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Sample records for dopaminergic neurotoxicity long-term

  1. Effect of MK-801 on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity: long-term attenuation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine release

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    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Hwang, Se Hwan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) produces high extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and subsequent striatal DA terminal damage. The effect of MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on METH-induced changes in DA transporter (DAT) and DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge was evaluated in rodent striatum using [{sup 3}H] WIN 38,428 ex vivo auto-radiography and in vivo microdialysis. Four injections of METH (10 mg/kg, i.p.), each given 2 h apart, produced 71% decrease in DAT levels in mouse striatum 3 d after administration. Pretreatment with MK-801 (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) 15 min before each of the four METH injections protected completely against striatal DAT depletions. Four injections of MK-801 alone did not significantly change striatal DAT levels. Striatal DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge (4mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 d after repeated administration of METH in rats was decreased but significant compared with controls, which was attenuated by repeated pretreatment with MK-801. Also, repeated injections of MK-801 alone attenuated acute METH-induced striatal DA release 3 d after administration. These results suggest that repeated administration of MK-801 may exert a preventive effect against METH-induced DA terminal injury through long-term attenuation of DA release induced by METH and other stimuli.

  2. Long-term neurotoxic effects of dimethylamine borane intoxication.

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    Liu, Chi-Hung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Lin, Kun-Ju; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2012-08-15

    To investigate the long-term neurotoxic effects in a patient with acute dimethylamine borane (DMAB) intoxication. A 38-year-old man, working in a semiconductor factory, with acute DMAB intoxication presented with confusion, and drowsiness, followed by cognitive impairments and motor-predominant axonal polyneuropathy. We performed serial neurobehavioral assessments and functional neuroimaging studies, including brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and brain positron emission tomography (PET) scan to monitor the long-term central nervous system (CNS) effects of DMAB intoxication. Neurobehavioral tests revealed a persistent impairment in episodic memory of visual retention semantic category retrieval and working memory of digit span (backward). Brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT SPECT scan showed a lower radioactivity uptake in the left striatum and F-18 FDG PET scan revealed a relatively decreased cerebral metabolism at the anterior cingulate gyrus and both frontal regions. Follow-up neurobehavioral tests showed that the cognitive improvements were mainly documented in intelligence, attention function, conceptual shift, perceptual motor speed, verbal learning and working memory but were limited in visual memory and executive functions. Patients with acute DMAB intoxication may have a long-lasting CNS toxicity on the cognitive dysfunction, parkinsonism, and an impaired metabolic activity of the brain. Clinical improvements may sustain during the long-term follow-up period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The long-term effects of the herbicide atrazine on the dopaminergic system following exposure during pubertal development.

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    Li, Yanshu; Sun, Yan; Yang, Junwei; Wu, Yanping; Yu, Jia; Li, Baixiang

    2014-03-15

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is used worldwide as a herbicide, and its presence in the environment has resulted in documented human exposure. Atrazine has been shown to cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The juvenile period is particularly vulnerable to environmental agents, but only few studies have investigated the long-term effects of atrazine following exposure during the pubertal development. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a 41-day exposure to atrazine on the dopaminergic system in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with atrazine at 25 or 50mg/kg bw, daily from postnatal day 22 to 62. The content of dopamine (DA) was examined in striatum samples by HPLC-FL, and the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), orphan nuclear hormone (Nurr1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoaminetransporter 2 (VMAT2) were examined in samples of the ventral mid-brain by use of fluorescence PCR and Western-blot analysis when the rats reached the age of one year. Exposure of juvenile rats to the high dose of atrazine led to reduced levels of DA and mRNA of Nurr1 in one-year-old animals. This study shows that the long-term adverse effects of atrazine on the dopaminergic system have a special relevance after juvenile exposure.

  4. Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose.

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    van Amsterdam, Jan G C; Brunt, Tibor M; McMaster, Minni T B; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2012-04-01

    In several countries, including the Netherlands, the use of GHB seems to be rising. GHB is regarded by recreational users as an innocent drug without any side effects. Recently, the number of patients in treatment due to GHB addiction sharply increased. In addition, various studies report incidents following risky GHB use or GHB overdosing. Other sedative drugs, like ketamine and alcohol have been shown to result in unintended neurotoxic harm at the level of memory and cognitive function. As outlined in the present review, GHB and ketamine have a common mode of action, which suggests that GHB may also lead to similar neurotoxicity as ketamine. GHB overdosing, as well as binge drinking (and high ketamine doses), induce profound coma which is probably neurotoxic for the brain especially in the maturing brain of young adults. It is therefore advocated to investigate possible long-term neurotoxic effects in recreational GHB users e.g. by studying the residual effects on cognition and memory.

  5. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

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    Welinton Alessandro Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL and drug (Pramipexole—PPX groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  6. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

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    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole—PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions. PMID:26483930

  7. Neurotoxicity in long-term survivors of small cell lung cancer

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    Lee, J.S.; Umsawasdi, T.; Lee, Y.Y.; Barkley, H.T. Jr.; Murphy, W.K.; Welch, S.; Valdivieso, M.

    1986-03-01

    Chronic central nervous system neurotoxicity was studied in 38 long-term survivors (greater than or equal to 3 years) of small cell lung cancer who were treated at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston between 1971 and 1980. All but one patient received combination chemotherapy with or without chest irradiation. Twenty-four patients received whole brain irradiation (Group I), 22 for elective and two for therapeutic purposes, while 14 did not (Group II). Abnormalities in computed tomographic (CT) scans of the brain were more frequently observed in Group I than in Group II (70% vs. 0%, p less than 0.01). Clinical central nervous system neurotoxicity developed in three patients in Group I, while none developed in patients in Group II (p less than 0.05). Patients who received methotrexate and procarbazine after whole brain irradiation were at a higher risk for clinical central nervous system neurotoxicity (p less than 0.05), and for development of periventricular white matter changes in CT brain scans (p less than 0.05) than were patients in Group II. Impaired methylation of the myelin sheath is proposed as a possible underlying pathogenic mechanism.

  8. Augmentation of restless leg syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease) during long-term dopaminergic treatment.

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    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Benitez, Arturo; Kohnen, Ralf; Allen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common sensorimotor disorder that can generally be effectively managed in the primary care clinic. However, some treatment complications may arise. According to the recommendations of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, non-ergot dopamine-receptor agonists have over the past years been one of the first-line treatments for patients with RLS/WED requiring pharmacological therapy. Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of RLS/WED and is defined as an overall worsening of symptoms beyond pretreatment levels in patients who experienced an initial positive therapeutic response. Once identified on the basis of its characteristic clinical features, augmentation requires careful management. In order to provide clinicians with a comprehensive understanding of this common treatment complication, this review discusses the clinical features of augmentation, and its differentiation from morning rebound, symptom fluctuations and natural disease progression. Reported incidences of augmentation in clinical trials of dopaminergic RLS/WED therapies are summarized. Finally, the hypothetical pathophysiology of augmentation and the current recommendations for management of patients with augmented RLS/WED symptoms are discussed.

  9. PINK1 is necessary for long term survival and mitochondrial function in human dopaminergic neurons.

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    Alison Wood-Kaczmar

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease and it is critical to develop models which recapitulate the pathogenic process including the effect of the ageing process. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is unknown, the identification of the mendelian genetic factor PINK1 has provided new mechanistic insights. In order to investigate the role of PINK1 in Parkinson's disease, we studied PINK1 loss of function in human and primary mouse neurons. Using RNAi, we created stable PINK1 knockdown in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from foetal ventral mesencephalon stem cells, as well as in an immortalised human neuroblastoma cell line. We sought to validate our findings in primary neurons derived from a transgenic PINK1 knockout mouse. For the first time we demonstrate an age dependent neurodegenerative phenotype in human and mouse neurons. PINK1 deficiency leads to reduced long-term viability in human neurons, which die via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Human neurons lacking PINK1 demonstrate features of marked oxidative stress with widespread mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. We report that PINK1 plays a neuroprotective role in the mitochondria of mammalian neurons, especially against stress such as staurosporine. In addition we provide evidence that cellular compensatory mechanisms such as mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of lysosomal degradation pathways occur in PINK1 deficiency. The phenotypic effects of PINK1 loss-of-function described here in mammalian neurons provides mechanistic insight into the age-related degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons seen in PD.

  10. Dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction induced by amyloid-β transforms cortical long-term potentiation into long-term depression and produces memory impairment.

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    Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Rodriguez-Duran, Luis F; Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Barcenas-Femat, Alejandro; Escobar, Martha L; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition manifested by synaptic dysfunction and memory loss, but the mechanisms underlying synaptic failure are not entirely understood. Although dopamine is a key modulator of synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction in AD has mostly been associated to noncognitive symptoms. Thus, we aimed to study the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in AD models. We used a transgenic model of AD (triple-transgenic mouse model of AD) and the administration of exogenous amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers into wild type mice. We found that Aβ decreased cortical dopamine levels and converted in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-term depression (LTD) after high-frequency stimulation delivered at basolateral amygdaloid nucleus-insular cortex projection, which led to impaired recognition memory. Remarkably, increasing cortical dopamine and norepinephrine levels rescued both high-frequency stimulation -induced LTP and memory, whereas depletion of catecholaminergic levels mimicked the Aβ-induced shift from LTP to LTD. Our results suggest that Aβ-induced dopamine depletion is a core mechanism underlying the early synaptopathy and memory alterations observed in AD models and acts by modifying the threshold for the induction of cortical LTP and/or LTD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of a long-term powdered diet on the social interaction test and dopaminergic systems in mice.

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    Niijima-Yaoita, Fukie; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Saito, Hiroko; Nagasawa, Yuka; Murai, Shigeo; Arai, Yuichiro; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Nemoto, Wataru; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that the characteristics of mastication are important for the maintenance of our physical well-being. In this study, to assess the importance of the effects of food hardness during mastication, we investigated whether a long-term powdered diet might cause changes in emotional behavior tests, including spontaneous locomotor activity and social interaction (SI) tests, and the dopaminergic system of the frontal cortex and hippocampus in mice. Mice fed a powdered diet for 17 weeks from weaning were compared with mice fed a standard diet (control). The dopamine turnover and expression of dopamine receptors mRNA in the frontal cortex were also evaluated. Spontaneous locomotor activity, SI time and dopamine turnover of the frontal cortex were increased in powdered diet-fed mice. On the other hand, the expression of dopamine-4 (D4) receptors mRNA in the frontal cortex was decreased in powdered diet-fed mice. Moreover, we examined the effect of PD168077, a selective D4 agonist, on the increased SI time in powdered diet-fed mice. Treatment with PD168077 decreased the SI time. These results suggest that the masticatory dysfunction induced by long-term powdered diet feeding may cause the increased SI time and the changes in the dopaminergic system, especially dopamine D4 receptor subtype in the frontal cortex.

  12. Severe Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity in Primates After a Common Recreational Dose Regimen of MDMA (``Ecstasy'')

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    Ricaurte, George A.; Yuan, Jie; Hatzidimitriou, George; Cord, Branden J.; McCann, Una D.

    2002-09-01

    The prevailing view is that the popular recreational drug (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ``ecstasy'') is a selective serotonin neurotoxin in animals and possibly in humans. Nonhuman primates exposed to several sequential doses of MDMA, a regimen modeled after one used by humans, developed severe brain dopaminergic neurotoxicity, in addition to less pronounced serotonergic neurotoxicity. MDMA neurotoxicity was associated with increased vulnerability to motor dysfunction secondary to dopamine depletion. These results have implications for mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity and suggest that recreational MDMA users may unwittingly be putting themselves at risk, either as young adults or later in life, for developing neuropsychiatric disorders related to brain dopamine and/or serotonin deficiency.

  13. Long-Term Health of Dopaminergic Neuron Transplants in Parkinson's Disease Patients

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    Penelope J. Hallett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the long-term health and function of transplanted dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, the expression of dopamine transporters (DATs and mitochondrial morphology were examined in human fetal midbrain cellular transplants. DAT was robustly expressed in transplanted dopamine neuron terminals in the reinnervated host putamen and caudate for at least 14 years after transplantation. The transplanted dopamine neurons showed a healthy and nonatrophied morphology at all time points. Labeling of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Tom20 and α-synuclein showed a typical cellular pathology in the patients’ own substantia nigra, which was not observed in transplanted dopamine neurons. These results show that the vast majority of transplanted neurons remain healthy for the long term in PD patients, consistent with clinical findings that fetal dopamine neuron transplants maintain function for up to 15–18 years in patients. These findings are critically important for the rational development of stem-cell-based dopamine neuronal replacement therapies for PD.

  14. Monitoring Dopamine Quinone-Induced Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Using Dopamine Functionalized Quantum Dots.

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    Ma, Wei; Liu, Hui-Ting; Long, Yi-Tao

    2015-07-08

    Dopamine (DA) quinone-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is known to occur due to the interaction between DA quinone and cysteine (Cys) residue, and it may play an important a role in pathological processes associated with neurodegeneration. In this study, we monitored the interaction process of DA to form DA quinone and the subsequent Cys residue using dopamine functionalized quantum dots (QDs). The fluorescence (FL) of the QD bioconjugates changes as a function of the structure transformation during the interaction process, providing a potential FL tool for monitoring dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  15. Early Effects of Long-Term Neurotoxic Lead Exposure in Copper Works Employees

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    Irina Böckelmann

    2011-01-01

    It was found that of the psychometric performance parameters, only the mainly motor performance parameters had a potential for being neurotoxic early indicators. Preferably centrally influenced performance parameters were found to be less suitable early indicators. The lead-exposed subjects exhibited a slowed poststrain resetting behaviour of the vegetative nervous system, which correlated with the individual blood lead level. This was attributed to vagus depression, which had already started in the prevailing situation of exposure and was reflected by diminished cardiac phase duration variability. Our results indicate that it is necessary to more critically choose the lead level standards in the air on the working area. Heart rate variability may be affected even at small lead concentration.

  16. Caffeine alters the behavioural and body temperature responses to mephedrone without causing long-term neurotoxicity in rats.

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    Shortall, Sinead E; Green, A Richard; Fone, Kevin Cf; King, Madeleine V

    2016-07-01

    Administration of caffeine with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters the pharmacological properties of MDMA in rats. The current study examined whether caffeine alters the behavioural and neurochemical effects of mephedrone, which has similar psychoactive effects to MDMA. Rats received either saline, mephedrone (10 mg/kg), caffeine (10 mg/kg) or combined caffeine and mephedrone intraperitoneally twice weekly on consecutive days for three weeks. Locomotor activity (days 1 and 16), novel object discrimination (NOD, day 2), elevated plus maze (EPM) exploration (day 8), rectal temperature changes (day 9) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response (day 15) were assessed. Seven days after the final injection, brain regions were collected for the measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine and their metabolites. Combined caffeine and mephedrone further enhanced the locomotor response observed following either drug administered alone, and converted mephedrone-induced hypothermia to hyperthermia. Co-administration also abolished mephedrone-induced anxiogenic response on the EPM, but had no effect on NOD or PPI. Importantly, no long-term neurotoxicity was detected following repeated mephedrone alone or when co-administered with caffeine. In conclusion, the study suggests a potentially dangerous effect of concomitant caffeine and mephedrone, and highlights the importance of taking polydrug use into consideration when investigating the acute adverse effect profile of popular recreational drugs.

  17. Neurotoxic effect of rotenone on dopaminergic neuron PC12 in vitro

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    SAI Yan; WU Qiang; LE Wei-dong; DONG Zhao-jun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of oxidative stress in rotenone neurotoxicity to dopaminergic neuron PC12. Methods: High differentiated PC12 cells as dopaminergic neurons were treated by different concentrations of rotenone. The morphology was observed with inverted phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. Cell viability and proliferation inhibition were assessed by MTT. SOD and MDA were detected with biochemical assay. And the specific fluorescent probe (DCFDA) was used to examine ROS in PC12 cells. Results: After treated with rotenone for 24 h, most of the PC12 cells became smaller and rounder. The process of axon was reduced, shortened or broken in a time and concentration dependent manner. The mitochondrial structure and metabolism were changed. Endoplasmic reticulum expanded and the free ribosome increased. Compared with the control group, cell proliferation inhibition increased and cell viability decreased. SOD increased and MDA decreased. The intensity of fluorescence was more obvious in PC12 cells treated by rotenone compared with control group. Conclusion: Rotenone is neurotoxic to cultured dopaminergic neuron PC12. Rotenone might exert this effect through the metabolism of oxidative stress on the pathogenesis of the neuron.

  18. The role of system Xc(-) in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice.

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    Dang, Duy-Khanh; Shin, Eun-Joo; Tran, Hai-Quyen; Kim, Dae-Joong; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Sato, Hideyo; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yoneda, Yukio; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2017-09-01

    The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc(-), Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild type mice. xCT inhibitor [i.e., S-4-carboxy-phenylglycine (CPG), sulfasalazine] or an xCT knockout significantly protected against these oxidative burdens. MA-induced increases in Iba-1 expression and Iba-1-labeled microglial immunoreactivity (Iba-1-IR) were significantly attenuated by CPG or sulfasalazine administration or xCT knockout. CPG or sulfasalazine significantly attenuated MA-induced TUNEL-positive cell populations in the striatum of Taconic ICR mice. The decrease in excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (or glutamate transporter-1) expression and increase in glutamate release were attenuated by CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout. In addition, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout significantly protected against dopaminergic loss (i.e., decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and immunoreactivity, and an increase in dopamine turnover rate) induced by MA. However, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout did not significantly affect the impaired glutathione system [i.e., decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] induced by MA. Our results suggest that Sxc mediates MA-induced neurotoxicity via facilitating oxidative stress, microgliosis, proapoptosis, and glutamate-related toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism in rats: Impairments of long-term potentiation are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway

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    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Teng, Weiping, E-mail: twpendocrine@yahoo.com.cn [Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: chenjie@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2013-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism during developmental period results in serious impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. These impairments are largely irreversible, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency may cause hypothyroxinemia, a relatively subtle form of thyroid hormone deficiency. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia also potentially impairs learning and memory. However, more direct evidence of the associations between developmental hypothyroxinemia and impairments of learning and memory should be provided, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampal CA1 region. The activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway – a pathway closely associated with synaptic plasticity and learning and memory – was also investigated. Wistar rats were treated with iodine deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency and developmental hypothyroidism caused by severe iodine deficiency or MMZ significantly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway was also observed in rats subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Our results may support the hypothesis that neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism causes damages to learning and memory. Our results also suggest that decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway may contribute to impairments of LTP caused by neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and

  20. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and production of peroxynitrite are potentiated in nerve growth factor differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 cells.

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    Imam, Syed Z; Newport, Glenn D; Duhart, Helen M; Islam, Fakhrul; Slikker, William; Ali, Syed F

    2002-06-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychomotor stimulant known to cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. METH administration selectively damages the dopaminergic nerve terminals, which is hypothesized to be due to release of dopamine from synaptic vesicles within the terminals. This process is believed to be mediated by the production of free radicals. The current study evaluates METH-induced dopaminergic toxicity in pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells cultured in the presence or absence of nerve growth factor (NGF). Dopaminergic changes and the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), a marker for peroxynitrite production, were studied in PC12 cell cultures grown in the presence or absence of NGF after different doses of METH (100-1,000 microM). METH exposure did not cause significant alterations in cell viability and did not produce significant dopaminergic changes or 3-NT production in PC12 cells grown in NGF-negative media after 24 hours. However, cell viability of PC12 cells grown in NGF-positive media was decreased by 45%, and significant dose-dependent dopaminergic alteration and 3-NT production were observed 24 hours after exposure to METH. The current study supports the hypothesis that METH acts at the dopaminergic nerve terminals and produces dopaminergic damage by the production of free radical peroxynitrite.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin-I in copper-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats: A possible link with Parkinson's disease.

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    Abbaoui, Abdellatif; Chatoui, Hicham; Hiba, Omar El; Gamrani, Halima

    2017-09-14

    Numerous findings indicate an involvement of heavy metals in the neuropathology of several neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have demonstrated that Copper (Cu) exhibits a potent neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic neurons and triggers profound neurobehavioral alterations. Curcumin is a major component of Curcuma longa rhizomes and a powerful medicinal plant that exerts many pharmacological effects. However, the neuroprotective action of curcumin on Cu-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of acute Cu-intoxication (10mg/kg B.W. i.p) for 3days on the dopaminergic system and locomotor performance as well as the possible therapeutic efficacy of curcumin I (30mg/kg B.W.). Intoxicated rats showed a significant loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) expression within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the striatal outputs. This was correlated with a clear decrease in locomotor performance. Critically, curcumin-I co-treatment reversed these changes and showed a noticeable protective effect; both TH expression and locomotor performance was reinstated in intoxicated rats. These results demonstrate altered dopaminergic innervations following Cu intoxication and a new therapeutic potential of curcumin against Cu-induced dopaminergic neurotransmission failure. Curcumin may therefore prevent heavy metal related Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Activation instead of blocking mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry is a preferred modality in the long term treatment of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS: a commentary

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    Waite Roger L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and hypothesis Based on neurochemical and genetic evidence, we suggest that both prevention and treatment of multiple addictions, such as dependence to alcohol, nicotine and glucose, should involve a biphasic approach. Thus, acute treatment should consist of preferential blocking of postsynaptic Nucleus Accumbens (NAc dopamine receptors (D1-D5, whereas long term activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system should involve activation and/or release of Dopamine (DA at the NAc site. Failure to do so will result in abnormal mood, behavior and potential suicide ideation. Individuals possessing a paucity of serotonergic and/or dopaminergic receptors, and an increased rate of synaptic DA catabolism due to high catabolic genotype of the COMT gene, are predisposed to self-medicating any substance or behavior that will activate DA release, including alcohol, opiates, psychostimulants, nicotine, gambling, sex, and even excessive internet gaming. Acute utilization of these substances and/or stimulatory behaviors induces a feeling of well being. Unfortunately, sustained and prolonged abuse leads to a toxic" pseudo feeling" of well being resulting in tolerance and disease or discomfort. Thus, a reduced number of DA receptors, due to carrying the DRD2 A1 allelic genotype, results in excessive craving behavior; whereas a normal or sufficient amount of DA receptors results in low craving behavior. In terms of preventing substance abuse, one goal would be to induce a proliferation of DA D2 receptors in genetically prone individuals. While in vivo experiments using a typical D2 receptor agonist induce down regulation, experiments in vitro have shown that constant stimulation of the DA receptor system via a known D2 agonist results in significant proliferation of D2 receptors in spite of genetic antecedents. In essence, D2 receptor stimulation signals negative feedback mechanisms in the mesolimbic system to induce mRNA expression causing

  3. Dopaminergic Neuron-Specific Deletion of p53 Gene Attenuates Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity.

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    Lu, Tao; Kim, Paul P; Greig, Nigel H; Luo, Yu

    2017-08-01

    p53 plays an essential role in the regulation of cell death in dopaminergic (DA) neurons and its activation has been implicated in the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA). However, how p53 mediates MA neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of DA-specific p53 gene deletion in DAT-p53KO mice. Whereas in vivo MA binge exposure reduced locomotor activity in wild-type (WT) mice, this was significantly attenuated in DAT-p53KO mice and associated with significant differences in the levels of the p53 target genes BAX and p21 between WT and DAT-p53KO. Notably, DA-specific deletion of p53 provided protection of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive fibers following binge MA, with DAT-p53KO mice having less decline of TH protein levels in striatum versus WT mice. Whereas DAT-p53KO mice demonstrated a consistently higher density of TH fibers in striatum compared to WT mice at 10 days after MA exposure, DA neuron counts within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were similar. Finally, supportive of these results, administration of a p53-specific inhibitor (PFT-α) provided a similarly protective effect on MA binge-induced behavioral deficits. Neither DA specific p53 deletion nor p53 pharmacological inhibition affected hyperthermia induced by MA binge. These findings demonstrate a specific contribution of p53 activation in behavioral deficits and DA neuronal terminal loss by MA binge exposure.

  4. Influence of the dopaminergic system, CREB, and transcription factor-κB on cocaine neurotoxicity

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    Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Neuropsicofarmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Lepsch, L.B.; Alves, R.; Scavone, C. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Cocaine is a widely used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. Abnormalities in newborns have been demonstrated to be due to the toxic effects of cocaine during fetal development. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is complex and involves interactions of the drug with several neurotransmitter systems, such as the increase of extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulation of transcription factors. The aim of this review was to evaluate the importance of the dopaminergic system and the participation of inflammatory signaling in cocaine neurotoxicity. Our study showed that cocaine activates the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB, which regulate genes involved in cellular death. GBR 12909 (an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake), lidocaine (a local anesthetic), and dopamine did not activate NF-κB in the same way as cocaine. However, the attenuation of NF-κB activity after the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, suggests that the activation of NF-κB by cocaine is, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors. NF-κB seems to have a protective role in these cells because its inhibition increased cellular death caused by cocaine. The increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) mRNA can also be related to the protective role of both CREB and NF-κB transcription factors. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cocaine induces cell death in the brain will contribute to the development of new therapies for drug abusers, which can help to slow down the progress of degenerative processes.

  5. Influence of the dopaminergic system, CREB, and transcription factor-B on cocaine neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Planeta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a widely used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. Abnormalities in newborns have been demonstrated to be due to the toxic effects of cocaine during fetal development. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is complex and involves interactions of the drug with several neurotransmitter systems, such as the increase of extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulation of transcription factors. The aim of this review was to evaluate the importance of the dopaminergic system and the participation of inflammatory signaling in cocaine neurotoxicity. Our study showed that cocaine activates the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB, which regulate genes involved in cellular death. GBR 12909 (an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake, lidocaine (a local anesthetic, and dopamine did not activate NF-κB in the same way as cocaine. However, the attenuation of NF-κB activity after the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, suggests that the activation of NF-κB by cocaine is, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors. NF-κB seems to have a protective role in these cells because its inhibition increased cellular death caused by cocaine. The increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA can also be related to the protective role of both CREB and NF-κB transcription factors. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cocaine induces cell death in the brain will contribute to the development of new therapies for drug abusers, which can help to slow down the progress of degenerative processes.

  6. Environmental neurotoxic pesticide dieldrin activates a non receptor tyrosine kinase to promote PKCδ-mediated dopaminergic apoptosis in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Hariharan; Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are two key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we identified that proteolytic activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ), a member of the novel PKC family, contributes to oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration and that phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 311 (tyr311) on PKCδ is a key event preceding the PKCδ proteolytic activation during oxidative damage. Herein, we report that a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn is significantly expressed in a dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell model. Exposure of N27 cells to the dopaminergic toxicant dieldrin (60 μM) rapidly activated Fyn kinase, PKCδ-tyr311 phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Fyn kinase activation precedes the caspase-3-mediated proteolytic activation of PKCδ. Pre-treatment with p60-tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI) almost completely attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311 and its proteolytic activation. Additionally, TSKI almost completely blocked dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. To further confirm Fyn's role in the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ, we adopted the RNAi approach. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Fyn kinase also effectively attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311, caspase-3-mediated PKCδ proteolytic cleavage, and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that Fyn kinase regulates the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that Fyn kinase is a pro-apoptotic kinase that regulates upstream signaling of the PKCδ-mediated apoptotic cell death pathway in neurotoxicity models of pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of (-)-sesamin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and dopaminergic neuronal cells of Parkinson's disease rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Zhao, Ting Ting; Lee, Kyung Sook; Lee, Seung Ho; Shin, Keon Sung; Park, Keun Hong; Choi, Hyun Sook; Lee, Myung Koo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of (-)-sesamin on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity using PC12 cells and dopaminergic neuronal cells of 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In PC12 cells, treatment with (-)-sesamin (25 µM) reduced 6-OHDA (100 µM)-induced cell death and induced transient extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and Bad phosphorylation at Ser112 (BadSer112). In contrast, sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) phosphorylation, and cleaved-caspase-3 activity, all of which were induced by 6-OHDA (100 µM), were inhibited by treatment with (-)-sesamin (25 µM). Furthermore, co-treatment with (-)-sesamin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) once a day for 28 days significantly increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive neuronal cells and the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid in the substantia nigra-striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD with or without L-DOPA treatment. These results suggest that (-)-sesamin protects 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity via the activation of transient ERK1/2-BadSer112 system and the inhibition of sustained ERK-p38MAPK-JNK1/2-caspase-3 system in PC12 cells. (-)-Sesamin also shows protective effects on long-term L-DOPA therapy in dopaminergic neuronal cells of PD rat models. (-)-Sesamin may serve as adjuvant therapeutics in PD.

  8. Cold water stress attenuates dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingfeng Xia; Minjuan Bian; Qian Yu; Jie Liu; Yufang Huang; Xueting Jin; Shiduo Lu; Mei Yu; Fang Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the effect of cold water stress (CWS) on dopaminergic neurons in 1-methyl4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsou's disease (PD) mouse model, and found that CWS pretreatment elicited less MPTP neurotoxicity.To understand the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we detected the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the striatum of the experimental mice, and found that CWS pretreatment could significantly increase striatal Hsp70 in MPTP-treated mice.Furthermore, in parallel with the induction of Hsp70, the MPTP-induced increase of striatal o-synuclein was inhibited in the CWS + MPTP-treated mice.CWS pretreatment also significantly inhibited the reduction of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 expression in the striatum and enhanced Bcl-2 transcription in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice.Taken together, these data indicated that Hsp70 might be an important intermediate for the neuroprotective effect of CWS against MPTP-induced dopaminergic toxicity.

