantly improved optical performance over conventional hybrid waveguides, exhibiting considerably longer propagation distances and dramatically enhanced figure of merits for similar degrees of confinement. Compared to their traditional long-range plasmonic counterparts, the proposed hybrid waveguides put much less stringent requirements on index-matching conditions, demonstrating nice performance under a wide range of physical dimensions and robust characteristics against certain fabrication imperfections. Studies concerning crosstalk between adjacent identical waveguides further reveal their potential for photonic integrations. In addition, alternative configurations with comparable guiding properties to the structures in our case studies are also proposed, which can potentially serve as attractive prototypes for numerous high-performance nanophotonic components.

  14. Compact beam splitters in coupled waveguides using shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wen, Rui-Dan; Shi, Jie-Long; Tseng, Shuo-Yen

    2018-04-01

    There are various works on adiabatic (three) waveguide coupler devices but most are focused on the quantum optical analogies and the physics itself. We successfully apply shortcuts to adiabaticity techniques to the coupled waveguide system with a suitable length for integrated optics devices. Especially, the counter-diabatic driving protocol followed by unitary transformation overcomes the previously unrealistic implemention, and is used to design feasible and robust 1 × 2 and 1 × 3 beam splitters for symmetric and asymmetric three waveguide couplers. Numerical simulations with the beam propagation method demonstrate that these shortcut designs for beam splitters are shorter than the adiabatic ones, and also have a better tolerance than parallel waveguides resonant beam splitters with respect to spacing errors and wavelength variation.

  15. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  16. Metallic and 3D-printed dielectric helical terahertz waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dominik Walter; Anthony, Jessienta; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2015-12-28

    We investigate guidance of Terahertz (THz) radiation in metallic and 3D-printed dielectric helical waveguides in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1 THz. Our experimental results obtained from THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements are in very good agreement with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. We observe single-mode, low loss and low dispersive propagation of THz radiation in metallic helical waveguides over a broad bandwidth. The 3D-printed dielectric helical waveguides have substantially extended the bandwidth of a low loss dielectric tube waveguide as observed from the experimental and simulation results. The high flexibility of the helical design allows an easy incorporation into bench top THz devices.

  17. An experimental study of the fabrication of polycarbonate optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiao-yang; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Jing-song; Wu, Peng-qin; Zhou, Jing-lun; Fan, Jiang-feng; Yan, Hao-feng

    2008-12-01

    A novel polycarbonate (PC) was introduced to apply in the optical waveguide devices. PC has following distinct merits than common polycarbonate: good processability, high thermal stability up to 293 C° and high optical transparency. Optical properties of absorption behavior and propagation loss were investigated in slab waveguides, and low propagation losses of 0.335 dB/cm (@1550nm) and 0.197 dB/cm @632.8nm) have been achieved by using prismcoupler. Additionally, straight optical waveguide and MMI coupler of ring resonator were fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) cured resin Norland optical adhesive 61 (NOA61) as under or upper cladding layer and polycarbonate as waveguide core-layer material through conventional methods such as spin coating, photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The process was studied in detail and the experimental results were given.

  18. Brillouin gain enhancement in nano-scale photonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Jouybari, Soodabeh

    2018-05-01

    The enhancement of stimulated Brillouin scattering in nano-scale waveguides has a great contribution in the improvement of the photonic devices technology. The key factors in Brillouin gain are the electrostriction force and radiation pressure generated by optical waves in the waveguide. In this article, we have proposed a new scheme of nano-scale waveguide in which the Brillouin gain is considerably improved compared to the previously-reported schemes. The role of radiation pressure in the Brillouin gain was much higher than the role of the electrostriction force. The Brillouin gain strongly depends on the structural parameters of the waveguide and the maximum value of 12127 W-1 m-1 is obtained for the Brillouin gain.

  19. Devices Based on Parallel-Plate Waveguides for Terahertz Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.

    The promise of terahertz (THz) frequencies for technological applications is wide, spanning from wireless communications for faster downloads to non-destructive imaging for security screening. Although the potential is high, there is a lack of the basic devices necessary to make these prospects a reality. One essential component for any electromagnetic wave technology is a waveguide, which as the name implies can guide light waves, like a hose would direct water from the source to the desired target location. Several waveguide types have been introduced for THz frequencies, one of the most promising of which is the parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG). The PPWG is attractive based on its superior waveguiding performance of efficient input coupling and low losses, but additionally it serves as an excellent platform for other purposes. The projects presented in this dissertation highlight a few new functionalities incorporated into, and enabled by, a PPWG for sensing, filtering, and splitting. First, we characterize a high quality factor resonator integrated into a PPWG used for microfluidic sensing. Typically, the characterization of the frequency-dependent electric field profile inside a narrowband resonator is challenging, either due to limited optical access or to the perturbative effects of invasive probes. In our situation however, the geometry of the PPWG allows for direct access to the resonant cavity via the open sides of the waveguide and a novel implementation of the air-biased coherent detection (ABCD) method permits non-invasive probing. Through both experiment and simulation, we see the narrowband frequencies trapped in the resonator and also discover an unexpected broadband asymmetric field distribution due to the resonator inside the waveguide, yielding new information that is not available in the far field. Second, we investigate a narrowband tunable filter based on extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through a 1D array of subwavelength holes inside

  20. Optimal synthesis of tunable elastic wave-guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Rupp, Cory J.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2008-01-01

    Topology optimization, or control in the coefficients of partial differential equations, has been successfully utilized for designing wave-guides with precisely tailored functionalities. For many applications it would be desirable to have the possibility of drastically altering the wave...

  1. Active composite waveguides with a suppressed competition of optical modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, D V; Elkin, N N; Napartovich, A P

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities of separating the fundamental optical mode in composite waveguides by selecting the structure of amplifying regions are analysed. Conditions are presented under which the fundamental mode preserves the highest gain at any saturation. (letters)

  2. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzan, Marco, E-mail: marco.bazzan@unipd.it; Sada, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.sada@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  3. Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Søndergaard, Thomas; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Photonic crystals form a new class of intriguing building blocks to be utilized in future optoelectronics and electromagnetics. One of the most exciting possiblilties offered by phtonic crystals is the realization of new types of electromagnetic waveguides. In the optical domain, the most mature...... technology for such photonic bandgap (PBG) waveguides is in optical fibre configurations. These new fibres can be classified in a fundamentally different way to all optical waveguides and possess radically different guiding properties due to PBG guidance, as opposed to guidance by total internal refelction....... In this paper we summarize and review our theoretical work demonstrating the underlying physical principles of PBG guiding optical fibres and discuss some of their unique waveguiding properties....

  4. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2009-02-15

    An "optical ratchet" for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables observing rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  5. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, S.

    2010-01-01

    An 'optical ratchet' for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables to observe rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically-curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  6. Sub-micrometer waveguide for nano-optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg; Andersen, Karin Nordström

    2003-01-01

    With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide for prob......With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide...... for probing the reflection of light against a nano structure. The planar waveguide is based on a silicon nitride core layer, surrounded by a silica cladding region. In our design we utilize this waveguide to couple light into a nano-structure....

  7. Parametric resonance in superconducting micron-scale waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, N.V.; Shalaev, O.L.; Shantsev, D.V.

    1997-01-01

    A parametric resonance due to temperature oscillations in superconducting micron-scale waveguides is considered. Oscillations of superconductor temperature are assumed to be induced by the irradiation of the waveguide with a laser beam. The laser power and parameters of the waveguide providing a possibility of parametric excitation have been calculated. It is shown that for a waveguide made of a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 microstrip with resonant frequency of 10 GHz a laser with a power of about 70 W/cm 2 is needed to excite oscillations. The effect can be used for the creation of high-sensitivity tuneable filters and optoelectric transformers on superconducting microstrips in the GHz range. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2004-01-01

    Planar photonic crystal waveguide structures have been modelled using the finite-difference-time-domain method and perfectly matched layers have been employed as boundary conditions. Comprehensive numerical calculations have been performed and compared to experimentally obtained transmission...

