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Sample records for doped indium tin

  1. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  2. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  3. Effect of replacement of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) by ZnO: analysis of environmental impact categories

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemińska-Stolarska Aleksandra; Barecka Magda; Zbiciński Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Abundant use of natural resources is doubtlessly one of the greatest challenges of sustainable development. Process alternatives, which enable sustainable manufacturing of valuable products from more accessible resources, are consequently required. One of examples of limited resources is Indium, currently broadly used for tin doped indium oxide (ITO) for production of transparent conductive films (TCO) in electronics industry. Therefore, candidates for Indium replacement, which would offer as...

  4. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Cheng, Huai-Ming; Hu, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hau-Wei; Liang, Shih-Chang

    2015-09-21

    : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10 - ⁴ Ω/cm), carrier concentration (4.1 × 10 21 cm - ³), carrier mobility (10 cm²/Vs), and mean visible-light transmittance (90%) at wavelengths of 400-800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>10 21 cm - ³) with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10 - ³ Ω - ¹) demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  5. Low Reflectivity and High Flexibility of Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanofiber Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hui

    2011-01-12

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has found widespread use in solar cells, displays, and touch screens as a transparent electrode; however, two major problems with ITO remain: high reflectivity (up to 10%) and insufficient flexibility. Together, these problems severely limit the applications of ITO films for future optoelectronic devices. In this communication, we report the fabrication of ITO nanofiber network transparent electrodes. The nanofiber networks show optical reflectivity as low as 5% and high flexibility; the nanofiber networks can be bent to a radius of 2 mm with negligible changes in the sheet resistance. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Mirela; Chira, Ana; Radu, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H + species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10 −4 M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode

  7. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconu, Mirela [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Chira, Ana [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania); Radu, Lucian, E-mail: gl_radu@chim.upb.ro [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania)

    2014-08-28

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H{sup +} species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10{sup −4} M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode.

  8. The effect of preparation method on the proton conductivity of indium doped tin pyrophosphates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Lie-Andersen, T.; Jensen, E. Pristed

    2015-01-01

    Indium doped tin pyrophosphates were prepared by three synthetic routes. A heterogeneous synthesis from metal oxides with excess phosphoric acid produces crystalline phosphate particles with a phosphorus rich amorphous phase along the grain boundaries. The amorphous phase prevents the agglomeration...... decrease in conductivity as well as significant agglomeration of the particles, as evident in TEM and from particle size distribution measurements. Homogeneous synthesis with soluble metal acetates or chlorides as precursors results in a single crystalline phase with a small particle size, but strongly...... agglomerated, and a low conductivity at 10- 7-10- 6 Scm- 1 level. Further impregnation of the agglomerates with phosphoric acid does not lead to formation of the phosphorus rich amorphous layers on the surface of the crystals. An intermediate conductivity of 10- 3 Scm- 1 was observed for the acid treated...

  9. Opto-electronic properties of chromium doped indium-tin-oxide films deposited at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Weiche; Lee Shihchin; Yang Chihhao; Lin Tienchai

    2008-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) doped chromium films were deposited on Corning 7059 glass prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under various levels of sputtering power for the chromium target. Experimental results show that the surface roughness slightly decreases by co-sputtering Cr. The pure ITO films deposited at room temperature were amorphous-like. At 15 W of chromium target power, the structure of ITO: Cr film mainly consists of (2 2 2) crystallization plane, with minority of (2 1 1), (4 4 0), (6 6 2) crystallization planes. The carrier concentration of the ITO films increases with increasing the doping of chromium, however the mobility of the carrier decreases. When the sputtering power of the chromium target is at 7.5 W, there has a maximum carrier mobility of 27.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , minimum carrier concentration of 2.47 x 10 20 cm -3 , and lowest resistivity of 7.32 x 10 -4 Ω cm. The transmittance of all the chromium doped ITO films at the 300-800 nm wavelength region in this experiment can reach up to 70-85%. In addition, the blue shift of UV-Vis spectrum is not observed with the increase of carrier concentration

  10. Mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide thin films: effect of mesostructure on electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graberg, Till von; Hartmann, Pascal; Rein, Alexander; Janek, Juergen; Smarsly, Bernd M [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gross, Silvia [ISTM-CNR, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita' degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 1, 5131-Padova (Italy); Seelandt, Britta; Wark, Michael [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3A, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Roeger, Cornelia; Zieba, Roman; Traut, Alexander, E-mail: Bernd.Smarsly@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de [BASF SE, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    We present a versatile method for the preparation of mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films via dip-coating. Two poly(isobutylene)-b-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PIB-PEO) copolymers of significantly different molecular weight (denoted as PIB-PEO 3000 and PIB-PEO 20000) are used as templates and are compared with non-templated films to clarify the effect of the template size on the crystallization and, thus, on the electrochemical properties of mesoporous ITO films. Transparent, mesoporous, conductive coatings are obtained after annealing at 500 deg. C; these coatings have a specific resistance of 0.5 {Omega} cm at a thickness of about 100 nm. Electrical conductivity is improved by one order of magnitude by annealing under a reducing atmosphere. The two types of PIB-PEO block copolymers create mesopores with in-plane diameters of 20-25 and 35-45 nm, the latter also possessing correspondingly thicker pore walls. Impedance measurements reveal that the conductivity is significantly higher for films prepared with the template generating larger mesopores. Because of the same size of the primary nanoparticles, the enhanced conductivity is attributed to a higher conduction path cross section. Prussian blue was deposited electrochemically within the films, thus confirming the accessibility of their pores and their functionality as electrode material.

  11. Mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide thin films: effect of mesostructure on electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Graberg, Till; Hartmann, Pascal; Rein, Alexander; Gross, Silvia; Seelandt, Britta; Röger, Cornelia; Zieba, Roman; Traut, Alexander; Wark, Michael; Janek, Jürgen; Smarsly, Bernd M

    2011-01-01

    We present a versatile method for the preparation of mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films via dip-coating. Two poly(isobutylene)-b-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PIB-PEO) copolymers of significantly different molecular weight (denoted as PIB-PEO 3000 and PIB-PEO 20000) are used as templates and are compared with non-templated films to clarify the effect of the template size on the crystallization and, thus, on the electrochemical properties of mesoporous ITO films. Transparent, mesoporous, conductive coatings are obtained after annealing at 500 °C; these coatings have a specific resistance of 0.5 Ω cm at a thickness of about 100 nm. Electrical conductivity is improved by one order of magnitude by annealing under a reducing atmosphere. The two types of PIB-PEO block copolymers create mesopores with in-plane diameters of 20–25 and 35–45 nm, the latter also possessing correspondingly thicker pore walls. Impedance measurements reveal that the conductivity is significantly higher for films prepared with the template generating larger mesopores. Because of the same size of the primary nanoparticles, the enhanced conductivity is attributed to a higher conduction path cross section. Prussian blue was deposited electrochemically within the films, thus confirming the accessibility of their pores and their functionality as electrode material. PMID:27877387

  12. Mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide thin films: effect of mesostructure on electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till von Graberg, Pascal Hartmann, Alexander Rein, Silvia Gross, Britta Seelandt, Cornelia Röger, Roman Zieba, Alexander Traut, Michael Wark, Jürgen Janek and Bernd M Smarsly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a versatile method for the preparation of mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO thin films via dip-coating. Two poly(isobutylene-b-poly(ethyleneoxide (PIB-PEO copolymers of significantly different molecular weight (denoted as PIB-PEO 3000 and PIB-PEO 20000 are used as templates and are compared with non-templated films to clarify the effect of the template size on the crystallization and, thus, on the electrochemical properties of mesoporous ITO films. Transparent, mesoporous, conductive coatings are obtained after annealing at 500 °C; these coatings have a specific resistance of 0.5 Ω cm at a thickness of about 100 nm. Electrical conductivity is improved by one order of magnitude by annealing under a reducing atmosphere. The two types of PIB-PEO block copolymers create mesopores with in-plane diameters of 20–25 and 35–45 nm, the latter also possessing correspondingly thicker pore walls. Impedance measurements reveal that the conductivity is significantly higher for films prepared with the template generating larger mesopores. Because of the same size of the primary nanoparticles, the enhanced conductivity is attributed to a higher conduction path cross section. Prussian blue was deposited electrochemically within the films, thus confirming the accessibility of their pores and their functionality as electrode material.

  13. Detection of pollutant gases using electrostatic sprayed indium oxide and tin-doped indium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghimbeu, Camelia Matei [LASC Groupe Capteurs, ISEA, University Paul Verlaine-Metz, 7 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz Technopole (France)], E-mail: cameliaghimbeu@yahoo.com; Lumbreras, Martine [LASC Groupe Capteurs, ISEA, University Paul Verlaine-Metz, 7 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz Technopole (France)], E-mail: lumbre@univ-metz.fr; Siadat, Maryam [LASC Groupe Capteurs, ISEA, University Paul Verlaine-Metz, 7 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz Technopole (France); Schoonman, Joop [Delft Institute for Sustainable Energy, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the gas sensing performance of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by a novel technique, i.e., Electrostatic Spray Deposition technique. The morphology and the microstructure studies reveal that the films are porous comprising grains in the nanometer range and crystallizing in the cubic structure. The present films prove to be sensitive to low H{sub 2}S concentrations (1-10 ppm) at low operating temperature (200 deg. C). Undoped films present a very high sensitivity to H{sub 2}S, compared with doped films, and a negligible response to NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Sn dopant introduced in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} causes a great sensitivity decrease in H{sub 2}S response, and, on the contrary, a slight increase in NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} response.

  14. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ferromagnetism in Co-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Revealed Using X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. H. R. Hakimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of high-temperature annealing on ferromagnetic Co-doped Indium Tin Oxide (ITO thin films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetometry, and X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD. Following annealing, the magnetometry results indicate the formation of Co clusters with a significant increase in the saturation magnetization of the thin films arising from defects introduced during cluster formation. However, sum rule analysis of the element-specific XMCD results shows that the magnetic moment at the Co sites is reduced after annealing. The effects of annealing demonstrate that the ferromagnetism observed in the as-deposited Co-doped ITO films arises from intrinsic defects and cannot be related to the segregation of metallic Co clusters.

  15. Effect of replacement of tin doped indium oxide (ITO by ZnO: analysis of environmental impact categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziemińska-Stolarska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant use of natural resources is doubtlessly one of the greatest challenges of sustainable development. Process alternatives, which enable sustainable manufacturing of valuable products from more accessible resources, are consequently required. One of examples of limited resources is Indium, currently broadly used for tin doped indium oxide (ITO for production of transparent conductive films (TCO in electronics industry. Therefore, candidates for Indium replacement, which would offer as good performance as the industrial state-of-the-art technology based on ITO are widely studied. However, the environmental impact of new layers remains unknown. Hence, this paper studies the environmental effect of ITO replacement by zinc oxide (ZnO by means life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The analysis enables to quantify the environmental impact over the entire period of life cycle of products—during manufacturing, use phase and waste generation. The analysis was based on experimental data for deposition process. Further, analysis of different impact categories was performed in order to determine specific environmental effects related to technology change. What results from the analysis, is that ZnO is a robust alternative material for ITO replacement regarding environmental load and energy efficiency of deposition process which is also crucial for sustainable TCO layer production.

  16. Effect of replacement of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) by ZnO: analysis of environmental impact categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska-Stolarska, Aleksandra; Barecka, Magda; Zbiciński, Ireneusz

    2017-10-01

    Abundant use of natural resources is doubtlessly one of the greatest challenges of sustainable development. Process alternatives, which enable sustainable manufacturing of valuable products from more accessible resources, are consequently required. One of examples of limited resources is Indium, currently broadly used for tin doped indium oxide (ITO) for production of transparent conductive films (TCO) in electronics industry. Therefore, candidates for Indium replacement, which would offer as good performance as the industrial state-of-the-art technology based on ITO are widely studied. However, the environmental impact of new layers remains unknown. Hence, this paper studies the environmental effect of ITO replacement by zinc oxide (ZnO) by means life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The analysis enables to quantify the environmental impact over the entire period of life cycle of products—during manufacturing, use phase and waste generation. The analysis was based on experimental data for deposition process. Further, analysis of different impact categories was performed in order to determine specific environmental effects related to technology change. What results from the analysis, is that ZnO is a robust alternative material for ITO replacement regarding environmental load and energy efficiency of deposition process which is also crucial for sustainable TCO layer production.

  17. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  18. Influence of thermal treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere on chemical, microstructural and optical properties of indium tin oxide and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide rf-sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroescu, H.; Anastasescu, M.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kampylafka, V.; Aperathitis, E. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gartner, M., E-mail: mgartner@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-31

    We report the influence of the normal thermal treatment (TT) and of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide (ITO:N) thin films. The TT was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C and the RTA for 1 min up to 400 °C, both in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The ITO and ITO:N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in Argon, and respectively Nitrogen plasma, on Si with (100) and (111) orientation. The present study brings data about the microstructural and optical properties of ITO thin films with thicknesses around 300–400 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed the formation of continuous and homogeneous films, fully covered by quasi-spherical shaped particles, with higher roughness values on Si(100) as compared to Si(111). Spectroscopic ellipsometry allowed the determination of film thickness, optical band gap as well as of the dispersion curves of n and k optical constants. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to the same nominal bulk composition of ITO, but with different intensities and preferential orientation depending on the substrate, atmosphere of deposition and type of thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Stability of the films can be monitored by experimental ellipsometric spectra. ► The refractive index of indium tin oxide film on 0.3–30 μm range is reported. ► Si(100) substrate induces rougher film surfaces than Si(111). ► Rapid thermal annealing and normal thermal treatment lead to stable conductive film. ► The samples have a higher preferential orientation after rapid thermal annealing.

  19. Epitaxy-enabled vapor-liquid-solid growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanowires with controlled orientations

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2014-08-13

    Controlling the morphology of nanowires in bottom-up synthesis and assembling them on planar substrates is of tremendous importance for device applications in electronics, photonics, sensing and energy conversion. To date, however, there remain challenges in reliably achieving these goals of orientation-controlled nanowire synthesis and assembly. Here we report that growth of planar, vertical and randomly oriented tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires can be realized on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates via the epitaxy-assisted vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, by simply regulating the growth conditions, in particular the growth temperature. This robust control on nanowire orientation is facilitated by the small lattice mismatch of 1.6% between ITO and YSZ. Further control of the orientation, symmetry and shape of the nanowires can be achieved by using YSZ substrates with (110) and (111), in addition to (100) surfaces. Based on these insights, we succeed in growing regular arrays of planar ITO nanowires from patterned catalyst nanoparticles. Overall, our discovery of unprecedented orientation control in ITO nanowires advances the general VLS synthesis, providing a robust epitaxy-based approach toward rational synthesis of nanowires. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Improvement of the effective work function and transmittance of thick indium tin oxide/ultrathin ruthenium doped indium oxide bilayers as transparent conductive oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taweesup, Kattareeya [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Yamamoto, Ippei [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Chikyow, Toyohiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Lothongkum, Gobboon [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tsukagoshi, Kazutoshi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ohishi, Tomoji [Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Tungasmita, Sukkaneste [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visuttipitukul, Patama [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nabatame, Toshihide, E-mail: NABATAME.Toshihide@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium doped indium oxide (In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y}) films fabricated using DC magnetron co-sputtering with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru targets were investigated for use as transparent conductive oxides. The In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y} films had an amorphous structure in the wide compositional range of x = 0.3–0.8 and had an extremely smooth surface. The transmittance and resistivity of the In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y} films increased as the Ru content increased. The transmittance of the In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} film improved to over 80% when the film thickness was less than 5 nm, while the specific resistivity (ρ) was kept to a low value of 1.6 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm. Based on these experimental data, we demonstrated that thick indium tin oxide (In{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}O{sub y}, ITO) (150 nm)/ultrathin In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} (3 nm) bilayers have a high effective work function of 5.3 eV, transmittance of 86%, and low ρ of 9.2 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm. This ITO/In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer is a candidate for use as an anode for organic electroluminescent devices. - Highlights: • We investigated characteristics of thick ITO/ultrathin Ru doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bilayers. • Effect of Ru addition in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in smooth surface because of an amorphous structure. • The In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} film with less than 5 nm improves to high transmittance over 80%. • ITO/In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer has a high effective work function of 5.3 eV. • We conclude that ITO/ultrathin In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer is a candidate as an anode of OEL.

  1. Studying the Properties of RF-Sputtered Nanocrystalline Tin-Doped Indium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic target of Indium tinoxide (ITO (90% In2O3-10%SnO2 has been used to prepare transparent semiconductive thin films on glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The properties of the thin films are affected by controlling the deposition parameters, namely, RF power values and deposition times. The structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the thin films are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and four-point probe measurement. Nanoparticles of 10–20 nm are measured and confirmed using both FESEM and AFM. The main preferred orientations of the prepared thin films are (222 and (400 of the cubic ITO structure. The transparent semiconductive films have high transmittance within the visible range of values 80–90% and resistivity of about 1.62×10−4 Ω⋅cm.

  2. Effect of tin doping on the optical properties of indium oxide films by a spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Abu Talib; Muhammad Mat Salleh; Muhammad Yahya; Mod Noor Bader Sher

    1993-01-01

    Thin films of stannum doped indium oxide were deposited on glass by a X-ray pyrolysis method. The substrate temperature and the rate of flow of the carrier gas were fixed at 450 0 C and 2.5 litre/minute respectively during deposition. The dependence of the optical properties of the films on the doping concentration was studied. It is found that the transmission of the visible wavelengths (300 to 800 nm) through the films increases around 5% from 74.9% as the film was doped with 10% stannum. It is also found that the optical energy bandgap increases 0.2 eV from 3.16 to 3.36 eV by doping the film with 10% stannum. The increase is attributed to the Bernstein-Moss (1) and self-energy (2) effects

  3. Effect of nitrogen doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering for gallium nitride light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lifei; Cheng, Guoan; Wang, Hougong; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Ruiting; Ding, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) films are prepared by the direct current magnetron sputtering technology with an ITO target in a mixture of argon and nitrogen gas at room temperature. The blue transmittance at 455 nm rises from 63% to 83% after nitrogen doping. The resistivity of the ITO film reduces from 4.6 × 10-3 (undoped film) to 5.7 × 10-4 Ω cm (N-doped film). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data imply that the binding energy of the In3d5/2 peak is declined 0.05 eV after nitrogen doping. The high resolution transmission electron microscope images show that the nitrogen loss density of the GaN/ITO interface with N-doped ITO film is smaller than that of the GaN/ITO interface with undoped ITO film. The forward turn-on voltage of gallium nitride light emitting diode reduces by 0.5 V after nitrogen doping. The fabrication of the N-doped ITO film is conducive to modify the N component of the interface between GaN and ITO layer.

  4. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  5. Preparation and optical characterization of lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate thin films on indium-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodorov, A.; Gomes, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films were fabricated on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by sol-gel method. The structure of the films was characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties were investigated in the wavelength range of 220-2400 nm. The sample was modelled as a three layer structure on finite substrate, and optical constants of this system were calculated from the transmission and reflection spectra. The calculated dielectric function was fitted with the Drude model in the case of ITO and a sum of Lorentzian oscillators in the case of PLZT films. For PLZT film the anomalous behaviour of imaginary part of dielectric function was observed below the absorption edge. The possible reasons of that behaviour were discussed

  6. Study on Optoelectronic Characteristics of Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Indium Tin Oxide/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Mi; Chiou, Chin-Lung; Liu, Xing-Yang; Weng, Lin-Song; Koo, Horng-Show

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conductive oxides of Sn-doped ZnO (SZO) films with doping weight ratios of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt % have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and PET flexible substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Resultant films of SZO on ITO/PET and PET flexible substrates are amorphous in phase. It is found that undoped and SZO films on ITO/PET is anomalously better than films on PET in optical transmittance in the range of longer wavelength, possibly due to the refraction index difference between SZO, ITO films, and PET substrates, Burstein-Moss effect and optical interference of SZO/ITO bilayer films and substrate materials, and furthermore resulting in the decrement of reflection. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4.0 wt % SZO films on flexible substrates of PET and ITO/PET are 3.8×10-2 and ρ= 1.2×10-2 Ω.cm, respectively. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the resultant films are greatly dependent on various amount of Sn element doping effect and substrate material characteristics.

  7. The pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing technology and electroless Cu metallic patterns on indium-doped tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Yi [Medical Device Section, Medical Devices and Opto-Electronics Equipment Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsai-Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Nian, Yan-Yu [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China); Wang, Min-Wen, E-mail: mwwang@cc.kuas.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a method to fabricate copper pattern on an indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate is described. This method involves ink-jet printing of a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate/Pd nanoparticle (CTS-g-PVAc-Pd) based ink on an untreated ITO plate to create the catalytic sites, onto which copper is subsequently deposited by an electroless plating method. To prepare the CTS-g-PVAc-Pd nanoparticles, a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate (CTS-g-PVAc) copolymer is utilized to self-reduce Pd nanoparticles. The pH-sensitive CTS chains function as stabilizing agent for noble metal nanoparticles in acidic ink solution. On the other hand, CTS-g-PVAc copolymers convert to hydrophilic CTS-g-poly(vinyl alcohol) via alkali hydrolysis during the electroless copper plating. Therefore, the copper film with dramatically enhanced adhesion is formed on the surface of ITO glass without special pretreatment step before electroless deposition of copper film. Our results show that this process yields copper line with width down to 60 μm and ITO plated with the copper coating has good electrical conductivity, with an electrical resistivity of about 5.4 μΩ cm. - Highlights: • Chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate copolymer provides reducing environment for Pd nanoparticles. • pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing. • Patterning Pd catalyst for the electroless deposition of copper patterns. • Method to fabricate copper patterns on In-doped tin oxide substrates. • Ink-jet printing can be directly and easily applied to fabricate metal patterns.

  8. New method for preparation of polyoxometalate-capped gold nanoparticles, and their assembly on an indium-doped tin oxide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Z.; Liu, L.; Wu, Y.; Yang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Functionalized gold nanoparticles capped with polyoxometalates were prepared by a simple photoreduction technique where phosphododecamolybdates serve as reducing reagents, photocatalysts, and as stabilizers. TEM images of the resulting gold nanoparticles show the particles to have a relative narrow size distribution. Monolayer and multilayer structures of the negatively charged capped gold nanoparticles were deposited on a poly(vinyl pyridine)-derivatized indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrode via the layer-by-layer technique. The surface plasmon resonance band of the gold nanoparticles displays a blue shift on the surface of the ITO electrode. This is due to the substrate-induced charge redistribution in the gold nanoparticles and a change in the electromagnetic coupling between the assembled nanoparticles. The modified electrode exhibits the characteristic electrochemical behavior of surface-confined phosphododecamolybdate and excellent electrocatalytic activity. The catalysis of the modified electrode towards the model compound iodate was systematically studied. The heterogeneous catalytic rate constant for the electrochemical reduction of iodate was determined by chronoamperometry to be ca. 1. 34 x 10 5 mol -1 .L.s -1 . The amperometric method gave a linear range from 2. 5 x 10 -6 to 1. 5 x 10 -3 M and a detection limit of 1. 0 x 10 -6 M. We believe that the functionalized gold nanoparticles prepared by this photoreduction technique are advantageous in terms of fabrication of sensitive and stable redox electrodes. (author)

  9. Electrochemical Characterization of Nanoporous Nickel Oxide Thin Films Spray-Deposited onto Indium-Doped Tin Oxide for Solar Conversion Scopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonstoichiometric nickel oxide (NiOx has been deposited as thin film utilizing indium-doped tin oxide as transparent and electrically conductive substrate. Spray deposition of a suspension of NiOx nanoparticles in alcoholic medium allowed the preparation of uniform NiOx coatings. Sintering of the coatings was conducted at temperatures below 500°C for few minutes. This scalable procedure allowed the attainment of NiOx films with mesoporous morphology and reticulated structure. The electrochemical characterization showed that NiOx electrodes possess large surface area (about 1000 times larger than their geometrical area. Due to the openness of the NiOx morphology, the underlying conductive substrate can be contacted by the electrolyte and undergo redox processes within the potential range in which NiOx is electroactive. This requires careful control of the conditions of polarization in order to prevent the simultaneous occurrence of reduction/oxidation processes in both components of the multilayered electrode. The combination of the open structure with optical transparency and elevated electroactivity in organic electrolytes motivated us to analyze the potential of the spray-deposited NiOx films as semiconducting cathodes of dye-sensitized solar cells of p-type when erythrosine B was the sensitizer.

  10. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Furuta, S.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded

  11. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Takemura, Y.; Furuta, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Nakamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  12. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Y., E-mail: kasiwagi@omtri.or.jp; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M. [Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y. [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K. [Okuno Chemical Industries Co., Ltd., 2-1-25 Hanaten-nishi, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-0011 (Japan); Furuta, S. [Tomoe Works Co., Ltd., 7-13 Tsurumachi, Amagasaki 660-0092 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  13. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are

  14. Peculiarities of the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Sokolova, E.A.; Makovej, Z.I.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of fusible metal alloys interaction with ammonium halogenides in vertical reactor are considered using indium-tin and indium-bismuth binary alloys. It is shown that at the end of the process the composition of metal and salt phases is determined by the equilibrium type and constant characteristic of the given salt-metal system. As a result the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium which may be used in the processes of separation or purification. A model is suggested to calculate the final concentration of salt and metal phase components

  15. Limits of ZnO Electrodeposition in Mesoporous Tin Doped Indium Oxide Films in View of Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dunkel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Well-ordered 3D mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO films obtained by a templated sol-gel route are discussed as conductive porous current collectors. This paper explores the use of such films modified by electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO on the pore walls to improve the electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Mesoporous ITO film were dip-coated with pore sizes of 20–25 nm and 40–45 nm employing novel poly(isobutylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide block copolymers as structure-directors. After electrochemical deposition of ZnO and sensitization with the indoline dye D149 the films were tested as photoanodes in DSSCs. Short ZnO deposition times led to strong back reaction of photogenerated electrons from non-covered ITO to the electrolyte. ITO films with larger pores enabled longer ZnO deposition times before pore blocking occurred, resulting in higher efficiencies, which could be further increased by using thicker ITO films consisting of five layers, but were still lower compared to nanoporous ZnO films electrodeposited on flat ITO. The major factors that currently limit the application are the still low thickness of the mesoporous ITO films, too small pore sizes and non-ideal geometries that do not allow obtaining full coverage of the ITO surface with ZnO before pore blocking occurs.

  16. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 6, November 2002, pp. 505–507. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 505. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline hydrolysis of In(III) and Sn(IV) salts. NIMAI CHAND ... et al 1996; Yanagisawa and Udawatte 2000; Denoy and. Pradeep 1997) with low Sn content (In : Sn ≥ 90 ...

  17. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    As the indium tin oxide (ITO) is an advanced ceramic material with many electronic and optical applications due to its high electrical conductivity and transparency .... Caulton K G and Hubert-Pfalzgraf L G 1990 Chem. Rev. 90. 969. Denoy M D and Pradeep B 1997 Bull. Mater. Sci. 20 1029. Gehman B L, Jonson S, Rudolf T, ...

  18. In-Situ Growth and Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystal Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO nanocrystal rods were synthesized in-situ by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method and electron beam evaporation technique. When the electron-beam gun bombarded indium oxide (In2O3 and tin oxide (SnO2 mixed sources, indium and tin droplets appeared and acted as catalysts. The nanocrystal rods were in-situ grown on the basis of the metal catalyst point. The nanorods have a single crystal structure. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. During the evaporation, a chemical process was happened and an In2O3 and SnO2 solid solution was formed. The percentage of doped tin oxide was calculated by Vegard’s law to be 3.18%, which was in agreement with the mixture ratio of the experimental data. The single crystal rod had good semiconductor switch property and its threshold voltage of single rod was approximately 2.5 V which can be used as a micro switch device. The transmission rate of crystalline nanorods ITO film was over 90% in visible band and it was up to 95% in the blue green band as a result of the oxygen vacancy recombination luminescence.

  19. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  20. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, J; Charas, A; Matos, M; Alcacer, L; Cacialli, F

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  1. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Jorge [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Barbagallo, Nunzio [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Charas, Ana [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Matos, Manuel [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro-1, P-1949-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Alcacer, Luis [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-07

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  2. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  3. Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.V. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Salehi, A. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Aliyu, Y.H. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Bunce, R.W. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Diskett, D. [Applied Physics and Electro-optics Group, Cranfield University RMCS, Shrivenham, Swindon SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-15

    The effects of proton damage on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were investigated by electrical and optical techniques. ITO layers were found to be highly resistant to proton damage for fluences up to 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. For fluences greater than 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} the resistivity rises rapidly with a corresponding degradation of the transmittance. ((orig.))

  4. Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kristie; Anderson, Stacey E; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie; Anderson, Katie; Marshall, Nikki; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several types of pulmonary pathology, including alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema, have been reported in workers in the indium industry. To date, there remains no clear understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues following exposure to indium tin oxide. Given the association between exposure to other metals and the development of immune-mediated diseases, these studies were undertaken to begin to investigate the immuno-modulatory potential of unsintered indium tin oxide (uITO) in a mouse model. Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or breached skin or injected intradermally at the base of the ear pinnae with either vehicle or increasing concentrations 2.5-10% uITO (90:10 indium oxide/tin oxide, particle size <50 nm). Dose-responsive increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed with a calculated EC3 of 4.7% for the intact skin study. Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with a T-cell-mediated response. These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of exposure, and demonstrate the potential for uITO to penetrate both intact and breached skin.

  5. Study of the functional properties of ITO grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from different indium and tin precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkutnik, P.D.; Roussel, H.; Lahootun, V.; Mescot, X.; Weiss, F.; Jiménez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of ITO layers obtained from three indium and two tin precursors by pulsed MOCVD. • Optimized tin doping depends on the tin chemical precursor. • Combination including acetyl acetonate ligand present the same characteristics. • Films elaborated between 350 and 700 °C with InMe2OtBu present a constant resistivity. - Abstract: Functional properties of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) layers grown by MOCVD from different indium and tin precursors are investigated. Selected indium precursors are In(acac) 3 , In(tmhd) 3 and InMe 2 O t Bu, and tin precursors are DBTDA and Sn(acac) 2 . ITO layers are optically and electrically characterized to determine the better doping conditions. Differences in electrical properties of ITO layers are found when using InMe 2 O t Bu, as compared to In(acac) 3 and to In(tmhd) 3 . The best films present a resistivity of 2.5 × 10 −4 Ω cm and a transmittance higher than 84% for high deposition temperatures (T ⩾ 600 °C). The nature of tin precursors modifies the optimal doping at which these characteristics are achieved. When doped by DBTDA optimal doping is 8 at.%, therefore close to the solubility limit of tin in In 2 O 3 matrix; but when using Sn(acac) 2 , or In(acac) 3 /DBTDA combination, best functional characteristics are obtained for the maximal doping content obtained, i.e. 2.5 at.%. For optimized conditions, the resistivity decreases when deposition temperature increases except when using the couple InMe 2 O t Bu/DBTDA without oxygen addition during deposition. For this combination of precursors a resistivity of 1 × 10 −3 Ω cm is obtained at a deposition temperature of 350 °C and remains constant up to 600 °C. Only the films obtained from InMe 2 O t Bu/DBTDA are crystalline state at a deposition temperature of 350 °C

  6. Efficacy of titanium doped-indium tin oxide (Ti/TiO2-ITO) films in rapid oxygen generation under photocatalysis and their suitability for bio-medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Rajakumar, A; Rakibuddin, Md; Paul Ramesh, T; Raveendra Kiran, M; Shankari, D; Chandrasekhar, K

    2014-12-07

    The present work describes in detail the photocatalytic properties of controlled titanium doped indium tin oxide (Ti/TiO2-ITO) composite thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering and their applicability to developing a bio-medical lung assistive device. The catalytic films of various thicknesses (namely, C1, C2, C3 and C4) were characterized using surface imaging (SEM), X-ray analyses (XRD and EDX), and Raman studies. The optical band gaps of the prepared films are ∼3.72-3.77 eV. Photocatalytic efficiencies of the film catalysts were investigated with the aid of a model organic molecule (Rhodamine B dye). The overall photodegradation capacity of the films was found to be slow kinetically, and the catalyst C1 was identified as having a better degradation efficiency (RhB 5 ppm, at pH 6.5) over 5 h under irradiation at 254 nm. The distinctive features of these composite films lie in their oxygen accumulation capacity and unique electron-hole pair separation ability. Investigations on oxygen species revealed the formation of superoxide radicals in aqueous systems (pH 6.5). The prepared films have TiO2 in the anatase phase in the surfaces, and possess the desired photocatalytic efficiency, compatibility to the heme system (are not involved in harmful hydroxyl radical production), and appreciable reusability. Especially, the thin films have a significant ability for mobilization of oxygen rapidly and continuously in aqueous medium under the irradiation conditions. Hence, these films may be a suitable choice for the photo-aided lung assistive design under development.

  7. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  8. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  9. Organic thin film transistors with indium tin oxide bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang-Wook; Shin, Hee-Sun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Han, Min-Koo; Pang, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Yong; Chung, In-Jae; Pyo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) which employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as source and drain electrodes instead of gold are fabricated. A double gate dielectric layer was used, which consists of benzocyclobutane (BCB) and silicon nitride (SiN x ). The pentacene TFT has lateral dimensions 192 μmx6 μm. The OTFT with the ITO bottom electrode shows a saturation mobility of 0.05∼0.09 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and an on-off current ratio of the order of 10 5 in a gate voltage span between 0 and -40 V. The TFT fabrication process steps had the beneficial side effect of changing the ITO surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This change allows pentacene films with larger grains, observed up to 0.5 μm, to be grown on TFT compared to as-deposited ITO film onto which high quality films cannot be grown

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J.P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A

    2002-11-30

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrol onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM)

  11. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J.P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A.

    2002-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrolysis onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM)

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J. P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A.

    2002-11-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrolysis onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  13. Activity Dependent Synaptic Plasticity Mimicked on Indium-Tin-Oxide Electric-Double-Layer Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Juan; Zhu, Li Qiang; Fu, Yang Ming; Xiao, Hui; Guo, Li Qiang; Wan, Qing

    2017-10-25

    Ion coupling has provided an additional method to modulate electric properties for solid-state materials. Here, phosphorosilicate glass (PSG)-based electrolyte gated protonic/electronic coupled indium-tin-oxide electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors are fabricated. The oxide transistor exhibits good electrical performances due to an extremely strong proton gating behavior for the electrolyte. With interfacial electrochemical doping, channel conductances of the oxide EDL transistor can be regulated to different levels, corresponding to different initial synaptic weights. Thus, activity dependent synaptic responses such as excitatory postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and high-pass filtering are discussed in detail. The proposed proton conductor gated oxide EDL synaptic transistors with activity dependent synaptic plasticities may act as fundamental building blocks for neuromorphic system applications.

  14. Three-dimensionally embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) films in photosensitive glass: a transparent and conductive platform for microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, S.; Sugioka, K.; Midorikawa, K.; Koroesi, L.; Dekany, I.

    2011-01-01

    A new method for embedding transparent and conductive two- and three-dimensional microstructures in glass is presented. We show that the internal surface of hollow structures fabricated by femtosecond-laser direct writing inside the photosensitive glass can be coated by indium tin oxide (Sn-doped In 2 O 3 , ITO) using a sol-gel process. The idea of combining two transparent materials with different electrical properties, i.e., insulating and conductive, is very promising and hence it opens new prospects in manufacturing cutting edge microdevices, such as lab-on-a-chips (LOCs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). (orig.)

  15. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of an indium tin oxide acoustoelectric hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Pier; Greenlee, Charles L.; Wang, Zhaohui; Olafsson, Ragnar; Norwood, Robert A.; Witte, Russell S.

    2010-03-01

    Clinical ultrasound (US) imaging and therapy require a precise knowledge of the intensity distribution of the acoustic field. Although piezoelectric hydrophones are most common, these devices are limited in terms of, for example, type of materials, cost, and performance at high frequency and pressure. As an alternative to conventional acoustic detectors, we describe acoustoelectric hydrophones, developed using photolithographic fabrication techniques, where the induced voltage (phase and amplitude) is proportional to both the US pressure and bias current injected through the device. In this study a number of different hydrophone designs were created using indium tin oxide (ITO). A constriction of the current path within the hydrophone created a localized "sensitivity zone" of high current density. The width of this zone ranged from 30 to 1000 μm, with a thickness of 100 nm. A raster scan of the US transducer produced a map of the acoustic field. Hydrophones were evaluated by mapping the pressure field of a 2.25 MHz single element transducer, and their performance was compared to a commercial capsule hydrophone. Focal spot sizes at -6 dB were as low as 1.75 mm, comparing well with the commercial hydrophone measurement of 1.80 mm. Maximum sensitivity was 2 nV/Pa and up to the 2nd harmonic was detected. We expect improved performance with future devices as we optimize the design. Acoustoelectric hydrophones are potentially cheaper and more robust than the piezoelectric models currently in clinical use, potentially providing more choice of materials and designs for monitoring therapy or producing arrays for imaging.

  17. PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOMAGNETIC RESPONSE OF INDIUM-TIN OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The goal of the present research is investigation of photoelectric and photomagnetic response of ITO (indium-tin oxide films under UV laser irradiation. Method. The ITO films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with the thickness equal to 300nm. The films were irradiated by UV laser light with 248 nm wavelength in laser pulse energy range from 10 mJ to 150 mJ by KrF excimer laser. Metallic electrodes were deposited on the films. Information about the films surface topography was obtained by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Main Results. It was shown that voltage appears between metallic contacts under the UV light effect. The electric current was observed through resistive load. The anisotropy of electric field producing photoelectric response was demonstrated for the first time. The appearance of magnetic field under the laser light irradiation was observed for the first time. The dependence of the response voltage on the laser pulse energy was linear over the whole measured energy range. The following physical mechanism was proposed for description of the observed phenomenon: electric voltage is associated with non-uniform distribution of the average crystallite size along the film surface, and, therefore, with mean free path of the charge carriers along the film surface. Photomagnetic response could be associated with collective behavior of the large number of charged particles, created due to high intensity laser irradiation. Practical Relevance. The phenomenon being studied could be applied for creation of new optoelectronic devices, for example, modulators, optical detectors, etc. Particularly, due to linear dependence of photoelectric response on the laser pulse energy, this phenomenon is attractive for manufacturing of simple and cheap excimer laser pulse energy detectors.

  18. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation of indium doped zinc oxide films is discussed. Variation of structural, electrical and optical properties of the films with zinc acetate concentration and indium concentration in the solution are investigated. XRD studies have shown a change in preferential orientation from (002) to (101) crystal plane with ...

  19. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  20. Generic Top-Functionalization of Patterned Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymers on Indium Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Giesbers, M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surface engineering approach that combines photochemical grafting and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to attach zwitterionic polymer brushes onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The photochemically grafted hydroxyl-terminated organic

  1. First heats of cerium solution in liquid aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, L.F.; Lebedev, V.A.; Nichkov, I.F.; Raspopin, S.P.; Shein, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerium solution heats in liquid alluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth are determined in high temperature mixing calorimeter with an isothermal shell. The statistical analysis carried out proves that values of cerium solution heat in fusible metals obtained by the methods of electric motive forces and calorimety give a satisfactory agreement

  2. Photochemical Grafting and Patterning of Organic Monolayers on Indium Tin Oxide Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    Covalently attached organic layers on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces were prepared by the photochemical grafting with 1-alkenes. The surface modification was monitored with static water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements.

  3. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C60) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (Pd) (0.67-10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ Pd ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ Pd < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing Pd further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C60. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by Pd; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (Rs) of 145 /□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the Rs a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an Rs of - 20/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate.

  4. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    solution of zinc acetate. To achieve indium doping, indium trichloride (InCl3) was added to the solution. The In/Zn ratio was varied from zero to 1⋅6 at.%. The resulting solu- tion was sprayed onto heated substrates held at 723 ± 5 K. The upper limit for dopant concentration was fixed at. 1⋅6 at.%. Compressed air was used ...

  5. Plasma vapor deposited n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide heterojunctions for optoelectronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T. P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Transparent crystalline n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide diode structures were fabricated on quartz substrates by plasma vapor deposition using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The p-n heterojunction diodes were highly transparent in the visible region and exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a good ideality factor. The sputter power during fabrication of the p-layer was found to have a profound effect on I-V characteristics, and the diode with the p-type layer deposited at a maximum power of 200 W exhibited the highest value of the diode ideality factor (η value) of 2.162, which suggests its potential use in optoelectronic applications. The ratio of forward current to reverse current exceeded 80 within the range of applied voltages of -1.5 to +1.5 V in all cases. The diode structure possessed an optical transmission of 60-70% in the visible region.

  6. Indium Tin Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells: Toward Commercial Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    and vacuum-free manufacture. Indium tin oxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor, imposes the majority of the cost of production of PSCs, limits flexibility, and is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning industry due to indium scarcity and the resulting large price fluctuations. As such...... developments in ITO replacement which include, but are not limited to, the use of nanomaterials such as metal nanogrids, metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. The use of polymers and metals as replacement to ITO are described as well. Finally, recent progress in large-scale experiments on ITO...

  7. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin film grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition with tetramethyltin-precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zimin; Tu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuejin; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using tetramethyltin (TDMASn) as tin precursor. The as-grown ITO films are polycrystalline with (111) and (100) textures. A gradual transition of crystallographic orientation from (111) preferred to (100) preferred is observed as the composition of tin changes. By precisely controlling the Sn doping, the ITO thin films present promising optical and electrical performances at either near-infrared-visible or visible-near-ultraviolet ranges. At low Sn doping level, the as-grown ITO possesses high electron mobility of 48.8 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, which results in high near-infrared transmittance and low resistivity. At higher Sn doping level, high carrier concentration (8.9 × 1020 cm‑3) and low resistivity (3 × 10‑4 Ω cm) are achieved. The transmittance is 97.8, 99.1, and 82.3% at the wavelength of 550, 365, and 320 nm, respectively. The results strongly suggest that MOCVD with TDMASn as tin precursor is an effective method to fabricate high quality ITO thin film for near-infrared, visible light, and near-ultraviolet application.

  8. Characterization of molybdenum-doped indium oxide thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this research, indium oxide nanostructure undoped and doped with Mo were prepared on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. Various parameters such as dopant concentration and deposition tem- peratures were studied. Structural properties of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and ...

  9. Characterization of molybdenum-doped indium oxide thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this research, indium oxide nanostructure undoped and doped with Mo were prepared on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. Various parameters such as dopant concentration and deposition temperatures were studied. Structural properties of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning ...

  10. Effect of Temperature on Nucleation of Nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide Synthesized by Electron-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Yujun; Shen, Jianxing; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely applied as a transparent conductive layer and optical window in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and touch screens. In this paper, crystalline nano-sized ITO dendrites are obtained using an electron-beam evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the obtained ITO was studied for substrate temperatures of 25°C, 130°C, 180°C, and 300°C. Nano-sized crystalline dendrites were synthesized only at a substrate temperature of 300°C. The dendrites had a cubic structure, confirmed by the results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of the nano-crystalline dendrites could be explained by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth model. The catalysts of the VLS process were indium and tin droplets, confirmed by varying the substrate temperature, which further influenced the nucleation of the ITO dendrites.

  11. Adhesion enhancement of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated quartz optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yihua; Liu, Jing; Wu, Xu; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) film was prepared on optical fiber through a multi-step sol–gel process. The influence of annealing temperature on the adhesion of ITO coated optical fibers was studied. Different surface treatments were applied to improve the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometer and Avometer were used to characterize the morphology, crystal structure and photo-electric properties. A thermal shock test was used to evaluate the adhesion. The result shows that the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber can be strongly influenced by the annealing process, and optimal adhesion can be acquired when annealing temperature is 500 °C. Surface treatments of ultrasonic cleaning and the application of surface-active agent have effectively enhanced the adhesion and photo-electric properties of indium tin oxide film coated quartz optical fiber.

  12. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, A. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carreras, P. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Bertomeu, J. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Antony, A. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2014-03-31

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band.

  13. Indium doped niobium phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Qingfeng; Anfimova, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Indium doped niobium phosphates were prepared from precursors of trivalent indium oxide, pentavalent niobium oxide and phosphoric acid. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, impedance spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found...... that the indium doping promoted formation of the cubic Nb2P4O15 phase instead of the monoclinic Nb5P7O30 phase in the pristine niobium phosphates and enhanced the preservation of OH functional groups in the phosphates. The preserved OH functionalities in the phosphates after the heat treatment at 650 °C...... contributed to the anhydrous proton conductivity. The Nb0.9In0.1 phosphate exhibited a proton conductivity of five times higher than that of the un-doped analog at 250 °C. The conductivity was stabilized at a level of above 0.02 S cm−1 under dry atmosphere at 250 °C during the stability evaluation for 3 days....

  14. Ultrathin films of homeotropically aligned columnar liquid crystals on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, E.; Grelet, E.; Brettes, P.; Bock, H.; Saadaoui, H.; Cisse, L.; Destruel, P.; Gherardi, N.; Seguy, I.

    2008-01-01

    We report the achievement of very thin films (thickness of about 50nm) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystal in homeotropic (columns normal to the interface) orientation on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The face-on alignment of the discotic compound has been obtained by thermal annealing without any intermediate coating between the mesophase and the ITO substrate. Such a columnar mesophase alignment is thus shown on a substrate of technological interest in open supported thin film reaching the thickness range suitable for organic photovoltaic devices.

  15. Effects on Organic Photovoltaics Using Femtosecond-Laser-Treated Indium Tin Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Hsin; Tseng, Ya-Hsin; Chao, Yi-Ping; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Lin, Zong-Rong; Chu, Hui-Hsin; Chang, Jan-Kai; Luo, Chih-Wei

    2016-09-28

    The effects of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface applied to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) system were investigated. The modifications of ITO induced by LIPPS in OPV devices result in more than 14% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and short-circuit current density relative to those of the standard device. The basic mechanisms for the enhanced short-circuit current density are attributed to better light harvesting, increased scattering effects, and more efficient charge collection between the ITO and photoactive layers. Results show that higher PCEs would be achieved by laser-pulse-treated electrodes.

  16. Nanomechanical properties of dip coated indium tin oxide films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Nilormi; Ghosh, Priyanka; Sarkar, Saswati; Moitra, Debabrata; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Sunirmal; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nanomechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films dip coated from precursor sols of varying equivalent oxide weight percentage (wt.%) onto commercial soda lime silica (SLS) glass substrate were evaluated by nanoindentation technique at an ultralow load of 50 μN. It was found that the increase in wt.% beyond 6 in the precursor sols, had an adverse effect on nanohardness and Young's modulus of the films. Moreover, relatively thicker triple layered film (about 240 nm) had inferior nanomechanical properties as compared to the single layered film. Interestingly, the ITO foam coating on SLS glass substrate had nanomechanical properties nearly as good as those of the single layered films. These observations are explained in terms of the relative differences in crystallinity, stiffness and elastic deformation ability of the films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel indium tin oxide thin films and foam coating • Crystallinity and nanomechanical property inversely relate to sol oxide content. • Foam coating behaves like the thin films

  17. Solubility of indium-tin oxide in simulated lung and gastric fluids: Pathways for human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jens Christian Østergård; Cropp, Alastair; Paradise, Diane Caroline

    2017-02-01

    From being a metal with very limited natural distribution, indium (In) has recently become disseminated throughout the human society. Little is known of how In compounds behave in the natural environment, but recent medical studies link exposure to In compounds to elevated risk of respiratory disorders. Animal tests suggest that exposure may lead to more widespread damage in the body, notably the liver, kidneys and spleen. In this paper, we investigate the solubility of the most widely used In compound, indium-tin oxide (ITO) in simulated lung and gastric fluids in order to better understand the potential pathways for metals to be introduced into the bloodstream. Our results show significant potential for release of In and tin (Sn) in the deep parts of the lungs (artificial lysosomal fluid) and digestive tract, while the solubility in the upper parts of the lungs (the respiratory tract or tracheobronchial tree) is very low. Our study confirms that ITO is likely to remain as solid particles in the upper parts of the lungs, but that particles are likely to slowly dissolve in the deep lungs. Considering the prolonged residence time of inhaled particles in the deep lung, this environment is likely to provide the major route for uptake of In and Sn from inhaled ITO nano- and microparticles. Although dissolution through digestion may also lead to some uptake, the much shorter residence time is likely to lead to much lower risk of uptake. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  19. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  20. Ultraviolet luminescent, high-effective-work-function LaTiO{sub 3}-doped indium oxide and its effects in organic optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ning [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Liu, Xiaoxin; Liu, Xingyuan [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China)

    2010-05-18

    A novel n-type transparent conducting oxide, an LaTiO{sub 3}-doped indium oxide (ILTO) film, has been developed by double electron beam evaporation associated with an End Hall ion-assisted deposition technique. ILTO shows room-temperature UV photoluminescence ({proportional_to}386 nm) and a thermally stable highly effective WF ({proportional_to}5.2 eV) properties. ILTO is applied to replace traditional indium tin oxide and demonstrates positive effects on organic optoelectronics. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Optimization of nanoparticulate indium tin oxide slurries for the manufacture of ultra-thin indium tin oxide coatings with the slot-die coating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, M.; Riess, K.; Roosen, A. [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science, Glass and Ceramics

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of colloidal processing to achieve suitable nanoparticulate indium tin oxide (ITO) slurries for the production of sub-μm-thin ITO coatings with the slot die coating process. For application in printed electronics these ITO coatings, which are composite films consisting of nanoparticulate ITO and a polymeric binder, should offer high flexibility, transparency and electrical conductivity. To preserve their flexibility, the composite films are not subject to any heat treatment, instead they are used as deposited and dried. To achieve very good transparency and electrical conductivity at the same time, the slurries must exhibit excellent dispersivity to result in a dense particle packing during film formation and drying. To reduce materials costs, films with thicknesses of several 100 nm are of interest. Therefore, the slot-die technique was applied as a fast, pre-dosing technique to produce sub-μm-thin ITO/binder composite films. The resulting ITO/binder films were characterized with regard to their key properties such as total transmission and specific electrical resistance. With the colloidal optimization of ethanol- and water-based nanoparticulate ITO slurries using PVP and PVB as binders, it was possible to achieve films of 250 nm in thickness exhibiting high total transmission of ∝ 93 % and a low specific electrical resistance of ∝ 10 Ω.cm.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  3. Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thirumoorthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique for different Sn concentrations on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that all the films are polycrystalline of cubic structure with preferentially oriented along (222 plane. SEM images show that films exhibit uniform surface morphology with well-defined spherical particles. The EDX spectrum confirms the presence of In, Sn and O elements in prepared films. AFM result indicates that the surface roughness of the films is reduced as Sn doping. The optical transmittance of ITO thin films is improved from 77% to 87% in visible region and optical band gap is increased from 3.59 to 4.07 eV. Photoluminescence spectra show mainly three emissions peaks (UV, blue and green and a shift observed in UV emission peak. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding was analyzed by FTIR. Hall effect measurements show prepared films having n-type conductivity with low resistivity (3.9 × 10−4 Ω-cm and high carrier concentrations (6.1 × 1020 cm−3.

