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Sample records for dopamine neurovesicles revealed

  1. Dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, L.

    1983-01-01

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmittor in the central nervous system. The physiological function of the peripheral dopamine receptors is unknown, but they are of therapeutic importance as dopamine is used to improve renal blood flow in shocked patients. There are 4 dopamine receptors. The classification of these dopamine receptors has been made possible by research with radiopharmaceuticals. Dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase is an inherent part of the dopamine-1-receptor. Dopamine-1-receptors are stimulated by micromolar (physiological) concentrations of dopamine and inhibited by micromolar (supratherapeutic) concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs. The vascular effect of dopamine is mediated through the dopamine-1-receptors. Dopamine-2-receptors are responsible for the effect of dopamine at the mesolimbic, nigrostriatal and chemoreceptortrigger areas. It is activated by micromolar concentrations of dopamine and blocked by nanomolar (therapeutic) concentrations of the anti-psychotic drugs. Dopamine-3-receptors are activated by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine and inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs. They occur on presynaptic nerve terminals and have a negative feedback effect on the liberation of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. The dopamine-4-receptors are activated by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine. These are the only dopamine receptors that could be responsible for effects in the hypophysis as only nanomolar concentrations of dopamine occur there. These receptors are blocked by nanomolar concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs

  2. Super-resolution microscopy reveals functional organization of dopamine transporters into cholesterol and neuronal activity-dependent nanodomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Lycas, Matthew D.; Erlendsson, Simon

    2017-01-01

    is dynamically sequestrated into cholesterol-dependent nanodomains in the plasma membrane of presynaptic varicosities and neuronal projections of dopaminergic neurons. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy reveals irregular dopamine transporter nanodomains (∼70 nm mean diameter) that were highly sensitive...... to cholesterol depletion. Live photoactivated localization microscopy shows a similar dopamine transporter membrane organization in live heterologous cells. In neurons, dual-color dSTORM shows that tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 are distinctively localized adjacent to...

  3. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Nanoprobes for Revealing the Role of Dopamine in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peijian; Chen, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Xiao, Xuanzhong; Han, Xu; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2018-02-07

    Brain imaging techniques enable visualizing the activity of central nervous system without invasive neurosurgery. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter. Its fluctuation in brain leads to a wide range of diseases and disorders, like drug addiction, depression, and Parkinson's disease. We designed near-infrared fluorescence dopamine-responsive nanoprobes (DRNs) for brain activity imaging during drug abuse and addiction process. On the basis of light-induced electron transfer between DRNs and dopamine and molecular wire effect of the DRNs, we can track the dynamical change of the neurotransmitter level in the physiological environment and the releasing of the neurotransmitter in living dopaminergic neurons in response to nicotine stimulation. The functional near-infrared fluorescence imaging can dynamically track the dopamine level in the mice midbrain under normal or drug-activated condition and evaluate the long-term effect of addictive substances to the brain. This strategy has the potential for studying neural activity under physiological condition.

  4. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons reveals that tonic but not phasic patterns of dopamine transmission reduce ethanol self-administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Bass

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that acute ethanol exposure stimulates ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine cell activity and that VTA-dependent dopamine release in terminal fields within the nucleus accumbens plays an integral role in the regulation of ethanol drinking behaviors. Unfortunately, due to technical limitations, the specific temporal dynamics linking VTA dopamine cell activation and ethanol self-administration are not known. In fact, establishing a causal link between specific patterns of dopamine transmission and ethanol drinking behaviors has proven elusive. Here, we sought to address these gaps in our knowledge using a newly developed viral-mediated gene delivery strategy to selectively express Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 on dopamine cells in the VTA of wild-type rats. We then used this approach to precisely control VTA dopamine transmission during voluntary ethanol drinking sessions. The results confirmed that ChR2 was selectively expressed on VTA dopamine cells and delivery of blue light pulses to the VTA induced dopamine release in accumbal terminal fields with very high temporal and spatial precision. Brief high frequency VTA stimulation induced phasic patterns of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Lower frequency stimulation, applied for longer periods mimicked tonic increases in accumbal dopamine. Notably, using this optogenetic approach in rats engaged in an intermittent ethanol drinking procedure, we found that tonic, but not phasic, stimulation of VTA dopamine cells selectively attenuated ethanol drinking behaviors. Collectively, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel viral targeting strategy that can be used to restrict opsin expression to dopamine cells in standard outbred animals and provide the first causal evidence demonstrating that tonic activation of VTA dopamine neurons selectively decreases ethanol self-administration behaviors.

  5. Punishment induced behavioural and neurophysiological variability reveals dopamine-dependent selection of kinematic movement parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Joseph M.; Ruge, Diane; Buijink, Arthur; Bestmann, Sven; Rothwell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Action selection describes the high-level process which selects between competing movements. In animals, behavioural variability is critical for the motor exploration required to select the action which optimizes reward and minimizes cost/punishment, and is guided by dopamine (DA). The aim of this study was to test in humans whether low-level movement parameters are affected by punishment and reward in ways similar to high-level action selection. Moreover, we addressed the proposed dependence of behavioural and neurophysiological variability on DA, and whether this may underpin the exploration of kinematic parameters. Participants performed an out-and-back index finger movement and were instructed that monetary reward and punishment were based on its maximal acceleration (MA). In fact, the feedback was not contingent on the participant’s behaviour but pre-determined. Blocks highly-biased towards punishment were associated with increased MA variability relative to blocks with either reward or without feedback. This increase in behavioural variability was positively correlated with neurophysiological variability, as measured by changes in cortico-spinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex. Following the administration of a DA-antagonist, the variability associated with punishment diminished and the correlation between behavioural and neurophysiological variability no longer existed. Similar changes in variability were not observed when participants executed a pre-determined MA, nor did DA influence resting neurophysiological variability. Thus, under conditions of punishment, DA-dependent processes influence the selection of low-level movement parameters. We propose that the enhanced behavioural variability reflects the exploration of kinematic parameters for less punishing, or conversely more rewarding, outcomes. PMID:23447607

  6. Differential Dopamine Release Dynamics in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell Reveal Complementary Signals for Error Prediction and Incentive Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoris, Michael P; Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2015-08-19

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is phasically released during appetitive behaviors, though there is substantive disagreement about the specific purpose of these DA signals. For example, prediction error (PE) models suggest a role of learning, while incentive salience (IS) models argue that the DA signal imbues stimuli with value and thereby stimulates motivated behavior. However, within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) patterns of DA release can strikingly differ between subregions, and as such, it is possible that these patterns differentially contribute to aspects of PE and IS. To assess this, we measured DA release in subregions of the NAc during a behavioral task that spatiotemporally separated sequential goal-directed stimuli. Electrochemical methods were used to measure subsecond NAc dopamine release in the core and shell during a well learned instrumental chain schedule in which rats were trained to press one lever (seeking; SL) to gain access to a second lever (taking; TL) linked with food delivery, and again during extinction. In the core, phasic DA release was greatest following initial SL presentation, but minimal for the subsequent TL and reward events. In contrast, phasic shell DA showed robust release at all task events. Signaling decreased between the beginning and end of sessions in the shell, but not core. During extinction, peak DA release in the core showed a graded decrease for the SL and pauses in release during omitted expected rewards, whereas shell DA release decreased predominantly during the TL. These release dynamics suggest parallel DA signals capable of supporting distinct theories of appetitive behavior. Dopamine signaling in the brain is important for a variety of cognitive functions, such as learning and motivation. Typically, it is assumed that a single dopamine signal is sufficient to support these cognitive functions, though competing theories disagree on how dopamine contributes to reward-based behaviors. Here, we have found that real

  7. A novel dopamine transporter transgenic mouse line for identification and purification of midbrain dopaminergic neurons reveals midbrain heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mia Apuschkin; Stilling, Sara; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are a heterogeneous cell group, composed of functionally distinct cell populations projecting to the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and limbic system. Despite their functional significance, the midbrain population of DAergic neurons is sparse, constituting...... of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter was characterized. Confocal microscopy analysis of brain sections showed strong eGFP signal reporter in midbrain regions and striatal terminals that co-localized with the DAergic markers DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Thorough quantification of co...

  8. iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons Reveal Differences between Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Woodard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD has been attributed to a combination of genetic and nongenetic factors. We studied a set of monozygotic twins harboring the heterozygous glucocerebrosidase mutation (GBA N370S but clinically discordant for PD. We applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology for PD disease modeling using the twins’ fibroblasts to evaluate and dissect the genetic and nongenetic contributions. Utilizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we obtained a homogenous population of “footprint-free” iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic (mDA neurons. The mDA neurons from both twins had ∼50% GBA enzymatic activity, ∼3-fold elevated α-synuclein protein levels, and a reduced capacity to synthesize and release dopamine. Interestingly, the affected twin’s neurons showed an even lower dopamine level, increased monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B expression, and impaired intrinsic network activity. Overexpression of wild-type GBA and treatment with MAO-B inhibitors normalized α-synuclein and dopamine levels, suggesting a combination therapy for the affected twin.

  9. Amphetamine Paradoxically Augments Exocytotic Dopamine Release and Phasic Dopamine Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daberkow, DP; Brown, HD; Bunner, KD; Kraniotis, SA; Doellman, MA; Ragozzino, ME; Garris, PA; Roitman, MF

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting non-exocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties - which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to two hours. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, non-electrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sucrose reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sucrose-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify up-regulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  10. Population and pedigree studies reveal a lack of association between the dopamine D sub 2 receptor gene and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolos, A.M.; Goldman, D.; Brown, G.L. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Lucas-Derse, S.; Ramsburg, M. (Program Resources Inc., Frederick, MD (USA))

    1990-12-26

    Using the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor clone {lambda}hD2G1, Blum et al recently found that the D{sub 2}/Taq 1 allele (A1) was present in 69{percent} of 35 deceased alcoholics but in only 20{percent} of an equal number of controls. To assess this association further, the authors evaluated the D{sub 2}/Taq 1 polymorphism and a single-strand conformation polymorphism detected by polymerase chain reaction and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis (PCR-SSCP) of the 3{prime} noncoding region of the D{sub 2} receptor gene. They studied 40 unrelated white alcoholics, 127 racially matched controls, and two white pedigrees. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version (SADS-L) clinical diagnostic interviews were rated blindly by two clinicians. Alcoholics were subtyped according to age of onset, severity, presence of antisocial personality, and family history. No significant differences in either D{sub 2}/Taq 1 or PCR-SSCP allele frequencies were observed between alcoholics, subpopulations of alcoholics, or controls. The PCR-SSCP polymorphism provided independent information against linkage at the D{sub 2} receptor locus. This study does not support a widespread or consistent association between the D{sub 2} receptor gene and alcoholism.

  11. Distinct motor impairments of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor knockout mice revealed by three types of motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eNakamura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both D1R and D2R knock out (KO mice of the major dopamine receptors show significant motor impairments. However, there are some discrepant reports, which may be due to the differences in genetic background and experimental procedures. In addition, only few studies directly compared the motor performance of D1R and D2R KO mice. In this paper, we examined the behavioral difference among N10 congenic D1R and D2R KO, and wild type (WT mice. First, we examined spontaneous motor activity in the home cage environment for consecutive five days. Second, we examined motor performance using the rota-rod task, a standard motor task in rodents. Third, we examined motor ability with the Step-Wheel task in which mice were trained to run in a motor-driven turning wheel adjusting their steps on foothold pegs to drink water. The results showed clear differences among the mice of three genotypes in three different types of behavior. In monitoring spontaneous motor activities, D1R and D2R KO mice showed higher and lower 24 h activities, respectively, than WT mice. In the rota-rod tasks, at a low speed, D1R KO mice showed poor performance but later improved, whereas D2R KO mice showed a good performance at early days without further improvement. When first subjected to a high speed task, the D2R KO mice showed poorer rota-rod performance at a low speed than the D1R KO mice. In the Step-Wheel task, across daily sessions, D2R KO mice increased the duration that mice run sufficiently close to the spout to drink water, and decreased time to touch the floor due to missing the peg steps and number of times the wheel was stopped, which performance was much better than that of D1R KO mice. These incongruent results between the two tasks for D1R and D2R KO mice may be due to the differences in the motivation for the rota-rod and Step-Wheel tasks, aversion- and reward-driven, respectively. The Step-Wheel system may become a useful tool for assessing the motor ability of WT

  12. Symmetrical dimer of the human dopamine transporter revealed by cross-linking Cys-306 at the extracellular end of the sixth transmembrane segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, H; Karlin, A; Javitch, J A

    2001-08-28

    There is evidence both for and against Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters forming oligomers. We found that cross-linking the human dopamine transporter (DAT), which is heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, either with copper phenanthroline (CuP) or the bifunctional reagent bis-(2-methanethiosulfonatoethyl)amine hydrochloride (bis-EA) increased the apparent molecular mass determined with nonreducing SDS/PAGE from approximately 85 to approximately 195 kDa. After cross-linking, but not before, coexpressed, differentially epitope-tagged DAT molecules, solubilized in Triton X-100, were coimmunoprecipitated. Thus, the 195-kDa complex was a homodimer. Cross-linking of DAT did not affect tyramine uptake. Replacement of Cys-306 with Ala prevented cross-linking. Replacement of all of the non-disulfide-bonded cysteines in the extracellular and membrane domains, except for Cys-306, did not prevent cross-linking. We conclude that the cross-link is between Cys-306 at the extracellular end of TM6 in each of the two DATs. The motif GVXXGVXXA occurs at the intracellular end of TM6 in DAT and is found in a number of other neurotransmitter transporters. This sequence was originally found at the dimerization interface in glycophorin A, and it promotes dimerization in model systems. Mutation of either glycine disrupted DAT expression and function. The intracellular end of TM6, like the extracellular end, is likely to be part of the dimerization interface.

  13. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using 3 H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of 3 H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures

  14. Working memory capacity predicts dopamine synthesis capacity in the human striatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R.; Gibbs, S.E.; Miyakawa, A.; Jagust, W.; D'Esposito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from psychopharmacological research has revealed that dopamine receptor agents have opposite effects on cognitive function depending on baseline levels of working memory capacity. These contrasting effects have been interpreted to reflect differential baseline levels of dopamine. Here we

  15. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A crystalline form of dopamine β-hydroxylase is provided. X-ray crystallography reveals the space group and cell dimensions, as well as the atomic coordinates. The information can be used for identifying one or more modulators of dopamine β-hydroxylase, which can then be chemically synthesised...... and used in treatment. A process for preparing the crystalline form of human dopamine β-hydroxylase is also provided....

  16. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism for diurnal (i.e., light/dark) oscillations in extracellular dopamine tone in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems is unknown. This is because, unlike other neurotransmitter systems, variation in dopamine tone does not correlate with variation in dopamine cell firing. The current research pinpoints the dopamine transporter as a critical governor of diurnal variation in both extracellular dopamine tone and the intracellular availability of releasable dopamine. These data describe...

  17. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  18. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  19. Layered reward signalling through octopamine and dopamine in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Huetteroth, Wolf; Owald, David; Perisse, Emmanuel; Krashes, Michael J; Das, Gaurav; Gohl, Daryl; Silies, Marion; Certel, Sarah; Waddell, Scott

    2012-12-20

    Dopamine is synonymous with reward and motivation in mammals. However, only recently has dopamine been linked to motivated behaviour and rewarding reinforcement in fruitflies. Instead, octopamine has historically been considered to be the signal for reward in insects. Here we show, using temporal control of neural function in Drosophila, that only short-term appetitive memory is reinforced by octopamine. Moreover, octopamine-dependent memory formation requires signalling through dopamine neurons. Part of the octopamine signal requires the α-adrenergic-like OAMB receptor in an identified subset of mushroom-body-targeted dopamine neurons. Octopamine triggers an increase in intracellular calcium in these dopamine neurons, and their direct activation can substitute for sugar to form appetitive memory, even in flies lacking octopamine. Analysis of the β-adrenergic-like OCTβ2R receptor reveals that octopamine-dependent reinforcement also requires an interaction with dopamine neurons that control appetitive motivation. These data indicate that sweet taste engages a distributed octopamine signal that reinforces memory through discrete subsets of mushroom-body-targeted dopamine neurons. In addition, they reconcile previous findings with octopamine and dopamine and suggest that reinforcement systems in flies are more similar to mammals than previously thought.

  20. Dopamine hypothesis of mania

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, John

    2014-01-01

    s­of­the­Speakers­/­Konuşmacı­leriThe discovery of dopamine and its pathwaysDopamine (DA) was first synthesized in 1910 from 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl alanine (DOPA) by Barger and Ewens at Wellcome Laboratories in London. It is a cathecholamine and in the 1940s Blaschko in Cambridge proposed that DA was a precursor in synthesis of the cat-echolamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine). In 1957 it was shown to be present in the brain with other catecholamin...

  1. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    is frequently employed in cases of acute oliguric renal failure but the results available concerning the therapeutic effect are frequently retrospective and uncontrolled. The results suggest that early treatment with 1-3 micrograms/kg/min dopamine combined with furosemide can postpone or possibly render...

  3. Firing properties of dopamine neurons in freely moving dopamine-deficient mice: Effects of dopamine receptor activation and anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Siobhan; Smith, David M.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the regulation of midbrain dopamine neurons, recordings were obtained from single neurons of freely moving, genetically engineered dopamine-deficient (DD) mice. DD mice were tested without dopamine signaling (basal state) and with endogenous dopamine signaling (after L-dopa administration). In the basal state, when dopamine concentration in DD mice is

  4. NEW DOPAMINE AGONISTS IN CARDIOVASCULAR THERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIRBES, ARJ; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; SMIT, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Dopamine, a naturally occurring catecholamine, has been extensively used in intensive care for many years. Dopamine stimulates different types of adrenergic receptors: alpha-1 and -2, beta-1 and -2, and dopamine-1 and -2. The renal effects of dopamine are the result of dopamine-1 receptor (DA1)

  5. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  6. Missense dopamine transporter mutations associate with adult parkinsonism and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Freja H; Skjørringe, Tina; Yasmeen, Saiqa

    2014-01-01

    experiments suggested that the disrupted function of the DAT-Asp421Asn mutant is the result of compromised sodium binding, in agreement with Asp421 coordinating sodium at the second sodium site. For DAT-Asp421Asn, substrate efflux experiments revealed a constitutive, anomalous efflux of dopamine......Parkinsonism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are widespread brain disorders that involve disturbances of dopaminergic signaling. The sodium-coupled dopamine transporter (DAT) controls dopamine homeostasis, but its contribution to disease remains poorly understood. Here, we......-deoxy-glucose-PET/MRI (FDG-PET/MRI) scan, the patient suffered from progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In heterologous cells, both DAT variants exhibited markedly reduced dopamine uptake capacity but preserved membrane targeting, consistent with impaired catalytic activity. Computational simulations and uptake...