  9. Wave-guide type photo reactor for water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuaki, Negishi; Feng, He; Sadao, Matsuzawa; Koji, Takeuchi; Kayo, Ohno

    2006-01-01

    A wave-guide type photo-catalytic rod that is consisting of a glass tube with transparent TiO 2 (outside) and an optical wave-guide rod (inside) was designed and examined its performance. A model of polluted water, which contains 100 ppm of toluene or phenol, was taken in a 500 ml of beaker and the performance of this unit was evaluated by the removal rate of pollutants in water under photo-irradiation. Acrylic rod with 6-mm diameter was used as the wave-guide of light. One end of acrylic rod 50 mm had a frosted part or a screw thread for increasing seep out of the light. For the glass tube with transparent TiO 2 , four kinds with different film thickness were prepared by the dip-coating method. The wave-guide type photo-catalytic rods effectively eliminated toluene and phenol and the total amount of intermediates formation was low. (authors)

  10. Slow-light dynamics in nonlinear periodic waveguides couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, A.A.; Ha, S.; Powell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides.......We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides....

  11. Numerical simulation methods for wave propagation through optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.

    1993-01-01

    The simulation of the field propagation through waveguides requires numerical solutions of the Helmholtz equation. For this purpose a method based on the principle of orthogonal collocation was recently developed. The method is also applicable to nonlinear pulse propagation through optical fibers. Some of the salient features of this method and its application to both linear and nonlinear wave propagation through optical waveguides are discussed in this report. 51 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  12. ICRF waveguide couplers. Progress report, February 1983-Aug 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharer, J.E.

    1983-08-01

    Calculations were made for the reflection coefficient from a dielectric loaded TE 10 waveguide operating at 54.8 MHz to a plasma with a prescribed density profile. Optimum waveguide proportions are determined to minimize reflections and the proper match point for a coaxial feed to match the system is determined. Future plans call for fabrication and field measurements of a prototype design and the design of an all metal launcher

  13. Metasurface Waveguides Applied to Matched Feeds for Reflector Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvig, Michael Forum; Jorgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    at different speeds than the fundamental mode in conventional waveguides, it is challenging to meet phase relationship requirements over a large band. We have found that traditional corrugated waveguides are poorly suited for matched feed applications. However, other surfaces that satisfy the balanced hybrid...... condition, but have a small capacitive longitudinal reactance and large inductive azimuthal reactance show very promising properties: In a large band, HE11 and HE21 have similar propagation characteristics....

  14. Mode solvers for very thin long-range plasmonic waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francs, G. C.; Hugonin, J. P.; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 8 (2011), s. 557-570 ISSN 0306-8919. [18th International Workshop on Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modelling (OWTNM). Cambridge, 09.04.2010-10.04.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical waveguide theory * integrated optics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2011

  15. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...... in the core profile. In addition, it is observed that thewaveguide formation process requires several milliseconds of UV exposure before starting....

  16. Four-Wave Mixing in Silicon-Rich Nitride Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrovic, Miranda; Guan, Xiaowei; Ji, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss.......We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss....

  17. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  18. Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: Analytical, numerical, and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, G.; Ronald, K.; Young, A.R.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Cross, A.W.; Konoplev, I.V.; He, W.; Thomson, J.; Whyte, C.G.; Samsonov, S.V.; Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared

  19. Slow light in semiconductor waveguides: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Poel, Mike van der

    2007-01-01

    Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed.......Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed....

  20. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  1. Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Przemek J; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Delâge, André; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Hall, Trevor J

    2009-10-12

    We report on several new types of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) gradient index structures for efficient mode coupling in high index contrast slab waveguides. Using a SWG, an adiabatic transition is achieved at the interface between silicon-on-insulator waveguides of different geometries. The SWG transition region minimizes both fundamental mode mismatch loss and coupling to higher order modes. By creating the gradient effective index region in the direction of propagation, we demonstrate that efficient vertical mode transformation can be achieved between slab waveguides of different core thickness. The structures which we propose can be fabricated by a single etch step. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations we study the loss, polarization dependence and the higher order mode excitation for two types (triangular and triangular-transverse) of SWG transition regions between silicon-on-insulator slab waveguides of different core thicknesses. We demonstrate two solutions to reduce the polarization dependent loss of these structures. Finally, we propose an implementation of SWG structures to reduce loss and higher order mode excitation between a slab waveguide and a phase array of an array waveguide grating (AWG). Compared to a conventional AWG, the loss is reduced from -1.4 dB to < -0.2 dB at the slab-array interface.

  2. Low-loss bloch wave guiding in open structures and highly compact efficient waveguide-crossing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos

    2011-03-08

    Low-loss waveguide structures may comprise a multimode waveguide supporting a periodic light intensity pattern, and attachments disposed at the waveguide adjacent low-intensity regions of the light intensity pattern.

  3. Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Fung, King Man; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary M.; Pukala, David M.; Sin, Seth; Samoska, Lorene A.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. The amplifier module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to

  4. Beam expansion of electromagnetic radiation in waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, Ariel.

    1994-05-01

    Guided propagation has different features in the near and in the far Fresnel zones of the guiding structure. In the near zone, the field maintains the local characteristics of the source, as expressed most efficiently by the ray representation. In the far zone, on the other hand, the field adapts the global characteristics of the waveguide and the structure of guided modes. Thus the most fundamental representation at a given range is obtained if the spectral components that still maintain the local features of the source are described by rays, whereas those that have already been adapted to the global guiding environment are described by modes. This representation has also been used in order to replace transitional ray fields by an equivalent group of modes. In the hybrid beam mode representation presented here, we use Norris theorem to describe the field by a spectrum of Gaussian beams emanating radially from the source in all directions and propagating along the ray trajectories. We then show how a group of these beam basis function can be replaced by a spectrally equivalent group of modes. We therefore describe the field by an appropriately parametrized hybrid combination of modes and 'beams. The former account essentially for those spectral components that have already been adapted to the guiding environment, while the latter account for the spectral components that still maintain the local features of the source. The beam representation has certain advantages over the ray representation: It avoids the need to solve the two point problems and to calculate all the rays that pass exactly through the observation point. Instead one tracks beams that pass near, but not necessarily through, the observation point. The beam propagators are also insensitive to ray transition regions and to small artifacts of a numerically approximated medium. It therefore combines the algorithmic ease of the ray representation with the uniform features of the spectral representation. In

  5. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2016-01-01

    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts...... are important. This article explores how the International Standards for Testing, which face different interpretations and challenges when policy is implemented, are perceived by elite athletes. Particularly, this article aims to investigate how elite athletes perceive the functioning of the testing system (i.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...

  6. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Theoretical Investigation of Oxazine 170 Perchlorate Doped Polymeric Optical Fiber Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Miluski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical signal amplification in the waveguiding structure of optical fibers can be used for optical telecommunication systems and new light sources constructions. Organic dyes doped materials are interesting for new applications in polymeric optical fibers technology due to their benefits (efficient fluorescence, high absorption cross section, and easy processing. This article presents a numerical simulation of gain in poly(methyl methacrylate optical fiber doped by Oxazine 170 Perchlorate. The calculated gain characteristic for the used dye molar concentration (0.2·10-6–1.4·10-6 and pump power (1–10 kW is presented. The fabricated fluorescent polymeric optical fiber is also shown. The presented analysis can be used for optical amplifier construction based on dye-doped polymeric optical fiber (POF.