  9. Complement 3-deficient mice are not protected against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajie; Li, Shurong; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yanliang; Wen, Can; Zou, Qiang; Su, Bingyin

    2007-10-31

    Recent studies have invoked inflammation as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicated that components of complement system may be involved in such disorder and contribute to its development. We thus observed the influence of deficiency of complement 3 (C3), the key component of complement system, on the death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the loss of dopaminergic fibers in striatum induced by acute or chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Immunohistochemical staining of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc and neurochemical analysis of dopamine and its metabolites in striata revealed that there was no significant difference between the two genotypes. Longer survival time also indicated that C3 might not mediate the spontaneous recovery of dopaminergic fibers in mouse striatum acutely challenged by MPTP. We conclude that, despite growing evidence indicating the involvement of complement system in the pathogenesis of PD, our data do not support a role for C3 in this established model of PD, as indicated by results from HPLC analysis and immunohistochemical staining.

  10. Protective effect of alpha-synuclein knockdown on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunchun Tai; Ling Chen; Enping Huang; Chao Liu; Xingyi Yang; Pingming Qiu; Huijun Wang

    2014-01-01

    The over-expression of α-synuclein is a major factor in the death of dopaminergic neurons in a methamphetamine-induced model of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, α-synuclein knockdown rats were created by injecting α-synuclein-shRNA lentivirus stereotaxically into the right striatum of experimental rats. At 2 weeks post-injection, the rats were injected intraper-itoneally with methamphetamine to establish the model of Parkinson’s disease. Expression ofα-synuclein mRNA and protein in the right striatum of the injected rats was significantly down-regulated. Food intake and body weight were greater in α-synuclein knockdown rats, and water intake and stereotyped behavior score were lower than in model rats. Striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase levels were significantly elevated in α-synuclein knockdown rats. Moreover, superoxide dismutase activity was greater in α-synuclein knockdown rat striatum, but the levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide synthase and nitrogen monoxide were lower compared with model rats. We also found that α-synuclein knockdown inhibited metham-phetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis. These results suggest that α-synuclein has the capacity to reverse methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the rat striatum by inhibiting oxidative stress and improving dopaminergic system function.

  11. Protective effect of alpha-synuclein knockdown on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Yunchun; Chen, Ling; Huang, Enping; Liu, Chao; Yang, Xingyi; Qiu, Pingming; Wang, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The over-expression of α-synuclein is a major factor in the death of dopaminergic neurons in a methamphetamine-induced model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, α-synuclein knockdown rats were created by injecting α-synuclein-shRNA lentivirus stereotaxically into the right striatum of experimental rats. At 2 weeks post-injection, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with methamphetamine to establish the model of Parkinson's disease. Expression of α-synuclein mRNA and protein in ...

  12. Endogenous 17ß-estradiol is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the dopaminergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eTozzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2, a neurosteroid synthesized by P450-aromatase (ARO, modulates various brain functions. We characterized the role of the locally synthesized E2 on striatal long-term synaptic plasticity and explored possible interactions between E2 receptors (ERs and dopamine (DA receptors in the dorsal striatum of adult male rats. Inhibition of E2 synthesis or antagonism of ERs prevented the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP in both medium spiny neurons (MSNs and cholinergic interneurons (ChIs. Activation of a D1-like DA receptor/cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway restored LTP. In MSNs exogenous E2 reversed the effect of ARO inhibition. Also antagonism of M1 muscarinic receptors prevented the D1-like receptor-mediated restoration of LTP confirming a role for ChIs in controlling the E2-mediated LTP of MSNs. A novel striatal interaction, occurring between ERs and D1-like receptors in both MSNs and ChIs, might be critical to regulate basal ganglia physiology and to compensate synaptic alterations in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Neurotoxicity of cerebro-spinal fluid from patients with Parkinson's disease on mesencephalic primary cultures as an in vitro model of dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; Zhang, Ben-Shu; Lei, Ping; Kong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Shuang; Li, Dai; Zhang, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. In spite of extensive research, neither the cause nor the mechanisms have been firmly established thus far. One assumption is that certain toxic substances may exist in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of Parkinson's disease patients. To confirm the neurotoxicity of CSF and study the potential correlation between neurotoxicity and the severity of Parkinson's disease, CSF was added to cultured cells. By observation of cell morphology, changes in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, the ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells, and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein, the differences between the two groups were shown. The created in vitro model of dopaminergic neurons using primary culture of mouse embryonic mesencephalic tissue is suitable for the study of neurotoxicity. The observations of the present study indicated that CSF from Parkinson's disease patients contains factors that can cause specific injury to cultured dopaminergic neurons. However, no obvious correlation was found between the neurotoxicity of CSF and the severity of Parkinson's disease.

  14. Neurotoxicity and behavioral deficits associated with Septin 5 accumulation in dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jin H; Kawamata, Hibiki; Yoo, Myung S; Kim, Dae J; Lee, Young K; Kim, Sooyoul; Dawson, Ted M; Zhang, Hui; Sulzer, David; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M Flint; Degiorgio, Lorraine A; Chun, Hong S; Baker, Harriet; Peng, Chu

    2005-08-01

    Septin 5, a parkin substrate, is a vesicle- and membrane-associated protein that plays a significant role in inhibiting exocytosis. The regulatory function of Septin 5 in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of substantia nigra (SN), maintained at relatively low levels, has not yet been delineated. As loss of function mutations of parkin are the principal cause of a familial Parkinson's disease, a prevailing hypothesis is that the loss of parkin activity results in accumulation of Septin 5 which confers neuron-specific toxicity in SN-DAergic neurons. In vitro and in vivo models were used to support this hypothesis. In our well-characterized DAergic SN4741 cell model, acute accumulation of elevated levels of Septin 5, but not synphilin-1 (another parkin substrate), resulted in cytotoxic cell death that was markedly reduced by parkin co-transfection. A transgenic mouse model expressing a dominant negative parkin mutant accumulated moderate levels of Septin 5 in SN-DAergic neurons. These mice acquired a progressive l-DOPA responsive motor dysfunction that developed despite a 25% higher than normal level of striatal dopamine (DA) and no apparent loss of DAergic neurons. The phenotype of this animal, increased striatal dopamine and reduced motor function, was similar to that observed in parkin knockout animals, suggesting a common DAergic alteration. These data suggest that a threshold level of Septin 5 accumulation is required for DAergic cell loss and that l-DOPA-responsive motor deficits can occur even in the presence of elevated DA.

  15. Maternal Omega-3 Supplement Improves Dopaminergic System in Pre- and Postnatal Inflammation-Induced Neurotoxicity in Parkinson's Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Ana Marcia; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Kempe, Paula G; Rizzo de Souza, Luiz E; Zanata, Silvio M; Machado, Ricardo B; Suchecki, Deborah; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L S; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is the consequence of a neurodevelopmental disruption, rather than strictly a consequence of aging. Thus, we hypothesized that maternal supplement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) may be associated with neuroprotection mechanisms in a self-sustaining cycle of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-model of PD. To test this hypothesis, behavioral and neurochemical assay were performed in prenatally LPS-exposed offspring at postnatal day 21. To further determine whether prenatal LPS exposure and maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation had persisting effects, brain injury was induced on PN 90 rats, following bilateral intranigral LPS injection. Pre- and postnatal inflammation damage not only affected dopaminergic neurons directly, but it also modified critical features, such as activated microglia and astrocyte cells, disrupting the support provided by the microenvironment. Unexpectedly, our results failed to show any involvement of caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis pathway in neuronal death mechanisms. On the other hand, learning and memory deficits detected with a second toxic exposure were significantly attenuated in maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation group. In addition, ω-3 PUFAs promote beneficial effect on synaptic function, maintaining the neurochemical integrity in remaining neurons, without necessarily protect them from neuronal death. Thus, our results suggest that ω-3 PUFAs affect the functional ability of the central nervous system in a complex way in a multiple inflammation-induced neurotoxicity animal model of PD and they disclose new ways of understanding how these fatty acids control responses of the brain to different challenges.

  16. 1-Bromopropane, an alternative to ozone layer depleting solvents, is dose-dependently neurotoxic to rats in long-term inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, G; Kitoh, J; Yu, X; Asaeda, N; Iwai, H; Kumazawa, T; Shibata, E; Yamada, T; Wang, H; Xie, Z; Takeuchi, Y

    2000-05-01

    1-Bromopropane has been newly introduced as an alternative to ozone layer-depleting solvents. We aimed to clarify the dose-dependent effects of 1-bromopropane on the nervous system. Forty-four Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 11 each. The groups were exposed to 200, 400, or 800 ppm of 1-bromopropane or only fresh air 8 h per day for 12 weeks. Grip strength of forelimbs and hind limbs, maximum motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV), and distal latency (DL) of the tail nerve were measured in 9 rats of each group every 4 weeks. The other 2 rats of each group were perfused at the end of the experiment for morphological examinations. The rats of the 800-ppm group showed poor kicking and were not able to stand still on the slope. After a 12-week exposure, forelimb grip strength decreased significantly at 800 ppm and hind limb grip strength decreased significantly at both 400 and 800 ppm or after a 12-week exposure. MCV and DL of the tail nerve deteriorated significantly at 800 ppm. Ovoid or bubble-like debris of myelin sheaths was prominent in the unraveled muscular branch of the posterior tibial nerve in the 800-ppm group. Swelling of preterminal axons in the gracile nucleus increased in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) decreased dose-dependently with significant changes at 400 and 800 ppm. 1-Bromopropane induced weakness in the muscle strength of rat limbs and deterioration of MCV and DL in a dose-dependent manner, with morphological changes in peripheral nerve and preterminal axon in the gracile nucleus. 1-Bromopropane may be seriously neurotoxic to humans and should thus be used carefully in the workplace.

  17. Neurotoxicity of β-Keto Amphetamines: Deathly Mechanisms Elicited by Methylone and MDPV in Human Dopaminergic SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria João; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Fernandes, Eduarda; Carvalho, Félix; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Carvalho, Márcia

    2017-04-19

    Synthetic cathinones (β-keto amphetamines) act as potent CNS stimulants similarly to classical amphetamines, which raise concerns about their potential neurotoxic effects. The present in vitro study aimed to explore and compare the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), with those of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), using undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Following a 24 h exposure period, methylone and MDPV induced loss of cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, in the following order of potency: MDPV ≈ MDMA > methylone. Dopaminergic differentiated cells evidenced higher sensitivity to the neurotoxic effects of both cathinones and MDMA than the undifferentiated ones, but this effect was not inhibited by the DAT inhibitor GBR 12909. Intracellular oxidative stress mediated by methylone and MDPV was demonstrated by the increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) production, depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione and increased oxidized glutathione levels. All three drugs elicited mitochondrial impairment, characterized by the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) dissipation and intracellular ATP depletion. Apoptosis was found to be a common mechanism of cell death induced by methylone and MDPV, with evident chromatin condensation and formation of pyknotic nuclei, and activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9. In conclusion, the present data shows that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a role in cathinones-induced neuronal damage, ultimately leading to cell death by apoptosis.

  18. Environmental Neurotoxic Pesticide Increases Histone Acetylation to Promote Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells: Relevance to Epigenetic Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Song, C.; Kanthasamy, A.; Anantharam, V.; Sun, F.; Kanthasamy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide exposure has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); in particular, the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin is believed to be associated with PD. Emerging evidence indicates that histone modifications play a critical role in cell death. In this study, we examined the effects of dieldrin treatment on histone acetylation and its role in dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neuronal cells. In mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells, dield...

  19. Protective effect of neuropeptide apelin-13 on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells: Involvement of its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooresmaeili-Babaki, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Ravan, Hadi

    2017-08-07

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of brain dopaminergic neurons. Beside pharmacologic and symptomatic treatment of PD the neuroprotective therapy has recently attracted more attention. Apelin, a novel neuropeptide, and its receptors have numerous reported roles in regulating brain functions. In addition, this peptide has potent neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative situations. Here, the effects of apelin-13 were investigated in a cell model of PD. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell damage was induced by 150 μM 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the cells viability was examined by MTT assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. Immunoblotting analysis was also employed to evaluate cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity. The data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ROS, cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with apelin-13 (5 and 10 nM) significantly prevented the mentioned biochemical and molecular markers of 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, the results showed that apelin receptor and PI3K signaling signaling contributed to the observed protective effects of apelin. The results suggest that apelin-13 has protective effects against dopaminergic neural toxicity and its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties are involved, at least in part, in such protection.

  20. GT1b-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by the Akt/GSK-3/tau signaling pathway but not caspase-3 in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohn Sunghyang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids exist in mammalian cell membranes particularly neuronal membranes. The trisialoganglioside (GT1b is one of the major brain gangliosides and acts as an endogenous regulator in the brain. We previously showed GT1b induces mesencephalic dopaminergic (DA neuronal death, both in vivo and in vitro. We further investigate the underlying mechanisms of GT1b neurotoxicity. Results Consistent with earlier findings, GT1b attenuated the DA neuron number and dopamine uptake level in mesencephalic cultures. Morphological evidence revealed GT1b-induced chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation as well as an increased number of TUNEL-positive cells, compared to control cultures. Interestingly, while GT1b enhanced caspase-3 activity, DEVD, a caspase-3 inhibitor, failed to rescue DA neuronal death. Immunoblot analysis revealed that GT1b inactivates Akt through dephosphorylation at both Ser473 and Thr308, subsequent dephosphorylation of GSK-3β, a substrate of Akt, and hyperphosphorylation of tau, downstream of GSK-3β. Moreover, a GSK-3β specific inhibitor, L803-mt, attenuated tau phosphorylation and rescued DA neurons from cell death in mesencephalic cultures. Conclusion Our data provide novel evidence that a Akt/GSK-3β/tau-dependent, but not caspase-3 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in GT1b-mediated neurotoxic actions on mesencephalic DA neurons.

  1. Dieldrin-induced neurotoxicity involves impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in rat dopaminergic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jordan T; Rushin, Anna; Boyda, Jonna; Souders, Christopher Laurence; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-08-24

    Mitochondria are sensitive targets of environmental chemicals. Dieldrin (DLD) is an organochlorine pesticide that remains a human health concern due to high lipid bioaccumulation, and it has been epidemiologically associated to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). As mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the etiology of PD, this study aimed to determine whether DLD impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in dopaminergic cells. Rat immortalized dopaminergic N27 cells were treated for 24 or 48h with one dose of either a solvent control, 2.5, 25, or 250μM DLD. Dopaminergic cells treated with 250μM DLD showed increased Casp3/7 activity at 24 and 48h. DLD also caused a dose dependent reduction in cell viability of ∼25-30% over 24h. No significant effects on cell viability, apoptosis, nor cytotoxicity were detected at 24 or 48h with 2.5μM DLD. Following a 24h exposure to 2.5 and 25μM DLD, viable cells were subjected to a mitochondrial stress test using the Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Following three independent experiments conducted for rigor, dopaminergic cells that were treated with 2.5 and 25μM DLD consistently showed a reduction in maximum respiration and spare capacity compared to the control group. Molecular responses were measured to determine mechanisms of DLD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. There were no changes in transcripts associated with mitochondrial membrane potential and permeability (e.g. Ant, Hk1, Tspo, Vdac), nor PI3 K/Akt/mTor signaling or mitochondrial-associated apoptotic factors (Bax, Bcl2, Casp3). However, transcript levels for Chop/Gadd153 (DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 3), an apoptotic gene activated following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, were 3-fold higher in N27 cells treated with DLD, suggesting that DLD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is related to ER stress. Dopamine cells were also assessed for changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein, which did not differ among treatments. This study

  2. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Attenuates MPTP-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System: Involvement of α-Synuclein Aggregation and ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ju; Wang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Hui-Ching; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Anya Maan-Yuh

    2017-08-18

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is widely expressed in the mammalian brain and possesses dual enzymatic activities, including C-terminal epoxide hydrolase (C-EH) which degrades epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), a beneficial arachidonic acid metabolite. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of sEH inhibition on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was investigated using genetic and pharmacological approaches. MPTP (15 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected in sEH knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6J mice as wild-type (WT) mice. Compared with the MPTP-treated WT mice, MPTP-induced reductions in striatal dopamine content and nigral tyrosine hydroxylase level (TH, a biomarker of dopaminergic neurons) were less significant in the treated sEH mice. Furthermore, MPTP-induced HO-1 elevation (a redox-regulated protein), α-synuclein aggregation, and caspase 12 activation (a hallmark of ER stress) were less prominent in sEH KO mice than in WT mice. These data indicate that sEH KO mice are more resistant to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The pharmacological effect of N-[1-(1-oxopropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N0-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-urea (TPPU, an sEH inhibitor) on MPTP-induced neurotoxicity was investigated in WT mice. TPPU (1 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated MPTP-induced reduction in striatal dopamine content, TH-positive cell numbers, TH, and pro-caspase 9 protein levels (an initiator caspase of apoptosis) in mouse SN. Moreover, TPPU reduced MPTP-induced HO-1 elevation, α-synuclein aggregation and caspase 12 activation, indicating that TPPU is effective in attenuating MPTP-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, protein aggregation, and ER stress. In conclusion, our study suggests that sEH is a potential target for developing therapies for parkinsonism. Furthermore, sEH inhibitors may be of clinical significance for treating CNS neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Methylone and MDPV activate autophagy in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells: a new insight into the context of β-keto amphetamines-related neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria João; Amaral, Cristina; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Duarte, José Alberto; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Carvalho, Márcia

    2017-05-19

    Autophagy has an essential role in neuronal homeostasis and its dysregulation has been recently linked to neurotoxic effects of a growing list of psychoactive drugs, including amphetamines. However, the role of autophagy in β-keto amphetamine (β-KA) designer drugs-induced neurotoxicity has hitherto not been investigated. In the present study, we show that two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), elicit morphological changes consistent with autophagy and neurodegeneration, including formation of autophagic vacuoles and neurite retraction in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Methylone and MDPV prompted the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and lead to increased expression of the autophagy-associated protein LC3-II in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of autophagosomes with typical double membranes and autolysosomes in cells exposed to both β-KA. The autophagic flux was further confirmed using bafilomycin A1, a known inhibitor of the late phase of autophagy. Moreover, we showed that autophagy markers were activated before the triggering of cell death and caspase 3 activation, suggesting that β-KA-induced autophagy precedes apoptotic cell death. To address the role of oxidative stress in autophagy induction, we also investigated the effects of antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on autophagy and apoptotic markers altered by these drugs. NAC significantly attenuated methylone- and MDPV-induced cell death by completely inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and hampering both apoptotic and autophagic activity, suggesting that oxidative stress plays an important role in mediating autophagy and apoptosis elicited by these drugs.

  4. The Effects of Boswellia Resin Extract on Dopaminergic Cell line, SK-N-SH, against MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Kazmi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are involved in neurodegeneration procedure in Parkinson’s disease. Recently, neuroprotective potential of Boswellia resin has been demonstrated. Therefore, this study examined whether administration of Boswellia resin would attenuate MPP+- induced neuronal death in SK-N-SH- cell line, a human dopaminergic neurons- in vitro. Methods: Boswellia resin extract was added to culture medium (10μg/ml before and after exposure of SK-N-SH cell line to MPP+ (1000μM. Cell viability and apoptosis features were assessed using MTT and Hoechst staining, respectively. Results: Treatment with Boswellia resin 2 and 3h prior to MPP ° exposure and up to 60 minutes after MPP ° exposure significantly increased cell viability compare to untreated cells. Apoptotic features were also reduced significantly by Boswellia resin (10 μg/ml compare to that of control untreated cells. Discussion: Boswellia resin has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons which can be applicable in Parkinson’s disease.

  5. Effects of p-Aminosalicylic acid on the neurotoxicity of manganese on the dopaminergic innervation of the cilia of the lateral cells of the gill of the bivalve mollusc, Crassostrea virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael; Huggins, Turkesha; Licorish, Roshney; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The lateral cilia of the gill of Crassostrea virginica are controlled by a dopaminergic–serotonergic innervation. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter causing cilio-inhibition. High levels of manganese are neurotoxic to people, causing Manganism, a Parkinson-like disease. Clinical interventions for Manganism have not been very successful. Recently, p-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) was reported as an effective treatment of severe Manganism in humans; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Previously, we reported that manganese treatments caused disruption of the dopaminergic innervation of gill of C. virginica. Here we compared the effects of manganese on gill innervation in the presence of PAS, EDTA or Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and examined whether co-treating animals with PAS could block the deleterious effects of manganese on the oyster's dopaminergic innervation of the gill. Beating rates of the lateral cilia of the gill were measured by stroboscopic microscopy. Pre-treating gill preparations with PAS or EDTA blocked the neurotoxic effects of manganese, while ASA did not. In other experiments, animals exposed to three day treatments with manganese produced a dose dependent impairment of the dopaminergic, cilio-inhibitory system, which was decreased by co-treatment with PAS. The study shows that PAS protects the animal against neurotoxic effects of manganese and the mechanism of action of PAS in alleviating Manganism is more likely related to its chelating abilities than its anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:19944778

  6. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  7. Association between long-term neuro-toxicities in testicular cancer survivors and polymorphisms in glutathione-s-transferase-P1 and -M1, a retrospective cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Brydøy Marianne; Kraggerud Sigrid M; Oldenburg Jan; Cvancarova Milada; Lothe Ragnhild A; Fossa Sophie D

    2007-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of polymorphisms in Glutathione S-transferase (GST) -P1, -M1, and -T1 on self-reported chemotherapy-induced long-term toxicities in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). Methods A total of 238 TCSs, who had received cisplatin-based chemotherapy at median twelve years earlier, had participated in a long-term follow-up survey which assessed the prevalence of self-reported p...

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Baicalein on Acrolein-induced Neurotoxicity in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System of Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Huang, Hui-Ju; Lo, Yu-Li; Lin, Anya Maan-Yuh

    2017-09-02

    Elevated levels of acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde are detected in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of baicalein (a phenolic flavonoid in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) on acrolein-induced neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was investigated using local infusion of acrolein in the substantia nigra (SN) of rat brain. Systemic administration of baicalein (30 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated acrolein-induced elevations in 4-hydroxy-2-noneal (a product of lipid peroxidation), N-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine (a biomarker of acrolein-conjugated proteins), and heme-oxygenase-1 levels (a redox-regulated protein) in the infused SN, indicating that baicalein inhibited acrolein-induced oxidative stress and protein conjugation. Furthermore, baicalein reduced acrolein-induced elevations in glial fibrillary acidic protein (a biomarker of activated astrocytes), ED-1 (a biomarker of activated microglia), and mature cathepsin B levels (a cysteine lysosomal protease), suggesting that baicalein attenuated acrolein-induced neuroinflammation. Moreover, baicalein attenuated acrolein-induced caspase 1 activation (a pro-inflammatory caspase) and interleukin-1β levels, indicating that baicalein prevented acrolein-induced inflammasome activation. In addition, baicalein significantly attenuated acrolein-induced caspase 3 activation (a biomarker of apoptosis) as well as acrolein-induced elevation in receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 3 levels (an initiator of necroptosis), indicating that baicalein attenuated apoptosis and necroptosis. At the same time, baicalein mitigated acrolein-induced reduction in dopamine levels in the striatum ipsilateral to acrolein-infused SN. In conclusion, our data suggest that baicalein is neuroprotective via inhibiting oxidative stress, protein conjugation, and inflammation. Furthermore, baicalein prevents acrolein

  9. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  10. Long-term, repeated dose in vitro neurotoxicity of the glutamate receptor antagonist L-AP3, demonstrated in rat hippocampal slice cultures by using continuous propidium iodide incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne W; Blaabjerg, Morten; Noraberg, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Most in vitro models are only used to assess short-term effects of test compounds. However, as demonstrated here, hippocampal slice cultures can be used for long-term studies. The test compound used was the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, L(+)-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3...

  11. Protective effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lirong Jin; Zhen Hong; Chunjiu Zhong; Yang Wang

    2009-01-01

    -contrast microscopy. The percent of area containing dead cells in each brain slice was calculated with the help of propidium iodide fluorescence. Brain slices were stained with antibodies for TH to indicate the presence of dopaminergic neurons. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to determine the effect of MSCs on neuronal ultrastructure.RESULTS: Massive cell death and neurite breakage was observed in the MPP+ group. In addition, TH expression was significantly reduced, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). After 7 days in culture with MSCs, the co-culture group presented with less cell damage and reduced neurite breakage, and TH expression was increased. However, these changes were not significantly different from the MPP+ group (P < 0.01). Electron microscopy revealed reduced ultrastructural injury to cells in the brain slices. However, vacuoles were present in cells, with some autophagic vacuoles.CONCLUSION: Bone marrow-derived MSCs can promote survival of dopaminergic neurons following MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in co-cultures with substantia nigra and striatum brain slices.

  12. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  13. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  14. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Document Server

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  15. Association between long-term neuro-toxicities in testicular cancer survivors and polymorphisms in glutathione-s-transferase-P1 and -M1, a retrospective cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brydøy Marianne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the impact of polymorphisms in Glutathione S-transferase (GST -P1, -M1, and -T1 on self-reported chemotherapy-induced long-term toxicities in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs. Methods A total of 238 TCSs, who had received cisplatin-based chemotherapy at median twelve years earlier, had participated in a long-term follow-up survey which assessed the prevalence of self-reported paresthesias in fingers/toes, Raynaud-like phenomena in fingers/toes, tinnitus, and hearing impairment. From all TCSs lymphocyte-derived DNA was analyzed for the functional A→G polymorphism at bp 304 in GSTP1, and deletions in GST-M1 and GST-T1. Evaluation of associations between GST polymorphisms and self-reported toxicities included adjustment for prior treatment. Results All six evaluated toxicities were significantly associated with the cumulative dose of cisplatin and/or bleomycin. Compared to TCSs with either GSTP1-AG or GSTP1-AA, the 37 TCSs with the genotype GSTP1-GG, were significantly less bothered by paresthesias in fingers and toes (p = 0.039, OR 0.46 [0.22–0.96] and p = 0.023, OR 0.42 [0.20–0.88], respectively, and tinnitus (p = 0.008, OR 0.33 [0.14–0.74]. Furthermore, absence of functional GSTM1 protected against hearing impairment (p = 0.025, OR 1.81 [1.08–3.03]. Conclusion In TCSs long-term self-reported chemotherapy-induced toxicities are associated with functional polymorphisms in GSTP1 and GSTM1. Hypothetically, absence of GST-M1 leaves more glutathione as substrate for the co-expressed GST-P1. Also intracellular inactivation of pro-apoptotic mediators represents a possible explanation of our findings. Genotyping of these GSTs might be a welcomed step towards a more individualized treatment of patients with metastatic testicular cancer.

  16. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  17. Short and long-term effects of three neurotoxic insecticides on biological and behavioural attributes of the orb-web spider Alpaida veniliae (Araneae, Araneidae): implications for IPM programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamú, Marco A; Schneider, Marcela I; González, Alda; Sánchez, Norma E

    2013-09-01

    Soybean pest control in Argentina is done just by chemical control using broad-spectrum pesticides. Alpaida veniliae (Araneae, Araneidae) is one of the most abundant spider species of the orb web weaver guild in soybean, and it is considered a very important polyphagous predator, attacking different insects' families. The objective of this study was to determine if neurotoxic insecticides commonly used in soybean crops and a new active ingredient registered in Argentina (spinosad) adversely affected survival, prey consumption, mating behaviour, web building and reproductive capacity of A. veniliae females, under standard laboratory conditions. Spinosad was the most harmful insecticide due to high acute toxicity, even at lower concentrations than those registered for its field use and for its sublethal effects also. Cypermethrin caused several sublethal effects although its acute toxicity on spider was lower than other insecticides. It reduced prey consumption, affected web building, caused abnormalities in eggs sacs and decreased drastically the fecundity and fertility at sublethal concentrations. Endosulfan did not reduce prey consumption but it affected web building, caused abnormalities in eggs sacs and egg masses, and decreased the fecundity and fertility. Spinosad was also the compound with the most drastic effect on web building, it did not reduce prey consumption and fecundity, but fertility was reduced and abnormalities in egg sacs and egg masses were observed. The use of these insecticides in IPM programs according to their potential toxicity on spider communities is discussed.

  18. [Acute and long-term effects of ecstasy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Julie; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Noble, Florence

    2004-10-23

    Side effects in the short term Recreational use of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), a synthetic drug, has considerably increased over the last decade. Since its appearance it is associated with the rave culture, but its use has spread to other social settings. The drug produces euphoria and empathy, but can lead to side effects, notably acute, potentially lethal, toxicity (malignant hyperthermia and/or hepatitis). Neurotoxicity in the long-term Moreover, MDMA has been shown to induce long-term deleterious effects and provoke neurotoxic affecting the serotoninergic system. However, the psychopathological consequences of such neurotoxicity are still controversial, particularly since many ecstasy consumers are multi-drug users. A complex pharmacological profile The mechanism of action of MDMA involves various neurobiological systems (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin), that may all interact.