  4. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  5. Effects of Deposition Parameters and Oxygen Addition on Properties of Sputtered Indium Tin Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrul Munir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO films were sputtered on corning glass substrate. Oxygen admixture and sputtering deposition parameters were optimized to obtain the highest transparency as well as lowest resistivity. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were then examined. Increasing deposition rate and film thickness changed the crystallographic orientation from (222  to (400 and (440, as well as higher  surface roughness. It was necessary to apply substrate heating during reposition to get films with better crystallinity. The lowest resistivity of 5.36 x 10-4 Ω•cm was obtained at 750 nm film thickness. The films’ resistivity was increased by addition of oxygen up to 2% in the argon sputtering gas. All films showed over 85% transmittance in the visible wavelength range, possible for applications in photovoltaic and display devices. 

  6. Organic photovoltaics using thin gold film as an alternative anode to indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldar, Amrita; Yambem, Soniya D.; Liao, Kang-Shyang; Alley, Nigel J.; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Barron, Andrew R.; Curran, Seamus A.

    2011-01-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is the most commonly used anode as a transparent electrode and more recently as an anode for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, there are significant drawbacks in using ITO which include high material costs, mechanical instability including brittleness and poor electrical properties which limit its use in low-cost flexible devices. We present initial results of poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester OPVs showing that an efficiency of 1.9% (short-circuit current 7.01 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage 0.55 V, fill factor 0.49) can be attained using an ultra thin film of gold coated glass as the device anode. The initial I-V characteristics demonstrate that using high work function metals when the thin film is kept ultra thin can be used as a replacement to ITO due to their greater stability and better morphological control.

  7. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  8. Respiration sensor made from indium tin oxide-coated conductive fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Jee, Seung Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Conductive fabrics with new properties and applications have been the subject of extensive research over the last few years, with wearable respiration sensors attracting much attention. Different methods can be used to obtain fabrics that are electrically conducting, an essential property for various applications. For instance, fabrics can be coated with conductive polymers. Here, indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated conductive fabrics with cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (C-PVA) were prepared using a doctor-blade. The C-PVA was employed in the synthesis to bind ITO on the fabrics with the highest possible mechanical strength. The feasibility of a respiration sensor prepared using the ITO-coated conductive fabric was investigated. The ITO-coated conductive fabric with the C-PVA was demonstrated to have a high potential for use in respiration sensors.

  9. Gold nanoparticle arrays directly grown on nanostructured indium tin oxide electrodes: Characterization and electroanalytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingdong; Oyama, Munetaka

    2005-01-01

    This work describes an improved seed-mediated growth approach for the direct attachment and growth of mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles on nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. It was demonstrated that, when the seeding procedure of our previously reported seed-mediated growth process on an ITO surface was modified, the density of gold nanospheres directly grown on the surface could be highly improved, while the emergence of nanorods was restrained. By field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and cyclic voltammetry, the growth of gold nanoparticles with increasing growth time on the defect sites of nanostructured ITO surface was monitored. Using a [Fe(China) 6 ] 3- /[Fe(China) 6 ] 4- redox probe, the increasingly facile heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics resulting from the deposition and growth of gold nanoparticle arrays was observed. The as-prepared gold nanoparticle arrays exhibited high catalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of nitric oxide, which could provide electroanalytical application for nitric oxide sensing

  10. Ag nanowire percolating network embedded in indium tin oxide nanoparticles for printable transparent conducting electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-A.; Kim, Han-Ki

    2014-02-01

    Solution-based printable transparent conducting electrodes consisting of Ag nanowire (NW) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by simple brush painting at room temperature under atmospheric ambient conditions. Effectively embedding the Ag NW percolating network into the ITO NPs provided a conduction path, led to a metallic conduction behavior of the ITO NPs/Ag NW/ITO NPs multilayer and supplied electrons into the ITO NPs. The optimized ITO NPs/Ag NW/ITO NPs multilayer showed a sheet resistance of 16.57 Ω/sq and an optical transparency of 79.50% without post annealing. Based on high resolution transmission electron microscope analysis, we investigated the microstructure and interface structure of the ITO NPs/Ag NW/ITO NPs multilayer electrodes and suggested a possible mechanism to explain the low resistivity of the multilayers.

  11. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  12. Spray coated indium-tin-oxide-free organic photodiodes with PEDOT:PSS anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Schmidt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO-free spray coated organic photodiodes with an active layer consisting of a poly(3-hexylthiophen (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM blend and patterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS electrodes. External quantum efficiency and current voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions as well as cut-off frequencies for devices with varying active and hole conducting layer thicknesses were measured in order to characterize the fabricated devices. 60% quantum efficiency as well as nearly four orders of magnitude on-off ratios have been achieved. Those values are comparable with standard ITO devices.

  13. Fabrication of flexible indium tin oxide-free polymer solar cells with silver nanowire transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Chen, Tsun-Jui; Xu, Wei-Feng; Hsiao, Li-Jen; Budiawan, Widhya; Tu, Wei-Chen; Chen, Shih-Lun; Chu, Chih-Wei; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2018-03-01

    Flexible indium tin oxide (ITO)-free poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC61BM) solar cells with a spin-coated silver nanowire transparent electrode are demonstrated. The solution-processed silver nanowire thin film not only exhibits high transmission (∼87%), but also shows low sheet resistance R s (∼25 Ω/sq). For solar cells with a conventional structure, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices based on silver nanowires can reach around 2.29%. For the inverted structure, the PCE of devices can reach 3.39%. Conventional and inverted flexible ITO-based P3HT:PC61BM solar cells are also fabricated as a reference for comparison. For both types of solar cells, the PCE of ITO-free devices is very close that of an ITO-based polymer solar cell.

  14. Optimisation of the material properties of indium tin oxide layers for use in organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doggart, P.; Bristow, N.; Kettle, J., E-mail: j.kettle@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean St., Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-14

    The influence of indium tin oxide [(In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn), ITO] material properties on the output performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has been modelled and investigated. In particular, the effect of altering carrier concentration (n), thickness (t), and mobility (μ{sub e}) in ITO films and their impact on the optical performance, parasitic resistances and overall efficiency in OPVs was studied. This enables optimal values of these parameters to be calculated for solar cells made with P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM and PCPDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM active layers. The optimal values of n, t and μ{sub e} are not constant between different OPV active layers and depend on the absorption spectrum of the underlying active layer material system. Consequently, design rules for these optimal values as a function of donor bandgap in bulk-heterojunction active layers have been formulated.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of indium tin oxide current spreading layers in light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, R.M.; Kettle, J.; Porch, A.; Morgan, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent conductors such as indium tin oxide (ITO) are used in a range of optoelectronic devices. Such materials provide both the electrical interface with the semiconductor and a transparent window for the injection or extraction of photons. In AlGaInP surface emitting LED device structures, a particular problem is that of providing an efficient current spreading layer in order to ensure that electrons are injected across the whole of the active region. In this way, the light extracted can be maximised as it originates from the region below the transparent conductor rather than the contact metal. This paper describes a Monte Carlo simulation that can assist in the optimisation of current spreading and light transmission of ITO layers in LED devices

  16. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  17. Adsorption of T4 bacteriophages on planar indium tin oxide surface via controlled surface tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Chia, Ed Win; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2016-04-15

    The work investigates the influence of surface physicochemical properties of planar indium tin oxide (ITO) as a model substrate on T4 bacteriophage adsorption. A comparative T4 bacteriophage adsorption study shows a significant difference in bacteriophage adsorption observed on chemically modified planar ITO when compared to similarly modified particulate ITO, which infers that trends observed in virus-particle interaction studies are not necessarily transferrable to predict virus-planar surface adsorption behaviour. We also found that ITO surfaces modified with methyl groups, (resulting in increased surface roughness and hydrophobicity) remained capable of adsorbing T4 bacteriophage. The adsorption of T4 onto bare, amine and carboxylic functionalised planar ITO suggests the presence of a unique binding behaviour involving specific functional groups on planar ITO surface beyond the non-specific electrostatic interactions that dominate phage to particle interactions. The paper demonstrates the significance of physicochemical properties of surfaces on bacteriophage-surface interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular interfacial engineering of adhesion between polyfluorene and indium-tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and the Materials Science and Technology Research Centre, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Precision Engineering, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Sin, L.Y.; Yeung, M.K.; Hark, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and the Materials Science and Technology Research Centre, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Lau, W.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and the Materials Science and Technology Research Centre, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Precision Engineering, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); University of Western Ontario, Surface Science Western, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    A self-assembly monolayer (SAM) selected from alkyl- and phenyl-silanes was inserted between polyfluorene (PFO) and indium-tin oxide (ITO). The relative changes in adhesion energy of PFO/SAM/ITO were semi-quantitatively measured. These relative changes are calculated by dividing the gains in adhesion energy by the adhesion energy of PFO/ITO with no SAM. The values for five alkyl-silanes with varying chain lengths are in the range of 1.0{+-}0.2 to 1.8{+-}0.5, and those for five selected phenyl-silanes are 1.8{+-}0.5 to 4.1{+-}1.1. Phenyl-silanes with a unit larger than that of benzene, together with appropriate tail-group functionality, give the best enhancement in adhesion. (orig.)

  19. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  20. Application of argon atmospheric cold plasma for indium tin oxide (ITO) based diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Nia, S.; Jalili, Y. Seyed; Salar Elahi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers due to transparency, high conductivity and hole injection capability have attracted a lot of attention. One of these layers is Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). ITO due to low resistance, transparency in the visible spectrum and its proper work function is widely used in the manufacture of organic light emitting diodes and solar cells. One way for improving the ITO surface is plasma treatment. In this paper, changes in surface morphology, by applying argon atmospheric pressure cold plasma, was studied through Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) image analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. FTIR analysis showed functional groups were not added or removed, but chemical bond angle and bonds strength on the surface were changed and also AFM images showed that surface roughness was increased. These factors lead to the production of diodes with enhanced Ohmic contact and injection mechanism which are more appropriate in industrial applications.

  1. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  2. Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Aziz, Hany, E-mail: h2aziz@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-07-07

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is shown to significantly depend on the roughness of the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. By using rougher ITO, light trapped in the ITO/organic wave-guided mode can be efficiently extracted, and a light outcoupling enhancement as high as 40% is achieved. Moreover, contrary to expectations, the lifetime of OLEDs is not affected by ITO roughness. Finally, an OLED employing rough ITO anode that exhibits a current efficiency of 56 cd/A at the remarkably high brightness of 10{sup 5} cd/m{sup 2} is obtained. This represents the highest current efficiency at such high brightness to date for an OLED utilizing an ITO anode, without any external light outcoupling techniques. The results demonstrate the significant efficiency benefits of using ITO with higher roughness in OLEDs.

  3. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodighiero, Simona; Torre, Bruno; Sogne, Elisa; Ruffilli, Roberta; Cagnoli, Cinzia; Francolini, Maura; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Falqui, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Rodighiero, Simona

    2015-03-22

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Electrochemical modification of indium tin oxide using di(4-nitrophenyl) iodonium tetrafluoroborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Matthew R; Suhr, Kristin J; Holliday, Bradley J; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-01-20

    Optoelectronic applications often rely on indium tin oxide (ITO) as a transparent electrode material. Improvements in the performance of such devices as photovoltaics and light-emitting diodes often requires robust, controllable modification of the ITO surface to enhance interfacial charge transfer properties. In this work, modifier films were deposited onto ITO by the electrochemical reduction of di(4-nitrophenyl) iodonium tetrafluoroborate (DNP), allowing for control over surface functionalization. The surface coverage could be tuned from submonolayer to multilayer coverage by either varying the DNP concentration or the number of cyclic voltammetry (CV) grafting scans. Modification of ITO with 0.8 mM DNP resulted in near-monolayer surface coverage (4.95 × 10(14) molecules/cm(2)). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the presence of 4-nitrophenyl (NO2Ph) moieties on the ITO surface through the detection of a NO2 nitrogen signal at 405.6 eV after grafting. Further XPS evidence suggests that the NO2Ph radicals do not bond to the surface indium or tin sites, consistent with modification occurring either through bonding to surface hydroxyl groups or through strong physisorption on ITO. CV in the presence of an electroactive probe and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the electronic effects that modification via DNP has on ITO. Even at submonolayer coverage, the insulating organic films can reduce the current response to ferrocene oxidation and reduction by more than 25% and increase the charge transfer resistance by a factor of 10.

  6. A study of the characteristics of indium tin oxide after chlorine electro-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moonsoo; Kim, Jongmin; Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Nayoung; Choi, Byoungdeog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The presence of Chlorine in the outer surface resulted in a highly electro-negative surface states and an increase in the vacuum energy level. - Highlights: • We investigated the influence of chlorine surface treatment on ITO properties. • Chlorination induced the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface. • Chlorine electro-chemical treatment of ITO is a simple, fast and effective technique. - Abstract: In this work, we investigate the influence of a chlorine-based electro-chemical surface treatment on the characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) including the work function, chemical composition, and phase transition. The treated ITOs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), 4-point probe measurements, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). We confirmed a change of the chemical composition in the near-surface region of the ITO and the formation of indium-chlorine (In-Cl) bonds and surface dipoles (via XPS). In particular, the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface was caused by chlorination. Due to the vacuum-level shift after the electro-chemical treatment in a dilute hydrochloric acid, the ITO work function was increased by ∼0.43 eV (via UPS); furthermore, the electro-negativity of the chlorine anions attracted electrons to emit them from the hole transport layer (HTL) to the ITO anodes, resulting in an increase of the hole-injection efficiency.

  7. Indium-Free Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by Impermeable Tin-Oxide Electron Extraction Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Becker, Tim; Pourdavoud, Neda; Zhao, Jie; Brinkmann, Kai Oliver; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Gahlmann, Tobias; Huang, Zengqi; Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus; Többens, Daniel; Cheng, Baochang; Chen, Yiwang; Riedl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Corrosive precursors used for the preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photoactive layers prevent the application of ultrathin metal layers as semitransparent bottom electrodes in perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). This study introduces tin-oxide (SnO x ) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), whose outstanding permeation barrier properties enable the design of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free semitransparent bottom electrode (SnO x /Ag or Cu/SnO x ), in which the metal is efficiently protected against corrosion. Simultaneously, SnO x functions as an electron extraction layer. We unravel the spontaneous formation of a PbI 2 interfacial layer between SnO x and the CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite. An interface dipole between SnO x and this PbI 2 layer is found, which depends on the oxidant (water, ozone, or oxygen plasma) used for the ALD growth of SnO x . An electron extraction barrier between perovskite and PbI 2 is identified, which is the lowest in devices based on SnO x grown with ozone. The resulting PVSCs are hysteresis-free with a stable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.3% and a remarkably high open circuit voltage of 1.17 V. The ITO-free analogues still achieve a high PCE of 11%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Tunable, Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET for Flexible Bio-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    closed together using an electrolyte and indium tin dioxide-coated PET . 201 3. Results and Discussion Figure 5 shows the effects of methanol...Oxide Coated PET for Flexible Bio-sensitized Solar Cells JOSHUA J. MARTIN, UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE MENTORS: DR. SHASHI KARNA AND DR. MARK GRIEP U.S...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tunable, Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays On Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET For Flexible Bio-sensitized Solar Cells 5a

  9. Different magnetic properties of rhombohedral and cubic Ni2+ doped indium oxide nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions doped indium oxide nanomaterials were potentially used as a kind of diluted magnetic semiconductors in transparent spintronic devices. In this paper, the influences of Ni2+ doped contents and rhombohedral or cubic crystalline structures of indium oxide on magnetic properties were investigated. We found that the magnetic properties of Ni2+ doped indium oxide could be transferred from room temperature ferromagnetisms to paramagnetic properties with increments of doped contents. Moreover, the different crystalline structures of indium oxide also greatly affected the room temperature ferromagnetisms due to different lattice constants and almost had no effects on their paramagnetic properties. In addition, both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties were demonstrated to be intrinsic and not caused by impurities.

  10. Intramolecular charge separation in spirobifluorene-based donor–acceptor compounds adsorbed on Au and indium tin oxide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, Daniel; Otero, Luis; Gervaldo, Miguel; Fungo, Fernando; Dittrich, Thomas; Lin, Chih-Yen; Chi, Liang-Chen; Fang, Fu-Chuan; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements were performed with a Kelvin-probe in spirobifluorene-based donor (diphenylamine)–acceptor (dicyano or cyanoacrylic acid moieties) compounds adsorbed from highly diluted solutions onto Au and indium tin oxide electrode surfaces. Strong intramolecular charge separation (negative SPV signals up to more than 0.1 V) due to directed molecule adsorption was observed only for spirobifluorene donor–acceptor compounds with carboxylic acid moiety. SPV signals and onset energies of electronic transitions depended on ambience conditions. - Highlights: ► Fluorene donor–acceptor derivatives were adsorbed at Au and indium tin oxide. ► Surface photovoltage measurements were performed with a Kelvin-probe. ► Strong intra-molecular charge separation was observed. ► SPV signals depended on ambience conditions

  11. Effects of air annealing on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of indium-tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo-Cruz, C.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.; Lopez-Beltran, A.M.; Gracia-Jimenez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of air annealing on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of indium-tin oxide thin films were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the UV-visible range, reflectance-transmittance spectra at normal incidence in the infrared range, electrical resistivity measurements, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that annealing at 300 o C produces an overall shift to lower photon energies of the optical constant spectra, which is related to the increase in electrical resistivity. The electrical measurements performed in the 25-300 K range show a metallic behavior with large residual resistivity, quantity that increases with annealing temperature and is closely related with the change in the relative intensity of the main diffraction peaks. Also it is shown that under certain conditions of film deposition onto indium-tin oxide, some of its properties can change in a similar way as in air-annealing processing.

  12. Surface preparation effects on efficient indium-tin-oxide-CdTe and CdS-CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthen, J. G.; Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Bube, R. H.; Zesch, J. C.

    1983-05-01

    The effects of CdTe surface preparation and subsequent junction formation have been investigated through characterization of ITO/CdTe and CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cells formed by electron beam evaporation of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and CdS onto single crystal p-type CdTe. Surfaces investigated include air-cleaved (110) surfaces, bromine-in-methanol etched (110) and (111) surfaces, and teh latter surfaces subjected to a hydrogen heat treatment. Both air-cleaved and hydrogen heat treated surfaces have a stoichiometric Cd to Te ratio. The ITO/CdTe junction formation process involves an air heat treatment, which ahs serious effects on the behavior of junctions formed on these surfaces. Etched surfaces which have a large excesss of Te, are less affected by the junction formation process and result in ITO/CdTe heterojunctions with solar efficiencies of 9% (Vsc =20 mA/cm2). Use of low-doped CdTe results in junctions characterized by considerably larger open-circuit votages (Voc =0.81 V) which are attributable to increasing diode factors caused by a shift from interfacial recombination to recombination in the depletion region. Resulting solar efficiencies reach 10.5% which is the highest value reported to date for a genuine CdTe heterojunction, CdS/CdTe heterojunctions show a strong dependence on CdTe surface condition, but less influence on the junction formation process. Solar efficiencies of 7.5% on an etched and heat treated surface are observed. All of these ITO/CdTe and CdS/CdTe heterojunctions have been stable for at least 10 months.

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Andrea; Salamandra, Luigi; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bell, John Marcus; Motta, Nunzio

    2012-01-01

    The electrical performance of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass was improved by including a controlled layer of carbon nanotubes directly on top of the ITO film. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, using ultrathin Fe layers as catalyst. The process parameters (temperature, gas flow and duration) were carefully refined to obtain the appropriate size and density of MWCNTs with a minimum decrease of the light harvesting in the cell. When used as anodes for organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), the MWCNT-enhanced electrodes are found to improve the charge-carrier extraction from the photoactive blend, thanks to the additional percolation paths provided by the CNTs. The work function of as-modified ITO surfaces was measured by the Kelvin probe method to be 4.95 eV, resulting in an improved matching to the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the P3HT. This is in turn expected to increase the hole transport and collection at the anode, contributing to the significant increase of current density and open-circuit voltage observed in test cells created with such MWCNT-enhanced electrodes.

  14. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Capasso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrical performance of indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass was improved by including a controlled layer of carbon nanotubes directly on top of the ITO film. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, using ultrathin Fe layers as catalyst. The process parameters (temperature, gas flow and duration were carefully refined to obtain the appropriate size and density of MWCNTs with a minimum decrease of the light harvesting in the cell. When used as anodes for organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, the MWCNT-enhanced electrodes are found to improve the charge-carrier extraction from the photoactive blend, thanks to the additional percolation paths provided by the CNTs. The work function of as-modified ITO surfaces was measured by the Kelvin probe method to be 4.95 eV, resulting in an improved matching to the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the P3HT. This is in turn expected to increase the hole transport and collection at the anode, contributing to the significant increase of current density and open-circuit voltage observed in test cells created with such MWCNT-enhanced electrodes.

  15. Indium tin oxide coated conducting glass electrode for electrochemical destruction of textile colorants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandara, J.; Wansapura, P.T.; Jayathilaka, S.P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Galvanostatic oxidation of 5.0 x 10 -2 mM textile dyes such as Eosin Y (EY) and Orange II (Or II) was carried out on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass anode in the presence of 1.0 x 10 -2 mM KCl solution at pH 4.0 and 6.0. The degradation results of EY were compared with that of highly stable azo dyes (Or II). EY dye solution with a concentration of 5.0 x 10 -2 mM is totally decolorized in 30 min at an electrical charge (Q) 0.067 A h dm -3 while 5.0 x 10 -2 mM Or II degraded in a little less than an hour at the same electrical charge density. The decay kinetics of dyes follows a pseudo first-order reaction. The degradation of dyes is faster in acidic pH values than in basic pH values. Electrochemical degradation results show significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) values after electrodegradation of textile dyes. The key advantage of the ITO conducting glass anode is that the deposition of polymeric materials on the anode surface during electro-degradation of textile dyes is absent and therefore the electrode fouling is not observed. Hence, the ITO anodes can be employed an extended period without loss of activity

  16. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praig, Vera G.; Szunerits, Sabine [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piret, Gaelle; Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Manesse, Mael [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Castel, Xavier [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR), UMR CNRS 6164, 18 rue H. Wallon, BP 406, 22004 Saint-Brieuc Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-11-15

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 . Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with {lambda}{sub max}=675{+-} 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices. (author)

  17. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praig, Vera G.; Piret, Gaelle; Manesse, Mael; Castel, Xavier; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 deg. Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with λ max = 675 ± 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices

  18. Defect-induced instability mechanisms of sputtered amorphous indium tin zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Rim, You Seung; Li, Chao; Wu, Jiechen; Goorsky, Mark; Streit, Dwight

    2018-04-01

    We report the device performance and stability of sputtered amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide (ITZO) thin-film transistors as a function of oxygen ratio [O2/(Ar + O2)] during growth. Increasing the oxygen ratio enhanced the incorporation of oxygen during ITZO film growth and reduced the concentration of deep-level defects associated with oxygen vacancies. Under illumination with no bias stress, device stability and persistent photocurrent were improved with increased oxygen ratio. Bias stress tests of the devices were also performed with and without illumination. While high oxygen ratio growth conditions resulted in decreased deep-level oxygen vacancies in the ITZO material, the same conditions resulted in degradation of the interfacial layer between the ITZO channel and dielectric due to the migration of energetic oxygen ions to the interface. Therefore, when bias stress was applied, increased carrier trap density at the interface led to a decrease in device stability that offsets any improvement in the material itself. In order to take advantage of the improved ITZO material growth at a high oxygen ratio, the interface-related problems must be solved.

  19. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  20. The Effect of Annealing on Nanothick Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Films for Touch Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the sheet resistance of ultrathin indium tin oxide (ITO transparent conductive films during the postannealing treatment. The thickness of the ultrathin ITO films is 20 nm. They are prepared on B270 glass substrates at room temperature by a direct-current pulsed magnetron sputtering system. Ultrathin ITO films with high sheet resistance are commonly used for touch panel applications. As the annealing temperature is increased, the structure of the ultrathin ITO film changes from amorphous to polycrystalline. The crystalline of ultrathin ITO films becomes stronger with an increase of annealing temperature, which further leads to the effect of enhanced Hall mobility. A postannealing treatment in an atmosphere can enhance the optical transmittance owing to the filling of oxygen vacancies, but the sheet resistance rises sharply. However, a higher annealing temperature, above 250°C, results in a decrease in the sheet resistance of ultrathin ITO films, because more Sn ions become an effective dopant. An optimum sheet resistance of 336 Ω/sqr was obtained for ultrathin ITO films at 400°C with an average optical transmittance of 86.8% for touch sensor applications.

  1. Aligned carbon nanotube webs as a replacement for indium tin oxide in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, Kallista; Fanchini, Giovanni; Watkins, Scott E.; Huynh, Chi P.; Hawkins, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated with flexible webs of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). These webs were drawn from a forest of MWNTs and placed directly onto the device substrate to form the hole collecting electrode. Devices were fabricated on glass substrates with one or two MWNT web layers to study the trade-off between transparency and resistivity on device performance. Devices with two web layers performed better with a fill factor of 0.47 and a device power conversion efficiency of 1.66% due to their higher conductivity. Flexible devices on Mylar substrates were also demonstrated with an efficiency of 1.2% indicating the potential of MWNT webs as a flexible alternative to the more conventional indium tin oxide. - Highlights: ► Drawable carbon nanotube webs were used as an anode in bulk heterojunction cells. ► One and two layers of carbon nanotube webs were compared. ► A thick active layer of ∼ 530 nm was needed to avoid shunting through nanotubes. ► Two layers of web gave the better efficiency of 1.6%. ► Flexible devices on Mylar were demonstrated with 1.2% efficiency

  2. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical characteristics of the patterned CdS microarrays on indium tin oxide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Lu, Yongjuan; Yang, Baoping; Yi, Gewen; Jia, Junhong

    2010-12-01

    In an effort to investigate the extraordinary photoelectrochemical characteristics of nanostructured CdS thin films in promising photovoltaic device applications, the patterned CdS microarrays with different feature sizes (50, 130, and 250 μm in diameter) were successfully fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The ultraviolet lithography process was employed for fabricating patterned octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as the functional organic thin layer template. The results show that the regular and compact patterned CdS microarrays had been deposited onto ITO glass surfaces, with clear edges demarcating the boundaries between the patterned CdS region and substrate under an optimal depositing condition. The microarrays consisted of pure nanocrystalline CdS with average crystallite size of about 10.7 nm. The photocurrent response and the optical adsorption of the patterned CdS microarray thin films increased with the decrease of the feature size, which was due to the increased CdS surface area, as well as the increased optical path length within the patterned CdS thin films, resulting from multiple reflection of incident light. The resistivity values increase with the increase of feature size, due to the increase of the relative amount of gaps between CdS microarrays with increasing the feature size of patterned CdS microarrays.

  3. Electrical conduction of Si/indium tin oxide/Si junctions fabricated by surface activated bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianbo; Ogawa, Tomoki; Hara, Tomoya; Araki, Kenji; Kamioka, Takefumi; Shigekawa, Naoteru

    2018-02-01

    The electrical properties of n+-Si//indium tin oxide (ITO)/n+-Si, n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si, and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions fabricated by surface activated bonding (SAB) were investigated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of n+-Si//ITO/n+-Si, n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si, and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions showed excellent linear properties. The interface resistances of n+-Si//ITO/n+-Si, n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si, and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions were found to be 0.030, 0.025, and 0.029 Ω·cm2, respectively, which are lower than required for concentrator photovoltaics. The interface resistances of all the junctions increased with increasing annealing temperature. The degradation of the interface resistance is lower in n+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions than in n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions, when the annealing temperature is higher than 100 °C. These results demonstrate that the ITO thin film as an intermediate layer has high potential application for the connection of subcells in the fabrication of tandem solar cells.

  4. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhinong; Li Yuqiong; Xia Fan; Zhao Zhiwei; Xue Wei

    2009-01-01

    The optical, electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by ion beam assisted deposition at room temperature were investigated. The properties of ITO films can be improved by introducing a buffer layer of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) between the ITO film and the PET substrate. ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET have better crystallinity, lower electrical resistivity, and improved resistance stability under bending than those deposited on bare PET. The average transmittance and the resistivity of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET are 85% and 0.90 x 10 -3 Ω cm, respectively, and when the films are bent, the resistance remains almost constant until a bending radius of 1 cm and it increases slowly under a given bending radius with an increase of the bending cycles. The improved resistance stability of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET is mainly attributed to the perfect adhesion of ITO films induced by the SiO 2 buffer layer.

  5. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  6. Flexibility of the Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film Deposited Onto the Plastic Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Lu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize the RF magnetron sputtering system to deposit the indium tin oxide (ITO conductive transparent film with low resistivity and high light transmittance to the polyethylene tetephthalate (PET plastic substrate and measure the film’s bending property and reliability at different tensile/compressive strain bending curvatures as well as the flexibility after cycling bending. The results show that the critical curvatures corresponded to the significant increase in the resistance of the 150 nm-thick ITO film deposited onto the PET substrate under tensile and compressive stress areO 14.1 mm and 5.4 mm, respectively. By observing the film’s surface crack and morphology, we can further discover that the critical curvature of the crack generated when the film is bent is quite consistent with the critical curvature at which the conductivity property degrades, and the film can withstand a higher compressive strain bending. In addition, the resistance and adhesion behavior of the film almost is unchanged after cycling bent for 1000 times with the curvature below the critical curvature.

  7. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  8. Multilayer microfluidic systems with indium-tin-oxide microelectrodes for studying biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chiu; Lyau, Jia-Bo; Lin, Min-Hsuan; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chen, Hsin

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary semiconductor and micromachining technologies have been exploited to develop lab-on-a-chip microsystems, which enable parallel and efficient experiments in molecular and cellular biology. In these microlab systems, microfluidics play an important role for automatic transportation or immobilization of cells and bio-molecules, as well as for separation or mixing of different chemical reagents. However, seldom microlab systems allow both morphology and electrophysiology of biological cells to be studied in situ. This kind of study is important, for example, for understanding how neuronal networks grow in response to environmental stimuli. To fulfill this application need, this paper investigates the possibility of fabricating multi-layer photoresists as microfluidic systems directly above a glass substrate with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. The microfluidic channels are designed to guide and trap biological cells on top of ITO electrodes, through which the electrical activities of cells can be recorded or elicited. As both the microfluidic system and ITO electrodes are transparent, the cellular morphology is observable easily during electrophysiological studies. Two fabrication processes are proposed and compared. One defines the structure and curing depth of each photoresist layer simply by controlling the exposure time in lithography, while the other further utilizes a sacrificial layer to defines the structure of the bottom layer. The fabricated microfluidic system is proved bio-compatible and able to trap blood cells or neurons. Therefore, the proposed microsystem will be useful for studying cultured cells efficiently in applications such as drug-screening.

  9. Fractal morphological analysis of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) layers deposited onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengadesh, P.; Muniandy, S.V.; Majid, W.H. Abd.

    2009-01-01

    Uniform Bacteriorhodopsin layers for the purpose of fabricating Bacteriorhodopsin-based biosensors were prepared by allowing drying of the layers under a constant electric field. To properly observe and understand the 'electric field effect' on the protein Bacteriorhodopsin, the electric and non-electric field influenced Bacteriorhodopsin layers prepared using a manual syringe-deposition method applied onto Indium Tin Oxide electrodes were structurally investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The results yield obvious morphological differences between the electric and non-electric field assisted Bacteriorhodopsin layers and brings to attention the occurrence of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect in the latter case. We applied stochastic fractal method based on the generalized Cauchy process to describe the morphological features surrounding the void. Fractal dimension is used to characterize the local regularity of the Bacteriorhodopsin clusters and the correlation exponent is used to describe the long-range correlation between the clusters. It is found that the Bacteriorhodopsin protein tends to exhibit with strong spatial correlation in the presence of external electric field compared to in absence of the electric field. Long-range correlation in the morphological feature may be associated to the enhancement of aggregation process of Bacteriorhodopsin protein in the presence of electric field, thereby inhibiting the formation of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect. As such, the observations discussed in this work suggest some amount of control of surface uniformity when forming layers.

  10. Laser scribing of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on various substrates for touch panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau; Chen, Ming-Fei; Chou, Chang-Pin

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a Nd:YAG laser with wavelength of 1064 nm is used to scribe the indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films coated on three types of substrate materials, i.e. soda-lime glass, polycarbonate (PC), and cyclic-olefin-copolymer (COC) materials with thickness of 20 nm, 30 nm, and 20 nm, respectively. The effect of exposure time adjusted from 10 μs to 100 μs on the ablated mark width, depth, and electrical properties of the scribed film was investigated. The maximum laser power of 2.2 W was used to scribe these thin films. In addition, the surface morphology, surface reaction, surface roughness, optical properties, and electrical conductivity properties were measured by a scanning electron microscope, a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope, an atomic force microscope, and a four-point probe. The measured results of surface morphology show that the residual ITO layer was produced on the scribed path with the laser exposure time at 10 μs and 20 μs. The better edge qualities of the scribed lines can be obtained when the exposure time extends from 30 μs to 60 μs. When the laser exposure time is longer than 60 μs, the partially burned areas of the scribed thin films on PC and COC substrates are observed. Moreover, the isolated line width and resistivity values increase when the laser exposure time increases.

  11. Influence of Thermal Annealing on the Microstructural Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Nam; Kim, Seung Bin [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyun Chul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In this work, we studied the microstructural changes of ITO during the annealing process. ITO nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method using indium tin hydroxide as the precursor. The prepared sample was investigated using TEM, powder XRD, XPS, DRIFT, and 2D correlation analysis. The O 1s XPS spectra suggested that the microstructural changes during the annealing process are closely correlated with the oxygen sites of the ITO nanoparticles. The temperature-dependent in situ DRIFT spectra suggested that In-OH in the terminal sites is firstly decomposed and, then, Sn-O-Sn is produced in the ITO nanoparticles during the thermal annealing process. Based on the 2D correlation analysis, we deduced the following sequence of events: 1483 (due to In-OH bending mode) → 2268, 2164 (due to In-OH stretching mode) → 1546 (due to overtones of Sn- O-Sn modes) → 1412 (due to overtones of Sn-O-Sn modes) cm{sup -1}.

  12. Indium tin oxide films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN-Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro., 76001 (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN-Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro., 76001 (Mexico)], E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx

    2009-02-27

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on unheated polyethylene naphthalate substrates by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (90 wt.%) containing SnO{sub 2} (10 wt.%) target. We report the structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films as a function of rf power and deposition time. Low rf power values, in the range of 100-130 W, were employed in the deposition process to avoid damage to the plastic substrates by heating caused by the plasma. The films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and optical transmission measurements. A Hall measurement system was used to measure the carrier concentration and electrical resistivity of the films by the Van der Pauw method. The X-ray diffraction measurements analysis showed that the ITO films are polycrystalline with the bixbite cubic crystalline phase. It is observed a change in the preferential crystalline orientation of the films from the (222) to the (400) crystalline orientation with increasing rf power or deposition time in the sputtering process. The optical transmission of the films was around 80% with electrical resistivity and sheet resistance down to 4.9 x 10{sup -4} {omega}cm and 14 {omega}/sq, respectively.

  13. Design of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with indium-tin-oxide top claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shen-Che; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Chiu, Han-Lun; Lan, Shao-Wun; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Li, Heng; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2018-02-01

    Electrically pumped GaAs-based photonic crystal surface emitting lasers were fabricated using a simple fabrication process by directly capping the indium-tin-oxide transparent conducting thin film as the top cladding layer upon a photonic crystal layer. Optimization of the separate-confinement heterostructures of a laser structure is crucial to improving characteristics by providing advantageous optical confinements. The turn-on voltage, series resistance, threshold current, and slope efficiency of the laser with a 100 × 100 μm2 photonic crystal area operated at room temperature were 1.3 V, 1.5 Ω, 121 mA, and 0.2 W/A, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated a single-lobed lasing wavelength of 928.6 nm at 200 mA and a wavelength redshift rate of 0.05 nm/K in temperature-dependent measurements. The device exhibited the maximum output power of approximately 400 mW at an injection current of 2 A; moreover, divergence angles of less than 1° for the unpolarized circular-shaped laser beam were measured at various injection currents. Overall, the low threshold current, excellent beam quality, small divergence, high output power, and high-operating-temperature (up to 343 K) of our devices indicate that they can potentially fill the requirements for next-generation light sources and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships for Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys with minor additions of cadmium, indium or tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Minor amounts of cadmium, indium or tin were added to a baseline alloy with the nominal composition of Al-2.4Cu-2.4Li-0.15Zr. These elements were added in an attempt to increase the age-hardening response of the material such that high strengths could be achieved through heat-treatment alone, without the need for intermediate mechanical working. The alloy variant containing indium achieved a higher peak hardness in comparison to the other alloy variations, including the baseline material, when aged at temperatures ranging from 160 C to 190 C. Tensile tests on specimens peak-aged at 160 indicated the yield strength of the indium-bearing alloy increased by approximately 15 percent compared to that of the peak-aged baseline alloy. In addition, the yield strength obtained in the indium-bearing alloy was comparable to that reported for similar baseline material subjected to a 6 percent stretch prior to peak-aging at 190 C. The higher strength levels obtaied for the indium-bearing alloy are attributed to increased number densities and homogeneity of both the T1 and theta-prime phases, as determined by TEM studies.

  15. Extraction of indium-tin oxide from end-of-life LCD panels using ultrasound assisted acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souada, Malika; Louage, Christophe; Doisy, Jean-Yves; Meunier, Ludivine; Benderrag, Abdelkader; Ouddane, Baghdad; Bellayer, Séverine; Nuns, Nicolas; Traisnel, Michel; Maschke, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    In this report, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-layer extraction from end-of-life (EOL) Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) was discussed by sulfuric acid leaching with simultaneous application of ultrasonication on the ITO-side of glass/ITO panels, exhibiting various dimensions. Applying this technique presents several advantages compared to the traditional leaching process such as fast and controllable kinetics, high extraction yield of indium and tin, selective recovery of these two metals possible, and the opportunity to recycle the neat glass separately avoiding additional separation processes. ITO-dissolution kinetics from EOL LCD panels were investigated as function of leaching time and acidity of sulfuric acid. At a temperature of 60°C, a nearly quantitative indium yield was obtained using an acid concentration of 18mol/L by simultaneous application of ultrasonication, whereas only 70% were recovered in the absence of ultrasound. Results from ICP-AES agreed well with SEM/BSE observations demonstrating the high efficiency of the ultrasound assisted process since only 3-4min were required to obtain maximum ITO recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of mechanical reliability by patterned silver/Indium-Tin-Oxide structure for flexible electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Kyunghyun; Jang, Kyungsoo; Lee, Youn-Jung; Ryu, Kyungyul; Choi, Woojin [School of Electronic Electrical Engineering, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doyoung [School of Electricity and Electronics, Ulsan College, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.kr [School of Electronic Electrical Engineering, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    We report the effect of silver (Ag)-buffer layer Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) film on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate on the electrical, optical and reliable properties for transparent–flexible displays. The electrical and optical characteristics of an ITO-only film and an Ag-layer-inserted ITO film are measured and compared to assess the applicability of the triple layered structure in flexible displays. The sheet resistance, the resistivity and the light transmittance of the ITO-only film were 400 Ω/sq, 1.33 × 10{sup −3} Ω-cm and 99.2%, while those of the ITO film inserted with a 10 nm thick Ag layer were 165 Ω/sq, 4.78 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm and about 97%, respectively. To evaluate the mechanical reliability of the different ITO films, bending tests were carried out. After the dynamic bending test of 900 cycles, the sheet resistance of the ITO film inserted with the Ag layer changed from 154 Ω/sq to 475 Ω/sq, about a 3-time increase but that of the ITO-only film changed from 400 Ω/sq to 61,986 Ω/sq, about 150-time increase. When the radius is changed from 25 mm to 20 mm in the static bending test, the sheet resistance of the ITO-only film changed from 400 to 678.3 linearly whereas that of the Ag-layer inserted ITO film changed a little from 154.4 to 154.9. These results show that Ag-layer inserted ITO film had better mechanical characteristics than the ITO-only film. - Highlights: ► Transparent flexible electrode fabricated on glass substrate. ► Electrode fabricated using vertically-patterned design on glass substrate. ► Optimization of the vertical patterns ► Application of the vertically-patterned electrode in transparent–flexible electronics.

  17. Surface properties of indium tin oxide treated by Cl2 inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Kongduo; Yang, Xilu; Yan, Hang; Gong, Junyi; Zhong, Shaofeng; Ou, Qiongrong; Liang, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The work function of chlorinated ITO increases initially by up to 1 eV. • The chlorinated ITO keeps an increment of work function of 0.3 eV after 100 days. • The WF decrease curves can be fitted with double exponential functions. • The desorption of unstable Cl in the surface leads to the rapid decrease of WF. • The core levels of In 3d5 and Sn 3d5 and O 1s shift toward higher binding energies. - Abstract: The effects of Cl 2 inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment on the time dependence of work function (WF) and surface properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) were investigated. Kelvin probe (KP) measurements show that the WF after Cl 2 ICP treatment is close to 5.9 eV. The WF decrease curve of Cl 2 plasma treated ITO is fitted with double exponential functions with an adjusted R-square of 0.99. The mechanism under the decrease process is discussed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ITO WF decrease after Cl 2 ICP treatment performs much better than that after O 2 ICP treatment and the chlorinated ITO keeps a WF increment of 0.3 eV compared with that without plasma treatment after 100 days. Other properties of chlorinated ITO surface such as morphology and transmittance change slightly. The results are significant for the understanding of degradation of Cl 2 plasma treated ITO and the fabrication of organic semiconductor devices

  18. Antimicrobial activity of T4 bacteriophage conjugated indium tin oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu E; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Justin Gooding, J; Amal, Rose

    2018-03-15

    We report the antimicrobial activity of bare and surface functionalized indium tin oxide (ITO) conjugated with T4 bacteriophage towards E. coli. A ∼ 10 3 -fold reduction (99.9%) in the bacterial concentration was achieved within 2 h exposure of E. coli to the bare as well as the amine, carboxylic and methyl functionalized ITO/T4 surfaces. Despite the known differences in bacteriophage loading of these ITO/T4 systems, the almost identical extent of antimicrobial activity of all of the ITO/T4 systems resulted from the release of a comparable amount of infective T4 from the systems. As anticipated, a single dose of immobilized bacteriophage was sufficient to eliminate further surge of bacterial population. Upon the 2 h eradication of the '1st batch' of E. coli population, all of the ITO/T4 systems, each system with 10 2 -fold more suspended bacteriophage (due to propagation of the phage at the expense of the '1st batch' E. coli death), reduced the '2nd batch' of E. coli concentration by ∼10 4 -fold in just 30 min, suggesting the potential of immobilized bacteriophage systems as solution to the issues of antimicrobial agent depletion. All of the ITO/T4 systems maintained their antimicrobial activity in the presence of model food components. The antimicrobial activity was however, affected by pH; at pH 5 whereby the bacteria's growth was physiologically inhibited, generally no reduction in E. coli concentration was detected. The present work provides an understanding of the mode of antimicrobial activity exhibited by an immobilized bacteriophage based substrate and demonstrates efficacy in the presence of food components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conductivity and adhesion enhancement in low-temperature processed indium tin oxide/polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, Ilja, E-mail: ilja.maksimenko@ww.uni-erlangen.d [Department of Materials Science and Engineering 6, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Gross, Michael [Department of Materials Science and Engineering 6, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Koeniger, Tobias; Muenstedt, Helmut [Department of Materials Science and Engineering 5, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wellmann, Peter J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering 6, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    We report on the conductivity and adhesion enhancement of indium tin oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn; ITO) nanoparticle films by the application of polymers as matrix material. We fabricated ITO layers at a maximum process temperature of 130 {sup o}C by modifying and spin-coating nanoparticulate ITO dispersions. Dispersions containing the organic film-forming agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and the organofunctional coupling agent 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) have been developed to obtain transparent and conducting coatings on substrates which do not withstand high process temperatures like polymers or already processed glasses. The layers were cured by UV-irradiation as well as by low-temperature heat treatment (T = 130 {sup o}C) in air and under forming gas atmosphere (N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}). The influence of the additives on the electrical, optical, morphological and mechanical layer properties is reported. Compared to best pure ITO layers (3.1 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}), the ITO-MPTS-PVP nanocomposite coatings exhibit a conductance of 9.8 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Stable sheet resistances of 750 {Omega}/{open_square} at a coexistent transmittance of 86% at 550 nm for a layer thickness of about 1.3 {mu}m were achieved. The conductance enhancement is a consequence of the consolidation of the ITO nanoparticle network due to the acting shrinkage forces caused either by drying in the case of PVP or UV-irradiation induced condensation and polymerization reactions in the case of MPTS.

  20. Structure, stability and electrochromic properties of polyaniline film covalently bonded to indium tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenzhi, E-mail: zhangwz@xatu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Ju, Wenxing; Wu, Xinming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qiguan; Zhou, Hongwei; Wang, Sumin [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Hu, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: A chemical bonding approach was proposed to prepare the PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities and stability compared with that obtained by conventional film-forming approach. - Highlights: • The PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared using ABPA as modifier. • The oxidative potentials of the obtained PANI film were decreased. • The obtained PANI film exhibits high electrochemical activities and stability. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was modified with 4-aminobenzylphosphonic acid (ABPA), and then the polyaniline (PANI) film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared by the chemical oxidation polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that chemical binding was formed between PANI and ABPA-modified ITO surface, and the maximum thickness of PANI layer is about 30 nm. The adhesive strength of PANI film on ITO substrate was tested by sonication. It was found that the film formed on the modified ITO exhibited a much better stability than that on bare one. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements indicated that the oxidative potentials of PANI film on ABPA-modified ITO substrate were decreased and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities. Moreover, the optical contrast increased from 0.58 for PANI film (without ultrasound) to 1.06 for PANI film (after ultrasound for 60 min), which had an over 83% enhancement. The coloration time was 20.8 s, while the bleaching time was 19.5 s. The increase of electrochromic switching time was due to the lower ion diffusion coefficient of the large cation of (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N{sup +} under the positive and negative potentials as comparison with the small Li{sup +} ion.

  1. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung-Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In [Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8 nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}, comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10 nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs.