  7. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [ 123 I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [ 123 I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [ 123 I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  8. Methamphetamine Increases Locomotion and Dopamine Transporter Activity in Dopamine D5 Receptor-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashizaki, Seiji; Hirai, Shinobu; Ito, Yumi; Honda, Yoshiko; Arime, Yosefu; Sora, Ichiro; Okado, Haruo; Kodama, Tohru; Takada, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behaviora...

  9. Dopamine Signaling Regulates Fat Content through β-Oxidation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de Almeida; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; de Souza, Bruno Rezende; de Castro Júnior, Célio; de Lima Torres, Karen Cecília; Malard, Leandro; Jorio, Ado; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of energy balance involves an intricate interplay between neural mechanisms that respond to internal and external cues of energy demand and food availability. Compelling data have implicated the neurotransmitter dopamine as an important part of body weight regulation. However, the precise mechanisms through which dopamine regulates energy homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate mechanisms through which dopamine modulates energy storage. We showed that dopamine signaling regulates fat reservoirs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the fat reducing effects of dopamine were dependent on dopaminergic receptors and a set of fat oxidation enzymes. Our findings reveal an ancient role for dopaminergic regulation of fat and suggest that dopamine signaling elicits this outcome through cascades that ultimately mobilize peripheral fat depots. PMID:24465759

  10. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last ten years, several positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) studies of the dopamine (DA) system in patients with schizophrenia were performed to test the hypothesis that DA hyperactivity is associated with this illness. In this paper are reviewed the results of fifteen brain imaging studies comparing indices of DA function in drug naive or drug free patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: thirteen studies included measurements of Da D 2 receptor density, two studies compared amphetamine-induced DA release, and two studies measured DOPA decarboxylase activity, an enzyme involved in DA synthesis. It was conducted a meta-analysis of the studies measuring D 2 receptor density parameters, under the assumption that all tracers labeled the same population of D 2 receptors. This analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia present a significant but mild elevation of D 2 receptor density parameters and a significant larger variability of these indices. It was found no statistical evidence that studies performed with radiolabeled butyrophenones detected a larger increase in D 2 receptor density parameters than studies performed with other radioligands, such as benzamides. Studies of presynaptic activity revealed an increase in DA transmission response to amphetamine challenge, and an increase in DOPA decarboxylase activity. Together, these data are compatible with both pre- and post-synaptic alterations of DA transmission in schizophrenia. Future studies should aim at a better characterization of these alterations, and at defining their role in the pathophysiology of the illness

  11. Flipped Phenyl Ring Orientations of Dopamine Binding with Human and Drosophila Dopamine Transporters: Remarkable Role of Three Nonconserved Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yaxia; Zhu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2018-03-09

    Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the present study to examine the modes of dopamine binding with human and Drosophila dopamine transporters (hDAT and dDAT). The computational data revealed flipped binding orientations of dopamine in hDAT and dDAT due to the major differences in three key residues (S149, G153, and A423 of hDAT vs A117, D121, and S422 of dDAT) in the binding pocket. These three residues dictate the binding orientation of dopamine in the binding pocket, as the aromatic ring of dopamine tends to take an orientation with both the para- and meta-hydroxyl groups being close to polar residues and away from nonpolar residues of the protein. The flipped binding orientations of dopamine in hDAT and dDAT clearly demonstrate a generally valuable insight concerning how the species difference could drastically affect the protein-ligand binding modes, demonstrating that the species difference, which is a factor rarely considered in early drug design stage, must be accounted for throughout the ligand/drug design and discovery processes in general.

  12. Dopamine Oxidation and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease remain unclear. Currently, there is a general agreement that mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein aggregation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and impaired protein degradation are involved in the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease. Aminochrome has been proposed to play an essential role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, the formation of neurotoxic α-synuclein protofibrils, and impaired protein degradation. Here, we discuss the relationship between the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin, and the role of dopamine oxidation to aminochrome in autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons. Aminochrome induces the following: (i the formation of α-synuclein protofibrils that inactivate chaperone-mediated autophagy; (ii the formation of adducts with α- and β-tubulin, which induce the aggregation of the microtubules required for the fusion of autophagy vacuoles and lysosomes.

  13. Dopamine1 receptors in rat kidneys identified with 125I-Sch 23982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, R.A.; Jose, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Dopamine1 receptors were studied in rat kidney using the selective dopamine1 antagonist 125I-labeled Sch 23982. The specific binding of 125I-Sch 23982 (defined by 5 microM Sch 23390) to renal cortical homogenates incubated at room temperature was rapid, saturable with time and ligand concentration, and reversible. Analysis of Rosenthal plots revealed a single class of receptors with an apparent dissociation constant of 12.2 +/- 1.9 nM and maximum receptor density of 1.03 +/- 0.15 pmol/mg protein (n = 6). However, competition experiments with the dopamine1 antagonist Sch 23390 revealed a low- and high-affinity binding site with inhibition constants of 1 x 10(-6) and 1 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The competition experiments were also indicative of dopamine1 receptors with stereoselectivity noted for dopamine1 but not for dopamine2 antagonists. The inhibition constants for dopamine1 antagonists and agonists were two orders of magnitude greater in renal cortical than striatal homogenates. Different buffers affected striatal but not renal cortical binding. Autoradiographic studies revealed 125I-Sch 23982 binding in renal cortical but not medullary tissue. These studies confirm the presence of dopamine1 receptors in the cortex of the rat kidney

  14. Neuropharmacology of novel dopamine modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Erik Tomas te

    2014-01-01

    De neurotransmitter dopamine speelt een essentiële rol in diverse neurofysiologische functies en is betrokken bij de pathofysiologie van diverse neuropsychiatrische aandoeningen, waaronder de ziekte van Parkinson, schizofrenie, drugsverslaving en hyperprolactinemie. De huidige

  15. Dopamine signaling: target in glioblastoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), 1116-1117 ISSN 1949-2553 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Dopamine signaling * glioblastoma * MAPK Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.359, year: 2014

  16. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  17. Dopamine neurons implanted into people with Parkinson's disease survive without pathology for 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendez, Ivar; Viñuela, Angel; Astradsson, Arnar

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem analysis of five subjects with Parkinson's disease 9-14 years after transplantation of fetal midbrain cell suspensions revealed surviving grafts that included dopamine and serotonin neurons without pathology. These findings are important for the understanding of the etiopathogenesis...

  18. Salsolinol facilitates glutamatergic transmission to dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin Xie

    Full Text Available Although in vivo evidence indicates that salsolinol, the condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine, has properties that may contribute to alcohol abuse, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We have reported previously that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA partly by reducing inhibitory GABAergic transmission, and that ethanol increases glutamatergic transmission to VTA-dopamine neurons via the activation of dopamine D(1 receptors (D(1Rs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons involving activation of D(1Rs. By using whole-cell recordings on p-VTA-dopamine neurons in acute brain slices of rats, we found that salsolinol-induced increase in spike frequency of dopamine neurons was substantially attenuated by DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid and 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, the antagonists of glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Moreover, salsolinol increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs. Additionally, SKF83566, a D(1R antagonist attenuated the salsolinol-induced facilitation of EPSCs and of spontaneous firing of dopamine neurons. Our data reveal that salsolinol enhances glutamatergic transmission onto dopamine neurons via activation of D(1Rs at the glutamatergic afferents in dopamine neurons, which contributes to salsolinol's stimulating effect on p-VTA dopamine neurons. This appears to be a novel mechanism which contributes toward rewarding properties of salsolinol.

  19. Effects of dopamine on renal haemodynamics tubular function and sodium excretion in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    The renal functional changes following infusion of dopamine are well documented. The most pronounced effect is the increase in renal blood flow and a marked natriuretic response. Due to its specific renal effects, dopamine has become one of the most frequently used drugs in the treatment...... of critically ill patients with low cardiac output states and/or acute oliguric renal failure. Pharmacological effects of dopamine are dose dependent. Low doses of dopamine predominantly stimulate dopaminergic receptors, but with increasing doses actions secondary to stimulation of adrenergic beta(1) and alpha...... indirectly may dilate the vessels by inhibition of norepinephrine release. Consistent with previous results in animals, the present haemodynamic studies revealed that dopamine in normal subjects elicits a dose dependent biphasic effect on the mean arterial blood pressure. With 1 and 2 micrograms...

  20. Functional Connectome Analysis of Dopamine Neuron Glutamatergic Connections in Forebrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Field, Bianca; Deutch, Ariel Y; Rayport, Stephen

    2015-12-09

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subpopulation of dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and make glutamatergic connections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and olfactory tubercle (OT) neurons. However, their glutamatergic connections across the forebrain have not been explored systematically. To visualize dopamine neuron forebrain projections and to enable photostimulation of their axons independent of transmitter status, we virally transfected VTA neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) and used DAT(IREScre) mice to restrict expression to dopamine neurons. ChR2-EYFP-expressing neurons almost invariably stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, identifying them as dopaminergic. Dopamine neuron axons visualized by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence projected most densely to the striatum, moderately to the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (ERC), sparsely to prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and rarely to the hippocampus. Guided by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence, we recorded systematically from putative principal neurons in target areas and determined the incidence and strength of glutamatergic connections by activating all dopamine neuron terminals impinging on recorded neurons with wide-field photostimulation. This revealed strong glutamatergic connections in the NAc, OT, and ERC; moderate strength connections in the central amygdala; and weak connections in the cingulate cortex. No glutamatergic connections were found in the dorsal striatum, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, or prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that VTA dopamine neurons elicit widespread, but regionally distinct, glutamatergic signals in the forebrain and begin to define the dopamine neuron excitatory functional connectome. Dopamine neurons are important for the control of motivated behavior and are involved in the pathophysiology of several major neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have shown that some ventral midbrain dopamine neurons are

  1. Dopamine Dynamics during Continuous Intracranial Self-Stimulation: Effect of Waveform on Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine is heavily implicated in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Many drugs of abuse that affect ICSS behavior target the dopaminergic system, and optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons is sufficient to support self-stimulation. However, the patterns of phasic dopamine release during ICSS remain unclear. Early ICSS studies using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) rarely observed phasic dopamine release, which led to the surprising conclusion that it is dissociated from ICSS. However, several advances in the sensitivity (i.e., the use of waveforms with extended anodic limits) and analysis (i.e., principal component regression) of FSCV measurements have made it possible to detect smaller, yet physiologically relevant, dopamine release events. Therefore, this study revisits phasic dopamine release during ICSS using these tools. It was found that the anodic limit of the voltammetric waveform has a substantial effect on the patterns of dopamine release observed during continuous ICSS. While data collected with low anodic limits (i.e., +1.0 V) support the disappearance of phasic dopamine release observed in previous investigation, the use of high anodic limits (+1.3 V, +1.4 V) allows for continual detection of dopamine release throughout ICSS. However, the +1.4 V waveform lacks the ability to resolve narrowly spaced events, with the best balance of temporal resolution and sensitivity provided by the +1.3 V waveform. Ultimately, it is revealed that the amplitude of phasic dopamine release decays but does not fully disappear during continuous ICSS. PMID:27548680

  2. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND IMMUNITY: 1. DOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is one of the principal neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNC, and its neuronal pathways are involved in several key functions such as behavior (Hefco et al., 2003a,b, control of movement, endocrine regulation, immune response (Fiserova et al., 2002; Levite et al., 2001, Hritcu et al., 2006a,b,c, and cardiovascular function. Dopamine has at least five G-protein, coupled receptor subtypes, D1-D5, each arising from a different gene (Sibley et al., 1993. Traditionally, these receptors have been classified into D1-like (the D1 and D5 and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4 receptors subtypes, primarily according to their ability to stimulate or inhibit adenylate cyclase, respectively, and to their pharmacological characteristics (Seeman et al., 1993. Receptors for dopamine (particularly of D2 subclass are the primary therapeutic target in a number of neuropathological disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea (Seeman et al., 1987. Neither dopamine by itself, nor dopaminergic agonists by themselves, has been shown to activate T cell function. Nevertheless, lymphocytes are most probably exposed to dopamine since the primary and secondary lymphoid organs of various mammals are markedly innervated, and contain nerve fibers which stain for tyrosine hydroxylase (Weihe et al., 1991, the enzyme responsible for dopamine synthesis. Moreover, cathecolamines and their metabolites are present in single lymphocytes and in extracts of T and B cell clones, and pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase reduces catecholamine levels, suggesting catecholamine synthesis by lymphocytes (Bergquist et al., 1994. The existence of putative dopamine receptors of D2, D3, D4 and D5 subtypes on immune cells has been proposed of several authors, primarily on the basis of dopaminergic ligand binding assays and specific mRNA expression as monitored by reverse transcription-PCR. Several experiments evoked the idea of a

  3. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFitzgerald

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signalling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behaviour. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.

  4. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.

  5. Behavioural effects of chemogenetic dopamine neuron activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L

    2016-01-01

    Various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder, have been associated with altered dopamine signalling in the brain. However, it remains unclear which specific changes in dopamine activity are related to specific

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Dopamine Receptor Mediated Neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sealfon, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    ... of the cellular changes characteristic of this process. Evidence from our laboratory and others suggest that activation of dopamine receptors can oppose the induction of apoptosis in dopamine neurons...

  7. Regulation of dopamine transporter activity by carboxypeptidase E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopamine transporter (DAT plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT can directly interact with other cellular proteins and regulate DAT function and trafficking. Results Here, we have identified that carboxypeptidase E (CPE, a prohormone processing exopeptidase and sorting receptor for the regulated secretory pathway, interacts with the DAT-CT and affects DAT function. Mammalian cell lines coexpressing CPE and DAT exhibited increased DAT-mediated dopamine uptake activity compared to cells expressing DAT alone. Moreover, coexpression of an interfering DAT-CT minigene inhibited the effects of CPE on DAT. Functional changes caused by CPE could be attributed to enhanced DAT expression and subsequent increase in DAT cell surface localization, due to decreased DAT degradation. In addition, CPE association could reduce the phosphorylation state of DAT on serine residues, potentially leading to reduced internalization, thus stabilizing plasmalemmal DAT localization. Conclusion Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for CPE in the regulation of DAT trafficking and DAT-mediated DA uptake, which may provide a novel target in the treatment of dopamine-governed diseases such as drug addiction and obesity.

  8. Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennington, Jessica B; Pope, Sara; Goodheart, Anna E; Drozdowicz, Linda; Daniels, Stephen B; Salamone, John D; Conover, Joanne C

    2011-09-14

    Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.

  9. Distinct presynaptic control of dopamine release in striosomal and matrix areas of the cat caudate nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemel, M.L.; Desban, M.; Glowinski, J.; Gauchy, C.

    1989-01-01

    By use of a sensitive in vitro microsuperfusion method, the cholinergic presynaptic control of dopamine release was investigated in a prominent striosome (areas poor in acetylcholinesterase activity) located within the core of cat caudate nucleus and also in adjacent matrix area. The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]dopamine continuously synthesized from [ 3 H]tyrosine in the matrix area was found to be twice that in the striosomal area; the spontaneous and potassium-evoked releases of [ 3 H]dopamine were calcium-dependent in both compartments. With 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin, 5 x 10 -5 M acetylcholine stimulated [ 3 H]dopamine release in both striosomal and matrix areas, effects completely antagonized by atropine, thus showing the involvement of muscarinic receptors located on dopaminergic nerve terminals. Experiments without tetrodotoxin revealed a more complex regulation of dopamine release in the matrix: (i) in contrast to results seen in the striosome, acetylcholine induced only a transient stimulatory effect on matrix dopamine release. (ii) Although 10 -6 M atropine completely abolished the cholinergic stimulatory effect on [ 3 H]dopamine release in striosomal area, delayed and prolonged stimulation of [ 3 H] dopamine release was seen with atropine in the matrix. The latter effect was completely abolished by the nicotinic antagonist pempidine. Therefore, in the matrix, in addition to its direct (tetrodotoxin-insensitive) facilitatory action on [ 3 H]dopamine release, acetylcholine exerts two indirect (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) opposing effects: an inhibition and a stimulation of [ 3 H]dopamine release mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, respectively

  10. Study of dopamine reactivity on platinum single crystal electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumillas, Sara; Figueiredo, Marta C.; Climent, Víctor; Feliu, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is the biological molecule responsible, among other functions, of the heart beat and blood pressure regulation. Its loss, in the human body, can result in serious diseases such as Parkinson's, schizophrenia or depression. Structurally, this molecule belongs to the group of catecholamines, together with epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The hydroquinone moiety of the molecule can be easily oxidized to quinone, rendering the electrochemical methods a convenient approach for the development of dopamine biosensors. The reactivity of similar aromatic molecules, such as catechol and hydroquinone, at well-ordered platinum surfaces, has recently been investigated in our group. In this paper, we extend these studies to the structurally related molecule dopamine. The study has been performed in neutral pH, since this is closer to the natural conditions for these molecules in biological media. Cyclic voltammetry and in situ infra-red spectroscopy have been combined to extract information about the behavior of this molecule on well-defined platinum surfaces. Dopamine appears to be electrochemically active and reveals interesting adsorption phenomena at low potentials (0.15–0.25 V vs RHE), sensitive to the single crystal orientation. The adsorption of dopamine on these surfaces is very strong, taking place at much lower potentials than the electron transfer from solution species. Specifically, the voltammetry of Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) in dopamine solutions shows an oxidation peak at potentials close to the onset of hydrogen evolution, which is related to the desorption of hydrogen and the adsorption of dopamine. On the other hand, adsorption on Pt(1 1 0) is irreversible and the surface appears totally blocked. Spectroscopic results indicate that dopamine is adsorbed flat on the surface. At potentials higher than 0.6 V vs RHE the three basal planes show a common redox process. The initial formation of the quinone moiety is followed by a

  11. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  12. Correlation of individual differences in schizotypal personality traits with amphetamine-induced dopamine release in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Cowan, Ronald L; Park, Sohee; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Li, Rui; Doop, Mikisha; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2011-04-01

    Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate increased dopamine transmission in the striatum. The authors sought to determine whether individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits are correlated with dopamine transmission in the striatum and in extrastriatal brain regions. Sixty-three healthy volunteers with no history of psychiatric illness completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent positron emission tomography imaging with [(18)F]fallypride at baseline and after administration of oral d-amphetamine (0.43 mg/kg). Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each participant's d-amphetamine scan from his or her baseline scan, was correlated with Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and factor scores using region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. Dopamine release in the striatum was positively correlated with overall schizotypal traits. The association was especially robust in the associative subdivision of the striatum. Voxel-wise analyses identified additional correlations between dopamine release and schizotypal traits in the left middle frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus. Exploratory analyses of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factor scores revealed correlations between dopamine release and disorganized schizotypal traits in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, insula, and inferior frontal cortex. The association between dopamine signaling and psychosis phenotypes extends to individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the genetic basis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  13. The dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine is a neuromodulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana D Sotnikova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine is a well-known catecholamine neurotransmitter involved in multiple physiological functions including movement control. Here we report that the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT, can induce behavioral effects in a dopamine-independent manner and these effects are partially mediated by the trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1. Unbiased in vivo screening of putative trace amine receptor ligands for potential effects on the movement control revealed that 3-MT infused in the brain is able to induce a complex set of abnormal involuntary movements in mice acutely depleted of dopamine. In normal mice, the central administration of 3-MT caused a temporary mild hyperactivity with a concomitant set of abnormal movements. Furthermore, 3-MT induced significant ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the mouse striatum, signaling events generally related to PKA-mediated cAMP accumulation. In mice lacking TAAR1, both behavioral and signaling effects of 3-MT were partially attenuated, consistent with the ability of 3-MT to activate TAAR1 receptors and cause cAMP accumulation as well as ERK and CREB phosphorylation in cellular assays. Thus, 3-MT is not just an inactive metabolite of DA, but a novel neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control. Further characterization of the physiological functions mediated by 3-MT may advance understanding of the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain disorders involving abnormal dopaminergic transmission, such as Parkinson's disease, dyskinesia and schizophrenia.