  19. Nesfatin-1 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+/MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the C-Raf–ERK1/2-dependent anti-apoptotic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Li; Song, Ning; Du, Xi-Xun; Li, Yong; Xie, Jun-Xia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Several brain-gut peptides have been reported to have a close relationship with the central dopaminergic system; one such brain-gut peptide is nesfatin-1. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety peptide that is predominantly secreted by X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric glands, where ghrelin is also secreted. We previously reported that ghrelin exerted neuroprotective effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons, which implied a role for ghrelin in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we aim to clarify whether nesfatin-1 has similar effects on dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro. We show that nesfatin-1 attenuates the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. In addition, nesfatin-1 antagonized 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridillium ion (MPP+)-induced toxicity by restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting cytochrome C release and preventing caspase-3 activation in MPP+-treated MES23.5 dopaminergic cells. These neuroprotective effects could be abolished by selective inhibition of C-Raf and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our data suggest that C-Raf-ERK1/2, which is involved in an anti-apoptotic pathway, is responsible for the neuroprotective effects of nesfatin-1 in the context of MPTP-induced toxicity. These results imply that nesfatin-1 might have therapeutic potential for PD. PMID:28106099

  20. Neurotoxicity of drugs of abuse--the case of methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDMA, ecstasy), and amphetamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA, 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine) and the stimulants methamphetamine (METH, speed) and amphetamine are popular drugs among young people, particularly in the dance scene. When given in high doses both MDMA and the stimulant amphetamines are clearly neurotoxic in laboratory animals. MDMA causes selective and persistent lesions of central serotonergic nerve terminals, whereas amphetamines damage both the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. In recent years, the question of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity and possible functional sequelae has been addressed in several studies in drug users. Despite large methodological problems, the bulk of evidence suggests residual alterations of serotonergic transmission in MDMA users, although at least partial recovery may occur after long-term abstinence. However, functional sequelae may persist even after longer periods of abstinence. To date, the most consistent findings associate subtle cognitive impairments with ecstasy use, particularly with memory. In contrast, studies on possible long-term neurotoxic effects of stimulant use have been relatively scarce. Preliminary evidence suggests that alterations of the dopaminergic system may persist even after years of abstinence from METH, and may be associated with deficits in motor and cognitive performance. In this paper, we will review the literature focusing on human studies.

  1. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  2. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  3. [Acute and long-term effects of ecstasy

    OpenAIRE

    Salzmann, Julie; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Noble, Florence

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Side effects in the short term Recreational use of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), a synthetic drug, has considerably increased over the last decade. Since its appearance it is associated with the rave culture, but its use has spread to other social settings. The drug produces euphoria and empathy, but can lead to side effects, notably acute, potentially lethal, toxicity (malignant hyperthermia and/or hepatitis). Neurotoxicity in the long-term More...

  4. Short- and long-term effects of MDMA ("ecstasy") on synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of neurotransmitters in vitro and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Inger Lise; Haug, Kristin Huse; Myhre, Oddvar; Fonnum, Frode

    2003-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a commonly abused drug which has been shown to be neurotoxic to serotonergic neurons in many species. The exact mechanism responsible for the neurotoxicity of MDMA is, however, poorly understood. In this study, the effects of MDMA on the synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of neurotransmitters were investigated. Our results show that MDMA (0.5-20 microM) reduces both synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose dependent manner in vitro, while the uptake of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) remains unaffected. Ex vivo experiments support the importance of the monoamines, with predominant dopaminergic inhibition at short-term exposure (3 x 15 mg/kg; 2-h intervals), and exclusively serotonergic inhibition at long-term exposure (2 x 10 mg/kg per day; 4 days). This study also compares MDMA and the structurally related antidepressant paroxetine, in an attempt to reveal possible cellular mechanisms for the serotonergic toxicity of MDMA. One important difference between paroxetine and MDMA is that only MDMA has the capability of inhibiting vesicular uptake of monoamines at doses used. We suggest that inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and a following increase in cytoplasmatic monoamine concentrations, might be crucial for the neurotoxic effect of MDMA.

  5. Dual effects of α-synuclein on neurotoxicity induced by low dosage of rotenone are dependent on exposure time in dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of α-synuclein on toxicity induced by long-term exposure to relatively low concentrations of rotenone.Compared with the control groups,the inhibition of cell viability which overexpressed α-synuclein(SH-SY5Y-Syn) improved after 1 and 2 weeks of rotenone treatment.The complex I activity was greater and the mitochondrial membrane swelling intensity was reduced after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment,which indicated that α-synuclein,at least in part,resists the rotenone-induced oxidative stress.The results indicate that α-synuclein has a dual effect on toxicity of rotenone according to exposure time in human SH-SY5Y cells.

  6. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...... which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...

  7. Dose and time-dependent selective neurotoxicity induced by mephedrone in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez-Clemente

    Full Text Available Mephedrone is a drug of abuse marketed as 'bath salts". There are discrepancies concerning its long-term effects. We have investigated the neurotoxicity of mephedrone in mice following different exposition schedules. Schedule 1: four doses of 50 mg/kg. Schedule 2: four doses of 25 mg/kg. Schedule 3: three daily doses of 25 mg/kg, for two consecutive days. All schedules induced, in some animals, an aggressive behavior and hyperthermia as well as a decrease in weight gain. Mephedrone (schedule 1 induced dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotoxicity that persisted 7 days after exposition. At a lower dose (schedule 2 only a transient dopaminergic injury was found. In the weekend consumption pattern (schedule 3, mephedrone induced dopamine and serotonin transporter loss that was accompanied by a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 expression one week after exposition. Also, mephedrone induced a depressive-like behavior, as well as a reduction in striatal D2 density, suggesting higher susceptibility to addictive drugs. In cultured cortical neurons, mephedrone induced a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect. Using repeated doses for 2 days in an elevated ambient temperature we evidenced a loss of frontal cortex dopaminergic and hippocampal serotoninergic neuronal markers that suggest injuries at nerve endings.

  8. Dose and time-dependent selective neurotoxicity induced by mephedrone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Clemente, José; López-Arnau, Raúl; Abad, Sonia; Pubill, David; Escubedo, Elena; Camarasa, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone is a drug of abuse marketed as 'bath salts". There are discrepancies concerning its long-term effects. We have investigated the neurotoxicity of mephedrone in mice following different exposition schedules. Schedule 1: four doses of 50 mg/kg. Schedule 2: four doses of 25 mg/kg. Schedule 3: three daily doses of 25 mg/kg, for two consecutive days. All schedules induced, in some animals, an aggressive behavior and hyperthermia as well as a decrease in weight gain. Mephedrone (schedule 1) induced dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotoxicity that persisted 7 days after exposition. At a lower dose (schedule 2) only a transient dopaminergic injury was found. In the weekend consumption pattern (schedule 3), mephedrone induced dopamine and serotonin transporter loss that was accompanied by a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 expression one week after exposition. Also, mephedrone induced a depressive-like behavior, as well as a reduction in striatal D2 density, suggesting higher susceptibility to addictive drugs. In cultured cortical neurons, mephedrone induced a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect. Using repeated doses for 2 days in an elevated ambient temperature we evidenced a loss of frontal cortex dopaminergic and hippocampal serotoninergic neuronal markers that suggest injuries at nerve endings.

  9. An autophagic mechanism is involved in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Yuan, Wei; Li, Zijian; Feng, Juan

    2017-08-09

    6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is one of the most common agents for modeling dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, the role of autophagy in 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial and most evidence is collected from in vitro studies. In this study, we determined the role of autophagy activation in 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in a rat model of PD. Following 6-OHDA treatment, we observed a concomitant activation of autophagy and apoptosis. To further explore the interaction between autophagy and apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA, autophagy inhibitor 3-methylademine (3-MA) or cysteine protease inhibitor Z-FA-fmk was applied. We found that both 3-MA and Z-FA-fmk could not only exert immediate protection against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal apoptosis, but also prevent dopaminergic neuron loss in the long-term, which was related to reduced autophagosome formation. Furthermore, by monitoring the sequential changes of mTOR-related signaling pathways, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated AKT/AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway participated in but was not the initial cause of autophagy activation by 6-OHDA. Collectively, our data suggest that 6-OHDA-induced autophagy activation contributes to its neurotoxicity and targeting autophagy activation or cysteine proteases could be promising for developing neuroprotective agents for PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Effects of long-term neurotoxicity of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spatial learning and memory function%3,4-亚甲二氧基甲基苯丙胺神经毒性长期效应对空间学习记忆功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素霞; 李静; 王雪; 况伟宏; 彭祖贵; 黄明生

    2006-01-01

    背景:3,4-亚甲基二氧基甲基苯丙胺是苯丙胺类兴奋剂的一种,具有兴奋和致幻作用,对人体的损害也极其严重和复杂.在国外对其研究已成为成瘾行为领域中的热点.目的:观察3,4-亚甲二氧基甲基苯丙胺神经毒性长期效应对认知功能的影响.设计:随机对照动物实验.单位:四川大学华西医院心理卫生中心精神药理实验室.材料:实验于2003-07/2004-02在四川大学华西医院心理卫生中心精神药理实验室完成.随机将四川大学动物中心提供的16只成年雄性Wistar大鼠分为试验组10只,对照组6只.方法:试验组给予3,4-亚甲基二氧基甲基苯丙胺10 mg/kg,1次/h,共4次,即总量为40 mg/kg,对照组给予等体积生理盐水.分别于末次给药后2,8,26,32周进行水迷宫试验观察空间学习记忆功能.主要观察指标:两组大鼠末次给药后第2,8,26,32周时逃避潜伏期和穿原平台所在位置的次数.结果:试验过程中12 h内试验组大鼠死亡4只.6周时试验组大鼠又死1只,17周时对照组大鼠死亡1只,最后实验组、对照组各剩5只直至32周.末次给药后第2,8,26,32周时Morris水迷宫试验,两组逃避潜伏期比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组4个时间点的穿环次数比较,差异也无统计学意义[(7.67±2.16),(7.50±2.95)次;(6.60±1.14),(7.0±1.67)次;(7.40±1.52),(6.60±2.61)次;(6.80±4.55),(5.80±1.79)次,P>0.05].结论:3,4-亚甲基二氧基甲基苯丙胺神经毒性长期效应对空间学习记忆功能影响不明显.%BACKGROUND: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is one kind of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) with stimulating and hallucinogenic properties, and its damage to human is extremely serious and complicated. It has become a research hot in the field of addiction behavior abroad. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of long-term neurotoxicity of MDMA on cognitive function. DESIGN: A randomized control animal experiment. SETTING

  12. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  13. Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with orthotopic diversion in male ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes beyond 1 year, both ...

  14. Gratitude in Long Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Abrams Sunding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a group gratitude intervention with 29 permanent residents at a long term care/skilled nursing facility in improving elder mood, behavior and well- being over a 3 week time period. The sample included individuals diagnosed with dementia, other cognitive impairment, major depressive disorder, insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. The gratitude intervention consisted of asking elders to share what they are thankful for at the dinner table each day. Measures included the Elder Well Being Scale and The Dinner Rating Scale. On both measures, higher scores indicated better functioning. To test the hypothesis that post treatment elder well-being will be significantly higher than pretreatment elder well-being ratings, a one-way ANOVA was conducted. Post-hoc tests revealed a statistically significant increase in Elder Well Being Scale scores. An ANOVA of comparing Dinner Ratings demonstrated a nonsignificant increase over the 3 week experiment. Implications are discussed.

  15. Behavioral Specifications of Reward-Associated Long-Term Memory Enhancement in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duzel, Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies link reward-related activation of the midbrain substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), the site of origin of ascending dopaminergic projections, with improved long-term episodic memory. Here, we investigated in two behavioral experiments how (1) the contingency between item properties and reward, (2) the…

  16. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  17. Long-term dynamics simulation: Modeling requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morched, A.S.; Kar, P.K.; Rogers, G.J.; Morison, G.K. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    This report details the required performance and modelling capabilities of a computer program intended for the study of the long term dynamics of power systems. Following a general introduction which outlines the need for long term dynamic studies, the modelling requirements for the conduct of such studies is discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on models for system elements not normally modelled in power system stability programs, which will have a significant impact in the long term time frame of minutes to hours following the initiating disturbance. The report concludes with a discussion of the special computational and programming requirements for a long term stability program. 43 refs., 36 figs.

  18. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  19. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  20. Long-term clinical outcome of fetal cell transplantation for Parkinson disease: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Politis, Marios; Piccini, Paola; Mencacci, Niccolo; Bhatia, Kailash; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Widner, Håkan; Rehncrona, Stig; Brundin, Patrik; Björklund, Anders; Lindvall, Olle; Limousin, Patricia; Quinn, Niall; Foltynie, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cell technologies have rekindled an interest in the use of cell replacement strategies for patients with Parkinson disease. This study reports the very long-term clinical outcomes of fetal cell transplantation in 2 patients with Parkinson disease. Such long-term follow-up data can usefully inform on the potential efficacy of this approach, as well as the design of trials for its further evaluation. Two patients received intrastriatal grafts of human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, rich in dopaminergic neuroblasts, as restorative treatment for their Parkinson disease. To evaluate the very long-term efficacy of the grafts, clinical assessments were performed 18 and 15 years posttransplantation. Motor improvements gained gradually over the first postoperative years were sustained up to 18 years posttransplantation, while both patients have discontinued, and remained free of any, pharmacological dopaminergic therapy. The results from these 2 cases indicate that dopaminergic cell transplantation can offer very long-term symptomatic relief in patients with Parkinson disease and provide proof-of-concept support for future clinical trials using fetal or stem cell therapies.

  1. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity in mice: a possible mechanism underlying neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Zhang, Steven F; Jordán, Joaquín; Starkov, Anatoly A; Aguirre, Norberto

    2010-05-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that such neurotoxicity is due to oxidative stress but the source of free radicals remains unknown. Inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes by MDMA was assessed as a possible source. Activities of mitochondrial complexes after MDMA were evaluated spectrophotometrically. In situ visualization of superoxide production in the striatum was assessed by ethidium fluorescence and striatal dopamine levels were determined by HPLC as an index of dopaminergic toxicity. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of mice, an effect accompanied by an increased production of superoxide radicals and the inhibition of endogenous aconitase. alpha-Lipoic acid prevented superoxide generation and long-term toxicity independent of any effect on complex I inhibition. These effects of alpha-lipoic acid were also associated with a significant increase of striatal glutathione levels. The relevance of glutathione was supported by reducing striatal glutathione content with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, which exacerbated MDMA-induced dopamine deficits, effects suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, partially prevented MDMA-induced dopamine depletions, an effect reversed by L-arginine but not D-arginine. Finally, a direct relationship between mitochondrial complex I inhibition and long-term dopamine depletions was found in animals treated with MDMA in combination with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I following MDMA could be the source of free radicals responsible for oxidative stress and the consequent neurotoxicity of this drug in mice.

  2. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term...... in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  3. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  4. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  5. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program ( ... Prevention HIV/AIDS Nutrition Services Oral Health Elder Justice & Adult Protective Services Elder Justice Coordinating Council Prevention ...

  6. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  7. Long-term outcome of meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Ostenberg, A; Roos, H;

    2001-01-01

    To describe the long-term influence of meniscectomy on pain, functional limitations, and muscular performance. To assess the effects of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), gender and age on these outcomes in patients with meniscectomy....

  8. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  9. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  10. Anticipating Long-Term Stock Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Christian; Loch, Karin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between long-term U.S. stock market risks and the macroeconomic environment using a two component GARCH-MIDAS model. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of counter-cyclical behavior of long-term stock market volatility. Among the various macro variables in our dataset the term spread, housing starts, corporate profits and the unemployment rate have the highest predictive ability for stock market volatility . While the term spread and housing starts are...

  11. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  12. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  13. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  14. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  15. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnham, J J; Roper-Hall, M J

    1983-07-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary.

  16. Silver nanoparticles reduce brain inflammation and related neurotoxicity through induction of H2S-synthesizing enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel A.; Leo, Bey Fen; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Chen, Shu; Goode, Angela E.; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Chung, Kian Fan; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to penetrate into the brain and cause neuronal death. However, there is a paucity in studies examining the effect of AgNP on the resident immune cells of the brain, microglia. Given microglia are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to examine how AgNPs affect microglial inflammation to fully assess AgNP neurotoxicity. In addition, understanding AgNP processing by microglia will allow better prediction of their long term bioreactivity. In the present study, the in vitro uptake and intracellular transformation of citrate-capped AgNPs by microglia, as well as their effects on microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity were examined. Analytical microscopy demonstrated internalization and dissolution of AgNPs within microglia and formation of non-reactive silver sulphide (Ag2S) on the surface of AgNPs. Furthermore, AgNP-treatment up-regulated microglial expression of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). In addition, AgNPs showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ROS, nitric oxide and TNFα production, which translated into reduced microglial toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons. Hence, the present results indicate that intracellular Ag2S formation, resulting from CSE-mediated H2S production in microglia, sequesters Ag+ ions released from AgNPs, significantly limiting their toxicity, concomitantly reducing microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity.

  17. Silver nanoparticles reduce brain inflammation and related neurotoxicity through induction of H2S-synthesizing enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel A.; Leo, Bey Fen; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Chen, Shu; Goode, Angela E.; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Chung, Kian Fan; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to penetrate into the brain and cause neuronal death. However, there is a paucity in studies examining the effect of AgNP on the resident immune cells of the brain, microglia. Given microglia are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to examine how AgNPs affect microglial inflammation to fully assess AgNP neurotoxicity. In addition, understanding AgNP processing by microglia will allow better prediction of their long term bioreactivity. In the present study, the in vitro uptake and intracellular transformation of citrate-capped AgNPs by microglia, as well as their effects on microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity were examined. Analytical microscopy demonstrated internalization and dissolution of AgNPs within microglia and formation of non-reactive silver sulphide (Ag2S) on the surface of AgNPs. Furthermore, AgNP-treatment up-regulated microglial expression of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). In addition, AgNPs showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ROS, nitric oxide and TNFα production, which translated into reduced microglial toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons. Hence, the present results indicate that intracellular Ag2S formation, resulting from CSE-mediated H2S production in microglia, sequesters Ag+ ions released from AgNPs, significantly limiting their toxicity, concomitantly reducing microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity. PMID:28251989

  18. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, se

  19. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K J; Hansen, H P; Tarnow, L

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin-a...

  20. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  1. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  2. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  3. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  4. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  5. Thalidomide neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, O J; Olsen, P Z; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1984-01-01

    therapy. Since reports on thalidomide neurotoxicity have shown that the neurological symptoms are long standing and possibly irreversible, it is obviously important to inform patients of this possible side effect and to evaluate them closely for the symptoms and electrophysiological signs of evolving...

  6. A technique for long term continent gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, D L; Foster, J E; Craun, M L; Torma, M J

    1985-01-01

    The use of the continent gastrostomy described herein offers several advantages: 1, the elimination of an indwelling catheter; 2, prevention of soiling at skin level; 3, long term access to the normal gastrointestinal track for alimentation without fear of tube erosion; 4, little compromise to gastric volume, and 5, ease of stoma care. We recommend this operation in instances when long term tube feedings are indicated either because of damage to the central nervous system or as a palliative treatment for patients with higher obstructing gastrointestinal malignant disease. The procedure may also be useful for patients in whom esophagogastric continuity has been interrupted (surgically or traumatically) and in whom reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract would not seem feasible within a three to six month interval.

  7. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid users. METHODS: Data were obtained from the national representative Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys and The Danish National Prescription Registry. Respondents with no dispensed opioids the year before the survey were followed from 2000 and from 2005 until the end of 2012 (n = 12...... defined as those who were dispensed at least one opioid prescription in six separate months within a year. RESULTS: The incidence of L-TOT was substantially higher in CNCP patients at baseline than in others (9/1000 vs. 2/1000 person-years). Smoking behaviour and dispensed benzodiazepines were...

  8. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder.

  9. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  10. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  11. Cutaneous oxalosis after long-term hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G; Schwartz, S T; Reginato, A J

    1992-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman undergoing long-term hemodialysis developed cutaneous calcifications on her fingers. A skin biopsy specimen showed that the deposits were calcium oxalate. To our knowledge, only one previous article has reported pathologic and crystallographic studies on calcifications of the skin resulting from dialysis oxalosis. We speculate that vitamin C supplements, liberal tea consumption, an increased serum ionized calcium concentration, and the long duration of hemodialysis contributed to the production of these deposits.

  12. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  13. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-07-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates.

  14. Long-term behaviour of GRP pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, H; A Vieira; Reis, J; Marques, A. T.; Guedes, R.M.; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the research programme /1/ described is the study of creep and relaxation behaviour of glass-rein forced thermosetting (GRP) pipes, in order to find alternative methods to predict the long-term properties, rendering a considerable reduction of the time needed for testing and assuring, as far as possible, equivalent reliability when compared to the existing methods. Experimental procedures were performed and are presented here, together with discussion of results, as well...

  15. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  16. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  17. Mitochondrial proteomic alterations caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure in mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuemei; Wei, Gang; Huang, Zhijun; Qu, Zhongsen; Huang, Xinfeng; Xu, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Yang, Xifei

    2016-11-30

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in neurotoxicity caused by exposure of various chemicals such as copper. However, the effects of long-term low-dose copper exposure on mitochondrial proteome remain unclear. In this study, we found the treatment of copper (0.13ppm copper sulfate in drinking water) for 12 months caused abnormal expression of a total of 13 mitochondrial proteins (7 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry in mouse cortex. Protein functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressed proteins mainly included apoptosis-associated proteins, axon guidance-associated proteins, axonogenesis-associated proteins and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. Among these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins, GRP75 (75kDa glucose-regulated protein) and GRP78 (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) were found to be significantly down-regulated as confirmed by Western-blot analysis. The down-regulation of GRP75 was shown to promote apoptosis. The down-regulation of GRP78/BiP could up-regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediators and thus cause apoptosis. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins such as GRP75 and GRP78 could be involved in neurotoxicity caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure and serve as potential molecular targets for the treatment of copper neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated hippocampal neurons in cryopreserved long-term cultures: development of neuroarchitecture and sensitivity to NMDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Kater, S B

    1988-01-01

    Isolated neurons in long-term culture provide a unique opportunity to address important problems in neuronal development. In the present study we established conditions for cryopreservation and long-term primary culture of isolated embryonic hippocampal neurons. This culture system was then used for initial characterizations of the development of neuroarchitecture and neurotransmitter response systems. Cryoprotection with 8% dimethylsulfoxide, slow freezing, and rapid thawing provided high-yield cultures which appeared normal in terms of cell types, mitotic ability, axonal and dendritic outgrowth, and sensitivity to glutamate neurotoxicity. A reduced medium volume and moderate elevation in extracellular K+ to 20 mM promoted survival of isolated neurons through 3 weeks of culture. The outgrowth of axons and dendrites in pyramidal-like neurons was found to differ over a 3-week culture period such that axons continued to grow at a relatively constant rate while dendritic outgrowth slowed during the second week and ceased by the end of week 3. Developmental changes were also observed in the sensitivity of pyramidal neurons to glutamate neurotoxicity; functional kainate/quisqualate receptors were present during the first week of culture, while responses to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) did not appear until the second week. The technologies for cryopreservation and long-term culture of isolated hippocampal neurons reported here provide a useful system in which to address a variety of problems in development neuroscience.

  19. Differential effects of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Ali, Syed F; Itzhak, Yossef

    2005-06-01

    The abuse of substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/Ecstasy) can result in neurotoxicity, manifested as the depletion of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT; serotonin) axon terminal markers in humans and animal models. Human METH and MDMA users exhibit impairments in memory and executive functions, which may be a direct consequence of the neurotoxic potential of amphetamines. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on Pavlovian learning. Using mouse models of selective DA neurotoxicity (METH; 5 mg/kg x 3), selective 5-HT neurotoxicity (fenfluramine /FEN; 25 mg/kg x 4) and dual DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity (MDMA; 15 mg/kg x 4), appetitive and aversive conditioning were investigated. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity significantly impaired METH and cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), but had no effect on LiCl-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). In contrast, serotonergic neurotoxicity significantly enhanced CPP, and had no effect on CPA. Dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity had no apparent effect on CPP; however, CPA was significantly attenuated. Postmortem analysis revealed that significantly diminished levels of DA and 5-HT markers persisted in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. These findings suggest that amphetamines-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity exert opposing influences on the affective state produced by subsequent drug reward, while dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity impairs associative learning of aversive conditioning. Furthermore, results revealed that amphetamines-induced DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity modulates appetitive Pavlovian conditioning similar to other DA and 5-HT neurotoxins. Modulation of Pavlovian conditioning by amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity may be relevant to compulsive drug-seeking behavior in METH and MDMA abusers.

  20. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Talmi

    Full Text Available Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM despite an intact short-term memory (STM. The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR. This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation.

  1. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation.

  2. Long-term policy on gas composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, M.J.M.

    2012-03-13

    This letter sets out the policy of the Dutch cabinet on the long-term change to the composition of low calorific gas that is distributed via the public gas grid. The title of a separate attachment to this letter is 'The composition of low calorific gas in the more distant future and the requirements for gas appliances covered by the Gas Appliances Directive'. The attachment sets out the composition of low calorific gas as network operators can distribute it via the public gas grid from 2021 (or from a later date). This relates to the changes in the 'exit specification' of the gas.

  3. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published...... is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead...

  4. Long-term space flights - personal impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. V.

    During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

  5. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li-dars......-ters pertaining in the different calibration periods. This is supported by sliding-window analyses of one lidar at one location where the same order of variation is observed as between pre-service and post-service calibrations....

  6. Long-term effects of sibling incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daie, N; Witztum, E; Eleff, M

    1989-11-01

    Although sexual abuse of children is recognized as a serious problem, sibling incest has received relatively little attention. A distinction has been made between power-oriented sibling incest and nurturance-oriented incest. The authors review the relevant literature and present four clinical examples. The cases illustrate the broad range of sibling incest and demonstrate its effects, including the long-term consequences for the perpetrator. Lasting difficulties in establishing and maintaining close relationships, especially sexual ones, are prominent features of each case. Without denying the occurrences of benign sex-play between siblings, the authors emphasize exploitation and abuse as pathogenic aspects of sibling incest.

  7. Long Term Analysis for the BAM device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, D.; Gardiol, D.

    2011-02-01

    Algorithms aimed at the evaluation of critical quantities are based on models with many parameters, which values are estimated from data. The knowledge, with high accuracy, of these values and the control of their temporal evolution are important features. In this work, we focus on the latter subject, and we show a proposed pipeline for the BAM (Basic Angle Monitoring) Long Term Analysis, aimed at the study of the calibration parameters of the BAM device and of the Basic Angle variation, searching for unwanted trends, cyclic features, or other potential unexpected behaviours.

  8. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  9. Terminating a long-term clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1981-05-01

    Long-term clinical trials often include more than one active treatment group. These may be discontinued independently if found to be ineffective or possibly harmful. Certain subgroups of patients may be discovered, in the course of a clinical trial, who do not respond satisfactorily and are, therefore, excluded during the course of a trial. Yet another kind of termination comes when we have a therapeutic breakthrough or when hope has to be abandoned for demonstrating beneficial effects for one, several, or all treatments included in a trial. Examples from the authors' experience are presented, as are successful and unsuccessful techniques in managing terminations of various types.

  10. Effect of long-term treatment with pramipexole or levodopa on presynaptic markers assessed by longitudinal [123I]FP-CIT SPECT and histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depboylu, Candan; Maurer, Lukas; Matusch, Andreas; Hermanns, Guido; Windolph, Andrea; Béhé, Martin; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Höglinger, Günter U

    2013-10-01

    A previous clinical trial studied the effect of long-term treatment with levodopa (LD) or the dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX) on disease progression in Parkinson disease using SPECT with the dopamine transporter (DAT)-radioligand [(123)I]β-CIT as surrogate marker. [(123)I]β-CIT binding declined to significantly lower levels in patients receiving LD compared to PPX. However, the interpretation of this difference as LD-induced neurotoxicity, PPX-induced neuroprotection/-regeneration, or only drug-induced regulatory changes of DAT-availability remained controversial. To address this question experimentally, we induced a subtotal lesion of the substantia nigra in mice by bilateral injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. After 4 weeks, mice were treated for 20 weeks orally with LD (100mg/kg/day) or PPX (3mg/kg/day), or water (vehicle) only. The integrity of nigrostriatal projections was assessed by repeated [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT in vivo and by immunostaining for DAT and the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) after sacrifice. In sham-lesioned mice, we found that both LD and PPX treatment significantly decreased the striatal FP-CIT binding (LD: -21%; PPX: -14%) and TH-immunoreactivity (LD: -42%; PPX: -45%), but increased DAT-immunoreactivity (LD: +42%; PPX: +33%) compared to controls without dopaminergic treatment. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned mice, however, neither LD nor PPX significantly influenced the stably reduced FP-CIT SPECT signal (LD: -66%; PPX: -66%; controls -66%), TH-immunoreactivity (LD: -70%; PPX: -72%; controls: -77%) and DAT-immunoreactivity (LD: -70%; PPX: -75%; controls: -75%) in the striatum or the number of TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra (LD: -88%; PPX: -88%; controls: -86%), compared to lesioned mice without dopaminergic treatment. In conclusion, chronic dopaminergic stimulation with LD or PPX induced similar adaptive presynaptic changes in healthy mice, but no discernible changes in severely lesioned mice

  11. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by 15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  12. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight.