  2. Improvement of mechanical reliability by patterned silver/Indium-Tin-Oxide structure for flexible electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Kyunghyun; Jang, Kyungsoo; Lee, Youn-Jung; Ryu, Kyungyul; Choi, Woojin; Kim, Doyoung; Yi, Junsin

    2013-01-01

    We report the effect of silver (Ag)-buffer layer Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) film on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate on the electrical, optical and reliable properties for transparent–flexible displays. The electrical and optical characteristics of an ITO-only film and an Ag-layer-inserted ITO film are measured and compared to assess the applicability of the triple layered structure in flexible displays. The sheet resistance, the resistivity and the light transmittance of the ITO-only film were 400 Ω/sq, 1.33 × 10 −3 Ω-cm and 99.2%, while those of the ITO film inserted with a 10 nm thick Ag layer were 165 Ω/sq, 4.78 × 10 −4 Ω-cm and about 97%, respectively. To evaluate the mechanical reliability of the different ITO films, bending tests were carried out. After the dynamic bending test of 900 cycles, the sheet resistance of the ITO film inserted with the Ag layer changed from 154 Ω/sq to 475 Ω/sq, about a 3-time increase but that of the ITO-only film changed from 400 Ω/sq to 61,986 Ω/sq, about 150-time increase. When the radius is changed from 25 mm to 20 mm in the static bending test, the sheet resistance of the ITO-only film changed from 400 to 678.3 linearly whereas that of the Ag-layer inserted ITO film changed a little from 154.4 to 154.9. These results show that Ag-layer inserted ITO film had better mechanical characteristics than the ITO-only film. - Highlights: ► Transparent flexible electrode fabricated on glass substrate. ► Electrode fabricated using vertically-patterned design on glass substrate. ► Optimization of the vertical patterns ► Application of the vertically-patterned electrode in transparent–flexible electronics

  3. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  4. Surface Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles to Improve Its Distribution in Epoxy-Silica Polymer Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A semiconducting nanoparticle indium tin oxide (ITO was modified with silane groups and for this purpose trimethoxysilane (TMOS precursor was used under specific experimental conditions for surface modification of ITO nanoparticles. It is found that the modification of ITO nanoparticles increases the interactions between the filler and the matrix and subsequently improves the distibution of indium tin oxide nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The epoxisilica polymer matrix was produced using trimethoxysilane and 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane precursors and ethylenediamine (EDA as curing agent at low temperature by sol-gel process. The sol-gel process was very useful due to its easily controllable process, solution concentration and homogeneity without using expensive and complicated equipments in comparison with other methods. Then, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was employed to study the formation of Si-O-Si and Si-OH groups on ITO nanoparticles. X-Ray diffraction (XRD technique and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA were employed to investigate the modification and weight loss of the modified ITO, respectively, as an indication of the presence of organic groups on these nanoparticles. The separation analyzer tests were performed to check the stability of the nanoparticles suspension and it revealed that due to better interaction of nanoparticles with the polymer matrix the stability of modified ITO suspention is higher than the unmodified sample. The morphology and particle distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the distibution of modified indium tin oxide in epoxy-silica polymer matrix was improved in comparison with pure ITO.

  5. Chemical composition of cadmium selenochromite crystals doped with indium, silver and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, N.K.; Ochertyanova, L.I.; Shabunina, G.G.; Aminov, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The high accuracy chemical analysis Which allows one to observe doping effect on the cadmium selenochromite crystal composition is performed. The problem on the possibility of impurity atom substitution for basic element is considered on the basis of data of atomic-absorption analysis of doped crystals. The crystals of cadmium selenochromite doped with indium by chromium to cadmium ratio are distributed into two groups and probably two types of substitution take place. At 0.08-1.5 at.% indium concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio >2. One can assume that indium preferably takes cadmium tetrahedral positions whereas at 1.5-2.5 at. % concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio =2 and cadmium is substituted for silver which does not contradict crystallochemical and physical properties of this compound. In crystals with gallium the Cr/Cd ratio <2. Gallium preferably substitutes chromium

  6. Improved localized surface plasmon resonance index sensitivity based on chemically-synthesized gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Biao; Tian, Yubo

    2018-02-01

    The results of this reported work indicated that gold nanoparticle arrays self-assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses can obtain broader localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength range and higher sensitivity than the bare quartz. The results of surface electric field calculated using finite difference time domain showed that the electric field of nanoparticles on ITO glasses is enhanced and the repulsive forces within each particle is weakened. According to the dipolar interaction mechanism, a weakened repulsive forces within each particle lead to a lower resonance frequency and a strong redshift of the LSPR spectra.

  7. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angshuman Deka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT on soda lime glass (SLG and indium-tin oxide (ITO coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C–O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  8. Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large-area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    A roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells that does not involve indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is presented. A commercially available kapton foil with an overlayer of copper was used as the substrate. Sputtering of titanium metal onto the kapton/copper in an R2R vacuum process gave the monolithic...... substrate and back electrode for the devices. The active layer was slot-die coated onto the kapton/Cu/Ti foil followed by slot-die coating of a layer of PEDOT:PSS. No patterning of the first four layers was necessary and only the final front electrode required a pattern. The front electrode was applied...

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cell architecture based on indium-tin oxide nanowires coated with titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanni, Ednan; Savu, Raluca; Sousa Goes, Marcio de; Bueno, Paulo Roberto; Nei de Freitas, Jilian; Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Longo, Elson; Varela, Jose Arana

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for dye-sensitized solar cells is employed, based on a nanostructured transparent conducting oxide protruding from the substrate, covered with a separate active oxide layer. The objective is to decrease electron-hole recombination. The concept was tested by growing branched indium-tin oxide nanowires on glass using pulsed laser deposition followed by deposition of a sputtered titanium dioxide layer covering the wires. The separation of charge generation and charge transport functions opens many possibilities for dye-sensitized solar cell optimization

  10. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my; Yow, H.K. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Konkoly-Thege ut 29-33, Budapest XII (Hungary)

    2008-04-30

    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O{sub 2}), nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to < 4 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O{sub 2} and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N{sub 2} and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N{sub 2} but polycrystalline for using O{sub 2} and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O{sub 2} and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO.

  11. Growth and Characterization of Indium Doped ZnO Nano wires Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrar Ismardi; Dee, C.F.; Majlis, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano wires were grown on silicon substrate using vapor thermal deposition method without using any catalyst. Morphological structures were extensively investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and show that the nano wires have uniformly hexagonal nano structures with diameters less than 100 nm and lengths from one to a few microns. The sample was measured for elemental composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Zn, In and O elements were found on the sample. XRD spectrum of indium doped ZnO nano wires revealed that the nano wires have a high crystalline structure. (author)

  12. Plasmon polaritons in the near infrared on fluorine doped tin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Michelotti, Francesco; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2009-06-08

    Here we investigate plasmon polaritons in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films. By fitting reflectance and transmittance measurements as a function of wavelength lambda epsilon [1.0microm, 2.5microm] we derive a Drude dispersion relation of the free electrons in the transparent conducting oxide films. Then we compute the dispersion curves for the bulk and surface modes together with a reflectance map over an extended wavelength region (lambda==>10microm). Although the surface polariton dispersion for a single FTO/air interface when neglecting damping should appear clearly in the plots in the considered region (since it is supposedly far and isolated from other resonances), a complex behaviour can arise. This is due to different characteristic parameters, such as the presence of a finite extinction coefficient, causing an enlargement and backbending of the feature, and the low film thickness, via coupling between the modes from both the glass/FTO and FTO/air interfaces. Taking into account these effects, computations reveal a general behaviour for thin and absorbing conducting films. They predict a thickness dependent transition region between the bulk polariton and the surface plasmon branches as previously reported for indium tin oxide. Finally, attenuated total reflection measurements vs the incidence angle are performed over single wavelengths lines R(theta) (lambda= 0.633,0.830,1.300,1.550microm) and over a two dimensional domain R(theta,lambda) in the near infrared region lambda epsilon [1.45microm, 1.59microm]. Both of these functions exhibit a feature which is attributed to a bulk polariton and not to a surface plasmon polariton on the basis of comparison with spectrophotometer measurements and modeling. The predicted range for the emergence of a surface plasmon polariton is found to be above lambda >or= 2.1microm, while the optimal film thickness for its observation is estimated to be around 200nm.

  13. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-01-01

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO2 and TiO2. In order to ach...

  14. Axially Bound Ruthenium Phthalocyanine Monolayers on Indium Tin Oxide: Structure, Energetics, and Charge Transfer Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehamparam, Ramanan; Oquendo, Luis E; Liao, Michael W; Brynnel, Ambjorn K; Ou, Kai-Lin; Armstrong, Neal R; McGrath, Dominic V; Saavedra, S Scott

    2017-08-30

    The efficiency of charge collection at the organic/transparent conducting oxide (TCO) interface in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices affects overall device efficiency. Modifying the TCO with an electrochemically active molecule may enhance OPV efficiency by providing a charge-transfer pathway between the electrode and the organic active layer, and may also mitigate surface recombination. The synthesis and characterization of phosphonic acid-ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPcPA) monolayer films on indium tin oxide (ITO), designed to facilitate charge harvesting at ITO electrodes, is presented in this work. The PA group was installed axially relative to the Pc plane so that upon deposition, RuPcPA molecules were preferentially aligned with the ITO surface plane. The tilt angle of 22° between the normal axes to the Pc plane and the ITO surface plane, measured by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, is consistent with a predominately in-plane orientation. The effect of surface roughness on RuPcPA orientation was modeled, and a correlation was obtained between experimental and theoretical mean tilt angles. Based on electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical studies, RuPcPA monolayers are composed predominately of monomers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potential modulated-ATR (PM-ATR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the electron-transfer (ET) kinetics of these monolayers. A rate constant of 4.0 × 10 3 s -1 was measured using EIS, consistent with a short tunneling distance between the chromophore and the electrode surface. Using PM-ATR, k s,opt values of 2.2 × 10 3 and 2.4 × 10 3 s -1 were measured using TE and TM polarized light, respectively; the similarity of these values is consistent with a narrow molecular orientation distribution and narrow range of tunneling distances. The ionization potential of RuPcPA-modified ITO was measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and the results indicate favorable energetics for

  15. Indium tin oxide with zwitterionic interfacial design for biosensing applications in complex matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Nadia T.; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei, E-mail: naomikhor@um.edu.my

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. • The resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of BSA–FITC and RBITC–Cyt c were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. • The antifouling interface allows detection of target analytes in highly complicated biological matrices. - Abstract: Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH{sub 2}) and charged, antifouling moieties ((-SO{sup 3−} and N{sup +}(Me){sub 3}) for biosensing applications were prepared for the first time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study

  16. Sintered indium-tin oxide particles induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro, in part through inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Badding

    Full Text Available Indium-tin oxide (ITO is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. As the demand for consumer electronics continues to increase, so does the concern for occupational exposures to particles containing these potentially toxic metal oxides. Indium-containing particles have been shown to be cytotoxic in cultured cells and pro-inflammatory in pulmonary animal models. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which ITO production materials may be the most toxic to workers and how they initiate pulmonary inflammation remain poorly understood. Here we examined four different particle samples collected from an ITO production facility for their ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. Tin oxide, sintered ITO (SITO, and ventilation dust particles activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB within 3 h of treatment. However, only SITO induced robust cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8 within 24 h in both RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Our lab and others have previously demonstrated SITO-induced cytotoxicity as well. These findings suggest that SITO particles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, which has been implicated in several immune-mediated diseases via its ability to induce IL-1β release and cause subsequent cell death. Inflammasome activation by SITO was confirmed, but it required the presence of endotoxin. Further, a phagocytosis assay revealed that pre-uptake of SITO or ventilation dust impaired proper macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli. Our results suggest that adverse inflammatory responses to SITO particles by both macrophage and epithelial cells may initiate and propagate indium lung disease. These findings will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind an emerging occupational health issue.

  17. Electrical properties of vacuum-annealed titanium-doped indium oxide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) films were deposited on Corning glass 2000 substrates at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering followed by vacuum post-annealing. With increasing deposition power, the as-deposited films showed an increasingly crystalline nature. As-deposited

  18. Effect of indium doping on zinc oxide films prepared by chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the conducting and transparent In doped ZnO films fabricated by a homemade chemical spray pyrolysis system (CSPT). The effect of In concentration on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties have been studied. These films are found to show (0 0 2) preferential growth at low indium ...

  19. Growth and characterization of indium doped silicon single crystals at industrial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haringer, Stephan; Giannattasio, Armando; Alt, Hans Christian; Scala, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Indium is becoming one of the most important dopant species for silicon crystals used in photovoltaics. In this work we have investigated the behavior of indium in silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski pulling process. The experiments were performed by growing 200 mm crystals, which is a standard diameter for large volume production, thus the data reported here are of technological interest for the large scale production of indium doped p-type silicon. The indium segregation coefficient and the evaporation rate from the silicon melt have been calculated to be 5 × 10-4 ± 3% and 1.6 × 10-4 cm·s-1, respectively. In contrast to previous works the indium was introduced in liquid phase and the efficiency was compared with that deduced by other authors, using different methods. In addition, the percentage of electrically active indium at different dopant concentrations is calculated and compared with the carrier concentration at room temperature, measured by four-point bulk method.

  20. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  1. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. F., E-mail: babaibaik2002@yahoo.com; Zainol, M. N., E-mail: nizarzainol@yahoo.com; Hannas, M., E-mail: mhannas@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my; Rusop, Mohamad, E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, S. A., E-mail: saadah@um.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 10{sup 3} Ωcm{sup −1}. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  2. Indium tin oxide films prepared by atmospheric plasma annealing and their semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yali; Li Chunyang; He Deyan; Li Junshuai

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) films using the atmospheric plasma annealing (APA) technique combined with the spin-coating method. The ITO film with a low resistivity of ∼4.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high visible light transmittance, above 85%, was achieved. Hall measurement indicates that compared with the optimized ITO films deposited by magnetron sputtering, the above-mentioned ITO film has a higher carrier concentration of ∼1.21 x 10 21 cm -3 and a lower mobility of ∼11.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . More interestingly, these electrical characteristics result in the semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature for the ITO films prepared by APA.

  3. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-06-11

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict such changes as an alternative to fracture mechanics formulations. Our predictions are obtained by assuming that there are no flaws at the onset of loading as opposed to the assumptions of fracture mechanics approaches. We calibrate the crack onset strain and the damage model based on experimental data reported in the literature. We predict crack density and changes in electrical resistance as a function of the damage induced in the films. We implement our model in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT. We obtain fair to good agreement with experiments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Indium-tin-oxide thin film deposited by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J.W.; Kim, J.S.; Yeom, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates at low temperatures (<90 deg. C) by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system, where one gun (gun 1) is facing ITO flux and the other gun (gun 2) is facing the substrate. In this experiment, effects of rf power and oxygen flow rate of ion gun 2 on the electrical and optical properties of depositing ITO thin films were investigated. At optimal deposition conditions, ITO thin films deposited on the PC substrates larger than 20 cmx20 cm showed the sheet resistance of less than 40 Ω/sq., the optical transmittance of above 90%, and the uniformity of about 5%

  5. Enhanced performance in organic photovoltaic devices with a KMnO4 solution treated indium tin oxide anode modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qian-Qian; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Zhang Fu-Jun; Yan Guang; Kong Chao; Fan Xing; Zhang Yan-Fei; Xu Xu-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode treated by a KMnO 4 solution are investigated. The optimized KMnO 4 solution has a concentration of 50 mg/L, and ITO is treated for 15 min. The modification of ITO anode results in an enhancement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device, which is responsible for the increase of the photocurrent. The performance enhancement is attributed to the work function modification of the ITO substrate through the strong oxygenation of KMnO 4 , and then the charge collection efficiency is improved. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Highly efficient fully flexible indium tin oxide free organic light emitting diodes fabricated directly on barrier-foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocksrocker, Tobias; Hülsmann, Neele; Eschenbaum, Carsten; Pargner, Andreas; Höfle, Stefan; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Lemmer, Uli

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple method for the fabrication of highly conductive and fully flexible metal/polymer hybrid anodes for efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). By incorporating ultra-thin metal grids into a conductive polymer, we fabricated anodes with very low sheet resistances and high transparency. After optimizing the metallic grid, OLEDs with these hybrid anodes are superior to OLEDs with standard indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes in luminous efficacy by a factor of ∼ 2. Furthermore, the sheet resistance can be reduced by up to an order of magnitude compared to ITO on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The devices show a very low turn-on voltage and the hybrid anodes do not change the emissive spectra of the OLEDs. In addition, we fabricated the anodes directly on a barrier foil, making the double sided encapsulation of a typically used PET-substrate unnecessary

  7. Flexible organic light-emitting device based on magnetron sputtered indium-tin-oxide on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Tong, S.W.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    A radio-frequency sputtering deposition method was applied to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) on a plastic substrate, polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The correlation of deposition conditions and ITO film properties was systematically investigated and characterized. The optimal ITO films had a transmittance of over 90% in the visible range (400-700 nm) and a resistivity of 5.0x10 -4 Ω-cm. Sequentially α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium, and magnesium-silver were thermally deposited on the ITO-coated PET substrate to fabricate flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). The fabricated devices had a maximum current efficiency of ∼4.1 cd/A and a luminance of nearly 4100 cd/m 2 at 100 mA/cm 2 . These values showed that the FOLEDs had comparable performance characteristics with the conventional organic light-emitting diodes made on ITO-coated glasses with the same device configuration

  8. Controlling the size of gold nanoparticles grown on indium tin oxide substrates prepared by seed mediated growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzia, Vivi; Pratiwi, Nur Intan; Adela, Faiz; Djuhana, Dede

    2016-01-01

    One of the unique optical properties of gold nanoparticles is the enhanced absorption and scattering light around metal nanoparticles commonly called the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) effect of gold nanoparticles. This property is determined by the shape and size of gold nanoparticles. In this work, we observed the role of three materials used in synthesis process on the morphology and the LSPR effect of gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles were directly grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates using the seed mediated growth method with three different concentrations of trisodium citrate (Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 ), C 16 TAB and ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 ). Based on the FESEM image and optical absorption spectrum of gold nanoparticles, it was found that the higher concentration of those materials has decreased the size of gold nananoparticles and shifted the LSPR peaks to lower wavelength.

  9. Fast Inline Roll-to-Roll Printing for Indium-Tin-Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells Using Automatic Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Fast inline roll-to-roll printing and coating on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and barrier foil was demonstrated under ambient conditions at web speeds of 10 mmin1 for the manufacture of indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells comprising a 6-layer stack: silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ Zn...... layer. The third and fourth layers were slot-die coated at the same time again using inline processing at a web speed of 10 mmin1 of firstly zinc oxide as the electron transport layer followed by P3HT:PCBM as the active layer. The first three layers (silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ZnO) comprise a generally...

  10. Effect of cesium assistance on the electrical and structural properties of indium tin oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaewon; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Park, Sung Jin; Yoon, Neung Ku [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sorona Inc., Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi 451-841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by cesium (Cs)-assisted dc magnetron sputtering in an attempt to achieve a high performance at low temperatures. The films were deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer and glass (Eagle 2000) substrates at a substrate temperature of 100 degree sign C with a Cs vapor flow during the deposition process. The ITO thin films deposited in the presence of Cs vapor showed better crystallinity than the control films grown under normal Ar/O{sub 2} plasma conditions. The resistivity of the films with the Cs assistance was lower than that of the control films. The lowest resistivity of 6.2x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, which is {approx}20% lower than that of the control sample, was obtained without any postdeposition thermal annealing. The surface roughness increased slightly when Cs vapor was added. The optical transmittance was >80% at wavelengths ranging from 380 to 700 nm.

  11. On the role of tin doping in InOx thin films deposited by radio frequency-plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, A; Brogueira, P; Lavareda, G; de Carvalho, C Nunes

    2010-04-01

    In view of the increasing need for larger-area display devices with improved image quality it becomes increasingly important to decrease resistivity while maintaining transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). Accomplishing the goal of increased conductivity and transparency will require a deeper understanding of the relationships between the structure and the electro-optical properties of these materials. In this work we study the role of tin doping in InOx thin films. Undoped indium oxide (InOx) and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited at room temperature by radiofrequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE), a new technique recently developed in our laboratory using as evaporation source either In rods or a 90%In:10%Sn alloy, respectively. The two most important macroscopic properties-optical transparency and electrical resistivity-seem to be independent of the tin content in these deposition conditions. Results show that the films present a visible transmittance of the order of 82%, and an electrical resistivity of about 8 x 10(-4) omega x cm. Surface morphology characterization made by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that homogeneity of the films deposited from a 90%In:10%Sn alloy is enhanced (a film with small and compact grains is produced) and consequently a smooth surface with reduced roughness and with similar grain size and shape is obtained. Films deposited from pure In rods evaporation source show the presence of aggregates randomly distributed above a film tissue formed of thinner grains.

  12. Effects of annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machinaga, Hironobu; Ueda, Eri; Mizuike, Atsuko; Takeda, Yuuki; Shimokita, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. The ITO films were annealed at the range from 150 °C to 195 °C after the DC sputtering deposition for the production of polycrystalline ITO layers on the substrates. The onset strains of cracking in the annealed ITO films were evaluated by the uniaxial stretching tests with electrical resistance measurements during film stretching. The results indicate that the onset strain of cracking in the ITO film is clearly increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The in-situ measurements of the inter-planer spacing of the (222) plane in the crystalline ITO films during film stretching by using synchrotron radiation strongly suggest that the large compressive stress in the ITO film increases the onset strain of cracking in the film. X-ray stress analyses of the annealed ITO films and thermal mechanical analyses of the PET substrates also clarifies that the residual compressive stress in the ITO film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature due to the considerably larger shrinkage of the PET substrate. - Highlights: • Indium-tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • Mechanical durability of the ITO is improved by high temperature post-annealing. • The shrinkage in the PET increases with rising the post-annealing temperature. • The shrinkage of the PET enhances the compressive stress in the ITO film. • Large compressive stress in the ITO film may improve its mechanical durability

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussaoui, H., E-mail: elmoussaoui.hassan@gmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Mahfoud, T.; Habouti, S. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); El Maalam, K.; Ben Ali, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M.; Mounkachi, O. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid – BP 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese (Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been investigated. The synthesized nanoparticle sizes have been controlled between 4 and 9 nm, with uniform spherical morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples prepared possess single domain magnetic. The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 4 nm in diameter have a blocking temperature close to 100 K. In addition, the cation distribution obtained from the X-ray diffraction of this sample was confirmed by magnetic measurement. For the Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; (0≤x≤1) samples, the magnetization and coercive fields increase when the augmentation of Mn content increases. For x=0.5, such parameters decrease when the calcination temperature increases. - Highlights: • We have studied the microstructural and the magnetic properties of Sn{sub 1-x}MnxFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have a blocking temperature around 100 K. • The Ms and Hc increase with the augmentation of Mn content.

  14. Influence of Rare Earth Doping on the Structural and Catalytic Properties of Nanostructured Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Adeilton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanoparticles of tin oxide, doped with Ce and Y, were prepared using the polymeric precursor method. The structural variations of the tin oxide nanoparticles were characterized by means of nitrogen physisorption, carbon dioxide chemisorption, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized samples, undoped and doped with the rare earths, were used to promote the ethanol steam reforming reaction. The SnO2-based nanoparticles were shown to be active catalysts for the ethanol steam reforming. The surface properties, such as surface area, basicity/base strength distribution, and catalytic activity/selectivity, were influenced by the rare earth doping of SnO2and also by the annealing temperatures. Doping led to chemical and micro-structural variations at the surface of the SnO2particles. Changes in the catalytic properties of the samples, such as selectivity toward ethylene, may be ascribed to different dopings and annealing temperatures.

  15. Indium-doped aluminium oxide as a non-radioactive test aerosol for aerosol experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosselmeyer, E.; Mueller, H.L.; Seidel, A.; Pickering, S.

    1986-01-01

    For testing inhalation facilities it is advantageous to use a non-radioactive, low toxicity test aerosol which can be detected at low concentrations. These criteria are met by a mechanically generated aerosol of indium-doped alumina. Although some cases of lung fibroses have been associated with the inhalation of aluminium compounds in industry, aluminum oxide aerosols are generally considered to be non-toxic. Indium was chosen as a dopant material because (a) it is not normally present in the lung in detectable amounts, (b) it is chemically similar to aluminum and (c) it can be detected in trace amounts by neutron activation analysis (Friberg et al., 1979). Indium aerosols have the same advantages as radioactive tracers for ease of detection, but they are non-toxic during use. This combination of properties offers advantages that could be of use in a wider range of applications than hitherto used, e.g. in inhalation experiments. This paper describes nose-only inhalation experiments on rats using an aerosol of alumina doped with indium. (author)

  16. Growth of co-doped semi-insulation indium phospide crystals for X-ray detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Ladislav; Žďánský, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 275, - (2005), e409-e413 ISSN 0022-0248. [International Conference on Crystal Growth /14./. Grenoble, 09.08.20004-12.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2067354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : growth from melt * Czochralski method * indium phosphide * semiconductor doping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.681, year: 2005

  17. Positron lifetime measurements in a II-VI compound: indium doped CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gely, C.; Corbel, C.; Triboulet, R.

    1989-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements in as-grown cadmium telluride crystals doped with indium give direct evidence of the presence of monovacancies. The average positron lifetime is measured as a function of temperature. Two different behaviours appear, depending on temperature: in the 5 to 80 K range, one single lifetime is measured, in the 80 to 300 K range, two lifetimes are detected. Positrons are trapped in a defect which may be attributed to a Cd monovacancy [fr

  18. Upscaling of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan

    during production. The costcompetitiveness of PSCs is envisioned achievable by the use of inexpensive materials and high throughput roll-to-roll (R2R) printing and coating techniques. The state-ofthe-art of the laboratory PSCs is, however, far removed from the vision of the widely disseminated low......-cost solar cells as the laboratory solar cells are mostly focused on increasing the power conversion efficiency through materials design with little emphasis on the choice of materials, operational stability and large-scale processing. Indium-tinoxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor......, represents majority of the share of cost and energy footprint in terms of materials and processing in a conventional PSC module. Furthermore, the scarcity of indium is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning PSC industry and its brittle nature is an obstacle for fast processing of PSCs on flexible...

  19. Indium vacancy induced d0 ferromagnetism in Li-doped In2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haiming; Xing, Pengfei; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Dongsheng; Wu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Li-doped In2O3 nanoparticles with room temperature d0 ferromagnetism were prepared by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence were carried out to investigate the effects of Li incorporation on the lattice defects. As the content of Li increases, non-monotonic changes in shifts of XRD peak (2 2 2) and the intensity ratios of indium vacancies related photoluminescence peak (PII) with respect to oxygen vacancies related peak (PI) are observed. Results show that at low doping level (≤2 at.%) Li prefers to occupy In sites, while with further doping the interstitial sites are more favorable for Li. Combined with the consistent non-monotonic change in saturation magnetization, we think that indium vacancies resulting from Li-doping play an important role in inducing d0 ferromagnetism in our Li-doped In2O3 nanoparticles, and the FM coupling is mainly mediated by the LiIn-ONN-VIn-ONN-LiIn chains.

  20. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    annealed at 573 K for 90 min under a vacuum of 10–5 mbar. Films from zinc acetate solution having molarity, 0⋅2 and. 0⋅4 M, were also deposited at optimum doping level keeping the other process parameters constant. The appa- ratus and the deposition details have already been re- ported (Benny Joseph et al 1999).

  1. Electrical and optical properties of thin indium tin oxide films produced by pulsed laser ablation in oxygen or rare gas atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Nordskov, A.

    1999-01-01

    Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate temperatu......Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate...... temperatures at 200 degrees C, the specific resistivity was reduced and the transmission of visible light enhanced for all background gases. Films produced in oxygen turned out to be superior to films deposited in other gases at the same temperature. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. TiO2 nanocrystals shell layer on highly conducting indium tin oxide nanowire for photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Soo; Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Dong Hoe; Han, Gil Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Noh, Jun Hong; Hong, Kug Sun

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrated a highly efficient conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) core-TiO2 nanocrystals shell nanowire array for a photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells with regard to light harvest and charge collection. The TiO2 shell layer, consisting of anatase nanocrystals of ~2 nm, were successfully formed on a single crystalline ITO nanowire prepared via a vapor transport method using repetitive TiCl4 aqueous solution treatments at 50 °C. We found that the nanocrystal size and number of Cl- ions remaining on the formed shell layer critically influence the dye loading properties. Moreover, these factors can be controlled by means of a post-annealing process. We also found that the dye loading and the back electron transport from the conductive ITO nanowire to the electrolyte mainly determine the final cell performance. The proposed double-shell layer structure consisting of dense and porous layers showed significantly improved cell performance.We demonstrated a highly efficient conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) core-TiO2 nanocrystals shell nanowire array for a photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells with regard to light harvest and charge collection. The TiO2 shell layer, consisting of anatase nanocrystals of ~2 nm, were successfully formed on a single crystalline ITO nanowire prepared via a vapor transport method using repetitive TiCl4 aqueous solution treatments at 50 °C. We found that the nanocrystal size and number of Cl- ions remaining on the formed shell layer critically influence the dye loading properties. Moreover, these factors can be controlled by means of a post-annealing process. We also found that the dye loading and the back electron transport from the conductive ITO nanowire to the electrolyte mainly determine the final cell performance. The proposed double-shell layer structure consisting of dense and porous layers showed significantly improved cell performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Raman spectra of the as

  3. The effect of oxygen ion beam bombardment on the properties of tin indium oxide/polyethylene terephthalate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Honglin; Zou, Lin; Ding, Wanyu; Ju, Dongying; Chai, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    The tin indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface that has been bombarded by an O ion beam. The variation of the O bombardment time resulted in the production of ITO/PET complex with different properties. Characterization by four-point probe measurement after the bending fatigue test showed that the adhesion property of the ITO/PET complex could be improved by the increase of O bombardment time while little change of electrical resistivity was observed. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that after the bending fatigue test, the nano scale seams and micro scale trenches appeared at the surface of the ITO/PET complex. The former was only the cracks of ITO film, which has little influence on the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. On the contrary, the micro scale trenches were caused by the peeling off of ITO chips at the cracks, which mainly influenced the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. With the increase of O bombardment time, the number and length of the micro scale trenches decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry characterization showed that with the increase of O bombardment time, parts of the methylene C bonds were transformed into C=O bonds, which could be broken to form C-O-In(Sn) bonds at the initial stage of ITO film growth. By these C-O-In(Sn) crosslink bonds, the ITO film could adhere well onto the PET and the ITO/PET complex display better anti-bending fatigue property. Finally, in the context of the application of the ITO/PET complex as a flexible electrode substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the physicochemical mechanism happening at the interface of complex. - Highlights: • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface was bombarded by N ions. • Tin indium oxide (ITO) film was deposited on bombarded PET surface. • By bombardment, methylene C bond on PET surface was broken and replaced by C=O bond. • C=O bond was

  4. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Dioxide, Indium Tin Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide/Indium Tin Oxide Antireflection Coating on Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2, indium tin oxide (ITO, and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF sputtering. The conductivity and transparency of the ITO film were characterized prior to application on GaAs cells. Reverse saturation-current and ideality factor were used to evaluate the passivation performance of the various coatings on GaAs solar cells. Optical reflectance and external quantum efficiency response were used to evaluate the antireflective performance of the coatings. Photovoltaic current-voltage measurements were used to confirm the efficiency enhancement obtained by the presence of the anti-reflective coatings. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs cells with an ITO antireflective coating (23.52% exceeded that of cells with a SiO2 antireflective coating (21.92%. Due to lower series resistance and higher short-circuit current-density, the carrier collection of the GaAs cell with ITO coating exceeded that of the cell with a SiO2/ITO coating.

  5. Enlargement of photocatalytic efficiency of BaSnO3 by indium doping for thiophene degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobahi, Tariq R.; Amin, M. S.; Mohamed, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    BaSnO3 nanorods were produced by a sol-gel mode. Indium, as dopant, was introduced to the surface of BaSnO3 via photo-assisted deposition technique. Phase composition, microstructure and surface area of the synthesized samples were identified via X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and BET techniques, respectively. State of element, band gap energy and position of emission energy were measured via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence emission spectra (Pl), respectively. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of both BaSnO3 and In/BaSnO3 specimens was implemented for photocatalytic destruction of thiophene solution via visible light irradiation. XPS results displayed the patterns corresponding to the In-In at about 443.8 eV, illustrating the presence of indium metal in a nano-sized scale. A red shift was observed after indium loading within the BaSnO3 lattice which was proved via the UV-Vis analysis. 100% oxidation efficiency percent was attained using 0.3 wt% In/BaSnO3 photocatalyst after 1 h reaction time. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the indium doping into BaSnO3 as a result of its capability to hinder the e--h+ re-combination. The catalyst was reused up to five cycles without any change in its efficiency.

  6. Improved UV Photodetection by Indium Doped TiO₂ Thin Film Based Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mitra Barun; Choudhuri, Bijit; Bhattacharya, P; Barman, R N; Ghosh, A; Dwivedi, S M M Dhar; Chakrabartty, S; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2018-07-01

    Indium (In) was doped into TiO2 thin film (TF) using the electron beam evaporation technique followed by an annealing process. The high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis revealed lower angle diffraction peak (2) shifting of Rutile (002) phases of TiO2 from 61.9 to 61.56 for an increased In doped samples. Calculated average grain size from FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) gradually decreased from 21.12 nm to 17.03 mm with an increase in In content ranging from 1.45~17.30 at%. HRXRD data revealed that crystallite sizes also reduced from 21.79 nm to 16.93 nm with an increased In doping concentration. Doping of In leads to the formation of inhomogeneous InxTiy O2 alloy that enhances the transition between 3.3-3.42 eV energy levels with variation in doping concentration. The photo-efficiencies for increased doping concentration of In with 3.47 at% and 17.30 at% were enhanced by 2.56 and 2.76 times, respectively, compared to the undoped TiO2 TF detector and both were larger than low doped In with 1.45 at% sample. The ratio of main band detection intensity to oxygen defect level was also increased from 0.22 to 2.22 with the gradual increase in In content.

  7. Electrical, optical and photoelectric properties of cadmium sulfide monocrystals doped by indium and irradiated by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Davidyuk, G E; Manzhara, V S

    2002-01-01

    One studied effect of irradiation by E = 1.2 MeV energy and PHI = 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 dose fast electrons on electrical, optical and photoelectrical CdS single-crystals doped by In. On the basis of analysis of the experimental results one makes conclusions about decomposition and, in this case, indium atoms occurring in cation sublattice nodes are knocked out by cadmium atoms. In CdS:In irradiated specimens one detected new centres of slow recombination with occurrence of maximums of photoconductivity optical suppression within lambda sub M sub sub 1 = 0.75 mu m and lambda sub M sub sub 2 = 1.03 mu m range. It is assumed that complexes containing cadmium vacancies and indium atoms are responsible for recombination new centres

  8. Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO Nanoparticles Recovered by Lift-off Method from TFT-LCD Panel Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchul Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222 preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate.

  9. Effects of plasma treatment time on surface characteristics of indium-tin-oxide film for resistive switching storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Po-Hsun [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Kuan-Chang, E-mail: kcchang@pkusz.edu.cn [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jiun-Chiu; Wang, Ming-Hui [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chen, Min-Chen [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-08-31

    In this paper, we implement a post-oxidation method to modify surface characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films by using an O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, we found that the surface morphologies of the ITO films become slightly flatter after the O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The optical characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of either pure ITO or O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films were also verified. Even though the XRD results showed no difference from bulk crystallizations, the oxygen concentrations increased at the film surface after O{sub 2} plasma treatment, according to the XPS inspection results. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of two different plasma treatment times on oxygen concentration in the ITO films. The surface sheet resistance of the plasma treated ITO films became nearly non-conductive when measured with a 4-point probe. Finally, we applied the O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films as the insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM) to examine their potential for use in resistive switching storage applications. Stable resistance switching characteristics were obtained by applying the O{sub 2} plasma treatment to the ITO-based RRAM. We also confirmed the relationship between plasma treatment time and RRAM performance. These material analyses and electrical measurements suggest possible advantages in using this plasma treatment technique in device fabrication processes for RRAM applications.

  10. Functionalization of indium-tin-oxide electrodes by laser-nanostructured gold thin films for biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgrochowska@imp.gda.pl [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Karczewski, Jakub [Solid State Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St, 80-233, Gdańsk (Poland); Śliwiński, Gerard [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ITO electrodes modified by NP arrays prepared by laser dewetting of thin Au films. • Enhanced activity, linear response and high sensitivity towards glucose. • Promising biosensor material AuNP-modified ITO of improved performance. - Abstract: The production and properties of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes functionalized by Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays of a relatively large area formed by pulsed laser nanostructuring of thin gold films are reported and discussed. The SEM inspection of modified electrodes reveals the presence of the nearly spherical and disc-shaped particles of dimensions in the range of 40–120 nm. The NP-array geometry can be controlled by selection of the laser processing conditions. It is shown that particle size and packing density of the array are important factors which determine the electrode performance. In the case of NP-modified electrodes the peak current corresponding to the glucose direct oxidation process shows rise with increasing glucose concentration markedly higher comparing to the reference Au disc electrode. The detection limit reaches 12 μM and linear response of the sensor is observed from 0.1 to 47 mM that covers the normal physiological range of the blood sugar detection.

  11. Improving crystallization and electron mobility of indium tin oxide by carbon dioxide and hydrogen dual-step plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Du, Rongchi; Ren, Qianshang; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-12-01

    Obtaining high conductivity indium tin oxide (ITO) films simultaneously with a "soft-deposited" (low temperature, low ions bombardment) and cost-efficient deposition process are critical aspect for versatile photo-electronic devices application. Usually, the low-cost "soft-deposited" process could be achieved via evaporation technique, but with scarifying the conductivity of the films. Here, we show a CO2 and H2 two-step plasma (TSP) post-treatment applied to ITO films prepared by reactive thermal evaporation (RTE), allows to meet the special trade-off between the deposition techniques and the electrical properties. Upon treatment, an increase in electron concentration and electron mobility is observed, which subsequently resulting a low sheet resistivity. The mobility reaches high values of 80.9 cm2/Vs for the TSP treated ∼100 nm thickness samples. From a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and opto-electronic measurements, it demonstrated that: during the TSP process, the first-step CO2 plasma treatment could promote the crystallinity of the RTE ITO films. While the electron traps density at grain boundaries of polycrystalline RTE ITO films could be passivated by hydrogen atom during the second-step H2 plasma treatment. These results inspired that the TSP treatment process has significant application prospects owing to the outstanding electrical properties enhancement for "soft-deposited" RTE ITO films.

  12. Surface chemistry of carbon removal from indium tin oxide by base and plasma treatment, with implications on hydroxyl termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, John A.; Koh, Sharon E.; Dulcey, Charles S.; Pehrsson, Pehr E.

    2003-01-01

    The surface chemistry of carbon removal from indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and high-resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HR-ELS). A vibrating Kelvin probe (KP) was used to monitor the work function (PHI) of ITO after cleaning, either by base-cleaning with alcoholic-KOH or by O 2 plasma-cleaning. Base-cleaning lowered PHI ITO as seen in the KP analysis, whereas plasma-cleaning slightly increased PHI ITO by an oxidative process. The degree of PHI ITO depression by base-cleaning was seen to depend on the initial surface, but the PHI depression itself was nonreductive to the ITO, as seen in the In-MNN AES lineshape. The nonreductive depression of PHI ITO by base-cleaning was further supported by a constant charge carrier density, as estimated from the HR-ELS. Base-cleaning was slightly more effective than the oxygen plasma in removing carbon from the ITO surface. However, base-cleaning preferentially removed graphitic carbon while leaving significant hydrocarbon contaminants, as determined by vibrational analysis with HREELS. All other ITO surfaces retained a significant carbon and hydrocarbon contamination as evidenced by AES and HREELS. There was little evidence of the formation of surface hydroxyl species, as expected for such an inherently contaminated surface as ITO

  13. Electrocatalytic performance of Pt nanoparticles sputter-deposited on indium tin oxide toward methanol oxidation reaction: The particle size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chao-Cheng; Chao, Chih-Hsuan; Tsai, Cheng Yu; Cheng, I.-Kai; Pan, Fu-Ming

    2017-09-01

    We sputter-deposited Pt nanoparticles with an average size ranging from 2.0 nm to 8.5 nm on the indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate, and studied the effect of the size of Pt nanoparticles on electrocatalytic activity of the Pt/ITO electrode toward methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in acidic solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals an interfacial oxidized Pt layer present between Pt nanoparticles and the ITO substrate, which may modify the surface electronic structure of Pt nanoparticles and thus influences the electrocatalytic properties of the Pt catalyst toward MOR. According to electrochemical analyses, smaller Pt nanoparticles exhibit slower kinetics for CO electrooxidation and MOR. However, a smaller particle size enables better CO tolerance because the bifunctional mechanism is more effective on smaller Pt nanoparticles. The electrocatalytic activity decays rapidly for Pt nanoparticles with a size smaller than 3 nm and larger than 8 nm. The rapid activity decay is attributed to Pt dissolution for smaller nanoparticles and to CO poisoning for larger ones. Pt nanoparticles of 5-6 nm in size loaded on ITO demonstrate a greatly improved electrocatalytic activity and stability compared with those deposited on different substrates in our previous studies.

  14. Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Nanoparticles Recovered by Lift-off Method from TFT-LCD Panel Scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongchul; Hong, Sung-Jei; Son, Yongkeun

    2014-11-27

    In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF) layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222) preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate.

  15. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN layers on Sapphire, GaN and indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, Christian; Landgraf, Boris; Schuhmann, Henning; Malindretos, Joerg; Seibt, Michael; Rizzi, Angela [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Gomez-Gomez, Maribel; Cantarero, Andres [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, Paterna (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Among the group-III nitrides semiconductors, InN is the one with the narrowest gap (0.67 eV), lowest effective electron mass and highest peak drift velocity. It is therefore a very interesting material for several applications, in particular semiconductor solar cells. Furthermore, the high electron affinity makes it suitable also as electrode material for organic solar cells. InN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MOCVD GaN templates, on bare c-plane sapphire and on polycrystalline indium tin oxide. On all substrates the III-V ratio as well as the substrate temperature was varied. A RHEED analysis of InN growth on GaN showed a relatively sharp transition from N-rich and columnar growth to In-rich growth with droplet formation by increasing the In flux impinging on the surface. The InN layers on single crystalline substrates were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, PL and Raman. The InN layers on ITO were mainly analyzed with respect to the surface morphology with SEM. HRTEM in cross section gives insight into the structure of the interface to the ITO substrate.

  16. Indium tin oxide refractometer in the visible and near infrared via lossy mode and surface plasmon resonances with Kretschmann configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, V.; Beruete, M.; Sánchez, P.; Del Villar, I.

    2016-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO) refractometer based on the generation of lossy mode resonances (LMRs) and surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) is presented. Both LMRs and SPRs are excited, in a single setup, under grazing angle incidence with Kretschmann configuration in an ITO thin-film deposited on a glass slide. The sensing capabilities of the device are demonstrated using several solutions of glycerin and water with refractive indices ranging from 1.33 to 1.47. LMRs are excited in the visible range, from 617 nm to 682 nm under TE polarization and from 533 nm to 637 nm under TM polarization, with a maximum sensitivity of 700 nm/RIU and 1200 nm/RIU, respectively. For the SPRs, a sensing range between 1375 nm and 2494 nm with a maximum sensitivity of 8300 nm/RIU is measured under TM polarization. Experimental results are supported with numerical simulations based on a modification of the plane-wave method for a one-dimensional multilayer waveguide

  17. Surface and optical properties of indium tin oxide layer deposition by RF magnetron sputtering in argon atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudar, H. Hakan; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on the characterization and properties of transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited in argon atmosphere. ITO thin films were coated onto glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique at 75 and 100 W RF powers. Structural characteristics of producing films were investigated through X-ray diffraction analysis. UV-Vis spectrophotometer and interferometer were used to determine transmittance, absorbance and reflectance values of samples. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by atomic force microscope. The calculated band gaps were 3.8 and 4.1 eV for the films at 75 and 100 W, respectively. The effect of RF power on crystallinity of prepared films was explored using mentioned analysis methods. The high RF power caused higher poly crystallinity in the produced samples. The thickness and refractive index values for all samples increased respect to an increment of RF power and were calculated as 20, 50 nm and 1.71, 1.86 for samples at 75 and 100 W, respectively. Finally, the estimated grain sizes for all prepared films decreased with increasing of 2 θ degrees, and the number of crystallite per unit volume was calculated. It was found that nearly all properties including sheet resistance and resistivity depend on the RF power.

  18. Symmetric Compound Parabolic Concentrator with Indium Tin Oxide Coated Glass as Passive Cooling System for Photovoltaic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One problem with concentrating photovoltaic systems is the increase in operating photovoltaic module temperature which results in power output reduction. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO coated glasses exhibit both high transmittance in the visible region and high reflectance in the infrared region of the solar spectrum. Such materials can be used as selective windows in photovoltaic modules operating under concentrating system enabling passive cooling. In this paper, a Heat Reflector Window (HRW consisting of a glass coated with 180 nm layer of ITO was experimentally tested. The ITO coated glass had a transmittance of about 85% in the visible region and over 80% reflectance in the infrared region of the solar spectrum and was placed at the exit aperture of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC. Results indicate that the temperature of a photovoltaic module under CPC with the HRW was reduced by about 50% as compared to a similar photovoltaic module with CPC but without the HRW. However, due to presence of the HRW at the exit aperture of the CPC, the photovoltaic module with the CPC and HRW received less solar irradiance compared to a similar photovoltaic module with the CPC but without HRW.

  19. Surface morphology modelling for the resistivity analysis of low temperature sputtered indium tin oxide thin films on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuesong; Tang Wu; Weng Xiaolong; Deng Longjiang

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous or weakly crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film samples have been prepared on polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene terephthalate substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering at a low substrate temperature. The surface morphological and electrical properties of the ITO layers were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a standard four-point probe measurement. The effect of surface morphology on the resistivity of ITO thin films was studied, which presented some different variations from crystalline films. Then, a simplified film system model, including the substrate, continuous ITO layer and ITO surface grain, was proposed to deal with these correlations. Based on this thin film model and the AFM images, a quadratic potential was introduced to simulate the characteristics of the ITO surface morphology, and the classical Kronig-Penney model, the semiconductor electrical theory and the modified Neugebauer-Webb model were used to expound the detailed experimental results. The modelling equation was highly in accord with the experimental variations of the resistivity on the characteristics of the surface morphology.

  20. Dielectric, electro-optical, and photoluminescence characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystals on a graphene-coated indium tin oxide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Pratap; Gupta, Swadesh Kumar; Vimal, Tripti; Manohar, Rajiv

    2014-08-01

    Multilayer graphene was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) -coated glass plates and characterized by suitable techniques. A liquid crystal sample cell was designed using graphene deposited ITO glass plates without any additional treatment for alignment. Ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) material was filled in the sample cell. The effect of multilayer graphene on the characteristics of FLC material was investigated. The extremely high relative permittivity of pristine graphene and charge transfer between graphene and FLC material were consequences of the enormous increase in relative permittivity for the graphene-FLC (GFLC) system as compared to pure FLC. The presence of multilayer graphene suppresses the ionic impurities, comprised in the FLC material at lower frequencies. The ionic charge annihilation mechanism might be responsible for the reduction of ionic impurities. The presence of graphene reduces the net ferroelectricity and results in a change in the spontaneous polarization of pure FLC. Rotational viscosity of the GFLC system also decreases due to the strong π-π interaction between the FLC molecule and multilayer graphene. The photoluminescence of the GFLC system is blueshifted as compared to pure FLC, which is due to the coupling of energy released in the process of charge annihilation and photon emission.

  1. Direct comparison of photoemission spectroscopy and in situ Kelvin probe work function measurements on indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerbom, M.M.; Laegel, B.; Cascio, A.J.; Doran, B.V.; Schlaf, R.

    2006-01-01

    The work function of commercially available indium tin oxide (ITO) films on glass substrates was measured using photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and ultra-high vacuum (UHV) Kelvin probe in direct comparison. Absolute Kelvin probe work function values were determined via calibration of the measured contact potential difference (CPD) using an in situ sputtered Au reference sample. The Kelvin probe data confirmed that ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measurements change the work function of ITO surfaces previously exposed to ambient environment, when measured without in situ surface cleaning procedures. The results also demonstrate that both Kelvin probe and PES yield virtually identical work function values, as long as the Kelvin probe data are calibrated against a known standard. As a consequence, previously reported higher work function values determined with Kelvin probe as compared to values obtained with UPS on similar samples are likely related to a photochemically generated surface dipole during UPS measurements. Comparison between Kelvin probe and low intensity X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS) work function measurements demonstrated that accurate work function measurements on ITO previously exposed to the ambient are possible with PES

  2. Low temperature processing of hybrid nanoparticulate Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) polymer layers and application in large scale lighting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, Ilja; Wellmann, Peter, E-mail: peter.wellmann@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2011-06-30

    We report on transparent conductive indium tin oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn; ITO) nanoparticle films processed at a low temperature of 130 deg. C for the application in lighting devices using spin coating and doctor blading techniques. Major emphasis is put on the beneficial application of the particular transparent electrode material for the fabrication of patterned large area electroluminescence lamps. In order to improve film properties like adhesion and conductivity, hybrid nanoparticle-polymer blends out of ITO particles and organic film-forming agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and the organofunctional coupling agent 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) have been developed. The layers were cured by UV-irradiation, which was also used for lateral structuring of the transparent, conductive electrode. Additional low-temperature heat treatment (T = 130 deg. C) in air and forming gas improved the electronic properties. While pure ITO nanoparticulate layers processed at 130 deg. C exhibited conductance of up to 3.1 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, the nanocomposite coatings showed a conductance of up to 9.8 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Corresponding layers with a sheet resistance of 750 {Omega}/{open_square} were applied in electroluminescent lamps.