  14. Photoaffinity labelling of high affinity dopamine binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.M.; McCarry, B.E.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A photoactive analogue of the dopamine agonist 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) has been synthesized and used to photoaffinity label dopamine binding proteins prepared from bovine caudate nucleus. N-(3-]N'-4-azidobenzamidol]-aminopropyl)-aminopropyl)-ADTN (AzB-AP-ADTN) was incubated with caudate membranes and irradiated with UV light. Membranes were then repeatedly washed by centrifugation to remove excess photolabel. A binding assay, using ( 3 H)-SCH 23390 (a D 1 specific antagonist), was then performed to evaluate the loss of receptor density in the photolyzed preparation. AzB-AP-ADTN irreversibly blocked ( 3 H)-SCH 23390 binding in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis revealed a decrease in the B/sub max/, with no significant change in the K/sub d/, of ( 3 H)-SCH 23390 binding. Compounds which compete for D 1 receptor binding (such as dopamine, SKF 38393 or apomorphine), proteted the SCH 23390 binding site from inactivation. This data would suggest that the novel photoaffinity ligand, AzB-AP-ADTN, can covalently label the D 1 (adenylate cyclase linked) dopamine receptor

  15. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New detection of brain dopamine receptors with [3H]dihydroergocryptine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittler, M.; Weinreich, P.; Seeman, P.

    1977-01-01

    Because dihydroergocryptine (DHE) and closely related ergots are dopamine-mimetic agonists, we tested [ 3 H]DHE as a possible ligand for [ 3 H]dopamine receptors in the calf caudate. In order to avoid [ 3 H]DHE from tagging α-adrenergic receptors, an excess of 500 nM phentolamine was used to block these sites, permitting the dopamine receptors to be measured separately. Specific binding of [ 3 H]DHE was defined as total binding minus that occurring in the presence of 1 μM (+)-butaclamol. Excess phentolamine reduced the specific binding of [ 3 H]DHE from 328 down to 138 fmol/mg, the difference presumably representing α-receptors. The K/sub D/ for [ 3 H]DHE was 0.55 nM (with or without phentolamine), and this high affinity site was blocked (in the presence of phentolamine) by 250 nM apomorphine, 650 nM dopamine, and 1200 nM (-)-norepinephrine, indicating that [ 3 H]DHE was binding to dopamine receptors. All neuroleptics blocked specific [ 3 H]DHE binding in direct relation to the clinical potency of the neuroleptic. The displacement of specific [ 3 H]DHE binding by dopamine or by norepinephrine (in the presence of phentolamine) revealed two subsets of dopamine receptors

  17. Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, A.V.; Iversen, L.L.; Rossor, M.; Spokes, E.; Bird, E.; Arregui, A.; Creese, I.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In postmortem samples of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens from 48 schizophrenic patients, there were significant increases in both the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent dissociation constant (KD) for tritiated spiperone. The increase in apparent KD probably reflects the presence of residual neuroleptic drugs, but changes in Bmax for tritiated spiperone reflect genuine changes in receptor numbers. The increases in receptors were seen only in patients in whom neuroleptic medication had been maintained until the time of death, indicating that they may be entirely iatrogenic. Dopamine measurements for a larger series of schizophrenic and control cases (n greater than 60) show significantly increased concentrations in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus. The changes in dopamine were not obviously related to neuroleptic medication and, unlike the receptor changes, were most severe in younger patients

  18. Peripheral Dopamine in Restless Legs Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective/BackgroundRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a dopamine-dependent disorder characterized by a strong urge to move. The objective of this study was to evalulate blood levels of dopamine and other catecholamines and blood D2-subtype dopamine receptors (D2Rs in RLS.Patients/MethodsDopamine levels in blood samples from age-matched unmedicated RLS subjects, medicated RLS subjects and Controls were evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography and dopamine D2R white blood cell (WBC expression levels were determined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunocytochemistry.ResultsBlood plasma dopamine levels, but not norepinepherine or epinephrine levels, were significantly increased in medicated RLS subjects vs unmedicated RLS subjects and Controls. The percentage of lymphocytes and monocytes expressing D2Rs differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. Total D2R expression in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. D2Rs in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, were sensitive to dopamine in Controls only.ConclusionDownregulation of WBCs D2Rs occurs in RLS. This downregulation is not reversed by medication, although commonly used RLS medications increase plasma dopamine levels. The insensitivity of monocytes to dopamine levels, but their downregulation in RLS, may reflect their utility as a biomarker for RLS and perhaps brain dopamine homeostasis.

  19. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo 3H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased 3 H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous 3 H-spiperone ( 3 H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound 3 H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. 3 H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by 3 H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of 3 H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. 3 H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of 3 H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo

  20. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... hepatic encephalopathy that were published during 1979 to 1982 were included. Three trials assessed levodopa, and two trials assessed bromocriptine. The mean daily dose was 4 grams for levodopa and 15 grams for bromocriptine. The median duration of treatment was 14 days (range seven to 56 days). None...

  1. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards?an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less...

  2. PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE MODULATION BY STIMULANT SELF ADMINISTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is an essential participant in the initiation and modulation of various forms of goal-directed behavior, including drug reinforcement and addiction processes. Dopamine neurotransmission is increased by acute administration of all drugs of abuse, including the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Chronic exposure to these drugs via voluntary self-administration provides a model of stimulant abuse that is useful in evaluating potential behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur during addiction. This review describes commonly used methodologies to measure dopamine and baseline parameters of presynaptic dopamine regulation, including exocytotic release and reuptake through the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as dramatic adaptations in dopamine neurotransmission and drug sensitivity that occur with acute non-contingent and chronic, contingent self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:23277050

  3. [Neurotensin-like oligopeptides as potential antipsychotics: effect on dopamine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, N V; Meshavkin, V K; Batishcheva, E Iu; Sokolov, O Iu; Andreeva, L A; Miasoedov, N F

    2011-01-01

    According to published data, peptide neurotensin is considered as endogenous antipsychotic agent. A series of oligopeptides have been synthesized based on the proposed active center of neurotensin. These oligopeptides (called neurotensin-like peptides, NLPs) have been studied on behavioral models, in which the functional state of the dopamine system of animals was modified by apomorphine injections. The results of verticalization, stereotypy, and yawning tests revealed NLPs that behave as antagonists of dopamine receptors. Radioligand analysis showed that these peptides compete for specific binding to these receptors with sulpiride, which is a D2-type selective antagonist of dopamine receptors. The high degree of NLPs efficiency manifested in the behavioral tests and radioligand analysis suggests that the their antipsychotic action can be mediated by dopamine receptors.

  4. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Presynaptic Dopamine Function of Addicted Male Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademacher, Lena; Prinz, Susanne; Winz, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence of abnormal cerebral dopamine transmission in nicotine-dependent smokers, but it is unclear whether dopaminergic abnormalities are due to acute nicotine abuse or whether they persist with abstinence. We addressed this question by conducting longitudinal positron...... then underwent cessation treatment, and successful abstainers were re-examined by FDOPA-PET after 3 months of abstinence (n = 15). Uptake of FDOPA was analyzed using a steady-state model yielding estimates of the dopamine synthesis capacity (K); the turnover of tracer dopamine formed in living brain (kloss......); and the tracer distribution volume (Vd), which is an index of dopamine storage capacity. RESULTS: Compared with nonsmokers, K was 15% to 20% lower in the caudate nuclei of consuming smokers. Intraindividual comparisons of consumption and long-term abstinence revealed significant increases in K in the right...

  5. Dopamine Release and Uptake Impairments and Behavioral Alterations Observed in Mice that Model Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Jenny L; O'Bryhim, Bliss E; Wenzel, Sara K; Fowler, Stephen C; Vorontsova, Elena; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ortiz, Andrea N; Johnson, Michael A

    2010-10-20

    In this study we evaluated the relationship between amphetamine-induced behavioral alterations and dopamine release and uptake characteristics in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, which model fragile X syndrome. The behavioral analyses, obtained at millisecond temporal resolution and 2 mm spatial resolution using a force-plate actometer, revealed that Fmr1 KO mice express a lower degree of focused stereotypy compared to wild type (WT) control mice after injection with 10 mg/kg (ip) amphetamine. To identify potentially related neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we measured electrically-evoked dopamine release and uptake using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in striatal brain slices. At 10 weeks of age, dopamine release per pulse, which is dopamine release corrected for differences in uptake, was unchanged. However, at 15 (the age of behavioral testing) and 20 weeks of age, dopamine per pulse and the maximum rate of dopamine uptake was diminished in Fmr1 KO mice compared to WT mice. Dopamine uptake measurements, obtained at different amphetamine concentrations, indicated that dopamine transporters in both genotypes have equal affinities for amphetamine. Moreover, dopamine release measurements from slices treated with quinpirole, a D2-family receptor agonist, rule out enhanced D2 autoreceptor sensitivity as a mechanism of release inhibition. However, dopamine release, uncorrected for uptake and normalized against the corresponding pre-drug release peaks, increased in Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. Collectively, these data are consistent with a scenario in which a decrease in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum result in diminished expression of focused stereotypy in Fmr1 KO mice.

  6. Long-term stimulant treatment affects brain dopamine transporter level in patients with attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Wigal, Timothy; Kollins, Scott H; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher T; Han, Hao; Fowler, Joanna S; Zhu, Wei; Swanson, James M

    2013-01-01

    Brain dopamine dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could explain why stimulant medications, which increase dopamine signaling, are therapeutically beneficial. However while the acute increases in dopamine induced by stimulant medications have been associated with symptom improvement in ADHD the chronic effects have not been investigated. We used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]cocaine (dopamine transporter radioligand) to measure dopamine transporter availability in the brains of 18 never-medicated adult ADHD subjects prior to and after 12 months of treatment with methylphenidate and in 11 controls who were also scanned twice at 12 months interval but without stimulant medication. Dopamine transporter availability was quantified as non-displaceable binding potential using a kinetic model for reversible ligands. Twelve months of methylphenidate treatment increased striatal dopamine transporter availability in ADHD (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum: +24%, p<0.01); whereas there were no changes in control subjects retested at 12-month interval. Comparisons between controls and ADHD participants revealed no significant difference in dopamine transporter availability prior to treatment but showed higher dopamine transporter availability in ADHD participants than control after long-term treatment (caudate: p<0.007; putamen: p<0.005). Upregulation of dopamine transporter availability during long-term treatment with methylphenidate may decrease treatment efficacy and exacerbate symptoms while not under the effects of the medication. Our findings also suggest that the discrepancies in the literature regarding dopamine transporter availability in ADHD participants (some studies reporting increases, other no changes and other decreases) may reflect, in part, differences in treatment histories.

  7. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  8. Dopamine plasma clearance is increased in piglets compared to neonates during continuous dopamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard

    2018-01-01

    pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Arterial blood samples were drawn from six neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Copenhagen University Hospital and 20 newborn piglets during continuous dopamine infusion. Furthermore, to estimate the piglet plasma dopamine half-life, blood samples were drawn at 2.......5-minute intervals after the dopamine infusion was discontinued. The plasma dopamine content was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: The dopamine displayed first-order kinetics in piglets and had a half-life of 2.5 minutes, while the median plasma...

  9. Computational systems analysis of dopamine metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A prominent feature of Parkinson's disease (PD is the loss of dopamine in the striatum, and many therapeutic interventions for the disease are aimed at restoring dopamine signaling. Dopamine signaling includes the synthesis, storage, release, and recycling of dopamine in the presynaptic terminal and activation of pre- and post-synaptic receptors and various downstream signaling cascades. As an aid that might facilitate our understanding of dopamine dynamics in the pathogenesis and treatment in PD, we have begun to merge currently available information and expert knowledge regarding presynaptic dopamine homeostasis into a computational model, following the guidelines of biochemical systems theory. After subjecting our model to mathematical diagnosis and analysis, we made direct comparisons between model predictions and experimental observations and found that the model exhibited a high degree of predictive capacity with respect to genetic and pharmacological changes in gene expression or function. Our results suggest potential approaches to restoring the dopamine imbalance and the associated generation of oxidative stress. While the proposed model of dopamine metabolism is preliminary, future extensions and refinements may eventually serve as an in silico platform for prescreening potential therapeutics, identifying immediate side effects, screening for biomarkers, and assessing the impact of risk factors of the disease.

  10. DOPAMINE AND THE BIOLOGY OF CREATIVITY: LESSONS FROM PARKINSON’S DISEASE

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    Eugénie eLhommée

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by reduced flexibility, conceptualization and visuo-spatial abilities. Although these are essential to creativity, case studies show emergence of creativity during PD. Knowledge about the role of dopamine in creativity so far only stems from a few case reports. We aim at demonstrating that creativity can be induced by dopaminergic treatments in PD, and tends to disappear after withdrawal of dopamine agonists. METHODS: 11 consecutive creative PD patients were selected from candidates for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS surgery, and compared to 22 non-creative control PD patients. Motor disability (UPDRS III, cognition (Frontal Score, Mattis scale and behaviour (Ardouin scale were assessed before surgery and one year after. RESULTS: Before surgery, whereas cognitive and motor assessments where similar between groups, dopamine agonist (but not levodopa dosages were higher in creative patients (p=0.01. The Ardouin scale revealed also a specific psycho-behavioural profile of creative patients which had higher scores for mania (pCONCLUSION: Creativity in PD is linked to dopamine agonist therapy, and tends to disappear after STN DBS in parallel to reduction of dopamine agonists, which are relatively selective for the mesolimbic D3 dopamine receptors

  11. Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of cardiogenic shock: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Qing; Jiang, Yufeng; Chen, Min; Zhang, Nannan; Yang, Huajia; Zhou, Yafeng

    2017-10-01

    Guidelines recommend that norepinephrine (NA) should be used to reach the target mean arterial pressure (MAP) during cardiogenic shock (CS), rather than epinephrine and dopamine (DA). However, there has actually been few studies on comparing norepinephrine with dopamine and their results conflicts. These studies raise a heat discussion. This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of norepinephrine for treating CS in comparison with dopamine. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess pooled estimates of risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 28-day mortality, incidence of arrhythmic events, gastrointestinal reaction, and some indexes after treatment. Compared with dopamine, patients receiving norepinephrine had a lower 28-day mortality (RR 1.611 [95% CI 1.219-2.129]; P dopamine in 2 subgroups. Our analysis revealed that norepinephrine was associated with a lower 28-day mortality, a lower risk of arrhythmic events, and gastrointestinal reaction. No matter whether CS is caused by coronary heart disease or not, norepinephrine is superior to dopamine for correcting CS on the 28-day mortality.