  8. Electrical tensor Green functions for cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Formation of electrical tensor Green functions for cylindrical waveguides is considered. Behaviour of these functions in the source region is studied. Cases of electrical tensor Green functions for vector potential G E (r-vector, r'-vector) and electric field G e (r-vector, r'-vector) are analysed. When forming G E (r-vector, r'-vector), its dependence on lateral coordinates is taken into account by means of two-dimensional fundamental vector Hansen functions, several methods are used to take into account the dependence on transverse coordinate. When forming G e (r-vector, r'-vector) we use the fact that G E (r-vector, r'-vector) and G e (r-vector, r'-vector) are the generalized functions. It is shown that G e (r-vector, r'-vector) behaviour in the source region is defined by a singular term, which properties are described by the delta-function. Two variants of solving the problem of defining singular and regular sides of tensor function G E (r-vector, r'-vector) are presented. 23 refs

  9. Efficient Multiphoton Generation in Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tudela, A.; Paulisch, V.; Kimble, H. J.; Cirac, J. I.

    2017-05-01

    Engineering quantum states of light is at the basis of many quantum technologies such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, or metrology among others. Though, single photons can be generated in many scenarios, the efficient and reliable generation of complex single-mode multiphoton states is still a long-standing goal in the field, as current methods either suffer from low fidelities or small probabilities. Here we discuss several protocols which harness the strong and long-range atomic interactions induced by waveguide QED to efficiently load excitations in a collection of atoms, which can then be triggered to produce the desired multiphoton state. In order to boost the success probability and fidelity of each excitation process, atoms are used to both generate the excitations in the rest, as well as to herald the successful generation. Furthermore, to overcome the exponential scaling of the probability of success with the number of excitations, we design a protocol to merge excitations that are present in different internal atomic levels with a polynomial scaling.

  10. Multipactor saturation in parallel-plate waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorolla, E.; Mattes, M.

    2012-01-01

    The saturation stage of a multipactor discharge is considered of interest, since it can guide towards a criterion to assess the multipactor onset. The electron cloud under multipactor regime within a parallel-plate waveguide is modeled by a thin continuous distribution of charge and the equations of motion are calculated taking into account the space charge effects. The saturation is identified by the interaction of the electron cloud with its image charge. The stability of the electron population growth is analyzed and two mechanisms of saturation to explain the steady-state multipactor for voltages near above the threshold onset are identified. The impact energy in the collision against the metal plates decreases during the electron population growth due to the attraction of the electron sheet on the image through the initial plate. When this growth remains stable till the impact energy reaches the first cross-over point, the electron surface density tends to a constant value. When the stability is broken before reaching the first cross-over point the surface charge density oscillates chaotically bounded within a certain range. In this case, an expression to calculate the maximum electron surface charge density is found whose predictions agree with the simulations when the voltage is not too high.

  11. Wave-guided Optical Waveguides tracked and coupled using dynamic diffractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-actuation requ......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro...... waveguides (WOWs) [2]. As the WOWs are optically trapped and maneuvered in 3D-space, it is important to maintain efficient light-coupling through these free-standing waveguides within their operating volume [3]. We propose the use ofdynamic diffractive techniques to create focal spots that will track...... and couple to the WOWs during full volume operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking...

  12. Evanescent field phase shifting in a silicon nitride waveguide using a coupled silicon slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Green, William M. J.

    2015-01-01

    An approach for electrical modulation of low-loss silicon nitride waveguides is proposed, using a silicon nitride waveguide evanescently loaded with a thin silicon slab. The thermooptic phase-shift characteristics are investigated in a racetrack resonator configuration....

  13. An analog of photon-assisted tunneling in a periodically modulated waveguide array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Luo, Xiaobing; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Mei; Lü, Xinyou; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically report an analog of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) originated from dark Floquet state in a periodically driven lattice array without a static biased potential by studying a three-channel waveguide system in a non-high-frequency regime. This analog of PAT can be achieved by only periodically modulating the top waveguide and adjusting the distance between the bottom and its adjacent waveguide. It is numerically shown that the PAT resonances also exist in the five-channel waveguide system and probably exist in the waveguide arrays with other odd numbers of waveguides, but they will become weak as the number of waveguides increases. With origin different from traditional PAT, this type of PAT found in our work is closely linked to the existence of the zero-energy (dark) Floquet states. It is readily observable under currently accessible experimental conditions and may be useful for controlling light propagation in waveguide arrays. PMID:27767189

  14. Acoustic one-way mode conversion and transmission by sonic crystal waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shiliang; He, Hailong; He, Zhaojian; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    We proposed a scheme to achieve one-way acoustic propagation and even-odd mode switching in two mutually perpendicular sonic crystal waveguides connected by a resonant cavity. The even mode in the entrance waveguide is able to switch to the odd mode in the exit waveguide through a symmetry match between the cavity resonant modes and the waveguide modes. Conversely, the odd mode in the exit waveguide is unable to be converted into the even mode in the entrance waveguide as incident waves and eigenmodes are mismatched in their symmetries at the waveguide exit. This one-way mechanism can be applied to design an acoustic diode for acoustic integration devices and can be used as a convertor of the acoustic waveguide modes.

  15. Analysis of a Waveguide-Fed Metasurface Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Yurduseven, Okan; Mancera, Laura Pulido; Bowen, Patrick; Kundtz, Nathan B.

    2017-11-01

    The metasurface concept has emerged as an advantageous reconfigurable antenna architecture for beam forming and wave-front shaping, with applications that include satellite and terrestrial communications, radar, imaging, and wireless power transfer. The metasurface antenna consists of an array of metamaterial elements distributed over an electrically large structure, each subwavelength in dimension and with subwavelength separation between elements. In the antenna configuration we consider, the metasurface is excited by the fields from an attached waveguide. Each metamaterial element can be modeled as a polarizable dipole that couples the waveguide mode to radiation modes. Distinct from the phased array and electronically-scanned-antenna architectures, a dynamic metasurface antenna does not require active phase shifters and amplifiers but rather achieves reconfigurability by shifting the resonance frequency of each individual metamaterial element. We derive the basic properties of a one-dimensional waveguide-fed metasurface antenna in the approximation in which the metamaterial elements do not perturb the waveguide mode and are noninteracting. We derive analytical approximations for the array factors of the one-dimensional antenna, including the effective polarizabilities needed for amplitude-only, phase-only, and binary constraints. Using full-wave numerical simulations, we confirm the analysis, modeling waveguides with slots or complementary metamaterial elements patterned into one of the surfaces.

  16. Low loss hollow-core waveguide on a silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Ferrara, James; Grutter, Karen; Yeh, Anthony; Chase, Chris; Yue, Yang; Willner, Alan E.; Wu, Ming C.; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2012-07-01

    Optical-fiber-based, hollow-core waveguides (HCWs) have opened up many new applications in laser surgery, gas sensors, and non-linear optics. Chip-scale HCWs are desirable because they are compact, light-weight and can be integrated with other devices into systems-on-a-chip. However, their progress has been hindered by the lack of a low loss waveguide architecture. Here, a completely new waveguiding concept is demonstrated using two planar, parallel, silicon-on-insulator wafers with high-contrast subwavelength gratings to reflect light in-between. We report a record low optical loss of 0.37 dB/cm for a 9-μm waveguide, mode-matched to a single mode fiber. Two-dimensional light confinement is experimentally realized without sidewalls in the HCWs, which is promising for ultrafast sensing response with nearly instantaneous flow of gases or fluids. This unique waveguide geometry establishes an entirely new scheme for low-cost chip-scale sensor arrays and lab-on-a-chip applications.

  17. Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard A.; Emelett, Stephen J.; Buchwald, Walter R.

    2006-10-01

    We propose that the operational wavelength of waveguided Si-based photonic integrated circuits and optoelectronic integrated circuits can be extended beyond the 1.55 µm telecom range into the wide infrared from 1.55 to 100 µm. The Si rib-membrane waveguide offers low-loss transmission from 1.2 to 6 µm and from 24 to 100 µm. This waveguide, which is compatible with Si microelectronics manufacturing, is constructed from silicon-on-insulator by etching away the oxide locally beneath the rib. Alternatively, low-loss waveguiding from 1.9 to 14.7 µm is assured by employing a crystal Ge rib grown directly upon the Si substrate. The Si-based hollow-core waveguide is an excellent device that minimizes loss due to silicon's 6-24 µm multi-phonon absorption. Here the rectangular air-filled core is surrounded by SiGe/Si multi-layer anti-resonant or Bragg claddings. The hollow channel offers less than 1.7 dB cm-1 loss from 1.2 to 100 µm. .