  3. Controlling the size of gold nanoparticles grown on indium tin oxide substrates prepared by seed mediated growth method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzia, Vivi, E-mail: vivi@sci.ui.ac.id; Pratiwi, Nur Intan; Adela, Faiz; Djuhana, Dede [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    One of the unique optical properties of gold nanoparticles is the enhanced absorption and scattering light around metal nanoparticles commonly called the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) effect of gold nanoparticles. This property is determined by the shape and size of gold nanoparticles. In this work, we observed the role of three materials used in synthesis process on the morphology and the LSPR effect of gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles were directly grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates using the seed mediated growth method with three different concentrations of trisodium citrate (Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}), C{sub 16}TAB and ascorbic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}). Based on the FESEM image and optical absorption spectrum of gold nanoparticles, it was found that the higher concentration of those materials has decreased the size of gold nananoparticles and shifted the LSPR peaks to lower wavelength.

  4. Analysis of Indium Tin Oxide Film Using Argon Fluroide (ArF) Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence of Ablated Plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sut Kam; Garcia, Dario Machado

    2017-04-01

    A two-pulse laser-excited atomic fluorescence (LEAF) technique at 193 nm wavelength was applied to the analysis of indium tin oxide (ITO) layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Fluorescence emissions from analytes were induced from plumes generated by first laser pulse. Using this approach, non-selective LEAF can be accomplished for simultaneous multi-element analysis and it overcomes the handicap of strict requirement for laser excitation wavelength. In this study, experimental conditions including laser fluences, times for gating and time delay between pulses were optimized to reveal high sensitivity with minimal sample destruction and penetration. With weak laser fluences of 100 and 125 mJ/cm 2 for 355 and 193 nm pulses, detection limits were estimated to be 0.10% and 0.43% for Sn and In, respectively. In addition, the relation between fluorescence emissions and number of laser shots was investigated; reproducible results were obtained for Sn and In. It shows the feasibility of depth profiling by this technique. Morphologies of samples were characterized at various laser fluences and number of shots to examine the accurate penetration. Images of craters were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrate the imperceptible destructiveness of film after laser shot. With such weak laser fluences and minimal destructiveness, this LEAF technique is suitable for thin-film analysis.

  5. Aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanocable arrays on indium tin oxide: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xina; Zhu, Haojun; Xu, Yeming; Wang, Hao; Tao, Yin; Hark, Suikong; Xiao, Xudong; Li, Quan

    2010-06-22

    Vertically aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanocable arrays-on-indium tin oxide (ITO) are fabricated by electrochemical deposition of CdTe on ZnO nanorod arrays in an electrolyte close to neutral pH. By adjusting the total charge quantity applied during deposition, the CdTe shell thickness can be tuned from several tens to hundreds of nanometers. The CdTe shell, which has a zinc-blende structure, is very dense and uniform both radially and along the axial direction of the nanocables, and forms an intact interface with the wurtzite ZnO nanorod core. The absorption of the CdTe shell above its band gap ( approximately 1.5 eV) and the type II band alignment between the CdTe shell and the ZnO core, respectively, demonstrated by absorption and photoluminescence measurements, make a nanocable array-on-ITO architecture a promising photoelectrode with excellent photovoltaic properties for solar energy applications. A photocurrent density of approximately 5.9 mA/cm(2) has been obtained under visible light illumination of 100 mW cm(-2) with zero bias potential (vs saturated calomel electrode). The neutral electrodeposition method can be generally used for plating CdTe on nanostructures made of different materials, which would be of interest in various applications.

  6. Excitation of epsilon-near-zero resonance in ultra-thin indium tin oxide shell embedded nanostructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Khant; Anopchenko, Aleksei; Yang, Jingyi; Lee, Ho Wai Howard

    2018-02-05

    We report a novel optical waveguide design of a hollow step index fiber modified with a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO). We show an excitation of highly confined waveguide mode in the proposed fiber near the wavelength where permittivity of ITO approaches zero. Due to the high field confinement within thin ITO shell inside the fiber, the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode can be characterized by a peak in modal loss of the hybrid waveguide. Our results show that such in-fiber excitation of ENZ mode is due to the coupling of the guided core mode to the thin-film ENZ mode. We also show that the phase matching wavelength, where the coupling takes place, varies depending on the refractive index of the constituents inside the central bore of the fiber. These ENZ nanostructured optical fibers have many potential applications, for example, in ENZ nonlinear and magneto-optics, as in-fiber wavelength-dependent filters, and as subwavelength fluid channel for optical and bio-photonic sensing.

  7. Functionalization of indium-tin-oxide electrodes by laser-nanostructured gold thin films for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Karczewski, Jakub; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    The production and properties of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes functionalized by Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays of a relatively large area formed by pulsed laser nanostructuring of thin gold films are reported and discussed. The SEM inspection of modified electrodes reveals the presence of the nearly spherical and disc-shaped particles of dimensions in the range of 40-120 nm. The NP-array geometry can be controlled by selection of the laser processing conditions. It is shown that particle size and packing density of the array are important factors which determine the electrode performance. In the case of NP-modified electrodes the peak current corresponding to the glucose direct oxidation process shows rise with increasing glucose concentration markedly higher comparing to the reference Au disc electrode. The detection limit reaches 12 μM and linear response of the sensor is observed from 0.1 to 47 mM that covers the normal physiological range of the blood sugar detection.

  8. Experimental and Simulated Investigations of Thin Polymer Substrates with an Indium Tin Oxide Coating under Fatigue Bending Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong-Shiun Hsu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films. The results indicated that compressive and tensile stresses generated distinct failure schemes within an ITO film and both led to increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance. In addition, tensile stress increased the sheet resistance of an ITO film more easily than compressive stress did. However, the influences of both compressive and tensile stress on increased optical transmittance were demonstrated to be highly similar. Increasing the thickness of a PET substrate resulted in increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance regardless of the presence of compressive or tensile stress. Moreover, J-Integral, a method based on strain energy, was used to estimate the interfacial adhesion strength of the ITO-PET film through the simulation approach enabled by a finite element analysis.

  9. Influence of indium-tin oxide surface structure on the ordering and coverage of carboxylic acid and thiol monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, Marta; Rhodes, Crissy; Losego, Mark; Efremenko, Alina; Maria, Jon-Paul; Fischer, Daniel; Franzen, Stefan; Genzer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the variability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formation on ITO depending on the substrate surface features. In particular, we report on the formation of carboxylic acid- and thiol-based SAMs on two lots of commercially prepared indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films. Contact angle measurements, electrochemical experiments, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy showed that the quality of monolayers formed differed substantially between the two ITO batches. Only one of the two ITO substrates was capable of forming well-organized thiol- and carboxylic acid-based SAMs. In order to rationalize these observations, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, and SAMs were prepared on ITO substrates fabricated by sputtering in our laboratories. An attempt was made to influence the film microstructure and surface morphology by varying substrate temperatures during ITO deposition. Good-quality thiol and carboxylic acid SAMs were obtained on one of the ITO substrates prepared in-house. While our characterization could not single out conclusively one specific parameter in ITO surface structure that could be responsible for good SAMs formation, we could point out homogeneous surface morphology as a relevant factor for the quality of the SAMs. Evidence was also found for ITO crystallographic orientation to be a parameter influencing SAMs organization

  10. Effect of non-electroactive additives on the early stage pyrrole electropolymerization on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Beltran, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Dominguez, C.; Bahena-Uribe, D. [Centro Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas (CIICAp), Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: selene.sepulvedagz@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Research Center for Exotic NanoCarbon, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    The use of non-electroactive additives during electrodeposition of conducting polymers has long been used to modify the properties of deposited films. These additives can improve the adhesion, and not only change the morphology and deposition rate but also modify the chemical composition of the electrodeposited polymer. Several compounds have been used to modify deposition of polypyrrole; however, there is no systematic study of these compounds. In this work, we comparatively studied several water soluble chemical compounds, a cationic polymer, an anionic polymer, a cationic surfactant, and an anionic surfactant during potentiostatic electrodeposition of polypyrrole. In order to study the effect of these compounds on the interface, where the electrochemical polymerization takes place, we used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology during the initial stage of growth was studied by atomic force microscopy, whereas the resulting polypyrrole films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Early-stage polymerization polypyrrole particles on indium tin oxide (ITO). • Anionic additives promote pyrrole oxidation and polypyrrole film growth on ITO. • Cationic polyelectrolyte promotes adhesion between ITO and polypyrrole film. • Non-electroactive additives strongly influence polypyrrole nucleation on ITO.

  11. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Yong Jeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes (DSPNCE were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH2/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV, scanning from 0–1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0–10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA or ascorbic acid (AA. Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor.

  12. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Won-Yong; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han

    2015-12-10

    Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (DSPNCE) were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning from 0-1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0-10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA) or ascorbic acid (AA). Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor.

  13. Effect of ambient combinations of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen on the properties of DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marikkannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sputtering has been well-developed industrially with singular ambient gases including neutral argon (Ar, oxygen (O2, hydrogen (H2 and nitrogen (N2 to enhance the electrical and optical performances of indium tin oxide (ITO films. Recent preliminary investigation into the use of combined ambient gases such as an Ar+O2+H2 ambient mixture, which was suitable for producing high-quality (low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance of ITO films. To build on this promising preliminary work and develop deeper insight into the effect of ambient atmospheres on ITO film growth, this study provides a more detailed investigation of the effects of ambient combinations of Ar, O2, H2 on sputtered ITO films. Thin films of ITO were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using three different ambient combinations: Ar, Ar+O2 and Ar+O2+H2. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the three ambient sputtered ITO films were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, four probe electrical conductivity and optical spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman studies confirmed the cubic indium oxide structure, which is polycrystalline at room temperature for all the samples. AFM shows the minimum surface roughness of 2.7 nm for Ar+O2+H2 sputtered thin film material. The thickness of the films was determined by the cross sectional SEM analysis and its thickness was varied from 920 to 817 nm. The columnar growth of ITO films was also discussed here. The electrical and optical measurements of Ar+O2+H2 ambient combinations shows a decreased sheet resistance (5.06 ohm/□ and increased optical transmittance (69% than other samples. The refractive index and packing density of the films were projected using optical transmission spectrum. From the observed results the Ar+O2+H2 ambient is a good choice to enhance the total optoelectronic properties of the ITO

  14. Charge mobility increase in indium-molybdenum oxide thin films by hydrogen doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalán, S.; Álvarez-Fraga, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salas, E. [Spline CRG, ESRF, 38043 Grenoble (France); Ramírez-Jiménez, R. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida Universidad 30, Leganés, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Palomo, A.; Andrés, A. de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C., E-mail: cprieto@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The charge mobility in IMO films is correlated with its hydrogen content. • The mobility behavior is explained by the presence of OH{sup −} groups in IMO films. • Mo{sup 4+} is identified in transparent conductive IMO by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. - Abstract: The increase of charge mobility in transparent conductive indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) films is correlated with the presence of hydroxyl groups. The introduction of H{sub 2} in the chamber during sputtering deposition compensates the excess charge introduced by cationic Mo doping of indium oxide either by oxygen or hydroxyl interstitials. Films present a linear increase of carrier mobility correlated with H{sub 2} content only after vacuum annealing. This behavior is explained because vacuum annealing favors the removal of oxygen interstitials over that of hydroxyl groups. Since hydroxyl groups offer lower effective charge and smaller lattice distortions than those associated with interstitial oxygen, this compensation mechanism offers the conditions for the observed increase in mobility. Additionally, the short-range order around molybdenum is evaluated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, showing that Mo{sup 4+} is placed at the In site of the indium oxide.

  15. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ∝ 4.1 Aa), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 x 10 -4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained ''on/off'' current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 x 10 7 , 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of space-occupying lesions in the liver with technetium-99m tin colloid and indium-113m-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J. (Provincial Hospital, Port Elizabeth (South Africa). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Klopper, J.F. (Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1985-01-26

    Liver scanning with radiocolloids is an important method to determine the presence, the position and the size of space-occupying lesions in the liver. Unfortunately, this information is nonspecific and it is not possible to distinguish between tumours, abscesses or cysts. Thirty-six patients in whom a definite diagnosis of hepatoma, amoebic liver abscess or echinococcus cyst had been made were examined with technetium-99m tin colloid and indium-113m chloride. The amoebic liver abscesses were avascular, showed a hyperaemic area surrounding the abscess and appeared smaller on the indium than on the technetium scan. The hepatomas showed greater vascularity and absence of the hyperaemic area. Cysts were avascular, did not show a hyperaemic rim and the size was equal on both scans. The experience of the observers had an influence on the accuracy of interpretation of the scans; experienced observers made a correct diagnosis in 73% of cases. It is suggested that simultaneous technetium-99m tin colloid and indium 113m-chloride scans provide additional specificity in the differential diagnosis between hepatoma, amoebic liver abscess and echinococcus cysts.

  17. Antimony doped tin oxides and their composites with tin pyrophosphates as catalyst supports for oxygen evolution reaction in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    2012-01-01

    based on tin pyrophosphates as the catalyst support. The materials showed an overall conductivity of 0.57 S cm−1 at 130 °C under the water vapor atmosphere with a contribution of the proton conduction. Using this composite support, iridium oxide nanoparticle catalysts were prepared and characterized......Proton exchange membrane water electrolysers operating at typically 80 °C or at further elevated temperatures suffer from insufficient catalyst activity and durability. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and further doped with an inorganic proton conducting phase...

  18. Indium tin oxide thin-films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis for efficient silicon based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simashkevich, Alexei, E-mail: alexeisimashkevich@hotmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Serban, Dormidont; Bruc, Leonid; Curmei, Nicolai [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Hinrichs, Volker [Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Rusu, Marin [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis deposition method was developed for the preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with thicknesses ranging between 300 and 400 nm with the sheet resistance of 10–15 Ω/sq. and the transparency in the visible region of the spectrum over 80%. The layers were deposited on the (100) surface of the n-type silicon wafers with the charge carriers concentration of ~ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The morphology of the ITO layers deposited on Si wafers with different surface morphologies, e.g., smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) was investigated. The as-deposited ITO thin films consist of crystalline columns with the height of 300–400 nm and the width of 50–100 nm. Photovoltaic parameters of mono- and bifacial solar cells of Cu/ITO/SiO{sub 2}/n–n{sup +} Si/Cu prepared on Si (100) wafers with different surface structures were studied and compared. A maximum efficiency of 15.8% was achieved on monofacial solar cell devices with the textured Si surface. Bifacial photovoltaic devices from 100 μm thick Si wafers with the smooth surface have demonstrated efficiencies of 13.0% at frontal illumination and 10% at rear illumination. - Highlights: • ITO thin films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis on Si (100) wafers with a smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) surface. • Monofacial ITO/SiO2/n-n+Si solar cells with an efficiency of 15.8% prepared and bifacial PV devices with front- and rear-side efficiencies up to 13% demonstrated. • Comparative studies of photovoltaic properties of solar cells with different morphologies of the Si wafer surface presented.

  19. Control of indium tin oxide anode work function modified using Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Yokokura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB monolayers to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO work function and thus improve the performance of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc/fullerene (C60-based and boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc/C60-based small molecule organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs was examined. In general, LB precursor compounds contain one or more long alkyl chain substituents that can act as spacers to prevent electrical contact with adjoining electrode surfaces. As one example of such a compound, arachidic acid (CH3(CH218COOH was inserted in the forms of one-layer, three-layer or five-layer LB films between the anode ITO layer and the p-type layer in ZnPc-C60-based OPVs to investigate the effects of the long alkyl chain group when it acts as an electrically insulating spacer. The short-circuit current density (Jsc values of the OPVs with the three- and five-layer inserts (1.78 mA·cm−2 and 0.61 mA·cm−2, respectively were reduced dramatically, whereas the Jsc value for the OPV with the single-layer insertion (2.88 mA·cm−2 was comparable to that of the OPV without any insert (3.14 mA·cm-2. The ITO work function was shifted positively by LB deposition of a surfactant compound, C9F19C2H4-O-C2H4-COOH (PFECA, which contained a fluorinated head group. This positive effect was maintained even after formation of an upper p-type organic layer. The Jsc and open-circuit voltage (Voc of the SubPc-C60-based OPV with the LB-modified ITO layers were effectively enhanced. As a result, a 42% increase in device efficiency was achieved.

  20. Polarization-Insensitive Surface Plasmon Polarization Electro-Absorption Modulator Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Indium Tin Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Wen, Long; Liang, Li; Chen, Qin; Sun, Yunfei

    2018-02-03

    CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulators operating at the telecom wavelength are significant for a variety of on-chip applications. Relying on the manipulation of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode excited on the metal-dielectric interface, most of the previous demonstrations are designed to response only for specific polarization state. In this case, it will lead to a high polarization dependent loss, when the polarization-sensitive modulator integrates to a fiber with random polarization state. Herein, we propose a plasmonic modulator utilizing a metal-oxide indium tin oxide (ITO) wrapped around the silicon waveguide and investigate its optical modulation ability for both the vertical and horizontal polarized guiding light by tuning electro-absorption of ITO with the field-induced carrier injection. The electrically biased modulator with electron accumulated at the ITO/oxide interface allows for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode to be excited at the top or lateral portion of the interface depending on the polarization state of the guiding light. Because of the high localized feature of ENZ mode, efficient electro-absorption can be achieved under the "OFF" state of the device, thus leading to large extinction ratio (ER) for both polarizations in our proposed modulator. Further, the polarization-insensitive modulation is realized by properly tailoring the thickness of oxide in two different stacking directions and therefore matching the ER values for device operating at vertical and horizontal polarized modes. For the optimized geometry configuration, the difference between the ER values of two polarization modes, i.e., the ΔER, as small as 0.01 dB/μm is demonstrated and, simultaneously with coupling efficiency above 74%, is obtained for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed plasmonic-combined modulator has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

  1. Polarization-Insensitive Surface Plasmon Polarization Electro-Absorption Modulator Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Indium Tin Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Wen, Long; Liang, Li; Chen, Qin; Sun, Yunfei

    2018-02-01

    CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulators operating at the telecom wavelength are significant for a variety of on-chip applications. Relying on the manipulation of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode excited on the metal-dielectric interface, most of the previous demonstrations are designed to response only for specific polarization state. In this case, it will lead to a high polarization dependent loss, when the polarization-sensitive modulator integrates to a fiber with random polarization state. Herein, we propose a plasmonic modulator utilizing a metal-oxide indium tin oxide (ITO) wrapped around the silicon waveguide and investigate its optical modulation ability for both the vertical and horizontal polarized guiding light by tuning electro-absorption of ITO with the field-induced carrier injection. The electrically biased modulator with electron accumulated at the ITO/oxide interface allows for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode to be excited at the top or lateral portion of the interface depending on the polarization state of the guiding light. Because of the high localized feature of ENZ mode, efficient electro-absorption can be achieved under the "OFF" state of the device, thus leading to large extinction ratio (ER) for both polarizations in our proposed modulator. Further, the polarization-insensitive modulation is realized by properly tailoring the thickness of oxide in two different stacking directions and therefore matching the ER values for device operating at vertical and horizontal polarized modes. For the optimized geometry configuration, the difference between the ER values of two polarization modes, i.e., the ΔER, as small as 0.01 dB/μm is demonstrated and, simultaneously with coupling efficiency above 74%, is obtained for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed plasmonic-combined modulator has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

  2. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  3. Understanding the Effects of a High Surface Area Nanostructured Indium Tin Oxide Electrode on Organic Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; He, Xiaoming; Sorge, Jason B; Lalany, Abeed; Ahadi, Kaveh; Afshar, Amir; Olsen, Brian C; Hauger, Tate C; Mobarok, Md Hosnay; Li, Peng; Cadien, Kenneth C; Brett, Michael J; Luber, Erik J; Buriak, Jillian M

    2017-11-08

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) are a complex assembly of disparate materials, each with a precise function within the device. Typically, the electrodes are flat, and the device is fabricated through a layering approach of the interfacial layers and photoactive materials. This work explores the integration of high surface area transparent electrodes to investigate the possible role(s) a three-dimensional electrode could take within an OSC, with a BHJ composed of a donor-acceptor combination with a high degree of electron and hole mobility mismatch. Nanotree indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were prepared via glancing angle deposition, structures that were previously demonstrated to be single-crystalline. A thin layer of zinc oxide was deposited on the ITO nanotrees via atomic layer deposition, followed by a self-assembled monolayer of C 60 -based molecules that was bound to the zinc oxide surface through a carboxylic acid group. Infiltration of these functionalized ITO nanotrees with the photoactive layer, the bulk heterojunction comprising PC 71 BM and a high hole mobility low band gap polymer (PDPPTT-T-TT), led to families of devices that were analyzed for the effect of nanotree height. When the height was varied from 0 to 50, 75, 100, and 120 nm, statistically significant differences in device performance were noted with the maximum device efficiencies observed with a nanotree height of 75 nm. From analysis of these results, it was found that the intrinsic mobility mismatch between the donor and acceptor phases could be compensated for when the electron collection length was reduced relative to the hole collection length, resulting in more balanced charge extraction and reduced recombination, leading to improved efficiencies. However, as the ITO nanotrees increased in height and branching, the decrease in electron collection length was offset by an increase in hole collection length and potential deleterious electric field redistribution effects, resulting in

  4. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization

  5. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Defense Foundation Studies, National Defense University of Malaysia, Sungai Besi Camp, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, Nor Azah, E-mail: azahy@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Jaafar [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Uda [Institute of Nanoelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hajian, Reza, E-mail: rezahajian@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization.

  6. Electro-Mechanical Coupling of Indium Tin Oxide Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate ITO/PET for Flexible Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed A.

    2013-05-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used transparent electrode in flexible solar cells because of its high transparency and conductivity. But still, cracking of ITO on PET substrates due to tensile loading is not fully understood and it affects the functionality of the solar cell tremendously as ITO loses its conductivity. Here, we investigate the cracking evolution in ITO/PET exposed to two categories of tests. Monotonous tensile testing is done in order to trace the crack propagation in ITO coating as well as determining a loading range to focus on during our study. Five cycles test is also conducted to check the crack closure effect on the resistance variation of ITO. Analytical model for the damage in ITO layer is implemented using the homogenization concept as in laminated composites for transverse cracking. The homogenization technique is done twice on COMSOL to determine the mechanical and electrical degradation of ITO due to applied loading. Finally, this damage evolution is used for a simulation to predict the degradation of ITO as function in the applied load and correlate this degradation with the resistance variation. Experimental results showed that during unloading, crack closure results in recovery of conductivity and decrease in the overall resistance of the cracked ITO. Also, statistics about the crack spacing showed that the cracking pattern is not perfectly periodical however it has a positively skewed distribution. The higher the applied load, the less the discrepancy in the crack spacing data. It was found that the cracking mechanism of ITO starts with transverse cracking with local delamination at the crack tip unlike the mechanism proposed in the literature of having only cracking pattern without any local delamination. This is the actual mechanism that leads to the high increase in ITO resistance. The analytical code simulates the damage evolution in the ITO layer as function in the applied strain. This will be extended further to

  7. Importance of the indium tin oxide substrate on the quality of self-assembled monolayers formed from organophosphonic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Muthukumar; Darwish, Nadim; Le Saux, Guillaume; Gooding, J Justin

    2011-03-15

    The role of indium tin oxide (ITO) surface structure and chemistry on the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) derived from organophosphonic acids has been investigated. The surface hydroxide content, crystal structure, and roughness of unmodified ITO surfaces were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements. Organophosphonic acid monolayer modified ITO surfaces were then characterized using electrochemistry, contact angle measurements and impedance spectroscopy. To ascertain the extent of defects, Pb was underpotentially deposited (UPD) onto the monolayer modified ITO surfaces at defect sites and regions where the monolayer was weakly bound. The extent of defects, and the location of defects, in monolayers formed on different ITO surfaces were determined from the amount of charge passed during UPD of Pb at identical conditions, followed by XPS analysis of the Pb 4f peak and imaging with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The results demonstrate that the crystal structure and hydroxide ion concentration of ITO surfaces significantly influence the quality of self-assembled monolayer formation as does the surface roughness. The most well-packed stable monolayers formed only on smooth amorphous ITO substrates with homogeneous grains and high hydroxide content. Lower quality SAMs with significant defects formed on polycrystalline surfaces and the higher the roughness the more the defects. STM defect mapping revealed that the location of defects in monolayers occurred at the boundaries between grain edges on the polycrystalline surfaces. This shows that the substrate characteristics have a strong influence on the quality of monolayers formed on ITO surfaces.

  8. Effect of organic solar cells using various power O2 plasma treatments on the indium tin oxide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jhong-Ciao; Wang, Yeong-Her; Chen, Kan-Lin; Huang, Chien-Jung

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic solar cells (OSCs) by using different power O2 plasma treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was studied. The power of O2 plasma treatment on ITO substrate was varied from 20W to 80W, and the power conversion efficiency of device was improved from 1.18% to 1.93% at 20W O2 plasma treatment. The function of O2 plasma treatment on ITO substrate was to remove the surface impurity and to improve the work function of ITO, which can reduce the energy offset between the ITO and SubPc layer and depress the leakage current of device, leading to the shunt resistance increased from 897 to 1100Ωcm(2). The surface roughness of ITO decreased from 3.81 to 3.33nm and the work function of ITO increased from 4.75 to 5.2eV after 20W O2 plasma treatment on ITO substrate. As a result, the open circuit voltage and the fill factor were improved from 0.46 to 0.70V and from 0.56 to 0.61, respectively. However, the series resistance of device was dramatically increased as the power of O2 plasma treatment exceeds 40W, leading to the efficiency reduction. The result is attributed to the variation of oxygen vacancies in ITO film after the 60, 80W O2 plasma treatment. As a consequence, the power of O2 plasma treatment on ITO substrate for the OSCs application should be controlled below 40W to avoid affecting the electricity of ITO film. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of indium tin oxide anode work function modified using Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokura, Yuya; Dogase, Tomomichi; Shinbo, Tatsuki; Nakayashiki, Yuya; Takagi, Yusuke; Ueda, Kazuyoshi; Sarangerel, Khayankhyarvaa; Delgertsetseg, Byambasuren; Ganzorig, Chimed; Sakomura, Masaru

    2017-08-01

    The use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) work function and thus improve the performance of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60)-based and boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/C60-based small molecule organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) was examined. In general, LB precursor compounds contain one or more long alkyl chain substituents that can act as spacers to prevent electrical contact with adjoining electrode surfaces. As one example of such a compound, arachidic acid (CH3(CH2)18COOH) was inserted in the forms of one-layer, three-layer or five-layer LB films between the anode ITO layer and the p-type layer in ZnPc-C60-based OPVs to investigate the effects of the long alkyl chain group when it acts as an electrically insulating spacer. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) values of the OPVs with the three- and five-layer inserts (1.78 mA.cm-2 and 0.61 mA.cm-2, respectively) were reduced dramatically, whereas the Jsc value for the OPV with the single-layer insertion (2.88 mA.cm-2) was comparable to that of the OPV without any insert (3.14 mA.cm-2). The ITO work function was shifted positively by LB deposition of a surfactant compound, C9F19C2H4-O-C2H4-COOH (PFECA), which contained a fluorinated head group. This positive effect was maintained even after formation of an upper p-type organic layer. The Jsc and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the SubPc-C60-based OPV with the LB-modified ITO layers were effectively enhanced. As a result, a 42% increase in device efficiency was achieved.

  10. Tin- and titanium-doped gamma-Fe2O3 (maghemite)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, O.; Greneche, J.M.; Berry, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    2.5% and 8% tin- and 8% titanium-doped gamma -Fe2O3 have been synthesized and examined by x-ray powder diffraction, EXAFS, electron microscopy and by Fe-57- and Sn-119-Mossbauer spectroscopy. The Sn- and Ti-K-edge EXAFS show that both tin and titanium adopt octahedral sites in the spinel related...... gamma -Fe2O3 structure. However, whereas tin substitutes for iron on one of the fully occupied sites, titanium adopts the octahedral site, which is only partially occupied. The Fe-57-Mossbauer spectra recorded in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of 2-8 T confirm that the tetravalent ions...... adopt the octahedral sites. The canting angles for both sublattices in gamma -Fe2O3 were determined from the in-field Mossbauer spectra. The Sn-119-Mossbauer spectra showed that the maximum hyperfine field sensed by the Sn4+ ions in gamma -Fe2O3 is about 2/3 of that observed in tin-doped Fe3O4...

  11. Tuning emission property of CdS nanowires via indium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng; Zou, Bingsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pure and indium doped CdS nanowires were synthesized successfully. ► Pure CdS nanowires show a sole near band gap green emission band. ► Doped CdS nanowires contain near band gap and deep level trapped state emission. ► The trapped state emission intensity increase with dopant concentration and only trapped state emission was detected when In concentration reach to 0.89%. ► The emission color change from green to orange in these nanowires. - Abstract: Pure and doped CdS nanowires were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, XRD, TEM and EDS were used to examine the morphology, phase structure, crystallinity and composition. PL spectra were used to investigate emission properties of the as-prepared samples. We observe near band gap and trapped state emission in doped CdS nanowires while only near band gap emission in pure CdS nanowires. Moreover, the trapped state emission intensity increase with In dopant concentration and the emission color change from green to orange. The intensity of near band gap emission was too weak to be observed and only trapped state emission was detected when In concentration reach to 0.89%.

  12. Mid-Infrared Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Indium Tin Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi Sun

    film that is thinner films than the skin depth of the noble metal. For example, Ag has a skin depth of less than 5 nm in the IR-region, but it is not possible to make a smooth film of Ag with that thickness due to the formation of islands. The island formation of both Au and Ag arises because of the high surface free energy. Ag films tend to react with impurities, which makes it difficult to handle. Au is far from a pure plasmonic material because of intense inter-band transitions. For these reasons, we have sought a new material for study of SPR phenomena. CMOs have proven to be a suitable alternative material. CMOs also show plasmonic phenomena in near-IR and even mid-IR. Thus, the optical phenomena can be observed using Fourier-transform infrared technology. Furthermore, CMOs are tunable and their optical properties can be controlled based on doping materials, deposition conditions, etc. This thesis shows that CMOs also have the potential for use in lithographic applications.

  13. Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Sandin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of precursor salts in the synthesis of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO electrodes using thermal decomposition from dissolved chloride salts was investigated. The salts investigated were SnCl4×5H2O, SnCl2×2H2O, SbCl3 and NiCl2×6H2O. It was shown that the use of SnCl4×5H20 in the preparation process leads to a tin loss of more than 85 %. The loss of Sb can be as high as 90 % while no indications of Ni loss was observed. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni in the NATO coating will be much higher than in the precursor solution. This high and uncontrolled loss of precursors during the preparation process will lead to an unpredictable composition in the NATO coating and will have negative economic and environmental effects. It was found that using SnCl2×2H20 instead of SnCl4×5H2O can reduce the tin loss to less than 50 %. This tin loss occurs at higher temperatures than when using SnCl4×5H2O where the tin loss occurs from 56 – 147 °C causing the composition to change both during the drying (80 – 110 °C and calcination (460 -550 °C steps of the preparation process. Electrodes coated with NATO based on the two different tin salts were investigated for morphology, composition, structure, and ozone electrocatalytic properties.

  14. Core-shell tin oxide, indium oxide, and indium tin oxide nanoparticles on silicon with tunable dispersion: electrochemical and structural characteristics as a hybrid Li-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiak, Michal J; Armstrong, Eileen; Kennedy, Tadhg; Torres, Clivia M Sotomayor; Ryan, Kevin M; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2013-08-28

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is considered a very promising material as a high capacity Li-ion battery anode. Its adoption depends on a solid understanding of factors that affect electrochemical behavior and performance such as size and composition. We demonstrate here, that defined dispersions and structures can improve our understanding of Li-ion battery anode material architecture on alloying and co-intercalation processes of Lithium with Sn from SnO2 on Si. Two different types of well-defined hierarchical Sn@SnO2 core-shell nanoparticle (NP) dispersions were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on silicon, composed of either amorphous or polycrystalline SnO2 shells. In2O3 and Sn doped In2O3 (ITO) NP dispersions are also demonstrated from MBE NP growth. Lithium alloying with the reduced form of the NPs and co-insertion into the silicon substrate showed reversible charge storage. Through correlation of electrochemical and structural characteristics of the anodes, we detail the link between the composition, areal and volumetric densities, and the effect of electrochemical alloying of Lithium with Sn@SnO2 and related NPs on their structure and, importantly, their dispersion on the electrode. The dispersion also dictates the degree of co-insertion into the Si current collector, which can act as a buffer. The compositional and structural engineering of SnO2 and related materials using highly defined MBE growth as model system allows a detailed examination of the influence of material dispersion or nanoarchitecture on the electrochemical performance of active electrodes and materials.

  15. The role of Ar plasma treatment in generating oxygen vacancies in indium tin oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Deuk-Kyu; Misra, Mirnmoy; Lee, Ye-Eun; Baek, Sung-Doo; Myoung, Jae-Min; Lee, Tae Il

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide thin film with about 41 nm thickness was obtained by the sol-gel process. • Thin film exhibited low resistivity. • Sheet resistance of thin film decreases with Ar plasma treatment time. • Ar plasma treatment on thin film does not alter the crystal structure and optical properties of the ITO thin-film. • There is no significant change in oxygen vacancies after 20 min of plasma treatment. - Abstract: Argon (Ar) plasma treatment was carried out to reduce the sheet resistance of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The Ar plasma treatment did not cause any significant changes to the crystal structure, surface morphology, or optical properties of the ITO thin films. However, an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study confirmed that the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film dramatically increased with the plasma treatment time. Thus, we concluded that the decrease in the sheet resistance was caused by the increase in the oxygen vacancy concentration in the film. Furthermore, to verify how the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film increased with the Ar plasma treatment time, cumulative and continuous plasma treatments were conducted. The oxygen vacancies were found to be created by surface heating via the outward thermal diffusion of oxygen atoms from inside the film.

  16. High-mobility transparent conductive thin films of cerium-doped hydrogenated indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Watabe, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have developed 100-nm-thick cerium-doped hydrogenated indium oxide (ICO:H) films with a superior Hall mobility of 130-145 cm2 V-1 s-1. The ICO:H films deposited at 150 °C by dc arc-discharge ion plating were post-annealed at 200 °C. The relationship between the Hall mobility and carrier density of the polycrystalline ICO:H films shows that the carrier transport is limited by an ionized impurity scattering mechanism inside the grains. The surfaces of the ICO:H films were found to be very smooth and clear grain-boundary areas were not observed.

  17. Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films as Effective Anodes of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO thin films were prepared by low-cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP. Both a low resistivity (3.13×10−3 Ω cm and an average direct transmittance (400∼1500 nm about 80% of the IZO films were achieved. The IZO films were investigated as anodes in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester. The device fabricated on IZO film-coated glass substrate showed an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, a short circuit current of 8.49 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 0.40, and a power conversion efficiency of 1.91%, demonstrating that the IZO films prepared by USP technique are promising low In content and transparent electrode candidates of low-cost OPV devices.

  18. Magnetic Properties and Oxygen Defects of Dilute Metal Doped Tin Oxide Based Semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Nomura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and magnetic states of iron doped tin oxide (SnO2 as a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS at room temperature have been investigated using 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, XRD and magnetometery. The influence of the doping conditions of SnO2 with iron on the generation of oxygen defects was reviewed and discussed on the basis of ab initio calculations. The magnetic properties depended on preparation conditions, such as thermal decomposition and sol-gel processing as well as 57Fe and super-dilute 57Mn implantation. It was shown that Sb codoping in Fe doped SnO2 increases the saturation magnetization. Doping of Fe(Sb-SnO2 with nonmagnetic Zn ions up to 7 % also increases the magnetization although there is no precipitation of crystalline magnetic phases. The co-doping of two transition metal ions (Fe-Co, Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni and Fe-V in SnO2 matrix enhanced the magnetization as compared with that of single metal ion doped samples. It is suggested from different valence states of doped metal ions that double exchange interactions occur through or near the oxygen vacancies in SnO2. The SnO2 doped with dilute 57Fe may show the intrinsic and/or extrinsic DMS properties. Oxygen vacancies play an important role in the intrinsic DMS. The intrinsic nature of DMS is supported by both, experimental results and ab initio calculations. The long range interactions between diluted magnetic ions are considered to occur through electrons produced by oxygen vacancies or electrons induced by Sb5+ doping.

  19. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  20. A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

  1. Ultrabroadband terahertz characterization of highly doped ZnO and ITO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The broadband complex conductivities of transparent conducting oxides (TCO), namely, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), were investigated by using THz-TDS from 0.5 to 18 THz. The complex conductivities were accurately calculated using...... resonance tail even in the low frequency part of the spectrum....

  2. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.co [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India); Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO{sub 2}:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 OMEGA/square) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  3. Investigation of the properties of Sb doping on tin oxide SNO2 materials for technological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachoun, Z.; Ouerdane, A.; Bouslama, M.; Ghaffour, M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Caudano, Y.; benamara, A. Ali

    2016-04-01

    The conductivities of the oxide SnO2 is dependent on the nature of the surrounding gas. This property stems from the adsorption or desorption on the surface of oxide grains. These phenomena are usually accompanied by electronic transfer between the adsorbed molecule and the semiconductor material, changing its conductivity. Tin oxidation and Sb doping were realized without and with heating process. The XPS technique and the TEM microscopy showed the synthesized nanocrystals. Simulated Monte Carlo program Casino is used for a scanning its profile. The surface characteristics are highlighted in the aim to be used as spatial gas sensors.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of copper oxide (CuO)–gold (Au)–titania (TiO2) and copper oxide (CuO)–gold (Au)–indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowire heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Shi, Wenwu; Lattner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale heterostructures composed of standing copper oxide nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles and shells of titania and indium tin oxide were fabricated. The fabrication process involved surfactant-free and wet-chemical nucleation of gold nanoparticles on copper oxide nanowires followed by a line-of-sight sputtering of titania or indium tin oxide. The heterostructures were characterized using high resolution electron microscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interfaces, morphologies, crystallinity, phases, and chemical compositions were analyzed. The process of direct nucleation of gold nanoparticles on copper oxide nanoparticles resulted in low energy interface with aligned lattice for both the components. Coatings of polycrystalline titania or amorphous indium tin oxide were deposited on standing copper oxide nanowire–gold nanoparticle heterostructures. Self-shadowing effect due to standing nanowire heterostructures was observed for line-of-sight sputter deposition of titania or indium tin oxide coatings. Finally, the heterostructures were studied using Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, including band gap energy analysis. Tailing in the band gap energy at longer wavelengths (or lower energies) was observed for the nanowire heterostructures. - Highlights: • Heterostructures comprised of CuO nanowires coated with Au nanoparticles. • Au nanoparticles exhibited nearly flat and low energy interface with nanowire. • Heterostructures were further sputter-coated with oxide shell of TiO 2 or ITO. • The process resulted in coating of polycrystalline TiO 2 and amorphous ITO shell

  5. Enhancement of the optical Kerr effect by photobleaching in nanostructured indium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castañeda, L; Torres-Torres, C; Rangel-Rojo, R; Tamayo-Rivera, L; Torres-Martínez, R

    2012-01-01

    A modification of the nonlinear refractive index exhibited by indium-doped zinc oxide thin solid films deposited by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique, after strong femtosecond laser irradiation, is presented. We used a standard time-resolved optical Kerr gate configuration with 80 fs pulses at 830 nm in order to study the third-order optical nonlinearities of the samples. A significant enhancement of the optical Kerr response was obtained by intense femtosecond excitation, which induced a permanent bleaching in the sample. A quasi-instantaneous pure electronic nonlinearity without the contribution of nonlinear optical absorption was observed. There is a close relationship between the change in linear absorption induced in the indium-doped zinc oxide film after high-intensity irradiation and the strong third-order nonlinearity that develops in the irradiated film.

  6. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m 3 of copper and 1.35 kg/m 3 of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching wastewater

  7. Enhanced visible-light photocatalysis and gas sensor properties of polythiophene supported tin doped titanium nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M. Ravi; Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Rao, T. Siva; Pammi, S. V. N.; Siva Kumar, K.; Vijay Babu, K.; Kiran Kumar, Ch.; Hemalatha, K. P. J.

    2017-06-01

    The polythiophene supported tin doped titanium nanocomposites (PTh/Sn-TiO2) were synthesized by modified sol-gel process through oxidative polymerization of thiophene. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) analysis confirms the existence of synergetic interaction between metal oxide and polymer along with extension of absorption edge to visible region. The composites are found to be in spherical form with core-shell structure, which is confirmed by scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, the presence of all respective elements of composite are proven by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The importance of polythiophene on surface of metal oxide has been were studied as a function of photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic pollutant congo red and gas sensor behavior towards liquid petroleum gas (LPG). All the composites are photocatalytically active and the composite with 1.5 wt% thiophene degrades the pollutant congo red within 120 min when compared to remaining catalysts under visible light irradiation. On the other hand, same composite have shown potential gas sensor properties towards LPG at 300 °C. Considering all the results, it can be noted that polythiophene acts as good sensitizer towards LPG and supporter for the tin doped titania that improve the photocatalytic activity under visible light.

  8. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  9. Microporous SiO2 with huge electric-double-layer capacitance for low-voltage indium tin oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Aixia; Sun Jia; Jiang Jie; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    Electric-double-layer (EDL) effect is observed in microporous SiO 2 dielectric films deposited at room temperature by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. Indium tin oxide thin-film transistors gated by such microporous SiO 2 gate dielectric are fabricated at room temperature, and a low operating voltage of 1.5 V is obtained due to the huge EDL specific capacitance (2.14 μF/cm 2 ). The field-effect electron mobility is estimated to be 118 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Current on/off ratio and subthreshold gate voltage swing are estimated to be 5x10 6 and 92 mV/decade, respectively. Room-temperature deposited microporous SiO 2 dielectric is promising for low-power field-effect transistors on temperature sensitive substrates.

  10. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2-Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2015-07-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H2 in the gas mixture of H2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H2/(Ar + H2) ratio in the range of 0.3-0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, ΦTC = T10/RS, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  11. Effect of maleic anhydride-aniline derivative buffer layer on the properties of flexible substrate heterostructures: Indium tin oxide/nucleic acid base/metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, A., E-mail: sanca@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, Universite d' Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045, Angers (France); Preda, N. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Albu, A.-M. [Department of Polymer Science, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 (Romania)

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the properties of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) based heterostructures deposited on flexible substrates. The effects of two types of maleic anhydride-aniline derivatives (maleic anhydride-cyano aniline or maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline) buffer layer, deposited between indium tin oxide and (G) or (C) layer, on the optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures have been identified. The heterostructures containing a film of maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline have shown a good transparency and low photoluminescence in visible range. This buffer layer has determined an increase in the conductance only in the heterostructures based on (G) and (C) deposited on biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate substrate.

  12. Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic layer deposition with improvement on stability and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kan; Fan, Huanhuan; Huang, Chaofan; Hong, Xia; Fang, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu; Li, Chengshuai; Huang, Zhuoyin; Zhen, Hongyu

    2012-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is employed to encapsulate inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells (IFSCs) with a structure of Al/TiOx/P3HT:PC61BM/PEDOT:PSS. The encapsulation layer, Al2O3, is deposited by ALD on the light incident surface. The thickness of the Al2O3 layer can thus be optimized through optical simulation to minimize light loss of IFSCs. Based on optical calculation, we encapsulated the device (85 nm thick active layer) with a 30 nm thick Al2O3 layer. The resulting ALD encapsulated IFSCs show much better device performance and higher stability than the glass-encapsulated ones.

  13. Tuning indium tin oxide work function with solution-processed alkali carbonate interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Wang, Yixin; Huang, Xun; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2013-12-06

    Selective electron collection by an interfacial layer modified indium tin oxide cathode is critically important for achieving high-efficiency inverted structure organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we demonstrate that solution-processed alkali carbonates, such as Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3, are good interfacial layer materials. Both carbonate concentration and annealing conditions can affect cathode work function and surface roughness. By proper optimization, different alkali carbonates can be almost equally effective as the cathode interfacial layer. Furthermore, good device performance can be achieved at a low annealing temperature (<50 ° C), which allows for potential applications in solution-processed inverted OPV cells on plastic substrates. This work indicates that alkali carbonates, not just cesium carbonate, are valid choices as the cathode interlayer in inverted OPV devices.

  14. Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrode by InCl{sub 3} aqueous solution for high-performance organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yun; Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhao-Kui, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Zhou, Dong-Ying [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2016-04-11

    The authors develop a facile and effective method to produce the chlorinated indium tin oxide (Cl-ITO) treated by InCl{sub 3} aqueous solution and UV/ozone. The work function of the Cl-ITO achieved by this treatment is as high as 5.69 eV, which is increased by 1.09 eV compared with that of the regular ITO without any treatment. Further investigation proved that the enhancement of the work function is attributed to the formation of In-Cl bonds on the Cl-ITO surface. Green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on the Cl-ITO electrodes exhibit excellent electroluminescence performance, elongating lifetime due to the improvement in hole injection.

  15. Role of Nitrogenase and Ferredoxin in the Mechanism of Bioelectrocatalytic Nitrogen Fixation by the Cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis SA-1 Mutant Immobilized on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, Krysti L.; Aoyama, Erika; Hasan, Kamrul; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2017-01-01

    Current ammonia production methods are costly and environmentally detrimental. Biological nitrogen fixation has implications for low cost, environmentally friendly ammonia production. It has been shown that electrochemical stimulation increases the ammonia output of the cyanobacteria SA-1 mutant of Anabaena variabilis, but the mechanism of bioelectrocatalysis has been unknown. Here, the mechanism of electrostimulated biological ammonia production is investigated by immobilization of the cyanobacteria with polyvinylamine on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene. Cyclic voltammetry is performed in the absence and presence of various substrates and with nitrogenase repressed and nitrogenase derepressed cells to study mechanism, and cyclic voltammetry and UV–vis spectroscopy are used to identify redox moieties in the spent electrolyte. A bioelectrocatalytic signal is observed for nitrogenase derepressed A. variabilis SA-1 in the presence of N 2 and light. Results indicate that the redox protein ferredoxin mediates electron transfer between nitrogenase and the electrode to stimulate ammonia production.

  16. High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (202{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhashemi, A., E-mail: pourhashemi@engr.ucsb.edu; Farrell, R. M.; Cohen, D. A.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-03-16

    We demonstrate a high power blue laser diode (LD) using indium tin oxide as a cladding layer on semipolar oriented GaN. These devices show peak output powers and external quantum efficiencies comparable to state-of-the-art commercial c-plane devices. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated on (202{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) oriented GaN substrates using InGaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 451 nm at room temperature, an output power of 2.52 W and an external quantum efficiency of 39% were measured from a single facet under a pulsed injection current of 2.34 A. The measured differential quantum efficiency was 50%.

  17. Study on Surface Modification of Indium Tin Oxide and Resist Surfaces Using CF4/O2 Plasma for Manufacturing Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Inkjet Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikagawa, Masakuni; Tohno, Ichiro; Shinmura, Tadashi; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Kataoka, Yoshinori; Fujihira, Masamichi

    2008-12-01

    We studied a surface modification technique for indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes without precleaning and resist banks for manufacturing organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by inkjet printing. The ITO surface modified by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with an optimized CF4/O2 (7:3) gas mixture improved both its hydrophilicity and its work function, while the resist surface treated by the plasma became hydrophobic. The resist and ITO surfaces treated by plasmas of various gas mixtures (i.e., CF4, CF4/Ar (1:2), CF4/O2 (x:1; x=1, 7/3, 4, and 9) were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the C 1s, F 1s, O 1s, and In 3d5/2 core levels. On the uncleaned ITO surfaces modified by CF4/O2 plasmas, organic contaminants were removed more efficiently and the deposition of CFx on the remaining contaminants decreased with increasing oxygen. The amount of F in the form of InFx increased using the CF4/O2 (7:3) plasma in comparison with that using the CF4/Ar and CF4 plasmas. We investigated the effect of adding oxygen to CF4 on the change in gaseous species produced in the plasma chamber by mass spectrometry. In the CF4/O2 (7:3) plasma, the peak intensities of F+, HF+, F2+, O+, and O2+ were higher than those in the CF4 plasma. The results suggest that In2O3 was generated by the oxidation of indium with O, and InFx was generated by the fluoridation of indium with HF. By introducing InFx onto ITO surfaces using the CF4/O2 plasma, the hole-injection energy barrier could be reduced.