  12. Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of the D-1 dopamine receptor mediating acetylcholine release in rabbit retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensler, J.G.; Cotterell, D.J.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Superfusion with dopamine (0.1 microM-10 mM) evokes calcium-dependent [ 3 H]acetylcholine release from rabbit retina labeled in vitro with [ 3 H]choline. This effect is antagonized by the D-1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Activation or blockade of D-2 dopamine, alpha-2 or beta receptors did not stimulate or attenuate the release of [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit retina. Dopamine receptor agonists evoke the release of [ 3 H]acetylcholine with the following order of potency: apomorphine ≤ SKF(R)82526 3 H]acetylcholine: SCH 23390 (IC50 = 1 nM) 3 H]acetylcholine release is characteristic of the D-1 dopamine receptor. These potencies were correlated with the potencies of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists at the D-1 dopamine receptor in rabbit retina as labeled by [ 3 H]SCH 23390, or as determined by adenylate cyclase activity. [ 3 H]SCH 23390 binding in rabbit retinal membranes was stable, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]SCH 23390 saturation data revealed a single high affinity binding site (Kd = 0.175 +/- 0.002 nM) with a maximum binding of 482 +/- 12 fmol/mg of protein. The potencies of dopamine receptor agonists to stimulate [ 3 H]acetylcholine release were correlated with their potencies to stimulate adenylate cyclase (r = 0.784, P less than .05, n = 7) and with their affinities at [ 3 H]SCH 23390 binding sites (r = 0.755, P < .05, n = 8)

  13. A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal synapse plasticity of medium spiny neurons is regulated by glutamate input from the cortex and dopamine input from the substantia nigra. While cortical stimulation alone results in long-term depression (LTD, the combination with dopamine switches LTD to long-term potentiation (LTP, which is known as dopamine-dependent plasticity. LTP is also induced by cortical stimulation in magnesium-free solution, which leads to massive calcium influx through NMDA-type receptors and is regarded as calcium-dependent plasticity. Signaling cascades in the corticostriatal spines are currently under investigation. However, because of the existence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory pathways with loops, the mechanisms regulating the two types of plasticity remain poorly understood. A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32, as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75 served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. Calcium input modulated this loop through the PP2B (phosphatase 2B-CK1 (casein kinase 1-Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5-Thr75 pathway and PP2A, whereas calcium and dopamine input activated the loop via PKA activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. The positive feedback loop displayed robust bi-stable responses following changes in the reaction parameters. Increased basal dopamine levels disrupted this dopamine-dependent plasticity. The

  14. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  15. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  16. The decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion induced by suckling: comparison of voltammetric and radioisotopic methods of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotsky, P.M.; Neill, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Previous in situ voltammetric microelectrode measurements of median eminence dopamine release during mammary nerve stimulation of anesthetized lactating rats revealed a transient (1-3 min) 70% decline of dopamine concentrations. This dopamine was believed to be destined for secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation, but direct experimental support for this supposition was lacking. Thus, in the present study, [3H]dopamine release into brief sequential samples of hypophysial portal blood was compared with dopamine release in the median eminence measured by voltammetry. Lactating female rats were urethane anesthetized, and the median eminence pituitary region was exposed. [3H]Tyrosine was injected into a jugular cannula (100 microCi) followed by continuous infusion (5 microCi/min). In a preliminary experiment, this regimen produced a steady state level of [3H]dopamine in the portal blood within 45 min. In subsequent experiments, portal blood was collected as sequential 3-min samples, and electrochemical sampling from a microelectrode placed in the median eminence occurred at 1-min intervals. Electrochemical current resulting from the oxidation of dopamine in the medial median eminence was unvarying throughout the 75-min experiment in control rats (n . 4) and during the 30-min control period preceding mammary nerve stimulation in the other group (n . 4). These results were paralled by [3H] dopamine levels in portal blood during the same periods of time. All animals showed simultaneous decreases in oxidation current and [3H]dopamine levels within 1-4 min after initiation of mammary nerve stimulation. These and earlier results demonstrate that mammary nerve stimulation (and by extension, suckling) induces a momentary, but profound, decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion which precedes or accompanies the rise in PRL secretion evoked by the same stimulus

  17. Dopamine-transporter SPECT and Dopamine-D2-receptor SPECT in basal ganglia diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.; Barthel, H.; Seese, A.; Sabri, O.

    2007-01-01

    The basal ganglia comprise a group of subcortical nuclei, which are essential for motor control. Dysfunction of these areas, especially in dopaminergic transmission, results in disordered movement and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, or Huntington disease. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have enhanced the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, but they much more contribute to the early differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Parkinsonian syndrome in routine care. The present article provides dopamine transporter and D 2 receptor SPECT findings in selected movement disorders. (orig.)

  18. Dopamine Receptor-Specific Contributions to the Computation of Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Soutschek, Alexander; Weber, Susanna; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Fehr, Ernst; Haker, Helene; Tobler, Philippe N

    2018-05-01

    Dopamine is thought to play a crucial role in value-based decision making. However, the specific contributions of different dopamine receptor subtypes to the computation of subjective value remain unknown. Here we demonstrate how the balance between D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes shapes subjective value computation during risky decision making. We administered the D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride or placebo before participants made choices between risky options. Compared with placebo, D2 receptor blockade resulted in more frequent choice of higher risk and higher expected value options. Using a novel model fitting procedure, we concurrently estimated the three parameters that define individual risk attitude according to an influential theoretical account of risky decision making (prospect theory). This analysis revealed that the observed reduction in risk aversion under amisulpride was driven by increased sensitivity to reward magnitude and decreased distortion of outcome probability, resulting in more linear value coding. Our data suggest that different components that govern individual risk attitude are under dopaminergic control, such that D2 receptor blockade facilitates risk taking and expected value processing.

  19. A Genetic Toolkit for Dissecting Dopamine Circuit Function in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The neuromodulator dopamine (DA plays a key role in motor control, motivated behaviors, and higher-order cognitive processes. Dissecting how these DA neural networks tune the activity of local neural circuits to regulate behavior requires tools for manipulating small groups of DA neurons. To address this need, we assembled a genetic toolkit that allows for an exquisite level of control over the DA neural network in Drosophila. To further refine targeting of specific DA neurons, we also created reagents that allow for the conversion of any existing GAL4 line into Split GAL4 or GAL80 lines. We demonstrated how this toolkit can be used with recently developed computational methods to rapidly generate additional reagents for manipulating small subsets or individual DA neurons. Finally, we used the toolkit to reveal a dynamic interaction between a small subset of DA neurons and rearing conditions in a social space behavioral assay. : The rapid analysis of how dopaminergic circuits regulate behavior is limited by the genetic tools available to target and manipulate small numbers of these neurons. Xie et al. present genetic tools in Drosophila that allow rational targeting of sparse dopaminergic neuronal subsets and selective knockdown of dopamine signaling. Keywords: dopamine, genetics, behavior, neural circuits, neuromodulation, Drosophila

  20. Regulation of the mesolimbic dopamine circuit by feeding peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Borgland, S L

    2015-03-19

    Polypeptides produced in the gastrointestinal tract, stomach, adipocytes, pancreas and brain that influence food intake are referred to as 'feeding-related' peptides. Most peptides that influence feeding exert an inhibitory effect (anorexigenic peptides). In contrast, only a few exert a stimulating effect (orexigenic peptides), such as ghrelin. Homeostatic feeding refers to when food consumed matches energy deficits. However, in western society where access to palatable energy-dense food is nearly unlimited, food is mostly consumed for non-homeostatic reasons. Emerging evidence implicates the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as a key substrate for non-homeostatic feeding. VTA dopamine neurons encode cues that predict rewards and phasic release of dopamine in the ventral striatum motivates animals to forage for food. To elucidate how feeding-related peptides regulate reward pathways is of importance to reveal the mechanisms underlying non-homeostatic or hedonic feeding. Here, we review the current knowledge of how anorexigenic peptides and orexigenic peptides act within the VTA. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  2. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbilla, S.; Langer, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [ 3 H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01-1μM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.1-1 μM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1-10μM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1μM) of the stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective. (Auth.)

  3. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civelli, Olivier (Portland, OR); Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie (Toronto, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  4. Single cocaine exposure does not alter striatal pre-synaptic dopamine function in mice: an [18 F]-FDOPA PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, David R; Kokkinou, Michelle; Veronese, Mattia; Coello, Christopher; Wells, Lisa A; Howes, Oliver D

    2017-12-01

    Cocaine is a recreational drug of abuse that binds to the dopamine transporter, preventing reuptake of dopamine into pre-synaptic terminals. The increased presence of synaptic dopamine results in stimulation of both pre- and post-synaptic dopamine receptors, considered an important mechanism by which cocaine elicits its reinforcing properties. However, the effects of acute cocaine administration on pre-synaptic dopamine function remain unclear. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography have revealed impaired pre-synaptic dopamine function in chronic cocaine users. Similar impairments have been seen in animal studies, with microdialysis experiments indicating decreased basal dopamine release. Here we use micro positron emission tomography imaging techniques in mice to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and determine the effect of acute cocaine administration of pre-synaptic dopamine function. We show that a dose of 20 mg/kg cocaine is sufficient to elicit hyperlocomotor activity, peaking 15-20 min post treatment (p dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum was not significantly altered by acute cocaine treatment (KiCer: 0.0097 per min vs. 0.0112 per min in vehicle controls, p > 0.05). Furthermore, expression levels of two key enzymes related to dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, within the striatum of scanned mice were not significantly affected by acute cocaine pre-treatment (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that while the regulation of dopamine synthesis and release in the striatum have been shown to change with chronic cocaine use, leading to a reduced basal tone, these adaptations to pre-synaptic dopaminergic neurons are not initiated following a single exposure to the drug. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Turning skin into dopamine neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malin Parmar; Johan Jakobsson

    2011-01-01

    The possibility to generate neurons from fibroblasts became a reality with the development of iPS technology a few years ago.By reprogramming somatic cells using transcription factor (TF) overexpression,it is possible to generate pluripotent stem cells that then can be differentiated into any somatic cell type including various subtypes of neurons.This raises the possibility of using donor-matched or even patientspecific cells for cell therapy of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD),Huntington's disease and stroke.Supporting this idea,dopamine neurons,which are the cells dying in PD,derived from human iPS cells have been demonstrated to survive transplantation and reverse motor symptoms in animal models of PD [1].

  6. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  7. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ∼ 25 and ∼ 40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: ► Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: ≤ 1, ≤ 10, 25 and 40 μg/dL ► Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH

  8. Detection of dopamine neurotransmission in 'real time'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra D Badgaiyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current imaging techniques have limited ability to detect neurotransmitters released during brain processing. It is a critical limitation because neurotransmitters have significant control over the brain activity. In this context, recent development of single-scan dynamic molecular imaging technique is important because it allows detection, mapping, and measurement of dopamine released in the brain during task performance. The technique exploits the competition between endogenously released dopamine and its receptor ligand for occupancy of receptor sites. Dopamine released during task performance is detected by dynamically measuring concentration of intravenously injected radiolabeled ligand using a positron emission tomography camera. Based on the ligand concentration, values of receptor kinetic parameters are estimated. These estimates allow detection of dopamine released in the human brain during task performance.

  9. DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effect of unilateral sympathectomy on rat quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle concentrations of endogenous dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) and assessed the relationships between these catecholamines in several rat tissues. Catecholamines were...

  10. Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Kesby

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders with unknown aetiology. Although abnormalities in multiple neurotransmitter systems have been linked to schizophrenia, alterations in dopamine neurotransmission remain central to the treatment of this disorder. Given that schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder we have hypothesised that abnormal dopamine signalling in the adult patient may result from altered dopamine signalling during foetal brain development. Environmental and genetic risk factors can be modelled in rodents to allow for the investigation of early neurodevelopmental pathogenesis that may lead to clues into the aetiology of schizophrenia. To address this we created an animal model of one such risk factor, developmental vitamin D (DVD deficiency. DVD-deficient adult rats display an altered behavioural profile in response to dopamine releasing and blocking agents that are reminiscent of that seen in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, developmental studies revealed that DVD deficiency also altered cell proliferation, apoptosis and neurotransmission across the embryonic brain. In particular, DVD deficiency reduces the expression of crucial dopaminergic specification factors and alters dopamine metabolism in the developing brain. We speculate such alterations in foetal brain development may change the trajectory of dopamine neuron ontogeny to induce the behavioural abnormalities observed in adult offspring. The widespread evidence that both dopaminergic and structural changes are present in people who develop schizophrenia prior to onset also suggest that early alterations in development are central to the disease. Taken together, early alterations in dopamine ontogeny may represent a core feature in the pathology of schizophrenia. Such a mechanism could bring together evidence from multiple risk factors and genetic vulnerabilities to form a convergent pathway in disease pathophysiology.

  11. The effects of age on dopamine receptors measured by positron tomography in the living human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.F.; Wagner, E.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    C-11 n-methylspiperone has been used to measure dopamine (D2) receptors in the caudate and putamen of 30 normal persons. In vitro studies in rodent brain revealed a high affinity for dopamine (D2) receptors and five fold less for serotonin (S2) receptors. In vivo drug competition studies in rodents demonstrated that 90% of striatal binding is to dopamine receptors. In the frontal cortex, the majority of receptor binding is to serotonin receptors. Thirty normal volunteers aged 19 to 73 years were screened for normality by medical, neurological and neuropsychological examinations. Positron tomography was performed serially for 2 hours after injection. In 10 subjects there was good agreement between activity in arterial samples and that in venous samples from a heated hand. Binding in the dopamine rich caudate and putamen progressively increased while binding in the dopamine poor cerebellum decreased. The dopamine receptor density was estimated by the ratio of the caudate-to-cerebellar mean counts/pixel (Ca/Cb) and putamen-to-cerebellar mean counts/pixel (Pu/Cb). The ratios (Ca/Cb, Pu/Cb) increased linearly with time (r>0.95) for each subject. There was a decrease (Ca/Cb) with age (0.8%/yr) that could be approximated with a linear fit: (Ca/Cb = -.02 age + 3.92, r=.6). For the 21 males alone, the decrease was (1.1%/yr, r=.7 , p <.01), while for the 9 females there was no significant decrease with age. Similar findings were noted in the putamen. This decline in dopamine receptor density with age has been reported in rodent and human autopsy studies, but never before in the living human brain

  12. Characterization of alternate reductant binding and electron transfer in the dopamine β-monooxygenase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.C.; Klinman, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The steady-state limiting kinetic parameters V/sub max/, V/K/sub DA/, and V/K/sub O 2 /, together with deuterium isotope effects on these parameters, have been determined for the dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM) reaction in the presence of structurally distinct reductants. The results show the one-electron reductant ferrocyanide to be nearly as kinetically competent as the presumed in vivo reductant ascrobate. Further, a reductant system of ferricyanide plus substrate dopamine yields steady-state kinetic parameters and isotope effects very similar to those measured solely in the presence of ferrocyanide, indicating a role for catecholamine in the rapid recycling of oxidized ferrocyanide. Use of substrate dopamine as the sole reductant is found to lead to a highly unusual kinetic independence of oxygen concentration, as well as significantly reduced values of V/sub max/ and V/K/sub DA/, and the authors conclude that dopamine reduces enzymic copper in a rate-limiting step that is 40-fold slower than with ascorbate. The near-identical kinetic parameters measured in the presence of either ascorbate or ferrocyanide, together with markedly reduced rates with dopamine, are interpreted in terms of a binding site for reductant that is physically distinct from the substrate binding site. This view is supported by molecular modeling, which reveals ascorbate and ferrocyanide to possess an unexpected similarity in potential sites for interaction with enzymic residues. With regard to electron flux, identical values of V/K/sub O 2 / have been measured with [2,2- 2 H 2 ]dopamine as substrate both in the presence and in the absence of added ascorbate. This key result unambiguously rules out an entry of electrons to enzyme forms leading from the enzyme-dopamine complex to enzyme-bound product and, hence, reaction mechanisms involving a reductive activation of the putative Cu(II)-OOH prior to substrate hydroxylation

  13. DELINEATING THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR CONSTITUTIVE INTERNALIZATION AND DEGRADATION OF THE DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Jacob; (Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Gether, Ulrik

    The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) was transiently expressed in N2A neuroblastoma cells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed efficient surface targeting of the transporter in undifferentiated cells as well as in differentiated cells. In the differentiated cells the hDAT displayed...

  14. Dopamine versus noradrenaline in septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe ‘Surviving Sepsis’ Campaign guidelines recommend theuse of dopamine or noradrenaline as the first vasopressor inseptic shock. However, information that guides clinicians inchoosing between dopamine and noradrenaline as the firstvasopressor in patients with septic shock is limited.ObjectiveThis article presents a review of the literature regarding theuse of dopamine versus noradrenaline in patients with septicshock.ResultsTwo randomised controlled trials (RCT and two largeprospective cohort studies were analysed. RCT data showeddopamine was associated with increased arrhythmic events.One cohort study found dopamine was associated with higher30-day mortality. The other cohort study found noradrenalinewas associated with higher 28-day mortality.DiscussionData on the use of dopamine versus noradrenaline in patientswith septic shock is limited. Following the recent SOAP IIstudy, there is now strong evidence that the use of dopaminein septic shock is associated with significantly morecardiovascular adverse events, compared tonoradrenaline.ConclusionNoradrenaline should be used as the initial vasopressor inseptic shock to avoid the arrhythmic events associatedwith dopamine.

  15. Regulator of G protein signaling-12 modulates the dopamine transporter in ventral striatum and locomotor responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Schroer, Adam B; Wix, Kimberley A; Siderovski, David P; Setola, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling are proteins that accelerate the termination of effector stimulation after G protein-coupled receptor activation. Many regulators of G protein signaling proteins are highly expressed in the brain and therefore considered potential drug discovery targets for central nervous system pathologies; for example, here we show that RGS12 is highly expressed in microdissected mouse ventral striatum. Given a role for the ventral striatum in psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, we tested whether Rgs12 genetic ablation affected behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. RGS12 loss significantly decreased hyperlocomotion to lower doses of both amphetamine and cocaine; however, other outcomes of administration (sensitization and conditioned place preference) were unaffected, suggesting that RGS12 does not function in support of the rewarding properties of these psychostimulants. To test whether observed response changes upon RGS12 loss were caused by changes to dopamine transporter expression and/or function, we prepared crude membranes from the brains of wild-type and RGS12-null mice and measured dopamine transporter-selective [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, revealing an increase in dopamine transporter levels in the ventral-but not dorsal-striatum of RGS12-null mice. To address dopamine transporter function, we prepared striatal synaptosomes and measured [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Consistent with increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, dopamine transporter-specific [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in RGS12-null ventral striatal synaptosomes was found to be increased. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding were recapitulated with an independent RGS12-null mouse strain. Thus, we propose that RGS12 regulates dopamine transporter expression and function in the ventral striatum, affecting amphetamine- and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels that specifically elicit acute hyperlocomotor responses.