  18. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  19. Engineering spin-wave channels in submicrometer magnonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangJun Xing

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on micromagnetic simulations and model calculations, we demonstrate that degenerate well and barrier magnon modes can exist concurrently in a single magnetic waveguide magnetized perpendicularly to the long axis in a broad frequency band, corresponding to copropagating edge and centre spin waves, respectively. The dispersion relations of these magnon modes clearly show that the edge and centre modes possess much different wave characteristics. By tailoring the antenna size, the edge mode can be selectively activated. If the antenna is sufficiently narrow, both the edge and centre modes are excited with considerable efficiency and propagate along the waveguide. By roughening the lateral boundary of the waveguide, the characteristics of the relevant channel can be easily engineered. Moreover, the coupling of the edge and centre modes can be conveniently controlled by scaling the width of the waveguide. For a wide waveguide with a narrow antenna, the edge and centre modes travel relatively independently in spatially-separate channels, whereas for a narrow strip, these modes strongly superpose in space. These discoveries might find potential applications in emerging magnonic devices.

  20. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  1. A green-color portable waveguide eyewear display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lingbo; Xu, Ke; Wu, Zhengming; Hu, Yingtian; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Waveguide display systems are widely used in various display fields, especially in head mounted display. Comparing with the traditional head mounted display system, this device dramatically reduce the size and mass. However, there are still several fatal problems such as high scatting, the cumbersome design and chromatic aberration that should be solved. We designed and fabricated a monochromatic portable eyewear display system consist of a comfortable eyewear device and waveguide system with two holographic gratings located on the substrate symmetrically. We record the gratings on the photopolymer medium with high efficiency and wavelength sensitivity. The light emitting from the micro-display is diffracted by the grating and trapped in the glass substrate by total internal reflection. The relationship between the diffraction efficiency and exposure value is studied and analyzed, and we fabricated the gratings with appropriate diffraction efficiency in a optimization condition. To avoid the disturbance of the stray light, we optimize the waveguide system numerically and perform the optical experiments. With this system, people can both see through the waveguide to obtain the information outside and catch the information from the micro display. After considering the human body engineering and industrial production, we design the structure in a compact and portable way. It has the advantage of small-type configuration and economic acceptable. It is believe that this kind of planar waveguide system is a potentially replaceable choice for the portable devices in future mobile communications.

  2. Low Loss Nanostructured Polymers for Chip-scale Waveguide Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, George F R; Zhao, Xinyu; Sun, Yang; He, Chaobin; Tan, Mei Chee; Tan, Dawn T H

    2017-06-13

    On-chip waveguide amplifiers offer higher gain in small device sizes and better integration with photonic devices than the commonly available fiber amplifiers. However, on-chip amplifiers have yet to make its way into the mainstream due to the limited availability of materials with ideal light guiding and amplification properties. A low-loss nanostructured on-chip channel polymeric waveguide amplifier was designed, characterized, fabricated and its gain experimentally measured at telecommunication wavelength. The active polymeric waveguide core comprises of NaYF 4 :Yb,Er,Ce core-shell nanocrystals dispersed within a SU8 polymer, where the nanoparticle interfacial characteristics were tailored using hydrolyzed polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) to improve particle dispersion. Both the enhanced IR emission intensity from our nanocrystals using a tri-dopant scheme and the reduced scattering losses from our excellent particle dispersion at a high solid loading of 6.0 vol% contributed to the outstanding optical performance of our polymeric waveguide. We achieved one of the highest reported gain of 6.6 dB/cm using a relatively low coupled pump power of 80 mW. These polymeric waveguide amplifiers offer greater promise for integrated optical circuits due to their processability and integration advantages which will play a key role in the emerging areas of flexible communication and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Silicon Nitride Background in Nanophotonic Waveguide Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Dhakal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that evanescent Raman spectroscopy using a silicon nitride (SiN nanophotonic waveguide platform has higher signal enhancement when compared to free-space systems. However, signal-to-noise ratio from the waveguide at a low analyte concentration is constrained by the shot-noise from the background light originating from the waveguide itself. Hence, understanding the origin and properties of this waveguide background luminescence (WGBL is essential to developing mitigation strategies. Here, we identify the dominating component of the WGBL spectrum composed of a broad Raman scattering due to momentum selection-rule breaking in amorphous materials, and several peaks specific to molecules embedded in the core. We determine the maximum of the Raman scattering efficiency of the WGBL at room temperature for 785 nm excitation to be 4.5 ± 1 × 10−9 cm−1·sr−1, at a Stokes shift of 200 cm−1. This efficiency decreases monotonically for higher Stokes shifts. Additionally, we also demonstrate the use of slotted waveguides and quasi-transverse magnetic polarization as some mitigation strategies.

  4. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito-Peña, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valdés, Mayra Granda [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Glahn-Martínez, Bettina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, Maria C., E-mail: mcmbondi@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  5. Modeling of the electromagnetic field and level populations in a waveguide amplifier: a multi-scale time problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafin, Alexandre; Cardin, Julien; Dufour, Christian; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2013-10-07

    A new algorithm based on auxiliary differential equation and finite difference time domain method (ADE-FDTD method) is presented to model a waveguide whose active layer is constituted of a silica matrix doped with rare-earth and silicon nanograins. The typical lifetime of rare-earth can be as large as some ms, whereas the electromagnetic field in a visible range and near-infrared is characterized by a period of the order of fs. Due to the large difference between these two characteristic times, the conventional ADE-FDTD method is not suited to treat such systems. A new algorithm is presented so that the steady state of rare earth and silicon nanograins electronic levels populations along with the electromagnetic field can be fully described. This algorithm is stable and applicable to a wide range of optical gain materials in which large differences of characteristic lifetimes are present.

  6. Near-infrared lasers and self-frequency-doubling in Nd:YCOB cladding waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yingying; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R

    2013-05-06

    A design of cladding waveguides in Nd:YCOB nonlinear crystals is demonstrated in this work. Compact Fabry-Perot oscillation cavities are employed for waveguide laser generation at 1062 nm and self-frequency-doubling at 531 nm, under optical pump at 810 nm. The waveguide laser shows slope efficiency as high as 55% at 1062 nm. The SFD green waveguide laser emits at 531 nm with a maximum power of 100 μW.

  7. A Waveguide Antenna with an Extended Angular Range for Remote Steering of Wave-Beam Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, D. I.; Denisov, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    A new method for increasing the angular range of a waveguide antenna for remote steering of the wave-beam direction in thermonuclear-fusion experimental setups with plasma magnetic confinement is proposed. Characteristics for large beam inclination angles can be improved using the synthesized nonuniform waveguide profile. For small angles, the characteristics remain invariable, the waveguide profile differs only slightly from the regular shape, and can be fit to limited waveguide-channel sizes.

  8. Break up of bound-N-spatial-soliton in a ramp waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suryanto, A.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical and numerical investigation of the propagation of spatial solitons in a nonlinear waveguide with ramp linear refractive index profile (ramp waveguide). For the propagation of a single soliton beam in a ramp waveguide, the particle theory shows that the soliton beam follows a

  9. Tunable inkjet-printed slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed; Farooqui, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    In this work an inkjet-printed frequency-tunable slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate is reported. Unlike the typical substrate integrated waveguide approach with via holes, a true 3D rectangular waveguide is realized by inkjet-printing

  10. Surface functionalized thiol-ene waveguides for fluorescence biosensing in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2013-01-01

    -ene waveguides were fabricated from 40% excess thiol thiol-ene to ensure the presence of thiol functional groups at the surface of the waveguide. Biotin alkyne was photografted at specific locations using a photomask, directly at the interface between the microfluidic channel and the thiol-ene waveguide prior...