  13. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  14. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  16. Climate Predictability and Long Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Liu, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The benefit of climate Long Term Memory (LTM) for long term prediction is assessed using data from a millennium control simulation with the atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM. The forecast skills are evaluated for surface temperature time series at individual grid points. LTM is characterised by the Hurst exponent in the power-law scaling of the fluctuation function which is determined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). LTM with a Hurst exponent close to 0.9 occurs mainly in high latitude oceans, which are also characterized by high potential predictability. Climate predictability is diagnosed in terms of potentially predictable variance fractions. Explicit prediction experiments for various time steps are conducted on a grid point basis using an auto-correlation (AR1) predictor: in regions with LTM, prediction skills are beyond that expected from red noise persistence; exceptions occur in some areas in the southern oceans and over the northern hemisphere continents. Extending the predictability analysis to the fully forced simulation shows large improvement in prediction skills.

  17. Long-term Caspian Sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Pekker, T.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Kostianoy, A. G.; Cretaux, J.-F.; Safarov, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    Caspian Sea level (CSL) has undergone substantial fluctuations during the past several hundred years. The causes over the entire historical period are uncertain, but we investigate here large changes seen in the past several decades. We use climate model-predicted precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and observed river runoff (R) to reconstruct long-term CSL changes for 1979-2015 and show that PER (P-E + R) flux predictions agree very well with observed CSL changes. The observed rapid CSL increase (about 12.74 cm/yr) and significant drop ( -6.72 cm/yr) during the periods 1979-1995 and 1996-2015 are well accounted for by integrated PER flux predictions of +12.38 and -6.79 cm/yr, respectively. We show that increased evaporation rates over the Caspian Sea play a dominant role in reversing the increasing trend in CSL during the past 37 years. The current long-term decline in CSL is expected to continue into the foreseeable future, under global warming scenarios.

  18. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP.

  19. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  20. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  1. [Femoral angioplasty. Long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, H; Carlier, C; Baudrillard, J C; Joffre, F; Cécile, J P

    1990-01-01

    A study on the long-term efficacy of femoral-popliteal angioplasty was carried out on 185 angioplasty cases over a 5 year follow-up period. A classification of data according to the type of lesion treated, revealed that results were favorable in case of stenosis (87%), short obstruction (70%) and long obstruction (35%). A special study of the outcome of treatments for stage IV arteritis was carried out. After comparing results with those obtained by other teams, the authors list the complications encountered, hematomas, and thromboses, and show their current tendency for regression. Lastly, the authors stress the advantages of angioscopy, which permits to identify the nature of the treated lesions and to predict possible complications, which are usually underrated by angiography.

  2. Technology for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices.

  3. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, L L; Gottman, J M; Levenson, R W

    1995-03-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction. In older couples, the resolution of conflict was less emotionally negative and more affectionate than in middle-aged marriages. Differences between husbands and wives and between happy and unhappy marriages were also found. Wives were more affectively negative than husbands, whereas husbands were more defensive than wives, and unhappy marriages involved greater exchange of negative affect than happy marriages.

  4. Long-Term Stability of Horseshoe Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Ćuk, Matija; Holman, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Unlike Trojans, horseshoe coorbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable (Dermott and Murray, 1981; Murray and Dermott, 1999). As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe coorbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet coorbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe coorbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with results of Laughlin and Chambers (2002) for equal-mass pairs or coorbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions (Stacey and Connors, 2008). Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approa...

  5. [Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique.

  6. Long-term variations of solar activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram we analyzed two sunspot series: the one over the past 11000 years at the 10-year interval based upon the survey data of 14C concentration in tree-rings, reconstructed by Solanki et al.; and the sunspot number over the past 7000 years, derived from geomagnetic variations by Usoskin et al. We found the periods and quasi-periods in solar activity, such as about 225, 352, 441, 522 and 561 a, and near 1000 and 2000 a. An approach of wavelet transform was applied to check the two sunspot time series, with emphasis on investigating time-varying characteristics in the long-term fluctuations of solar activity. The results show that the lengths and amplitudes of the periods have changed with time, and large variations have taken place during some periods.

  7. Autobiographical reasoning in long-term fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lee Harrington

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the social psychological processes through which fan-based experiences become situated in fans' larger life narratives. Drawing on original survey data with long-term U.S. soap opera fans, we examine how the psychological mechanism of autobiographical reasoning functions in fans' construction of self-narratives over time. The case study presented here is a subset of a larger investigation into the age-related structure of fans' activities, identities, and interpretive capacities. Situated at the intersections of gerontological (life span/life course theory and contemporary fan studies, our project mines relatively uninvestigated theoretical terrain. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications for future fan studies.

  8. Brodie's abscess. A long-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, M M; MacAuley, P

    1988-09-01

    In 20 patients with 21 Brodie's abscesses, a long-term review revealed that 13 occurred in the second decade of life. All had local symptoms for six weeks or more. The tibia was involved in 11 cases and seven of these were in the proximal metaphysis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in only six cases. When the ESR was more than 40 mm per hour, recurrence was more likely. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 11 abscesses. Curettage and antibiotics for six weeks were adequate for treatment in most cases. However, lesions larger than 3 cm in diameter should be grafted, and patients with an elevated ESR require more aggressive decompression and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Lesions within the neck of the femur pose particular anatomic problems and should not be approached laterally. All cases were followed to full bone maturity. No significant leg length inequality was clinically or roentgenologically apparent. If an abscess was juxtaphyseal, deformity of the epiphysis could develop.

  9. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  10. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folmer Robert L

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients.

  11. Long term results of pneumatic retinopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellakwa AF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amin F EllakwaMenoufiya University, Shibin el Kom, Al-Menoufiya, EgyptBackground: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commonly encountered retinal problem where rapid treatment can prevent irreversible vision loss. Pneumatic retinopexy (PR is a simple, minimally invasive procedure for retinal reattachment.Purpose: This study aimed to assess the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of pneumatic retinopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.Patients and methods: A prospective interventional study was performed. Subjects with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pneumatic retinopexy from May 2006 to May 2007 at Menoufiya University Hospital were included in this study with at least 3 years follow-up.Results: A total of 40 cases were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 44.25 ± 10.85 years. Reattachment of the retina was achieved in 100% of cases. In 75% of cases, the primary intervention was successful. However, the retina redetached in 20% of these during the first 6 months, requiring reinjection or another procedure. Three years after the first intervention, follow-up measurement of the mean visual acuity of the eyes without reoperation was 0.40 ± 0.21 while the mean visual acuity of the eyes which needed additional operations was 0.22 ± 0.13.Conclusion: Sixty percent of the cases obtained long-term retinal reattachment with a single operation success (SOS, with good visual recovery and less morbidity than other more invasive procedures like scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy, translating to higher productivity for the patient. This procedure, being quicker than the alternatives, also saves the surgeon's time, making PR a good choice for managing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in developing countries.Keywords: pneumatic, retinopexy, rhegmatogenous, retinal detachment

  12. Positive biocompatibility of several graphene derivatives with dopaminergic cells at long term culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Losada, Noela; Wendelbo, Rune; Arenas, Ernest; Aguirre, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging carbon nanomaterial graphene (G) and its oxidized derivative graphene oxide (GO) have recently gained considerable attention in biomedical applications such as cancer therapy or biosensors. It has for example been demonstrated that G has an efficient bioconjugation with common biomolecules and activates cell differentiation of neuronal stem cells (Li et al., 2013). This way, G could acts as a physical support or scaffold to promote axonal sprout as a “deceleration” support for th...

  13. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days. DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures.

  15. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  17. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  18. Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of Carica papaya Linn. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... This study was designed to assess the long term (24 weeks) effects of daily oral ...

  19. Seasonal And Long Term Rainfall Trends In Calabar, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal And Long Term Rainfall Trends In Calabar, Nigeria. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Both seasonal and long term trends of rain fall in Calabar between 1985 and 2003 have been examined.

  20. Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The results were reflected in the students' short-term and long-term memory retention.

  1. IPO-related organizational change and long-term performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, J.H. von; Witte, M.C. de; Zwaan, A.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Mainstream literature on long-term performance of initial public offerings focuses on long-term underperformance. Because underperformance is an anomalous phenomenon, many authors search for explanations based on financial market imperfections. More recently, however, the attention shifts from

  2. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  3. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  4. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Kasperski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL) materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL) materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs), are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics. PMID:28788163

  5. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  6. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  7. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  8. Downlink Scheduling in Long Term Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigated research article on resource block scheduling of Long Term Evolution (LTE. LTE is one of the evolutions of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS. It provides internet access to mobile users through smart phone, laptop and other android devices. LTE offers a high speed data and multimedia services. It supports data rates up to 100 Mbps in the downlink and 50 Mbps in the uplink transmission. Our research investigation was aim to the downlink scheduling. We have considered The Best CQI scheduling algorithm and the Round Robin scheduling algorithm. The implementation, analysis and comparison of these scheduling algorithms have been performed through MATLAB simulator. We have analyzed the impact of the scheduling schemes on the throughput and the fairness of both scheduling schemes. Here we have proposed a new scheduling algorithm that achieves a compromise between the throughput and the fairness. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has been adopted as the downlink transmission scheme. We have considered the impact of the channel delay on the throughput. In addition, MIMO transceiver systems have been implemented to increase the throughput

  9. Long Term Evolution of Plasma Wakefields

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A; Tsung, F S; Mori, W B

    2014-01-01

    We study the long-term evolution (LTE) of plasma wakefields over multiple plasma-electron periods and few plasma-ion periods, much less than a recombination time. The evolution and relaxation of such a wakefield-perturbed plasma over these timescales has important implications for the upper limits of repetition-rates in plasma colliders. Intense fields in relativistic lasers (or intense beams) create plasma wakefields (modes around {\\omega}pe) by transferring energy to the plasma electrons. Charged-particle beams in the right phase may be accelerated with acceleration/focusing gradients of tens of GeV/m. However, wakefields leave behind a plasma not in equilibrium, with a relaxation time of multiple plasma-electron periods. Ion motion over ion timescales, caused by energy transfer from the driven plasma-electrons to the plasma-ions can create interesting plasma states. Eventually during LTE, the dynamics of plasma de-coheres (multiple modes through instability driven mixing), thermalizing into random motion (...

  10. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  11. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  12. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF LONG TERM TONGUE ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Nidarsh D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral ulcers is a very common disorder of the oral mucosa. Patients with signs or symptoms of oral ulcers are sometimes referred to gastroenterology clinics, however, in most instances the ulcers does not reflect gastrointestinal disease, some with a chronic non- healing ulcer are advised biopsy. Indeed, a spectrum of disorders can give rise to oral mucosal ulcers ranging from minor local trauma to significant local disease such as malignancy or systemic illness. Lesions of the tongue have a broad differential diagnosis ranging from benign idiopathic processes to infections, cancers, and infiltrative disorders. This article will focus on common ulcerative disorders of the tongue in aspects of their clinical features and differential diagnosis, two case reports with the diagnosis and conservative management for long-term chronic ulcers. The two cases which are reported in this article had a differential diagnosis of Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The clinical picture was craterlike lesion, having a velvety-red base and a rolled, indurated border and most important painless in both cases. Removal of the irritant which was the tooth, rehabilitation of the oral mucosa by lubrication with Cocus Nucifera resulted in the healing of the ulcers. Functional components of Cocus Nucifera are Squaline, tocopherol, phytosterols and other sterols which are all plant steroids.

  13. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  14. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  15. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-term strategy. (1) A long-term strategy is a 10- to 15-year plan for making reasonable progress toward... every 3 years from November 24, 1987. (3) During the long-term strategy review process, the... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29...

  16. TIA and Stroke: the long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, I. van

    2006-01-01

    Background Survival after stroke has improved, but little is known about the long-term risk of new vascular events and the functioning of long-term survivors. The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate the long-term perspective of these patients. Methods Two longitudinal studies were carried

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Danacica; Raluca Mazilescu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze characteristics of long-term unemployment spells in Romania and to estimate the effect of factors influencing long-term unemployment spells. The study period is in between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2010. 468159 long-term spells registered in the specified period at the National Agency of Employment are analyzed.

  18. Characterization of Porcine Ventral Mesencephalic Precursor Cells following Long-Term Propagation in 3D Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia S. Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of predifferentiated neural precursor cells for treatment of a neurological disorder like Parkinson’s disease combines stem cell research with previous experimental and clinical transplantation of developing dopaminergic neurons. One current obstacle is, however, the lack of ability to generate dopaminergic neurons after long-term in vitro propagation of the cells. The domestic pig is considered a useful nonprimate large animal model in neuroscience, because of a better resemblance of the larger gyrencephalic pig brain to the human brain than the commonly used brains of smaller rodents. In the present study, porcine embryonic (28–30 days, ventral mesencephalic precursor cells were isolated and propagated as free-floating neural tissue spheres in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. For passaging, the tissue spheres were cut into quarters, avoiding mechanical or enzymatic dissociation in order to minimize cellular trauma and preserve intercellular contacts. Spheres were propagated for up to 237 days with analysis of cellular content and differentiation at various time points. Our study provides the first demonstration that porcine ventral mesencephalic precursor cells can be long-term propagated as neural tissue spheres, thereby providing an experimental 3D in vitro model for studies of neural precursor cells, their niche, and differentiation capacity.

  19. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  20. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smolen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory.

  1. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  2. A new long-term care manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for.

  3. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  4. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  5. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  6. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  7. Long-term safety and effectiveness of pramipexole in tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Francesco; Ponzone, Alberto; Spada, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies are inherited neuro-metabolic disorders leading to monoamine neurotransmitters deficiency. An individualized replacement therapy with neurotransmitters precursors is necessary to restore dopaminergic and serotoninergic homeostasis. The correction of dopaminergic tone is complicated, like in Parkinson disease, by l-dopa short half-life and adverse effects. To improve this picture, since 2009 we introduced the non-ergot dopamine agonist pramipexole as an adjunct to l-dopa therapy in the treatment of the most common causes of BH4 deficiency, 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency and dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) deficiency. In the short-term period, this approach allowed substantial clinical advantages in affected patients, with amelioration and stabilization of the clinical picture on twice daily treatment administration and no adverse effect. Here we describe the long-term clinical follow-up (83 ± 24 months) of seven patients with BH4 deficiency treated with pramipexole. After a period of good clinical compensation (34 ± 1 months), different impulse control disorders (gambling, compulsive buying, and hypersexuality) were observed in three patients treated with high-dose pramipexole (0.030-0.033 mg/kg/day) beyond adolescence. These psychiatric adverse effects promptly disappeared after curtailing pramipexole dose by 50-60%. Low-dose pramipexole therapy has been safe and effective in the long-term period in all treated patients (59 ± 9 months). High-dose pramipexole therapy in BH4 deficiency can be complicated, like in Parkinson disease, by psychiatric adverse effects. Low-dose pramipexole therapy (∼0.010 mg/kg/day) has been safe and clinically effective on long-term follow-up, representing a helpful therapeutic option in patients with BH4 deficiency.

  8. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  9. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  10. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Silvia, E-mail: silviacolleoni@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Galli, Cesare [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Dipartimento Clinico Veterinario, Universita di Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (Italy); Giannelli, Serena G. [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio [Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, Interdepartmental Research Center for Parkinson' s Disease, Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Broccoli, Vania, E-mail: broccoli.vania@hsr.it [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Lazzari, Giovanna, E-mail: giovannalazzari@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  11. Long-term protective effects of AAV9-mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer in parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Yang, Chun; Chen, Sha-Sha; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Qiang; Lu, Tao; Hoffer, Barry; Zhao, Li-Ru; Duan, Wei-Ming; Xu, Qun-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Intrastriatal injection of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protein has been shown to provide neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vector to deliver the human MANF (hMANF) gene into the rat striatum 10days after a 6-OHDA lesion to examine long-term effects of hMANF on nigral dopaminergic neurons and mechanisms underlying MANF neuroprotection. Intrastriatal injection of AAV9-hMANF vectors led to a robust and widespread expression of the hMANF gene in the injected striatum up to 24weeks. Increased levels of hMANF protein were also detected in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. The hMANF gene transfer promoted the survival of nigral dopaminergic neurons, regeneration of striatal dopaminergic fibers and an upregulation of striatal dopamine levels, resulting in a long-term improvement of rotational behavior up to 16weeks after viral injections. By using SH-SY5Y cells, we found that intra- and extracellular application of MANF protected cells against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity via inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress and activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our results suggest that AAV9-mediated hMANF gene delivery into the striatum exerts long-term neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in parkinsonian rats, and provide insights into mechanisms responsible for MANF neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Faye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider models built in [4] for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a periodic-in-time-and-space solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze characteristics of long-term unemployment spells in Romania and to estimate the effect of factors influencing long-term unemployment spells. The study period is in between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2010. 468159 long-term spells registered in the specified period at the National Agency of Employment are analyzed.

  14. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emission to the groundwater is considered to be one of the largest long-term impacts related to landfilling. Currently we are starting up a research program, partly subsidized by the Dutch Technology fou...

  15. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  16. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    CERN Document Server

    Faye, Ibrahima; Seck, Diaraf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  17. Consider long-term care as service alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share.

  18. Hydrodilatation (distension arthrography): a long-term clinical outcome series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Lyn; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Dalziel, Rodney; Balster, Simon; Burke, Frank; Finch, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    To describe and compare the medium to long-term effectiveness of hydrodilatation and post-hydrodilatation physiotherapy in patients with primary and secondary glenohumeral joint contracture associated...

  19. Long-term impact on quality of life of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Elena; Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Tijero, Beatriz; Bilbao, Gaizka; Lambarri, Imanol; Rodriguez, Olivia; Villoria, Rafael; Dolado, Ainara; Berganzo, Koldo; Molano, Ana; de Gopegui, Edurne Ruiz; Pomposo, Iñigo; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Zarranz, Juan José

    2016-05-01

    Long-term impact of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and associated factors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are not clear. In this prospective study, we included 69 PD patients (64 % men, mean age 61.3 ± 7.4 and disease duration 13.2 ± 5.7 years) undergoing STN-DBS. They were evaluated preoperatively (baseline), 1 and 5 years postoperatively assessing 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (SEADL), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) off- and on-medication, patient diaries, dopaminergic treatment, mortality and surgical complications. Five years postoperatively, off-medication, there were improvements from baseline in UPDRS-II and III total (27.2 and 26.7 %, respectively) and SEADL (18.6 % more completely independent patients) (p < 0.05) scores, while on-medication, there was a deterioration in UPDRS-III (37.8 %, mainly axial signs) (p < 0.05) and minor improvements in SEADL (3.7 %). While at 1 year PDQ-39, the summary index improved substantially (36.5 %) (p < 0.05), at 5 years patients regressed (only 8.8 %) (p < 0.05), though changes in PDQ-39 subscores remained significant, with improvements in ADL (18.8 %), emotional well-being (19.0 %), stigma (36.4 %) and discomfort (20.6 %), despite worsening in communication (47.8 %) (p < 0.05). Lower preoperative PDQ-39 summary index and greater 1-year UPDRS-III-off total score gain predicted better long-term HRQOL. STN-DBS produces long-term improvements in HRQOL in PD. Preoperative HRQOL and short-term postoperative changes in off-medication motor status may predict long-term HRQOL in PD following STN-DBS.

  20. Chronic pre-treatment with memantine prevents amyloid-beta protein-mediated long-term potentiation disruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fushun Li; Xiaowei Chen; Feiming Wang; Shujun Xu; Lan Chang; Roger Anwyl; Qinwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that memantine, a low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, exerted acute protective effects against amyloid-β protein-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, the chronic effects and mechanisms of memantine were investigated further using electrophysiological methods. The results showed that 7-day intraperitoneal application of memantine, at doses of 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg, did not alter hippocampal long-term potentiation induction in rats, while 40 mg/kg memantine presented potent long-term potentiation inhibition. Then further in vitro studys were carried out in 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg memantine treated rats. We found that 20 mg/kg memantine attenuated the potent long-term potentiation inhibition caused by exposure to amyloid-β protein in the dentate gyrus in vitro. These findings are the first to demonstrate the antagonizing effect of long-term systematic treatment of memantine against amyloid-β protein triggered long-term potentiation inhibition to improve synaptic plasticity.

  1. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Jankovic Gavrilovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Bogic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former

  2. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  3. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  4. Determinants and consequences of long-term benzodiazepine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to describe the epidemiology of long term BZD use as well as its long term consequences. This thesis is structured into three sections: In section one, the correlates of BZD use, new use, chronic use, inappropriate use, and BZD dependence severity are investigate

  5. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emissi

  6. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society.

  7. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  8. IPO-related organizational change and long-term performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, J.H. von; Witte, M.C. de; Zwaan, A.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Mainstream literature on long-term performance of initial public offerings focuses on long-term underperformance. Because underperformance is an anomalous phenomenon, many authors search for explanations based on financial market imperfections. More recently, however, the attention shifts from under

  9. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Priebe; J. Jankovic Gavrilovic; S. Bremner; D. Ajdukovic; T. Franciskovic; G.M. Galeazzi; A. Kucukalic; D. Lecic-Tosevski; N. Morina; M. Popovski; M. Schützwohl; M. Bogic

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former Yugoslav

  10. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  11. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  12. The Effect of Modality on Long-Term Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Raymond S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effects of visual and auditory modes of input on long-term memory were examined in two experiments, each with 40 and 80 undergraduates, respectively. In both experiments, visual stimulus attributes were a more salient dimension than were auditory features in the long-term encoding and retrieval process. (SLD)

  13. A new image for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Richard; Creelman, William

    2004-04-01

    To counter widely held negative images of long-term care, managers in the industry should implement quality-improvement initiatives that include six key strategies: Manage the expectations of residents and their families. Address customers' concerns early. Build long-term customer satisfaction. Allocate resources to achieve exceptional outcomes in key areas. Respond to adverse events with compassion. Reinforce the facility's credibility.

  14. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M;

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  15. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  16. Experimental Researches on Long-Term Strength of Granite Gneiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to confirm the long-term strength of rock materials for the purpose of evaluating the long-term stability of rock engineering. In this study, a series of triaxial creep tests were conducted on granite gneiss under different pore pressures. Based on the test data, we proposed two new quantitative methods, tangent method and intersection method, to confirm the long-term strength of rock. Meanwhile, the isochronous stress-strain curve method was adopted to make sure of the accuracy and operability of the two new methods. It is concluded that the new methods are suitable for the study of the long-term strength of rock. The effect of pore pressure on the long-term strength of rock in triaxial creep tests is also discussed.

  17. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  18. Decreased level of Nurr1 in heterozygous young adult mice leads to exacerbated acute and long-term toxicity after repeated methamphetamine exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Luo

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH, is prevalent in young adults and could lead to long-term adaptations in the midbrain dopamine system in abstinent human METH abusers. Nurr1 is a gene that is critical for the survival and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons and has been implicated in dopaminergic neuron related disorders. In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of repeated early exposure to methamphetamine in adolescence and reduction in Nurr1 gene levels. METH binge exposure in adolescence led to greater damage in the nigrostrial dopaminergic system when mice were exposed to METH binge later in life, suggesting a long-term adverse effect on the dopaminergic system. Compared to naïve mice that received METH binge treatment for the first time, mice pretreated with METH in adolescence showed a greater loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity in striatum, loss of THir fibers in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr as well as decreased dopamine transporter (DAT level and compromised DA clearance in striatum. These effects were further exacerbated in Nurr1 heterozygous mice. Our data suggest that a prolonged adverse effect exists following adolescent METH binge exposure which may lead to greater damage to the dopaminergic system when exposed to repeated METH later in life. Furthermore, our data support that Nurr1 mutations or deficiency could be a potential genetic predisposition which may lead to higher vulnerability in some individuals.

  19. Treadmill exercise alters ecstasy- induced long- term potentiation disruption in the hippocampus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Azam; Amiri, Iraj; Gharebaghi, Alireza; Komaki, Alireza; Asadbeigi, Masoumeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2017-06-13

    3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy is a derivative of amphetamine that leads to long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Exercise has been accepted as a treatment for the improvement of neurodegenerative disease. Herein, the effects of exercise on the MDMA- induced neurotoxicity were assessed. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injection of MDMA (10 mg/kg) and exercised for one month on a treadmill (Simultaneously or asynchronously with MDMA). LTP and expression of BDNF were assessed using electrophysiology and western blotting methods, respectively. MDMA attenuated the field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope in comparison with the control group, whereas treadmill exercise increased this parameter when compared to MDMA group. Furthermore, BDNF expression significantly decreased in MDMA group and treadmill exercise could increase that. In conclusion, results of this study suggest that synchronous exercise is able to improve MDMA-induced LTP changes through increase of BDNF expression in the hippocampus of rats.

  20. Long-term use of stimulants in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: safety, efficacy, and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lily; Greenfield, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize existing data on the long-term safety and efficacy of stimulant treatment, and how long-term stimulant treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects their outcome. Existing controlled studies of children with ADHD treated and untreated with stimulants, as well as long-term prospective follow-up studies, are reviewed. Children with ADHD treated with stimulants for as long as 2 years continue to benefit from the treatment, with improvements observed in ADHD symptoms, comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, and academic and social functioning, with no significant problems of tolerance or adverse effects. Long-term, prospective follow-up studies into adulthood show that stimulant treatment in childhood has slight benefits regarding social skills and self-esteem. Long-term adverse effects from stimulant treatment in childhood regarding adult height or future substance abuse have not been supported by existing studies.

  1. Long-term employment and health inequalities in Canadian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the long-term unemployment rate and various health outcomes across Canadian communities to estimate employment-related health inequalities in these communities. The study uses cross-sectional community-level health data along with data on the long-term employment rate for various communities across Canada to quantify health inequalities among these communities. The health outcomes that are considered in this study include total and disease specific mortality rates; health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, injuries, and self rated health; and life expectancies at birth and at age 65. Health inequalities are estimated using the concentration index, which is used to measure health inequalities along socioeconomic dimensions. The concentration index is estimated by a regression of weighted relative health (ill health) over weighted cumulative relative rank of the populations. All the estimates are provided separately for males and females. The findings of the study support the existence of inequalities in community health outcomes as related to the long-term employment rates in those communities. Communities with lower long term employment rates (higher unemployment rates) have poorer health outcomes in terms of higher mortality rates, worse health conditions, and shorter life expectancies. Health inequalities related to long-term employment have important policy implications. They call for policies that would increase and maintain long term employment rates as part of a broader socioeconomic approach to health. Long term employment ensures income security and prevents the psychosocial experiences leading to mental and physical ill health.

  2. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  3. THE ROLE OF MICROGLIA IN PARAQUAT INDUCED DOPAMINERGIC NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript relates oxidative stress conveyed by a widely used pesticide (paraquat) to selective neurodegeneration of the in vitro models of the mouse brain. As such, it represents a provocative link to the conditions of oxidative stress, environmental chemical exposures and...

  4. In vitro dopaminergic neurotoxicity of pesticides : a link with neurodegeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, Harm J.; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe, chemical compounds are used to treat or repel pests and plagues that pose a threat to food and feed production. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there is a link between exposure to certain chemical classes of these so-called pesticides and the prevalence of

  5. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  6. Long-term memory, sleep, and the spacing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Kawadri, Nader; Simone, Patricia M; Wiseheart, Melody

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that memory is enhanced when study sessions are spaced apart rather than massed. This spacing effect has been shown to have a lasting benefit to long-term memory when the study phase session follows the encoding session by 24 hours. Using a spacing paradigm we examined the impact of sleep and spacing gaps on long-term declarative memory for Swahili-English word pairs by including four spacing delay gaps (massed, 12 hours same-day, 12 hours overnight, and 24 hours). Results showed that a 12-hour spacing gap that includes sleep promotes long-term memory retention similar to the 24-hour gap. The findings support the importance of sleep to the long-term benefit of the spacing effect.

  7. Assisted Living Facilities - MO 2010 Long Term Care Facilities (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Long Term Care facilities (nursing homes) in Missouri - Data will not be made available for download via MSDIS. Interested parties should send an email inquiry to...

  8. Long-term intrathecal administration of midazolam and clonidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, PAJ; Krijnen, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical usefulness of the long-term intrathecal administration of midazolam and clonidine in patients with refractory neurogenic and musculoskeletal pain. Setting: Pain Centre, Academic Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Patients: Four patients with chronic

  9. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available timescale seeks to provide a spatially comprehensive view of trends while also creating a baseline for comparisons with future projections of air quality through the forcing of air quality models with modelled predicted long term meteorology. Previous...

  10. Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Data and Tools Evaluation Database Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy (DALTCP) Home About Offices Disability, Aging, and Long-Te... DALTCP provides leadership on ...

  11. The market for long-term care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data.

  12. Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron .... the mirror image arrangement of the internal organs. The sputum culture was .... A rotating antibiotic therapy.