  16. Behavioral and biochemical effects of the antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin): evidence for selective blockade of dopamine uptake in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B R; Hester, T J; Maxwell, R A

    1980-10-01

    Bupropion (BW 323U; Wellbutrin), a novel compound with antidepressant effects in man, was found to reduce immobility in an "experimental helplessness" forced swimming antidepressant test in rats as did imipramine and amitriptyline. Higher doses produced elevated locomotor activity in an automated open field and produced stereotyped sniffing which was contrasted with apomorphine. When bupropion or desmethylimipramine was given before intracisternal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine, bupropion produced a dose-related selective antagonism of the destruction of dopamine neurons, while under the same conditions, desmethylimipramine produced a dose-related selective antagonism of the destruction of noradrenergic neurons. Studies in which the dose of bupropion and the dose of 6-hydroxydopamine were varied revealed that a dose-related selective antagonism of dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine occurred when doses up to and including 50 mg/kg i.p. to bupropion were administered. Some antagonism of norepinephrine depletion also occurred at 100 mg/kg of bupropion i.p. Bupropion also selectively reversed the dopamine depletion produced by alpha-methyl-m-tyrosine, a finding which is consistent with the view that bupropion is a dopamine uptake inhibitor in vivo. The importance of dopamine systems for the behavioral effects of bupropion were also studied. When the locomotor stimulant effects of bupropion were tested in rats with chronic destruction of dopamine neurons produced by 6-hydroxydopamine, bupropion failed to elevate locomotor activity. Rats treated with procedures using 6-hydroxydopamine to produce relatively selective norepinephrine depletions responded to bupropion with locomotor activity stimulation like controls. Rats with similar depletions of either dopamine or norepinephrine were also tested for the ability of low doses of bupropion to reduce immobility in the "experimental helplessness" forced swim antidepressant test. Prior destruction of dopamine neurons

  17. Intracellular Methamphetamine Prevents the Dopamine-induced Enhancement of Neuronal Firing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kaustuv; Sambo, Danielle; Richardson, Ben D.; Lin, Landon M.; Butler, Brittany; Villarroel, Laura; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is implicated in multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson disease and drug addiction. The primary target of psychostimulants such as amphetamine and methamphetamine is the dopamine transporter (DAT), the major regulator of extracellular dopamine levels in the brain. However, the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of methamphetamine and amphetamine administration are unique from one another, thereby suggesting these two compounds impact dopaminergic neurotransmission differentially. We further examined the unique mechanisms by which amphetamine and methamphetamine regulate DAT function and dopamine neurotransmission; in the present study we examined the impact of extracellular and intracellular amphetamine and methamphetamine on the spontaneous firing of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons and isolated DAT-mediated current. In dopaminergic neurons the spontaneous firing rate was enhanced by extracellular application of amphetamine > dopamine > methamphetamine and was DAT-dependent. Amphetamine > methamphetamine similarly enhanced DAT-mediated inward current, which was sensitive to isosmotic substitution of Na+ or Cl− ion. Although isosmotic substitution of extracellular Na+ ions blocked amphetamine and methamphetamine-induced DAT-mediated inward current similarly, the removal of extracellular Cl− ions preferentially blocked amphetamine-induced inward current. The intracellular application of methamphetamine, but not amphetamine, prevented the dopamine-induced increase in the spontaneous firing of dopaminergic neurons and the corresponding DAT-mediated inward current. The results reveal a new mechanism for methamphetamine-induced dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24962577

  18. Dopamine and cognitive control: sex-by-genotype interactions influence the capacity to switch attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, C; Rossell, S L

    2015-03-15

    Cognitive performance in healthy persons varies widely between individuals. Sex differences in cognition are well reported, and there is an emerging body of evidence suggesting that the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission, implicated in many cognitive functions, is modulated by sex. Here, we examine the influence of sex and genetic variations along the dopaminergic pathway on aspects of cognitive control. A total of 415 healthy individuals, selected from an international consortium linked to Brain Research and Integrative Neuroscience Network (BRAINnet), were genotyped for two common and functional genetic variations of dopamine regulating genes: the catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] gene (rs4680) and the dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2] gene (rs6277). Cognitive measures were selected to explore sustained attention (using a continuous performance task), switching of attention (using a Trails B adaptation) and working memory (a visual computerised adaptation of digit span). While there were no main effects for genotype across any tasks, analyses revealed significant sex by genotype interactions for the capacity to switch attention. In relation to COMT, superior performance was noted in females with the Val/Val genotype and for DRD2, superior performance was seen for TT females and CC males. These findings highlight the importance of considering genetic variation in baseline dopamine levels in addition to sex, when considering the impact of dopamine on cognition in healthy populations. These findings also have important implications for the many neuropsychiatric disorders that implicate dopamine, cognitive changes and sex differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulatory Effects of Dopamine D2 Receptors on Spreading Depression in Rat Somatosensory Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Haarmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spreading depression (SD is a propagating wave of depolarization followed by depression of the neuroglial activities and can modulate extracellular dopamine concentrations in the neocortex. It has been shown that the dopaminergic system plays a role in migraine. SD has been suggested as a critical phenomenon in the pathophysiology of migraine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dopamine D2 receptors on the characteristic features of SD in rat neocortical tissues. Methods: The effect of dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole and D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride was tested on different characteristic features (amplitude, duration and velocity of KCl-induced SD in somatosensory neocortical slices of adult rats. The effect of above-mentioned substances on production of long-term potentiation (LTP in the neocortex was also evaluated. Results: The present data revealed a dose-dependent suppression of the amplitude and duration of SD in the presence of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride in the neocortex. D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole dose-dependently enhanced the amplitude and duration of the neocortical SD. Furthermore, application of D2 receptor antagonist significantly suppressed induction of LTP. Discussion: These results indicate that D2 receptors modulate the initiation of SD in the neocortex. This finding refers to the potential role of D2 receptor antagonist in treatment of migraine pain.

  20. Attenuated Tonic and Enhanced Phasic Release of Dopamine in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra D Badgaiyan

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD is a hypodopaminergic or hyperdopaminergic condition. Different sets of data suggest either hyperactive or hypoactive dopamine system. Since indirect methods used in earlier studies have arrived at contradictory conclusions, we directly measured the tonic and phasic release of dopamine in ADHD volunteers. The tonic release in ADHD and healthy control volunteers was measured and compared using dynamic molecular imaging technique. The phasic release during performance of Eriksen's flanker task was measured in the two groups using single scan dynamic molecular imaging technique. In these experiments volunteers were positioned in a positron emission tomography (PET camera and administered a dopamine receptor ligand (11C-raclopride intravenously. After the injection PET data were acquired dynamically while volunteers either stayed still (tonic release experiments or performed the flanker task (phasic release experiments. PET data were analyzed to measure dynamic changes in ligand binding potential (BP and other receptor kinetic parameters. The analysis revealed that at rest the ligand BP was significantly higher in the right caudate of ADHD volunteers suggesting reduced tonic release. During task performance significantly lower ligand BP was observed in the same area, indicating increased phasic release. In ADHD tonic release of dopamine is attenuated and the phasic release is enhanced in the right caudate. By characterizing the nature of dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission in ADHD, the results explain earlier findings of reduced or increased dopaminergic activity.

  1. Dopamine D2 Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Pancreatic β Cell Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sakano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate β cell mass and proliferation is important for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we identified domperidone (DPD, a dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 antagonist that enhances β cell mass. Over time, islet β cell loss occurs in dissociation cultures, and this was inhibited by DPD. DPD increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of β cells through increasing intracellular cAMP. DPD prevented β cell dedifferentiation, which together highly contributed to the increased β cell mass. DRD2 knockdown phenocopied the effects of domperidone and increased the number of β cells. Drd2 overexpression sensitized the dopamine responsiveness of β cells and increased apoptosis. Further analysis revealed that the adenosine agonist 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, a previously identified promoter of β cell proliferation, acted with DPD to increase the number of β cells. In humans, dopamine also modulates β cell mass through DRD2 and exerts an inhibitory effect on adenosine signaling.

  2. Dopamine D(1) receptor-mediated control of striatal acetylcholine release by endogenous dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-10-27

    The role of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors in the control of acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum by endogenous dopamine was investigated by monitoring with microdialysis the effect of the separate or combined administration of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 39166 ¿(-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride¿ (50 microg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), of the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist, quinpirole (trans-(-)-4aR, 4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo-(3,4-g)-quinoline hydrochloride) (5 and 10 microg/kg s.c.), and of the D(3) receptor selective agonist, PD 128,907 [S(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin -9-ol hydrochloride] (50 microg/kg s.c.), on in vivo dopamine and acetylcholine release. Microdialysis was performed with a Ringer containing low concentrations (0.01 microM) of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine. Quinpirole (10 microg/kg s.c.) decreased striatal dopamine and acetylcholine release. Administration of PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) decreased dopamine but failed to affect acetylcholine release. SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.) stimulated dopamine release and reduced acetylcholine release. Pretreatment with quinpirole reduced (5 microg/kg s.c.) or completely prevented (10 microg/kg s.c.) the stimulation of dopamine release elicited by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.); on the other hand, pretreatment with quinpirole (5 and 10 microg/kg) potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.). Similarly, pretreatment with PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) which prevented the increase of dopamine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg), potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine transmission elicited by SCH 39166. Thus, pretreatment with low doses of quinpirole or PD 128,907 influences in opposite manner the effect of SCH 39166 on striatal dopamine and

  3. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and ( 11 C)raclopride (D 2 /D 3 receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D 2 /D 3 receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  4. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  5. Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  6. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Quintero-Fabián, Saray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers. PMID:27795960

  7. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS, has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R. The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS, there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers.

  8. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  9. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  10. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  11. The evolution of dopamine systems in chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eYamamoto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory-motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2 revealed new populations of DA synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g. teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates.

  12. Dopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuronal cells: inhibition by nucleic acides antisense to the dopamine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porat, S.; Gabbay, M.; Tauber, M.; Ratovitski, T.; Blinder, E.; Simantov, R.

    1996-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma NMB cells take up [ 3 H]dopamine in a selective manner indicating that dopamine transporters are responsible for this uptake. These cells were therefore used as a model to study dopamine neurotoxicity, and to elucidate the role of dopamine transporters in controlling cell death. Treatment with 0.05-0.4 mM dopamine changed cells' morphology within 4 h, accompanied by retraction of processes, shrinkage, apoptosis-like atrophy, accumulation of apoptotic particles, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cycloheximide inhibited dopamine's effect, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by dopamine was dependent upon protein synthesis. Dopamine cytotoxicity, monitored morphologically by flow cytometric analysis, and by lactate dehydrogenase released, was blocked by cocaine but not by the noradrenaline and serotonin uptake blockers desimipramine and imipramine, respectively. Attempting to inhibit dopamine transport and toxicity in a drug-free and highly selective way, three 18-mer dopamine transporter antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (numbers 1, 2 and 3) and a new plasmid vector expressing the entire rat dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation were prepared and tested. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 inhibited [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Likewise, transient transfection of NMB cells with the plasmid expressing dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation partially blocked [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 also decreased, dose-dependently, the toxic effect of dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine. Western blot analysis with newly prepared anti-human dopamine transporter antibodies showed that antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 decreased the transporter protein level. These studies contribute to better understand the mechanism of dopamine-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity. (Copyright (c) 1996 Elsevier Science B

  13. Dopamine Gene Profiling to Predict Impulse Control and Effects of Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Hayley J; Stinear, Cathy M; Ren, April; Coxon, James P; Kao, Justin; Macdonald, Lorraine; Snow, Barry; Cramer, Steven C; Byblow, Winston D

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine agonists can impair inhibitory control and cause impulse control disorders for those with Parkinson disease (PD), although mechanistically this is not well understood. In this study, we hypothesized that the extent of such drug effects on impulse control is related to specific dopamine gene polymorphisms. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to examine the effect of single doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg of the dopamine agonist ropinirole on impulse control in healthy adults of typical age for PD onset. Impulse control was measured by stop signal RT on a response inhibition task and by an index of impulsive decision-making on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. A dopamine genetic risk score quantified basal dopamine neurotransmission from the influence of five genes: catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, and those encoding receptors D1, D2, and D3. With placebo, impulse control was better for the high versus low genetic risk score groups. Ropinirole modulated impulse control in a manner dependent on genetic risk score. For the lower score group, both doses improved response inhibition (decreased stop signal RT) whereas the lower dose reduced impulsiveness in decision-making. Conversely, the higher score group showed a trend for worsened response inhibition on the lower dose whereas both doses increased impulsiveness in decision-making. The implications of the present findings are that genotyping can be used to predict impulse control and whether it will improve or worsen with the administration of dopamine agonists.

  14. Cerebral vascular effects of hypovolemia and dopamine infusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Hahn, Gitte; Heiring, Christian; Pryds, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread use, effects of volume boluses and dopamine in hypotensive newborn infants remain controversial. We aimed to elucidate if hypovolemia alone impairs cerebral autoregulation (CA) and if dopamine affects cerebral vasculature.......Despite widespread use, effects of volume boluses and dopamine in hypotensive newborn infants remain controversial. We aimed to elucidate if hypovolemia alone impairs cerebral autoregulation (CA) and if dopamine affects cerebral vasculature....

  15. Dopamine, T cells and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levite, Mia; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that induces critical effects in the nervous system and in many peripheral organs, via 5 dopamine receptors (DRs): D1R-D5R. Dopamine also induces many direct and very potent effects on many DR-expressing immune cells, primarily T cells and dendritic cells. In this review, we focus only on dopamine receptors, effects and production in T cells. Dopamine by itself (at an optimal concentration of~0.1 nM) induces multiple function of resting normal human T cells, among them: T cell adhesion, chemotactic migration, homing, cytokine secretion and others. Interestingly, dopamine activates resting effector T cells (Teffs), but suppresses regulatory T cells (Tregs), and both effects lead eventually to Teff activation. Dopamine-induced effects on T cells are dynamic, context-sensitive and determined by the: T cell activation state, T cell type, DR type, and dopamine concentration. Dopamine itself, and also few dopaminergic molecules/ drugs that are in clinical use for cardiac, neurological and other non-immune indications, have direct effects on human T cells (summarized in this review). These dopaminergic drugs include: dopamine = intropin, L-DOPA, bromocriptine, pramipexole, pergolide, haloperidol, pimozide, and amantadine. Other dopaminergic drugs were not yet tested for their direct effects on T cells. Extensive evidence in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) show dopaminergic dysregulations in T cells in these diseases: D1-like DRs are decreased in Teffs of MS patients, and dopamine does not affect these cells. In contrast, D1-like DRs are increased in Tregs of MS patients, possibly causing functional Treg impairment in MS. Treatment of MS patients with interferon β (IFN-β) increases D1-like DRs and decreases D2-like DRs in Teffs, decreases D1-like DRs in Tregs, and most important: restores responsiveness of patient's Teffs to dopamine. DR agonists and antagonists confer some benefits in

  16. Maternal High-Fat Diet and Obesity Impact Palatable Food Intake and Dopamine Signaling in Nonhuman Primate Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Kievit, Paul; Kirigiti, Melissa A.; Bauman, Leigh Ann; Baquero, Karalee; Blundell, Peter; Dean, Tyler A.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Frazee, Tim; Douville, Luke; Majer, Jordan; Smith, M. Susan; Grove, Kevin L.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food. We will also examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. Methods The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. We also examined the influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopamine system at 13 months of age. Results During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 protein. Conclusion Our findings reveal that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling. PMID:26530932

  17. ORAL IBOPAMINE SUBSTITUTION IN PATIENTS WITH INTRAVENOUS DOPAMINE DEPENDENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIRBES, ARJ; MILNER, AR; MCCLOSKEY, BV; ZWAVELING, JH; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; ZIJLSTRA, JG; LIE, KI

    1995-01-01

    In a prospective open study we evaluated whether intravenous dopamine infusions can be safely switched to enterally administered ibopamine in dopamine-dependent patients. Six patients defined as being clinically stable, normovolaemic, but dopamine dependent, i.e. with repeated inability to stop

  18. The binding sites for cocaine and dopamine in the dopamine transporter overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuming, Thijs; Kniazeff, Julie; Bergmann, Marianne L

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused substance with psychostimulant effects that are attributed to inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). We present molecular models for DAT binding of cocaine and cocaine analogs constructed from the high-resolution structure of the bacterial transporter homolog Leu......T. Our models suggest that the binding site for cocaine and cocaine analogs is deeply buried between transmembrane segments 1, 3, 6 and 8, and overlaps with the binding sites for the substrates dopamine and amphetamine, as well as for benztropine-like DAT inhibitors. We validated our models by detailed...... inhibition of dopamine transport by cocaine....

  19. Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.H. Jr.; Stein, M.A.; Krasowski, M.D.; Cox, N.J.; Olkon, D.M.; Kieffer, J.E.; Leventhal, B.L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be familial and heritable, in previous studies. As with most psychiatric disorders, examination of pedigrees has not revealed a consistent Mendelian mode of transmission. The response of ADHD patients to medications that inhibit the dopamine transporter, including methylphenidate, amphetamine, pemoline, and bupropion, led us to consider the dopamine transporter as a primary candidate gene for ADHD. To avoid effects of population stratification and to avoid the problem of classification of relatives with other psychiatric disorders as affected or unaffected, we used the haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) method to test for association between a VNTR polymorphism at the dopamine transporter locus (DAT1) and DSM-III-R-diagnosed ADHD (N = 49) and undifferentiated attention-deficit disorder (UADD) (N = 8) in trios composed of father, mother, and affected offspring. HHRR analysis revealed significant association between ADHS/UADD and the 480-bp DAT1 allele (X{sup 2} 7.51, 1 df, P = .006). When cases of UADD were dropped from the analysis, similar results were found (X{sup 2} 7.29, 1 df, P = .007). If these findings are replicated, molecular analysis of the dopamine transporter gene may identify mutations that increase susceptibility to ADHD/UADD. Biochemical analysis of such mutations may lead to development of more effective therapeutic interventions. 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; Chiacchiaretta, Martina; Lewis, Robert G; Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Arcuri, Ludovico; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2018-01-02

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a major component of the dopamine system. D2R-mediated signaling in dopamine neurons is involved in the presynaptic regulation of dopamine levels. Postsynaptically, i.e., in striatal neurons, D2R signaling controls complex functions such as motor activity through regulation of cell firing and heterologous neurotransmitter release. The presence of two isoforms, D2L and D2S, which are generated by a mechanism of alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene, raises the question of whether both isoforms may equally control presynaptic and postsynaptic events. Here, we addressed this question by comparing behavioral and cellular responses of mice with the selective ablation of either D2L or D2S isoform. We establish that the presence of either D2L or D2S can support postsynaptic functions related to the control of motor activity in basal conditions. On the contrary, absence of D2S but not D2L prevents the inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and, thereby, of dopamine synthesis, supporting a major presynaptic role for D2S. Interestingly, boosting dopamine signaling in the striatum by acute cocaine administration reveals that absence of D2L, but not of D2S, strongly impairs the motor and cellular response to the drug, in a manner similar to the ablation of both isoforms. These results suggest that when the dopamine system is challenged, D2L signaling is required for the control of striatal circuits regulating motor activity. Thus, our findings show that D2L and D2S share similar functions in basal conditions but not in response to stimulation of the dopamine system.