  11. Nonclassical statistics of intracavity coupled chi((2)) waveguides: The quantum optical dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2003-01-01

    A model is proposed where two chi((2)) nonlinear waveguides are contained in a cavity suited for second-harmonic generation. The evanescent wave coupling between the waveguides is considered as weak, and the interplay between this coupling and the nonlinear interaction within the waveguides gives...

  12. To dope or not to dope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Knudsen, Mette Lykke; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2013-01-01

    tAim: This study aims to examine the circumstances which athletes say affect their (hypothetical) consid-erations of whether to dope or not and explore the differences between athletes of different gender, ageand sport type.Methods: 645 elite athletes (mean age: 22.12; response rate: 43%) represe......tAim: This study aims to examine the circumstances which athletes say affect their (hypothetical) consid-erations of whether to dope or not and explore the differences between athletes of different gender, ageand sport type.Methods: 645 elite athletes (mean age: 22.12; response rate: 43......%) representing 40 sports completed aweb-based questionnaire. Participants were asked to imagine themselves in a situation in which theyhad to decide whether to dope or not to dope and then evaluate how different circumstances would affecttheir decisions.Results: Multiple circumstances had an effect on athletes......’ hypothetical decisions. The most effective deter-rents were related to legal and social sanctions, side-effects and moral considerations. Female athletesand younger athletes evaluated more reasons as deterrents than older, male athletes. When confrontedwith incentives to dope, the type of sport was often...

  13. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding......-stop characteristic. We give geometrical parameters necessary for realizing functioning nanoantennas. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.......In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding...... light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations...

  14. Attenuation Coefficient of Single-Mode Periodic Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A.; Mazoyer, S.; Smigaj, W.; Lalanne, P.

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that, on ensemble average, the transmission T of guided modes decays exponentially with the waveguide length L due to small imperfections, leading to the important figure of merit defined as the attenuation-rate coefficient α=-⟨ln⁡(T)⟩/L. In this Letter, we evidence that the exponential-damping law is not valid in general for periodic monomode waveguides, especially as the group velocity decreases. This result, that contradicts common beliefs and experimental practices aiming at measuring α, is supported by a theoretical study of light transport in the limit of very small imperfections, and by numerical results obtained for two waveguide geometries that offer contrasted damping behaviors.

  15. Micropore and nanopore fabrication in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew R; Shang, Tao; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rudenko, Mikhail; Measor, Philip; Schmidt, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of micropore and nanopore features in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides to create an electrical and optical analysis platform that can size select and detect a single nanoparticle. Micropores (4 μm diameter) are reactive-ion etched through the top SiO(2) and SiN layers of the waveguides, leaving a thin SiN membrane above the hollow core. Nanopores are formed in the SiN membranes using a focused ion-beam etch process that provides control over the pore size. Openings as small as 20 nm in diameter are created. Optical loss measurements indicate that micropores did not significantly alter the loss along the waveguide.

  16. Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, N.; Amin, M.; Naureen, S.; Anand, S.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of mini-stop bands (MSB) in line-defect photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and in heterostructure PhC waveguides having one abrupt interface are investigated. Tunability of the MSB position by air-fill factor heterostructure PhC waveguides is utilized to demonstrate different filter functions, at optical communication wavelengths, ranging from resonance-like to wide band pass filters with high transmission. The narrowest filter realized has a resonance-like transmission peak with a full width at half maximum of 3.4 nm. These devices could be attractive for coarse wavelength selection (pass and drop) and for sensing applications. 2013 Copyright 2013 Author(s). This article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  17. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  18. Multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Ingham, J. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; DeGroot, J. V.; Clapp, T. V.

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric multimode waveguides are of particular interest for optical interconnections in short-reach data links. In some applications, for example in space-borne systems, the use of advanced materials with outstanding performance in extreme environments is required (temperature and radiation). In this paper therefore, we present novel siloxane polymers suitable for these applications. The materials are used to form straight, 90° bent and spiral polymer waveguides by low-cost conventional photolithographic techniques on FR4 substrates. The samples have been tested to investigate their propagation characteristics and demonstrate their potential for high-speed data links. Overall, there is strong evidence that these multimode waveguides can be successfully employed as high-speed short-reach data links. Their excellent thermal properties, their low cost and the simple fabrication process indicate their suitability for a wide range of space applications.

  19. Cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J. (Inventor); Kory, Carol (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT for simultaneously communicating left and right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is adjustable to obtain efficient propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. The antenna includes a circular waveguide having an orthomode transducer utilizing first and second pins longitudinally spaced apart and oriented orthogonally with respect to each other. Six radially-oriented adjustable polarizer screws extend from the exterior to the interior of the waveguide. A septum intermediate the first and second pins is aligned with the first pin. Adjustment of the polarizer screws enables maximized propagation of and/or response to left hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the first pin while simultaneously enabling maximized propagation of and/or response to right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the second pin.

  20. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  1. Emissions of Photonic Crystal Waveguides with Discretely Modulated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Hua, Tang; Li-Xue, Chen; Yan, Liu; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Wei-Qiang, Ding

    2009-01-01

    Transmission properties of photonic crystal (PC) waveguides with discretely modulated exit surfaces are investigated numerically using the unite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Unlike the case of periodically modulated surfaces, where the transmission beam tends to be a single and directional beam, when the exit surfaces are modulated only at several discrete points, the emission power tends to split into multiple and directional beams. We explain this phenomenon using a multiple point source interference model. Based on these results, we propose a 1-to-N beam splitter, and numerically realized high efficiency coupling between a PC sub-wavelength waveguide and three traditional dielectric waveguides with a total efficiency larger than 92%. This simple, easy fabrication, and controllable mechanism may find more potential applications in integrated optical circuits. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  2. Incorporating an optical waveguide into a neural interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolosa, Vanessa; Delima, Terri L.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tooker, Angela C.

    2016-11-08

    An optical waveguide integrated into a multielectrode array (MEA) neural interface includes a device body, at least one electrode in the device body, at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, at least one optical channel in the device body, and waveguide material in the at least one optical channel. The fabrication of a neural interface device includes the steps of providing a device body, providing at least one electrode in the device body, providing at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, providing at least one optical channel in the device body, and providing a waveguide material in the at least one optical channel.

  3. Experimental method for testing diffraction properties of reflection waveguide holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Kang, Ming-Wu; Wang, Bao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Waveguide holograms' diffraction properties include peak wavelength and diffraction efficiency, which play an important role in determining their display performance. Based on the record and reconstruction theory of reflection waveguide holograms, a novel experimental method for testing diffraction properties is introduced and analyzed in this paper, which uses a plano-convex lens optically contacted to the surface of the substrate plate of the waveguide hologram, so that the diffracted light beam can be easily detected. Then an experiment is implemented. The designed reconstruction wavelength of the test sample is 530 nm, and its diffraction efficiency is 100%. The experimental results are a peak wavelength of 527.7 nm and a diffraction efficiency of 94.1%. It is shown that the tested value corresponds well with the designed value.

  4. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-02-24

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  5. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  6. Effects of design geometry on SU8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Anthony S.; Balkunje, Vishal S.; Mitchell, Arnan; Austin, Michael W.; Raghunathan, Mukund K.; Kostovski, Gorgi

    2005-02-01

    The spin-on photoresist SU8 from MicroChem has a relatively high refractive index (n=1.57 at 1550nm) compared with other polymers. It is stable and has high optical transmission at optical communication wavelengths. In this paper we study rib waveguides fabricated using SU8 as the core layer and thermoset polymers UV15 (n=1.50 at 1550nm) from Master Bond and NOA61 (n=1.54 at 1550nm) from Gentec as the cladding layers. The rib height is varied from 0.3 to 1.7μm high. This is part of the SU8 layer sandwiched between the cladding layers. The waveguides are tested to determine the effects of varying this geometry for single mode optical transmission. The lengths of the waveguides were 1.5 cm to 5 cm.

  7. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material......, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experi- mentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic...... crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar...

  8. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index of the films can be controlled by germanium co...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy....