  13. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  14. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten; Hagen, Chris; Harper, Lorraine; Heijl, Caroline; Hoglund, Peter; Jayne, David; Luqmani, Raashid; Mahr, Alfred; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Pusey, Charles; Rasmussen, Niels; Stegeman, Coen; Walsh, Michael; Westman, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Background Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain. Objective T

  15. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  16. Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Carbon emissions from the Arctic tundra could increase drastically as global warming thaws permafrost. Clues now obtained about the long-term effects of such thawing on carbon dioxide emissions highlight the need for more data.

  17. A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON LONG- TERM INVESTMENT DECISION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Selvam; N Punitavati

    2012-01-01

      A Fundamental study on Capital Budgeting has been viewed with the intention of providing fundamental knowledge to investors whose inclination is making a profit by investing in long term securities...

  18. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... of age.1 In other words, mortality in the year after surgery is approximately 10 ...

  19. Long-term intrathecal administration of midazolam and clonidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, PAJ; Krijnen, HJ

    Objective: To determine the clinical usefulness of the long-term intrathecal administration of midazolam and clonidine in patients with refractory neurogenic and musculoskeletal pain. Setting: Pain Centre, Academic Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Patients: Four patients with chronic

  20. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  1. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions | Westwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term health conditions (LTHCs) in children may affect nutrition and growth by means of ... Both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are risk factors. Direct effects of the condition that may cause undernutrition include increased resting ...

  2. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1–4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β′2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. PMID:25728694

  3. Seamless Long Term Learning in Agile Teams for Sustainable Leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M R J

    2012-01-01

    Seamless and continuous support for long term organizational learning needs is essential for long lasting progress of the organization. Agile process model provides an excellent opportunity to cater that specific problem and also helps in motivation, satisfaction, coordination, presentation and technical skills enhancement of agile teams. This long term learning process makes organization to sustain their current successes and lead both organization and team members to successful and dynamic market leaders.

  4. Preclinical rodent toxicity studies for long term use of ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ratti

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone showed rapid absorption with half-life values ranging between 1 and 1.5 h. Additionally, there was no evidence of accumulation and a virtually complete elimination by 16 h after the last dose. Overall there were no toxicologically meaningful drug-related animal findings associated with the long-term administration (6 months of ceftriaxone. These results support safety of long-term use of ceftriaxone in human clinical trials.

  5. Long-term plasticity in interneurons of the dentate gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Stephen T.; Soltesz, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    Single interneurons influence thousands of postsynaptic principal cells, and the control of interneuronal excitability is an important regulator of the computational properties of the hippocampus. However, the mechanisms underlying long-term alterations in the input–output functions of interneurons are not fully understood. We report a mechanism of interneuronal plasticity that leads to the functional enhancement of the gain of glutamatergic inputs in the absence of long-term potentiation of ...

  6. Long-term care: a substantive factor in financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D A

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 percent of women will enter a nursing home at some point in their lives. About one-third of men living to age 65 will also need nursing home care. Planning for long-term care is even more important since Medicare covers very little of the cost of such care. The Indiana Partnership Plan is one program designed to help fund the long-term care costs while allowing individuals protect other financial assets.

  7. Cyclical Long-term Unemployment, Skill Loss, and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Movements in long-term unemployment (LTU) exhibit a substantial cyclical component. I develop a business cycle model featuring labor market frictions and skill loss during unemployment to capture various stylized facts about the cyclical behavior of long-term unemployment. I find that the skill loss mechanism helps reproduce negative duration dependence, high persistence in unemployment and output, volatility patterns across macroeconomic variables and the behavior of the incidence of LTU aro...

  8. Comparison of Long-term World Energy Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Schade, Burkhard; WIESENTHAL TOBIAS

    2007-01-01

    The POLES (Prospective Outlook for the Long-term Energy System) model is a global sectoral simulation model for the development of long-term energy supply and demand scenarios until 2050. The model is used to calculate global energy scenarios, such as the World Energy, Technology and Climate Policy Outlook (WETO) and the WETO-H2 update. In addition, dedicated greenhouse gas emission reduction scenarios are increasingly produced to support the assessment of climate change policies and measures...

  9. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Larsen, Anders R; Roed-Petersen, Casper;

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  10. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, ...

  11. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.......Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain....

  12. Teacher Cultural Competency and Long-Term English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Students that have been designated English Language Learners for five or more years are Long-Term English Learners. The literature review addresses some typical characteristics and experiences of students that are Long- Term English Language Learners, and the need for culturally responsive practices to meet their needs. Teacher attitudes, perceptions about English Language Learners, positionality, and opportunities to learn are integrated into the review. The author discusses linguistic aware...

  13. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation.

  14. Planning long-term vegetation studies at landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term ecological research is receiving more attention now than ever before. Two recent books, Long-term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives, edited by Gene Likens (1989), and Long-term Ecological Research: An International Perspective, edited by Paul Risser (1991), prompt the question, “Why are these books so thin?” Except for data from paleoecological, retrospective studies (see below), there are exceptionally few long-term data sets in terrestrial ecology (Strayer et al. 1986; Tilman 1989; this volume). In a sample of 749 papers published in Ecology, Tilman (1989) found that only 1.7% of the studies lasted at least five field seasons. Only one chapter in each of the review books dealt specifically with expanding both the temporal and the spatial scales of ecological research (Berkowitz et al. 1989; Magnuson et al. 1991). Judging by the growing number of landscape-scale long-term studies, however, such as the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program (Callahan 1991), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP; Palmer et al. 1991), the U.S. Army’s Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) Program (Diersing et al. 1992), and various agencies’ global change research programs (CEES 1993), there is a growing interest to expand ecological research both temporally and spatially.

  15. Long-Term Effects, Pathophysiological Mechanisms, and Risk Factors of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathies: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhove, Nicolas; Collin, Aurore; Condé, Sakahlé; Chaleteix, Carine; Pezet, Denis; Balayssac, David

    2017-01-01

    Neurotoxic anticancer drugs, such as platinum-based anticancer drugs, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and proteasome/angiogenesis inhibitors are responsible for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The health consequences of CIPN remain worrying as it is associated with several comorbidities and affects a specific population of patients already impacted by cancer, a strong driver for declines in older adults. The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of the long-term effects of CIPN in cancer patients and survivors. Pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are also presented. Neurotoxic mechanisms leading to CIPNs are not yet fully understood but involve neuronopathy and/or axonopathy, mainly associated with DNA damage, oxidative stress, mitochondria toxicity, and ion channel remodeling in the neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Classical symptoms of CIPNs are peripheral neuropathy with a “stocking and glove” distribution characterized by sensory loss, paresthesia, dysesthesia and numbness, sometimes associated with neuropathic pain in the most serious cases. Several risk factors can promote CIPN as a function of the anticancer drug considered, such as cumulative dose, treatment duration, history of neuropathy, combination of therapies and genetic polymorphisms. CIPNs are frequent in cancer patients with an overall incidence of approximately 38% (possibly up to 90% of patients treated with oxaliplatin). Finally, the long-term reversibility of these CIPNs remain questionable, notably in the case of platinum-based anticancer drugs and taxanes, for which CIPN may last several years after the end of anticancer chemotherapies. These long-term effects are associated with comorbidities such as depression, insomnia, falls and decreases of health-related quality of life in cancer patients and survivors. However, it is noteworthy that these long-term effects remain poorly studied, and only limited data are available such as in

  16. Manganese in Whole Blood and Hair in Patients with Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Dastych, Milan; Senkyrík, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is an essential trace element and indispensable component of nutrition mixtures in long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) of patients. On the other hand, neurotoxic effects of excess manganese in the organism have been known for a long time. The objective of the present study was to determine manganese concentration in whole blood and hair of patients with long-term home parenteral nutrition. We examined 16 patients (7 men and 9 women) aged from 28 to 68 years on long-term HPN lasting from 4 to 96 months. The short bowel syndrome was an indication for HPN. The daily dose of manganese ranged between 80 and 470 microg/day (1.2 to 8.5 pg/kg/day). In the investigated patients we detected approximately a doubled value of manganese concentration in whole blood in comparison to the control group (16.2 microg/L; 12.9-20.4 microg/L and 7.4 microg/L; 6.4-8.4 microg/L). In five patients with symptoms of cholestatic hepatopathy, Mn concentration in whole blood exceeded the value of 20.0 microg/L. Magnetic resonance of the brain in four of these patients detected a hyperintense T1-signal in the globus pallidus without any clinical symptoms similar to the Parkinson's syndrome. The content of manganese in the patients' hair was also significantly increased (p manganese concentration in the organism during HPN, especially in patients with liver disorders. Individualized HPN with greater accessibility of variable mixtures of trace elements would certainly be greatly beneficial, at least with regard to problems associated with manganese substitution.

  17. Chronic dietary chlorpyrifos causes long-term spatial memory impairment and thigmotaxic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana M; Nieto-Escámez, Francisco A; Colomina, María T; Aschner, Michael; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and the role of neurotransmitter systems, other than the cholinergic system, in mediating OP neurotoxicity. In this study, rats were administered 5mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) for 6 months commencing at 3-months-of-age. The animals were examined 7 months later (at 16-months-of-age) for spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and locomotor activity. In addition, we assessed the chronic effects of CPF on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) function using pharmacological challenges with dizocilpine (MK801) and diazepam. Impaired performance related to altered search patterns, including thigmotaxis and long-term spatial memory was noted in the MWM in animals exposed to CPF, pointing to dietary CPF-induced behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety. Twenty-four hours after the 31st session of repeated acquisition task, 0.1mg/kg MK801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected for 4 consecutive days. Decreased latencies in the MWM in the control group were noted after two sessions with MK801 treatment. Once the MWM assessment was completed, animals were administered 0.1 or 0.2mg/kg of MK801 and 1 or 3mg/kg of diazepam i.p., and tested for locomotor activity. Both groups, the CPF dietary and control, displayed analogous performance in motor activity. In conclusion, our data point to a connection between the long-term spatial memory, thigmotaxic response and CPF long after the exposure ended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of long-term care in an acute care institution and in a long-term care institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R; Kalant, N

    1998-11-03

    Acute care hospitals in Quebec are required to reserve 10% of their beds for patients receiving long-term care while awaiting transfer to a long-term care facility. It is widely believed that this is inefficient because it is more costly to provide long-term care in an acute care hospital than in one dedicated to long-term care. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality and cost of long-term care in an acute care hospital and in a long-term care facility. A concurrent cross-sectional study was conducted of 101 patients at the acute care hospital and 102 patients at the long-term care hospital. The 2 groups were closely matched in terms of age, sex, nursing care requirements and major diagnoses. Several indicators were used to assess the quality of care: the number of medical specialist consultations, drugs, biochemical tests and radiographic examinations; the number of adverse events (reportable incidents, nosocomial infections and pressure ulcers); and anthropometric and biochemical indicators of nutritional status. Costs were determined for nursing personnel, drugs and biochemical tests. A longitudinal study was conducted of 45 patients who had been receiving long-term care at the acute care hospital for at least 5 months and were then transferred to the long-term care facility where they remained for at least 6 months. For each patient, the number of adverse events, the number of medical specialist consultations and the changes in activities of daily living status were assessed at the 2 institutions. In the concurrent study, no differences in the number of adverse events were observed; however, patients at the acute care hospital received more drugs (5.9 v. 4.7 for each patient, p cost per patient-year was $7580 higher at the acute care hospital, attributable to the higher cost of drugs ($42), the greater use of laboratory tests ($189) and, primarily, the higher cost of nursing ($7349). For patients requiring 3.00 nursing hours/day, the acute care

  19. Neurotoxicity of Folic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam van JGC; Jansen EHJM; A Opperhuizen; TOX

    2004-01-01

    The present review summarises the neurotoxicological effects of folic acid. Some studies in animals have shown that folic acid is neurotoxic and epileptogenic when applied directly to the brain. One poorly controlled and not further reproduced study from 1970 reported neurotoxic symptoms like

  20. Comprehensive neurotoxicity assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulig, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in terms of both the conceptualization of neurotoxicity assessment strategies as well as in the development of behavioral techniques for evaluating neurotoxic exposures. A tiered approach, for example, has been advocated as an assessment strategy in

  1. Protein Kinase M[Zeta] Is Essential for the Induction and Maintenance of Dopamine-Induced Long-Term Potentiation in Apical CA1 Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Frey, Julietta U.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic D1/D5-receptor-mediated processes are important for certain forms of memory as well as for a cellular model of memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. D1/D5-receptor function is required for the induction of the protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of CA1-LTP (L-LTP) through activation…

  2. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A.Ruban

    2015-01-01

    Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant) differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provi-sionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differ-ences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard”hi-erarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  3. The Commonwealth Fund Survey of Long-Term Care Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Weissert, William G

    2010-08-01

    The Commonwealth Fund Survey of Long-Term Care of Specialists was administered via the World Wide Web from September 2007 through March 2008. The primary purpose was to characterize the views of those with known or demonstrable experience and expertise with at least one aspect of long-term care. Among 2,577 potential respondents, 1,147 completed the entire survey for an overall response rate of 44.5%. This special supplement of Medical Care Research and Review uses data collected from the survey to explore several issue areas, namely, reforming long-term care financing, improving government oversight, adopting nursing home culture change, and rebalancing long-term care away from institutions toward home- and community-based services. Analyses documenting the opinion networks of long-term care specialists and the relationship between network characteristics and attitudes toward reform are also reported. Two leading experts provide commentary as well. Details of the study's methodology and issue content are described.

  4. Short- and long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2016-08-05

    There is long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling involving cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and death in the development and regeneration of most systems of the body, in addition to fast purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and secretion. It is not always easy to distinguish between short- and long-term signalling. For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can sometimes act as a short-term trigger for long-term trophic events that become evident days or even weeks after the original challenge. Examples of short-term purinergic signalling during sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric neuromuscular transmission and in synaptic transmission in ganglia and in the central nervous system are described, as well as in neuromodulation and secretion. Long-term trophic signalling is described in the immune/defence system, stratified epithelia in visceral organs and skin, embryological development, bone formation and resorption and in cancer. It is likely that the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in response to both P2X and P2Y purinoceptor activation participates in many short- and long-term physiological effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'.

  5. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  6. Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Lazenbatt, Anne; Soliman, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better-A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned with four different characteristics of long-term health conditions. We suggest that situating child maltreatment within a long-term conditions framework could have significant advantages and implications for practice, policy and research, by strengthening a commitment across disciplines to apply evidence-based principles linked with policy and evaluation and recognizing the chronic effects of maltreatment to concentrate public, professional and government awareness of the extent and impact of the issue. We argue that a public health approach is the most effective way of focusing preventative efforts on the long-term sequelae of child maltreatment and to foster cooperation in promoting children's rights to grow and develop in a safe and caring environment free from violence and abuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  8. The neurotoxicity of amphetamines during the adolescent period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Gomes, Armanda; Costa, Vera Marisa; Feio-Azevedo, Rita; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix; Capela, João Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Amphetamine-type psychostimulants (ATS), such as amphetamine (AMPH), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methamphetamine (METH) are psychoactive substances widely abused, due to their powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulation ability. Young people particularly use ATS as recreational drugs. Moreover, AMPH is used clinically, particularly for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and has the ability to cause structural and functional brain alterations. ATS are known to interact with monoamine transporter sites and easily diffuse across cellular membranes, attaining high levels in several tissues, particularly the brain. Strong evidence suggests that ATS induce neurotoxic effects, raising concerns about the consequences of drug abuse. Considering that many teenagers and young adults commonly use ATS, our main aim was to review the neurotoxic effects of amphetamines, namely AMPH, MDMA, and METH, in the adolescence period of experimental animals. Reports agree that adolescent animals are less susceptible than adult animals to the neurotoxic effects of amphetamines. The susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of ATS seems roughly located in the early adolescent period of animals. Many authors report that the age of exposure to ATS is crucial for the neurotoxic outcome, showing that the stage of brain maturity has a strong importance. Moreover, recent studies have been undertaken in young adults and/or consumers during adolescence that clearly indicate brain or behavioural damage, arguing for long-term neurotoxic effects in humans. There is an urgent need for more studies during the adolescence period, in order to unveil the mechanisms and the brain dysfunctions promoted by ATS.

  9. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion (SP is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly focused on price reductions. Thus, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the issue of the long-term impact that SP has on companies, especially on premium brands in the FMCG markets. It concludes that, when used properly and strategically, SP may have a positive long-term impact on brands.

  11. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  12. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  13. Using long-term transit timing to detect terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, J S; Heyl, Jeremy S.; Gladman, Brett J.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that the presence of additional planets in extrasolar planetary systems can be detected by long-term transit timing studies. If a transiting planet is on an eccentric orbit then the presence of another planet causes a secular advance of the transiting planet's pericenter over and above the effect of general relativity. Although this secular effect is impractical to detect over a small number of orbits, it causes long-term differences in when future transits occur, much like the long-term decay observed in pulsars. Measuring this transit-timing delay would thus allow the detection of either one or more additional planets in the system or the first measurements of non-zero oblateness ($J_2$) of the central stars.

  14. Long-term visual tracking based on correlation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanlu; Lao, Songyang; Bai, Liang

    2017-03-01

    In order to accomplish the long term visual tracking task in complex scenes, solve problems of scale variation, appearance variation and tracking failure, a long term tracking algorithm is given based on the framework of collaborative correlation tracking. Firstly, we integrate several powerful features to boost the represent ability based on the kernel correlation filter, and extend the filter by embedding a scale factor into the kernelized matrix to handle the scale variation. Then, we use the Peak-Sidelobe Ratio to decide whether the object is tracked successfully, and a CUR filter for re-detection the object in case of tracking failure is learnt with random sampling. Corresponding experiment is performed on 17 challenging benchmark video sequences. Compared with the 8 existing state-of-the-art algorithms based on discriminative learning method, the results show that the proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance on several indexes, and is robust to complex scenes for long term visual tracking.

  15. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-01

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  16. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip;

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done......, regarding long-term NRT users’ experiences with continuing the use of NRT. Results from a survey study among long-term NRT-users, who had used NRT for 12 months or more, found that out of 92 former smokers 88 % wished to quit using NRT. The primary causes stated for wishing to quit were being tired...

  17. LONG-TERM EFFECT OF HOMOHARRINGTONINE ON CHRONIC GRANULOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-feng; ZHU Jia-bin; WANG Chun-ling; DING Bang-he; LI Yuan-yuan; XUAN Heng-bao; QIAN Mo-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term effect of homoharringtonine (HHT) on chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and its pharmacological mechanism. Methods: 76 patients with newly diagnosed early chronic phase CGL received treatment of merely 1.5 mg/m2 daily HHT for induction remission and long-term maintenance treatment. The apoptosis rate of bone marrow CD34+ cells induced by HHT was assayed with flow cytometer. Results: 86.8% patients achieved CHR, 13.2% patients PHR and 31.8% patients got cytogenetic response in HHT treatment group, which was longer than 31 (8-54) months in hydroxyurea (HU) group (P<0.05). The effect of apoptosis induction HHT was stronger on CGL-CP patients bone marrow CD34+ cells than on normal person bone marrow CD34+ cells. Conclusion: HHT is a very effective drug for remission induction and long-term maintenance treatment in early chronic phase CGL patients.

  18. On the relationship between short- and long-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    James (1890) divided memory into separate stores; primary and secondary – or short-term and long-term memory. The interaction between the two stores often assumes that information initially is represented in volatile short-term store before entering and consolidating in the more durable long-term......, accepted). Counter to popular beliefs this suggest that long-term memory precedes short-term memory and not vice versa....... memory system (e.g. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Short-term memory seems to provide a surprising processing bottleneck where only a very limited amount of information can be represented at any given moment (Miller, 1956; Cowan, 2001). A number of studies have investigated the nature of this processing...

  19. Evidence for long-term memory in sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Rybski, Diego; Mudersbach, Christoph; Müller, Alfred; Kaufmann, Edgar; Zorita, Eduardo; Jensen, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change signals in sea level rise (SLR) has experienced considerable attention during the last decades. Here we provide evidence that superimposed on any possible anthropogenic trend there is a significant amount of natural decadal and multidecadal variability. Using a set of 60 centennial tide gauge records and an ocean reanalysis, we find that sea levels exhibit long-term correlations on time scales up to several decades that are independent of any systematic rise. A large fraction of this long-term variability is related to the steric component of sea level, but we also find long-term correlations in current estimates of mass loss from glaciers and ice caps. These findings suggest that (i) recent attempts to detect a significant acceleration in regional SLR might underestimate the impact of natural variability and (ii) any future regional SLR threshold might be exceeded earlier/later than from anthropogenic change alone.

  20. Long-term drought severity variations in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jan; Frank, David; Büntgen, Ulf; Verstege, Anne; Luterbacher, Jürg; Xoplaki, Elena

    2007-09-01

    Cedrus atlantica ring width data are used to reconstruct long-term changes in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) over the past 953 years in Morocco, NW Africa. The reconstruction captures the dry conditions since the 1980s well and places this extreme period within a millennium-long context. PDSI values were above average for most of the 1450-1980 period, which let recent drought appear exceptional. However, our results also indicate that this pluvial episode of the past millennium was preceded by generally drier conditions back to 1049. Comparison of PDSI estimates with large-scale pressure field reconstructions revealed steady synoptic patterns for drought conditions over the past 350 years. The long-term changes from initially dry to pluvial to recent dry conditions are similar to PDSI trends reported from N America, and we suggest that they are related to long-term temperature changes, potentially teleconnected with ENSO variability and forced by solar irradiance changes.

  1. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  2. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  3. Prediction of Long Term Degradation of Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    fiberglass, foam, or cellulose insulation in areas where thermal bridges may be formed or used in places where it is not practical to install thicker...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 15 -8 Prediction of Long Term Degradation of Insulating Materials Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CERL TR-15-8 May 2015 Prediction of Long Term Degradation of Insulating Materials L. D. Stephenson, Andrew

  4. Long-term skeletal findings in Menkes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, Eva [Son Dureta Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Domene, Ruth; Fuentes, Cristian; Carreno, Juan-Carlos; Enriquez, Goya [Vall d' Hebron Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Skeletal findings in infants with Menkes disease, the most characteristic of which are metaphyseal spurs, long-bone fractures and wormian bones, have been widely reported. However, the changes in skeletal features over time are not well known. The long-term findings differ completely from those initially observed and consist of undertubulation and metaphyseal flaring, similar to the findings seen in some types of bone dysplasia. The initial and long-term radiological features in an 8-year-old boy with Menkes disease are illustrated. (orig.)

  5. Long-term outcome in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, P; Hegaard, H; Herlin, Troels

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome.......To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome....

  6. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adak, R P; Das, S; Ghosal, D; Ghosh, S K; Mondal, A; Nag, D; Nayak, T K; Patra, R N; Prasad, S K; Raha, S; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S; Swain, S

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long- term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  7. Intrahepatic haematoma in a patient on long-term haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K N; Disney, A P; Mathew, T H

    Spontaneous intrahepatic haematoma is an uncommon potentially fatal complication in uraemic patients receiving long-term haemodialysis, particularly in those taking anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs. Prompt diagnosis, withdrawal of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, cautious transfusion, and careful dialysis with regional heparinisation are essential in the management and may help to avoid surgical intervention in the presence of a tendency to bleed. Noninvasive organ imaging such as ultrasonography and computerised axial tomography are helpful in diagnosis and monitoring of progress. A case of intrahepatic haematoma in a 37-year-old man who had been receiving long-term haemodialysis since 1976 is described.

  8. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    Does parents' long-term abuse of alcohol have an impact on children during their formative years? Yes, several long-term consequences for the children result from this study. The study ascertained an increased mortality and high occurrence of self-destructive behavioural forms (attempted suicide...... unemployment is seen in families with evidence of alcohol abuse. In some respects mothers who are alcohol abusers seem to have a different effect on their children than fathers who are alcohol abusers. So, for example, there is a higher occurence of violence-related crimes and convictions for sexual offences...

  9. Long-term recurrence and death rates after acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle; Tønnesen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Maja Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death.......The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death....

  10. Long-term recurrence and death rates after acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle; Tønnesen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Maja Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death.......The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death....

  11. Long-term prognosis and causes of death after spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Dahl, Benny;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term prognosis after spondylodiscitis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine long-term mortality and the causes of death after spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort study using national registries of patients diagnosed with non.......62), respiratory (MRR = 1.71), gastrointestinal (MRR = 3.35), musculoskeletal (MRR = 5.39) and genitourinary diseases (MRR = 3.37), but also due to trauma, poisoning and external causes (MRR = 2.78), alcohol abuse-related diseases (MRR = 5.59) and drug abuse-related diseases (6 vs 0 deaths, MRR not calculable...

  12. Abdominal pain in long-term spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Krogh, Klaus;

    2008-01-01

    /discomfort. There was no relation of abdominal pain to other types of pain.Conclusion:Chronic pain located in the abdomen is frequent in patients with long-term SCI. The delayed onset following SCI and the relation to constipation suggest that constipation plays an important role for this type of pain in the spinal cord injured.......Objectives:To describe the prevalence and character of chronic abdominal pain in a group of patients with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess predictors of abdominal pain.Study design:Postal survey.Setting:Members of the Danish Paraplegic Association.Methods:We mailed a questionnaire...

  13. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  14. Hippocampal focal knockout of CBP affects specific histone modifications, long-term potentiation, and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-07-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories.

  15. Long term structural dynamics of mechanical systems with local nonlinearities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey, R.H.B.; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the long term behavior of periodically excited mechanical systems consisting of linear components and local nonlinearities. The number of degrees of freedom of the linear components is reduced by applying a component mode synthesis technique. Lyapunov exponents are used to iden

  16. Labor Income and the Demand for Long-term Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The riskless nature in real terms of inflation-linked bonds has led to the conclusion that inflation-linked bonds should constitute a substantial part of the optimal investment portfolio of long-term investors.This conclusion is reached in models where investors do not receive labor income during th

  17. Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stan L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6...

  18. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelly; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: The impact factor of the journal in which a pub

  19. Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term perspective on microfinance starts with a discussion of three central issues: first, views and policies, with two opposing views: "credit for target group" and "pushing the financial frontier"; second, the performance of microfinance institutions measured via two objectives: outreach a

  20. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of medicine

  1. Long-term outcome in children of patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Visser-Meily, Anne M. A.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects on children of parental stroke, with respect to care-giving tasks, children's behavioural problems and stress, and to study the relationship between stress and child, patient and partner characteristics. Subjects: A total of 44 children (age range 10-2

  2. Long-Term English Learners Writing Their Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    High school teacher C. Lynn Jacobs noted that the long-term English language learners in her class had improved in reading comprehension but still lacked writing skills. Inspired by a state humanities project, she worked with the students to publish a collection of stories and poems. Writing about their lives provided the motivation, and writing…

  3. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  4. Long-term investing and your bond rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Dennis

    2005-09-01

    Days cash on hand is an important measure of a healthcare organization's financial condition--but not the only one. A well-diversified investment portfolio managed against long-term objectives is equally important--and can be a significant asset in the eyes of bond rating agencies.

  5. Long-Term Follow-Up after Treatment of Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Cortes, Dina

    2016-01-01

    When considering long-term prognosis and results in adult age following treatment of cryptorchidism in childhood there are three main issues to be discussed: cosmetics, fertility, and malignancy. In the present review, the most recent research on the topics related to summaries of well-known know...

  6. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  7. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for theexistence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG productcategories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablishedbrands when new products are introduced into the market andproduct...

  8. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy: an audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Hansen, H.P.; Tarnow, L.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin-a...

  9. Long-Term Outcome in Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sequelae and early predictors of sequelae were determined in a chart review of 47 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS of whom 30 had been treated with intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

  10. Long-term accumulation of atmospheric dust in rocky deserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.; Offer, Z.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial pattern of long-term (hundreds to thousands of years) accumulation of dust in rocky deserts was investigated in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. The concentration of dust in the desert subsoil was measured at 41 locations in a 53 ha test area for which detailed information exists on

  11. Semi-automatic long-term acoustic surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Tórur; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient non-invasive method, which may be deployed for surveys of animals as diverse as insects, birds, and bats. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique...... to determine bat behavior and correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying....

  12. Medium and long-term perspectives of international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Keramidas, Kimon; Matzenberger, Julian; Tromborg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the coming decades, huge challenges in the global energy system are expected. Scenarios indicate that bioenergy will play a substantial role in this process. However, up to now there is very limited insight regarding the implication this may have on bioenergy trade in the long term. The objective

  13. Long-Term Sequelae after Cerebellar Astrocytoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects on neurologic, neuropsychological, and behavioral functioning in a consecutive series of 23 children treated surgically for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma without additional radio- and chemotherapy are determined in a study at Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and other medical centers.

  14. Institutional Repositories as Infrastructures for Long-Term Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Helena; Gamalielsson, Jonas; Lundell, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.…

  15. Annotated Bibliography of Intramural Research on Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    As components of the National Center for Health Services Research Division of Intramural Research, the Long-Term Care Studies Program and the Aging Studies Program were established to define the problems of caring for the chronically ill and the elderly and to study the organization, financing, and delivery of health care services to these…

  16. Planning for connections in the long-term in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy T. Austin

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a long-term ecological research program and research collaborations in northwestern Patagonia. A workshop in San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, January 2009. The relict flora of Gondwanda, the mystic nature of the windswept Patagonian steppe, the Andes mountains and the southern beech forests, all combined, made San Carlos de Bariloche the perfect setting...