  1. Dynamics of rapid dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine versus natural rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Courtney M; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies show that distinct subsets of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons differentially encode information about goal-directed behaviors for intravenous cocaine versus natural (food/water) rewards. Further, NAc rapid dopamine signaling occurs on a timescale similar to phasic cell firing during cocaine and natural reward-seeking behaviors. However, it is not known whether dopamine signaling is reinforcer specific (i.e., is released during responding for only one type of reinforcer) within discrete NAc locations, similar to neural firing dynamics. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure rapid dopamine release during multiple schedules involving sucrose reward and cocaine self-administration (n = 8 rats) and, in a separate group of rats (n = 6), during a sucrose/food multiple schedule. During the sucrose/cocaine multiple schedule, dopamine increased within seconds of operant responding for both reinforcers. Although dopamine release was not reinforcer specific, more subtle differences were observed in peak dopamine concentration [DA] across reinforcer conditions. Specifically, peak [DA] was higher during the first phase of the multiple schedule, regardless of reinforcer type. Further, the time to reach peak [DA] was delayed during cocaine-responding compared to sucrose. During the sucrose/food multiple schedule, increases in dopamine release were also observed relative to operant responding for both natural rewards. However, peak [DA] was higher relative to responding for sucrose than food, regardless of reinforcer order. Overall, the results reveal the dynamics of rapid dopamine signaling in discrete locations in the NAc across reward conditions, and provide novel insight into the functional role of this system in reward-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of SKF38393.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saigusa, T.; Aono, Y.; Sekino, R.; Uchida, T.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Like dexamphetamine, SKF38393 induces an increase in striatal dopamine efflux which is insensitive for tetrodotoxin, Ca(2+) independent and prevented by a dopamine transporter inhibitor. The dexamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine efflux originates from both the reserpine-sensitive vesicular

  3. Distinctive Modulation of Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediated by Dopamine and Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Adrover, Martin F; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA-dependent behaviors such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A disynaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this disynaptic mechanism of DA transmission are not well understood in the NAc shell. In this study, in vitro fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the modulation of DA transmission evoked by CINs firing in the shell of mice and compared with other striatal regions. We found that DA signals in the shell displayed significant degree of summation in response to train stimulation of CINs, contrary to core and dorsal striatum. The summation was amplified by a D2-like receptor antagonist and experiments with mice with targeted deletion of D2 receptors to DANs or CINs revealed that D2 receptors in CINs mediate a fast inhibition observed within 100 ms of the first pulse, whereas D2 autoreceptors in DAN terminals are engaged in a slower inhibition that peaks at ∼500 ms. ACh also contributes to the use-dependent inhibition of DA release through muscarinic receptors only in the shell, where higher activity of acetylcholinesterase minimizes nAChR desensitization and promotes summation. These findings show that DA signals are modulated differentially by endogenous DA and ACh in the shell, which may underlie the unique features of shell DA signals in vivo SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study reports that dopamine (DA) release evoked by activation of cholinergic interneurons displays a high degree of summation in the shell and shows unique modulation by endogenous DA and acetylcholine. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors, which is a prevailing mechanism for use-dependent inhibition in the nucleus accumbens core and dorsal striatum, is

  4. Behavioral Modulation by Spontaneous Activity of Dopamine Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiharu Ichinose

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine modulates a variety of animal behaviors that range from sleep and learning to courtship and aggression. Besides its well-known phasic firing to natural reward, a substantial number of dopamine neurons (DANs are known to exhibit ongoing intrinsic activity in the absence of an external stimulus. While accumulating evidence points at functional implications for these intrinsic “spontaneous activities” of DANs in cognitive processes, a causal link to behavior and its underlying mechanisms has yet to be elucidated. Recent physiological studies in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster have uncovered that DANs in the fly brain are also spontaneously active, and that this activity reflects the behavioral/internal states of the animal. Strikingly, genetic manipulation of basal DAN activity resulted in behavioral alterations in the fly, providing critical evidence that links spontaneous DAN activity to behavioral states. Furthermore, circuit-level analyses have started to reveal cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate or regulate spontaneous DAN activity. Through reviewing recent findings in different animals with the major focus on flies, we will discuss potential roles of this physiological phenomenon in directing animal behaviors.

  5. Dopamine induces neutrophil apoptosis through a dopamine D-1 receptor-independent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sookhai, S

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: For the normal resolution of an acute inflammatory response, neutrophil (PMN) apoptosis is essential to maintain immune homeostasis and to limit inappropriate host tissue damage. A delay in PMN apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Dopamine, a biogenic amine with known cardiovascular and neurotransmitter properties, is used in patients with SIRS to maintain hemodynamic stability. We sought to determine whether dopamine may also have immunoregulatory properties capable of influencing PMN apoptosis, function, and activation state in patients with SIRS. METHODS: PMNs were isolated from healthy volunteers and patients with SIRS and treated with varying doses of dopamine and a dopamine D-1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam. PMN apoptosis was assessed every 6 hours with use of propidium iodide DNA staining and PMN function was assessed with use of respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis ability, and CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 receptor expression as functional markers. RESULTS: There was a significant delay in PMN apotosis in patients with SIRS compared with controls. Treatment of isolated PMNs from both healthy controls and patients with SIRS with 10 and 100 mumol\\/L dopamine induced apoptosis. PMN ingestive and cytocidal capacity were both decreased in patients with SIRS compared with controls. Treatment with dopamine significantly increased phagocytic function. Fenoldopam did not induce PMN apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate for the first time that dopamine induces PMN apoptosis and modulates PMN function both in healthy controls and in patients with SIRS. These results indicate that dopamine may be beneficial during SIRS through a nonhemodynamic PMN-dependent proapoptotic mechanism.

  6. Membrane permeable C-terminal dopamine transporter peptides attenuate amphetamine-evoked dopamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Owens, WA; Winkler, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate......-terminal protein-protein interactions are critical for AMPH-evoked DA efflux and suggest that it may be possible to target protein-protein interactions to modulate transporter function and interfere with psychostimulant effects....

  7. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womersley Jacqueline S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1 in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100 was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of

  8. Characterization of nociceptive response to chemical, mechanical, and thermal stimuli in adolescent rats with neonatal dopamine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, M; Noda, K; Akita, H; Ishibashi, H

    2015-03-19

    Rats with dopamine depletion caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment during adulthood and the neonatal period exhibit akinetic motor activity and spontaneous motor hyperactivity during adolescence, respectively, indicating that the behavioral effects of dopamine depletion depend on the period of lesion development. Dopamine depletion during adulthood induces hyperalgesic response to mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical stimuli, whereas the effects of neonatal dopamine depletion on nociceptive response in adolescent rats are yet to be examined. The latter aspect was addressed in this study, and behavioral responses were examined using von-Frey, tail flick, and formalin tests. The formalin test revealed that rats with neonatal dopamine depletion exhibited a significant increase in nociceptive response during interphase (6-15min post formalin injection) and phase 2 (16-75min post formalin injection). This increase in nociceptive response to the formalin injection was not reversed by pretreatment with methamphetamine, which ameliorates motor hyperactivity observed in adolescent rats with neonatal 6-OHDA treatment. The von-Frey filament and tail flick tests failed to reveal significant differences in withdrawal thresholds between neonatal 6-OHDA-treated and vehicle-treated rats. The spinal neuronal response to the formalin injection into the rat hind paw was also examined through immunohistochemical analysis of c-Fos protein. Significantly increased numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in laminae I-II and V-VI of the ipsilateral spinal cord to the site of the formalin injection in rats with neonatal dopamine depletion compared with vehicle-treated rats. These results suggest that the dopaminergic neural system plays a crucial role in the development of a neural network for tonic pain, including the spinal neural circuit for nociceptive transmission, and that the mechanism underlying hyperalgesia to tonic pain is not always consistent with that of

  9. Structure of the Human Dopamine D3 Receptor in Complex with a D2/D3 Selective Antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Hanson, Michael A.; Shi, Lei; Newman, Amy Hauck; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C. (Cornell); (Scripps); (NIDA); (Columbia); (UCSD); (Receptos)

    2010-11-30

    Dopamine modulates movement, cognition, and emotion through activation of dopamine G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. The crystal structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in complex with the small molecule D2R/D3R-specific antagonist eticlopride reveals important features of the ligand binding pocket and extracellular loops. On the intracellular side of the receptor, a locked conformation of the ionic lock and two distinctly different conformations of intracellular loop 2 are observed. Docking of R-22, a D3R-selective antagonist, reveals an extracellular extension of the eticlopride binding site that comprises a second binding pocket for the aryl amide of R-22, which differs between the highly homologous D2R and D3R. This difference provides direction to the design of D3R-selective agents for treating drug abuse and other neuropsychiatric indications.

  10. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney

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    N. L. Rukavina Mikusic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP and Ang-(1-7 may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7 was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7 and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7 stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7 on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7 was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7 on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7 enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  11. Dopamine in heart failure and critical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, AJ

    Dopamine is widely used in critical care to prevent renal function loss. Nevertheless sufficient evidence is still lacking of reduction in end points like mortality or renal replacement therapy. Dopaminergic treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF) has provided an example of unexpected adverse

  12. DOPAMINE EFFECT ON CARDIAC REMODELING IN EXPERIMENT

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    V. R. Veber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study morphologic changes in myocardium of Wistar rats caused by single and long term dopamine administration.Methods. In acute study dopamine 10 mkg/kg was administrated to 15 rats by a single intraperitoneal injection. The material was taken in 2, 6, 24 hours and in 1 month after drug administration. In chronic study dopamine 10 mkg/kg was administrated to 15 rats 3 times a day by intraperitoneal injections during 2 weeks. The material was taken just after the drug administration was stopped and in 1 month of animals keeping without stress and drug influences. Control group included 15 rats comparable with experimental animals in age and weight. They were keeped without stress and drug influences. Morphometric parameters of left and right ventricles were evaluated as well as density of cardiomyocytes, collagen, vessels and volume of extracellular space.Results. The enlargement of cardiac fibrosis is found both in acute, and in chronic study. In acute study cardiac fibrosis was located mainly in a right ventricle. In chronic study cardiac fibrosis was located in both ventricles, but also mainly in a right one.Conclusion. Significant morphological «asynchronism» of the left and right ventricles remodeling requires elaboration of methods of myocardium protection and cardiac function control during dopamine administration. 

  13. Oscillating from Neurosecretion to Multitasking Dopamine Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Grattan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of Cell Reports, Stagkourakis et al. (2016 report that oscillating hypothalamic TIDA neurons, previously thought to be simple neurosecretory neurons controlling pituitary prolactin secretion, control dopamine output via autoregulatory mechanisms and thus could potentially regulate other physiologically important hypothalamic neuronal circuits.

  14. Antagonism of presynaptic dopamine receptors by phenothiazine drug metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.Z.; Arbilla, S.; Langer, S.Z.; Dahl, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    Electrically evoked release of dopamine from the caudate nucleus is reduced by the dopamine receptor agonists, apomorphine and bromocriptine, and facilitated by neuroleptic drugs, which act as dopamine autoreceptor antagonists. The potencies of chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, levomepromazine and their hydroxy-metabolites in modulating electrically evoked release of dopamine were examined by superfusion of rabbit caudate nucleus slices pre-incubated with 3 H-dopamine. O-Desmethyl levomepromazine, 3-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy metabolites of chlorpromazine and levomepromazine facilitated electrically evoked release of 3 H-dopamine, having potencies similar to that of the parent compounds. 7-Hydroxy fluphenazine was less active than fluphenazine in this system. These results indicate that phenolic metabolites of chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, but not of fluphenazine, may contribute to effects of the drugs mediated by presynaptic dopamine receptors

  15. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A de Souza Silva; C. eMattern; C. eMattern; C.I. eDecheva; Joseph P. Huston; A. eSadile; M. eBeu; H.W. eMüller; Susanne eNikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We ...

  16. Dopamine Modulates Option Generation for Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yuen-Siang; Manohar, Sanjay; Plant, Olivia; Kienast, Annika; Le Heron, Campbell; Muhammed, Kinan; Hu, Michele; Husain, Masud

    2018-05-21

    Animals make innumerable decisions every day, each of which involves evaluating potential options for action. But how are options generated? Although much is now known about decision making when a fixed set of potential options is provided, surprisingly little progress has been made on self-generated options. Some researchers have proposed that such abilities might be modulated by dopamine. Here, we used a new measure of option generation that is quantitative, objective, and culture fair to investigate how humans generate different behavioral options. Participants were asked to draw as many different paths (options) as they could between two points within a fixed time. Healthy individuals (n = 96) exhibited a trade-off between uniqueness (how individually different their options were) and fluency (number of options), generating either many similar or few unique options. To assess influence of dopamine, we first examined patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 35) ON and OFF their dopaminergic medication and compared them to elderly healthy controls (n = 34). Then we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the D2 agonist cabergoline in healthy older people (n = 29). Across both studies, dopamine increased fluency but diminished overall uniqueness of options generated, due to the effect of fluency trading off with uniqueness. Crucially, however, when this trade-off was corrected for, dopamine was found to increase uniqueness for any given fluency. Three carefully designed control studies showed that performance on our option-generation task was not related to executing movements, planning actions, or selecting between generated options. These findings show that dopamine plays an important role in modulating option generation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. A Dopamine Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavăl, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system. We hypothesize that a dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic circuit leads to social deficits, while a dysfunction of the nigrostriatal circuit leads to stereotyped behaviors. Furthermore, we discuss 2 key predictions of our hypothesis, with emphasis on clinical and therapeutic aspects. First, we argue that dopaminergic dysfunctions in the same circuits should associate with autistic-like behavior in nonautistic subjects. Concerning this, we discuss the case of PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections) which displays behaviors similar to those of ASD, presumed to arise from dopaminergic dysfunctions. Second, we argue that providing dopamine modulators to autistic subjects should lead to a behavioral improvement. Regarding this, we present clinical studies of dopamine antagonists which seem to have improving effects on autistic behavior. Furthermore, we explore the means of testing our hypothesis by using neuroreceptor imaging, which could provide comprehensive evidence for dopamine signaling dysfunctions in autistic subjects. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of our hypothesis. Along these lines, we aim to provide a dopaminergic model of ASD which might lead to a better understanding of the ASD pathogenesis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 μM and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 μM and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 μM respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D 2 -dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 μM. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, 3 H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D 1 - and D 2 -dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  19. A subset of dopamine neurons signals reward for odour memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Pfeiffer, Barret D; Aso, Yoshinori; Friedrich, Anja B; Siwanowicz, Igor; Rubin, Gerald M; Preat, Thomas; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2012-08-23

    Animals approach stimuli that predict a pleasant outcome. After the paired presentation of an odour and a reward, Drosophila melanogaster can develop a conditioned approach towards that odour. Despite recent advances in understanding the neural circuits for associative memory and appetitive motivation, the cellular mechanisms for reward processing in the fly brain are unknown. Here we show that a group of dopamine neurons in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster signals sugar reward by transient activation and inactivation of target neurons in intact behaving flies. These dopamine neurons are selectively required for the reinforcing property of, but not a reflexive response to, the sugar stimulus. In vivo calcium imaging revealed that these neurons are activated by sugar ingestion and the activation is increased on starvation. The output sites of the PAM neurons are mainly localized to the medial lobes of the mushroom bodies (MBs), where appetitive olfactory associative memory is formed. We therefore propose that the PAM cluster neurons endow a positive predictive value to the odour in the MBs. Dopamine in insects is known to mediate aversive reinforcement signals. Our results highlight the cellular specificity underlying the various roles of dopamine and the importance of spatially segregated local circuits within the MBs.

  20. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runegaard, Annika H; Jensen, Kathrine L; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M; Dencker, Ditte; Weikop, Pia; Gether, Ulrik; Rickhag, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Cre-driver mouse lines have been extensively used as genetic tools to target and manipulate genetically defined neuronal populations by expression of Cre recombinase under selected gene promoters. This approach has greatly advanced neuroscience but interpretations are hampered by the fact that most Cre-driver lines have not been thoroughly characterized. Thus, a phenotypic characterization is of major importance to reveal potential aberrant phenotypes prior to implementation and usage to selectively inactivate or induce transgene expression. Here, we present a biochemical and behavioural assessment of the dopaminergic system in hemizygous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Our data show that TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice also show preserved dopamine transporter expression and function supporting sustained dopaminergic transmission. In addition, TH-Cre mice demonstrate normal responses in basic behavioural paradigms related to dopaminergic signalling including locomotor activity, reward preference and anxiolytic behaviour. Our results suggest that TH-Cre mice represent a valid tool to study the dopamine system, though careful characterization must always be performed to prevent false interpretations following Cre-dependent transgene expression and manipulation of selected neuronal pathways. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Motor Function and Dopamine Release Measurements in Transgenic Huntington’s Disease Model Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrea N.; Osterhaus, Gregory L.; Lauderdale, Kelli; Mahoney, Luke; Fowler, Stephen C.; von Hörsten, Stephan; Riess, Olaf; Johnson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in motor and cognitive function. Here, we have quantitatively characterized motor deficiencies and dopamine release dynamics in transgenic HD model rats. Behavioral analyses were conducted using a newly-developed force-sensing runway and a previously-developed force-plate actometer. Gait disturbances were readily observed in transgenic HD rats at 12 to 15 months of age. Additionally, dopamine system challenge by ip injection of amphetamine also revealed that these rats were resistant to the expression of focused stereotypy compared to wild-type controls. Moreover, dopamine release, evoked by the application of single and multiple electrical stimulus pulses applied at different frequencies, and measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes, was diminished in transgenic HD rats compared to age-matched wild-type control rats. Collectively, these results underscore the potential contribution of dopamine release alterations to the expression of motor impairments in transgenic HD rats. PMID:22418060

  2. Association of dopamine D(3) receptors with actin-binding protein 280 (ABP-280).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Chuanyu; Weingarten, Paul; Bunzow, James R; Grandy, David K; Zhou, Qun Yong

    2002-03-01

    Proteins that bind to G protein-coupled receptors have been identified as regulators of receptor localization and signaling. In our previous studies, a cytoskeletal protein, actin-binding protein 280 (ABP-280), was found to associate with the third cytoplasmic loop of dopamine D(2) receptors. In this study, we demonstrate that ABP-280 also interacts with dopamine D(3) receptors, but not with D(4) receptors. Similar to the dopamine D(2) receptor, the D(3)/ABP-280 association is of signaling importance. In human melanoma M2 cells lacking ABP-280, D(3) receptors were unable to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production significantly. D(4) receptors, however, exhibited a similar degree of inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in ABP-280-deficient M2 cells and ABP-280-replent M2 subclones (A7 cells). Further experiments revealed that the D(3)/ABP-280 interaction was critically dependent upon a 36 amino acid carboxyl domain of the D(3) receptor third loop, which is conserved in the D(2) receptor but not in the D(4) receptor. Our results demonstrate a subtype-specific regulation of dopamine D(2)-family receptor signaling by the cytoskeletal protein ABP-280.