  9. Scalable electro-photonic integration concept based on polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, E.; Van Steenberge, G.; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Harmsma, P.; Karppinen, M.; Korhonen, T.; Offrein, B. J.; Dangel, R.; Daly, A.; Ortsiefer, M.; Justice, J.; Corbett, B.; Dorrestein, S.; Duis, J.

    2016-03-01

    A novel method for fabricating a single mode optical interconnection platform is presented. The method comprises the miniaturized assembly of optoelectronic single dies, the scalable fabrication of polymer single mode waveguides and the coupling to glass fiber arrays providing the I/O's. The low cost approach for the polymer waveguide fabrication is based on the nano-imprinting of a spin-coated waveguide core layer. The assembly of VCSELs and photodiodes is performed before waveguide layers are applied. By embedding these components in deep reactive ion etched pockets in the silicon substrate, the planarity of the substrate for subsequent layer processing is guaranteed and the thermal path of chip-to-substrate is minimized. Optical coupling of the embedded devices to the nano-imprinted waveguides is performed by laser ablating 45 degree trenches which act as optical mirror for 90 degree deviation of the light from VCSEL to waveguide. Laser ablation is also implemented for removing parts of the polymer stack in order to mount a custom fabricated connector containing glass fiber arrays. A demonstration device was built to show the proof of principle of the novel fabrication, packaging and optical coupling principles as described above, combined with a set of sub-demonstrators showing the functionality of the different techniques separately. The paper represents a significant part of the electro-photonic integration accomplishments in the European 7th Framework project "Firefly" and not only discusses the development of the different assembly processes described above, but the efforts on the complete integration of all process approaches into the single device demonstrator.

  10. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-12-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed.

  11. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed. (topical review)

  12. Sourcewise represented green's function of the circular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Bondarenko, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Singular part of the Green's function of unbounded space is singled out in explicit form and contains all singularities, including a delta-shaped singularity. The problem of construction of Green's function for a field is solved, as a problem for diffraction of potential and rotational components electric field intensity of a point current source on the circular waveguide walls. The singling out of the electric field intensity singularity in an explicit form about a source enables to develop an effective algorithm of Green's function calculation at any distance between the source point and observation point in a circular waveguide

  13. Phase Radiation Characteristics of an Open-Ended Circular Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shishkova, A.V.; Pivnenko, Sergiy; Kim, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    Analytic expressions for phase radiation characteristics of a semi-infinite open-ended circular waveguide regardless of its aperture size and operating frequency have been obtained making use of the rigorous Weinstein's theory. The analysis of phase radiation patterns has been carried out...... for the dominant mode (TE11) as well as for the high order modes TM01 and TE01, both for a single and multimode propagation. The measurement of radiation characteristics of an open-ended circular waveguide has been carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility. It is shown...

  14. Phase radiation characteristics of an open-ended circular waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shishkova, Anna; Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2007-01-01

    General analytical expressions are derived for the far-field amplitude and phase radiation patterns of an open-ended circular waveguide (OE-CWG) regardless of its radius or the operation frequency for the dominant and symmetric higher-order excitation modes. The derivation is based on the rigorous...... solution to the problem of diffraction at an open end of a waveguide proposed by Weinstein. The near-field amplitude and phase patterns of an OE-CWG are then calculated using the spherical wave expansion technique. The measurement of the radiation pattern of an OE-CWG was carried out to verify the validity...

  15. Waveguide Cavity Resonator as a Source of Optical Squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefszky, M.; Ricken, R.; Eigner, C.; Quiring, V.; Herrmann, H.; Silberhorn, C.

    2017-04-01

    We present the generation of continuous-wave optical squeezing from a titanium-in-diffused lithium niobate waveguide resonator. We directly measure 2.9 ±0.1 dB of single-mode squeezing, which equates to a produced level of 4.9 ±0.1 dB after accounting for detection losses. This device showcases the current capabilities of this waveguide architecture and precipitates more complicated integrated continuous-wave quantum devices in the continuous-variable regime.

  16. Waveguide volume probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a probe for use within the field of nuclear magnetic resonance, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). One embodiment relates to an RF probe for magnetic resonance imaging and/or spectroscopy comprising a conductive...... non-magnetic hollow waveguide having an internal volume and at least one open end, one or more capacitors and at least a first conductive non-magnetic wire, wherein said first conductive wire connects at least one of said one or more capacitors to opposite walls of one open end of the waveguide...

  17. Penetration of internal gravity waveguide modes into the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko G.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes internal gravity waveguide modes, using dissipative solutions above the source. We compare such a description with an accurate approach and a WKB approximation for dissipationless equations. For waveguide disturbances, dispersion relations calculated by any method are shown to be close to each other and to be in good agreement with observed characteristics of traveling ionospheric disturbances. Unlike other methods, dissipative solutions above the source allow us to adequately describe the spatial structure of disturbances in the upper atmosphere.

  18. UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    of the novel polarization control method for UV writing of Bragg gratings with advanced apodization profiles including phase shifts. The principle of the polarization control method relies on a spatial separation of the s- and p-polarized components of a linearly polarized UV beam corresponding to half......, Technical University of Denmark. During fabrication the planar waveguides were annealed in an oxygen rich atmosphere. This reduces the photosensitivity to a negligible level and Bragg gratings cannot be written within reasonable time unless the waveguides are sensitized by deuterium loading. Samples were...

  19. Integration of Quantum Cascade Lasers and Passive Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    convenience, we can de - fine an effective mirror loss eαmLA = R referenced to the active region such that αm = ln(R) LA . This definition al- lows us to...the waveguide loss. The current density threshold de - pendence in a QCL may be expressed in terms of a mirror loss αm and waveguide loss αw as in Jth...M. Licht - ensteiger, C. Gatos, and H. Gatos, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2659 (1980). 15O. Kim and W. Bonner, J. Electron. Mater. 12, 827 (1983). 16J

  20. Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...

  1. Investigation of Defects as a Loading Impedance of Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Faktorova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with non-destructive microwave measurement of metal defects exploiting the waveguide features at the defect shape evaluation, (e.g. quarter – waveguide transformer. As we notify in the foregoing article we have paid our attention to the non-destructive investigation of metal cracks in microwave region. In this article some results concerning their evaluations regarding to microwave access are shown. From the series of measurements we present that one giving information about possible behavior of a crack.

  2. Supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides relying on wave-breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló-Lurbe, David; Silvestre, Enrique

    2015-10-05

    Four-wave-mixing processes enabled during optical wave-breaking (OWB) are exploited in this paper for supercontinuum generation. Unlike conventional approaches based on OWB, phase-matching is achieved here for these nonlinear interactions, and, consequently, new frequency production becomes more efficient. We take advantage of this kind of pulse propagation to obtain numerically a coherent octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a silicon waveguide pumping at telecom wavelengths in the normal dispersion regime. This scheme shows a feasible path to overcome limits imposed by two-photon absorption on spectral broadening in silicon waveguides.

  3. Low loss, high and low index contrast waveguides in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana [Livermore, CA; Cole, Garrett [Berkeley, CA; Goddard, Lynford [Champaign, IL; Kallman, Jeff [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-08-09

    A system in one general embodiment includes a waveguide structure comprising a core of an alloy of Group III-V materials surrounded by an oxide (which may include one or more Group III-V metals), wherein an interface of the oxide and core is characterized by oxidation of the alloy for defining the core. A method in one general approach includes oxidizing a waveguide structure comprising an alloy of Group III-V materials for forming a core of the alloy surrounded by an oxide.

  4. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-01-01

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  5. Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves on a Waveguide Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykh Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, the investigation of the electromagnetic field in an inhomogeneous waveguide doesn’t reduce to the study of two independent boundary value problems for the Helmholtz equation. We show how to rewrite the Helmholtz equations in the “Hamiltonian form” to express the connection between these two problems explicitly. The problem of finding monochromatic waves in an arbitrary waveguide is reduced to an infinite system of ordinary differential equations in a properly constructed Hilbert space. The calculations are performed in the computer algebra system Sage.