  18. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11kg/m(3) of copper and 1.35kg/m(3) of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100-500nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Properties of N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays from TiN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs were prepared by annealing the TiN nanorod arrays (NRAs which were deposited by using oblique angle deposition (OAD technique. The TiN NRAs were annealed at 330°C for different times (5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The band gaps of annealed TiN NRAs (i.e., N-doped TiO2 NRAs show a significant variance with annealing time, and can be controlled readily by varying annealing time. All of the N-doped TiO2 NRAs exhibit an enhancement in photocurrent intensity in visible light compared with that of pure TiO2 and TiN, and the one annealed for 15 min shows the maximum photocurrent intensity owning to the optimal N dopant concentration. The results show that the N-doped TiO2 NRAs, of which the band gap can be tuned easily, are a very promising material for application in photocatalysis.

  20. Porous Silicon and Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Junctions: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application to Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Severiano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the obtaining of electroluminescent devices (ELD from porous silicon (PS and indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In junctions. PS presented photoluminescence (PL in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ZnO:In thin film was obtained by dip coating technique. SEM images and IR measurements showed the incorporation of the ZnO:In in the PS structure. Once obtained, the device was optically and electrically characterized. The ELD showed emission in the visible (450–850 nm and infrared region (900–1200 nm where it was electrically polarized. The visible emission was detected as luminescent spots on the surface. Electrical characterization was carried out by current-voltage (I-V curves. The I-V curves showed rectifying behavior. It was related to the quenching of the EL with the process that takes place in the PS when it was immersed in the precursor solution of the ZnO:In.

  1. Electroluminescent Devices Based on Junctions of Indium Doped Zinc Oxide and Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Severiano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescent devices (ELD based on junctions of indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In and porous silicon layers (PSL are presented in this work. PSL with different thicknesses and photoluminescent emission, around 680 nm, were obtained by anodic etching. PSL were coated with a ZnO:In film which was obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Once obtained, this structure was optically and electrically characterized. When the devices were electrically polarized they showed stable electroluminescence (EL which was presented as dots scattered over the surface. These dots can be seen with the naked eye. The observed EL goes from the 410 to 1100 nm, which is formed by different emission bands. The EL emission in the visible region was around 400 to 750 nm, and the emission corresponding to the infrared part covers the 750 to 1150 nm. The electrical characterization was carried out by current-voltage curves (I-V which show a rectifying behavior of the devices. Observed electroluminescent dots are associated with the electron-hole injection into quantized states in PS as well as the emission from the ZnO:In film.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Tin / Titanium mixed oxide nanoparticles doped with lanthanide for biomarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis, characterization and photo luminescent study of tin and titanium mixed oxide nanoparticles doped with europium, terbium and neodymium to be used with luminescent markers on biological systems. The syntheses were done by co-precipitation, protein sol-gel and Pechini methods and the nanoparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The photo luminescent properties studies were conducted for luminophores doped with europium, terbium and neodymium synthesized by coprecipitation method. For luminophore doped with europium it was possible to calculate the intensity parameters and quantum yield and it showed satisfactory results. In the case of biological system marking it was necessary the functionalization of these particles to allow them to bind to the biological part to be studied. So the nanoparticles were functionalized by microwave and Stöber methods and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction obtaining qualitative response of functionalization efficacy. The ninhydrin spectroscopic method was used for quantification of luminophores functionalization. The photo luminescent studies of functionalized particles demonstrate the potential applying of these luminophores as luminescent markers. (author)

  3. Properties of Vanadium-Doped Indium Oxide Deposited at Room Temperature as Transparent Conductor for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Jun; Lim, Keun Yong; Park, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Han-Ki; Hwang, Do Kyung; Lim, Sung-Jin; Shim, Jae Won; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2017-10-01

    The properties of vanadium-doped indium oxide (IVO) deposited at room temperature as a transparent conductor for inverted polymer solar cells have been investigated as a function of the vanadium doping concentration. IVO film prepared with V doping concentration of 0.03% showed optimal properties for use as a transparent conductor with figure of merit of 4.35 × 10-3 Ohm-1, related to altered band alignment between the Fermi level and conduction-band minimum. In the optimal optoelectrical conditions for the IVO film, performance optimization of PTB7:PC70BM inverted polymer solar cells resulted in maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.7 ± 0.4% under simulated air mass 1.5 global illumination at 100 mW/cm2.

  4. Translation Effects in Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Film Properties by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afzaal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the impact of translation rates in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO thin films using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD were studied. We demonstrated that by adjusting the translation speeds of the susceptor, the growth rates of the FTO films varied and hence many of the film properties were modified. X-ray powder diffraction showed an increased preferred orientation along the (200 plane at higher translation rates, although with no actual change in the particle sizes. A reduction in dopant level resulted in decreased particle sizes and a much greater degree of (200 preferred orientation. For low dopant concentration levels, atomic force microscope (AFM studies showed a reduction in roughness (and lower optical haze with increased translation rate and decreased growth rates. Electrical measurements concluded that the resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of films were dependent on the level of fluorine dopant, the translation rate and hence the growth rates of the deposited films.

  5. Substrate temperature effect on the photophysical and microstructural properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abideen, Ibiyemi; Gbadebo, Yusuf; Abass, Faremi

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conducting oxide of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films was deposited from chemical solutions of tin chloride and ammonium fluoride using streaming process for electroless and electrochemical deposition (SPEED) at substrate temperature 450, 500, and 530 °C respectively. The effect of substrate temperatures on the microstructural properties such as crystallite size, dislocation density, micro strain, volume of the unit cell, volume of the nanoparticles, number of the unit cell, bond length and the lattice constants were examined using XRD technique. Only reflections from (110) and (200) planes of tetragonal SnO2 crystal structure were obvious. The peaks are relatively weak indicating that the deposited materials constitute grains in the nano dimension. Hall measurements, which were done using van der Pauw technique, showed that the FTO films are n-type semiconductors. The most favorable electrical values were achieved for the film grown at 530 °C with low resistivity of 7.64 × 10-4Ω·cm and Hall mobility of -9.92 cm2/(V·s).

  6. Photoelectrochemical properties of bare fluorine doped tin oxide and its electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis toward cysteine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Shaolin; Shi, Qiaofang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CVs of 0.30 M Na 2 SO 4 solution containing 2.0 mM cysteine, curves: (1) glassy carbon electrode, (2) FTO electrode in the dark, (3) FTO electrode in the light illumination, and (4) Pt electrode; pH 10.0, at a scan rate of 60 mV s −1 . - Highlights: • First revelation of photoelectrochemical properties of bare fluorine doped tin oxide. • Determination of band gap of energy of FTO in the solution without a redox couple. • Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical catalysis of bare FTO toward cysteine oxidation. • Determination and recognition of cysteine with electrocatalytic and photocatalytic methods. • Rate-determining step of cysteine oxidation at the FTO electrode. - Abstract: We first revealed that the bare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) under the cathodic polarization over −0.7 V (vs.SCE) shows very sensitive to the irradiating light in a wide wavelength region 850–400 nm in the aqueous solution free of a redox couple, and its band gap of energy E g is determined to be 1.38 eV via the photoelectrochemical method. The bare FTO can effectively catalyze electrochemically L-cysteine (CySH) oxidation and especially shows the photocatalytic ability toward CySH oxidation. Thus the bare FTO electrode can be directly used for determination of CySH concentration using cyclic voltammetry in both the dark and light illumination and it can be used to recognize CySH among 20 α-amino acids found in proteins, based on the low oxidation peak potential and unique photoelectric response. The rate-determining step for the photocatalytic oxidation of CySH on the bare FTO electrode is controlled by supply of charge inside the FTO film to the electrode surface, which exhibits the typical characteristics of semiconductors.

  7. Electrochemistry behavior of endogenous thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Luciana; Molero, Leonard; Tapia, Ricardo A.; Rio, Rodrigo del; Valle, M. Angelica del; Antilen, Monica [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Armijo, Francisco, E-mail: jarmijom@uc.cl [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > The first time that fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes are used for the electrooxidation of endogenous thiols. > Low potentials of electrooxidation were obtained for the different thiols. > The electrochemical behavior of thiols depends on the pH and the ionic electroactive species, the electrooxidation proceeds for a process of adsorption of electroactive species on FTO and high values the heterogeneous electron tranfer rate constant of the reaction were obtained. - Abstract: In this work the electrochemical behavior of different thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes is reported. To this end, the mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (HCys) and acetyl-cysteine (ACys) at different pH was investigated. FTO showed electroactivity for the oxidation of the first three thiols at pH between 2.0 and 4.0, but under these conditions no acetyl-cysteine oxidation was observed on FTO. Voltammetric studies of the electro-oxidation of GSH, Cys and HCys showed peaks at about 0.35, 0.29, and 0.28 V at optimum pH 2.4, 2.8 and 3.4, respectively. In addition, this study demonstrated that GSH, Cys and HCys oxidation occurs when the zwitterion is the electro-active species that interact by adsorption on FTO electrodes. The overall reaction involves 4e{sup -}/4H{sup +} and 2e{sup -}/2H{sup +}, respectively, for HCys and for GSH and Cys and high heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants. Besides, the use of FTO for the determination of different thiols was evaluated. Experimental square wave voltammetry shows a linear current vs. concentrations response between 0.1 and 1.0 mM was found for HCys and GSH, indicating that these FTO electrodes are promising candidates for the efficient electrochemical determination of these endogenous thiols.

  8. On the relaxation rate distribution of the photoionized DX centers in indium doped Cd1-xMnxTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzmiel, J; Placzek-Popko, E; Gumienny, Z; Weron, K; Becla, P

    2009-01-01

    It was recently shown that the kinetics of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) build-up in indium doped Cd 1-x Mn x Te are non-exponential and can be described solely by the stretched-exponential function. The non-exponentiality is attributed to the indium related DX centers present in the materials. In order to explain this observation, low temperature photoconductivity build-up was studied for Cd 1-x Mn x Te:In of two different manganese contents. It was found that this type of response has its origin in the heavy-tailed distribution of the DX centers. The distribution was analyzed in terms of photon flux. Increasing photon flux leads to the more dispersive behavior. It was also confirmed that the heavy-tailed distribution is due to the different local configuration of atoms surrounding DX centers in the alloy.

  9. Antimony doped tin oxides and their composites with tin pyrophosphates as catalyst supports for oxygen evolution reaction in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    2012-01-01

    based on tin pyrophosphates as the catalyst support. The materials showed an overall conductivity of 0.57 S cm−1 at 130 °C under the water vapor atmosphere with a contribution of the proton conduction. Using this composite support, iridium oxide nanoparticle catalysts were prepared and characterized...... in sulfuric and phosphoric acid electrolytes, showing much enhanced catalytic activity. Electrolyzer tests were conducted at both 80 °C with an Aquivion™ membrane and at 130 °C with a phosphoric acid doped Aquivion™ membrane. Significant improvement in the anodic kinetics was achieved on the composite...

  10. Indium-tin-oxide thin film transistor biosensors for label-free detection of avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Di; Zhuo, Ming [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xiaoai [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Xu, Cheng; Jiang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Gao, Fu [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing7686@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Qiuhong, E-mail: liqiuhong2004@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Taihong, E-mail: thwang@hnu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► A highly selective label-free biosensor is established based on indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs). ► AI H5N1 virus was successfully detected through shift in threshold voltage and field-effect mobility of ITO TFT. ► The ITO TFT is applied in biosensor for the first time and shows good reusability and stability. ► Fabrication of the platform is simple with low cost, which is suitable for mass commercial production. -- Abstract: As continuous outbreak of avian influenza (AI) has become a threat to human health, economic development and social stability, it is urgently necessary to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus quickly. In this study, we fabricated indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs) on a glass substrate for the detecting of AI H5N1. The ITO TFT is fabricated by a one-shadow-mask process in which a channel layer can be simultaneously self-assembled between ITO source/drain electrodes during magnetron sputtering deposition. Monoclonal anti-H5N1 antibodies specific for AI H5N1 virus were covalently immobilized on the ITO channel by (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The introduction of target AI H5N1 virus affected the electronic properties of the ITO TFT, which caused a change in the resultant threshold voltage (V{sub T}) and field-effect mobility. The changes of I{sub D}–V{sub G} curves were consistent with an n-type field effect transistor behavior affected by nearby negatively charged AI H5N1 viruses. The transistor based sensor demonstrated high selectivity and stability for AI H5N1 virus sensing. The sensor showed linear response to AI H5N1 in the concentrations range from 5 × 10{sup −9} g mL{sup −1} to 5 × 10{sup −6} g mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.8 × 10{sup −10} g mL{sup −1}. Moreover, the ITO TFT biosensors can be repeatedly used through the washing processes. With its excellent electric properties and the potential for mass commercial production, ITO TFTs

  11. Improvement of the electrochromic response of a low-temperature sintered dye-modified porous electrode using low-resistivity indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuichi; Suemori, Kouji; Hoshino, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticle-based porous electrode sintered at low temperatures was investigated as a transparent electrode for electrochromic displays (ECDs). The electrochromic (EC) response of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C, which exhibited a generally low resistivity, was markedly superior to that of a conventional dye-modified TiO 2 porous electrode sintered at the same temperature. Moreover, the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C were better than those of the high-temperature (450 °C) sintered conventional dye-modified TiO 2 porous electrode. These improvements in the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode are attributed to its lower resistivity than that of the TiO 2 porous electrodes. In addition to its sufficiently low resistivity attained under the sintering conditions required for flexible ECD applications, the ITO porous film had superior visible-light transparency and dye adsorption capabilities. We conclude that the process temperature, resistivity, optical transmittance, and dye adsorption capability of the ITO porous electrode make it a promising transparent porous electrode for flexible ECD applications.

  12. Effect of applied voltage on the structural properties of SnO2 nanostuctures grown on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dea Uk; Yun, Dong Yeol; No, Young Soo; Hwang, Jun Ho; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2013-11-01

    SnO2 nanostuctures were formed on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by using an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed the existence of elemental Sn and O in the samples, indicative of the formation of SnO2 materials. An XPS spectrum showing the O 1s peak at a binding energy of 531.5 eV indicated that the oxygen atoms were bonded to the SnO2. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that the samples formed by using the ECD method had SnO2 nanostructures with a size between 280 and 350 nm. FE-SEM images showed that the size of the SnO2 nanostructures formed at 65 degrees C for 30 min increased with decreasing applied voltage. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the SnO2 nanostrucures had tetragonal structures with cell parameters of a = 4.738 A and c = 3.187 A. XRD results showed that the peak intensity of the (110) plane increased with decreasing applied voltage, indicative of a preferencial orientation of the (110) plane.

  13. Electrochemical characterization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of silanes on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes--tuning electron transfer behaviour across electrode-electrolyte interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthurasu, A; Ganesh, V

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we have systematically investigated the formation and characterization of Self-assembled Monolayer (SAM) films of several silanes on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. Silane molecules having different domains namely substrate binding domain (siloxanes), electron transport region (aliphatic and aromatic spacer) and terminal functional groups (-SH, -CH(3) groups) are employed for the study in order to tune the electron transfer (ET) behaviour across SAM modified electrode-electrolyte interface. Structural characterization of these monolayer films is carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies. Wettability (hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature) of such modified electrodes is evaluated using contact angle measurements. ET behaviour of these modified electrodes is investigated by electrochemical techniques namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using K(4)Fe(II)(CN)(6)|K(3)Fe(III)(CN)(6) redox couple as a probe. Disappearance of redox peaks in the CV measurements and formation of semicircle having a higher charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) values during EIS studies suggest that the resultant monolayer films are compact, highly ordered with very low defects and posses good blocking property with less pinholes. The heterogeneous ET rate constant (k) values are determined from EIS by fitting them to an appropriate equivalent circuit model. Based on our results, we comment on tuning the ET behaviour across the interface by a proper choice of spacer region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of gold nanoparticle attached multi-walled carbon nanotube-layered indium tin oxide in monitoring the effect of paracetamol on the release of epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Rajendra N., E-mail: rngcyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Rana, Anoop Raj Singh [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Aziz, Md. Abdul; Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2011-05-05

    A gold nanoparticle attached multi-walled carbon nanotube-layered indium tin oxide (AuNP/MWNT/ITO) electrode has been used for monitoring the effect of paracetamol (PAR) on the release of epinephrine (EPI) in human urine. The modified electrode shows an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of EPI and PAR with acceleration of electron transfer rate as compared to MWNT/ITO and AuNP/ITO. An apparent shift of the oxidative potential towards less positive potential with a marked increase in peak currents is observed in square wave voltammetry at AuNP/MWNT/ITO electrode. The calibration curves for the simultaneous determination of PAR and EPI showed an excellent linear response, ranging from 5.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} to 80.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for both the compounds. The detection limits for the simultaneous determination of PAR and EPI were found to be 46 x 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1} and 42 x 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1} respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PAR and EPI in human urine. It is observed that gold nanoparticles attached with multi-wall carbon nanotube catalyze the oxidation of EPI and PAR.

  15. Parametric study on the stabilization of metal oxide nanoparticles in organic solvents: A case study with indium tin oxide (ITO) and heptane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansoori, Zayed; Khorshidi, Behnam; Sadri, Behnam; Sadrzadeh, Mohtada

    2018-01-01

    The tendency of nanoparticles (NPs) to form large aggregates has been a major limitation to their widespread applications where utilizing monodisperse and stable suspension of NPs is essential. The aggregation of NPs becomes more challenging when there is less affinity between the dispersed phase (NPs) and the continuous phase (solvent), such as, dispersion of hydrophilic metal oxide NPs into a nonpolar (organic) solvent. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate the synergistic effects of eight dispersion parameters on the size and stability of indium tin oxide (ITO) NPs in heptane. The matrix of experimentation was designed using an L 18 Taguchi method. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the experimental results revealed that the most significant factors on the size and stability of NPs were the mass of ITO NPs and the volume of the dispersing agent. Taguchi signal-to-noise (SN) ratio analysis was used to determine the optimal factor levels for the preparation of well-dispersed and stable NP suspensions. Confirmation tests were carried out at the suggested levels of the ANOVA predictive model, and highly stable ITO NPs in heptane with the size distribution of 43.0-68.3nm were obtained. The results of the present parametric study can be used for a broad range of applications where effective stabilization of metal oxide NPs in organic solvents is desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal Studies of New Precursors to Indium-tin Oxides for Use as Sensor Materials in the Detection of NO(x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, J. C.; Kacik, T.; Hockensmith, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Control of combustion product emissions in both sub and super-sonic jet engines can be facilitated by measurement of NO(x) levels with metal oxide sensors, In2O3, metal-doped SnO2, and SnO, (as well as other materials) show resistivity changes in the presence of NO(x), but often their sensitivity, stability, and selectivity are low. This study was designed to develop new synthetic pathways to precursors that produce high purity, two phase In2O3-SnO2. The precursors were formed by complexation of tin with any oxide ligands to give the ammonium salt (NH4). Thermal studies of these precursors were carried out by thermal gravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further studies by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were also conducted.

  17. The n-type conduction of indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films fabricated by direct current magnetron co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Xing-Min; Su, Xiao-Qiang; Ye, Fan, E-mail: yefan@szu.edu.cn; Wang, Huan; Tian, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Ping; Luo, Jing-Ting; Zheng, Zhuang-Hao; Liang, Guang-Xing [Institute of Thin Film Physics and Applications, School of Physical Science and Technology and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Roy, V. A. L. [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-24

    Indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films were fabricated on K9 glass substrates by direct current magnetron co-sputtering in an atmosphere of Ar and O{sub 2}. Metallic copper and indium disks were used as the targets. X-ray diffraction showed that the diffraction peaks could only be indexed to simple cubic Cu{sub 2}O, with no other phases detected. Indium atoms exist as In{sup 3+} in Cu{sub 2}O. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the samples was relatively high and that indium doping increased the optical band gaps. The Hall effect measurement showed that the samples were n-type semiconductors at room temperature. The Seebeck effect test showed that the films were n-type semiconductors near or over room temperature (<400 K), changing to p-type at relatively high temperatures. The conduction by the samples in the temperature range of the n-type was due to thermal band conduction and the donor energy level was estimated to be 620.2–713.8 meV below the conduction band. The theoretical calculation showed that indium doping can raise the Fermi energy level of Cu{sub 2}O and, therefore, lead to n-type conduction.

  18. Retardation of grain boundary self-diffusion in nickel doped with antimony and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, R.A.; White, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Many important metallurgical phenomena are strongly influenced or controlled by grain boundary mass transport. There is also much evidence that the composition of grain boundaries is often significantly different from the overall composition of metals and alloys, owing to strong segregation of residual (and often undetected) impurities. This segregation, which does not always advertise its presence through grain boundary brittleness, may vary markedly from heat to heat, and occasionally from specimen to specimen within a given heat. Unfortunately, there are relatively few experimental observations of how such segregation affects grain boundary mass transport, and even less fundamental understanding of how these effects occur. In this paper we present autoradiographic results on self-diffusion of 63 Ni in nickel and nickel doped with antimony and tin. While these results do not permit a quantitative evaluation of the grain boundary diffusivity, D, they qualitatively illustrate the dramatic effect that these solute elements have on the ability of nickel grain boundaries to act as preferential paths for mass transport

  19. Optoelectrochemical biorecognition by optically transparent highly conductive graphene-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; Brigo, L; Favaro, M; Luni, C; Zoso, A; Cattelan, M; Agnoli, S; Brusatin, G; Granozzi, G; Giomo, M; Elvassore, N

    2014-12-24

    Both optical and electrochemical graphene-based sensors have gone through rapid development, reaching high sensitivity at low cost and with fast response time. However, the complex validating biochemical operations, needed for their consistent use, currently limits their effective application. We propose an integration strategy for optoelectrochemical detection that overcomes previous limitations of these sensors used separately. We develop an optoelectrochemical sensor for aptamer-mediated protein detection based on few-layer graphene immobilization on selectively modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. Our results show that the electrochemical properties of graphene-modified FTO samples are suitable for complex biological detection due to the stability and inertness of the engineered electrodic interface. In addition, few-layer immobilization of graphene sheets through electrostatic linkage with an electrochemically grafted FTO surface allows obtaining an optically accessible and highly conductive platform. As a proof of concept, we used insulin as the target molecule to reveal in solution. Because of its transparency and low sampling volume (a few microliters), our sensing unit can be easily integrated in lab-on-a-chip cell culture systems for effectively monitoring subnanomolar concentrations of proteins relevant for biomedical applications.

  20. Improving the performance of fluorine-doped tin oxide by adding salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Suryana, Risa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2015-07-01

    High-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated via a spray deposition technique with salt added to the precursor. The addition of NaCl in the precursor improved the conductivity of the FTO films. Increasing the NaCl concentration to its optimal concentration reduced the sheet resistance of the FTO film. The optimal values for the addition of a NaCl were 0.5, 0.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at.% for the FTO film prepared using NH{sub 4}F concentration of 4, 10, 16, and 22 at.%, respectively. The lowest sheet resistance of the salt-added FTO film was 4.8 Ω/□. The FTO film averaged a transmittance of more than 80% in the visible range region (λ = 400–800 nm). XRD diffractograms confirmed that the crystal structure of the as-grown FTO film was that of a tetragonal SnO{sub 2} and that the addition of salt improved its crystallinity. This film has the potential for use as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • A method to improve FTO performance using the addition of salt • The FTO film exhibited high performance of conductivity and light transmittance. • This technique is low-cost, fast and scales-up easily using simple devices.

  1. Fluorine doped-tin oxide prepared using spray method for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyandari, Hendri; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Suyitno, Hidayanto, Eko

    2013-09-01

    Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by spray deposition method. FTO films were prepared in different sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 Ω/sq. X-ray diffractograms showed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO2. The prepared FTO film have an average transmittance of 80% in the visible region (λ=400-800 nm). These FTO films were then used to fabricate Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The working electrode was made from TiO2 paste using doctor blade technique. DSSC samples were characterized using solar simulator under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). It is found that the efficiency of DSSC was much affected by sheet resistance of FTO film. The efficiency of DCCS was 2.32, 2.4, 1.1 and 0.97 (%) for the FTO sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 Ω/sq, respectively. It is shown that the optimum DSSC efficiency was made from FTO with sheet resistance 12.1 Ω/sq.

  2. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs. The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance.

  3. CdS-based p-i-n diodes using indium and copper doped CdS films by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Como, N; Berrellez-Reyes, F; Mizquez-Corona, R; Ramirez-Esquivel, O; Mejia, I; Quevedo-Lopez, M

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report a method to dope cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films using pulsed laser deposition. Doping is achieved during film growth at substrate temperatures of 100 °C by sequential deposition of the CdS and the dopant material. Indium sulfide and copper disulfide targets were used as the dopant sources for n-type and p-type doping, respectively. Film resistivities as low as 0.2 and 1 Ω cm were achieved for indium and copper doped films, respectively. Hall effect measurements demonstrated the change in conductivity type from n-type to p-type when the copper dopants are incorporated into the film. The controlled incorporation of indium or copper, in the undoped CdS film, results in substitutional defects in the CdS, which increases the electron and hole concentration up to 4 × 10 18 cm −3 and 3 × 10 20 cm −3 , respectively. The results observed with CdS doping can be expanded to other chalcogenides material compounds by just selecting different targets. With the optimized doped films, CdS-based p-i-n diodes were fabricated yielding an ideality factor of 4, a saturation current density of 2 × 10 −6 A cm −2 and a rectification ratio of three orders of magnitude at ±3 V. (paper)

  4. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanocauliflower like structure of CdS thin film for solar cell photovoltaic applications: Insitu tin doping by chemical bath deposition technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilson, KC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on surface morphology changes of in situ tin (Sn) doped cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film nanostructures prepared on a glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Sn-doping in the presence of triethanolammine (TEOA...

  6. Ultrasonic attenuation in the superconducting and intermediate states of pure and doped type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, K.D.; Singh, R.

    1982-01-01

    The attenuation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been measured in single crystals of indium (99.999%), indium doped with 0.003 at % of tin, and indium doped with 0.002 at % of bismuth in the intermediate and superconducting states over the frequency range 10--30 MHz. For the bismuth-doped indium specimen, measurements were taken for three different physical states, i.e., for three different dislocation densities, and for the indium and the tin-doped indium specimens, measurements were for one-physical state. For a particular measurement, the same physical state was maintained both in the intermediate and superconducting states. A temperature-dependent oscillatory behavior of the ultrasonic attenuation was observed in the intermediate state in all the three specimens, but in the superconducting state the oscillatory behavior was observed only in the bismuth-doped specimen. Two phases have been identified in the superconducting layers of the intermediate state and there is only one phase in the superconducting state of the bismuth-doped sample. The origin of the two phases in the intermediate state and that of the single phase in the superconducting state of the bismuth-doped sample are discussed. A qualitative explanation is presented for the occurrence of oscillatory attenuation in the intermediate state irrespective of the nature of the dopant and the selective occurrence of oscillatory attenuation in the superconducting state due to the nature of the dopant

  7. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  8. Onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures on indium tin oxide thin films for clean ablation using a repetitively pulsed picosecond laser at low fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, N.; Dasgupta, P.; O’Connor, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is of key importance to obtain clean ablated features on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films at low fluences. The evolution of subwavelength periodic nanostructures on a 175 nm thick ITO film, using 10 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1032 nm, operating at 400 kHz, is investigated. Initially nanoblisters are observed when a single pulse is applied below the damage threshold fluence (0.45 J cm‑2) the size and distribution of nanoblisters are found to depend on fluence. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations support the hypothesis that conductive nanoblisters can enhance the local intensity of the applied electromagnetic field. The LIPSS are observed to evolve from regions where the electric field enhancement has occurred; LIPSS has a perpendicular orientation relative to the laser polarization for a small number (pulses. The LIPSS periodicity depends on nanoblister size and distribution; a periodicity down to 100 nm is observed at the lower fluence periphery of the Gaussian irradiated area where nanoblisters are smallest and more closely arranged. Upon irradiation with successive (>5) pulses, the orientation of the periodic structures appears to rotate and evolve to become aligned in parallel with the laser polarization at approximately the same periodicity. These orientation effects are not observed at higher fluence—due to the absence of the nanoblister-like structures; this apparent rotation is interpreted to be due to stress-induced fragmentation of the LIPSS structure. The application of subsequent pulses leads to clean ablation. LIPSS are further modified into features of a shorter period when laser scanning is used. Results provide evidence that the formation of conductive nanoblisters leads to the enhancement of the applied electromagnetic field and thereby can be used to precisely control laser ablation on ITO thin films.

  9. Factors affecting the photovoltaic behavior of inverted polymer solar cells using various indium tin oxide electrodes modified by amines with simple chemical structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, Takuji [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kuwabara, Takayuki, E-mail: tkuwabar@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Takahiro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Taima, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Takahashi, Kohshin, E-mail: ktakaha@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    In a glass–indium tin oxide (ITO)/amine/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)/Au cell, which uses small molecule amine-modified ITO as the electron collection electrode, a light-soaking effect under irradiation of simulated sunlight was restrained considerably compared with in an ITO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Au cell containing bare ITO. That is, the time taken to arrive at a saturated V{sub oc} from the initial V{sub oc} became short when the ionization potential (I{sub P}) of ITO reduced by the amine modification, and consequently both of its saturated V{sub oc} and power conversion efficiency (PCE) improved. The I{sub P} decreased with an increase in the number (N) of amino groups in a single amine molecule, because the basic amino groups can efficiently neutralize any acidic hydroxyl groups on ITO through a multipoint interaction. The superior performance of the cell containing the amine-modified electrode with large N was perhaps because the energy mismatch formed by a contact between ITO and acceptor PCBM reduced, and consequently the rate of electron collection at ITO increased. - Highlights: • Surface-modification of ITO electrode with low molecular weight amines • Ionization potential of ITO was decreased by forming an electrical double layer. • Light-soaking effect has been observed by irradiating white light. • The light-soaking effect mainly improved the open-circuit photovoltage. • Open-circuit photovoltage was limited by ionization potential of amine-modified ITO.

  10. Oxidation behaviors of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) on indium tin oxide surfaces without and with additional TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Han; Kim, Young Dok

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) layers spin-coated on bare and TiO 2 -coated indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with two different TiO 2 film thicknesses were exposed to visible light and humid atmosphere, and the oxidation behaviors these layers were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. S atoms in P3HT were oxidized to sulfoxide without ring opening of P3HT under our experimental conditions. When the mean thickness of TiO 2 on ITO was ⁓19 nm, oxidation of the S atoms on this substrate was more pronounced than on bare ITO and ITO covered with thinner TiO 2 films (mean thickness: ⁓7 nm). Studies using photoluminescence (PL) suggest that electron–hole pairs created in P3HT on bare ITO can be transferred into the ITO and most likely recombine efficiently in ITO by electron–electron scattering. Relatively thin TiO 2 films on ITO do not show much change in PL with respect to the case of bare ITO; however, when a thicker TiO 2 film is deposited between ITO and P3HT, charge transfer from optically excited P3HT to ITO seems to be suppressed. Therefore, the probability for charge transfer from optically excited P3HT to O 2 and H 2 O, forming strong oxidizing agents such as math formula and OH radicals, can be increased in the presence of a thicker TiO 2 film on ITO

  11. Electrochemically driven biocatalysis of the oxygenase domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in indium tin oxide nanoparticles/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Wollenberger, Ulla; Qian, Jing; Lettau, Katrin; Jung, Christiane; Liu, Songqin

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays a critical role in a number of key physiological and pathological processes. Investigation of electron-transfer reactions in NOS would contribute to a better understanding of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis mechanism. Herein, we describe an electrochemically driven catalytic strategy, using a nanocomposite that consisted of the oxygenase domain of neuronal NOS (D290nNOSoxy), indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Fast direct electron transfer between electrodes and D290nNOSoxy was observed with the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ket) of 154.8 ± 0.1s(-1) at the scan rate of 5 Vs(-1). Moreover, the substrate N(ω)-hydroxy-L-arginine (NHA) was used to prove the concept of electrochemically driven biocatalysis of D290nNOSoxy. In the presence of the oxygen cosubstrate and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor, the addition of NHA caused the decreases of both oxidation current at +0.1 V and reduction current at potentials ranging from -0.149 V to -0.549 V vs Ag/AgCl. Thereafter, a series of control experiments such as in the absence of BH4 or D290nNOSoxy were performed. All the results demonstrated that D290nNOSoxy biocatalysis was successfully driven by electrodes in the presence of BH4 and oxygen. This novel bioelectronic system showed potential for further investigation of NOS and biosensor applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of cadmium telluride, lead telluride and cadmium telluride/lead telluride superlattice thin films on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fei

    The objective of this work was to fabricate nanolayer films CdTe, PbTe and CdTe/PbTe superlattice structures on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/glass substrates. The purpose of this work is aimed at improving the efficiency of solar cells by enhanced optical absorption of light. The optical bandgap properties of the CdTe/PbTe superlattice structures were engineered to be employed as an absorber layer of a solar cell in order to optimize the absorption of the solar spectrum. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (EC-ALD) has been used to fabricate CdTe, PbTe and three different superlattice structures of CdTe/PbTe thin films on ITO-coated glass: (CdTe20/PbTe20)3, (CdTe10/PbTe20)3 and (CdTe5/PbTe20)3. These are intended to serve as the absorber layer of a solar cell. In our experiments, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and current monitoring helped us obtain appropriate deposition potentials. The grain sizes of the superlattices were studied by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition of the films was determined by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Optical absorption measurements were made in order to determine the band gap energy of the deposited films. We successfully shifted the bandgaps of CdTe/PbTe superlattices on ITO from 1.9 eV to 3.2 eV by changing the proportion of CdTe in the CdTe/PbTe films.

  13. Ultra-Rapid Crystallization of L-alanine Using Monomode Microwaves, Indium Tin Oxide and Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansiquot, Carisse; Boone-Kukoyi, Zainab; Shortt, Raquel; Thompson, Nishone; Ajifa, Hillary; Kioko, Bridgit; Constance, Edward Ned; Clement, Travis; Ozturk, Birol; Aslan, Kadir

    2018-01-01

    The use of indium tin oxide (ITO) and focused monomode microwave heating for the ultra-rapid crystallization of L-alanine (a model amino acid) is reported. Commercially available ITO dots (microwave heating during crystallization experiments. Crystallization of L-alanine was performed at room temperature (a control experiment), with the use of two microwave sources: a 2.45 GHz conventional microwave (900 W, power level 1, a control experiment) and 8 GHz (20 W) solid state, monomode microwave source with an applicator tip that focuses the microwave field to a 5-mm cavity. Initial appearance of L-alanine crystals and on iCrystal plates with ITO dots took 47 ± 2.9 min, 12 ± 7.6 min and 1.5 ± 0.5 min at room temperature, using a conventional microwave and focused monomode microwave heating, respectively. Complete evaporation of the solvent using the focused microwaves was achieved in 3.2 ± 0.5 min, which is ~52-fold and ~172-fold faster than that observed at room temperature and using conventional microwave heating, respectively. The size and number of L-alanine crystals was dependent on the type of the 21-well iCrystal plates and the microwave heating method: 33 crystals of 585 ± 137 μm in size at room temperature > 37 crystals of 542 ± 100 μm in size with conventional microwave heating > 331 crystals of 311 ± 190 μm in size with focused monomode microwave. FTIR, optical microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the chemical composition and crystallinity of the L-alanine crystals did not change when exposed to microwave heating and ITO surfaces. In addition, theoretical simulations for the binding of L-alanine molecules to ITO and other metals showed the predicted nature of hydrogen bonds formed between L-alanine and these surfaces.

  14. Electrochemical behaviour of metal hexacyanoferrate converted to metal hydroxide films immobilized on indium tin oxide electrodes-Catalytic ability towards alcohol oxidation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, V.; Latha Maheswari, D.; Berchmans, Sheela

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to modify indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in order to perform electro-catalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline medium. Metal hexacyanoferrate (MHCF) films such as nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) and copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) were successfully immobilized on ITO electrodes using an electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the structural and morphological aspects of MHCF films. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study the redox properties and to determine the surface coverage of these films on ITO electrodes. Electrochemical potential cycling was carried out in alkaline medium in order to alter the chemical structure of these films and convert to their corresponding metal hydroxide films. SEM and XPS were performed to analyze the structure and morphology of metal hydroxide modified electrodes. Electro-catalytic oxidation ability of these films towards methanol and ethanol in alkaline medium was investigated using CV. From these studies we found that metal hydroxide modified electrodes show a better catalytic performance and good stability for methanol oxidation along with the alleviation of CO poisoning effect. We have obtained an anodic oxidation current density of ∼82 mA cm -2 for methanol oxidation, which is at least 10 fold higher than that of any metal hydroxide modified electrodes reported till date. The onset potential for methanol oxidation is lowered by ∼200 mV compared to other chemically modified electrodes reported. A plausible mechanism was proposed for the alcohol oxidation based on the redox properties of these modified electrodes. The methodology adapted in this work does not contain costlier noble metals like platinum and ruthenium and is economically viable.

  15. Microwave exposure as a fast and cost-effective alternative of oxygen plasma treatment of indium-tin oxide electrode for application in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultati, Anastasia; Kostis, Ioannis; Papadimitropoulos, Giorgos; Zeniou, Angelos; Gogolides, Evangelos; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris; Vainos, Nikos; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Speliotis, Thanassis; Stathopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Argitis, Panagiotis; Vasilopoulou, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Pre-treatment methods are commonly employed to clean as well as to modify electrode surfaces. Many previous reports suggest that modifying the surface properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) by oxygen plasma treatment is a crucial step for the fabrication of high performance organic solar cells. In this work, we propose a fast and cost-effective microwave exposure step for the modification of the surface properties of ITO anode electrodes used in organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that a short microwave exposure improves the hydrophilicity and reduces the roughness of the ITO surface, as revealed by contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively, leading to a better quality of the PEDOT:PSS film coated on top of it. Similar results were obtained with the commonly used oxygen plasma treatment of ITO suggesting that microwave exposure is an effective process for modifying the surface properties of ITO with the benefits of low-cost, easy and fast processing. In addition, the influence of the microwave exposure of ITO anode electrode on the performance of an organic solar cell based on the poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C70 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC70BM) blend is investigated. The 71% efficiency enhancement obtained in the microwave annealed-ITO based device as compared to the device with the as-received ITO was mainly attributed to the improvement in the short circuit current (J sc) and decreased leakage current caused by the reduced series and the increased shunt resistances and also by the higher charge generation efficiency, and the reduced recombination losses.

  16. Phase diagram and structural evolution of tin/indium (Sn/In) nanosolder particles: from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yang; Ando, Teiichi; Yin, Qiyue; Zhou, Guangwen; Gu, Zhiyong

    2017-08-31

    A binary system of tin/indium (Sn/In) in the form of nanoparticles was investigated for phase transitions and structural evolution at different temperatures and compositions. The Sn/In nanosolder particles in the composition range of 24-72 wt% In were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted chemical reduction method under ambient conditions. The morphology and microstructure of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HRTEM and SAED identified InSn 4 and In, with some Sn being detected by XRD, but no In 3 Sn was observed. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermographs of the as-synthesized nanoparticles exhibited an endothermic peak at around 116 °C, which is indicative of the metastable eutectic melting of InSn 4 and In. When the nanosolders were subjected to heat treatment at 50-225 °C, the equilibrium phase In 3 Sn appeared while Sn disappeared. The equilibrium state was effectively attained at 225 °C. A Tammann plot of the DSC data of the as-synthesized nanoparticles indicated that the metastable eutectic composition is about 62% In, while that of the DSC data of the 225 °C heat-treated nanoparticles yielded a eutectic composition of 54% In, which confirmed the attainment of the equilibrium state at 225 °C. The phase boundaries estimated from the DSC data of heat-treated Sn/In nanosolder particles matched well with those in the established Sn-In equilibrium phase diagram. The phase transition behavior of Sn/In nanosolders leads to a new understanding of binary alloy particles at the nanoscale, and provides important information for their low temperature soldering processing and applications.

  17. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium chloride doped ZnO films synthesized by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E., E-mail: ezaleta@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camargo-Martinez, J.; Ramirez-Garibo, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Perez-Arrieta, M.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Fisica, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Mexico (Mexico); Balderas-Xicohtencatl, R.; Rivera-Alvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-12-01

    Indium chloride doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using zinc acetate by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique. The effect of substrate temperature, deposition time and acetic acid added to the spraying solution on the structural, electrical and optical properties of these ZnO:In films is reported. The films were in all cases polycrystalline with a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, a transparency over 80% and resistivity of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} Ohm-Sign {center_dot}cm. The resistivity was dependent on the volume % of acetic acid added to the spraying solution. The minimum resistivity value was obtained with a 5 vol.% acetic acid (pH = 3.71) at substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. The deposition rates obtained were as high as 180 A{center_dot}min{sup -1} at a substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive ZnO:In thin films were deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is of low cost, high growth rates and scalable for industrial applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is appropriate for the deposition of metallic oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effect of acetic acid, time deposition and substrate temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc acetate and indium chloride were used as precursor materials.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkad, Fikry El; Joseph, Sudeep

    2012-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (FO) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (VO) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the VO concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the FO concentration and a decrease in both n and VO concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO2 matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine FO and tin vacancy VSn defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a VSn through the migration of SnSn host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

  19. Low-temperature growth and electronic structures of ambipolar Yb-doped zinc tin oxide transparent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seol Hee; Ferblantier, Gerald; Park, Young Sang; Schmerber, Guy; Dinia, Aziz; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Jo, William

    2018-05-01

    The compositional dependence of the crystal structure, optical transmittance, and surface electric properties of the zinc tin oxide (Zn-Sn-O, shortened ZTO) thin films were investigated. ZTO thin films with different compositional ratios were fabricated on glass and p-silicon wafers using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The binding energy of amorphous ZTO thin films was examined by a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical transmittance over 70% in the visible region for all the ZTO films was observed. The optical band gap of the ZTO films was changed as a result of the competition between the Burstein-Moss effect and renormalization. An electron concentration in the films and surface work function distribution were measured by a Hall measurement and Kelvin probe force microscopy, respectively. The mobility of the n- and p-type ZTO thin films have more than 130 cm2/V s and 15 cm2/V s, respectively. We finally constructed the band structure which contains band gap, work function, and band edges such as valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of ZTO thin films. The present study results suggest that the ZTO thin film is competitive compared with the indium tin oxide, which is a representative material of the transparent conducting oxides, regarding optoelectronic devices applications.

  20. Multi-phase structures of boron-doped copper tin sulfide nanoparticles synthesized by chemical bath deposition for optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakspun, Jariya; Kantip, Nathakan; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the influence of boron doping on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of copper tin sulfide (CTS) nanoparticles coated on a WO3 surface and synthesized using chemical bath deposition. Boron doping at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt% was investigated. The X-ray diffraction pattern of CTS showed the presence of monoclinic Cu2Sn3S7, cubic Cu2SnS3, and orthorhombic Cu4SnS4. Boron doping influenced the preferred orientation of the nanoparticles for all phase structures and produced a lattice strain effect and changes in the dislocation density. Increasing the concentration of boron in CTS from 0.5 wt% to 2.0 wt% reduced the band gap for all phases of CTS from 1.46 to 1.29 eV and reduced the optical transmittance. Optical constants, such as the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dissipation factor, were also obtained for B-doped CTS. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index was investigated in terms of a single oscillator model and the physical parameters were determined. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful synthesis of CTS nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that optimum boron doping (<1.5 wt% for all phases) resulted in desirable p-n junction behavior for optoelectronic applications.

  1. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho-young; Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n + a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 Ω cm to 2.79 × 10 −3 Ω cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92 × 10 −2 Ω cm after annealing at 300 °C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n + a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300 °C, indicating thermally stable n + a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L = 4 μm. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2 cm 2 /V s after annealing at 300 °C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H 2 plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300 °C annealing

  2. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  3. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.C., E-mail: wilsonphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Polytechnic College Kothamangalam, Chelad P O, Ernakulam, Kerala 686681 (India); Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India); Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel honey comb like cadmium sulfide thin film nanostructures prepared using chemical bath deposition on glass substrates. • Honey comb nanostructure found in two layers: an ultra thin film at bottom and well inter connected with walls of < 25 nm thick on top; hence maximum surface area possible for CdS nanostructure. • Shell size of the nanostructures and energy band gaps were controlled also an enhanced persistent conductivity observed on Sn doping. - Abstract: Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like “plum pudding”. Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  4. Fabrication of a novel MOS diode by indium incorporation control for microelectronic applications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaliliba, M.; Benouis, C. E.; Aida, M. S.; Ayeshamariam, A.

    2017-06-01

    Control of the electronic parameters on a novel metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diode by indium doping incorporation is emphasized and investigated. The electronic parameters, such as ideality factor, barrier height (BH), series resistance, and charge carrier density are extracted from the current-voltage (I-V) and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The properties of the MOS diode based on 4%, 6% and 8% indium doped tin oxide are largely studied. The Ag/SnO{}2/nSi/Au MOS diode is fabricated by spray pyrolysis route, at 300 °C from the In-doped SnO{}2 layer. This was grown onto n-type silicon and metallic (Au) contacts which were made by thermal evaporation under a vacuum @ 10{}-5 Torr and having a thickness of 120 nm and a diameter of 1 mm. Determined by the Cheung-Cheung approximation method, the series resistance increases (334-534 Ω ) with the In doping level while the barrier height (BH) remains constant around 0.57 V. The Norde calculation technique gives a similar BH value of 0.69 V but the series resistance reaches higher values of 5500 Ω . The indium doping level influences on the characteristics of Ag/SnO{}2:In/Si/Au MOS diode while the 4% indium level causes the capacitance inversion and the device turns into p-type material.

  5. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Indium doped BiOI nanosheets: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic degradation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Yang, Zujin; Zhang, Jingnan; Huang, Yongchao; Ji, Hongbing; Tong, Yexiang

    2017-11-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis is a promising method to remove the harmful compounds into harmless molecules. Herein, In-doped BiOI (In-BiOI) photocatalysts with highly exposed dominant {001} facets were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The XRD, SEM and TEM determinations revealed the high crystallinity structure of the samples, and the XPS results confirmed the doping of In. The In-BiOI nanosheets exhibited a higher activity in the photodegradation of p-chloroaniline (PCA) than that of pristine BiOI, among which the In-2 BiOI sample (feed mole ratio of In:Bi = 2%) possessed the best performance. Doping with In didn't alter the structure, morphology, specific surface area or light absorption capacity of BiOI, but significantly improved its charge separation efficiency and transport capability, which were verified by the results of the lower PL emission, larger photocurrent intensity and smaller arc radius of EIS plots. More importantly, the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation is studied systematically, revealing that rad O2- and h+ were the major reactive species during the photodegradation process. Finally, the possible role of In-doping in enhancing the photocatalytic performance of BiOI is proposed.

  7. Temperature Optimized Ammonia and Ethanol Sensing Using Ce Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films in a Novel Flow Metric Gas Sensing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Govardhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple process of gas sensing is represented here using Ce doped tin oxide nanomaterial based thin film sensor. A novel flow metric gas chamber has been designed and utilized for gas sensing. Doping plays a vital role in enhancing the sensing properties of nanomaterials. Ce doped tin oxide was prepared by hydrothermal method and the same has been used to fabricate a thin film for sensing. The microstructure and morphology of the prepared materials were analysed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analysis. The SEM images clearly show that doping can clamp down the growth of the large crystallites and can lead to large agglomeration spheres. Thin film gas sensors were formed from undoped pure SnO2 and Ce doped SnO2. The sensors were exposed to ammonia and ethanol gases. The responses of the sensors to different concentrations (50–500 ppm of ammonia and ethanol at different operating temperatures (225°C–500°C were studied. Results show that a good sensitivity towards ammonia was obtained with Ce doped SnO2 thin film sensor at an optimal operating temperature of 325°C. The Ce doped sensor also showed good selectivity towards ammonia when compared with ethanol. Pure SnO2 showed good sensitivity with ethanol when compared with Ce doped SnO2 thin film sensor. Response time of the sensor and its stability were also studied.

  8. Design of Indium Arsenide nanowire sensors for pH and biological sensing and low temperature transport through p-doped Indium Arsenide nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Upadhyay, Shivendra

    remains the primary material of choice. This research is about investigating Indium Arsenide nanowires as alternative platform for sensing charged species - chemical and biological, in solution. Starting with nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, we discuss...

  9. Compositional dependence of optical and electrical properties of indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintle, Lawrence K.; Luhanga, Pearson V. C.; Moditswe, Charles; Muiva, Cosmas M.