  3. Preparation of Pd/Bacterial Cellulose Hybrid Nanofibers for Dopamine Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Palladium nanoparticle-bacterial cellulose (PdBC hybrid nanofibers were synthesized by in-situ chemical reduction method. The obtained PdBC nanofibers were characterized by a series of analytical techniques. The results revealed that Pd nanoparticles were evenly dispersed on the surfaces of BC nanofibers. Then, the as-prepared PdBC nanofibers were mixed with laccase (Lac and Nafion to obtain mixture suspension, which was further modified on electrode surface to construct novel biosensing platform. Finally, the prepared electrochemical biosensor was employed to detect dopamine. The analysis result was satisfactory, the sensor showed excellent electrocatalysis towards dopamine with high sensitivity (38.4 µA·mM−1, low detection limit (1.26 µM, and wide linear range (5–167 µM. Moreover, the biosensor also showed good repeatability, reproducibility, selectivity and stability and was successfully used in the detection of dopamine in human urine, thus providing a promising method for dopamine analysis in clinical application.

  4. Glutamate neurons are intermixed with midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, David H.; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Bing; Barker, David J.; Mód, László; Szocsics, Péter; Silva, Afonso C.; Maglóczky, Zsófia; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The rodent ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) contain dopamine neurons intermixed with glutamate neurons (expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2; VGluT2), which play roles in reward and aversion. However, identifying the neuronal compositions of the VTA and SNC in higher mammals has remained challenging. Here, we revealed VGluT2 neurons within the VTA and SNC of nonhuman primates and humans by simultaneous detection of VGluT2 mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; for identification of dopamine neurons). We found that several VTA subdivisions share similar cellular compositions in nonhuman primates and humans; their rostral linear nuclei have a high prevalence of VGluT2 neurons lacking TH; their paranigral and parabrachial pigmented nuclei have mostly TH neurons, and their parabrachial pigmented nuclei have dual VGluT2-TH neurons. Within nonhuman primates and humans SNC, the vast majority of neurons are TH neurons but VGluT2 neurons were detected in the pars lateralis subdivision. The demonstration that midbrain dopamine neurons are intermixed with glutamate or glutamate-dopamine neurons from rodents to humans offers new opportunities for translational studies towards analyzing the roles that each of these neurons play in human behavior and in midbrain-associated illnesses such as addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27477243

  5. Dopamine and reward: comment on Hernandez et al. (2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2006-08-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic projection from the midbrain tegmentum to the forebrain must play a critical role in mediating the behavioral effects of natural and artificial rewards, with brain stimulation reward and addictive drugs included in the latter category. However, a closer look reveals many incongruities. The work of G. Hernandez et al. (2006) resolves several puzzles. It implies that the dopaminergic projection does not carry the signal that encodes the magnitude of a brain stimulation reward. It suggests that the elevation in the tonic levels of dopamine consequent on brain stimulation reward modulates the registration of the magnitude of the reward. This reconciles the psychophysical evidence with the pharmacological, electrophysiological, and anatomical evidence. However, some serious puzzles do remain.

  6. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  7. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  8. Synthesis and in vivo measurement of dopamine receptor-binding with 18F haloperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Dopaminergic pathways are involved in several important brain functions including control of movement, autonomic function and mental and emotional status. Direct labeling of dopamine receptor-sites has been attempted using 18 F-labeled-haloperidal which was prepared in our lab by a no-carrier-added synthesis. This labeling method may reveal the regional distribution and levels of receptors with the possibility of gaining a greater understanding of pain

  9. Glutamate Counteracts Dopamine/PKA Signaling via Dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 Ser-97 and Alteration of Its Cytonuclear Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akinori; Matamales, Miriam; Musante, Veronica; Valjent, Emmanuel; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Kitahara, Yosuke; Rebholz, Heike; Greengard, Paul; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Nairn, Angus C

    2017-01-27

    The interaction of glutamate and dopamine in the striatum is heavily dependent on signaling pathways that converge on the regulatory protein DARPP-32. The efficacy of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling is regulated by DARPP-32 phosphorylated at Thr-34 (the PKA site), a process that inhibits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and potentiates PKA action. Activation of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling also leads to dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 (the CK2 site), leading to localization of phospho-Thr-34 DARPP-32 in the nucleus where it also inhibits PP1. In this study the role of glutamate in the regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at four major sites was further investigated. Experiments using striatal slices revealed that glutamate decreased the phosphorylation states of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 as well as Thr-34, Thr-75, and Ser-130 by activating NMDA or AMPA receptors in both direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons. The effect of glutamate in decreasing Ser-97 phosphorylation was mediated by activation of PP2A. In vitro phosphatase assays indicated that the PP2A/PR72 heterotrimer complex was likely responsible for glutamate/Ca 2+ -regulated dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97. As a consequence of Ser-97 dephosphorylation, glutamate induced the nuclear localization in cultured striatal neurons of dephospho-Thr-34/dephospho-Ser-97 DARPP-32. It also reduced PKA-dependent DARPP-32 signaling in slices and in vivo Taken together, the results suggest that by inducing dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 and altering its cytonuclear distribution, glutamate may counteract dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling at multiple cellular levels. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Glutamate Counteracts Dopamine/PKA Signaling via Dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 Ser-97 and Alteration of Its Cytonuclear Distribution*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akinori; Matamales, Miriam; Musante, Veronica; Valjent, Emmanuel; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Kitahara, Yosuke; Rebholz, Heike; Greengard, Paul; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Nairn, Angus C.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of glutamate and dopamine in the striatum is heavily dependent on signaling pathways that converge on the regulatory protein DARPP-32. The efficacy of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling is regulated by DARPP-32 phosphorylated at Thr-34 (the PKA site), a process that inhibits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and potentiates PKA action. Activation of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling also leads to dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 (the CK2 site), leading to localization of phospho-Thr-34 DARPP-32 in the nucleus where it also inhibits PP1. In this study the role of glutamate in the regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at four major sites was further investigated. Experiments using striatal slices revealed that glutamate decreased the phosphorylation states of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 as well as Thr-34, Thr-75, and Ser-130 by activating NMDA or AMPA receptors in both direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons. The effect of glutamate in decreasing Ser-97 phosphorylation was mediated by activation of PP2A. In vitro phosphatase assays indicated that the PP2A/PR72 heterotrimer complex was likely responsible for glutamate/Ca2+-regulated dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97. As a consequence of Ser-97 dephosphorylation, glutamate induced the nuclear localization in cultured striatal neurons of dephospho-Thr-34/dephospho-Ser-97 DARPP-32. It also reduced PKA-dependent DARPP-32 signaling in slices and in vivo. Taken together, the results suggest that by inducing dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 and altering its cytonuclear distribution, glutamate may counteract dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling at multiple cellular levels. PMID:27998980

  11. Immunomodulatory N-acyl Dopamine Glycosides from the Icelandic Marine Sponge Myxilla incrustans Collected at a Hydrothermal Vent Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Eydis; Liu, Hong Bing; Freysdottir, Jona

    2016-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the sponge (Porifera) Myxilla incrustans collected from the unique submarine hydrothermal vent site Strytan, North of Iceland, revealed a novel family of closely related N-acyl dopamine glycosides. Three new compounds, myxillin A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated...

  12. Distinct roles of presynaptic dopamine receptors in the differential modulation of the intrinsic synapses of medium-spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both schizophrenia and addiction, pathological changes in dopamine release appear to induce alterations in the circuitry of the nucleus accumbens that affect coordinated thought and motivation. Dopamine acts principally on medium-spiny GABA neurons, which comprise 95% of accumbens neurons and give rise to the majority of inhibitory synapses in the nucleus. To examine dopamine action at single medium-spiny neuron synapses, we imaged Ca2+ levels in their presynaptic varicosities in the acute brain slice using two-photon microscopy. Results Presynaptic Ca2+ rises were differentially modulated by dopamine. The D1/D5 selective agonist SKF81297 was exclusively facilitatory. The D2/D3 selective agonist quinpirole was predominantly inhibitory, but in some instances it was facilitatory. Studies using D2 and D3 receptor knockout mice revealed that quinpirole inhibition was either D2 or D3 receptor-mediated, while facilitation was mainly D3 receptor-mediated. Subsets of varicosities responded to both D1 and D2 agonists, showing that there was significant co-expression of these receptor families in single medium-spiny neurons. Neighboring presynaptic varicosities showed strikingly heterogeneous responses to DA agonists, suggesting that DA receptors may be differentially trafficked to individual varicosities on the same medium-spiny neuron axon. Conclusion Dopamine receptors are present on the presynaptic varicosities of medium-spiny neurons, where they potently control GABAergic synaptic transmission. While there is significant coexpression of D1 and D2 family dopamine receptors in individual neurons, at the subcellular level, these receptors appear to be heterogeneously distributed, potentially explaining the considerable controversy regarding dopamine action in the striatum, and in particular the degree of dopamine receptor segregation on these neurons. Assuming that post-receptor signaling is restricted to the microdomains of

  13. NOVEL FLUORESCENT PROBES FOR THE DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, J; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Adkins, Erica

    -reactive rhodamine red derivatives. The resulting N-substituted (JHC 1-64) and 2-substituted (JHC 1-53) ligands showed high affinity binding to DAT expressed in HEK 293 cells (Ki= 6.4 and 29 nM, respectively). Their ability to selectively label the DAT was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of HEK......To enable visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) through fluorescence technologies we have synthesized a novel series of fluorescently tagged analogs of cocaine. Previous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have demonstrated that the dopamine transporter (DAT) can tolerate...... in untransfected control cells. The possibility of using these ligands for direct labeling of the DAT in living cells represents a new and important approach for understanding cellular targeting and trafficking of the DAT. Moreover, these fluorescent ligands might also provide the molecular tools...

  14. Effects of aging and dopamine genotypes on the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Nicolas W; Frensch, Peter A; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-11-01

    The striatum and medial temporal lobe play important roles in implicit and explicit memory, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have linked striatal dopamine modulation to both implicit as well as explicit sequence learning and suggested a potential role of the striatum in the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning. With respect to aging, previous findings indicated that implicit memory is less impaired than explicit memory in older adults and that genetic effects on cognition are magnified by aging. To understand the links between these findings, we investigated effects of aging and genotypes relevant for striatal dopamine on the implicit and explicit components of sequence learning. Reaction time (RT) and error data from 80 younger (20-30 years) and 70 older adults (60-71 years) during a serial reaction time task showed that age differences in learning-related reduction of RTs emerged gradually over the course of learning. Verbal recall and measures derived from the process-dissociation procedure revealed that younger adults acquired more explicit memory about the sequence than older adults, potentially causing age differences in RT gains in later stages of learning. Of specific interest, polymorphisms of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein (DARPP-32, rs907094) and dopamine transporter (DAT, VNTR) genes showed interactive effects on overall RTs and verbal recall of the sequence in older but not in younger adults. Together our findings show that variations in genotypes relevant for dopamine functions are associated more with aging-related impairments in the explicit than the implicit component of sequence learning, providing support for theories emphasizing the role of dopaminergic modulation in cognitive aging and the magnification of genetic effects in human aging. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging of dopamine transporters in rats using high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, F2N, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Voorn, Pieter [Department of Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    To date, the vast majority of investigations on the dopaminergic system in small animals have been in vitro studies. In comparison with in vitro studies, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the dopaminergic system in small animals has the advantage of permitting repeated studies within the same group of animals. Dopamine transporter imaging is a valuable non-invasive tool with which to investigate the integrity of dopaminergic neurons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing dopamine transporter density semi-quantitatively in rats using a recently developed high-resolution pinhole SPET system. This system was built exclusively for imaging of small animals. In this unique single-pinhole system, the animal rotates instead of the collimated detector. The system has proven to have a high spatial resolution. We performed SPET imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT to quantify striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain. In all seven studied control rats, symmetrical striatal binding to dopamine transporters was seen 2 h after injection of the radiotracer, with striatal-to-cerebellar binding ratios of approximately 3.5. In addition, test/retest variability of the striatal-to-cerebellar binding ratios was studied and found to be 14.5%. Finally, in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, striatal binding was only visible on the non-lesioned side. Quantitative analysis revealed that striatal-to-cerebellar SPET ratios were significantly lower on the lesioned (mean binding ratio 2.2{+-}0.2) than on the non-lesioned (mean ratio 3.1{+-}0.4) side. The preliminary results of this study indicate that semi-quantitative assessment of striatal dopamine transporter density using our recently developed high-resolution single-pinhole SPET system is feasible in living rat brain. (orig.)

  16. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; da Cunha, Anderson F; Beaufrère, Hugues; Queiroz, Patricia; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) were recorded throughout the treatment periods. Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure. Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

  17. Unilateral Lesion of Dopamine Neurons Induces Grooming Asymmetry in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Assunta; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Grooming behaviour is the most common innate behaviour in animals. In rodents, it consists of sequences of movements organized in four phases, executed symmetrically on both sides of the animal and creating a syntactic chain of behavioural events. The grooming syntax can be altered by stress and novelty, as well as by several mutations and brain lesions. Grooming behaviour is known to be affected by alterations of the dopamine system, including dopamine receptor modulation, dopamine alteration in genetically modified animals, and after brain lesion. While a lot is known about the initiation and syntactic modifications of this refined sequence of movements, effects of unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons are unclear particularly regarding the symmetry of syntactic chains. In the present work we studied grooming in mice unilaterally lesioned in the medial forebrain bundle by 6-hydroxydopamine. We found a reduction in completion of grooming bouts, associated with reduction in number of transitions between grooming phases. The data also revealed the development of asymmetry in grooming behaviour, with reduced tendency to groom the contralateral side to the lesion. Symmetry was recovered following treatment with L-DOPA. Thus, the present work shows that unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons reduces self-grooming behaviour by affecting duration and numbers of events. It produces premature discontinuation of grooming chains but the sequence syntax remains correct. This deficient grooming could be considered as an intrinsic symptom of Parkinson's disease in animal models and could present some similarities with abnormalities of motor movement sequencing seen in patients. Our study also suggests grooming analysis as an additional method to screen parkinsonism in animal models.

  18. Transcription factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 are required for adult dopamine neurons maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii eDomanskyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proteins Foxa1 and Foxa2 belong to the forkhead family of transcription factors and are involved in the development of several tissues, including liver, pancreas, lung, prostate, and the neural system. Both Foxa1 and Foxa2 are also crucial for the specification and differentiation of dopamine (DA neurons during embryonic development, while about 30% of mice with an embryonic deletion of a single allele of the Foxa2 gene exhibit an age-related asymmetric loss of DA neurons and develop locomotor symptoms resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD. Notably, both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors continue to be expressed in the adult dopamine system. To directly assess their functions selectively in adult DA neurons, we induced genetic deletions of Foxa1/2 transcription factors in mice using a tamoxifen inducible tissue-specific CreERT2 recombinase expressed under control of the dopamine transporter (DAT promoter (DATCreERT2. The conditional DA neurons-specific ablation of both genes, but not of Foxa2 alone, in early adulthood, caused a decline of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, along with locomotor deficits. At early pre-symptomatic stages, we observed a decline in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1 (Aldh1a1 protein expression in DA neurons. Further analyses revealed a decline of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC and a complete loss of DAT expression in these neurons. These molecular changes ultimately led to a reduction of DA neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of aged cFoxa1/2-/- mice, resembling the progressive course of PD in humans. Altogether, in this study, we address the molecular, cellular and functional role of both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors in the maintenance of the adult dopamine system which may help to find better approaches for PD treatment.

  19. Clinical usefulness of dopamine transporter imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun; Jeon, Beom S.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging of the dopamine transporter (DAT) provides a marker for the integrity of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. DAT density is reduced in Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy. In patients with suspicious parkinsonism, normal DAT imaging suggests an alternative diagnosis such as essential tremor, vascular parkinsonism, or drug-induced parkinsonism. DAT imaging is a useful tool to aid clinician's differential diagnosis in parkinsonism

  20. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specifi...

  1. Dopamine D2 receptors photolabeled by iodo-azido-clebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Dumbrille-Ross, A; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-04-19

    Iodo-azido-clebopride, a photoaffinity compound for dopamine D2 receptors, had high affinity for canine brain striatal dopamine D2 receptors with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 14 nM. Irradiation of striatal homogenate with iodo-azido-clebopride irreversibly inactivated 50% of dopamine D2 receptors at 20 nM (as indicated by subsequent [3H]spiperone binding). Dopamine agonists and antagonists prevented this photo-inactivation with the appropriate rank-order of potency. Striatal dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors were not significantly inactivated following irradiation with iodo-azido-clebopride. Thus, iodo-azido-clebopride is a selective photoaffinity probe for dopamine D2 receptors, the radiolabelled form of which may aid in the molecular characterization of these proteins.