  6. Phonon Routing in Integrated Optomechanical Cavity-waveguide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    cavity (bottom beam of Fig. 1b), allowing for evanescent cou- pling of laser light into and out of the cavity. A single optical fiber taper is used to...couple light into the on- chip coupling waveguide, and a photonic crystal mirror is etched in to the end of the optical coupling waveguide so that light...coupled into the nanobeam cavity can be recollected by the optical fiber taper as per Ref. [36]. Figure 1c shows the band structure of the phonon

  7. Quality factor of a transmission line coupled coplanar waveguide resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besedin, Ilya [National University for Science and Technology (MISiS), Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Menushenkov, Alexey P. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-12-15

    We investigate analytically the coupling of a coplanar waveguide resonator to a coplanar waveguide feedline. Using a conformal mapping technique we obtain an expression for the characteristic mode impedances and coupling coefficients of an asymmetric multi-conductor transmission line. Leading order terms for the external quality factor and frequency shift are calculated. The obtained analytical results are relevant for designing circuit-QED quantum systems and frequency division multiplexing of superconducting bolometers, detectors and similar microwave-range multi-pixel devices. (orig.)

  8. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian

    2016-01-15

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  9. Remote detection of single emitters via optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Patrick; Razinskas, Gary; Feichtner, Thorsten; Haas, Philippe; Wild, Andreas; Bellini, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto; Cerullo, Giulio; Hecht, Bert

    2014-05-01

    The integration of lab-on-a-chip technologies with single-molecule detection techniques may enable new applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology, and medicine. We describe a method based on the reciprocity theorem of electromagnetic theory to determine and optimize the detection efficiency of photons emitted by single quantum emitters through truncated dielectric waveguides of arbitrary shape positioned in their proximity. We demonstrate experimentally that detection of single quantum emitters via such waveguides is possible, confirming the predicted behavior of the detection efficiency. Our findings blaze the trail towards efficient lensless single-emitter detection compatible with large-scale optofluidic integration.

  10. An Electrochromatography Chip with Integrated Waveguides for UV Absorbance Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Omar; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A silicon-based microchip for electrochromatographic separations is presented. Apart from a microfluidic network, the microchip has integrated UV-transparent waveguides for detection and integrated couplers for optical fibers on the chip, yielding the most complete chromatography microchip to date...... to the waveguides. The entire oxidized silicon microchip structure is sealed with a glass lid. Reversed phase electrochromatographic separation of three neutral compounds is demonstrated using UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. Baseline separation of the analytes is achieved in less than two minutes....

  11. Spontaneous emission of quantum dots in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We report on the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of single semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide with engineered disorder. Random high-Q cavities, that are signature of Anderson localization, are measured in photoluminescence experiments and appear...... in the slow light regime of the waveguide mode. Time resolved experiments show a 15-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate, with coupling efficiencies of single photons into Anderson localized cavity modes of 94%. These results show that the performances of Anderson-localized cavities...

  12. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  13. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  14. Focusing of relativistic electron bunch, moving in cylindrical plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Ehlbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem on the focusing of electron bunches moving with the relativistic velocity along the axis of cylindrical overdense plasma waveguide with the conducting internal surface is considered. The existence of periodic and nonperiodic components of the fields, generated in the plasma is shown. The conditions of electron bunch self-focusing by transverse electrical field and azimuthal magnetic field are derived. The possibility of the acceleration and focusing of electron or positron bunches by driving electron bunch wake field is discussed. The conditions, when the bunch in plasma waveguide moves without wake fields generating are obtained, which could be of the interest for the transport of relativistic electron (positron) bunches. 5 refs

  15. Feasibility of graphene CRLH metamaterial waveguides and leaky wave antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Derrick A.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); NG NEXT Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Laboratory, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States); Williams, Benjamin S., E-mail: bswilliams@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The feasibility of composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial waveguides based upon graphene plasmons is demonstrated via numerical simulation. Designs are presented that operate in the terahertz frequency range along with their various dimensions. Dispersion relations, radiative and free-carrier losses, and free-carrier based tunability are characterized. Finally, the radiative characteristics are evaluated, along with its feasibility for use as a leaky-wave antenna. While CRLH waveguides are feasible in the terahertz range, their ultimate utility will require precise nanofabrication, and excellent quality graphene to mitigate free-carrier losses.

  16. Leaky mode suppression in planar optical waveguides written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass and CaF{sub 2} crystal via double energy implantation with MeV N{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Ion implantation proved to be an universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Calcium fluoride is an excellent optical material, due to its perfect optical characteristics from UV wavelengths up to near IR. It has become a promising laser host material (doped with rare earth elements). Ion implantation was also applied to optical waveguide fabrication in CaF{sub 2} and other halide crystals. In the present work first single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in Er:Te glass, and up to 980 nm in CaF{sub 2}. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.2 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width.

  17. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-07-28

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements.

  18. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindorf, Lars; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-03-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations that the nanoantenna can be made to operate in a bandstop mode around its resonant wavelength where there is a very high evanescent strong electrical probing field close to the antennas, and additionally the fluorescence or Raman excitations will be be unpolluted by stray light from the WOW due to the band-stop characteristic. We give geometrical parameters necessary for realizing functioning nanoantennas.

  19. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use...... of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested...... for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements....

  20. Health-enhancing doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2010-01-01

    Editorial published at International Network of Humanistic Doping Research (INHDR) website: http://www.doping.au.dk/en/online-resources/editorials/......Editorial published at International Network of Humanistic Doping Research (INHDR) website: http://www.doping.au.dk/en/online-resources/editorials/...

  1. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electr...

  2. Silicon-Based Technology for Integrated Waveguides and mm-Wave Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Vladimir; Gentile, Gennaro; Dekker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    IC processing is used to develop technology for silicon-filled millimeter-wave-integrated waveguides. The front-end process defines critical waveguide sections and enables integration of dedicated components, such as RF capacitors and resistors. Wafer gluing is used to strengthen the mechanical...... support and deep reactive-ion etching forms the waveguide bulk with smooth and nearly vertical sidewalls. Aluminum metallization covers the etched sidewalls, fully enclosing the waveguides in metal from all sides. Waveguides are fabricated with a rectangular cross section of 560 μm x 280 μm. The measured...

  3. Crosstalk analysis of silicon-on-insulator nanowire-arrayed waveguide grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai-Li; An Jun-Ming; Zhang Jia-Shun; Wang Yue; Wang Liang-Liang; Li Jian-Guang; Wu Yuan-Da; Yin Xiao-Jie; Hu Xiong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The factors influencing the crosstalk of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) are analyzed using the transfer function method. The analysis shows that wider and thicker arrayed waveguides, outsider fracture of arrayed waveguide, and larger channel space, could mitigate the deterioration of crosstalk. The SOI nanowire AWGs with different arrayed waveguide widths are fabricated by using deep ultraviolet lithography (DUV) and inductively coupled plasma etching (ICP) technology. The measurement results show that the crosstalk performance is improved by about 7 dB through adopting 800 nm arrayed waveguide width. (paper)

  4. Low-loss optical waveguides in β-BBO crystal fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziqi; Cheng, Chen; Romero, Carolina; Lu, Qingming; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of β-BBO depressed cladding waveguides fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing with no significant changes in the waveguide lattice microstructure. The waveguiding properties and the propagation losses of the cladding structures are investigated, showing good transmission properties at wavelengths of 400 and 800 nm along TM polarization. The minimum propagation losses are measured to be as low as 0.19 dB/cm at wavelength of 800 nm. The well-preserved waveguide lattice microstructure and good guiding performances with low propagation losses suggest the potential applications of the cladding waveguides in β-BBO crystal as novel integrated photonic devices.