  17. Brachial plexus neuropathy - A long-term outcome study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; Groothoff, JW; Nicolai, JP; Rietman, JS

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the long-term outcome of brachial plexus neuropathy in 16 patients. The mean follow up was 8 years. Nine patients complained of persistent pain and muscle weakness, four had continuing problems with various activities of daily living and 11 had trouble with some hou

  18. Long-term outcome in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, L.A.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Houterman, S.; Wevers, R.A.; Vreeswijk, C.; Jakobs, C.; Struys, E.; Hoeven, J.H. van; Sival, D.A.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 familie

  19. Long-term outcome in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J.; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; Van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. METHOD: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 famil

  20. Designing long-term policy: rethinking transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voß, J.P.; Smith, A.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term policy is enjoying something of a come-back in connection with sustainable development. The current revival tries to avoid the pitfalls of an earlier generation of positivistic long-range planning and control approaches. Instead, this new generation of policy design emphasises reflexive go

  1. Long-term resightings of humpback whales off Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, C.; Acevedo, J.; Aguayo-Lobo, A.; Allen, J.; Capella, J.; Rosa, Dalla L.; Flores-González, L.; Kaufman, G.; Forestell, P.; Scheidat, M.; Secchi, E.R.; Stevick, P.; Santos, M.C.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the long-term re-sight histories of fifteen photo-identified humpback whales encountered to date transiting Ecuadorian waters. It also provides information about connections to feeding area destinations. Whale EC1261 has been resighted over a 26 year span and provides insight i

  2. Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160719.html Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term 10-year follow- ... 31, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery helps people drop a significant amount of ...

  3. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  4. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development.

  5. Long-term human-robot interaction with young users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, P.; Belpaeme, T.; Canamero, L.; Cosi, P.; Demiris, Y.; Enescu, V.; Et al.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial companion agents have the potential to combine novel means for effective health communication with young patients support and entertainment. However, the theory and practice of long-term child-robot interaction is currently an underdeveloped area of research. This paper introduces an appr

  6. Long-term human-robot interaction with young users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, P.; Belpaeme, T.; Canamero, L.; Cosi, P.; Demiris, Y.; Enescu, V.; Et al.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial companion agents have the potential to combine novel means for effective health communication with young patients support and entertainment. However, the theory and practice of long-term child-robot interaction is currently an underdeveloped area of research. This paper introduces an appr

  7. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  8. Enhancing Practical Evaluation Training through Long-Term Evaluation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests an approach to providing practical evaluation training through university-supported, long-term funded evaluation projects. Such projects are managed through a university center that provides assistance to clients in student assessment and program evaluation. Discusses the benefits and challenges of these experiences for students. (SLD)

  9. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolle, LE; Bentley, DW; Garibaldi, R; Neuhaus, EG; Smith, PW

    2000-01-01

    There is intense antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs), and studies repeatedly document that much of this use is inappropriate. The current crisis in antimicrobial resistance, which encompasses the LTCF, heightens concerns of antimicrobial use. Attempts to improve antimicrobial use

  10. Early and long-term morbidity after total laryngopharyngectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Keereweer (Stijn); J.H.W. de Wilt (Johannes); A. Sewnaik (Aniel); C.A. Meeuwis (Cees); H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); J.D.F. Kerrebijn (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo determine the early and long-term morbidity of patients treated with a total laryngopharyngectomy and reconstruction using a jejunum interposition or gastric pull-up procedure. It is a retrospective study; and it is conducted in tertiairy referral center. Sixty-three patients were inc

  11. Long-term outcomes after upper limb arterial injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kucey, DS; Brenneman, FD; Hunter, GA; Maggisano, R; tenDuis, HJ

    OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes in multisystem trauma victims who have arterial injuries to upper limbs. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care regional trauma centre in a university hospital. PATIENTS: All consecutive severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score

  12. Long-Term Learning, Achievement Tests, and Learner Centered Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Moises F.; Kane-Johnson, Sarah E.; Vasil-Miller, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of achievement tests to measure long-term learning at the higher education level in traditional verses learner-centered classrooms. Volunteer instructors who use comprehensive achievement tests as an important component of their grading system were asked to complete an instrument that…

  13. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: The impact factor of the journal in which a pub

  14. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: the impact factor of the journal in which a pub

  15. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  16. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and se

  17. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357218574

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of

  18. Long-Term Attention Problems After Brain Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Parent ratings of attention problems were obtained at long-term follow-up (average 4 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI and compared with ratings of premorbid attention problems shortly after injury, in a study of 132 children (ages 6-12 years at the Ohio State University and Columbus Children's Research Institute and other centers.

  19. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  1. Acute mastoiditis in children: presentation and long term consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, F

    2008-03-01

    Acute mastoiditis, a destructive bacterial infection of the mastoid bone and air cell system, is relatively uncommon today but remains a potentially serious condition. There is a lack of information in the literature regarding the long term otological problems that children may face following an episode of this condition.

  2. Effects of Long-Term Immunization with Multiple Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    who had volunteered as a subject for production of hyperimmune pertussis globulin . He received one injection with 0.5 ml of tetanus toxoid and eight...OCCASIONALLY ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE IMMUNIZATIONS . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 Serum Sickness . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 Autoimmune ...they were selected for inclusion in a prospective study to determine whether long-term risks were associated with human " hyperimmunization ." Results

  3. Long-term outcome in children of patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Visser-Meily, Anne M. A.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects on children of parental stroke, with respect to care-giving tasks, children's behavioural problems and stress, and to study the relationship between stress and child, patient and partner characteristics. Subjects: A total of 44 children (age range 10-2

  4. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  5. Subintimal angioplasty: predictors of long-term success.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-08-01

    To determine the clinical outcomes and success rates after percutaneous subintimal angioplasty (SIA) in patients with lower-limb occlusive lesions causing intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischemia (CLI) at midterm to long-term follow-up. The secondary aim was to elicit factors predictive of a successful outcome.

  6. A cross cultural comparison of long-term supply relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gjalt de; Nooteboom, Bart

    2003-01-01

    This paper challenges the received view that long-term supply relationships are a typically Japanese feature, embedded and developed in a typically Japanese society characterized by high levels of trust and cooperation, and for that reason cannot be established in the typically a-cooperative, compet

  7. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  8. Sino-America Dialogue Brings Long-term Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dialogue between China and U.S.is various in channels,among which Sino-U.S.Strategic Economic Dialogue paves way for a smoothly-going and long-term cooperation in bilateral relations.The dialogue focuses on bilateal and global strategic economic issues of common interests and concerns.

  9. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  10. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  11. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  12. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  13. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  14. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used fo

  15. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  16. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...... after a first stroke and to compare them with those of the background population....

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  18. Drug taper during long-term video-EEG monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guld, Asger Toke; Sabers, A; Kjaer, T W

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Anti-epileptic drugs (AED) are often tapered to reduce the time needed to record a sufficient number of seizure during long-term video-EEG monitoring (LTM). Fast AED reduction is considered less safe, but few studies have examined this. Our goal is to examine whether the rate of AED...

  19. Long-Term Outcomes of an Urban Farming Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonti, Nancy Falxa; Campbell, Lindsay K.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Daftary-Steel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the…

  20. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  1. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a pree

  2. Long-term Results After Ankle Syndesmosis Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, N. van; Denk, K.; Kampen, A. van; Jaarsma, R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Syndesmotic disruption occurs in more than 10% of ankle fractures. Operative treatment with syndesmosis screw fixation has been successfully performed for decades and is considered the gold standard of treatment. Few studies have reported the long-term outcomes of syndesmosis injuries. This study in

  3. Polycarbonates: a long-term highly sensitive radon monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Poffijn, A; Meesen, G; Deynse, A V

    2000-01-01

    An approach for long-term (either retrospective or prospective) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn measurements is proposed that is based on the combination of the high radon absorption ability of some polycarbonates with their alpha track-etch properties. The detection limit is projected to be <10 Bq m sup - sup 3 for an exposure time of 20 yr.

  4. Long-term outcome of equestrian injuries in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R; van der Sluis, CK; Kootstra, J; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, Willem; ten Duis, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Purpose : To investigate the possible development of long-term disabilities arising from paediatric equestrian injuries. Method : All patients, aged 17 years or younger, treated in a hospital setting because of an equestrian injury during a five-year period received a questionnaire. A reference popu

  5. The efficacy of long-term psychotherapy: Methodological research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, S.M.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Jonghe, de F.

    2007-01-01

    In evidence-based medicine (EBM) hierarchy, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are ranked higher than cohort studies. However, cohort intervention studies are frequently, and RCTs rarely, used to investigate long-term psychotherapy (LTP). The authors compare the two methods and provide critical

  6. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with lo

  7. Medium and long-term perspectives of international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Keramidas, Kimon; Matzenberger, Julian; Tromborg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the coming decades, huge challenges in the global energy system are expected. Scenarios indicate that bioenergy will play a substantial role in this process. However, up to now there is very limited insight regarding the implication this may have on bioenergy trade in the long term. The

  8. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  9. Medium- to long-term outcome of ankle arthrodesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.M. Hendrickx; S.A.S. Stufkens; E.E. de Bruijn; I.N. Sierevelt; C.N. van Dijk; G.M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvement in outcome after ankle arthroplasty, fusion of the ankle joint is still considered the gold standard. A matter of concern is deterioration of clinical outcome as a result of loss of motion and advancing degeneration of adjacent joints. We performed a long-term study to address th

  10. Labor Income and the Demand for Long-term Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The riskless nature in real terms of inflation-linked bonds has led to the conclusion that inflation-linked bonds should constitute a substantial part of the optimal investment portfolio of long-term investors.This conclusion is reached in models where investors do not receive labor income during

  11. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used fo

  12. The Jornada Basin long term ecological research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert landscapes exemplify the ecological conditions, vulnerability, and management challenges in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. The goal of the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research program (JRN LTER) established in 1982 is to understand and quantify the key factors ...

  13. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

  14. Long term impacts of international outsourcing of manufacturing on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosavirad, Seyed Hamed; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    International outsourcing seems to be a cost efficient way of production. However, there are serious concerns about its long term impacts on the environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper aims to quantify these impacts by using input output analysis, linear programming and syst...

  15. Designing long-term policy: rethinking transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voß, J.P.; Smith, A.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term policy is enjoying something of a come-back in connection with sustainable development. The current revival tries to avoid the pitfalls of an earlier generation of positivistic long-range planning and control approaches. Instead, this new generation of policy design emphasises reflexive

  16. Endothelial damage in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Cornelia A J; Postma, Aleida; Hooimeijer, H Louise H; Smit, Andries J; Vonk, Judith M; van Roon, A. M.; van den Berg, Maarten P; Dolsma, W.; Lefrandt, Johan; Bink - Boelkens, Margaretha; Zwart, Nynke; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Tissing, Wim J E; Gietema, Jourik A

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the presence of vascular damage in long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and sibling controls, and to evaluate the association between vascular damage parameters and cancer treatment and influence of cardiovascular risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Vascular assessment was

  17. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  18. Long term results of kissing stents in the aortic bifurcation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, J.W.; Konickx, M.A.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Kolkert, J.L.P.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Huisman, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the long-term outcome after aortoiliac kissing stent placement and to analyze variables, which potentially influence the outcome of endovascular reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation. METHODS: All patients treated with aortoiliac kissing stents at our institution between

  19. Environmental Factors in Suicide in Long Term-Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Nancy J.

    1992-01-01

    Explored environmental factors related to suicide in 463 long-term care facilities. Staff turnover, size, auspices, and per diem cost related to suicidal behavior and deaths from suicide. More suicides occurred in larger facilities and facilities with higher staff turnover. Religious or "other" facilities experienced more suicidal deaths than…

  20. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  1. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  2. Clinical scales in progressive MS: predicting long-term disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Libertje V A E; Kragt, Jolijn J; Knol, Dirk L; Polman, Chris H; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2012-03-01

    To determine which short-term changes on clinical scales including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), 9-Hole Peg test (9HPT) and Guy's Neurological Disability Scale (GNDS) are most predictive of long-term outcome of disability as rated by the EDSS in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). From a longitudinal database, all progressive patients, both primary (PP) and secondary (SP), were selected on the basis of at least two complete examinations being available within a time interval of 1-2 years (short-term change). All patients who fulfilled the selection criteria were invited for a third visit after an interval of at least 3 years (long-term outcome). We used ordinal logistic regression to see which early changes were most predictive of the long-term EDSS. 181 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Early change on EDSS and T25FW were the best predictors of long-term EDSS; both were significant predictors in a 'single predictor' model. Early EDSS change was a slightly stronger single predictor (R(2) 0.38, Wald χ(2) 42.65, p EDSS change in a 'combined predictor' model improved prediction (p = 0.036). Both early change on EDSS and T25FW predict long-term EDSS with comparable strength. Early change on T25FW adds significant independent information and improves the prediction model with early EDSS change only. Therefore we support the use of early T25FW examinations in future clinical trials in progressive MS.

  3. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available.

  4. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  5. Neurocognitive Outcomes in Long-term Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated on Contemporary Treatment Protocols: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ting; Krull, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    The intensified administration of chemotherapeutic drugs has gradually replaced cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While CRT is often implicated in neurocognitive impairment in ALL survivors, there is a paucity of literature that evaluates the persistence of neurocognitive deficits in long-term survivors of pediatric ALL who were treated with contemporary chemotherapy-only protocols. Results from this systematic review concurred to the probable cognitive-sparing effect of chemotherapy-based protocols over CRT in long-term survivors. However, coupled with multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, survivors who received chemotherapy treatment still suffered from apparent cognitive impairment, particularly in the attention and executive function domains. Notably, there is evidence to suggest that the late neurotoxic effect of methotrexate on survivors’ neurocognitive performance may be dose-related. This review also recommends future pharmacokinetic, neuroimaging and genetic studies to illuminate the multifactorial nature of this subject matter and discusses the potential value of neurochemical, physiological, inflammatory and genetic markers for the prediction of susceptibility to neurocognitive impairment in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. PMID:25857254

  6. Long-term exposure of mice to nucleoside analogues disrupts mitochondrial DNA maintenance in cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Zhang

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, an integral component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, was widely used to inhibit HIV replication. Long-term exposure to NRTIs can result in mitochondrial toxicity which manifests as lipoatrophy, lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy and myopathy, as well as polyneuropathy. But the cerebral neurotoxicity of NRTIs is still not well known partly due to the restriction of blood-brain barrier (BBB and the complex microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, the Balb/c mice were administered 50 mg/kg stavudine (D4T, 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT, 50 mg/kg lamivudine (3TC or 50 mg/kg didanosine (DDI per day by intraperitoneal injection, five days per week for one or four months, and primary cortical neurons were cultured and exposed to 25 µM D4T, 50 µM AZT, 25 µM 3TC or 25 µM DDI for seven days. Then, single neuron was captured from mouse cerebral cortical tissues by laser capture microdissection. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA levels of the primary cultured cortical neurons, and captured neurons or glial cells, and the tissues of brains and livers and muscles were analyzed by relative quantitative real-time PCR. The data showed that mtDNA did not lose in both NRTIs exposed cultured neurons and one month NRTIs treated mouse brains. In four months NRTIs treated mice, brain mtDNA levels remained unchanged even if the mtDNA levels of liver (except for 3TC and muscle significantly decreased. However, mtDNA deletion was significantly higher in the captured neurons from mtDNA unchanged brains. These results suggest that long-term exposure to NRTIs can result in mtDNA deletion in mouse cortical neurons.

  7. Dementia in patients undergoing long-term dialysis: aetiology, differential diagnoses, epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, P M; Niederstadt, C; Reusche, E

    2001-01-01

    Dementia in patients undergoing long-term dialysis has not been clearly defined; however, four different entities have been described. Uraemic encephalopathy is a complication of uraemia and responds well to dialysis. Dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, the result of acute intoxication of aluminium caused by the use of an aluminium-containing dialysate, was a common occurrence prior to 1980. However, using modern techniques of water purification, such acute intoxication can now be avoided. Dialysis-associated encephalopathy/dementia (DAE) is always associated with elevated serum aluminium levels. Pathognomonic morphological changes in the brain have been described, but the mechanism for the entry of aluminium into the CNS is incompletely understood. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the neurotoxicity associated with aluminium are numerous. Although only a very small fraction of ingested aluminium is absorbed, the continuous oral aluminium intake from aluminium-based phosphate binders, and also of dietary or environmental origin, is responsible for aluminium overload in dialysis patients. Age-related dementia, especially vascular dementia, occurs in patients undergoing long-term dialysis as frequently as it does in the general population. The differential diagnoses of dialysis-associated dementias should include investigation for metabolic encephalopathies, heavy metal or trace element intoxications, and distinct structural neurological lesions such as subdural haematoma, normal pressure hydrocephalus, stroke and, particularly, hypertensive encephalopathy and multi-infarct dementia. To prevent DAE, dietary training programmes should aim to achieve the lowest phosphate intake and pharmacological tools should be used to keep serum phosphate levels below 2 mmol/L. To prevent vascular dementia, lifestyle modification should be undertaken, including optimal physical activity and fat intake, nicotine abstinence, and targeting optimal blood glucose, cholesterol

  8. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  9. 82 FR 18736 - Impact of Long Term Evolution Signals on Global Positioning System Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    ... Long Term Evolution Signals on Global Positioning System Receivers AGENCY: National Institute of... project ``Impact of Long Term Evolution (LTE) signals on Global Positioning System (GPS) Devices''. At...

  10. Appraising digital records for long-term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Eastwood

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to extract lessons from archivists' experience of appraising electronic records that are likely to have wider application in the preservation of other digital materials, including scientific data. It relies mainly on the work of the Appraisal Task Force of the InterPARES project on long-term preservation of authentic electronic records to develop a picture of the process of appraisal. It concludes that the aspects of assessment of authenticity, determination of the feasibility of preservation, and monitoring electronic records as they are maintained in the live environment are likely to find counterparts in attempts to appraise digital objects for long-term preservation in the scientific community. It also argues that the activities performed during appraisal constitute the first vital step in the process of preservation of digital materials.

  11. Profiling - Predicting Long-Term Unemployment at the Individual Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Soukup

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Labour market policy encourages both the preventive and proactive approaches in order to avoid negative impacts. Unfortunately, a large number of evaluation studies show that active intervention is helpful only if it is targeted according to the prevailing situation and needs of claimants. The first step in the targeting process is to determine in advance which claimant has a significant probability of becoming long-term unemployed and just how high the risk is.
    This paper deals with the predicting of long-term unemployment at the individual level. In contrast with research carried out elsewhere, the paper stresses the theory behind the statistical model. As far as the Czech Republic is concerned it has been shown that a model computed using only data from the official unemployment register is correct in 78% of cases, i.e. 20 percentage points more than the result obtained by means of the constant or risk group approaches.

  12. Long-term follow-up of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Laura E; Harting, Matthew T; Lally, Kevin P

    2017-06-01

    Increased survival of patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia has created a unique cohort of children, adolescent, and adult survivors with complex medical and surgical needs. Disease-specific morbidities offer the opportunity for multiple disciplines to unite together to provide long-term comprehensive follow-up, as well as an opportunity for research regarding late outcomes. These children can exhibit impaired pulmonary function, altered neurodevelopmental outcomes, nutritional insufficiency, musculoskeletal changes, and specialized surgical needs that benefit from regular monitoring and intervention, particularly in patients with increased disease severity. Below we aim to characterize the specific challenges that these survivors face as well as present an algorithm for a multidisciplinary long-term follow-up program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on textual and audio-visual media types. With the recent paradigm shift in architecture and construction from analog 2D plans and scale models to digital 3D information models of buildings, long-term preservation efforts must turn their attention to this new type of data. Currently......Long-term preservation of information about artifacts of the built environment is crucial to provide the ability to retrofit legacy buildings, to preserve cultural heritage, to ensure security precautions, to enable knowledge-reuse of design and engineering solutions and to guarantee the legal...... liabilities of all stakeholders (e.g. designer, engineers). Efforts for the digital preservation of information have come a long way and a number of mature methods, frameworks, guidelines and software systems are at the disposal of librarians and archivists. However, the focus of these developments has...

  14. Related Studies in Long Term Lithium Battery Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  15. Long-term security of energy supply and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turton, H. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). ECS; Barreto, L. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Energy Economics Group

    2006-10-15

    Security of energy supply and climate change are central concerns for policy makers and important dimensions of the long-term quest for a sustainable global energy system. This paper examines the role of several policy instruments in managing energy security and climate risks and stimulating technological change towards a more secure and climate-benign global energy system in the long-term future. The analysis has been conducted with ERIS, a multi-regional energy-systems ''bottom-up'' optimization model with technology learning. Our analysis provides some policy insights and identifies synergies and trade-offs relating to the potential for security of supply policies to promote the uptake of new technologies, reduce the cost of pursuing climate change mitigation policies, and facilitate a possible transition to a hydrogen economy. (author)

  16. Long-term security of energy supply and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hal Turton; Leonardo Barreto [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS)

    2006-10-15

    Security of energy supply and climate change are central concerns for policy makers and important dimensions of the long-term quest for a sustainable global energy system. This paper examines the role of several policy instruments in managing energy security and climate risks and stimulating technological change towards a more secure and climate-benign global energy system in the long-term future. The analysis has been conducted with ERIS, a multi-regional energy-systems 'bottom-up' optimization model with technology learning. The analysis provides some policy insights and identifies synergies and trade-offs relating to the potential for security of supply policies to promote the uptake of new technologies, reduce the cost of pursuing climate change mitigation policies, and facilitate a possible transition to a hydrogen economy. 44 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done...... of feeling addicted, cost of NRT products and fear of adverse health consequences. Aim of study • To get a thorough understanding of the lived experiences of nicotine dependent long-term NRT users. • To investigate what motivates or discourages quitting NRT. Method Semi-structured interviews with long...

  18. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  19. TANK S-109 LONG TERM HUMAN HEALTH RISK CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, S.E.

    2003-12-16

    This document provides Tank S-109 long-term human risks calculations, in support of Functions and Requirements document (RPP-18812) as required by milestone M-45-00 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This calculation was performed to provide a screening-level assessment of long-term human health risk associated with potential leakage that could occur during waste retrieval operations for tank S-109 This calculation supports the development of tank S-109 waste retrieval functions and requirements as documented in RPP-18812. Risks associated with current waste and potential residual waste in tank S-109, as well as risk associated with other S farm tanks, were not of interest and were not evaluated.

  20. Pneumonia in nursing homes and long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mark B

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of pneumonia in residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important cause of pneumonia in residents of nursing homes and LTCFs. Factors suggestive of aspiration are the most important risk factors for pneumonia in this population. The clinical presentation of pneumonia among long-term care facility residents is challenging; residents tend to be older and more debilitated than their elderly community-dwelling counterparts. Data on optimal antimicrobial therapy in this setting is sparse. Functional status is an important predictor of outcome in this population. There are key management issues, such as site of care, which remain unresolved. Immunization with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines remains the mainstay of prevention.

  1. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    , drug addiction) among adolescents from 14 to 27 years old with alcoholic parents. Hospitalisation of adolescents because of psychological disturbances is also seen relatively more often among cases where the parents are alcohol abusers. Similarly, an increased risk of teenage motherhood and youth......Does parents' long-term abuse of alcohol have an impact on children during their formative years? Yes, several long-term consequences for the children result from this study. The study ascertained an increased mortality and high occurrence of self-destructive behavioural forms (attempted suicide...... unemployment is seen in families with evidence of alcohol abuse. In some respects mothers who are alcohol abusers seem to have a different effect on their children than fathers who are alcohol abusers. So, for example, there is a higher occurence of violence-related crimes and convictions for sexual offences...

  2. Noncontact ECG system for unobtrusive long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Neil J; Anumula, Harini A; Duff, Eric; Soussou, Walid

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes measurements made using an ECG system with QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrodes integrated into a pad system that is placed over a chair. QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrode has the property of measuring bioelectric potentials at a small separation from the body. This enables the measurement of ECG signals through fabric, without the removal of clothing or preparation of skin. The ECG was measured through the subject's clothing while the subject sat in the chair without any supporting action from the subject. The ECG pad system is an example of a high compliance system that places minimal requirements upon the subject and, consequently, can be used to generate a long-term record from ECG segments collected on a daily basis, providing valuable information on long-term trends in cardiac health.

  3. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; van Doorn, Nienke L

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning...... to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear...... that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding...

  4. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  5. [Long-term opioid therapy and respiratory insufficiency during sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, J E S; Dette, F; Cassel, W; Riese, C; Augsten, M; Koehler, U

    2010-04-01

    An increasing proportion of the patients with chronic pain are being treated with opioids on a long-term basis. There are indications that the causes of hypersomnia in patients under chronic opioid therapy are primarily related to breathing disorders during sleep. Hence, we compared the polysomnographies of three hypersomnic patients receiving long-term opioid therapy before and during nocturnal non-invasive ventilatory therapy. Significant findings were a central breathing pattern accompanied by reduced deep and REM sleep. On applying non-invasive ventilatory therapy, there was a significant improvement of respiratory status with an increase of deep sleep as well as a moderate decrease in hypersomnia. In patients under chronic opioid therapy with hypersomnia, the presence of central breathing disorders should be considered.

  6. Long-term results of trismus release in noma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseling, P; Bruhn, J; Erdsach, T; Ettema, A M; Sautter, R; Bergé, S J

    2010-09-01

    Noma, also known as cancrum oris, is an infectious disease that results in a loss of orofacial tissue, due to gangrene of soft and bony tissue. It is especially seen in young children in the sub-Saharan region. Among the sequelae of patients who survive noma, trismus is one of the most disabling. This retrospective research studied the long-term results of trismus release in noma patients. Thirty-six patients could be traced in the villages and were included in the study. The mean mouth opening in this group was 10.3mm (95% CI: 7.0; 13.6mm) and the mean period after discharge from hospital was 43 months. Better mouth opening was observed in patients who continued physiotherapy after discharge, were older, and those with a 'soft' (vs. 'hard') inner and outer cheek on palpation. The result of trismus release in noma patients in the long term was extremely poor in this study.

  7. Long-Term Complications of Button Batteries in the Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Satvinder Singh; Coumare, V Nirmal; Priya, Madhu; Kumar, Sithananda

    2016-03-01

    One of the common emergencies presenting to the emergency department is a child who has inserted a foreign body into their nose. Of the various things that children insert accidently, the most dangerous are button batteries. We followed up 11 cases of children with history of button battery insertion in the nose for 1 year. We found that all of the patients had developed a septal perforation; other sequelae included nasal adhesions and saddle nose. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Button batteries in the nose are dangerous and can lead to early complications with long-term consequences for the patients. Early diagnosis is required so that they can be removed as soon as possible to prevent the development of complications and long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Capsosomes as Long-Term Delivery Vehicles for Protein Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W; Richardson, Joseph J; Chandrawati, Rona; Kempe, Kristian; van Koeverden, Martin P; Caruso, Frank

    2015-07-21

    We report the preparation of polymer capsules containing liposomal subcompartments, termed capsosomes, and their ability for the sustained delivery of protein therapeutics. Capsosomes were formed through the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymers and protein-loaded liposomes, followed by the formation of a capsule membrane based on disulfide cross-linked poly(methacrylic acid). The loading capacities of a model cargo (lysozyme) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neurotrophin that has significant physiological functions on the nervous system, were determined, and the long-term release kinetics of the proteins was investigated in simulated physiological conditions. The capsosomes exhibited protein loading and release behavior that can be tuned by the lipid composition of the liposomal compartments, where inclusion of anionic lipids resulted in enhanced protein loading and slower release over the course of 80 days. These findings highlight the potential of capsosomes for the long-term delivery of protein therapeutics.

  9. Long-term duration of function of ovarian tissue transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Silber, Sherman J; Berghold, Stinne Holm

    2012-01-01

    These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had frozen ovarian...... or to alleviate its symptoms. These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had...... tissue transplanted, and two women underwent fresh ovarian tissue transplants. The function of ovarian cortical strips has continued for more than 7years in these three women, with the birth of eight healthy babies following a single graft per patient. In addition to these three cases, transplantation...

  10. The neurotoxicity of pyridinium metabolites of haloperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Górska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Haloperydol is a butyrophenone, typical neuroleptic agent characterized as a high antipsychotics effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and in palliative care to alleviation many syndromes, such as naursea, vomiting and delirium. Clinical problems occurs during and after administration of the drug are side effects, particularly extrapyrramidal symptoms (EPS. The neurotoxicity of haloperydol may be initiated by the cationic metabolites of haloperydol, HPP+, RHPP+, formed by oxidation and reduction pathways. These metabolites are transported by human organic cation transporters (hOCT to several brain structures for exapmle, in substantia nigra, striatum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus. After reaching the dopaminergic neurons inhibits mitochondrial complex I, evidence for free radical involvement, thus leading to neurodegeneration.