    2018-05-01

    The structural and optoelectronic properties of undoped and indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films grown on glass substrates through a simple reproducible custom-made pneumatic chemical spray pyrolysis technique are presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a polycrystalline structure of hexagonal wurtzite phase growing preferentially along the (002) plane for the undoped sample. Increase in dopant content modified the orientation leading to more pronounced (100) and (101) reflections. Optical transmission spectra showed high transmittance of 80-90% in the visible range for all thin films. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was evaluated on the basis of the derivative of transmittance (dT/dλ) versus wavelength (λ) model and Tauc's extrapolation method in the region where the absorption coefficient, α ≥ 104 cm-1. The observed values of Eg were found to decrease generally with increasing In dopant concentration. From the figure of merit calculations a sample with 4 at.% In dopant concentration showed better optoelectronic properties.

  10. Optical, structural and electrical properties of Mn doped tin oxide thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The dopant concentration was varied by controlling the thickness of the metal layer. The overall thickness of the film was 115 nm with ... Tin oxide; transparent conductors; thin films. 1. Introduction. Transparent conducting oxides have ... sited sequentially on top of the metal films. The weight of metals in each deposition was ...

  11. Luminescence of single crystals of manganese doped zinc indium binary sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arama, Efim; Vovc, Victor; Gheorghita, Eugene Iv.; Pintea, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Radiative recombination spectra of Mn-doped ZnIn 2 S 4 single crystals have been analyzed in the work. The emission spectra interval close to its maximum (1,91±0,2) eV contains a number of the special features which were identified by us as intra-center transitions. We attribute the special features observed on the complex emission spectra to this type of transition by their decomposition into simple lines, using Alentsev -Foch method. (authors)

  12. Gallium-doped indium oxide nanoleaves: Structural characterization, growth mechanism and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhu; Chen, Yiqing; Guo, Linliang; Guo, Taibo; Zhu, Yunqing; Su, Yong; Jia, Chong; Wei, Meiqin; Cheng, Yinfen

    2011-11-01

    The novel two-dimensional (2-D) Ga-doped In2O3 nanoleaves are synthesized by a simple one-step carbonthermal evaporation method using Cu-Sn alloy as the substrates. Two basic parts construct this leaf-like nanostructure: a long central trunk and two tapered nanoribbons in symmetric distribution in relation to the trunk. The Ga-In-O alloy particles are located at or close to the tips of the central trunks and serve as catalysts for the central trunk growth by the self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. And the homoepitaxial growth of tapered nanoribbon on the surface of the central trunk can be explained by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement of this nanoscaled Ga-doped In2O3 transparent conducting oxide (TCO) detected two blue peaks located at 432 nm and 481 nm, respectively, which can be used by Ru-based dye and indicates potential application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The successful preparation of this novel 2-D Ga-doped In2O3 nanoleaves not only enriches the synthesis of TCO materials, but also provides new blocks in future architecture of functional nano-devices.

  13. Novel Silicon Doped Tin Oxide-Carbon Microspheres as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries: The Multiple Effects Exerted by Doped Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuanzhong; Wong, Ka-Wai; Ng, Ka Ming

    2017-12-01

    Silicon doped tin oxide embedded porous carbon microspheres (Si y Sn 1- y O x @C) are synthesized. It is found that the doped Si not only improves the reversibility of lithiation/delithiation reactions, but also prevents Sn from aggregation. In addition, the doped Si introduces extra defects into the carbon matrix and produces Li + conductive Li 4 SiO 4 , which accelerates Li + diffusion. Together with the conductive, porous carbon matrix that provides void space to accommodate the volume change of Sn during charge/discharge cycling, the novel Si y Sn 1- y O x @C exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. It shows a high initial columbic efficiency of 75.9%. A charge (delithiation) capacity of 880.32 mA h g -1 is retained after 150 cycles, i.e., 91% of the initial capacity. These results indicate that the as-synthesized Si y Sn 1- y O x @C is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of Copper-doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia ZHAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide-based thin films are deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technology, in which Cu addition is introduced to enhance the gas sensing performance by H2S detection. The thin films are porous and comprise nano-sized crystallites. One of the Cu-containing thin film sensors demonstrates a fast and significant response to H2S gas. The values of power law exponent n are calculated to discuss the sensitivity of the sensors, which is significantly promoted by Cu additive. The sensitivity of Cu-doped SnO2 gas sensors is determined by two mechanisms. One is the normal gas sensing mechanism of SnO2 grains, and the other is the promoted mechanism caused by the transformation between CuO and CuS in the H2S detection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12917

  15. Electronic structures and excitonic transitions in nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide diluted magnetic semiconductor films: an optical spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlei; Jiang, Kai; Wu, Jiada; Gan, Jie; Zhu, Min; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2011-04-07

    Nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide (Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2)) films with x from 0 to 0.2 were prepared on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering analysis show that the films are of the rutile structure at low compositions and an impurity phase related to Fe(2)O(3) appears until the x is up to 0.2, suggesting the general change of lattice structure due to the Fe ion substitution. The dielectric functions are successfully determined from 0.0248 to 6.5 eV using the Lorentz multi-oscillator and Tauc-Lorentz dispersion models in the low and high photon energy regions, respectively. With increasing Fe composition, the highest-frequency transverse optical phonons E(u) shifts towards a lower energy side and can be well described by (608 - 178x) cm(-1). From the transmittance spectra, the fundamental absorption edge is found to be decreased with the Fe composition due to the joint contributions from SnO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). It can be observed that the doped films exhibit evident excitonic excitation features, which are strongly related to the Fe doping. Among them, the 6A(1g)→ 4T(2g) transition contributes to the onset of optical absorption. Moreover, the remarkable intensity reduction and a red-shift trend with the doping composition, except for the pure film, can be testified by the photoluminescence spectra. It can be concluded that the replacement of Sn with the Fe ion could induce the 2p-3d hybridization and result in the electronic band structure modification of the Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2) films.

  16. Formation and annealing of radiation defects in tin-doped p-type germanium crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, V. V., E-mail: aif-minsk@ibb.by; Petukh, A. N.; Pokotilo, Ju. M. [Belarussian State University (Belarus); Markevich, V. P.; Lastovskii, S. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center (Belarus)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of tin on the formation and annealing of radiation defects in p-type germanium crystals irradiated with 6-MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K is studied. It is shown that acceptor complexes SnV with a hole ionization enthalpy of 0.16 eV are dominant in irradiated Ge:(Sn, Ga) crystals after their heating to a temperature of 300 K. These complexes disappeared as a result of the annealing of irradiated crystals in the temperature range 30-75 Degree-Sign C. Annealing of irradiated crystals at temperatures in the range 110-150 Degree-Sign C brings about the formation of deep-level centers with a donor level at E{sub v} + 0.29 eV; this center is presumably related to a complex consisting of a tin atom and an interstitial gallium atom.

  17. Structural and electrical properties of the europium-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Chu-Chi; Li, Wei-Yang; Wang, Ching-Hua; Yong, Hua-En

    2014-01-01

    The EuInZnO (EIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) devices were fabricated by the sol–gel spin-coating technique. The EIZO TFT operates in the n-channel depletion mode and exhibits a well-defined pinch-off and saturation region. Because europium ion possesses lower electronegativity (1.2) and standard electrode potential (− 1.991 V), it can act as the carrier suppressor to reduce the carrier concentrations of the IZO (In:Zn = 1:1) thin film. Eu 3+ (13 mol%)-doped IZO TFT possesses the optimum performance, and its field-effect mobility in the saturated regime, threshold voltage, on–off ratio, and S-factor are 1.23 cm 2 /Vs, 3.28 V, 1.07 × 10 6 , and 2.28 V/decade, respectively. - Highlights: • Europium ions can act as the carrier suppressor in the InZnO system. • The EuInZnO forms an n-channel material for the thin film transistor (TFT) device. • The optimum performance of the EuInZnO TFT is the sample with 13 mol% Eu 3+ doping

  18. Dopant–dopant interactions in beryllium doped indium gallium arsenide: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Vadym; Liu, Wenyuan; Benistant, Francis; Manzhos, Sergei

    2018-02-01

    We present an ab initio study of dopant-dopant interactions in beryllium-doped InGaAs. We consider defect formation energies of various interstitial and substitutional defects and their combinations. We find that all substitutional-substitutional interactions can be neglected. On the other hand, interactions involving an interstitial defect are significant. Specially, interstitial Be is stabilized by about 0.9/1.0 eV in the presence of one/two BeGa substitutionals. Ga interstitial is also substantially stabilized by Be interstitials. Two Be interstitials can form a metastable Be-Be-Ga complex with a dissociation energy of 0.26 eV/Be. Therefore, interstitial defects and defect-defect interactions should be considered in accurate models of Be doped InGaAs. We suggest that In and Ga should be treated as separate atoms and not lumped into a single effective group III element, as has been done before. We identified dopant-centred states which indicate the presence of other charge states at finite temperatures, specifically, the presence of Beint+1 (as opposed to Beint+2 at 0K).

  19. Sensing properties of tin acetylacetonate-based thin films doped with platinum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitl, P.; Myslík, V.; Vrňata, M.; Náhlík, J.; Kopecký, D.; Vlček, J.; Hofmann, J.; Lančok, Ján

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 75-86 ISSN 0914-4935 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : gas sensing * tin acetylacetonate * pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method * selectivity tunable by temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.288, year: 2012 http://122.249.91.209/myukk/Journal/Download.php?fn=SM0870.pdf

  20. Mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis of dioxygen reduction at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and ITO nanoparticulate film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozniecka, Ewa; Jonsson-Niedziolka, Martin; Sobczak, Janusz W.; Opallo, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We introduced ITO nanoparticulate films for enzyme immobilization. → The material promotes mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis towards dioxygen reduction. → The electrocatalytical current increase with the thickness of nanoparticulate film. → There is no difference in electrocatalytic current in the presence or absence of mediator. → The stability of the electrode can be improved by crosslinking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. - Abstract: Bilirubin oxidase was immobilised on ITO electrodes: bare or covered by ITO nanoparticulate film. The latter material was obtained by immersion and withdrawal of the substrate into ITO nanoparticles suspension. Formation of a protein deposit was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrode surface is covered by a protein film in the form of globular aggregates and it exhibits mediatorless electrocatalytic activity towards dioxygen reduction to water at pH 4.8. Modification of the electrode with ITO particles increases its catalytic activity about ten times up to 110 μA cm -2 seen for electrodes prepared by twelve immersion and withdrawal steps into ITO nanoparticle suspension. The catalytic activity is almost unaffected by addition of mediator to solution. The stability of the electrodes is increased by cross-linking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. This electrode was applied as biocathode in a zinc-dioxygen battery operating in 0.1 mol dm -3 McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.8).

  1. Quantum dot based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Brito, Hermi F.

    2011-01-01

    Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)

  2. Quantum dot based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C., E-mail: paulapaganini@usp.b, E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F., E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Elementos do Bloco f

    2011-07-01

    Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)

  3. High-Performance Spray-Deposited Indium Doped ZnO Thin Film: Structural, Morphological, Electrical, Optical, and Photoluminescence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Hassan Zare; Rozati, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    In this study, high-quality indium doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited using the spray pyrolysis technique, and the substrate temperature varied from 450°C to 550°C with steps of 25°C with the aim of investigating the effect of substrate temperature. It was found that as the temperature increased, the resistivity of the films decreased to the extent that it was as low as 5.34 × 10-3 Ω cm for the one deposited at 500°C; however, it slightly increased for the resulting film at 550°C. Although the carrier concentration mostly increased with temperature, it appeared that the carrier mobility was the parameter mainly governing the conductivity variation. In addition, the average transparency of the deposited films at 500°C, 525°C and 550°C was around 87% (400-800 nm), which makes them outstanding transparent conductive oxide films. Moreover, the crystallite size and strain of the resulting films were estimated via the Williamson-Hall method. The results revealed a considerable reduction in the crystallite size and strain up to 500°C followed by a rise at higher substrate temperature. Based on both the surface and cross-section field emission scanning electron microscope images, the film resulting at 500°C was highly compacted and crack free, which can explain the enlargement of the carrier mobility (10.9 cm2 V-1 s-1) in this film. Finally, a detailed photoluminescence study revealed several peaks in the spectrum and the variation of the two major peaks appeared to have correlation with the carrier concentration.

  4. Design of Indium Arsenide nanowire sensors for pH and biological sensing and low temperature transport through p-doped Indium Arsenide nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Upadhyay, Shivendra

    remains the primary material of choice. This research is about investigating Indium Arsenide nanowires as alternative platform for sensing charged species - chemical and biological, in solution. Starting with nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, we discuss......H sensing, we apply the same to a more complex system - proteins. The sensing protocol involves the functionalization of the sensor surface with a receptor protein followed by the addition of the protein of interest. Sensor response to oppositely charged proteins is used to confirm the sensitivity...... of the sensor to the protein charge....

  5. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  6. Study of hyperfine parameters in Co-doped tin dioxide using PAC spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Juliana M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Martucci, Thiago; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vianden, R.; Kessler, P.; Geruschke, T.; Steffens, M., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.d [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (HISKP- Bonn) (Germany). Helmholtz - Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-07-01

    PAC technique has been used to measure the hyperfine interactions in nano-structured powder samples of semiconducting SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The aim of this work is to compare the results of PAC measurements using two different techniques of introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In probe nuclei in the sample of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used for the measurements of the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) and the electric field gradient (EFG) at {sup 111}Cd sites in SnO{sub 2} doped with 1% and 2% Co. The measurement of EFG is used to study the defects introduced in the semiconductor material and also for the identification of different phases formed within the compound. The techniques utilized for introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In in the sample are the ion-implantation using radioactive ion beam of {sup 111}In and the chemical process in which {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} solution is added during the preparation of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co using sol gel method. The ion-implantation of {sup 111}In in SnO{sub 2} doped with Co was carried out using the University of Bonn ion-implanter with beam energy of 160 keV. The PAC measurements were carried out with four BaF{sub 2} detector gamma spectrometer in the temperature range of 10-295 K. The results show no significant difference in the values of hyperfine parameters. Both techniques show practically the same electric quadrupole interaction for the substitutional site. The results were compared with previous PAC and Moessbauer measurements of SnO{sub 2} powder samples using {sup 111}In-{sup 111}Cd probe. (author)

  7. Deposition of tin oxide doped with fluorine produced by sol-gel method and deposited by spray-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Paulo Herbert Franca; Lima, Francisco Marcone; Sena, Aline Cosmo de; Silva, Alvaro Neuton; Almeida, Ana Fabiola Leite de; Freire, Francisco Nivaldo Aguiar, E-mail: phfmj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marconeufc@gmail.com, E-mail: alinedesena@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: alvaro_neutron@hotmail.com, E-mail: anfaleal@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nivaldo@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), CE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important sources of renewable energy today, but its production is based on silicon cells, expensive and difficult to produce, so the research seek new materials to replace them. This work aims to deposit tin oxide doped with fluorine on the glass substrate using the sol-gel method to provide a working solution and spray pyrolysis technique to perform the deposition. F-SnO2 (FTO) were synthesized by sol-gel method, employing NH{sub 4}F and SnCl{sub 2} precursor in an ethanol solution. Before the formation of the gel phase, the entire solution was sprayed, with the aid of a pistol aerographic substrate under heated at 600 °C divided by 50 applications and cooled in the furnace. The substrates had resistances between 10 and 30 S.cm. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) revealed the presence of fluorine in the SnO{sub 2} network. (author)

  8. Study of quantum dot based on tin/yttrium mixed oxide doped with terbium to be used as biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A., E-mail: paulapaganini@usp.b, E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.b, E-mail: claudiakodaira@yahoo.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F., E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Elementos do Bloco f; Nunes, Luiz Antonio O., E-mail: luizant@ifsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica e Informatica

    2009-07-01

    Quantum dots (semiconductors nanocrystals) have brought a promising field to develop a new generation of luminescent biomarkers. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. These luminescent dots are functionalized with biomolecules. For the luminophore particle to be connect with biologicals molecules (for example covalent antibody) is necessary a previous chemical treatment to modify luminophore particle surface and this process is called functionalization. A prior chemical treatment with changes on the surface luminophore particle is necessary to couple the luminophore to biological molecules. This process can be used as coating which can protect these particles from being dissolved by acid as well as provide functional groups for biological conjugation. This work presents a photoluminescence study of nanoparticles based on tin/yttrium mixed oxides doped with terbium (SnO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}), synthesized by coprecipitation method. The nanoparticles were submitted to thermal treatment and characterized by X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) that showed cassiterite phase formation and the influence of thermal treatment on nanoparticles structures. These nanoparticles going to be functionalized with a natural polysaccharide (chitosan) in order to form microspheres. These microspheres going to be irradiated with gamma radiation to sterilization and it can be evaluated if the nanoparticles are resistant to irradiation and they do not lose functionality with this process. (author)

  9. Thickness-Dependent Bioelectrochemical and Energy Applications of Thickness-Controlled Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mieritz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO enable interfacing adsorbed species, such as biomacromolecules, with an electronic circuit. The coating thickness is a limiting factor for the surface coverage of adsorbates, that are electrochemically addressable. To overcome this challenge, a carbon black-based templating method was developed by studying the composition of the template system, and finding the right conditions for self-standing templates, preventing the reaction mixture from flowing out of the mask. The thicknesses of as-fabricated coatings were measured using stylus profilometry to establish a relationship between the mask thickness and the coating thickness. Cyclic voltammetry was performed on coatings with adsorbed cytochrome c to check whether the entire coating thickness was electrochemically addressable. Further, bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers were incorporated into the coatings, and photocurrent with respect to coating thickness was studied. The template mixture required enough of both carbon black and polymer, roughly 7% carbon black and 6% poly(ethylene glycol. Coatings were fabricated with thicknesses approaching 30 µm, and thickness was shown to be controllable up to at least 15 µm. Under the experimental conditions, photocurrent was found to increase linearly with the coating thickness, up to around 12 µm, above which were diminished gains.

  10. 3D Cathodes of Cupric Oxide Nanosheets Coated onto Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Yang-Fan; Chen, Bai-Xue; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Hong-Yan; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-10-20

    Cupric oxide (CuO), a narrow-bandgap semiconductor, has a band alignment that makes it an ideal photocathode for the renewable production of solar fuels. However, the photoelectrochemical performance of CuO is limited by its poor conductivity and short electron diffusion lengths. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) architecture consisting of CuO nanosheets supported onto transparent conducting macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (mpATO@CuONSs) is designed as an excellent photocathode for promoting the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Owing to the 3D structure affording superior light-harvesting characteristics, large contact areas with the electrolyte, and highly conductive pathways for separation and transport of charge carriers, the mpATO@CuONSs photocathode produces an impressively high photocurrent density of -4.6 mA cm -2 at 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which is much higher than that of the CuONSs array onto planar FTO glass (-1.9 mA cm -2 ). © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Study of quantum dot based on tin/yttrium mixed oxide doped with terbium to be used as biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A.; Brito, Hermi F.; Nunes, Luiz Antonio O.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots (semiconductors nanocrystals) have brought a promising field to develop a new generation of luminescent biomarkers. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. These luminescent dots are functionalized with biomolecules. For the luminophore particle to be connect with biologicals molecules (for example covalent antibody) is necessary a previous chemical treatment to modify luminophore particle surface and this process is called functionalization. A prior chemical treatment with changes on the surface luminophore particle is necessary to couple the luminophore to biological molecules. This process can be used as coating which can protect these particles from being dissolved by acid as well as provide functional groups for biological conjugation. This work presents a photoluminescence study of nanoparticles based on tin/yttrium mixed oxides doped with terbium (SnO 2 /Y 2 O 3 :Tb 3+ ), synthesized by coprecipitation method. The nanoparticles were submitted to thermal treatment and characterized by X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) that showed cassiterite phase formation and the influence of thermal treatment on nanoparticles structures. These nanoparticles going to be functionalized with a natural polysaccharide (chitosan) in order to form microspheres. These microspheres going to be irradiated with gamma radiation to sterilization and it can be evaluated if the nanoparticles are resistant to irradiation and they do not lose functionality with this process. (author)

  12. Effects of Bi doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. [Pb0·95(La1−yBiy)0·05][Zr0·53Ti0·47]O3 (PLBZT) ferroelectric thin films have been synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass by sol–gel processing. PLBZT thin films were annealed at a relatively low tem- perature of 550 ◦C in oxygen ambient. Effects of Bi doping on structure, dielectric and ferroelectric ...

  13. Effects of Bi doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Pb0.95(La1−Bi)0.05][Zr0.53Ti0.47]O3 (PLBZT) ferroelectric thin films have been synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass by sol–gel processing. PLBZT thin films were annealed at a relatively low temperature of 550 °C in oxygen ambient. Effects of Bi doping on structure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of ...

  14. Solid state synthesis of tin-doped ZnO at room temperature: Characterization and its enhanced gas sensing and photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiaohua; Fan, Huiqing; Afzaal, Mohammad; Wu, Xiangyang; O'Brien, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A room temperature solid-state reaction was used to prepare crystalline tin-doped ZnO. → The obtained products were well-dispersed, which is attributed to the difference in sizes between Zn and Sn atoms and the change of pH value. → Gas response of sample S4 to ethanol vapor can reach 124. The same sample exhibit photocatalysis characteristics to methyl orange (MO) solution. - Abstract: A room temperature solid-state reaction has been used to prepare crystalline tin-doped ZnO. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, stannic chloride pentahydrate and sodium hydroxide with proper ratios were ground together. As-synthesized samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma analysis (ICP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD); The products were of different morphologies, well dispersed and exhibited good crystallinity, it is also found that the growth direction and morphology of ZnO depend on the amount of Sn doped, which is mainly caused by the difference in sizes between Zn and Sn atoms as well as the change of pH value. Moreover, gas sensing and photocatalytic properties of the obtained products were studied. The materials showed a high gas response to ethanol vapor, and the gas response can reach a maximum of R a /R g = 124. In addition, tin-doped ZnO materials exhibited improved photocatalytic performance toward methyl orange (MO) solution under a current density of 0.03 mg L -1 comparison with undoped ZnO.

  15. Crystal growth and optical properties of indium doped LiCaAlF.sub.6./sub. scintillator single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tanaka, Ch.; Yokota, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Yamaji, A.; Jarý, Vítězslav; Babin, Vladimir; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Y.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, Mar (2017), s. 69-72 ISSN 0925- 3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * LiCaAlF6 * single crystal * Indium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  16. One step aqueous solution preparation of nanosize iron-doped tin oxide from SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melghit, Khaled [Chemistry Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)]. E-mail: melghit@squ.edu.om; Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)

    2006-03-15

    Nanosized iron-doped tin oxide solid solution was prepared by mixing tin oxide gel SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O with a boiling solution of iron nitrate. The XRD data of the as-prepared and annealed sample at 773 K show that the patterns are indexed to the rutile phase without any trace of an extra phase. SEM and TEM results performed on different selected area of the samples reveal a homogeneous composition of 8 at.% of Fe content and a size of about 2 nm of the particles. The particles size was found to increase slightly with temperature; about 7 nm after 24 h at 773 K. Structural and magnetic results seem to indicate that Fe{sup 3+} substitute for Sn{sup 4+} on the as-prepared sample. The system presents some weak ferromagnetic character at room temperature.

  17. Advanced device for testing the electrical behavior of conductive coatings on flexible polymer substrates under oscillatory bending: comparison of coatings of sputtered indium-tin oxide and poly3,4ethylenedioxythiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Königer, Tobias; Münstedt, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    A special device was designed and set up to investigate the electrical behavior of conductive layers on flexible substrates under oscillatory bending. The resistance of conductive coatings can be measured during various oscillatory bending conditions. The bending radius, the amplitude and the frequency can be set to well-defined values. Furthermore, the setup allows us to apply tensile or compressive stress to the coating as well as both stresses alternately. Thus, various bending loads occurring in printable electronics applications can be simulated to investigate the electrical reliability of conductive coatings. In addition, it is possible to simulate different environmental conditions during oscillatory bending by running the device in an environmental chamber. Characterizations of the electrical behavior under oscillatory bending were carried out on commercially available polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films sputtered with indium-tin oxide (ITO) and coated with poly3,4ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT). For coatings of sputtered ITO, a dramatic increase of the resistance is observed for bending radii smaller than 14 mm due to cracks spanning the whole sample width. The higher the amplitude, the more pronounced is the increase of the resistance. Coatings of PEDOT show high stability under oscillatory bending. There is no change in resistance observed for all bending radii and amplitudes applied over a large number of cycles

  18. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H 2 in the gas mixture of H 2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H 2 /(Ar + H 2 ) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ TC = T 10 /R S , than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices

  19. Elaboration of modified poly(NiII-DHS films as electrodes by the electropolymerization of Ni(II-[5,5′-dihydroxysalen] onto indium tin oxide surface and study of their electrocatalytic behavior toward aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ourari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel(II-DHS complex was obtained from N,N′-bis(2,5-dihydroxybenzylidene-1,2-diaminoethane (H2DHS ligand and nickel acetate tetrahydrated in ethanolic solution with stirring under reflux. This complex, dissolved in an alkaline solution, was oxidized to form electroactive films strongly adhered on the ITO (indium tin oxide electrode surface. In this alkaline solution, the poly-[NiII-DHS]/ITO films showed the typical voltammetric response of (Ni2+/Ni3+ redox couple centers which are immobilized in the polymer-film. The modified electrodes (MEs obtained were also characterized by several techniques such as scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. The electrocatalytic behavior of these MEs toward the oxidation reaction of some aliphatic alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, 2-Methyl-1-propanol and isopropanol was investigated. The voltammograms recorded with these alcohols showed good electrocatalytic efficiency. The electrocatalytic currents were at least 80 times higher than those obtained for the oxidation of methanol on electrodes modified with nickel hydroxide films in alkaline solutions. We noticed that these electrocatalytic currents are proportional to the concentration of methanol (0.050–0.30 μM. In contrast, those recorded for the oxidation of other aliphatic short chain alcohols such as ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and isopropanol are rather moderately weaker. In all cases the electrocatalytic currents presented a linear dependence with the concentration of alcohol. These modified electrodes could be applied as alcohol sensors.

  20. Enhancing optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by nanopatterning on indium tin oxide with tunable fill factor using multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Xiong, Zhuo; Chen, Yu; Zhen, Aigong; Shan, Liang; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Qiang; Li, Jinmin; Wang, Junxi [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-11-21

    In this study, the multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography method utilizing the polystyrene nanospheres with focusing behavior is investigated and introduced to fabricate diverse photonic crystals (PCs) on indium tin oxide to enhance the optical output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED). Simulated results indicate that the focused light intensity decreases with increasing tilted angle due to the shadow effect introduced by adjacent nanospheres. The fill factor of nanopattern is tunable by controlling tilted angles and exposure times. To attain quadruple PC without overlapping patterns, mathematical calculation model is used to define the optimum range of tilted angles. Angular emission patterns and three-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulated results indicate that the enhanced light extraction of PC LEDs results mainly from diffused scattering effects, and the diffraction effects of PC on light extracted efficiency increase with the increase of fill factor. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the multiple PC can extract more light from GaN into air than common PC with same period and fill factor.

  1. Electrochemical fabrication and potential-enhanced luminescence of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} incorporating DNA-stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes on an indium tin oxide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Qingyu; Shao Jiangyang [Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Sun Ting [Lab of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Hong, E-mail: lihong@scnu.edu.c [Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lan Sheng [Lab of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Xu Zhenghe [Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the preparation of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+}-based aggregates (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, tatp = 1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode in the presence of DNA-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotubes (DNA-SWCNTs). The presence of SWCNTs in the concentration range from 0.02 to 0.125 g L{sup -1} dispersed with 0.25 mmol L{sup -1} DNA was found to promote the immobilization of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} on the ITO electrode by the method of repetitive voltammetric sweeping. The photoluminescence of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} incorporating DNA-SWCNTs both in solution and on the ITO electrode was systematically investigated by emission spectra and fluorescence microscopic imaging. An excess amount of SWCNTs can quench the photoluminescence of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} enhanced by DNA. The anodic potentials combined with CW green laser via an optical microscope was found to significantly increase the emission intensity of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+}-DNA-SWCNTs aggregates on the ITO electrode. In addition, the electrochemical fabrication and photoluminescence principles of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+}-DNA-SWCNTs aggregates on the ITO electrode tuned by the external electric fields were discussed in detail.

  2. Formation of an indium tin oxide nanodot/Ag nanowire electrode as a current spreader for near ultraviolet AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Seong; Kim, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jun-Yong; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Na, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Kang, Daesung; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2017-01-27

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanodots (NDs) were combined with Ag nanowires (Ag NWs) as a p-type electrode in near ultraviolet AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to increase light output power. The Ag NWs were 30 ± 5 nm in diameter and 25 ± 5 μm in length. The transmittance of 10 nm-thick ITO-only was 98% at 385 nm, while the values for ITO ND/Ag NW were 83%-88%. ITO ND/Ag NW films showed lower sheet resistances (32-51 Ω sq -1 ) than the ITO-only film (950 Ω sq -1 ). LEDs (chip size: 300 × 800 μm 2 ) fabricated using the ITO NDs/Ag NW electrodes exhibited higher forward-bias voltages (3.52-3.75 V at 20 mA) than the LEDs with the 10 nm-thick ITO-only electrode (3.5 V). The LEDs with ITO ND/Ag NW electrodes yielded a 24%-62% higher light output power (at 20 mA) than those with the 10 nm-thick ITO-only electrode. Furthermore, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations were performed to investigate the extraction efficiency. Based on the emission images and FDTD simulations, the enhanced light output with the ITO ND/Ag NW electrodes is attributed to improved current spreading and better extraction efficiency.

  3. Monitoring of morphology and physical properties of cultured cells using a micro camera and a quartz crystal with transparent indium tin oxide electrodes after injections of glutaraldehyde and trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyen-Wook; Ida, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Muramatsu, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    For investigating the effects of chemical stimulation to cultured cells, we have developed a quartz crystal sensor system with a micro charge-coupled device (CCD) camera that enables microphotograph imaging simultaneously with quartz crystal measurement. Human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) cells were cultured on the quartz crystal through a collagen film. The electrode of the quartz crystal was made of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes that enable to obtain a transparent mode photograph. Glutaraldehyde and trypsin were injected to the chamber of the cells, respectively. The response of the quartz crystal was monitored and microphotographs were recorded, and the resonance frequency and resonance resistance were analyzed with an F-R diagram that plotted the resonance frequency and resonance resistance. In the case of the glutaraldehyde injection, the cells responded in two steps that included the fast response of the cross-linking reaction and the successive internal change in the cells. In the case of the trypsin injection, the responses included two processes. In the first step, cell adhesion factors were cleaved and the cell structure became round, and in the next step, the cells were deposited on the quartz crystal surface and the surface of the cells was directly in contact with the quartz crystal surface

  4. Germanium and indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Kimball, Bryn E.; Tolcin, Amy C.; Guberman, David E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    southeastern Yunnan Province), and the Dabaoshan SEDEX deposit (located in the Nanling region of China) contain indium-enriched sphalerite. Another major potential source of indium occurs in the polymetallic tin-tungsten belt in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes Mountains of Bolivia. Deposits there occur as dense arrays of narrow, elongate, indium-enriched tin oxide-polymetallic sulfide veins in volcanic rocks and porphyry stocks.Information about the behavior of germanium and indium in the environment is limited. In surface weathering environments, germanium and indium may dissolve from host minerals and form complexes with chloride, fluoride, hydroxide, organic matter, phosphate, or sulfate compounds. The tendency for germanium and indium to be dissolved and transported largely depends upon the pH and temperature of the weathering solutions. Because both elements are commonly concentrated in sulfide minerals, they can be expected to be relatively mobile in acid mine drainage where oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals releases metals and sulfuric acid, resulting in acidic pH values that allow higher concentrations of metals to be dissolved into solution.

  5. Comparison Between Potentiometric and Stripping Voltammetric Detection of Trace Metals: Measurements of Cadmium and Lead in the Presence of Thalium, Indium, and Tin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Wang, Joseph

    2009-08-12

    Recent advances in ion-selective electrodes have pushed the detection limits of direct potentiometry to the nanomolar concentration range. Here we present a direct comparison of the sensitivity and selectivity of potentiometric and stripping-voltammetric measurements of cadmium and lead. While both techniques offer a similar sensitivity, the potentiometric method offers higher selectivity in the presence of excess of metal ions (e.g., thallium, tin) that commonly interfere in the stripping-voltammetric operation. Because of the complementary nature of the potentiometric and stripping-voltammetric methods, it is recommended that these techniques will be selected based on the specific analytical problem or used in parallel to provide additional analytical information.

  6. Indium oxide deposition on glass by aerosol pyrolysis (Pyrosol (R) process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandenet, G.; Lagarde, Y.; Spitz, J.

    1975-01-01

    The pyrosol (R) process involves the pyrolysis of an aerosol generated by ultrasonic nebulisation from a solution of organic or inorganic compounds. This technique was used to deposit transparent n-conducting indium oxide films on glass. The electrical and optical properties of these films were studied as a function of the deposition temperature and doping (using tin or fluorine). A deposition temperature of 480 deg C and a Sn/In ratio of about 5% gave the best results. In this case, the transmission in the visible range was 92%, the infrared reflection 84% and the electrical resistivity 1.7x10 -4 ohm.cm [fr

  7. Poly-crystallinity of indium-tin-oxide films improved by using simultaneous ion beam and heat treatment of the plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Tae Hyung; Choi, Suk Won; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-01-01

    The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indium tinoxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 .deg. C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.

  8. High-Efficiency Nanowire Solar Cells with Omnidirectionally Enhanced Absorption Due to Self-Aligned Indium-Tin-Oxide Mie Scatterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Dick; van Hoof, Niels J J; Cui, Yingchao; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Gómez Rivas, Jaime; Haverkort, Jos E M

    2016-12-27

    Photovoltaic cells based on arrays of semiconductor nanowires promise efficiencies comparable or even better than their planar counterparts with much less material. One reason for the high efficiencies is their large absorption cross section, but until recently the photocurrent has been limited to less than 70% of the theoretical maximum. Here we enhance the absorption in indium phosphide (InP) nanowire solar cells by employing broadband forward scattering of self-aligned nanoparticles on top of the transparent top contact layer. This results in a nanowire solar cell with a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.8% and a short-circuit current of 29.3 mA/cm 2 under 1 sun illumination, which is the highest reported so far for nanowire solar cells and among the highest reported for III-V solar cells. We also measure the angle-dependent photocurrent, using time-reversed Fourier microscopy, and demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional absorption enhancement for unpolarized light up to 60° with a wavelength average of 12% due to Mie scattering. These results unambiguously demonstrate the potential of semiconductor nanowires as nanostructures for the next generation of photovoltaic devices.

  9. Indium-free Cu/fluorine doped ZnO composite transparent conductive electrodes with stretchable and flexible performance on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Gong, Haibo; Yang, Xiaopeng; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zi, Min; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongqiang; Cao, Bingqiang

    2015-03-01

    Material-abundant ZnO and metal thin film have been proposed as potential alternatives for the most widely commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent and conductive electrode. Yet the deterioration of optical transparency and conductivity for these materials makes them difficult to compete with ITO. In this work, a double-layer structured film-composed of FZO and Cu film is presented at room temperature, which combines the high transparency of FZO and high conductivity of Cu film. We first studied the effect of oxygen pressure on the transparency and conductivity of free-standing FZO layer deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by PLD method. Also the structural, electrical, and optical properties of bilayers electrode dependence on the Cu layer thickness were optimized in detail. As the Cu layer thickness increases, the resistivity decreases. The lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-5 Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 1.11 × 1022 cm-3 and mobility of 8.52 cm2 V-1 s-1 was obtained at the optimum Cu (12 nm) layer thickness. We find that FZO layer have anti-reflection effect for Cu/FZO (250 nm) bilayer in the wavelength range of 650-1000 nm compared with single Cu layer. And we firstly study the stretchable performance for Cu film-based composite electrodes with stretching ratio changing from 0 to 5%. Furthermore, we study excellent mechanical flexibility and stability of composite electrodes by bending test.

  10. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of highly doped ZnO and ITO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The broadband complex conductivities of transparent conducting oxides (TCO), namely aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), were investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the frequency range from 0.5 to 18 THz using air...... to be more thickness dependent than GZO and ITO, indicating high importance of the surface states for electron dynamics in AZO. Finally, we measure the transmittance of the TCO films from 10 to 200 THz with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements, thus closing the gap between THz...

  11. Ultrasmall Tin Nanodots Embedded in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: Metal-Organic-Framework Derivation and Electrochemical Application as Highly Stable Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Ruoling; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sn-based metal-organic-framework (MOF) is prepared. • Ultrasmall tin nanodots (2–3 nm) are embedded in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. • The Sn/C composite anode shows high capacity and ultralong cycle life. - Abstract: This work reports a facile metal-organic-framework based approach to synthesize Sn/C composite, in which ultrasmall Sn nanodots with typical size of 2–3 nm are uniformly embedded in the nitrogen-doped porous carbon matrix (denoted as Sn@NPC). The effect of thermal treatment and nitrogen doping are also explored. Owing to the delicate size control and confined volume change within carbon matrix, the Sn@NPC composite can exhibit reversible capacities of 575 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1091 mAh g −1 ) after 500 cycles at 0.2 A g −1 and 507 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1077 mAh g −1 ) after 1500 cycles at 1 A g −1 . The excellent long-life electrochemical stability of the Sn@NPC anode has been mainly attributed to the uniform distribution of ultrasmall Sn nanodots and the highly-conductive and flexible N-doped carbon matrix, which can effectively facilitate lithium ion/electron diffusion, buffer the large volume change and improve the structure stability of the electrode during repetitive cycling with lithium ions.

  12. Near-infrared luminescent copolymerized hybrid materials built from tin nanoclusters and PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiqiang; Feng, Jing; Song, Shuyan; Lei, Yongqian; Zhou, Liang; Zheng, Guoli; Dang, Song; Wang, Song; Zhang, Hongjie

    2010-10-01

    Novel near-infrared (NIR) luminescent copolymerized hybrid materials were prepared by covalently grafting and physically doping Ln complexes (Ln = Er, Sm, Yb, and Nd) into a copolymer matrix built from nanobuilding blocks. The structures of the obtained hybrid materials were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In the photoluminescence studies, the hybrid materials showed characteristic NIR luminescence of corresponding Ln(3+) ions through intramolecular energy transfer from ligands to Ln(3+) ions. Transparent films of these materials can be easily prepared through spin-coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses taking advantage of the matrix nature.

  13. Perturbed-angular-correlation study of the electric-field gradient in 181Hf-doped and implanted indium sesquioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, M.; Requejo, F.G.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Pasquevich, A.F.; Shitu, J.; Freitag, K.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta in In 2 O 3 by means of perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) measurements. We prepared thin films of indium sesquioxide with different degrees of initial amorphism and implanted them with 181 Hf. Chemically prepared indium-sesquioxide powder samples were also made starting from neutron-irradiated HfCl 4 , which provides the 181 Hf PAC probes. PAC experiments were performed on each sample at room temperature, after each step of annealing programs at increasing temperatures up to the full crystallization of the samples. The results indicate that the PAC probe occupies preferentially the axially symmetric cation site. Point-charge-model calculations were performed. The calculated asymmetry parameters η were compared with those obtained in 181 Hf PAC experiments performed also on other binary oxides, showing that the symmetry of the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor at 181 Ta cation sites in binary oxides is mainly determined by the nearest-neighbor oxygen-ion distribution around the probe. Comparisons of the experimental results in bixbyites obtained for both PAC probes, 111 Cd and 181 Ta, show that the local EFG in bixbyites, are strongly dependent on the geometry of the sites and the electronic configuration of the probes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Electrospinning in Situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Porous Copper Indium Disulfide/Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Highly Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jianxin; Zhou, Mengjuan; Wang, Lidan; Zhao, Shuyuan; Wang, Qian; Ding, Bin; Cui, Shizhong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • P-GN@CuInS 2(*) /C nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis. • CuInS 2 nanocrystals were uniformly anchored in wrapped RGO to form nanofiber structure. • P-GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers exhibited porous and 3D superfine fiber morphology. • Graphene nanosheets led well-dispersed growth of CuInS 2 nanocrystals in nanofibers. • DSSC assembled using p-GN@CuInS 2 /C CE delivered a conversion efficiency of 7.23%. - Abstract: Porous graphene-doped copper indium disulfide/carbon (p-GN@CuInS 2 /C) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution containing graphene oxide nanosheets, copper dichloride (CuCl 2 ), indium trichloride (InCl 3 ), and thiourea (Tu.) in a mixed solvent of N,N-dimethylformamide/trichloromethane (DMF/CF) was used as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The resulting porous GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers were 107 ± 24 nm in diameter, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS 2 nanocrystals 7–12 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded in the carbon matrix, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C composite nanofibers was 795 m 2 /g, with a total pore volume of 0.71 cm 3 /g. These values were significantly larger than those of the sample without graphene and CuInS 2 /C nanofibers. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) assembled using the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers as the counter electrode (CE) delivered a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 7.23%, which was higher than the efficiencies of DSSCs assembled using the samples without graphene (6.48%) and with the CuInS 2 /C nanofibers (5.45%). It was also much higher than that of the DSSC with a Pt CE (6.34%). The excellent photoelectric performance of the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C CE was attributed to its special hierarchical porous structure, which facilitated permeation of the liquid

  15. Formation of tin-tin oxide core–shell nanoparticles in the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korusenko, P.M., E-mail: korusenko@obisp.oscsbras.ru [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Nesov, S.N.; Bolotov, V.V.; Povoroznyuk, S.N. [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A.I. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Ave. 2a, 634028 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ivlev, K.E. [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Smirnov, D.A. [St. Petersburg State University, Lieutenant Shmidt Emb. 11, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Original method the formation of core–shell structures by pulsed ion beam is proposed. • The composite SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs was irradiated by pulsed ion beam. • Morphology and electronic structure of the irradiated composite were characterized. • The formation of Sn−SnO{sub x} core–shell nanoparticles after irradiation was observed. - Abstract: The complex methods of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the changes in the morphology, phase composition, and electronic structure of the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs) irradiated with the pulsed ion beam of nanosecond duration. The irradiation of the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs leads to the formation of nanoparticles with the core–shell structure on the surface of CNTs with a sharp interfacial boundary. It has been established that the “core” is a metal tin (Sn{sup 0}) with a typical size of 5–35 nm, and the “shell” is a thin amorphous layer (2–6 nm) consisting of nonstoichiometric tin oxide with a low oxygen content. The “core–shell” structure Sn−SnO{sub x} is formed due to the process of heating and evaporation of SnO{sub 2−x} under the effect of the ion beam, followed by vapor deposition on the surface of carbon nanotubes.

  16. Optimization of Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4/C by Indium Doping and High Temperature Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared nano-structured In-doped (1 mol % LiFePO4/C samples by sol–gel method followed by a selective high temperature (600 and 700 °C annealing in a reducing environment of flowing Ar/H2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microsopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns of the nano-composites were indexed to the olivine crystal structure of LiFePO4 with space group Pnma, showing minor impurities of Fe2P and Li3PO4 due to decomposition of LiFePO4. We found that the doping of In in LiFePO4/C nanocomposites affects the amount of decomposed products, when compared to the un-doped ones treated under similar conditions. An optimum amount of Fe2P present in the In-doped samples enhances the electronic conductivity to achieve a much improved electrochemical performance. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves show a significant improvement in the electrochemical performance of 700 °C annealed In-doped-LiFePO4/C sample with a discharge capacity of 142 mAh·g−1 at 1 C rate, better rate capability (~128 mAh·g−1 at 10 C rate, ~75% of the theoretical capacity and excellent cyclic stability (96% retention after 250 cycles compared to other samples. This enhancement in electrochemical performance is consistent with the results of our electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showing decreased charge-transfer resistance and high exchange current density.

  17. Homogeneous double-layer amorphous Si-doped indium oxide thin-film transistors for control of turn-on voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Takio, E-mail: KIZU.Takio@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito, E-mail: KIZU.Takio@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Aikawa, Shinya [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Nabatame, Toshihide [MANA Foundry and MANA Advanced Device Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Fujiwara, Akihiko [Department of Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-07-28

    We fabricated homogeneous double-layer amorphous Si-doped indium oxide (ISO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an insulating ISO cap layer on top of a semiconducting ISO bottom channel layer. The homogeneously stacked ISO TFT exhibited high mobility (19.6 cm{sup 2}/V s) and normally-off characteristics after annealing in air. It exhibited normally-off characteristics because the ISO insulator suppressed oxygen desorption, which suppressed the formation of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) in the semiconducting ISO. Furthermore, we investigated the recovery of the double-layer ISO TFT, after a large negative shift in turn-on voltage caused by hydrogen annealing, by treating it with annealing in ozone. The recovery in turn-on voltage indicates that the dense V{sub O} in the semiconducting ISO can be partially filled through the insulator ISO. Controlling molecule penetration in the homogeneous double layer is useful for adjusting the properties of TFTs in advanced oxide electronics.

  18. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al2O3 insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al2O3 layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V o2+ toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al2O3 triple layer exhibits a noticeably low turn on voltage shift of −0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm2/V ⋅ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.

  19. MoP Nanoparticles Supported on Indium-Doped Porous Carbon: Outstanding Catalysts for Highly Efficient CO2 Electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofu; Lu, Lu; Zhu, Qinggong; Wu, Congyi; Yang, Dexin; Chen, Chunjun; Han, Buxing

    2018-02-23

    Electrochemical reduction of CO 2 into value-added product is an interesting area. MoP nanoparticles supported on porous carbon were synthesized using metal-organic frameworks as the carbon precursor, and initial work on CO 2 electroreduction using the MoP-based catalyst were carried out. It was discovered that MoP nanoparticles supported on In-doped porous carbon had outstanding performance for CO 2 reduction to formic acid. The Faradaic efficiency and current density could reach 96.5 % and 43.8 mA cm -2 , respectively, when using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the supporting electrolyte. The current density is higher than those reported up to date with very high Faradaic efficiency. The MoP nanoparticles and the doped In 2 O 3 cooperated very well in catalyzing the CO 2 electroreduction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrochemical capacitance of nanostructured ruthenium-doped tin oxide Sn1- x Ru x O2 by the microemulsion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Ramanathan

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of nanostructured Ru-doped SnO2 was successfully carried out using the reverse microemulsion method. The phase purity and the crystallite size were analyzed by XRD. The surface morphology and the microstructure of synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by SEM and TEM. The vibration mode of nanoparticles was investigated using FTIR and Raman studies. The electrochemical behavior of the Ru-doped SnO2 electrode was evaluated in a 0.1 mol/L Na2SO4 solution using cyclic voltammetry. The 5% Ru-doped SnO2 electrode exhibited a high specific capacitance of 535.6 F/g at a scan rate 20 mV/s, possessing good conductivity as well as the electrocycling stability. The Ru-doped SnO2 composite shows excellent electrochemical properties, suggesting that this composite is a promising material for supercapacitors.

  1. The Mobility, Resistivity and Carrier Density in p-Type Silicon Doped with Boron, Gallium and Indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    considered. It would also be of great benefit to extend this study into the heavy doped region. I..0 I APPENDIX A FABRICATION PROCEDURES AND TEST STRUCTURES...1Q(F 7.5. 1XI 400 READ5s.12)( CROP (L)#LxI,10) 410012 FORMAT(10(F6e491X5R 420 C 430C READ IN DOPANT CONCENTRATIONS 129 31 MAY 1979 440C 450 READ (5*13...00908*GM**3* 560 F2MI.,.01I667*G,’M4.041369* GMO [12. ,.00090679*GM**3., 570 1.00091959*GM***.4.0000206*iM**5. Sao ZP;o~;gf67GP~OOO3 9 O& 7*4 OO90GPG**3

  2. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films.

  3. On the thermal growth and properties of doped TiO2 and In2O3 elongated nanostructures and nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremades, A.; Herrera, M.; Bartolomé, J.; Vásquez, G.C.; Maestre, D.; Piqueras, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the driving forces behind the growth mechanisms of In 2 O 3 and TiO 2 micro- and nano-structures grown by an evaporation–solidification method are discussed. Effective or limited doping incorporation and its influence on the growth and morphology of the low dimensional structures are also assessed. A dislocation driven growth mechanism is proposed for indium oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc doped indium oxide (IZO) nanowires. This growth mechanism is extended to the growth of IZO nano-plates. On the other hand, different low dimensional TiO 2 morphologies, mainly nanowires, needles, and bidimensional leaf-like nanostructures, have been obtained by an anisotropic induced growth. By introducing Cr in the precursor mixture, needles are formed showing stepped lateral faces related to oxygen defect stoichiometry areas as observed by EDS mapping

  4. Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2})/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors with varied Sb doping concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Ma, Wen-Hai [School of Physical Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Mao, Yan-Li, E-mail: ylmao1@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Computational Materials Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized with varied Sb doping concentration, and the Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors were prepared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. The separation efficiency of photoinduced charges was characterized with surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. Compared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} presents an enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges, and the SPV enhancements were estimated to be 1.40, 1.43, and 1.99 for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. To understand the enhancement, the band structure of Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the heterojunction semiconductor was determined, and the conduction band offsets (CBO) between Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} were estimated to be 0.56, 0.64, and 0.98 eV for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. These results indicate that the separation efficiency enhancement is resulting from the energy level matching, and the increase of enhancement is due to the rising of CBO.