  5. Field of view of limitations in see-through HMD using geometric waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, Edward; Holmstedt, Jason; Aye, Tin

    2016-08-01

    Geometric waveguides are being integrated into head-mounted display (HMD) systems, where having see-through capability in a compact, lightweight form factor is required. We developed methods for determining the field of view (FOV) of such waveguide HMD systems and have analytically derived the FOV for waveguides using planar and curved geometries. By using real ray-tracing methods, we are able to show how the geometry and index of refraction of the waveguide, as well as the properties of the coupling optics, impact the FOV. Use of this analysis allows one to determine the maximum theoretical FOV of a planar or curved waveguide-based system.

  6. Large-core single-mode rib SU8 waveguide using solvent-assisted microcontact molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a novel fabrication technique for constructing a polymer-based large-core single-mode rib waveguide. A negative tone SU8 photoresist with a high optical transmission over a large wavelength range and stable mechanical properties was used as a waveguide material. A waveguide was constructed by using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp combined with a solvent-assisted microcontact molding technique. The effects on the final pattern's geometry of four different process conditions were investigated. Optical simulations were performed using beam propagation method software. Single-mode beam propagation was observed at the output of the simulated waveguide as well as the actual waveguide through the microscope image.

  7. Planar waveguides and other confined geometries theory, technology, production, and novel applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical concepts and experimental applications of planar waveguides and other confined geometries, such as optical fibres. Covering a broad array of advanced topics, it begins with a sophisticated discussion of planar waveguide theory, and covers subjects including efficient production of planar waveguides, materials selection, nonlinear effects, and applications including species analytics down to single-molecule identification, and thermo-optical switching using planar waveguides. Written by specialists in the techniques and applications covered, this book will be a useful resource for advanced graduate students and researchers studying planar waveguides and optical fibers.

  8. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  9. Zero-reabsorption doped-nanocrystal luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Christian S; Bradshaw, Liam R; McDowall, Stephen; Gilbertson, John D; Gamelin, Daniel R; Patrick, David L

    2014-04-22

    Optical concentration can lower the cost of solar energy conversion by reducing photovoltaic cell area and increasing photovoltaic efficiency. Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to combined spectral and spatial concentration of both specular and diffuse light without tracking, but they have been plagued by luminophore self-absorption losses when employed on practical size scales. Here, we introduce doped semiconductor nanocrystals as a new class of phosphors for use in luminescent solar concentrators. In proof-of-concept experiments, visibly transparent, ultraviolet-selective luminescent solar concentrators have been prepared using colloidal Mn(2+)-doped ZnSe nanocrystals that show no luminescence reabsorption. Optical quantum efficiencies of 37% are measured, yielding a maximum projected energy concentration of ∼6× and flux gain for a-Si photovoltaics of 15.6 in the large-area limit, for the first time bounded not by luminophore self-absorption but by the transparency of the waveguide itself. Future directions in the use of colloidal doped nanocrystals as robust, processable spectrum-shifting phosphors for luminescent solar concentration on the large scales required for practical application of this technology are discussed.

  10. Effect of low dose rate irradiation on doped silica core optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebele, E.J.; Askins, C.G.; Gingerich, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The optical attenuation induced in multimode doped silica core optical fiber waveguides by a year's exposure to low dose rate (1 rad/day) ionizing radiation was studied, allowing a characterization of fibers deployed in these environments and a determination of the permanent induced loss in the waveguides. Variations in the induced attenuation at 0.85 μm have been observed with changes in the dose rate between 1 rad/day and 9000 rads/min. These dose rate dependences have been found to derive directly from the recovery that occurs during the exposure; the recovery data predict little or no dose rate dependence of the damage at 1.3 μm. The low dose rate exposure has been found to induce significant permanent attenuation in the 0.7-1.7-μm spectral region in all fibers containing P in the core, whether doped uniformly across the diameter or constrained to a narrow spike on the centerline. Whereas permanent loss was induced at 0.85 μm in a P-free binary Ge-doped silica core fiber by the year's exposure, virtually no damage was observed at 1.3 μm

  11. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  12. Doping of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Doping of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Enhancement of single mode operation in coaxial optical waveguide using DB boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohia, Pooja; Prajapati, Y.; Saini, J. P.; Rai, B. S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a competent numerical strategy to compute the dispersion of optical waveguides is presented and propagation of electromagnetic waves in a coaxial optical waveguide with DB boundary conditions is instigated. For this intend, cylindrical coordinates are here being used to derive the DB boundary conditions and to obtain field components for the modes. The propagation constant for the waveguide to be studied is determined by solving the Bessel and the modified Bessel functions. The cutoff frequencies for various lower order modes have been calculated and their dispersion characteristics are plotted correspondingly. The behavior of the coaxial optical waveguide under DB boundary conditions is shown to be significantly different from that of coaxial optical waveguide and conventional optical waveguide under traditional or tangential boundary conditions. Finally, the effect of waveguide dimensions on the mode cutoff frequencies and fabrication issues are also addressed.

  15. A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melati, D; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A

    2014-01-01

    Sidewall roughness in optical waveguides represents a severe impairment for the proper functionality of photonic integrated circuits. The interaction between the propagating mode and the roughness is responsible for both radiative losses and distributed backscattering. In this paper, a unified vision on these extrinsic loss phenomena is discussed, highlighting the fundamental role played by the sensitivity of the effective index n eff of the optical mode to waveguide width variations. The n w model presented applies to both 2D slab waveguides and 3D laterally confined waveguides and is in very good agreement with existing models that individually describe radiative loss or backscattering only. Experimental results are presented, demonstrating the validity of the n w model for arbitrary waveguide geometries and technologies. This approach enables an accurate description of realistic optical waveguides and provides simple design rules for optimization of the waveguide geometry in order to reduce the propagation losses generated by sidewall roughness. (paper)

  16. Optical propagation of the HE11 mode and Gaussian beams in hollow circular waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1993-05-01

    The propagation of the HE 11 mode and Gaussian beams in hollow oversized circular waveguides is analyzed using optical theories. Different types of waveguides are considered: hollow dielectric or conducting waveguides, dielectric-lined waveguides, corrugated waveguides. General formulas are derived which give the power transmission through these different guides. The best wall materials and structures are determined from a comparison of the waveguide transmissions, at the infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The question of the coupling between the HE 11 mode and Gaussian beams is discussed and from a review of coupling coefficients derived before, an optimum value is pointed out. The problem of matching a Gaussian beam into circular waveguides in order to achieve the maximum power transmission is analyzed

  17. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf, E-mail: nra1@hi.is; Gudmundsson, Vidar, E-mail: vidar@raunvis.hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, 36003 Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  18. Design and optimization of carbon-nanotube-material/dielectric hybrid nonlinear optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xin; Zheng, Zheng; Lu, Zhiting; Zhu, Jinsong; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear optical characteristics of highly nonlinear waveguides utilizing carbon nanotube composite materials are investigated theoretically. The extremely high nonlinearity and relatively high loss of the carbon nanotube materials are shown to greatly affect the performance of such waveguides for nonlinear optical applications, in contrast to waveguides using conventional nonlinear materials. Different configurations based on applying the carbon nanotube materials to the popular ridge and buried waveguides are thoroughly studied, and the optimal geometries are derived through simulations. It is shown that, though the nonlinear coefficient is often huge for these waveguides, the loss characteristics can significantly limit the maximum achievable accumulated nonlinearity, e.g. the maximum nonlinear phase shift. Our results suggest that SOI-based high-index-contrast, carbon nanotube cladding waveguides, rather than the currently demonstrated low-contrast waveguides, could hold the promise of achieving significantly higher accumulated nonlinearity

  19. Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    waveguides. We show that the proposed structures support long-range surface plasmon modes, which exist when the permittivity of the core matches the transverse effective permittivity component of the metamaterial cladding. In this regime, the surface plasmon polaritons of each cladding layer are strongly...

  20. Measurement of complex permittivity of composite materials using waveguide method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Complex dielectric permittivity of 4 different composite materials has been measured using the transmissionline method. A waveguide fixture in L, S, C and X band was used for the measurements. Measurement accuracy is influenced by air gaps between test fixtures and the materials tested. One of the