  11. Evaluation of potential neurotoxic effects of occupational exposure to (L)-Lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    2001-01-01

    Organo psycho syndrome (OPS) or chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurotoxic condition reported following long-term exposure to paints containing organic solvent and to other solvents. Lactate esters are finding wider use as solvents. Lactate esters have been well studied in standard toxicity

  12. Evaluation of potential neurotoxic effects of occupational exposure to (L)-Lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    2001-01-01

    Organo psycho syndrome (OPS) or chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurotoxic condition reported following long-term exposure to paints containing organic solvent and to other solvents. Lactate esters are finding wider use as solvents. Lactate esters have been well studied in standard toxicity

  13. Apgar Scores: Examining the Long-term Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2000-01-01

    The Apgar scoring system was intended as an evaluative measure of a newborn's condition at birth and of the need for immediate attention. In the most recent past, individuals have unsuccessfully attempted to link Apgar scores with long-term developmental outcomes. This practice is not appropriate, as the Apgar score is currently defined. Expectant parents need to be aware of the limitations of the Apgar score and its appropriate uses.

  14. A Long-term Mechanism Needed to Safeguard Financial Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何德旭

    2007-01-01

    In the post-WTO era, China has encountered new difficulties in maintaining financial stability. Quick fix and emergency measures can no longer be relied on in the long run, and therefore, a long-term mechanism of financial stability must be put in place. This article recommends that China should focus on furthering financial reform, accelerating financial innovation and improving the legal system to promote a strong and competitive finance industry that is less vulnerable to financial hazards.

  15. CAN LONG-TERM POTENTIATION BE INGVCED BY ACUPOINT STIMULATION?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴定宗; 张煜; 万平

    2000-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is usually induced by direct brain stimulation. An attempt has been made to evoke LTP in dentate granule cells of hippocampus by acupoint stimulation in anesthetized rats. Assuming a gradual increasing course, LTP rose to 146% at the end of one hour. After applying such stimulation to the awake rats for six days (once everyday), their discriminative learning capacity in Y maze test markedly improved as compared with that of the control.

  16. Electronic records long term authenticity and integrity demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Jerman Blažič, Aljoša; Helena Halas

    2011-01-01

    Long term preservation of electronic data requires introduction of specific technology solutions and organizational measures in order to provide stable environment for electronic record preservation. System solutions must support basic principles of electronic preservation: accessibility of data, usability or reproduction of data in usable form and integrity/authenticity provision including time existence for preserved content.Due to their nature, electronic data may become subjects of manipu...

  17. Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelvik, Anna; Rydenhag, Bertil; Olsson, Ingrid; Flink, Roland; Kumlien, Eva; Källén, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prospective, population-based long-term outcomes concerning seizures and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment after resective epilepsy surgery in Sweden. Methods: Ten- and 5-year follow-ups were performed in 2005 to 2007 for 278/327 patients after resective epilepsy surgery from 1995 to 1997 and 2000 to 2002, respectively. All patients had been prospectively followed in the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Ninety-three patients, who were presurgically evaluated but not operated, served as controls. Results: In the long term (mean 7.6 years), 62% of operated adults and 50% of operated children were seizure-free, compared to 14% of nonoperated adults (p seizure freedom since surgery, compared to none of the controls (p seizures/month at baseline and long epilepsy duration as negative predictors and positive MRI to be a positive predictor of long-term seizure-free outcome. Ten years after surgery, 86% of seizure-free children and 43% of seizure-free adults had stopped AEDs in the surgery groups compared to none of the controls (p seizure outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery. The majority of the patients who are seizure-free after 5 and 10 years have sustained seizure freedom since surgery. Many patients who gain seizure freedom can successfully discontinue AEDs, more often children than adults. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that more patients are seizure-free and have stopped AED treatment in the long term after resective epilepsy surgery than nonoperated epilepsy patients. PMID:23966252

  18. Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Edelvik, Anna; Rydenhag, Bertil; Olsson, Ingrid; Flink, Roland; Kumlien, Eva; K?ll?n, Kristina; Malmgren, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prospective, population-based long-term outcomes concerning seizures and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment after resective epilepsy surgery in Sweden. Methods: Ten- and 5-year follow-ups were performed in 2005 to 2007 for 278/327 patients after resective epilepsy surgery from 1995 to 1997 and 2000 to 2002, respectively. All patients had been prospectively followed in the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Ninety-three patients, who were presurgically evalua...

  19. The Reintegration of Military Families Following Long Term Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    again during reunion most dramatically lead to successful reintegration and what leads to negative outcomes such as domestic violence or divorce...best as possible to adapt to separation and reunion. Potentially, programs can be developed that foster traits associated with successful reintegration ...reunifies, it must be discovered what successful reintegration is for AF families after they experienced a long-term separation. Since single parenting

  20. Genomic fossils calibrate the long-term evolution of hepadnaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Gilbert

    Full Text Available Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10(-8 substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep

  1. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available /CAMx CAMx in NRE MM5 Past Future ? Retrospective Air quality ? CSIR 2010 Slide 5 New framework for air quality forecast ? CCAM/CAMx CAMx in NRE CCAM Past Future Future Air quality ? CSIR 2010 Slide 6 New research - air quality forecast... Current research focus ? The response of air quality to changes in climate ? Simulations on longer time scales ? Drive air quality models with long term forecasted meteorology ? Need a baseline (1989 ? 2009) ? To date: Initial testing and 2 years...

  2. Hanford long-term high-level waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1976-06-24

    An overview of the Hanford Long-Term High-Level Waste Management Program is presented. Four topics are discussed: first, the kinds and quantities of waste that will exist and are included in this program; second, how the plan is structured to solve this problem; third, the alternative waste management methods being considered; and fourth, the technology program that is in progress to carry out this plan. (LK)

  3. Focal cortical dysplasia: long term seizure outcome after surgical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, T; von Lehe, M; Podlogar, M; Clusmann, H; Süßmann, P; Kurthen, M; Becker, A; Urbach, H; Schramm, J

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies of long term outcome after epilepsy surgery for cortical malformations are rare. In this study, we report our experience with surgical treatment and year to year long term outcome for a subgroup of patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Methods We retrospectively analysed the records of 49 patients (females n = 26; males n = 23; mean age 25 (11) years) with a mean duration of epilepsy of 18 years (range 1–45). Preoperative MRI, histological results based on the Palmini classification and clinical year to year follow‐up according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification were available in all patients. Results 98% of patients had a lesion on preoperative MRI. In addition to lobectomy (n = 9) or lesionectomy (n = 40), 14 patients had multiple subpial transections of the eloquent cortex. The resected tissue was classified as FCD type II b in 41 cases with an extratemporal (88%) and FCD type II a in 8 cases with a temporal localisation (100%). After a mean follow‐up of 8.1 (4.5) years, 37 patients (76%) were seizure free, a subgroup of 23 patients (47%) had been completely seizure free since surgery (ILAE class 1a) and 4 patients (8%) had only auras (ILAE class 2). Over a 10 year follow‐up, the proportion of satisfactory outcomes decreased, mainly within the first 3 years. During long term follow‐up, 48% stopped antiepileptic drug treatment, 34% received a driver's license and 57% found a job or training. Conclusion Surgical treatment of epilepsy with FCD is not only successful in the short term but also has a satisfying long term outcome which remains constant after 3 years of follow‐up but is not associated with better employment status or improvement in daily living. PMID:17287239

  4. Long-term nuclear waste management: Present status and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, J. P.

    1989-08-01

    Long-term nuclear waste management deals with the final and irreversible stage of waste disposal, on surface and in deep geological formations (according to the waste type), when institutional surveillance is over. There are presently two main options available to deal with the wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel unloaded from reactors and containing most of the radiotoxicity produced all along the nuclear fuel cycle. Since the end of Word War II, spent-fuel reprocessing technology has gone through three different stages, ending up with considerable technical achievements and large investments (construction of large facilities, UP3 in France and THORP in the UK). However, having to face spent-fuel risings and lack of reprocessing capacities, since the mid-seventies some countries are considering the possibility of direct spent-fuel disposal without reprocessing. These two options are discussed in terms of long-term waste management. Because of the types of waste conditioning and packaging adopted with present reprocessing technology, in that case long-term safety, after a few centuries, relies completely on the geological barriers. On the other hand, long-term safety with the second option is based essentially on the retention properties of uranium oxide with respect to actinides. Finally, alternatives such as chemical partitioning of minor actinides followed by their transmutation, either in reactors or using high-energy particle accelerators, are under discussion. Apart from the standard reprocessing (after a cooling period of 3-5 years), all the other options called for a long period (50 years) of interim storage, preventing the adoption of irreversible, costly and not well proved waste management solutions, and leaving time to develop and assess these alternative methods.

  5. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Staven, L.H.; Serne, R.J. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP.

  6. Long-term resightings of humpback whales off Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, C.; J. Acevedo; Aguayo-Lobo, A.; Allen, J.; Capella, J.; Rosa, Dalla, L.; Flores-González, L.; Kaufman, G.; Forestell, P.; Scheidat, M.; Secchi, E.R.; Stevick, P.; Santos, M.C.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the long-term re-sight histories of fifteen photo-identified humpback whales encountered to date transiting Ecuadorian waters. It also provides information about connections to feeding area destinations. Whale EC1261 has been resighted over a 26 year span and provides insight into age and potential longevity of this species in the stock G. The resighting of whale EC1261 provides the earliest connection from Ecuador to Antarctica. and supports previous findings that Antar...

  7. Long-term Outcome of Arterial Stroke in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at University Children’s Hospital, Inselspital, and Universities of Bern, Geneva, Basel, and Zurich, Switzerland compared long-term outcome of children (1 month-16 years and young adults (16.1-45 years with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS using prospective data from the Swiss Neuropediatric Stroke Registry and the Adult Bernese stroke registry, between Jan 2000 and Dec 2008.

  8. Long term investment scenarios and an opportunity to collaborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steel Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In December 2014 the Environment Agency published Long Term Investment Scenarios (LTIS for flood and coastal erosion risk management in England. It sets out the future costs and benefits of managing flood and coastal erosion risk in England in a range of different scenarios. Its major achievement in long-term risk-based resource allocation is to incorporate a rigorous national economic optimisation based on an aggregation of 3,000 flood defence systems covering the entirety of England’s floodplain. The analysis is based on the Environment Agency’s national assessment of flood risk from rivers and the sea, along with the risk of properties flooding from surface water. The risk information informs an innovative economic model to assess optimal levels of investment both in maintaining and improving the defence infrastructure, and is combined with a high level appraisal of investment in broader risk management activities (such as flood incident management. The headline results describe optimal investment profiles in the short and long term, and compare these with planned investment levels by government and external contributors. The potential to reduce flood risk in the long term is described in the context of the efficiencies required to reduce and hold down costs, the benefits of maintaining control over development in the floodplain, and the effects of climate change. There are constraints in the economic optimisation approach, as well as in the broader, inclusive overview of risk management activities, and the Environment Agency is now seeking a more open, collaborative approach – working with industry and academic partners – to develop LTIS and strengthen it further as robust, independent, world-leading evidence.

  9. Disrupted caring attachments: implications for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    Caring attachments or social supports are the positive psychological and physical contacts and relationships between people. These attachments have been associated with improved health, well-being, and longevity. It is also true that disrupted caring attachments are associated with impaired health and well-being. This paper reviews the general medical and elder medical findings of disrupted caring attachments and negative health outcomes. The implications of these findings for dementia sufferers, caregivers, and long-term care staff are examined.

  10. Long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing in Huntington disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gargiulo, Marcela; Lejeune, Séverine; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Lahlou-Laforêt, Khadija; Faudet, Anne; Cohen, David; Feingold, Josué; Durr, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Our study on long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing for Huntington disease had two aims: the comparison of the psychological well-being and social adjustment of carriers and non-carriers of the mutation, and the identification of psychological determinants to improve care/support of testees. We performed a cross-sectional study of 351 persons who underwent presymptomatic testing. Those who had motor signs were excluded from the comparison of asymptomatic carrier and non-carriers. A struc...

  11. Early nutrition and health: short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a number of positive short- and long-term outcomes. A short-term effect of breastfeeding is reduced morbidity and mortality in children from poor living conditions and in preterm infants. Breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development and also has a long-term protective effect on obesity risk, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and a lowering effect on blood pressure. Selected nutrients have undergone extensive investigation to show their role in disease prevention or improved development, e.g. protein intake in infancy seems to be associated with a later risk of obesity or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has a positive impact on cognitive function. Another consideration is the fast catch-up growth in small for gestational age infants as an important factor associated with adult risk of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand, high protein and energy intake seems to be positively associated with some indicators of cognitive development. Most of the evidence comes from observational studies that cannot exclude potential confounders. Animal studies demonstrate causality but should not be directly extrapolated to humans. The number of randomized controlled studies is increasing but long-term follow-ups are necessary to obtain convincing results. The majority of these trials compare different infant formula compositions and macro- or micronutrient supplementation. One of the major questions is to define a critical (or opportunity) window and a mechanism of nutritional influence on several health outcomes.

  12. Long Term Energy Consumption Forecasting Using Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    KARABULUT, Korhan; Alkan, Ahmet; YILMAZ, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Managing electrical energy supply is a complex task. The most important part of electric utility resource planning is forecasting of the future load demand in the regional or national service area. This is usually achieved by constructing models on relative information, such as climate and previous load demand data. In this paper, a genetic programming approach is proposed to forecast long term electrical power consumption in the area covered by a utility situated in the southeast of Turkey. ...

  13. Long-term photopolarimetric variability of DD Ser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, S. P.; Shakhovskoy, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    We present some results of UBVRI-photopolarimetric observations of DD Ser, a poorly studied and understood Ae-star. The long-term component of light variation is detected, with the period of about fifteen years. Variability of the degree and positional angle of linear polarization is observed as well. Analysis of correlation between photometric and polarimetric data shows that observed light minima are likely caused by variability of circumstellar extinction produced by dust.

  14. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for the existence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG product categories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablished brands when new products are introduced into the market and product innovations take place. Our research shows that such occurrences drastically alter the relationship between share of voice and share of market in any given FMCG market, hence making...

  15. The long-term stock market valuation of customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Lerzan

    2008-01-01

    Firm valuation has been an important domain of interest for finance. However, most financial models do not include customer-related metrics in this process. Studies in marketing have found that one particular customer metric, customer satisfaction, improves the ability to predict future cash flows, long-term financial measures, stock performance, and shareholder value. However, most of these studies predominantly employ models that are not directly used in finance practice. This article exten...

  16. Long-term laser frequency stabilization using fiber interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Jia; Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2014-01-01

    We report long-term laser frequency stabilization using only the target laser and a pair of 5 m fiber interferometers, one as a frequency reference and the second as a sensitive thermometer. When used to stabilize a distributed feedback laser at 795 nm, the frequency Allan deviation at 1000 s drops from 5.6*10^{-8} to 6.9*10^{-10}. The performance equals that of an offset lock employing a second laser and an atomic reference.

  17. Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.

  18. Data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments (Winter, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    The data were obtained in the long-term atmospheric diffusion experiments in the Tokai area, autumn, 1991 which were a part of the Evaluation Safety Demonstration Experiments of Environmental Radiation entrusted with the Science and Technology Agency. The experiments were conducted by JAERI in cooperation with the Japan Weather Association. The report includes tracer concentration data of surface sampling points and meteorological data. (author)

  19. Long-term P300 in hemispherectomized patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xian-zeng; XU Yu-lun; FU Zhuang

    2009-01-01

    Background In the years around 1990,in Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University many children with infantile hemiplegia and intractable epilepsy were treated with further modified anatomical hemispherectomy.We report the follow up of the first six cases.To make good use of these precious clinical data and make clear their neuropsychological state,we performed neuropsychological and neurophysiological measurements in these patients,who were at a median of 17.8 years after hemispherectomy.Methods Oddball task was given to the patients and to a normal control group to collect the peak latency(PL)and peak amplitude(PA)of event-related potentials(ERPs)-P300.The P300 data of the two groups were analyzed and the P300 patterns of the six patients are presented.The baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up of the six hemispherectomized patients,especially the long-term seizure control and cognitive function after surgery,are described.Results Five patients had no seizures and one was almost seizure-free during the years after surgery.Clear P300 was obtained from every electrode in the patients.Differences of P300 between patients and normal control group had no statistical significance.And the maximum PA was at the site of electrode Pz or Cz which was consistent with that of the control group and with previous findings.Conclusions Further modified anatomical hemispherectomy has preferable long-term antiepileptic effects.The P300results of the patients mean that the basic cognitive function of the patients has no difference from the control group.This reflects the plasticity of the hemisphere to some extent and increases the affirmation of the long-term curative effects of further modified anatomical hemispherectomy from both neuropsychological and neurophysiological aspects.

  20. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  1. Optimizing Long-Term Capital Planning for Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    TERM CAPITAL PLANNING FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES by Gretchen M. Radke June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Emily Craparo Co-Advisor: Jonathan Alt...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZING LONG-TERM CAPITAL PLANNING FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES 5...words) The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) J8 directorate is responsible for planning long-range capital expenditure for Special

  2. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  3. Visualizing Long Term Economic Relationships With Cointegration Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, R; Leite, V B P; de Pereira, C B; Caticha, Nestor; Leite, Vitor B.P.; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Vicente, Renato

    2007-01-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration distance aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization and clustering of these relationships we calculate a distance matrix and introduce a map based on the Sorting Points Into Neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates, monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product growth rates.

  4. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  5. Position paper on PRM and persons with long term disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takáč, P; Petrovičová, J; Delarque, A; Stibrant Sunnerhagen, K; Neumann, V; Vetra, A; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2014-08-01

    In the current population we observe a rise of chronic health problems often with multiple characteristics. This results in a growing number of people who are experiencing long-term disabilities or difficulties in functioning because of disability. These conditions require a complex response over an extended period of time, that involves coordinated inputs from a wide range of health professionals. This paper argues the central role and benefit of rehabilitation and describes the rehabilitation as an integral component in the management of people with chronic disabilities. It also presents the most important related definitions: long-term care, rehabilitation for chronic disease and disability, the aim of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). An interdisciplinary team is ideal for an effective implementation of rehabilitation for chronic disease and disability. However, the article mainly focuses on defining the role and contribution of the PRM physician in the rehabilitation of persons with long-term disabilities. The article includes: descriptions of his/her key role and competencies, particularly with regard to medical and functional status and prognosis, of the ability to comprehensively define the rehabilitation needs of the patient/person with respect to ICD-WHO classification domains, of the cooperation with other medical specialists and health professionals, of determining the rehabilitation potential, of developing the rehabilitation plan tailored to specific needs, as well as of the contribution of PRM physician in the follow-up care pathways.

  6. Predictors and long-term health outcomes of eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Denis R.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hall, Janet E.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia and bulimia nervosa may have long-term effects on overall and reproductive health. We studied predictors of self-reported eating disorders and associations with later health events. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for these associations in 47,759 participants from the Sister Study. Two percent (n = 967) of participants reported a history of an eating disorder. Risk factors included being non-Hispanic white, having well-educated parents, recent birth cohort (OR = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01–2.32 per decade), and having a sister with an eating disorder (OR = 3.68, CI: 1.92–7.02). As adults, women who had experienced eating disorders were more likely to smoke, to be underweight, to have had depression, to have had a later first birth, to have experienced bleeding or nausea during pregnancy, or to have had a miscarriage or induced abortion. In this descriptive analysis, we identified predictors of and possible long-term health consequences of eating disorders. Eating disorders may have become more common over time. Interventions should focus on prevention and mitigation of long-term adverse health effects. PMID:28700663

  7. Advancing nursing leadership in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer; Ringland, Margaret; Wilson, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Nurses working in the long-term care (LTC) sector face unique workplace stresses, demands and circumstances. Designing approaches to leadership training and other supportive human-resource strategies that reflect the demands of the LTC setting fosters a positive work life for nurses by providing them with the skills and knowledge necessary to lead the care team and to address resident and family issues. Through the St. Joseph's Health Centre Guelph demonstration site project, funded by the Nursing Secretariat of Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, the Excelling as a Nurse Leader in Long Term Care training program and the Mentor Team program were developed to address these needs. Evaluation results show that not only have individual nurses benefitted from taking part in these programs, but also that the positive effects were felt in other parts of the LTC home (as reported by Directors of Care). By creating a generally healthier work environment, it is anticipated that these programs will also have a positive effect on recruitment and retention.

  8. Long-term memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramoni-Negre, E; Lambert, I; Bartolomei, F; Felician, O

    Memory complaints and deficits are common in patients with epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), where memory-related brain structures are directly involved in the epileptic process. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in delineating memory impairment in TLE, challenging the traditional neuropsychological approach of the disorder. In particular, several lines of evidence have suggested that, beyond the apparent deficit demonstrable by standardized neuropsychological evaluations, TLE may also negatively interact with long-term memory, producing considerable loss of information of the patient's autobiographical history and an inability to maintain newly acquired information over a period of time. These observations have led to the development of innovative assessment techniques, and prompted a new domain of investigation focused on the relationships between interictal epileptiform activities and the integrity of anatomo-functional systems. The present paper reviews the available evidence for long-term memory deficits in TLE with respect to remote and very long-term memory, and discusses their putative pathophysiological mechanisms and the developing potential strategies to improve memory functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Young Long-term Unemployed and the Individualization of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hobbins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in most Western societies, a common belief is that unemployment is somehow linked to the individual, her lack of work ethic, or other personal shortcomings rather than to structural causes. This is not only manifested in public arenas such as the media or political debates but also in our social surroundings. In recent years, these views have gained importance, indicating a shift in the location of responsibilities from the welfare state to the individual. This shift entails high demands and expectations on unemployed people and is something they have to deal with and relate to. One of the most exposed groups is young long-term unemployed. The aim of this article is to highlight how the discourse of individualized responsibility is reflected in unemployed peoples’ stories, and to shed light on the ways in which young long-term unemployed adults relate to and position themselves toward this discourse. Based on 18 qualitative interviews with young Swedish long-term unemployed people, the findings show three approaches to the discourse: conformity, distancing, and resistance.

  10. Long-term variability of T Tauri stars using WASP

    CERN Document Server

    Rigon, Laura; Anderson, David; West, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a reference study of the long-term optical variability of young stars using data from the WASP project. Our primary sample is a group of well-studied classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), mostly in Taurus-Auriga. WASP lightcurves cover timescales up to 7 years and typically contain 10000-30000 datapoints. We quantify the variability as function of timescale using the time-dependent standard deviation 'pooled sigma'. We find that the overwhelming majority of CTTS has low-level variability with sigma0.3mag) is 21% in our sample and 21% in an unbiased control sample. An even smaller fraction (13% in our sample, 6% in the control) show evidence for an increase in variability amplitude as a function of timescale from weeks to months or years. The presence of long-term variability correlates with the spectral slope at 3-5mu, which is an indicator of inner disk geometry, and with the U-B band slope, which is an accretion diagnostics. This shows that the long-term variations in CTTS are predominantly driven by p...

  11. Cardiac Function in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K. Friedberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We studied long-term effects of therapy for childhood lymphoma on cardiac function. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 45 survivors of childhood lymphoma, using clinical parameters, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Further comparisons were made between lymphoma subgroups and between males and females. Results. Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years. Mean followup duration was 10.9 years. The NYHA functional class was I in 43 patients and II in 2 patients. A prolonged QTc interval (>0.44 msec was found in 8 patients. Left ventricular (LV systolic function and compliance were normal (LV shortening fraction 40±5.6%; cardiac index 2.84±1.13 L/min/m2; E/A wave ratio 2.5±1.3; mean ± S.D., LV mass was normal (97±40 grams/m2, mean ± S.D.. Mitral regurgitation was observed in 7/45 patients (16%. Asymptomatic pericardial effusions were found in 3/45 (7% patients. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up shows that most parameters of cardiac function are normal in survivors of childhood lymphoma. This is likely due to relatively low doses of anthracyclines in modern protocol modalities. Abnormalities in mitral valve flow, QTc prolongation and in a small proportion of survivors, and functional capacity necessitate long-term cardiac follow-up of these patients.

  12. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  13. Economic evaluation in long-term clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Johnstone, Iain M

    2002-10-15

    Economic endpoints have been increasingly included in long-term clinical trials, but they pose several methodologic challenges, including how best to collect, describe, analyse and interpret medical cost data. Cost of care can be measured by converting billed charges, performing detailed micro-costing studies, or by measuring use of key resources and assigning cost weights to each resource. The latter method is most commonly used, with cost weights based either on empirical regression models or administratively determined reimbursement rates. In long-term studies, monetary units should be adjusted to reflect cost inflation and discounting. The temporal pattern of accumulating costs can be described using a modification of the Kaplan-Meier curve. Regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with cost are best performed on the log of costs due to their typically skewed distribution.Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to measure the value of a new therapy by calculating the difference in cost between the new therapy and the standard therapy, divided by the difference in benefit between the new therapy and the standard therapy. The cost-effectiveness ratio based on the results of a randomized trial may change substantially with longer follow-up intervals, particularly for therapies that are initially expensive but eventually improve survival. A model that projects long-term patterns of cost and survival expected beyond the end of completed follow-up can provide an important perspective in the setting of limited trial duration.

  14. Long Term Stability of Coriolis Flow Meters: DESY experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, T.; Bozhko, Y.; Escherich, K.; Petersen, B.; Putselyk, S.; Schnautz, T.; Sellmann, D.; Zhirnov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of coolant flow is important operational parameter for reliable operation of cryogenic system with superconducting magnets or cavities as well as for the system diagnostics in case of non-steady-state operation, e.g. during cool-down/warm-up or other transients. Proper flowmeter is chosen according to the different parameters, e.g. turn-down, operating temperature range, leak-tightness, pressure losses, long-term stability, etc. For helium cryogenics, the Venturi tube or Orifice, as well as Coriolis flow meters are often applied. For the present time, the orifices are usually used due to their simplicity and low costs, however, low turn-down range, large pressure drop, restriction of flow area, susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations limit their useful operation range. Operational characteristics of Venturi tubes is substantially improved in comparison to orifices, however, relative high costs and susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations still limit their application to special cases. The Coriolis flow meters do not have typical drawbacks of Venturi tube and orifices, however long-term stability over many years was not demonstrated yet. This paper describes the long-term behaviour of Coriolis flow meters after many years of operation at AMTF and XMTS facilities.