  5. Design, synthesis, thin film deposition and characterization of new indium tin oxide anode functionalization/hole transport organic materials and their application to high performance organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinglan

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to understand the physical and chemical aspects of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fundamentals, develop new materials as well as device structures, and enhance OLED electroluminescent (EL) response. Accordingly, this dissertation analyzes the relative effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode-hole transporting layer (HTL) contact vs. the intrinsic HTL material properties on OLED EL response. Two siloxane-based HTL materials, 4,4'-bis[(4″ -trichlorosilylpropyl-1″-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB-Si2) and 4,4'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl (TPD-Si2) have thereby been designed, synthesized and covalently bound to ITO surface. They afford a 250% increase in luminance and ˜50% reduction in turn-on voltage vs. comparable 4,4'-bis(1-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB) HTL-based devices. These results suggest new strategies for developing OLED HTL structures, with focus on the anode-HTL contact. Furthermore, archetypical OLED device structures have been refined by simultaneously incorporating the TPD-Si2 layer and a hole- and exciton-blocking/electron transport layer (2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in tris(8-hydroxyquinolato)aluminum(III) and tetrakis(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)borate-based OLEDs. The refined device structures lead to high performance OLEDs such as green-emitting OLEDs with maximum luminance (Lmax) ˜ 85,000 cd/m2, power and forward external quantum efficiencies (eta p and etaext) as high as 15.2 lm/W and 4.4 +/- 0.5%, respectively, and blue-emitting OLEDs with Lmax 30,000 cd/m 2, and ˜5.0 lm/W and 1.6 +/- 0.2% etap and eta ext, respectively. The high performance is attributed to synergistically enhanced hole/electron injection and recombination efficiency. In addition, molecule-scale structure effects at ITO anode-HTL interfaces have been systematically probed via a self-assembly approach. A series of silyltriarylamine precursors differing in aryl group and

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the properties of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and indium-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Mukul, Monika [Panjab University SSG Regional Centre Hoshiarpur, Department of Applied Sciences, Punjab (India); Singh, Janpreet; Tripathi, S.K. [Panjab University Chandigarh, Department of Physics, Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2014-11-15

    We have carried out comprehensive computational and experimental study on the face-centered cubic Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST) and indium (In)-doped GST phase change materials. Structural calculations, total density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population have been calculated using first-principle calculation. 5 at.% doping of In weakens the Ge-Te, Sb-Te and Te-Te bond lengths. In element substitutes Sb to form In-Te-like structure in the GST system. In-Te has a weaker bond strength compared with the Sb-Te bond. However, both GST and doped alloy remain in rock salt structure. It is more favorable to replace Sb with In than with any other atomic position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has been carried out on thin film of In-doped GST phase change materials. XRD graph reveals that In-doped phase change materials have rock salt structure with the formation of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} crystallites in the material. Temperature dependence of impedance spectra has been calculated for thin films of GST and doped material. Thickness of the as-deposited films is calculated from Swanepoel method. Absorption coefficient (α) has been calculated for amorphous and crystalline thin films of the alloys. The optical gap (indirect band gap) energy of the amorphous and crystalline thin films has also been calculated by the equation αhν = β(hν - E{sub g}){sup 2}. Optical contrast (C) of pure and doped phase change materials have also been calculated. Sufficient optical contrast has been found for pure and doped phase change materials. (orig.)

  7. One-step fabrication of large-scaled indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester multi-layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianchen; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Han, Liyuan; Wakayama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    A technique is established for fabricating a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM) multi-layered structure in one step by transferring a continuous P3HT:PCBM solid film floating on PEDOT:PSS solution onto an indium tin oxide/glass substrate with a size of 2.5 × 1.5 cm 2 . This structure can be obtained under simple experimental conditions and can be fabricated over a large area. Preliminary testing shows that the prepared structure can yield a photovoltaic effect. - Highlights: • Organic photovoltaic cell produced by floating multi-layers • One-step fabrication technique for large-scale organic photovoltaic cell • Swelling and surface tension to enable multi-layer floating films

  8. Ion Implantation-Modified Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide by Zirconium with Continuously Tunable Work Function and Its Application in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Wu, Cuncun; Zhao, Yunbiao; Chen, Yi; Xiao, Lixin; Zhao, Ziqiang

    2017-12-06

    In recent years, perovskite solar cells have drawn a widespread attention. As an electrode material, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is widely used in various kinds of solar cells. However, the relatively low work function (WF) (∼4.6 eV) limits its application. The potential barrier between the transparent conductive oxide electrode and the hole transport layer (HTL) in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a decrease in device performance. In this paper, we propose a method to adjust WF of FTO by implanting zirconium ions into the FTO surface. The WF of FTO can be precisely and continuously tuned between 4.59 and 5.55 eV through different dopant concentration of zirconium. In the meantime, the modified FTO, which had a WF of 5.1 eV to match well the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):polystyrene sulfonate, was used as the HTL in inverted planar perovskite solar cells. Compared with the pristine FTO electrode-based device, the open circuit voltage increased from 0.82 to 0.91 V, and the power conversion efficiency increased from 11.6 to 14.0%.

  9. Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth of wurtzite CdTe nanowires on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates and room-temperature bandgap parameter determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon Bin; Song, Man Suk; Kim, Yong

    2018-04-01

    The growth of CdTe nanowires, catalyzed by Sn, was achieved on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by physical vapor transport. CdTe nanowires grew along the 〈0001〉 direction, with a very rare and phase-pure wurtzite structure, at 290 °C. CdTe nanowires grew under Te-limited conditions by forming SnTe nanostructures in the catalysts and the wurtzite structure was energetically favored. By polarization-dependent and power-dependent micro-photoluminescence measurements of individual nanowires, heavy and light hole-related transitions could be differentiated, and the fundamental bandgap of wurtzite CdTe at room temperature was determined to be 1.562 eV, which was 52 meV higher than that of zinc-blende CdTe. From the analysis of doublet photoluminescence spectra, the valence band splitting energy between heavy hole and light hole bands was estimated to be 43 meV.

  11. High performance dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene modified fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Ki-Min [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Eun-Hee; Chang, Hankwon [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nanomaterials Science and Engineering Major, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hee Dong, E-mail: hdjang@kigam.re.kr [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nanomaterials Science and Engineering Major, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with low fabrication cost and high power conversion efficiency, extensive studies have been carried out to improve the charge transfer rate and performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we present DSSCs that use surface modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates with reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) sheets prepared using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique to decrease the charge recombination at the TiO{sub 2}/FTO interface. R-GO sheets were excellently attached on FTO surface without physical deformations such as wrinkles; effects of the surface coverage of r-GO on the DSSC performance were also investigated. By using graphene modified FTO substrates, the resistance at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/FTO was reduced and the power conversion efficiency was increased to 8.44%. - Graphical abstract: DSSCs with graphene modified FTO glass were fabricated with the Langmuir Blodgett technique. GO sheets were transferred to FTO at various surface pressures in order to change the surface density of graphene and the highest power conversion efficiency of the DSSC was 8.44%. - Highlights: • By LB technique, r-GO sheets were coated on FTO without physical deformation. • DSSCs were fabricated with, r-GO modified FTO substrates. • With surface modification by r-GO, the interface resistance of DSSC decreased. • Maximum PCE of the DSSC was increased up to 8.44%.

  12. DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge surface treatments on fluorine-doped tin oxide for perovskite solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Hsuan; Cheng, I.-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) and nitrogen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were applied to pre-treat fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ treatment (substrate temperature: ~400 °C) for 10 s can effectively increase the wettability, whereas nitrogen DBD treatment (maximum substrate temperature: ~140 °C) achieved limited improvement in wettability even with increased treatment time of 60 s. XPS results indicate that 10 s APPJ, 60 s DBD, and 15 min UV-ozone treatment of FTO glass substrates can decontaminate the surface. A PSC fabricated on APPJ-treated FTO showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.90%; by contrast, a PSC with nitrogen DBD-treated FTO shows slightly lower PCE of 12.57% which was comparable to that of a PSC on FTO treated by a 15 min UV-ozone process. Both nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ and nitrogen DBD can decontaminate FTO substrates and can be applied for the substrate cleaning step of PSC.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nitrogen and indium co-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites for the degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myilsamy, M. [Department of Chemistry, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603110, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, M., E-mail: mahalakshmim@ssn.edu.in [Department of Chemistry, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603110, Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesan, V. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai-600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Subha, N. [Department of Chemistry, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603110, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous N/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite materials were prepared by sol-gel route. • N/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} shifted the light absorption band-edge position to visible region. • 0.3 wt% N/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} showed high surface area, pore volume and pore size. • N{sup −} and In{sup 3+} substitution enhanced adsorption of 2,4-DNP and OH{sup −} ions. • Indium doping efficiently extended the life time of electron–hole pair. - Abstract: Mesoporous N/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel route using Pluronic P123 as the structure directing template. The synthesized composite materials were successfully characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption studies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of all the synthesized catalysts were evaluated for the degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol under visible light irradiation. The results demonstrated that the mesoporous N/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} showed higher efficiency than meso TiO{sub 2}, N-TiO{sub 2} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation and the optimum molar ratio of N and In to Ti is 0.3 wt%. DRUV–vis revealed that the substitution of N{sup −} and In{sup 3+} dopants on TiO{sub 2} lattice shifted the light absorption to the longer wavelength and reduced the band gap energy. The enhanced {sup •} OH radicals formation during the photocatalytic reaction was revealed by photoluminescence spectra. The photoluminescence spectra of synthesized catalysts revealed that the efficient charge separation of photo induced charge carriers for 0.3 wt% N/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. The enhanced surface area, large pore volume

  14. The electrical properties of indium oxide thin films. In-situ Hall effect measurements to investigate the influence of point defects and grain boundaries; Die elektrischen Eigenschaften von Indiumoxid-Duennschichten. In-situ Hall-Effekt-Messungen zur Aufklaerung des Einflusses von Punktdefekten und Korngrenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischbier, Mareike

    2015-08-15

    carrier concentration and mobility. Furthermore, it can be deducted that grain boundary scattering is affected by doping elements and their concentrations. Based on these findings, further investigations on grain boundary scattering are conducted in this dissertation using an experimental as well as a theoretical approach. The energetic barrier for carriers overcoming the grain boundary is experimentally deducted and a new model for grain boundary scattering in degenerate semiconductors is developed. Experimental and computed results are compared. Doping elements as tin, which can form acceptor defects in indium oxide, lead to higher barriers than doping elements that do not have this property, e.g. zirconium. A lowering of the barrier with a consequential increase of carrier mobility is achieved by doping with hydrogen. The results of this dissertation are relevant to the application of indium oxide as electrode material as well as to the development of alternative transparent conducting oxides. They enable the tuning of electrical and optical properties.

  15. Lattice defects in semiconducting Hg/1-x/Cd/x/Te alloys. I - Defect structure of undoped and copper doped Hg/0.8/Cd/0.2/Te. II - Defect structure of indium-doped Hg/0.8/Cd/0.2/Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydyanath, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    Hall effect and mobility measurements were conducted on undoped Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te crystals which were quenched to room temperature after being subjected to equilibration at temperatures ranging from 400 to 655 C in various Hg atmospheres. The variation of the hole concentration in the cooled crystals at 77 K as a function of Hg's partial pressure at the equilibration temperature, together with a comparison of the hole mobility in the undoped samples with that in copper-doped ones, yields a defect model for the undoped crystals according to which they are intrinsic at the equilibration temperatures and the native acceptor defects are doubly ionized. In the second part of this paper, the effects of indium doping are considered. The concentration of electrons obtained in the cooled crystals was found to be lower than the intrinsic carrier concentration at the equilibration temperatures. A defect model is proposed according to which most of the indium is incorporated as In2Te3(s) dissolved in the crystal, with only a small fraction of indium acting as single donors occupying Hg lattice sites.

  16. Doped nanostructured zinc oxide films grown by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderis, V; Orozco, J; Cembrero, J; Curiel-Esparza, J; Damonte, L C; Hernández-Fenollosa, M A

    2010-02-01

    ZnO thin films doped with either In or Al are n-type oxide materials of interest for application in electronic devices and thin-film solar cells. In this work, the doped ZnO films were electrodeposited at 80 degrees C from an aqueous solution on polycrystalline conductive Indium Tin Oxide covered glass substrates. The incorporation of the dopants into the ZnO film has been verified by energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, X-Ray diffraction and optical transmission analysis. The optical and surface structure properties of the ZnO doped films are strongly affected by the In and Al concentrations in the electrodeposition solution as evidenced by optical transmission and reflection measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL ...

  18. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  19. Dense CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by high-rate microreactor-assisted solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yu-Wei, E-mail: suyuweiwayne@gmail.com [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ramprasad, Sudhir [Energy Processes and Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Corvallis, OR 9730 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Han, Seung-Yeol; Wang, Wei [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ryu, Si-Ok [School of Display and Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Palo, Daniel R. [Barr Engineering Co., Hibbing, MN 55747 (United States); Paul, Brian K. [School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Chang, Chih-hung [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition is demonstrated for the deposition of CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The continuous flow system consists of a microscale T-junction micromixer with the co-axial water circulation heat exchanger to control the reacting chemical flux and optimize the heterogeneous surface reaction. Dense, high quality nanocrystallite CdS thin films were deposited at an average rate of 25.2 nm/min, which is significantly higher than the reported growth rate from typical batch chemical bath deposition process. Focused-ion-beam was used for transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation to characterize the interfacial microstructure of CdS and FTO layers. The band gap was determined at 2.44 eV by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photon spectroscopy shows the binding energies of Cd 3d{sub 3/2}, Cd 3d{sub 5/2}, S 2P{sub 3/2} and S 2P{sub 1/2} at 411.7 eV, 404.8 eV, 162.1 eV and 163.4 eV, respectively. - Highlights: ► CdS films deposited using continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) ► Dense nanocrystallite CdS films can be reached at a rate of 25.2 [nm/min]. ► MASD can approach higher film growth rate than conventional chemical bath deposition.

  20. Large Area Platinum and Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide-free Dye sensitized Solar Cells with Silver-Nanoplate Embedded Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Counter Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyojung; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Triangular silver-nanoplates (Ag-NPs) were embedded in PEDOT films. • The Ag-NPs embedded PEDOT counter electrode has very good conductivity and catalytic activity in the devices. • We successfully used newly developed Ag NPs-embedded PEDOT CEs as large area electrode for DSSC. - Abstract: Low-temperature, cheap, highly conductive triangular silver-nanoplates (Ag-NPs) embedded in poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films were prepared on bare glass substrates via spin coating and chemical polymerization. The films acted as a very good alternative to conventional platinum (Pt) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of the Ag-NPs in the PEDOT CE was evaluated by adding different weight ratios of Ag-NPs (0.06, 0.60, and 1.20 wt%) to the PEDOT solution before producing the film, and the catalytic and conductive properties were compared against those of pristine PEDOT films for use in DSSCs. The catalytic properties of all CEs in the DSSCs were characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), current-voltage (I-V) measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The PEDOT CE with embedded Ag-NPs functioned as excellent electrocatalysts for tri-iodide reduction, as compared to pristine PEDOT CEs. DSSCs (cell area: 1 cm"2) with the 0.60 wt% samples exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 6.0% under 1 sun illumination (100 mW cm"−"2), which is higher than that of DSSCs with pristine PEDOT CE (5.5%). The Ag-NPs embedded PEDOT CE has very good catalytic activity and conductivity, which is more suitable for large area Pt and FTO less DSSC. In addition, no noticeable efficiency decay was observed after adding Ag-NPs in PEDOT CEs.

  1. Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Rajesh; Castañeda, Luis; Moctezuma, Rosario; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; De La Luz Olvera, María; Maldonado, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide [ZnO:In] thin films have been deposited at 430°C on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetate and indium acetate. Pulverization of the solution was done by ultrasonic excitation. The variations in the electrical, structural, optical, and morphological characteristics of ZnO:In thin films, as a function of both the water content in the starting solution and the substrate temperature, were studied. The electrical resistivity of ZnO:In thin films is not significantly affected with the increase in the water content, up to 200 mL/L; further increase in water content causes an increase in the resistivity of the films. All films show a polycrystalline character, fitting well with the hexagonal ZnO wurtzite-type structure. No preferential growth in samples deposited with the lowest water content was observed, whereas an increase in water content gave rise to a (002) growth. The surface morphology of the films shows a consistency with structure results, as non-geometrical shaped round grains were observed in the case of films deposited with the lowest water content, whereas hexagonal slices, with a wide size distribution were observed in the other cases. In addition, films deposited with the highest water content show a narrow size distribution. PMID:28817056

  2. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  3. TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING OXIDE SYNTHESIS OF ALUMINIUM DOPED ZINC OXIDES BY CHEMICAL COPRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maioco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium doped zinc oxides (AZO are promising replacements for tin doped indium oxides (ITO but thin films show a wide range of physical properties strongly dependent on deposition process conditions. Submicrometric 1% aluminum doped zinc oxide ceramics (AZO are examined, prepared by coprecipitation, from Zn(NO32 and Al(NO33 aqueous solutions, sintered at 1200°C and subsequently annealed in 10-16 atm controlled oxygen fugacity atmospheres, at 1000°C. Electrical resistivity diminishes by two orders of magnitude after two hours of annealing and the Seebeck coefficient gradually changes from -140 to -50 µV/K within 8 h. It is concluded that increased mobility is dominant over the increased carrier density, induced by changes in metal-oxygen stoichiometry

  4. Perturbed-angular-correlation study of the electric-field gradient in {sup 181}Hf-doped and implanted indium sesquioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, M.; Requejo, F.G.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Pasquevich, A.F.; Shitu, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC N67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Freitag, K. [Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, 5300 Bonn (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    We studied the hyperfine interactions of {sup 181}Ta in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} by means of perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) measurements. We prepared thin films of indium sesquioxide with different degrees of initial amorphism and implanted them with {sup 181}Hf. Chemically prepared indium-sesquioxide powder samples were also made starting from neutron-irradiated HfCl{sub 4}, which provides the {sup 181}Hf PAC probes. PAC experiments were performed on each sample at room temperature, after each step of annealing programs at increasing temperatures up to the full crystallization of the samples. The results indicate that the PAC probe occupies preferentially the axially symmetric cation site. Point-charge-model calculations were performed. The calculated asymmetry parameters {eta} were compared with those obtained in {sup 181}Hf PAC experiments performed also on other binary oxides, showing that the symmetry of the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor at {sup 181}Ta cation sites in binary oxides is mainly determined by the nearest-neighbor oxygen-ion distribution around the probe. Comparisons of the experimental results in bixbyites obtained for both PAC probes, {sup 111}Cd and {sup 181}Ta, show that the local EFG in bixbyites, are strongly dependent on the geometry of the sites and the electronic configuration of the probes. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Tin / Titanium mixed oxide nanoparticles doped with lanthanide for biomarking; Sintese e caracterizacao de nanoparticulas de oxido misto de estanho/titanio dopadas com lantanideos para marcacao biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, Paula Pinheiro

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the synthesis, characterization and photo luminescent study of tin and titanium mixed oxide nanoparticles doped with europium, terbium and neodymium to be used with luminescent markers on biological systems. The syntheses were done by co-precipitation, protein sol-gel and Pechini methods and the nanoparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The photo luminescent properties studies were conducted for luminophores doped with europium, terbium and neodymium synthesized by coprecipitation method. For luminophore doped with europium it was possible to calculate the intensity parameters and quantum yield and it showed satisfactory results. In the case of biological system marking it was necessary the functionalization of these particles to allow them to bind to the biological part to be studied. So the nanoparticles were functionalized by microwave and Stoeber methods and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction obtaining qualitative response of functionalization efficacy. The ninhydrin spectroscopic method was used for quantification of luminophores functionalization. The photo luminescent studies of functionalized particles demonstrate the potential applying of these luminophores as luminescent markers. (author)

  6. Investigation of thermal resistance and power consumption in Ga-doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire phase change random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Bo; Lee, Jeong-Soo, E-mail: m.meyyappan@nasa.gov, E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr [Division of IT Convergence Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of); Latypov, Marat I.; Pi, Dong-Hai; Seop Kim, Hyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Meyyappan, M., E-mail: m.meyyappan@nasa.gov, E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    The resistance stability and thermal resistance of phase change memory devices using ∼40 nm diameter Ga-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires (Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW) with different Ga-doping concentrations have been investigated. The estimated resistance stability (R(t)/R{sub 0} ratio) improves with higher Ga concentration and is dependent on annealing temperature. The extracted thermal resistance (R{sub th}) increases with higher Ga-concentration and thus the power consumption can be reduced by ∼90% for the 11.5% Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW, compared to the 2.1% Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW. The excellent characteristics of Ga-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire devices offer an avenue to develop low power and reliable phase change random access memory applications.

  7. Investigation of the structural, surface, optical and electrical properties of the Indium doped CuxO thin films deposited by a thermionic vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoğlu, Caner; Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this study, investigation of some physical properties of In-doped CuxO thin films onto amorphous glass substrates were done. The thin films were depsoied by thermionic vacuum arc technique (TVA). TVA technique gives a thin film with lower precursor impurity according to the other chemical and physical depsoition methods. The microstructural properties of the produced thin films was determined by x-ray diffraction device (XRD). The thickness values were measured as to be 30 nm and 60 nm, respectively. The miller indices of the thin films’ crystalline planes were determined as to be Cu (111), CuO (\\bar{1} 12), CuInO2 (107) and Cu2O (200), Cu (111), CuO (\\bar{1} 12), CuO (\\bar{2} 02), CuInO2 (015) for sample C1 and C2, respectively. The produced In-doped CuO thin films are in polycrystalline structure. The surface properties of produced In doped CuO thin films were determined by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) tools. The optical properties of the In doped CuO thin films were determined by UV–vis spectrophotometer, interferometer, and photoluminescence devices. p-type semiconductor thin film was obtained by TVA depsoition.

  8. One-pot synthesis of MoS2/In2S3 ultrathin nanoflakes with mesh-shaped structure on indium tin oxide as photocathode for enhanced photo-and electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoliang; Shan, Fei; Jiang, Xinxin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Feng

    2018-03-01

    A bifunctional MoS2/In2S3 hybrid composite that has both photo- and electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is prepared by a facile one pot hydrothermal method. The characterizations by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Photoluminescence (PL) shows that the MoS2/In2S3 hybrid exhibits ultrathin nanoflakes with mesh-shaped structure on transparent conductive substrates, and the as prepared catalyst composite obviously improves the separation of electro-hole pairs. The as prepared hybrid nanosheets with Mo:In of 1/2 integrate In-doped MoS2 to reduce the stacking and increase the active surface area. The novel mesh-shaped nanostructure with a moderate degree of disorder provides not only simultaneously intrinsic conductivity and defects but also higher electrochemically active surface area (ECSA). By electrochemical measurements, such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), we find that the MoS2/In2S3 hybrid possesses much better photo/electrochemical activity than pristine MoS2 or In2S3. MoS2/In2S3 ultrathin nanoflaks are anticipated to be a superior photoelectrocatalyst for PEC cells, and the rational use of the MoS2/In2S3 cathode offers a new avenue toward achieving effective photo-assistant electrocatalytic activity.

  9. Sn Doped In2S3 Films Elaborated by Spray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KRAINI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin doped In2S3 films were grown by the chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP method using the pneumatic spray set-up and compressed air as a carrier gas. The spraying solution contained indium chloride (InCl3, thiourea [CS(NH22] and (SnCl4 at a molar ratio of S/In = 2.5. The deposition was carried out at 350 °C on glass substrates. The Sn doping level was changed with Sn/In = 0-8 % in solution. The effect of Sn concentration on electrical, optical and structural properties of In2S3:Sn thin films have been investigated.

  10. Investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of the dehydrogenation of isobutane on platinum-tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lok, L.K.; Gaidai, N.A.; Gudkov, B.S.; Kiperman, S.L.; Kogan, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the kinetics and mechanism for the dehydrogenation of isobutane on platinum-tin catalysts having different tin concentrations. It has been shown that the maximum activity is possessed by a catalyst containing 2% tin. On this catalyst the kinetic isotopic effect has been measured, in which the hydrogen was replaced by deuterium and the isotopic distribution has been measured for the exchange products between isobutane, isobutylene and deuterium. A stagewise system for the mechanism of the process and kinetic equations, proposed previously for the reaction on platinum and platinum-indium catalysts are fully applicable also to reactions on catalysts containing tin

  11. Formation of indium-doped zinc oxide thin films using chemical spray techniques: The importance of acetic acid content in the aerosol solution and the substrate temperature for enhancing electrical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L.; Garcia-Valenzuela, A.; Zironi, E.P.; Canetas-Ortega, J.; Terrones, M.; Maldonado, A.

    2006-01-01

    Indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were grown on glass substrates using the chemical spray technique. The effects of the acetic acid content in the starting solution (c AA ), as well as the substrate temperature (T S ), were studied. Our results demonstrate that when c AA is extremely low, the resistivity values of the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films become relatively high (in the order of 4 x 10 -2 Ω cm). When the c AA is increased at a fixed temperature, the resistivity of the films decreases, reaching values as low as 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm for thin films deposited at 525 deg. C. The electron mobility could also increase to a maximum value of 10.5 cm 2 /(V s) for films deposited at 500 deg. C. We also observed an enhancement in the electrical transport properties of the films by varying T S ; the lowest resistivity values occurred in films deposited at T S between 475 and 525 deg. C. In addition, the relative intensity of the diffraction peaks associated with the crystallographic planes is strongly affected by the c AA concentration. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the polycrystalline nature of the films exhibiting a hexagonal wurtzite type, with a preferential orientation of the film depending on the acetic acid concentration. Film morphology was also affected by varying c AA , as grains with distinct geometrical shapes were observed. Finally, the optical transmittance of all these films was found to be higher than 85%

  12. Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

    2013-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  13. Gibbs–Thomson Effect in Planar Nanowires: Orientation and Doping Modulated Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2016-06-02

    Epitaxy-enabled bottom-up synthesis of self-assembled planar nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism is an emerging and promising approach toward large-scale direct integration of nanowire-based devices without postgrowth alignment. Here, by examining large assemblies of indium tin oxide nanowires on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate, we demonstrate for the first time that the growth dynamics of planar nanowires follows a modified version of the Gibbs-Thomson mechanism, which has been known for the past decades to govern the correlations between thermodynamic supersaturation, growth speed, and nanowire morphology. Furthermore, the substrate orientation strongly influences the growth characteristics of epitaxial planar nanowires as opposed to impact at only the initial nucleation stage in the growth of vertical nanowires. The rich nanowire morphology can be described by a surface-energy-dependent growth model within the Gibbs-Thomson framework, which is further modulated by the tin doping concentration. Our experiments also reveal that the cutoff nanowire diameter depends on the substrate orientation and decreases with increasing tin doping concentration. These results enable a deeper understanding and control over the growth of planar nanowires, and the insights will help advance the fabrication of self-assembled nanowire devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  14. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  16. An advanced case of indium lung disease with progressive emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kamada, Dan; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-30

    To report the occurrence of an advanced case of indium lung disease with severely progressive emphysema in an indium-exposed worker. A healthy 42-year-old male smoker was employed to primarily grind indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates, exposing him to indium for 9 years (1998-2008). In 2004, an epidemiological study was conducted on indium-exposed workers at the factory in which he worked. The subject's serum indium concentration (In-S) was 99.7 μg/l, while his serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 level was 2,350 U/ml. Pulmonary function tests showed forced vital capacity (FVC) of 4.17 l (91.5% of the JRS predicted value), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 3.19 l (80.8% of predicted), and an FEV 1 -to-FVC ratio of 76.5%. A high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scan showed mild interlobular septal thickening and mild emphysematous changes. In 2008, he was transferred from the ITO grinding workplace to an inspection work section, where indium concentrations in total dusts had a range of 0.001-0.002 mg/m 3 . In 2009, the subject's In-S had increased to 132.1 μg/l, and pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive changes. In addition, HRCT scan showed clear evidence of progressive lung destruction with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields. The subject's condition gradually worsened, and in 2015, he was registered with the Japan Organ Transplant Network for lung transplantation (LTx). Heavy indium exposure is a risk factor for emphysema, which can lead to a severity level that requires LTx as the final therapeutic option.

  17. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of tin-doped α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Houda; Bargougui, Radhouane; Autret-Lambert, Cécile; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Sn-doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with various dopant concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 mol% were prepared successfully using a simple co-precipitation technique. The effects of Sn doping on the structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. XRD analysis showed that all of the samples had a typical hematite-type hexagonal structure of Fe2O3 without any additional peaks due to spurious phases. The cell parameters a and c decreased monotonically as the Sn content increased, thereby indicating that Sn ions were substituted into the α-Fe2O3 lattice. These results and the TEM analyses showed that the size of the nanoparticles decreased to 10 nm as the Sn doping concentration increased. UV-visible absorption measurements showed that the decrease in particle size was accompanied by a decrease in the band gap value from 2.07 eV for α-Fe2O3 to 1.87 eV with 6 mol% Sn doping. Furthermore, the magnetic properties demonstrated that all of the samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were studied based on the degradation of methylene blue as a model compound, where the results showed that an appropriate amount of Sn dopant could greatly increase the amount of hydroxyl radicals generated by α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which were responsible for the obvious increase in the photocatalytic activity.

  18. In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yaqing; Wang, Zhixuan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C) and excellent rate performance (705 and 411 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 10 C, respectively) are exhibited in the SnS/S-SG electrode, which are much higher than that of the SnS/spherical graphene synthesized by traditional post-sulfuration method.

  19. A novel sensor made of Antimony Doped Tin Oxide-silica composite sol on a glassy carbon electrode modified by single-walled carbon nanotubes for detection of norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Lu; Chai, Shigan; Zhang, Jinzhi; Zhang, Xiuhua; Zou, Qichao

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we designed a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), Antimony Doped Tin Oxide (ATO)-silica composite sol, which was made using a sol-gel method. Then a sensitive and selective imprinted electrochemical sensor was constructed with the ATO-silica composite sol on a glassy carbon electrode modified by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The introduction of SWNTs increased the sensitivity of the MIP sensor. The surface morphology of the MIP and MIP/SWNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the optimal conditions for detection were determined. The oxidative peak current increased linearly with the concentration of norepinephrine in the range of 9.99×10 -8 M to 1.50×10 -5 M, as detected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), the detection limit was 3.33×10 -8 M (S/N=3). In addition, the proposed electrochemical sensors were successfully applied to detect the norepinephrine concentration in human blood serum samples. The recoveries of the sensors varied from 99.67% to 104.17%, indicating that the sensor has potential for the determination of norepinephrine in clinical tests. Moreover, the imprinted electrochemical sensor was used to selectively detect norepinephrine. The analytical application was conducted successfully and yielded accurate and precise results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Cao, Yaan, E-mail: caoyaan@yahoo.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO{sub 2} in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO{sub 2}, the narrowness of band gap of TiO{sub 2} doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO{sub 2}, boron doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–B) and indium doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-01-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO 2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO 2 , the narrowness of band gap of TiO 2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) and B 2 O 3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO 2 , boron doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –B) and indium doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-05-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV-vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO2, the narrowness of band gap of TiO2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) and B2O3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO2, boron doped TiO2 (TiO2-B) and indium doped TiO2 (TiO2-In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  4. Prediction of the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of self-assembled antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles into ordered structures in PMMA/ATO nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Youngho; Gerhardt, Rosario A

    2014-12-24

    Electrical percolation in nanocomposites consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles was investigated experimentally using monosize and polydisperse polymer particles. The nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding at 170 °C. The matrix PMMA was transformed into space filling polyhedra while the ATO nanoparticles distributed along the sharp edges of the matrix, forming a 3D interconnected network. The measured electrical resistivity showed that percolation was achieved in these materials at a very low ATO content of 0.99 wt % ATO when monosize PMMA was used, whereas 1.48 wt % ATO was needed to achieve percolation when the PMMA was polydispersed. A parametric finite element approach was chosen to model this unique microstructure-driven self-assembling percolation behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to solve the effects of phase segregation between the matrix and the filler using a 2D simplified model in the frequency domain of the AC/DC module. It was found that the percolation threshold (pc) is affected by the size ratio between the matrix and the filler in a systematic way. Furthermore, simulations indicate that small deviations from perfect interconnection result mostly in changes in the electrical resistivity while the minimum DC resistivity achievable in any given composite is governed by the electrical conductivity of the filler, which must be accurately known in order to obtain an accurate prediction. The model is quite general and is able to predict percolation behavior in a number of other similarly processed segregated network nanocomposites.

  5. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the fabrication of miniature heater indium tin oxide thin film was grown on special high temperature corning glass substrate by flash evaporation method. Gold was deposited on the film using thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum. The film was then annealed at 700 K for an hour. The thermocouple attached ...

  6. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. Gas sensors play vital role in detecting, monitoring and controlling the presence of hazardous and poisonous gases in the atmosphere at very low concentrations. Semicon- .... detailed procedure for deposition of indium tin oxide films and the effect of .... The conductance of the sensor was measured with digital.

  7. Organosilane-functionalization of nanostructured indium tin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, R; Palacio, F; Martínez, M; Blázquez, O; Hernández, S; Garrido, B; López, M

    2016-12-06

    Fabrication and organosilane-functionalization and characterization of nanostructured ITO electrodes are reported. Nanostructured ITO electrodes were obtained by electron beam evaporation, and a subsequent annealing treatment was selectively performed to modify their crystalline state. An increase in geometrical surface area in comparison with thin-film electrodes area was observed by atomic force microscopy, implying higher electroactive surface area for nanostructured ITO electrodes and thus higher detection levels. To investigate the increase in detectability, chemical organosilane-functionalization of nanostructured ITO electrodes was performed. The formation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPTS) layers was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As an indirect method to confirm the presence of organosilane molecules on the ITO substrates, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were also carried out. Cyclic voltammograms of functionalized ITO electrodes presented lower reduction-oxidation peak currents compared with non-functionalized ITO electrodes. These results demonstrate the presence of the epoxysilane coating on the ITO surface. EIS showed that organosilane-functionalized electrodes present higher polarization resistance, acting as an electronic barrier for the electron transfer between the conductive solution and the ITO electrode. The results of these electrochemical measurements, together with the significant difference in the X-ray spectra between bare ITO and organosilane-functionalized ITO substrates, may point to a new exploitable oxide-based nanostructured material for biosensing applications. As a first step towards sensing, rapid functionalization of such substrates and their application to electrochemical analysis is tested in this work. Interestingly, oxide-based materials are highly integrable with the silicon chip technology, which would permit the easy adaptation of such sensors into lab-on-a-chip configurations, providing benefits such as reduced size and weight to facilitate on-chip integration, and leading to low-cost mass production of microanalysis systems.

  8. Doped graphene electrodes for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyesung; Kim, Ki Kang; Bulovic, Vladimir; Kong, Jing; Rowehl, Jill A

    2010-01-01

    In this work graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with controlled numbers of layers were used as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. It was found that for devices with pristine graphene electrodes, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is comparable to their counterparts with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Nevertheless, the chances for failure in OPVs with pristine graphene electrodes are higher than for those with ITO electrodes, due to the surface wetting challenge between the hole-transporting layer and the graphene electrodes. Various alternative routes were investigated and it was found that AuCl 3 doping on graphene can alter the graphene surface wetting properties such that a uniform coating of the hole-transporting layer can be achieved and device success rate can be increased. Furthermore, the doping both improves the conductivity and shifts the work function of the graphene electrode, resulting in improved overall PCE performance of the OPV devices. This work brings us one step further toward the future use of graphene transparent electrodes as a replacement for ITO.

  9. The nature of surface behavior of tin oxide doped sensors: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies before and after exposure to liquid petroleum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, A. R.; Manorama, S.; Rao, V. J.

    2000-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to investigate the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and enhancing mechanism of the Pd-doped SnO2 sensor element. In the case of SnO2 and SnO2/Al2Si2O7, when the samples are exposed to liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the SnO2 is reduced to metallic Sn indicating adsorption-desorption (chemical mechanism). Whereas in the case of SnO2/Pd and SnO2/Al2Si2O7/Pd systems in addition to chemical mechanism, there is an additional contribution from the Pd, in which PdO2 and PdO are reduced to PdO and Pd, respectively, attributed to electronic mechanism. It has been observed that the electronic mechanism is more predominant than the chemical one.

  10. Sodium enhances indium-gallium interdiffusion in copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Diego; Werner, Florian; Schwarz, Torsten; Cañero Infante, Ingrid; Fleming, Yves; Valle, Nathalie; Spindler, Conrad; Vacchieri, Erica; Rey, Germain; Guennou, Mael; Bouttemy, Muriel; Manjón, Alba Garzón; Peral Alonso, Inmaculada; Melchiorre, Michele; El Adib, Brahime; Gault, Baptiste; Raabe, Dierk; Dale, Phillip J; Siebentritt, Susanne

    2018-02-26

    Copper indium gallium diselenide-based technology provides the most efficient solar energy conversion among all thin-film photovoltaic devices. This is possible due to engineered gallium depth gradients and alkali extrinsic doping. Sodium is well known to impede interdiffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 films, thus influencing the gallium depth distribution. Here, however, sodium is shown to have the opposite effect in monocrystalline gallium-free CuInSe 2 grown on GaAs substrates. Gallium in-diffusion from the substrates is enhanced when sodium is incorporated into the film, leading to Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and Cu(In,Ga) 3 Se 5 phase formation. These results show that sodium does not decrease per se indium and gallium interdiffusion. Instead, it is suggested that sodium promotes indium and gallium intragrain diffusion, while it hinders intergrain diffusion by segregating at grain boundaries. The deeper understanding of dopant-mediated atomic diffusion mechanisms should lead to more effective chemical and electrical passivation strategies, and more efficient solar cells.

  11. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  12. Influence of Ta and Ti Doping on the High Field Performance of (Nb, Ta, Ti)3Sn Multifilamentary Wires based on Osprey Bronze with High Tin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abächerli, V.; Uglietti, D.; Lezza, P.; Seeber, B.; Flükiger, R.; Cantoni, M.; Buffat, P.-A.

    2006-06-01

    Ta and Ti are the most widely used additions for technical Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconductors. These elements are known to influence grain growth, grain morphology and chemical composition in the A15 layer, hence the current carrying properties of the wires over a wide magnetic field range. So far only few studies tried to compare systematically Ta and Ti doped and undoped Nb3Sn wires in the frame of the same work, down to a nanometric scale. We present an investigation on several multifilamentary (Nb, Ta, Ti)3Sn bronze route wires, fabricated at a laboratory scale, with various amounts of additives. The wires consist of fine filaments embedded in a Cu-Sn or Cu-Sn-Ti Osprey bronze with > 15 wt.% Sn and an external Cu stabilization. Microstructural observations are compared with the results of Jc and n values measured up to 21 T at 4.2 and 2.2 K, and for longitudinal strains up to 0.5%. Non-Cu Jc values up to 300 Amm-2 and n values up to 50 at 17 T and 4.2 K show clearly that wires with Ti addition to the bronze have a better performance with respect to wires with Ti additions to the filaments.

  13. High performance TiN gate contact on AlGaN/GaN transistor using a mechanically strain induced P-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Rousseau, M.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Bourzgui, N. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR-CNRS 8520, USTL, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mattalah, M. [Laboratoire de Microélectronique, Université Djilali Liabès, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbès (Algeria); Bonanno, P. L.; Ougazzaden, A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30324-0250 (United States); UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, Georgia Tech Lorraine, 2-3 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz-Technopôle (France); Telia, A. [LMI, Electronic Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mentouri University of Constantine, Constantine (Algeria); Patriarche, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS UPR 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); BenMoussa, A. [Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-06-09

    High performance titanium nitride sub-100 nm rectifying contact, deposited by sputtering on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, shows a reverse leakage current as low as 38 pA/mm at V{sub GS} = −40 V and a Schottky barrier height of 0.95 eV. Based on structural characterization and 3D simulations, it is found that the polarization gradient induced by the gate metallization forms a P-type pseudo-doping region under the gate between the tensile surface and the compressively strained bulk AlGaN barrier layer. The strain induced by the gate metallization can compensate for the piezoelectric component. As a result, the gate contact can operate at temperatures as high as 700 °C and can withstand a large reverse bias of up to −100 V, which is interesting for high-performance transistors dedicated to power applications.

  14. Room Temperature Detection of Benzene Vapours by Tin Oxide Nano Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. PANCHAL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide with nano clusters were deposited using Chemical Vapour Transport technique. The annealed films were used as sensor to detect benzene vapours at room temperature. The response was studied for the concentration range 300-1000 ppm. A comparative study of the response of the nano clustered films to benzene vapours in this range with the response of thin films of Indium tin oxide and tin oxide deposited by the physical vapour deposition method was taken up.

  15. Effect of Zinc Oxide Doping on Electroluminescence and Electrical Behavior of Metalloporphyrins-Doped Samarium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghouri, Mohammad; Amini, Mostafa M.

    2018-02-01

    Samarium complex [(Sm(III)] as a new host material was used for preparation of red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with configurations of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):(poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/polyvinyl carbazole (PVK):[zinc oxide (ZnO)] (50 nm)/[(Sm(III)]:[zinc(II) 2,3-tetrakis(dihydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin and Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin] (60 nm)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) (15 nm)/Al (150 nm) have been fabricated and investigated. An electroplex occurring at the (PVK/Sm: Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin) interface has been suggested when ZnO nanoparticles were doped in PVK. OLED studies have revealed that the photophysical characteristics and electrical behavior of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of devices with pure PVK. The efficiency of devices based on [(Sm(III)] was superior than that of known aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and also our earlier reports on red OLEDs under the same conditions.

  16. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Secondary indium production from end-of-life liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Fonti, Viviana; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Beolchini, Francesca [Universita Politecnica of Marche, DISVA, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In 2014, the European Union identified 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. Indium, used in several innovative technologies, is among such critical raw materials. Generally, it is mined as a by-product of zinc from a mineral named sphalerite, with a concentration between 1 and 100 ppm. Currently, the largest producer of indium is China and about 84% of the worldwide indium consumption is used for liquid crystal display (LCD) production, in particular to form an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film with transparent conductor properties. The fast evolution of LCD technologies caused a double effect: the growth of indium demand and an increase of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Considering these two factors, the aim of this study is to make the end-of-life LCDs a secondary indium resource. With this purpose, an indium recovery process was developed carrying out an acidic leaching, followed by a zinc cementation. The first step allowed a complete indium extraction using 2M sulfuric acid at 80 C for 10 min. The problem of low indium concentration in the scraps (around 150 ppm) was overcome using a cross-current configuration in the leaching phase that allowed an increase of metal concentration and a decrease of reagents consumption. An indium recovery higher than 90% was obtained in the final cementation step, using 5 g/L of zinc powder at pH 3 and 55 C for 10 min. Considering its high efficiency, this process is promising in a context of circular economy, where a waste becomes a resource. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Increase in indium diffusion by tetrafluoromethane plasma treatment and its effects on the device performance of polymer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Su; Kim, Jong Bok; Ryu, Seung Yoon; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Kim, Youn Sang; Lee, Se-Jong

    2008-06-01

    The effects of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma treatment of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode on indium diffusion into a poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profile showed that 0.2at.% indium was present in the PEDOT:PSS layer when ITO was not plasma treated. The plasma treatment of ITO increased the indium concentration to ˜6at.%. The increase in indium can be explained by an oxygen deficiency in the CF4 plasma treated ITO. The presence of indium in the PEDOT:PSS layer showed a correlation with performance degradation of polymer light-emitting diodes.

  19. Enhancement of polymer electronics via surface states on highly doped polymeric anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohne, Holger; McNeill, Christopher R; Wallace, Gordon G; Dastoor, Paul C

    2004-01-01

    Organic optoelectronic devices that can be operated as organic light-emitting diodes and solar cells have been prepared using a poly(phenylenevinylene) (PPV)-based polymer as the active layer. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was grown potentiostatically atop indium-tin oxide to serve as the hole-injecting/collecting electrode, and its work function (Φ W ) was pre-adjusted by electrochemically altering the doping level. Subsequent controlled exposure to atmosphere produced devices with approximately constant open-circuit voltages consistent with the creation of an air-induced interfacial layer atop the PEDOT, which determines its Fermi level. The short-circuit current of the air-exposed devices was still found to vary systematically with Φ W . This interpretation is supported by UV/Vis investigations as well as electric force microscopy and Kelvin probe measurements of the surfaces of doped and non-doped PEDOT layers, which show very little difference in their surface potential after exposure to air, even though their optical spectra differ significantly. Using this new approach means that it is now possible to dope the PEDOT to high levels (thus maximizing its conductivity) without electrochemically altering the overlying PPV-based polymer layer

  20. Outdoor Operational Stability of Indium-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Modules Over 1 Year Studied in India, Holland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sommeling, Paul M.; Gupta, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    We present an outdoor interlaboratory stability study of fully printed and coated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cell modules in JNCASR Bangalore (India), ECN (Holland), and DTU (Denmark) carried over more than 1 year. The modules comprising a fully printed and coated stack (Ag grid...

  1. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  2. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  3. Anelasticity of polycrystalline indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, K., E-mail: k.sapozhnikov@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golyandin, S. [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kustov, S. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Mechanisms of anelasticity of polycrystalline indium have been studied over wide ranges of temperature (7-320 K) and strain amplitude (2 x 10{sup -7}-3.5 x 10{sup -4}). Measurements of the internal friction and Young's modulus have been performed by means of the piezoelectric resonant composite oscillator technique using longitudinal oscillations at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The stages of the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and Young's modulus defect, which can be attributed to dislocation - point defect and dislocation - dislocation interactions, have been revealed. It has been shown that thermal cycling gives rise to microplastic straining of polycrystalline indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and to appearance of a 'recrystallization' internal friction maximum in the temperature spectra of amplitude-dependent anelasticity. The temperature range characterized by formation of Cottrell's atmospheres of point defects around dislocations has been determined from the acoustic data.

  4. Tin–indium/graphene with enhanced initial coulombic efficiency and rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongxun; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid was firstly synthesized. • Indium in the hybrid reduces charge transfer resistance of electrode. • Graphene can accommodate the volume change of nanoparticles during cycling. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced initial coulombic efficiency. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced rate capability. -- Abstract: Tin is an attractive anode material replacing the current commercial graphite for the next generation lithium ion batteries because of its high theoretical storage capacity and energy density. However, poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling, and low rate capability frustrate its practical application. In this study, a new ternary composite based on tin–indium alloy (Sn–In) and graphene nanosheet (GNS) was prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis followed by thermal treatment in hydrogen and argon at 550 °C. Characterizations show that the tin–indium nanoparticles with about 100 nm in size were wrapped between the graphene nanosheets. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the Sn–In/GNS composite exhibits a remarkably improved electrochemical performance in terms of lithium storage capacity (865.6 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 rate), initial coulombic efficiency (78.6%), cycling stability (83.9% capacity retention after 50 cycles), and rate capability (493.2 mAh g −1 at 600 mA g −1 rate after 25 cycles) compared to Sn/GNS and Sn–In electrode. This improvement is attributed to the introduction of lithium activity metal, indium, which reduces the charge transfer resistance of electrode, and the graphene nanosheet which accommodates the volume change of tin–indium nanoparticles during cycling and improves electrical conductivity of material

  5. An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Denghui; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Ying; Xiao Jing; Liang Chunjun; Pei Zhiliang; Sun Chao

    2005-01-01

    Doped zinc oxides are attractive alternative materials as transparent conducting electrode because they are nontoxic and inexpensive compared with indium tin oxide (ITO). Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. Films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 150-bar o C in 0.03 Pa of oxygen pressure. The electrical and optical properties of the film with the Al-doping amount of 2 wt% in the target were investigated. For the 300-nm thick AZO film deposited using a ZnO target with an Al content of 2 wt%, the lowest electrical resistivity was 4x10 -4 Ωcm and the average transmission in the visible range 400-700 nm was more than 90%. The AZO film was used as an anode contact to fabricate organic light-emitting diodes. The device performance was measured and the current efficiency of 2.9 cd/A was measured at a current density of 100 mA/cm 2

  6. Nitrogen-doped graphene-silver nanodendrites for the non-enzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajabadi, M.T.; Basirun, W.J.; Lorestani, F.; Zakaria, R.; Baradaran, S.; Amin, Y.M.; Mahmoudian, M.R.; Rezayi, M.; Sookhakian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • N-graphene/Ag nanodendrities by electrophoretic and electrochemical deposition. • Support of N-graphene shows efficient electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction. • The fabricated non-enzymatic H 2 O 2 electrochemical sensor improved in the presence of Ag. - Abstract: An organic-metal hybrid film based on nitrogen-doped graphene-silver nanodendrites (Ag-NG) was fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode using a simple electrophoretic and electrochemical sequential deposition approach. The microwave-assisted method was utilized for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene. This method involves a three-step process consisting of graphite oxidation, exfoliation, and finally chemical reduction with the use of hydrazine as the reducing agent, which leads to the simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide and production of nitrogen-doped graphene. The morphology and structure of the as-fabricated electrode were determined by X-ray diffraction, field emission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared Ag-NG-modified ITO electrode exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) reduction, with a wide linear detection range of 100 μM to 80 mM (r = 0.9989) and a detection limit of 0.26 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Furthermore, the fabricated non-enzymatic H 2 O 2 electrochemical sensor exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility

  7. P-type field effect transistor based on Na-doped BaSnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeaju; Hong, Sungyun; Park, Jisung; Char, Kookrin

    We fabricated field effect transistors (FET) based on the p-type Na-doped BaSnO3 (BNSO) channel layer. The properties of epitaxial BNSO channel layer were controlled by the doping rate. In order to modulate the p-type FET, we used amorphous HfOx and epitaxial BaHfO3 (BHO) gate oxides, both of which have high dielectric constants. HfOx was deposited by atomic-layer-deposition and BHO was epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition. The pulsed laser deposited SrRuO3 (SRO) was used as the source and the drain contacts. Indium-tin oxide and La-doped BaSnO3 were used as the gate electrodes on top of the HfOx and the BHO gate oxides, respectively. We will analyze and present the performances of the BNSO field effect transistor such as the IDS-VDS, the IDS-VGS, the Ion/Ioff ratio, and the field effect mobility. Samsung Science and Technology Foundation.