  15. Long-term effects of synthetic fibers on concrete pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi Gozarchi, Sasan

    The studies undertaken by this research were to evaluate the long-term performance and durability of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The target long-term performance is for 9000 hours. Two sets of pipes 8 ft. (2400 mm) long with inside diameters of 24 in. (600 mm) and 36 in. (1200 mm) were manufactured, with a wall thickness of 3 and 4 in., respectively. The pipes were produced based on ASTM C76, for a Class III type with a Wall B. The two set of pipes included RCP's (as control) and SYN-FRCP's. The SYN-FRCP's had several fiber dosages ranging from 6 lb/yd3 (3.5 kg/m 3) to 12 lb/yd3 (7.0 kg/m3) in order to evaluate the long-term performance of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The pipes were pre-cracked until the first visible crack was observed in the three-edge bearing test. As a result, the sustained load simulated, was calculated from the Peak D-load observed; and also the appropriate fiber dosages required for the 24. in (600 mm) and 36 in. (900 mm) pipes were obtained. Three of the 24 in. and three of the 36 in. pipes were installed in 7 ft. (2100 mm) and 8 ft. (2400 mm) wide trenches with 16 ft. (4800 mm) and 18 ft. (5500 mm) of cover respectively. The pipe was initially backfilled with native soil up to 2 ft. (600 mm) and 4 ft. (1200 mm) over the top of the pipe then backfilled again with pea-gravel weighing 100 lb/ft3, to a height of 14ft. to simulate the sustained loading. A type two installation was used during the development of the test setup. Once the long-term test set up was complete, the data was immediately recorded, and vertical deflections were observed from the time-dependent behavior of the pipes. It was observed from results obtained from the three-edge bearing test, that synthetic fibers improve the mechanical properties of concrete pipes, in dry-cast manufacturing. Also, it was observed from the time-dependent deformation, that there was no significant deformation of SYN-FRCP, while the shear capacity was enhanced. Based

  16. Sevoflurane exposure during the neonatal period induces long-term memory impairment but not autism-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woosuk; Park, Saegeun; Hong, Jiso; Park, Sangil; Lee, Soomin; Heo, Junyoung; Kim, Daesoo; Ko, Youngkwon

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces autism-like behaviors in mice. There are continuing reports regarding the potential negative effects of anesthesia on the developing brain. Recently, several studies suggest that neurotoxicity caused by anesthesia may lead to neurodevelopmental impairments. However, unlike reports focusing on learning and memory, there are only a few animal studies focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders after general anesthesia. Therefore, we have focused on autism, a representative neurodevelopmental disorder. Neonatal mice (P6-7) were exposed to a titrated dose of sevoflurane for 6 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by assessing the expression level of cleaved (activated) caspase-3. Autism-like behaviors, general activity, anxiety level, and long-term memory were evaluated with multiple behavioral assays. Western blotting confirmed that neonatal exposure to sevoflurane increased the expression level of activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. Mice exposed to sevoflurane also showed impaired long-term memory in fear tests. However, sevoflurane-exposed mice did not exhibit autism-like features in all of the following assays: social interaction (three-chamber test, caged social interaction), social communication (ultrasonic vocalization test), or repetitive behavior (self-grooming test, digging). There were also no differences in general activity (open field test, home cage activity) and anxiety (open field test, light-dark box) after sevoflurane exposure. Our results confirm previous studies that neonatal sevoflurane exposure causes neurodegeneration and long-term memory impairment in mice. However, sevoflurane did not induce autism-like features. Our study suggests that mice are more vulnerable to long-term memory deficits than autism-like behaviors after exposure to sevoflurane. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dopaminergic Augmentation in Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease: Identification and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Borreguero, Diego

    2015-09-01

    Augmentation is the main clinical complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)/Willis-Ekbom disease and also the main reason for treatment failure of this class of drugs. It involves an increase in the severity (or frequency) of RLS symptoms during treatment. There is some preliminary evidence that the incidence of augmentation is higher when short-acting dopamine agonists are used. Prevention strategies include managing lifestyle changes and keeping dopaminergic load low. This might include, whenever feasible, to postpone any dopaminergic medication and perform a treatment trial with nondopaminergic agents (ie, alpha-2 delta ligand) first. Treatment of augmentation might require switching to longer-acting dopaminergic agents, to alpha-2 delta ligands or to opiates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Long term results after invasive treatment of critical limb ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsa, Zoltán; Kuti, Ferenc; Berta, Balázs; Tóth, Károly; Bánsághi, Zoltán; Vámosi, Zoltán; Hüttl, Kálmán

    2017-03-01

    Surgical tibial bypass for critical limb ischemia is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and graft failure, whereas percutaneous angioplasty and stenting has promising results. The objective of this study was the investigation of the long term results of below-knee percutaneous angioplasty for restoring straight inline arterial flow in patients with critical limb ischemia. The clinical and angiographic data of 281 consecutive patients with critical limb ischemia treated by PTA between 2008 and 2011 was evaluated in a prospective register. The aim of the revascularization was to achieve a straight inline flow to the wound with balloon angioplasty. Stent implantation was done in the case of recoil and flow limiting dissection. Primary end points were clinical success (relief of resting pain, healing of ulceration, limb survival) and major adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, major unplanned amputation, need for surgical revascularization, or major bleeding). Secondary end points were the angiographic result of the intervention, procedural data and consumption of angioplasty equipment. The impact of diabetic leg syndrome and the result of the angioplasty on the limb salvage was also investigated. We have analysed the impact of major amputation on long term mortality. Mean age of patients was 72.5 ± 10.6 years and the follow-up period was 40.8 ± 9.7 months. Technical success was reached in 255 (90.7%) of the patient's: 255 limbs straight inline flow with good angiographic result was restored to at least one tibial vessel. Balloon angioplasty, stent implantation and rotational atherectomy was performed in 278 (98.9%), 74 (26.3%) and 2 patients (0.7%). From clinical end points the rest pain was ceased in 56.6%, the ulcer and the gangrena was healed in 73.5% and 46.5%. The long term limb survival was 73.5%; 65.8% in diabetic and 89.6% in non-diabetic leg syndrome (p = 0.001). The major adverse events at long-term follow-up occured in 122 (43

  19. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  20. Value of long-term electroencephalogram in diagnosing epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine electroencephalogram (EEG) usually cannot accurately reflect the discharge of epileptic patients due to the short examination, and long-term EEG can make up the shortcoming.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the long-term EEG of epileptic and non-epileptic patients, and investigate the values of long-term EEG in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of epilepsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled study.SETTING: Ningjin County People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 122 patients with epilepsy (epilepsy group) were selected from the EEG room of Ningjin County People's Hospital from January 2000 to December 2006, including 76 males and 44 females,7 months to 78 years of age, the disease course ranged from 7 days to 7.5 years, and they all according with the standards for epilepsy set by the International Association for Epilepsy in 1997. Meanwhile, 118 patients with non-epileptic paroxysmal diseases were selected as the control group, including 71 males and 47 females, 2.5 - 87 years of age, the disease course ranged from 3 days to 7.5 years. Informed contents were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: OXFORD GATE WAY 2000 16-lead portable EEG recorder was used for 24-hour electroencephalographic procedure. The patients could move normally during the monitoring, their activities,sleeping conditions, time and manifestations of seizures were recorded in details. In the next day, EEG at wake was recorded for 10 minutes, followed by 3-minute hyperventilation and open/close eye induction test,the phases of non-rapid eye movement ( Ⅰ - Ⅳ) and rapid eye movement were performed using EEG at sleep according to the international EEG standard. The abnormal rates of EEG epileptic discharge at wake and sleep at different sites were calculated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal rate of long-term EEG at wake and sleep in both groups;Epileptic discharge at different sleeping phases in both groups; Abnormal rates of EEG epileptic discharge at wake and sleep at

  1. Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gregory, David;

    2005-01-01

    Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems.......Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems....

  2. Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gregory, David

    2005-01-01

    Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems.......Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems....

  3. Electronic records long term authenticity and integrity demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerman Blažič, Aljoša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term preservation of electronic data requires introduction of specific technology solutions and organizational measures in order to provide stable environment for electronic record preservation. System solutions must support basic principles of electronic preservation: accessibility of data, usability or reproduction of data in usable form and integrity/authenticity provision including time existence for preserved content.Due to their nature, electronic data may become subjects of manipulation without recursive traceability of content alteration. In order to preserve usability of preserved data, electronic preservation system must provide appropriate measures for demonstrating unalterability of data for the entire preservation period. In this paper technology approach for demonstrating integrity and authenticity of archived data on long term basis is presented. Presented technological concept deals with any type of documentation or archiving material and provides creation of additional security assertions or evidence records that are needed to demonstrate the authenticity and integrity of the material anytime during the archival period. The evidence record syntax (ERS, which has been standardized by international organization body for internet standards (IETF, presents universal technique of security assertions generation and their maintenance for integrity preservation based on document hashing, hash treeing and integration of (qualified time stamps of trusted third parties. Using re-timestamping methods created security assertions may endure their validity for longest periods of time until retention periods of archived data expires. In the paper complementary organizational rules for technology solutions are presented as well, providing an all around overview of long term preservation of data in authentic, reliable and secure manner.

  4. Long-term Trends in the Solar Wind Proton Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Heather A.; McComas, David J.; DeForest, Craig E.

    2016-11-01

    We examine the long-term time evolution (1965-2015) of the relationships between solar wind proton temperature (T p) and speed (V p) and between the proton density (n p) and speed using OMNI solar wind observations taken near Earth. We find a long-term decrease in the proton temperature-speed (T p-V p) slope that lasted from 1972 to 2010, but has been trending upward since 2010. Since the solar wind proton density-speed (n p-V p) relationship is not linear like the T p-V p relationship, we perform power-law fits for n p-V p. The exponent (steepness in the n p-V p relationship) is correlated with the solar cycle. This exponent has a stronger correlation with current sheet tilt angle than with sunspot number because the sunspot number maxima vary considerably from cycle to cycle and the tilt angle maxima do not. To understand this finding, we examined the average n p for different speed ranges, and found that for the slow wind n p is highly correlated with the sunspot number, with a lag of approximately four years. The fast wind n p variation was less, but in phase with the cycle. This phase difference may contribute to the n p-V p exponent correlation with the solar cycle. These long-term trends are important since empirical formulas based on fits to T p and V p data are commonly used to identify interplanetary coronal mass ejections, but these formulas do not include any time dependence. Changes in the solar wind density over a solar cycle will create corresponding changes in the near-Earth space environment and the overall extent of the heliosphere.

  5. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  6. Factors affecting the long-term renal allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Hang; REN Liang; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Yong; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decades, the one-year graft survival of cadaveric renal allografts has been markedly improved,but their long-term survival has not kept pace. The attrition rate of renal allografts surviving after one year remains almost unchanged. The causes for late graft loss are multiple. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive factors that impact long-term survival of grafts after kidney transplantation.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 524 kidney transplantation patients who were treated in our hospital between January 1991 and January 2000, including 254 patients who had lived more than 10 years with normal graft function (long survival group), and 270 cases whose renal graft had survived less than 10 years (control group). Specifically, we analyzed 10 factors that may potentially affect graft survival by both univariate and Logistic model multivariate analyses to pinpoint the independent risk factors.Results Univariate analyses showed that no significant differences existed in the age or gender of recipients, dialysis time, lymphotoxin levels, or cold ischemia time between the two groups. However, the ratio of delayed graft function and acute rejection, and the uric acid levels of patients in the long survival group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.01). Furthermore, we found that the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation and the histocompatibility antigen match of donor-recipients for patients within the long survival group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.01 ). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that these four factors were independent risk factors that impact patient survival.Conclusions The ratios of delayed graft function and acute rejection, the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation, and serum uric acid levels are very important factors that affect the long-term survival of renal grafts.

  7. Long-term visual outcome of dense bilateral congenital cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE He-hua; DENG Da-ming; QIAN Yi-yong; LIN Zhi; CHEN Wei-rong

    2007-01-01

    Background Dense congenital cataracts often cause severe visual impairment. The results of long-term follow-up of dense bilateral congenital cataract in China have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term visual function in children who underwent cataract extraction for dense bilateral congenital cataract in southern part of China.Methods Medical records of children who underwent surgery of dense bilateral congenital cataract between January 1992 and December 2000 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University were retroactively reviewed. In 38 children available for current follow-up, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoscopic vision, as well as nystagmus, strabismus, and other complications, were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 107.6 months (range 60 to 167 months).Results The mean age of cataract extraction and secondary intraocular lens implantation were 5.6 months (range 3 to 12 months) and 4.2 years (range 2.4 to 15 years), respectively. The mean BCVA was 0.25 in the better eye and 0.16 in the fellow eye. Stereoscopic vision was absent in all patients, and 3 children had simultaneous perception. Nystagmus was detected in all cases and strabismus in 35 cases. A high correlation was found between timing of cataract extraction and final BCVA of the better eye (r=-0.55, P=0.00). A statistically significant difference was found in BCVA between postand pre-treatment of amblyopia (t=5.65, P=0.00).Conclusions Long-term visual function in children with dense bilateral congenital cataract was poor when cataract surgery was performed at age of 3 months or later. Earlier cataract surgery with adequate optical rehabilitation contributed to better visual outcome.

  8. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. We summarise the main findings from large cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies in western countries with a high proportion of vegetarian participants. Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background, whereas the data are equivocal for stroke. For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, but findings for individual cancer sites are inconclusive. Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores. Much more research is needed, particularly on the long-term health of vegans.

  9. Review of long-term results of stereotactic psychosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Choi, Chang-Rak

    2002-09-01

    Stereotactic psychosurgery is an effective method for treating some medically intractable psychiatric illnesses. However, it is unfamiliar and the long-term clinical results have not been reported in Asia. The long-term results of psychosurgery are evaluated and the neuroanatomical basis is discussed. Twenty-one patients underwent stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable psychiatric illnesses since 1993. All were referred from psychiatrists for these disorders. Two patients showed aggressive behavior, 12 had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and seven had depression with anxiety disorders. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were performed for aggressive behavior, limbic leucotomy was performed for OCD, and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was performed for depression with anxiety. OCD was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the visual analogue scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were used for the evaluation of aggressive behavior. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was used for evaluation of depression. Ventriculography was used in the first seven patients and magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotaxy was used in the recent 14 cases for localization of the target. The lesions were made with a radiofrequency lesion generator. OAS scores in the two patients with aggressive behavior during follow up declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement. All 12 patients with OCD returned to their previous life and showed the mean YBOCS scores decreased from 34 to 3. Ten patients with OCD could be followed up (mean 45 months). All patients returned to their previous social life. In seven patients with depression with anxiety, HAMD scores declined from 28.5 to 16.5. There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except for one case of mild

  10. Dienogest in long-term treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler AE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolf E SchindlerInstitute for Medical Research and Education, Essen, GermanyAbstract: Endometriosis is a chronic disease primarily affecting women of childbearing age, in which endometriotic lesions form outside the uterus, typically leading to painful symptoms, fatigue, and infertility. The symptoms of endometriosis may cause significant impairment in quality of life and represent a substantial economic burden to patients, families, and society. There is no cure for endometriosis; management consists of alleviating pain and other symptoms, reducing endometriotic lesions, and improving quality of life. Recurrence after surgical intervention is common, while the clinical evidence to support the efficacy and safety of many medications currently used in endometriosis is limited. Dienogest is an oral progestin that has been investigated extensively in the treatment of endometriosis in two clinical programs performed in Europe and Japan, including dose-ranging, placebo-controlled, active comparator-controlled, and long-term (up to 65 weeks studies. These studies demonstrated that dienogest 2 mg daily effectively alleviates the painful symptoms of endometriosis, reduces endometriotic lesions, and improves indices of quality of life. Dienogest showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile in these studies, with predictable adverse effects, high rates of patient compliance, and low withdrawal rates. This review article describes the clinical trial evidence that characterizes the efficacy and safety of dienogest in endometriosis, including two studies characterizing dienogest in long-term use. The relevance of these findings to the management of endometriosis in clinical practice is discussed.Keywords: dienogest, endometriosis, progestins, long-term treatment, quality of life, symptoms, pain

  11. Long-term funding and faithfulness to the original goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, G

    1999-02-01

    The study describes long-term funding in terms of faithfulness to the original goals of the foundations. After having examined 20 different Swedish foundations three main categories of problems have appeared. The main threats to the original goals of the foundations are juridical problems, economic problems and a changing society. Fraud and embezzlement are covered by the Act (1994:1220) Concerning Foundations, but the law does not prevent unfaithfulness to the original goal of the foundation in terms of permutation. If the foundation is a private-established foundation the board has to apply for a change of the original goal to the Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. If the State, a municipality or a community establishes the foundation the Government can change the goal without permission of any other authority. Economic problems often strike smaller funds established by private persons, but State-established funds can also be hit by economical problems. The economic problems presented in the text are high tax levels, bad investments and problems getting donations. Both small private and large State-established foundations sometimes have to change their original goals as a result of a changing society. The goal of the foundation can be out-of-date, be against the ideology of the government party or the demography might have changed. Examples from each category are given in the text. The study is made to facilitate a description in general terms of the prospects for the Swedish nuclear funds if a final decision can not be made in the time span of 100 or 200 years. Looking back on the changes in the judicial, economical and political arenas during the last 200 years, one realizes the impossibility to foresee the changes that will occur within the next 200 years. The author`s conclusion, after examined 20 foundation, is that it is impossible to establish a perfect long-term fund as we can not foresee the long-term future

  12. Long term stability of nanowire nanoelectronics in physiological environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Fu, Tian-Ming; Xie, Chong; Liu, Jia; Lieber, Charles M

    2014-03-12

    Nanowire nanoelectronic devices have been exploited as highly sensitive subcellular resolution detectors for recording extracellular and intracellular signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate the capability to take full advantage of the attractive capabilities of nanowire nanoelectronic devices for long term physiological studies by passivating the nanowire elements with ultrathin metal oxide shells. Studies of Si and Si/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) core/shell nanowires in physiological solutions at 37 °C demonstrate long-term stability extending for at least 100 days in samples coated with 10 nm thick Al2O3 shells. In addition, investigations of nanowires configured as field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that the Si/Al2O3 core/shell nanowire FETs exhibit good device performance for at least 4 months in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. The generality of this approach was also tested with in studies of Ge/Si and InAs nanowires, where Ge/Si/Al2O3 and InAs/Al2O3 core/shell materials exhibited stability for at least 100 days in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. In addition, investigations of hafnium oxide-Al2O3 nanolaminated shells indicate the potential to extend nanowire stability well beyond 1 year time scale in vivo. These studies demonstrate that straightforward core/shell nanowire nanoelectronic devices can exhibit the long term stability needed for a range of chronic in vivo studies in animals as well as powerful biomedical implants that could improve monitoring and treatment of disease.

  13. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  14. Long-term movement patterns of a coral reef predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, M. R.; Simpfendorfer, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term monitoring is required to fully define periodicity and patterns in animal movement. This is particularly relevant for defining what factors are driving the presence, location, and movements of individuals. The long-term movement and space use patterns of grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, were examined on a whole of reef scale in the southern Great Barrier Reef to define whether movement and activity space varied through time. Twenty-nine C. amblyrhynchos were tracked for over 2 years to define movement patterns. All individuals showed high residency within the study site, but also had high roaming indices. This indicated that individuals remained in the region and used all of the monitored habitat (i.e., the entire reef perimeter). Use of space was consistent through time with high reuse of areas most of the year. Therefore, individuals maintained discrete home ranges, but undertook broader movements around the reef at times. Mature males showed greatest variation in movement with larger activity spaces and movement into new regions during the mating season (August-September). Depth use patterns also differed, suggesting behaviour or resource requirements varied between sexes. Examination of the long-term, reef-scale movements of C. amblyrhynchos has revealed that reproductive activity may play a key role in space use and activity patterns. It was unclear whether mating behaviour or an increased need for food to sustain reproductive activity and development played a greater role in these patterns. Reef shark movement patterns are becoming more clearly defined, but research is still required to fully understand the biological drivers for the observed patterns.

  15. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  16. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leflunomide in Takayasu arteritis – A long term observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Alexandre Wagner Silva de [UNIFESP; Agustinelli,Renan de Almeida; Almeida,Hemerli de Cinque; Oliveira,Patrícia Bermudes; Pinheiro,Frederico Augusto Gurgel; Oliveira,Ana Cecilia Diniz; Sato, Emilia Inoue [UNIFESP

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the extended follow-up data on efficacy and toxicity of leflunomide therapy in Takayasu arteritis (TA) patients previously enrolled in the original open-label study of short-term effects of leflunomide in TA. Methods: An open-label long-term longitudinal study was performed in TA patients who fulfilled the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for TA and had participated in a previous study that evaluated short-term efficacy of leflunomide in TA. Com...

  18. Dentinogenesis imperfecta: long-term rehabilitation in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Dominique; Leheis, Benoît; Duprez, Jean-Pierre; Bittar, Elias; Coudert, Jean-Loup

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of dentinogenesis imperfecta represents a challenge for the dental practitioner. The aim of this case report was to describe the chronology and problems encountered in the long-term rehabilitation of a young girl suffering from dentinogenesis imperfecta with severe attrition. A 2-stage treatment over a period of 9 years is described and discussed. This treatment comprised an initial treatment to restore esthetic appearance and function during primary and mixed dentitions and a complete prosthetic rehabilitation in a second stage to protect permanent teeth with low-fusion ceramicmetal individual crowns. Discovery of a follicular cyst is also reported and its treatment is described.

  19. Long-term outcome of 114 children with cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroknay-Pál, Päivi; Lehto, Hanna; Niemelä, Mika; Kivisaari, Riku; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2012-06-01

    Population-based data on pediatric patients with aneurysms are limited. The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics and long-term outcomes of pediatric patients with aneurysms. All pediatric patients (≤ 18 years old) with aneurysms among the 8996 aneurysm patients treated at the Department of Neurosurgery in Helsinki from 1937 to 2009 were followed from admission to the end of 2010. There were 114 pediatric patients with 130 total aneurysms during the study period. The mean patient age was 14.5 years (range 3 months to 18 years). The male:female ratio was 3:2. Eighty-nine patients (78%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of the aneurysms (116 [89%]) were in the anterior circulation, and the most common location was the internal carotid artery bifurcation (36 [28%]). The average aneurysm diameter was 11 mm (range 2-55 mm) with 16 giant aneurysms (12%). Eighty aneurysms (62%) were treated microsurgically, and 37 (28%) were treated conservatively due to poor medical and neurological status of the patient or due to technical reasons during the early years of the patient series. No connective tissue disorders common to pediatric aneurysm patients were diagnosed in this series, with the exception of 1 patient with tuberous sclerosis complex. The mean follow-up duration was 24.8 years (range 0-55.8 years). At the end of follow-up, 71 patients (62%) had a good outcome, 3 (3%) were dependent, and 40 (35%) had died. Twenty-seven deaths (68%) were assessed to be aneurysm-related. Factors correlating with a favorable long-term outcome were good neurological condition of the patient on admission, aneurysm location in the anterior circulation, complete aneurysm closure, and absence of vasospasm. Six patients developed symptomatic de novo aneurysms after a median of 25 years (range 11-37 years). Fourteen patients (12%) had a family history of aneurysms. There was no increased incidence for cardiovascular diseases in long-term follow-up. Most

  20. Nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, T; Bechtel, G A

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework. During exit interviews, a convenience sample of 34 employees completed an attitudes and beliefs survey regarding their work environment. Findings were mixed; 39.6 percent of the employees stated positive personal relationships were a strength of the organization, although 24.3 percent resigned because of personal/staff conflicts. Financial concerns were not a major factor in their resignations. The study suggests that decreasing nonlicensed employee stress and increasing their personal satisfaction with patient care may decrease employee turnover.

  1. User Friendly Explosives Reactive Armour a Long term Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : There is a strong need to develop explosive reactive armour (ERA for protecting battle tanks against an emerging threat of kinetic and chemical energy missiles. In this context, global trends, principle and limitations of ERA and threat perception-based types of ERA have been dwelt upon. User-friendly ERA is a long-term reality. User-friendly ERA system is thus defined to be an efficient and protective system that not only provide full protection to the tank crew, but is also harmless to the supporting infantory. The indigenously-developed ERA system is close to be termed as a user-friendly ERA.

  2. COMPASS: status update and long term development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratadour, D.; Ferreira, F.; Sevin, A.; Doucet, N.; Clénet, Y.; Gendron, E.; Lainé, M.; Vidal, F.; Brulé, J.; Puech, M.; Vérinaud, C.; Carlotti, A.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the COMPASS project was to bring together the efforts of the actors from the French AO community (PHASE partnership), with the participation of the Maison de la Simulation, around the collaborative development of a numerical platform for AO, optimized and based on the use of graphics processing units (GPU). This platform allows today to lead the design studies of AO modules addressing all of the first generation instrumentation of the E-ELT. In this paper, we provide a status update of the platform and the long term maintenance and development plan.

  3. Uncertainty Assessment in Long Term Urban Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    the probability of system failures (defined as either flooding or surcharge of manholes or combined sewer overflow); (2) an application of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology in which an event based stochastic calibration is performed; and (3) long term Monte Carlo simulations...... with the purpose of estimating the uncertainties on the extreme event statistics of maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow volumes in drainage systems. The thesis concludes that the uncertainties on both maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow volumes are considerable, especially on the large...

  4. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  5. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  6. Analysis of long term samples in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, E.; Grosman, A.; Valter, J.

    1994-12-31

    Long Term Samples have been installed on the inner call in Tore Supra to monitor the surface modification of the graphite tiles. Surfaces analysis have shown a very low metallic impurity concentration ({approx}10{sup 16} at /cm{sup 2}) dominated by stainless steel compounds. the high deuterium concentration (> 10{sup 18} at/cm{sup 2}) is due to a codeposition with carbon atoms. Carbon layers of about 1 {mu}m have been measured from which we deduced a carbon recycling coefficient R{sub c} = 0.99. (authors). 20 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kaufman, D.S.; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe

    2009-01-01

    continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused...... by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000. Udgivelsesdato: 4 September...

  8. Preeclampsia: Short-term and Long-term Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Jaimey M; Repke, John T

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that affects 4% of pregnancies and has a high risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as long-term cardiovascular risk. Recent updates in the definition, diagnosis, and management guidelines for preeclampsia warrant review by general obstetrician-gynecologists. Screening and prevention algorithms for preeclampsia are available, but ultimately the cure remains delivery of the fetus and placenta. Close monitoring for the development and worsening of preeclampsia during pregnancy is essential to optimize both maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes.

  9. Cancer pathways are associated with improved long-term survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard; Maina, Pierre Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The impact of cancer patient pathways (CPP) on long-term outcome after surgery for colorectal cancer has not been documented. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CPP on survival in patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort...... study performed in a single centre on prospectively collected data from a national database, the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. In total, we reviewed 309 consecutive patients (145 females) with a median age of 70 years (range: 30-92 years), who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer between 2007...

  10. Long-term stability of orbits in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to establish long-term bounds on nonlinear Hamiltonian motion. By bounding the change in a nearly constant action variable, uniformly in initial condition, one can predict stability for N turns by tracking many orbits for a member of turns of N{sub 0} much less than N. In a first application to a model sextupole lattice in a region of strong nonlinearity, we predict stability of betatron motion in two degrees of freedom for 10{sup 8} turns. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Catalytic heat exchangers - a long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik A. [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A long-term evaluation concerning catalytic heat exchangers (CHEs) has been performed. The idea concerning CHEs was originally described in a number of reports issued by Catator almost a decade ago. The general idea with CHEs is to combust a fuel with a catalyst inside a heat exchanger to enable an effective heat transfer. The first design approaches demonstrated the function and the possibilities with CHEs but were defective concerning the heat exchanger design. Consequently, a heat exchanger company (SWEP International AB), which was specialised on brazed plate-type heat exchangers, joined the continued development project. Indeed, the new design approach containing Catator's wire-mesh catalysts and SWEP's plate-type heat exchangers enabled us to improve the concept considerably. The new design complied with a number of relevant technical demands, e.g.: Simplicity; Compactness and integration (few parts); High thermal efficiency; Low pressure drop; Excellent emissions; High turn-down ratio; Reasonable production cost. Spurred by the technical progresses, the importance of a long-term test under realistic conditions was clear. A long-term evaluation was initialised at Sydkraft Gas premises in Aastorp. The CHE was installed on a specially designed rig to enable accelerated testing with respect to the number of transients. The rig was operated continuously for 5000 hours and emission mapping was carried out at certain time intervals. Following some problems during the initial phase of the long-term evaluation, which unfortunately also delayed the project, the results indicated very stable conditions of operation. The emissions have been rather constant during the course of the test and we cannot see any tendencies to decreased performances. Indeed, the test verifies the function, operability and reliability of the CHE-concept. Apart from domestic boilers we foresee a number of interesting and relevant applications in heating and process technology. Since

  12. LONG-TERM CARE OF DEPENDENT ELDERLY AND QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Macková Marie

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of long-term care of dependent elderly and quality of life of their carers. Elderly care has an impact on the quality of life of family members. The research was carried out through a questionnaire and interview. The quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL instrument. The research aimed to identify the current levels of family members’ quality of life and the factors influencing the quality of life thereof. The research findings showed a lower quality o...

  13. The Long-Term Effect of Childhood Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper uses variation among siblings to identify the effect of childhood poverty on long-term outcomes such as income, earnings, job type, employment, and having children. Childhood poverty is found to have large negative effects on labour market outcome and small effects on non-labour market...... outcomes. The marginal effect of one additional year of childhood poverty from the age of 13 to 15 is found to decrease the disposable income of the individual by 6.4% around the age of 30. The effect size is found to have an inverse u-shape in the age of the child, peaking in the early teens...

  14. Long term charge retention dynamics of SONOS cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreghini, A.; Akil, N.; Driussi, F.; Esseni, D.; Selmi, L.; van Duuren, M. J.

    2008-09-01

    We present a model for charge retention dynamics in SONOS non volatile memory cells which accounts for the space and energy distributions of the trapped charge in the silicon nitride, self consistently with the potential. Long term retention measurements (beyond 106 s) versus temperature allowed us to decouple two charge loss mechanisms, to calibrate the model parameters and then to reproduce a large set of measurements on devices featuring different gate stacks, initial threshold voltages (including negative ones) and operation temperatures. A detailed analysis has been also carried out to compare the retention dynamics of cells featuring thin or thick tunnel oxide barriers.

  15. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care.

  16. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  17. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo (Science Applications International Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  18. CLIPPERS and the need for long-term immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkur, Tarig M; Kearney, Hugh; Hennessy, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old female who presented with right sided facial tingling, gait ataxia and diplopia. Neuroimaging revealed pontine curvilinear enhancing lesions with extension into cerebellar peduncles, characteristic of CLIPPERS. This report discusses the differential diagnosis and the importance of prolonged immunomodulatory treatment for this rare neuro-inflammatory disorder. Long-term immunosuppression appears to be mandatory in order to achieve sustained remission and prevent disability related to atrophy of the structures involved in repeated attacks.

  19. Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence causes long-term anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, L E; Cavigelli, S A; Hirrlinger, A M; Caruso, M J; Braithwaite, V A

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence can cause long-term changes in behavior and cognition. Anxiety diagnoses rise during adolescence and are increased by adverse experiences. Currently, it is unknown how long stress during adolescence alters anxiety in adulthood. We found that rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence expressed altered behavior 6.5 months later; showing increased anxiety in a feeding test in a novel environment. Although behavioral changes indicative of anxiety were detected in late adulthood, the basal levels of fecal corticoid metabolites in prior-stressed rats did not differ from unstressed, control rats.

  20. New Orleans: The Long-Term Demographic Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L. Bankston III

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The City of New Orleans is frequently portrayed as an urban center that underwent great changes following the damage wrought by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and much of the attention given to the city has dealt with its revival and reconstruction following the storm. But what has been ignored has been the long-term decline in the population of New Orleans. If this view is taken, New Orleans is currently about where the population would have been expected to be even without Hurricane Katrina's damages to the community.