  8. Enhancement of photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2 induced by plasma doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sungjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Guo, L Jay; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-05-27

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides hold promise for making ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices with a combination of excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, long lifetime, and low manufacturing cost. Engineering the proper band structures of such layered materials is essential to realize such potential. Here, we present a plasma-assisted doping approach for significantly improving the photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2. In this work, we fabricated and characterized photovoltaic devices with a vertically stacked indium tin oxide electrode/multilayer MoS2/metal electrode structure. Utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach, we are able to form p-n junctions in MoS2 layers that facilitate the collection of photogenerated carriers, enhance the photovoltages, and decrease reverse dark currents. Using plasma-assisted doping processes, we have demonstrated MoS2-based photovoltaic devices exhibiting very high short-circuit photocurrent density values up to 20.9 mA/cm(2) and reasonably good power-conversion efficiencies up to 2.8% under AM1.5G illumination, as well as high external quantum efficiencies. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for leveraging the optoelectronic properties of emerging atomically layered two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  9. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS FILM TIPIS CdTe SEBAGAI ABSORBER SEL SURYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DOPING TEMBAGA (Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marwoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Film tipis CdTe dengan doping tembaga (Cu berkonsenterasi 2% telah berhasil ditumbuhkan di atas substrat Indium Tin Oxide (ITO dengan metode dc magnetron sputtering. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh doping Cu(2% terhadap struktur morfologi, struktur kristal, fotoluminisensi dan resistivitas listrik film CdTe. Citra morfologi Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM dan hasil analisis struktur dengan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe:Cu(2% mempunyai citra permukaan dan struktur kristal yang lebih sempurna dibandingkan film CdTe tanpa doping. Hasil analisis spektrometer fotoluminisensi menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe dan CdTe(2% mempunyai puncak fotoluminisensi pada tiga panjang gelombang yang identik yaitu 685 nm (1,81 eV, 725 nm (1,71 eV dan 740 nm (1,67 eV. Film CdTe dengan doping Cu(2% memiliki intensitas puncak fotoluminisensi yang lebih tajam pada pita energi 1,81 eV dibandingkan dengan film CdTe tanpa doping. Pengukuran arus dan tegangan (I-V menunjukkan bahwa pemberian doping Cu(2% dapat menurunkan resistivitas film dari 8,40x109 Ωcm menjadi 6,92x105 Ωcm. Sebagai absorber sel surya, kualitas film tipis CdTe telah berhasil ditingkatkan dengan pemberian doping Cu(2%.CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has been successfully grown on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using dc magnetron sputtering. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of Cu(2% doping on the morphologycal structure, crystal structure, photoluminesence, and resistivity of CdTe thin film. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM  images and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results showed that CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has morphologycal and crystal structures more perfect than undoped CdTe film. Photoluminesence spectroscopy results showed that CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2% thin films have luminesence peak at three identical wevelength regions i.e. 685 nm (1.81 eV, 725 nm (1.71 eV and 740 nm (1.67 eV however CdTe:Cu(2% film shows sharper photoluminescence peak at band

  10. Optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting gallium-doped ZnO electrodes prepared by atomic layer deposition for application in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yoon Seog; Seong, Nak Jin; Choi, Kyu Jeong; Ryu, Sang Ouk

    2013-01-01

    Transparent and conducting gallium-doped ZnO electrodes were fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition. The electrode showed the lowest resistivity of 7.19 × 10 −4 Ω cm at a 5% cyclic layer deposition ratio of Trimethyl-gallium and Diethyl-zinc chemicals. The electrodes showed minimum resistivity when deposited at a temperature of 250 °C. The electrode also showed optical transmittance of about 82%–89% with film thicknesses between 100 nm and 300 nm. An organic solar cell made with a 300-nm-thick gallium-doped ZnO electrode exhibited 2.5% power conversion efficiency, and an efficiency equivalent to that of cells made with conventional indium tin oxide electrodes. - Highlights: • Ga-doped ZnO thin films were successfully grown by atomic layer deposition • The grown thin film has low resistivity compatible to conventional ITO electrodes • The Ga-doped ZnO films were successfully integrated into organic solar cells • The power conversion efficiency was equivalent to the cells with ITO electrodes

  11. Experiments on In2S3:Sn Thin Films with up to 1% Tin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraini, M.; Bouguila, N.; Koaib, J.; Vázquez-Vázquez, C.; López-Quintela, M. A.; Alaya, S.

    2016-11-01

    Tin-doped indium sulfide (In2S3:Sn) thin films with different Sn:In molar ratios (0% to 1% by mol in solution) have been deposited on glass substrates by a chemical spray pyrolysis method. The films were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, optical absorption, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopies, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The structural properties revealed that the In2S3:Sn thin films had polycrystalline cubic structure with average crystallite size increasing from 16.3 nm to 25.5 nm. The surface morphology of the films was continuous and crack free. The average and root-mean-square roughness increased from 13.12 nm to 31.65 nm and from 16.14 nm to 39.39 nm, respectively, with increasing Sn:In molar ratio. Raman studies revealed the presence of vibration modes related to In2S3 phase, with no signature of secondary phases. The transmission coefficient was about 65% to 70% in the visible region and 70% to 90% in the near-infrared region. The optical bandgap values for allowed direct transitions in In2S3:Sn were found to lie in the range from 2.68 eV to 2.80 eV. The refractive index of the In2S3:Sn thin films decreased from 2.45 to 2.37 while the k values lay in the range from 0.02 to 0.25 for all wavelengths. Defect-related photoluminescence properties are also discussed. These In2S3:Sn films are promising candidates for use in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  12. Decrease in electrical contact resistance of Sb-doped n+-BaSi2 layers and spectral response of an Sb-doped n+-BaSi2/undoped BaSi2 structure for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Komomo; Takabe, Ryota; Yachi, Suguru; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated how the electron concentration n in a 300-nm-thick Sb-doped n+-BaSi2 layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy affected the contact resistance R C to surface electrodes (Al, indium-tin-oxide). As the n of n-BaSi2 increased, R C decreased and reached a minimum of 0.019 Ω cm2 at n = 2.4 × 1018 cm-3 for the Al electrodes. This value was more than 1 order of magnitude smaller than that obtained for Al/B-doped p-BaSi2. We believe that this significant decrease in R C came from Sb segregation. Furthermore, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) spectrum was evaluated for an Sb-doped n+-BaSi2 (20 nm)/undoped BaSi2 (500 nm)/n+-Si(111) structure. Its IQE reached as high as ˜50% over a wide wavelength range under a small bias voltage of 0.1 V applied between the top and bottom electrodes.

  13. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association be...... and diseases based on ontology classes, and displays a scatter plot with two proposed new bibliometric statistics: Importance and Novelty. Availability and Implementation: http://www.newdrugtargets.org. Contact: cbologa@salud.unm.edu....

  14. Tin and tin-resistant microrganisms in Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallas, L.E.; Cooney, J.J.

    1981-02-01

    Sediment and water samples from nine stations in Chesapeake Bay were examined for tin content and for microbial populations resistant to inorganic tin (75 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ as SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O) or to the organotin compound dimethyltin chloride (15 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ ad (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/). Tin concentrations in sediments were higher (3.0 to 7.9 mg kg/sup -1/) at sites impacted by human activity than at open water sites (0.8 to 0.9 mg kg/sup -1/), and they were very high (239.6 mg kg/sup -1/) in Baltimore Harbor, which is impacted by both shipping and heavy industry. Inorganic tin (75 mg Sn liter/sup -1/) in agar medium significantly decreased viable counts, but its toxicity was markedly reduced in liquid medium; it was not toxic in medium solidified with silica gel. Addition of SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O to these media produced a tin precipitate which was not involved in the metal's toxicity. The data suggest that a soluble tin-agar complex which is toxic to cells is formed in agar medium. Thus, the toxicity of tin depends more on the chemical species than on the metal concentration in the medium. All sites in Chesapeake Bay contained organisms resistant to tin. The microbial flora was more sensitive to (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/ than to SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O. The elevated level of tin-resistant microorganisms in some areas not containing unusually high tin concentrations suggests that factors other than tin may participate in the selection for a tin-tolerant microbial flora.

  15. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al thin films prepared by using magnetron Co-sputtering: Optical and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-A.; Jun, Young-Kil; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2016-07-01

    Photovoltaic applications require transparent conducting-oxide (TCO) thin films with high optical transmittance in the visible spectral region (380 - 780 nm), low resistivity, and high thermal/chemical stability. The ZnO thin film is one of the most common alternatives to the conventional indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film TCO. Highly transparent and conductive ZnO thin films can be prepared by doping with group III elements. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared by using the RF magnetron co-sputtering method with ZnO and Al targets to obtain better characteristics at a low cost. The RF sputtering power to each target was varied to control the doping concentration in fixed-thickness AZO thin films. The crystal structures of the AZO thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction. The morphological microstructure was observed by using scanning electron microscopy. The optical transmittance and the band gap energy of the AZO thin films were examined with an UV-visible spectrophotometer in the range of 300 - 1800 nm. The resistivity and the carrier concentration were examined by using a Hall-effect measurement system. An excellent optical transmittance > 80% with an appropriate band gap energy (3.26 - 3.27 eV) and an improved resistivity (~10 -1 Ω·cm) with high carrier concentration (1017 - 1019 cm -3) were demonstrated in 350-nm-thick AZO thin films for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  16. A review of the world market of indium (Economy of indium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the current state of the world and Russian markets of indium and indium-containing products was made based on the publications of the last years. Main fields of indium application are given, in particular, its using for neutron absorbing regulating rods in nuclear reactors. The second γ-radiation resulted from neutron absorption allows using indium as a neutron detector. Indium market stabilization is expected due to supply from China and South Korea [ru

  17. Analyzing the kinetic response of tin oxide-carbon and tin oxide-CNT composites gas sensors for alcohols detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Vinayak, E-mail: vinbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in; Umarji, Arun [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Tin oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using solution combustion technique and tin oxide – carbon composite thick films are fabricated with amorphous carbon as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are having rutile phase with average crystallite size ∼7 nm and ∼95 m{sup 2}/g surface area. The difference between morphologies of the carbon doped and CNT doped SnO{sub 2} thick films, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and transient response curves are analyzed using Langmuir isotherm curve fittings and modeled using power law of semiconductor gas sensors.

  18. Recycling of indium from waste LCD: A promising non-crushing leaching with the aid of ultrasonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Li, Bin; Wu, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Rubing; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Zuo, Tieyong

    2017-06-01

    The tremendous amount of end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has become one of the prominent sources of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in recent years. Despite the necessity of safe treatment, recycling indium is also a focus of waste LCD treatment because of the scarcity of indium. Based on the analyses of the structure of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass, crushing is demonstrated to be not required. In the present research, a complete non-crushing leaching method was firstly adopted to recycle indium from waste LCDs, and the ultrasonic waves was applied in the leaching process. The results demonstrated that indium can be leached efficiently with even a low concentration of chloride acid (HCl) without extra heating. About 96.80% can be recovered in 60mins, when the ITO glass was leached by 0.8MHCl with an enhancement of 300W ultrasonic waves. The indium leaching process is abridged free from crushing, and proves to be of higher efficiency. In addition, the ultrasonic wave influence on leaching process was also explained combing with micron-scale structure of ITO glass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-selenide (CIGS solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burghoorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-selenide (CIGS solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the Jsc and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (dCIGS of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (nresist = 1.792 vs. nAZO = 1.913 at 633 nm to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, Jsc increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%. No trend towards a larger relative increase in Jsc with decreasing dCIGS was observed. Ergo, the increase in Jsc can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in Jsc based on an increased photon path length.

  20. Three of a Kind: Genetically Similar Tsukamurella Phages TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Zoe A; Tucci, Joseph; Seviour, Robert J; Petrovski, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Three Tsukamurella phages, TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4, were isolated from activated sludge treatment plants located in Victoria, Australia, using conventional enrichment techniques. Illumina and 454 whole-genome sequencing of these Siphoviridae viruses revealed that they had similar genome sequences, ranging in size between 76,268 bp and 76,964 bp. All three phages shared 74% nucleotide sequence identity to the previously described Gordonia phage GTE7. Genome sequencing suggested that phage TIN3 had suffered a mutation in one of its lysis genes compared to the sequence of phage TIN4, to which it is genetically very similar. Mass spectroscopy data showed the unusual presence of a virion structural gene in the DNA replication module of phage TIN4, disrupting the characteristic modular genome architecture of Siphoviridae phages. All three phages appeared highly virulent on strains of Tsukamurella inchonensis and Tsukamurella paurometabola. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Low-Temperature Processed Ga-Doped ZnO Coatings from Colloidal Inks

    KAUST Repository

    Della Gaspera, Enrico

    2013-03-06

    We present a new colloidal synthesis of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals that are transparent in the visible and absorb in the near-infrared. Thermal decomposition of zinc stearate and gallium nitrate after hot injection of the precursors in a mixture of organic amines leads to nanocrystals with tunable properties according to gallium amount. Substitutional Ga3+ ions trigger a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region resulting from an increase in the free electrons concentration. These nanocrystals can be deposited by spin coating, drop casting, and spray coating resulting in homogeneous and high-quality thin films. The optical transmission of the Ga-ZnO nanoparticle assemblies in the visible is greater than 90%, and at the same time, the near-infrared absorption of the nanocrystals is maintained in the films as well. Several strategies to improve the films electrical and optical properties have been presented, such as UV treatments to remove the organic compounds responsible for the observed interparticle resistance and reducing atmosphere treatments on both colloidal solutions and thin films to increase the free carriers concentration, enhancing electrical conductivity and infrared absorption. The electrical resistance of the nanoparticle assemblies is about 30 kΩ/sq for the as-deposited, UV-exposed films, and it drops down to 300 Ω/sq after annealing in forming gas at 450 °C, comparable with state of the art tin-doped indium oxide coatings deposited from nanocrystal inks. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Preparation and properties of KCl-doped Cu2O thin film by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiaojiao; Li, Xinming; Zheng, Gang; Wei, Yuchen; Zhang, Ama; Yao, Binghua

    2013-01-01

    With the indium tin oxide-coated glass as working electrode, cuprous oxide thin film is fabricated by means of electrodeposition. The effects of KCl doped and annealing treatment upon Cu 2 O thin film morphology, surface resistivity, open-circuit voltage, electric conduction types and visible light response are studied. The research results indicate that KCl doped has a great effect upon Cu 2 O crystal morphology, thus, making Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity drop, and the open-circuit voltage increase and that electric conduction types are transformed from p type into n type, and the visible light (400–500 nm) absorption rate is slightly reduced. Annealing treatment can obviously decrease Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity and improve its open-circuit voltage. When KCl concentration in electrolytic solution reaches 7 mmol/L, Cu 2 O thin film morphology can be changed from the dendritic crystal into the cubic crystal and Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity decreases from the initial 2.5 × 10 6 Ω cm to 8.5 × 10 4 Ω cm. After annealing treatment at 320 °C for 30 min, the surface resistivity decreases to 8.5 × 10 2 Ω cm, and the open-circuit voltage increases from the initial 3.1 mV to 79.2 mV.

  3. Unexpected Au Alloying in Tailoring In-Doped SnTe Nanostructures with Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Atherton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials with strong spin-orbit interaction and superconductivity are candidates for topological superconductors that may host Majorana fermions (MFs at the edges/surfaces/vortex cores. Bulk-superconducting carrier-doped topological crystalline insulator, indium-doped tin telluride (In-SnTe is one of the promising materials. Robust superconductivity of In-SnTe nanostructures has been demonstrated recently. Intriguingly, not only 3-dimensional (3D nanostructures but also ultra-thin quasi-2D and quasi-1D systems can be grown by the vapor transport method. In particular, nanostructures with a controlled dimension will give us a chance to understand the dimensionality and the quantum confinement effects on the superconductivity of the In-SnTe and may help us work on braiding MFs in various dimensional systems for future topological quantum computation technology. With this in mind, we employed gold nanoparticles (GNPs with well-identified sizes to tailor In-SnTe nanostructures grown by vapor transport. However, we could not see clear evidence that the presence of the GNPs is necessary or sufficient to control the size of the nanostructures. Nevertheless, it should be noted that a weak correlation between the diameter of GNPs and the dimensions of the smallest nanostructures has been found so far. To our surprise, the ones grown under the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, with the use of the GNPs, contained gold that is widely and inhomogeneously distributed over the whole body.

  4. Aluminum-doped ZnO nanoparticles: gas-phase synthesis and dopant location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Carolin; Zähres, Manfred; Mayer, Christian; Winterer, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticles are studied widely as transparent conducting alternatives for indium tin oxide. However, the properties of AZO vary in different investigations not only with the amount of dopant and the particle size, but also with other parameters such as synthesis method and conditions. Hence, AZO nanoparticles, synthesized in the gas phase, were investigated to study the influence of the synthesis parameters dopant level, reactor temperature and residence time in the reaction zone on the particle characteristics. The local structure of the dopant in semiconductors determines whether the doping is functional, i.e., whether mobile charge carriers are generated. Therefore, information obtained from 27Al solid-state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to understand how the local structure influences particles characteristics and how the local structure itself can be influenced by the synthesis parameters. In addition to AZO particles of different Al content, pure ZnO, Al2O3, ZnAl2O4 and core-shell particles of ZnO and Al2O3 were synthesized for comparison and aid to a deeper understanding of the formation of AZO nanoparticles in the gas phase.

  5. Superconducting tin core fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  6. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  7. Pilot-scale electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition system for the preparation of large-area fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bup Ju [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Shinhan University, 233-1, Sangpae-dong, Dongducheon, Gyeonggi-do 483-777 (Korea, Republic of); Hudaya, Chairul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Center for Energy Convergence, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, 176 Gajungro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, 176 Gajungro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The authors report the surface morphology, optical, electrical, thermal and humidity impacts, and electromagnetic interference properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F or “FTO”) thin films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate fabricated by a pilot-scale electron cyclotron resonance–metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PS ECR-MOCVD). The characteristics of large area FTO thin films were compared with a commercially available transparent conductive electrode made of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), prepared with an identical film and PET thickness of 125 nm and 188 μm, respectively. The results revealed that the as-prepared FTO thin films exhibited comparable performances with the incumbent ITO films, including a high optical transmittance of 97% (substrate-subtracted), low electrical resistivity of about 5 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, improved electrical and optical performances due to the external thermal and humidity impact, and an excellent shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic interference of nearly 2.3 dB. These excellent performances of the FTO thin films were strongly attributed to the design of the PS ECR-MOCVD, which enabled a uniform plasma environment resulting from a proper mixture of electromagnetic profiles and microwave power.

  8. On single doping and co-doping of spray pyrolysed ZnO films: Structural, electrical and optical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimalkumar, T.V.; Poornima, N.; Jinesh, K.B.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present studies on ZnO thin films (prepared using Chemical Spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique) doped in two different ways; in one set, 'single doping' using indium was done while in the second set, 'co-doping' using indium and fluorine was adopted. In the former case, effect of in-situ as well as ex-situ doping using In was analyzed. Structural (XRD studies), electrical (I-V measurements) and optical characterizations (through absorption, transmission and photoluminescence studies) of the films were done. XRD analysis showed that, for spray-deposited ZnO films, ex-situ doping using Indium resulted in preferred (0 0 2) plane orientation, while in-situ doping caused preferred orientation along (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) planes; however for higher percentage of in-situ doping, orientation of grains changed from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane. The co-doped films had (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes. Lowest resistivity (2 x 10 -3 Ω cm) was achieved for the films, doped with 1% Indium through in-situ method. Photoluminescence (PL) emissions of ex-situ doped and co-doped samples had two peaks; one was the 'near band edge' emission (NBE) and the other was the 'blue-green' emission. But interestingly the PL emission of in-situ doped samples exhibited only the 'near band edge' emission. Optical band gap of the films increased with doping percentage, in all cases of doping.

  9. Influence of indium concentration and substrate temperature on the physical characteristics of chemically sprayed ZnO:In thin films deposited from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L; Morales-Saavedra, O G; Cheang-Wong, J C; Acosta, D R; Banuelos, J G; Maldonado, A; Olvera, M de la L

    2006-01-01

    Chemically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:In) were deposited on glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphology, composition, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:In thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:In thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the indium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low In content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for intermediate dopant regime, and finally turning to a (100) growth for heavily doped films. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 36 to 23 nm. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:In thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm and an average transmittance in the visible spectra of 85%, with a (101) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:In thin films

  10. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  11. Improving the performance of perovskite solar cells with glycerol-doped PEDOT:PSS buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Feng, Li; Chuang, Zhao; Heng, Zhang; Jun-Feng, Tong; Peng, Zhang; Chun-Yan, Yang; Yang-Jun, Xia; Duo-Wang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of glycerol doping on transmittance, conductivity and surface morphology of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) and its influence on the performance of perovskite solar cells. . The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS is improved obviously by doping glycerol. The maximum of the conductivity is 0.89 S/cm when the doping concentration reaches 6 wt%, which increases about 127 times compared with undoped. The perovskite solar cells are fabricated with a configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PC61BM/Al, where PEDOT:PSS and PC61BM are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. The results show an improvement of hole charge transport as well as an increase of short-circuit current density and a reduction of series resistance, owing to the higher conductivity of the doped PEDOT:PSS. Consequently, it improves the whole performance of perovskite solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device is improved from 8.57% to 11.03% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination) after the buffer layer has been modified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61264002, 61166002, 91333206, and 51463011), the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 1308RJZA159), the New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0840), the Research Project of Graduate Teacher of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 2014A-0042), and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation from Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China.

  12. Extraction and Separation of Tin from Tin-Bearing Secondary Resources: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zijian; Zhang, Yuanbo; Liu, Bingbing; Lu, Manman; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    The proven global tin reserves were reported to be approximately 4.7 million tons (Mts) in 2016, and among these resources, only approximately 2.2 Mts can be recovered economically. The original tin deposits will be exhausted in several years, therefore, tin-bearing secondary resources, such as tin alloy, tin anode slime, e-wastes, tin slag and tin-bearing tailings, will become the primary source from which tin can be extracted. Many investigations have been conducted on the recovery of tin from these tin-bearing materials. However, the separation and recovery approaches of tin vary significantly, since the content and phase compositions of tin are totally different in these secondary resources. This paper reviews these methods of extracting and separating tin from different kinds of tin-bearing secondary resources.

  13. Atmospheric spatial atomic layer deposition of in-doped ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Scherpenborg, R.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition at atmospheric pressure (spatial-ALD). Trimethyl indium (TMIn), diethyl zinc (DEZ) and deionized water have been used as In, Zn and O precursor, respectively. The metal content of the films is controlled in the range

  14. Tin recovery from tin slag using electrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumari, Arif; Purwanto, Agus; Nur, Adrian; Budiman, Annata Wahyu; Lerian, Metty; Paramita, Fransisca A.

    2018-02-01

    The process in industry, including in mining industry, would surely give negative effect such as waste polluting to the environment. Some of waste could be potentially reutilized to be a commodity with the higher economic value. Tin slag is one of them. The aim of this research was to recover the tin contained in tin slag. Before coming to the electrolysis, tin slag must be treated by dissolution. The grinded tin slag was dissolved into HCl solution to form a slurry. During dissolution, the slurry was agitated and heated, and finally filtered. The filtrate obtained was then electrolyzed. During the process of electrolysis, solid material precipitated on the used cathode. The precipitated solid was then separated and dried. The solid was then analyzed using XRD, XRF and SEM. The XRD analysis showed that the longest time of dissolution and electrolysis the highest the purity obtained in the product. The SEM analysis showed that the longest time of electrolysis the smallest tin particle obtained. Optimum time achieved in this research was 2 hours for the recovering time and 3 hours for the electrolysis time, with 9% tin recovered.

  15. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting, E-mail: yasun@kth.se; Lourdudoss, Sebastian [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Pietralunga, Silvia M. [CNR-Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy); Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto [Department of Physics Politecnico di Milano, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  16. Mass measurements of neutron-rich indium isotopes toward the N =82 shell closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C.; Klawitter, R.; Leistenschneider, E.; Lascar, D.; Barquest, B. R.; Finlay, A.; Foster, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Hunt, P.; Kootte, B.; Lan, Y.; Paul, S. F.; Phan, M. L.; Reiter, M. P.; Schultz, B.; Short, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Brodeur, M.; Dillmann, I.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Dilling, J.

    2018-02-01

    Precise mass measurements of the neutron-rich In-130125 isotopes have been performed with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. TITAN's electron beam ion trap was used to charge breed the ions to charge state q =13 + thus providing the necessary resolving power to measure not only the ground states but also isomeric states at each mass number. In this paper, the properties of the ground states are investigated through a series of mass differentials, highlighting trends in the indium isotopic chain as compared to its proton-magic neighbor, tin (Z =50 ). In addition, the energies of the indium isomers are presented. The (8-) level in 128In is found to be 78 keV lower than previously thought and the (21 /2- ) isomer in 127In is shown to be lower than the literature value by more than 150 keV.

  17. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  18. Tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian M.; Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    stannosilicates have been investigated: Sn-BEA, Sn-MFI, Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. When comparing the properties of tin sites in the structures, substantial differences are observed. Sn-beta displays the highest Lewis acid strength, as measured by probe molecule studies using infrared spectroscopy, which gives......The selective conversion of biomass-derived substrates is one of the major challenges facing the chemical industry. Recently, stannosilicates have been employed as highly active and selective Lewis acid catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. In the present work, four different...... it a significantly higher activity at low temperatures than the other structures investigated. Furthermore, the increased acid strength translates into large differences in selectivity between the catalysts, thus demonstrating the influence of the structure on the active site, and pointing the way forward...

  19. Thermodynamic properties of indium-antimony alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, Ya.I.; Goryacheva, V.I.; Gejderikh, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Method of electromotive forces is used to obtain thermodynamic parameters of reaction of In x Sb (1-x) phase formation from liquid indium and solid indium mono-antimonide. For alloy compositions with x=0.75-0.55 liquidus coordinates on phase diagram are determined. Nonmonotonous dependence of partial entropy and enthalpy of indium on composition of liquid alloys, that is connected with ordering, is detected. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  1. Optimization of Indium Recovery and Separation from LCD Waste by Solvent Extraction with Bis(2-ethylhexyl Phosphate (D2EHPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is currently the choice of electrode material in liquid crystal displays (LCDs. D2EHPA is known to be an extractant that can be used to selectively recover indium from 1 M sulfuric acid. In order to optimize the extraction and separation of indium from LCD waste, the effects of pH, temperature, time, and extractant concentration on the distribution ratios of In(III and the major impurities such as Al(III, Cu(II, Fe(III, and Zn(II were investigated. Metal concentrations in the aqueous feed were based on the concentrations found in the leach liquor of LCD panel glass at 0.1 g/mL S/L ratio. This study showed that extraction of indium could be increased at 293 K. Furthermore, by increasing D2EHPA concentration from 0.1 M to 0.25 M, extraction of indium could be increased from 70% to >95%.

  2. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela; Dascula, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol–gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  3. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Dascalu, Dan; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela

    1997-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol¿gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  4. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Seniye, E-mail: seniyek@ogu.edu.tr; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructure undoped and boron doped ZnO films were deposited by USP technique. • Influences of doping on the surface and optical properties of the ZnO films were investigated. • XRD spectra of the films exhibited a variation in crystalline quality depending on the B content. - Abstract: ZnO is an II–VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200–1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and

  5. Study of indium nitride and indium oxynitride band gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sparvoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the study of the optical band gap of indium oxynitride (InNO and indium nitride (InN deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering. InNO shows multi-functionality in electrical and photonic applications, transparency in visible range, wide band gap, high resistivity and low leakage current. The deposition processes were performed in a magnetron sputtering system using a four-inches pure In (99.999% target and nitrogen and oxygen as plasma gases. The pressure was kept constant at 1.33 Pa and the RF power (13.56 MHz constant at 250 W. Three-inches diameter silicon wafer with 370 micrometer thickness and resistivity in the range of 10 ohm-centimeter was used as substrate. The thin films were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR reflectance, photoluminescence (PL and Hall Effect. The band gap was obtained from Tauc analysis of the reflectance spectra and photoluminescence. The band gap was evaluated for both films: for InNO the value was 2.48 eV and for InN, 1.52 eV. The relative quantities obtained from RBS spectra analysis in InNO sample are 48% O, 12% N, 40% In and in InN sample are 8% O, 65% N, 27% In.

  6. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  7. Evaluated neutronic file for indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Chiba, S.; Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Howerton, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental indium is documented. This file, extending from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, is presented in the ENDF/B-VI format, and contains all neutron-induced processes necessary for the vast majority of neutronic applications. In addition, an evaluation of the 115 In(n,n') 116m In dosimetry reaction is presented as a separate file. Attention is given in quantitative values, with corresponding uncertainty information. These files have been submitted for consideration as a part of the ENDF/B-VI national evaluated-file system. 144 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  9. Efficient small-molecule organic solar cells incorporating a doped buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dei-Wei [Department of aviation and Communication Electronics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Yao-Jen [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ray; Meen, Teen-Hang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Small-molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) with an optimized structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) (10 nm)/CuPc: fullerene (C{sub 60}) mixed (20 nm)/C{sub 60} (20 nm)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) (5 nm)/Ag were fabricated. In this study, the cesium carbonate-doped BPhen (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen) was adopted as the buffer layer to enhance the efficiency of the OSCs. The photovoltaic parameters of the OSCs, such as the short-circuit current density and fill factor, depend on the doping concentration of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the BPhen layer. The cell with a Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen (1:4) cathode buffer layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.51%, compared to 3.37% for the device with the pristine BPhen layer. The enhancement of PCE was attributed to the energy-level alignment between the C{sub 60} layer and the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layer. In addition, the characterization measured using atomic force microscopy shows that the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layers have smoother surfaces. - Highlight: • Cs2CO3-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) cathode buffer layer. • Cs2CO3:BPhen layer with different ratios affects organic solar cells performance. • Cell with 1:4 (Cs2CO3:BPhen) ratio shows 3.51% power conversion efficiency.

  10. Recent study of nanomaterials prepared by inert gas condensation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra high vacuum chamber; inert gas condensation technique; nanocrystalline materials; lead fluoride; Mn2+-doped lead fluoride; indium tin oxide; zinc oxide; tin oxide; copper oxide; PMN-PT; high resolution transmission electron microscopy; nuclear magnetic resonance; electron paramagnetic resonance.

  11. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  12. Indium gallium nitride multijunction solar cell simulation using silvaco atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Baldomero

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential use of wurtzite Indium Gallium Nitride as photovoltaic material. Silvaco Atlas was used to simulate a quad-junction solar cell. Each of the junctions was made up of Indium Gallium Nitride. The band gap of each junction was dependent on the composition percentage of Indium Nitride and Gallium Nitride within Indium Gallium Nitride. The findings of this research show that Indium Gallium Nitride is a promising semiconductor for solar cell use. United...

  13. Influence of the heat-treatment conditions, microchemistry, and microstructure on the irreversible strain limit of a selection of Ti-doped internal-tin Nb3Sn ITER wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheggour, N.; Lee, P. J.; Goodrich, L. F.; Sung, Z.-H.; Stauffer, T. C.; Splett, J. D.; Jewell, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Systematic studies of the intrinsic irreversible strain limit ɛirr,0, microstructure, and microchemistry were made on several internal-tin Nb3Sn pre-production wires, fabricated for the domestic agencies of the USA and China participating in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. These wires were produced by Luvata, Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST), and Western Superconducting Technologies (WST), and were intended for the tokamak’s toroidal-field coils. The results of this study show that, for a final heat-treatment at 650 °C to form the A15 phase, both ɛirr,0 and the de-pinning field Bc2* improved by increasing heat-treatment duration beyond 100 h for the Luvata wires. On the other hand, we saw no improvement in these two parameters as a function of heat-treatment duration in the OST wires. Furthermore, micro-chemical analysis of OST wires revealed that some Nb3Sn filaments have a Sn- and Ti-rich phase at the interface between Cu(Sn) matrix and Nb3Sn in the form of a shell around individual filaments. This phase is far less prominent in the Luvata and WST conductors, and could inhibit diffusion of Sn and Ti into Nb3Sn filaments during the reaction and may potentially be the reason for the lack of noticeable change in Bc2* with heat-treatment duration in the OST wires. The increase of ɛirr,0 and Bc2* with heat-treatment duration in the Luvata wires and the lack of increase in the OST wires may suggest a possible correlation between ɛirr,0 and the stoichiometry of the A15 composition. Investigation of the samples’ microstructure revealed only a small number of cracked Nb3Sn filaments despite the significant and permanent degradation of their critical current Ic when subjected to longitudinal tensile strain ɛ beyond ɛirr,0. The scarcity of cracks indicate that Ic(ɛ) measurements are highly sensitive to crack formation in Nb3Sn filaments, especially at low electric-field criteria ≦̸0.1 μV cm-1, even when the sizes of the

  14. Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Bidraha; Sadeh, Saeid; Green, Jennifer C; Müller, Jens

    2014-02-17

    Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes ([1]FCPs) and [1.1]ferrocenophanes ([1.1]FCPs) were synthesized from dilithioferrocene species and indium dichlorides. The reaction of Li2fc⋅tmeda (fc = (H4C5)2Fe) and (Mamx)InCl2 (Mamx = 6-(Me2NCH2)-2,4-tBu2C6H2) gave a mixture of the [1]FCP (Mamx)Infc (4(1)), the [1.1]FCP [(Mamx)Infc]2 (4(2)), and oligomers [(Mamx)Infc]n (4(n)). In a similar reaction, employing the enantiomerically pure, planar-chiral (Sp,Sp)-1,1'-dibromo-2,2'-diisopropylferrocene (1) as a precursor for the dilithioferrocene derivative Li2fc(iPr2), equipped with two iPr groups in the α position, gave the inda[1]ferrocenophane 5(1) [(Mamx)Infc(iPr2)] selectively. Species 5(1) underwent ring-opening polymerization to give the polymer 5(n). The reaction between Li2fc(iPr2) and Ar'InCl2 (Ar' = 2-(Me2NCH2)C6H4) gave an inseparable mixture of the [1]FCP Ar'Infc(iPr2) (6(1)) and the [1.1]FCP [Ar'Infc(iPr2)]2 (6(2)). Hydrogenolysis reactions (BP86/TZ2P) of the four inda[1]ferrocenophanes revealed that the structurally most distorted species (5(1)) is also the most strained [1]FCP. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthesis of cadmium oxide doped ZnO nanostructures using electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Trilok; Pandya, D.K.; Singh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. → X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. → The cut-off wavelength shifted from blue to red on account of the Cd incorporation in the ZnO and the average transmittance decreased by ∼31%. → The bandgap tuning for 4-16 at% Cd in the initial solution was achieved in the range of 3.08-3.32 eV (up to 0.24 eV). - Abstract: Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. Crystalline nanostructures/nanorods with cadmium concentration ranging from 4 to 16 at% in the initial solution were electrodeposited on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) conducting glass substrates at a constant cathodic potential -0.9 V and subsequently annealed in air at 300 deg. C. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. The elemental composition of nanostructures was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ZnO nanostructures were found to be highly transparent and had an average transmittance of 85% in the visible range of the spectrum. After the incorporation of Cd content into ZnO the average transmittance decreased and the bandgap tuning was also achieved.

  16. Comparative study of ITO and TiN fabricated by low-temperature RF biased sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Daniel K., E-mail: daniel.simon@namlab.com; Schenk, Tony; Dirnstorfer, Ingo; Fengler, Franz P. G.; Jordan, Paul M.; Krause, Andreas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Tröger, David [Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Fachgruppe Nanotechnologie, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2a, 08056 Zwickau (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden, Germany and TU Dresden, Institut für Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM), 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Radio frequency (RF) biasing induced by a second plasma source at the substrate is applied to low-temperature sputtering processes for indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride (TiN) thin films. Investigations on crystal structure and surface morphology show that RF-biased substrate plasma processes result in a changed growth regime with different grain sizes and orientations than those produced by processes without a substrate bias. The influence of the RF bias is shown comparatively for reactive RF-sputtered ITO and reactive direct-current-sputtered TiN. The ITO layers exhibit an improved electrical resistivity of 0.5 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 0.5 × 10{sup 4 }cm{sup −1} without substrate heating. Room-temperature sputtered TiN layers are deposited that possess a resistivity (0.1 mΩ cm) of 3 orders of magnitude lower than, and a density (5.4 g/cm{sup 3}) up to 45% greater than, those obtained from layers grown using the standard process without a substrate plasma.

  17. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardahl, Christopher L [Richland, WA; Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou [West Richland, WA; Chanda, Ashok [Peoria, IL; Habeger, Craig F [West Richland, WA; Koshkarian, Kent A [Peoria, IL; Park, Paul W [Peoria, IL

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  19. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  20. Characterization of molybdenum-doped indium oxide thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rozati S M and Akesteh Sh 2008 Cryst. Res. Technol. 43 273. Rozati S M, Moradi S, Golshahi S, Martins R and Fortunato E 2009. Thin Solid Films 518 1279. Ryu H, Kang J, Han Y, Kim D, Park J J, Park W K and Yang M S. 2003 J. Electron. Mater. 23 919. Tahar R B H, Ban T, Ohya Y and Takahashi Y 1997 J. Appl. Phys.

  1. Crystal Orientation and Electrical Properties of Tin Oxide Transparent Conducting Films Deposited on Rutile Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Uchida, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Sun, L.; Yue, B.

    2017-10-01

    Thin films of tin oxide (SnO2) without doping are attractive transparent conducting film since environmentally unfavorable elements of antimony or fluorine are eliminated. Tin oxide films without doping were fabricated very cheaply on (001) and (100) planes of single crystal of rutile (TiO2) by spray chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD). The film deposited on rutile (001) surface was poorly epitaxial (double domain) but with higher mobility (24 cm2 V-1 s-1) and lower resistivity (1.6×10-3 Ω cm) than that deposited on glass substrate (16 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.4×10-3 Ω cm) for reference. Deposition on rutile (100) surface resulted in better epitaxial growth (single domain). The mobility (39 cm2 V-1 s-1) and the carrier electron density (2.7×1020 cm-3) were much higher. The resistivity (6.2×10-4 Ω cm) was compatible with those doped with antimony or fluorine and will be the lowest among tin oxide films without doping.

  2. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  3. G-quadruplex and calf thymus DNA interaction of quaternized tetra and octa pyridyloxy substituted indium (III) phthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağda, Efkan; Bağda, Esra; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2017-10-01

    The interactions of small molecules with G-quadruplex and double stranded DNA are important due to their potential biological and medical usages. In the present paper, the interactions of indium (III) phthalocyanines (quaternized 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis-[(3-pyridyloxy) phthalocyaninato] chloroindium(III): OInPc and quaternized 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-[(3-pyridyloxy) phthalocyaninato] chloroindium(III): TInPc) with hybrid G-quadruplex (Tel 21) and parallel G-quadruplexes (nucleolin, KRAS, c-MYC, vegf) were studied. The interactions of these phthalocyanines with ctDNA were also investigated. These interactions were measured by different spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism. The UV-Vis spectroscopic data treated with Benesi-Hildebrand equation and Benesi-Hildebrand constants (K BH ) were calculated. These constants were found higher for octa peripheral pyridyloxy substituted phthalocyanine, OInPc. Besides, UV-Vis analysis showed that the interaction of G-quadruplexes with tetra peripheral pyridyloxy substituted phthalocyanine derivative (TInPc) resulted in removal of central indium (III) atom from the cavity of phthalocyanine macrocycle. The UV-Vis melting studies as well as fluorescence replacement techniques were also employed for clarification of mechanism. The binding mode of molecules with ct DNA was also supported with viscosity measurements. From the results, the stabilization and destabilization of G-quadruplex depending on the concentration of the OInPc and TInPc showed that these two indium (III) phthalocyanines have the potential of both the elucidation role of G-quadruplexes in gene expression and the usage in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  5. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  6. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  7. Sputter-Deposited Indium–Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Cindemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 °C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 °C.

  8. Study of Structure and Electro-Optical Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khusayfan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ITO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation of ceramic ITO target. The films were subsequently annealed in air atmosphere at the temperatures 300°C and 600°C in order to improve their optical and electrical properties. The crystal structure and morphology of the films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope techniques, respectively. The films exhibited cubic structure with predominant orientation of growth along (222 direction, and the crystallite size increases by rising annealing temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased by annealing temperature. The resulting increase in the carrier concentration and in the carrier mobility decreases the resistivity of the films due to annealing. The absorption coefficient of the films is calculated and analyzed. The direct allowed optical band gap for as-deposited films is determined as 3.81 eV; this value is increased to 3.88 and 4.0 eV as a result of annealing at 300°C and 600°C, respectively. The electrical sheet resistance is significantly decreased by increasing annealing temperature, whereas figure of merit is increased.

  9. Surface characterization of sol–gel derived indium tin oxide films on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mental moisture trapped in the film surface. In addition, contamination of carbon from environment cannot be ruled out. As hydrogen atoms have higher ... be due to the condensation of two –OH groups of two In–. OH entities producing relatively high crystalline envi- ronment in ITO. Figure 2. Results of peak analysis of O1s ...

  10. Thermodynamic properties of liquid copper-indium-tin alloys determined from e.m.f. measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Gierlotka, Wojciech; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics properties of liquid Cu-In-Sn alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte: (I)Re+kanthal,Cu x -In y -Sn (1-x-y) ,'In 2 O 3 '//ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//NiO,Ni,Pt in the temperature range (973 to 1223) K. Applied In 2 O 3 can be either pure or in the solid solutions with SnO 2 . Thermodynamics properties of the liquid phase were described by the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu formula. Using the commercial software different phase relations in the ternary system were calculated and compared with experimental data found in the literature

  11. Investigation of enthalpy and specific heat of the gallium-indium-tin eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, V.V.; Migaj, L.L.; Fordeeva, L.K.; Perlova, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    Enthalpy and specific heat of the fusible (melting point is 10.6 deg C) eutectic alloy (67% Ga - 20.5% In - 12.5% Sn according to mass) are determined by the mixing method. The determination was carried out in vacuum at the residual pressure of >= 1x10 -5 torr in the temperature range from 59.3 to 437.0 deg C. It is established that temperature dependence of alloy enthalpy is described by the equation: Hsub(t) - Hsub(0degC)=1.014+0.0879t-0.0000129 t 2 , where (Hsub(t) - Hsub(0degC)) is enthalpy, cal/g; t-temperature, deg C. Mean-square dispersion is +-0.6%. Temperature dependence of alloy specific heat in the temperature range under study was determined by differentiation of the equation obtained for enthalpy: Csub(p)=0.0879-0.000026t, where Csub(p)-specific heat, cal/gx deg. It is supposed that temperature increase makes it possible to decrease slightly specific heat

  12. Assembly of mesoporous indium tin oxide electrodes from nano-hydroxide building blocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Y.; Štefanić, G.; Rathouský, Jiří; Hayden, O.; Bein, T.; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 7 (2012), s. 2367-2374 ISSN 2041-6520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : transparent conducting films * electrical conductivity * thin films Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.314, year: 2012

  13. Effects of different additives on bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarin, Barbara, E-mail: ballarin@ms.fci.unibo.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy); Gazzano, Massimo [ISOF-CNR, V. Selmi, 40126-Bologna (Italy); Tonelli, Domenica [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    Bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles (Au-Pt{sub NPs}) have been synthesized using an electrochemical reduction approach. The effects of the addition of different additives in the electrodeposition bath namely KI, 1-nonanesulfonic acid sodium salt and Triton X-100 have been investigated. The structural characterization of the bimetallic nanoparticles has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Au-Pt{sub NPs} prepared in the presence of KI and Triton X-100 characterized by a relatively narrow size distribution as well as a higher particle density and surface coverage whereas no changes in the morphology were observed. These results suggest a dependence of the size and distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticles from the type and concentration of the additives employed.

  14. Transparent thin films of indium tin oxide: Morphology-optical investigations, inter dependence analyzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepelita, P.; Filipescu, M.; Stavarache, I.; Garoi, F.; Craciun, D.

    2017-12-01

    Using a fast and eco-friendly deposition method, ITO thin films with different thicknesses (0.5 μm-0.7 μm) were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. A comparative analysis of these oxide films was then carried out. AFM investigations showed that the deposited films were smooth, uniform and having a surface roughness smaller than 10 nm. X-ray diffraction investigations showed that all samples were polycrystalline and the grain sizes of the films, corresponding to (222) cubic reflection, were found to increase with the increasing film thickness. The optical properties, evaluated by UV-VIS-NIR (190-3000 nm) spectrophotometer, evidenced that the obtained thin films were highly transparent, with a transmission coefficient between 90 and 96%, depending on the film thickness. Various methods (Swanepoel and Drude) were employed to appreciate the optimal behaviour of transparent oxide films, in determining the dielectric optical parameters and refractive index dispersion for ITO films exhibiting interference patterns in the optical transmission spectra. The electrical conductivity also increased as the film thickness increased.

  15. Electro-optical characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films: effect of thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.V.; Salehi, A.; Aliyu, Y.H.; Bunce, R.W. [University of Wales College of Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electrical, Electronics and System Engineering

    1996-02-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on the electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films prepared by reactive sputtering and thermal evaporation have been studied. The effect of the thermal annealing is to improve the conductivity and the optical transmission in the shorter wavelength region. The conductivity of the films increases with annealing temperature, this behaviour is associated with grain growth in the film. (author)

  16. Surface characterization of sol–gel derived indium tin oxide films on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (Barua and Banerjee 1992), electrochromic systems, light- emitting diodes, etc for its large band gap (Ohhata et ... 2.1a ITO system: The starting materials of the precursor sols of ITO layer were hydrated stannic chloride .... chamber equipped with helium (He) discharge lamp for UPS, MgKα X-ray source for XPS, heating and.

  17. comparative studies on tin-113/ indium-113M radioisotope generators based on tungstocerate (IV) column matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, H.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    radioisotopes of short half-life are used world wide for diverse application in the fields of medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. because of their short half-life, they are generator produced radionuclides . the chromatographic column concept based on loading of long-lived parent isotope onto a suitable sorbent material and elution of the generated short-lived daughter activity with a proper eluent is commonly preferred for nuclear medicine applications.research efforts to improve such generators or to develop new types are deployed via introduction of chemically, radiation and thermal resistant organic or inorganic column matrices with a high loading capacity for parent material.the main global of this study is the production of 113 Sn/ 113m In generators based on sorption of 113 Sn onto tungstocerate (IV) gel matrix .tungstocerate (IV) gel materials were prepared by mixing sodium tungstate (IV) solution with ammonium cerium (IV) sulfate solution adjusted to Ph 1.0 by H 2 SO 4 acid solution . detailed and systematic studies including the distribution and breakthrough behaviour for parent ( 113 Sn) and its daughter ( 113m In) radionuclides have been carried out. the parent radionuclide ( 113 Sn) is more strongly retained onto tungstocerate (IV) gel matrices than its 113 In daughter overall . the retention capacity of Sn (IV) onto different types of tungstocerate gel matrices were found to be 0.6, 0.9, and 0.97 m mol Sn (IV) 1 g of the dry 1-W Ce, 2-W Ce and 6-W Ce, respectively

  18. Electrooxidation of catecholamines at carbon nanotube-modified indium tin oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Wen; Lin, Chang-Hao; Hsieh, You-Zung

    2008-06-30

    In this study, we prepared carbon nanotube (CNT)/Nafion-modified ITO electrodes and investigated their electrochem