  2. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The multiplicity of the D-1 dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailman, R.B.; Klits, C.D.; Lewis, M.H.; Rollema, H.; Schulz, D.W.; Wyrick, S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have sought to address two questions of some neuropharmacological importance in this chapter. First, they examine the nature of mechanisms by which dopamine initiates many psychopharmacological effects and, second, they study the possibility of designing highly specific drugs targeted only at a selected subpopulation of dopamine receptors. Effects of SCH23390 and haloperidol on concentrations of dopamine, DOPAC, and HVA in various rat brain regions are shown. In addition, the effects of SCH23390 on the in vivo binding of dipropyl-5, 6-ADTN are shown. Differential distribution of a dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase and ( 3 H)-SCH23390 binding sites are examined. A model is presented of D 1 dopamine receptors in membrane, illustrating the lack of identity of some of the ( 3 H)-SCH23390 binding sites with the dopamine receptor linked to stimulation of cAMP synthesis

  4. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654

  5. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eSchmack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity towards unfounded beliefs. 109 healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818 and rs4680, also known as val158met that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioural experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity towards unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world.

  6. Dopamine and serotonin levels following prenatal viral infection in mouse--implications for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Christine; Reutiman, Teri J; Folsom, Timothy D; Sohr, Reinhard; Wolf, Rainer J; Juckel, Georg; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2008-10-01

    Prenatal viral infection has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. It has previously been demonstrated that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) and middle-late second trimester (E18) administration of influenza virus. Neurochemical analysis following infection on E18 using this model has revealed significantly altered levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and taurine, but not dopamine. In order to monitor these different patterns of monoamine expression in exposed offspring in more detail and to see if there are changes in the dopamine system at another time point, pregnant C57BL6J mice were infected with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus or sham-infected using vehicle solution on E16. Male offspring of the infected mice were collected at P0, P14, and P56, their brains removed and cerebellum dissected and flash frozen. Dopamine and serotonin levels were then measured using HPLC-ED technique. When compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in serotonin levels in the cerebella of offspring of virally exposed mice at P14. No differences in levels of dopamine were observed in exposed and control mice, although there was a significant decrease in dopamine at P14 and P56 when compared to P0. The present study shows that the serotonergic system is disrupted following prenatal viral infection, potentially modelling disruptions that occur in patients with schizophrenia and autism.

  7. Primary structure and functional characterization of a Drosophila dopamine receptor with high homology to human D1/5 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzes, F; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A

    1994-01-01

    Members of the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors share significant similarities in sequence and transmembrane architecture. We have isolated a Drosophila homologue of the mammalian dopamine receptor family using a low stringency hybridization approach. The deduced amino acid sequence is approximately 70% homologous to the human D1/D5 receptors. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, the Drosophila receptor stimulates cAMP production in response to dopamine application. This effect was mimicked by SKF 38393, a specific D1 receptor agonist, but inhibited by dopaminergic antagonists such as butaclamol and flupentixol. In situ hybridization revealed that the Drosophila dopamine receptor is highly expressed in the somata of the optic lobes. This suggests that the receptor might be involved in the processing of visual information and/or visual learning in invertebrates.

  8. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abuse...

  9. The dopamine transporter: role in neurotoxicity and human disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannon, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane transport protein expressed exclusively within a small subset of CNS neurons. It plays a crucial role in controlling dopamine-mediated neurotransmission and a number of associated behaviors. This review focuses on recent data elucidating the role of the dopamine transporter in neurotoxicity and a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson disease, drug abuse, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  10. The dopamine transporter: role in neurotoxicity and human disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannon, Michael J [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Pharmacology, and Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane transport protein expressed exclusively within a small subset of CNS neurons. It plays a crucial role in controlling dopamine-mediated neurotransmission and a number of associated behaviors. This review focuses on recent data elucidating the role of the dopamine transporter in neurotoxicity and a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson disease, drug abuse, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  11. Practical Approach for the Clinical Use of Dopamine Transporter Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine transporter imaging is useful in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and the most successful technique in the clinical use of neuroreceptor imaging. Recently, several radiopharmaceuticals including I-123 FP-CIT, Tc-99m TRODAT, and F-18 FP-CIT for dopamine transporter imaging have been approved for the routine clinical use in several European countries, Taiwan and Korea, respectively. This review summarized the practical issue for the routine clinical examination of dopamine transporter imaging

  12. Successful treatment of dopamine dysregulation syndrome with dopamine D2 partial agonist antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizushima Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS consists of a series of complications such as compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, aggressive or hypomanic behaviors during excessive use, and withdrawal states characterized by dysphoria and anxiety, caused by long-term dopaminergic treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Although several ways to manage DDS have been suggested, there has been no established treatment that can manage DDS without deterioration of motor symptoms. In this article, we present a case of PD in whom the administration of the dopamine D2 partial agonistic antipsychotic drug aripiprazole improved DDS symptoms such as craving and compulsive behavior without worsening of motor symptoms. Considering the profile of this drug as a partial agonist at D2 receptors, it is possible that it exerts its therapeutic effect on DDS by modulating the dysfunctional dopamine system.

  13. Inverted-U-shaped correlation between dopamine receptor availability in striatum and sensation seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Cumming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    to dopamine concentrations. Higher dopamine occupancy and dopamine concentrations explain the motivation that drives afflicted individuals to seek sensations, in agreement with reduced protection against addictive behavior that is characteristic of individuals with low binding potentials....

  14. Altered neurocircuitry in the dopamine transporter knockout mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Zhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI. Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn(2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn(2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn(2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral

  15. Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhout H Frederik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine is a catecholamine that is used as a neurotransmitter both in the periphery and in the central nervous system. Dysfunction in various dopaminergic systems is known to be associated with various disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Tourette's syndrome. Furthermore, microdialysis studies have shown that addictive drugs increase extracellular dopamine and brain imaging has shown a correlation between euphoria and psycho-stimulant-induced increases in extracellular dopamine 1. These consequences of dopamine dysfunction indicate the importance of maintaining dopamine functionality through homeostatic mechanisms that have been attributed to the delicate balance between synthesis, storage, release, metabolism, and reuptake. Methods We construct a mathematical model of dopamine synthesis, release, and reuptake and use it to study homeostasis in single dopaminergic neuron terminals. We investigate the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine, the consequences of the rapid uptake of extracellular dopamine by the dopamine transporters, and the effects of the autoreceoptors on dopaminergic function. The main focus is to understand the regulation and control of synthesis and release and to explicate and interpret experimental findings. Results We show that the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine stabilizes cytosolic and vesicular dopamine against changes in tyrosine availability due to meals. We find that the autoreceptors dampen the fluctuations in extracellular dopamine caused by changes in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and changes in the rate of firing. We show that short bursts of action potentials create significant dopamine signals against the background of tonic firing. We explain the observed time courses of extracellular dopamine responses to stimulation in wild type mice and mice that have genetically altered dopamine transporter densities and the observed

  16. Influence of phasic and tonic dopamine release on receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kristoffer Kisbye; Herrik, Kjartan F; Berg, Rune W

    2010-01-01

    Tonic and phasic dopamine release is implicated in learning, motivation, and motor functions. However, the relationship between spike patterns in dopaminergic neurons, the extracellular concentration of dopamine, and activation of dopamine receptors remains unresolved. In the present study, we...... develop a computational model of dopamine signaling that give insight into the relationship between the dynamics of release and occupancy of D(1) and D(2) receptors. The model is derived from first principles using experimental data. It has no free parameters and offers unbiased estimation...

  17. Dopamine and dopamine receptor D1 associated with decreased social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Shi, Jieyun; Lin, Rongfei; Wen, Tieqiao

    2017-05-01

    Deficits in social interaction are hallmarks of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that the loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) in the nervous system of mice induces social interaction deficiency, autism-like behaviour, and influences social interaction via the dopamine system. Dopamine receptor D1 agonist rescues this social cognition phenotype, and improves short-term plasticity. Together, this study presents a new genetic mechanism that affects social interaction and may provide a new way to improve positive social interaction and treat autism spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Demonstration of conjugated dopamine in monkey CSF by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elchisak, M A; Powers, K H; Ebert, M H

    1982-09-01

    A method for measuring unconjugated and conjugated dopamine in body tissues and fluids is described. Conjugated dopamine was hydrolyzed in acid to unconjugated dopamine, separated from the sample matrix by alumina chromatography, and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conjugated dopamine was detected in greater concentrations than unconjugated dopamine in CSF taken from lateral ventricle or thecal sac of the Rhesus monkey. Haloperidol administration did not increase the levels of conjugated dopamine in lumbar CSF.

  19. Dopamine receptor D4 internalization requires a beta-arrestin and a visual arrestin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Janise D; Shin, Jung-A; Lim, Kayleen; Lee, Eun-Jin; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Craft, Cheryl Mae

    2015-10-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) plays an essential role in cAMP regulation and gap junctional coupling in the photoreceptors, where DRD4 expression is under circadian control. Previous in vitro transfection studies of human DRD4 desensitization have reported that DRD4 is not internalized upon dopamine stimulation when beta-arrestin is co-transfected with DRD4. We hypothesized that the visual arrestins, ARR1 and ARR4, play a modulatory role in DRD4 desensitization in the photoreceptors. To test this hypothesis, immunohistochemistry analysis of mouse retinas was used to determine the cellular localization of beta-arrestins and DRD4 in photoreceptors. In vitro studies were performed in HEK293T cells transiently transfected with human DRD4 and arrestins. First, co-immunoprecipitation experiments were executed to test protein-protein interactions and to investigate the effect of dopamine stimulation. Second, immunohistochemistry analysis was implemented to study DRD4 internalization and translocation of ARR4. Immunohistochemistry studies of mouse retinas confirmed the expression of beta-arrestin 2, ARR1 and ARR4, as well as DRD4 in mouse cone photoreceptor inner segments. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a dopamine-dependent protein-protein interaction between human DRD4 and ARR4. In vitro internalization experiments showed that no detectable internalization of DRD4 was observed with any single arrestin co-transfected. However, a dopamine-dependent internalization of DRD4 was observed with three out of six sets of two arrestins co-transfected with DRD4. Each of these pairs of arrestins contained one visual arrestin and one beta-arrestin, and no internalization was observed with either two visual arrestins or two beta-arrestins. Additional time-course experiments revealed that in vitro, ARR4 translocates to co-localize with DRD4 at the plasma membrane in response to 30min of dopamine stimulation. The results have functional

  20. Striatal dopamine release in vivo following neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine and effect of the neuroprotective drugs, chlormethiazole and dizocilpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, H A; Colado, M I; Murray, T K; De Souza, R J; Green, A R

    1993-03-01

    1. Administration to rats of methamphetamine (15 mg kg-1, i.p.) every 2 h to a total of 4 doses resulted in a neurotoxic loss of striatal dopamine of 36% and of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the cortex (43%) and hippocampus (47%) 3 days later. 2. Administration of chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1, i.p.) 15 min before each dose of methamphetamine provided complete protection against the neurotoxic loss of monoamines while administration of dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) using the same dose schedule provided substantial protection. 3. Measurement of dopamine release in the striatum by in vivo microdialysis revealed that methamphetamine produced an approximate 7000% increase in dopamine release after the first injection. The enhanced release response was somewhat diminished after the third injection but still around 4000% above baseline. Dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) did not alter this response but chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1, i.p.) attenuated the methamphetamine-induced release by approximately 40%. 4. Dizocilpine pretreatment did not influence the decrease in the dialysate concentration of the dopamine metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) produced by administration of methamphetamine while chlormethiazole pretreatment decreased the dialysate concentration of these metabolites still further. 5. The concentration of dopamine in the dialysate during basal conditions increased modestly during the course of the experiment. This increase did not occur in chlormethiazole-treated rats. HVA concentrations were unaltered by chlormethiazole administration. 6. Chlormethiazole (100-1000 microM) did not alter methamphetamine (100 microM) or K+ (35 mM)-evoked release of endogenous dopamine from striatal prisms in vitro. 7. Several NMDA antagonists prevent methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity; however chlormethiazole is not an NMDA antagonist. Inhibition of striatal dopamine function prevents methamphetamine-induced toxicity of both dopamine and 5

  1. Guanine nucleotide regulatory protein co-purifies with the D2-dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senogles, S.E.; Caron, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The D 2 -dopamine receptor from bovine anterior pituitary was purified ∼1000 fold by affinity chromatography on CMOS-Sepharose. Reconstitution of the affinity-purified receptor into phospholipid vesicles revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist sites as detected by N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) competition experiments with 3 H-spiperone. High affinity agonist binding could be converted to the low affinity form by guanine nucleotides, indicating the presence of an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein (N protein) in the affinity-purified D 2 receptor preparations. Furthermore, this preparation contained an agonist-sensitive GTPase activity which was stimulated 2-3 fold over basal by 10 μM NPA. 35 S-GTPγS binding to these preparations revealed a stoichiometry of 0.4-0.7 mole N protein/mole receptor, suggesting the N protein may be specifically coupled with the purified D 2 -dopamine receptor and not present as a contaminant. Pertussis toxin treatment of the affinity purified receptor preparations prevented high affinity agonist binding, as well as agonist stimulation of the GTPase activity, presumably by inactivating the associated N protein. Pertussis toxin lead to the ADP-ribosylation of a protein of 39-40K on SDS-PAGE. These findings indicate that an endogenous N protein, N/sub i/ or N/sub o/, co-purifies with the D 2 -dopamine receptor which may reflect a precoupling of this receptor with an N protein within the membranes

  2. Dopamine receptor repertoire of human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz Lars

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of dopamine (DA were described in human ovary and recently evidence for DA receptors in granulosa and luteal cells has been provided, as well. However, neither the full repertoire of ovarian receptors for DA, nor their specific role, is established. Human granulosa cells (GCs derived from women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF are an adequate model for endocrine cells of the follicle and the corpus luteum and were therefore employed in an attempt to decipher their DA receptor repertoire and functionality. Methods Cells were obtained from patients undergoing IVF and examined using cDNA-array, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. In addition, calcium measurements (with FLUO-4 were employed. Expression of two DA receptors was also examined by in-situ hybridization in rat ovary. Effects of DA on cell viability and cell volume were studied by using an ATP assay and an electronic cell counter system. Results We found members of the two DA receptor families (D1- and D2 -like associated with different signaling pathways in human GCs, namely D1 (as expected and D5 (both are Gs coupled and linked to cAMP increase and D2, D4 (Gi/Gq coupled and linked to IP3/DAG. D3 was not found. The presence of the trophic hormone hCG (10 IU/ml in the culture medium for several days did not alter mRNA (semiquantitative RT-PCR or protein levels (immunocytochemistry/Western blotting of D1,2,4,5 DA receptors. Expression of prototype receptors for the two families, D1 and D2, was furthermore shown in rat granulosa and luteal cells by in situ hybridization. Among the DA receptors found in human GCs, D2 expression was marked both at mRNA and protein levels and it was therefore further studied. Results of additional RT-PCR and Western blots showed two splice variants (D2L, D2S. Irrespective of these variants, D2 proved to be functional, as DA raised intracellular calcium levels. This calcium mobilizing effect of DA was observed

  3. Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian

    2013-01-01

    This study employed simultaneous neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the relationship between changes in receptor occupancy measured by PET and changes in brain activity inferred by fMRI. By administering the D2/D3...... dopamine receptor antagonist [(11)C]raclopride at varying specific activities to anesthetized nonhuman primates, we mapped associations between changes in receptor occupancy and hemodynamics [cerebral blood volume (CBV)] in the domains of space, time, and dose. Mass doses of raclopride above tracer levels...... caused increases in CBV and reductions in binding potential that were localized to the dopamine-rich striatum. Moreover, similar temporal profiles were observed for specific binding estimates and changes in CBV. Injection of graded raclopride mass doses revealed a monotonic coupling between neurovascular...

  4. The dopamine beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat increases dopamine release and potentiates psychostimulant-induced dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Paola; Flore, Giovanna; Saba, Pierluigi; Bini, Valentina; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-07-01

    The dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat has been shown to reproduce disulfiram ability to suppress the reinstatement of cocaine seeking after extinction in rats. To clarify its mechanism of action, we examined the effect of nepicastat, given alone or in association with cocaine or amphetamine, on catecholamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, two key regions involved in the reinforcing and motivational effects of cocaine and in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Nepicastat effect on catecholamines was evaluated by microdialysis in freely moving rats. Nepicastat reduced noradrenaline release both in the medial prefrontal cortex and in the nucleus accumbens, and increased dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, nepicastat markedly potentiated cocaine- and amphetamine-induced extracellular dopamine accumulation in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Extracellular dopamine accumulation produced by nepicastat alone or by its combination with cocaine or amphetamine was suppressed by the α2 -adrenoceptor agonist clonidine. It is suggested that nepicastat, by suppressing noradrenaline synthesis and release, eliminated the α2 -adrenoceptor mediated inhibitory mechanism that constrains dopamine release and cocaine- and amphetamine-induced dopamine release from noradrenaline or dopamine terminals in the medial prefrontal cortex. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Central actions of a novel and selective dopamine antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine traditionally have been divided into two subgroups: the D 1 class, which is linked to the stimulation of adenylate cyclase-activity, and the D 2 class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D 2 class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D 2 dopamine receptor that mediates the physiological and behavioral actions of dopamine in the intact animal. However, the benzazepine SCH23390 is a dopamine antagonist which has potent behavioral actions while displaying apparent neurochemical selectivity for the D 1 class of dopamine receptors. The purpose of this dissertation was to (1) confirm and characterize this selectivity, and (2) test certain hypothesis related to possible modes of action of SCH233390. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase by SCH23390 occurred via an action at the dopamine receptor only. A radiolabeled analog of SCH23390 displayed the receptor binding properties of a specific high-affinity ligand, and regional receptor densities were highly correlated with dopamine levels. The subcellular distribution of [ 3 H]-SCH23390 binding did not correspond completely with that of dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. The neurochemical potency of SCH23390 as a D 1 receptor antagonist was preserved following parental administration. A variety of dopamine agonists and antagonists displayed a high correlation between their abilities to compete for [ 3 H]-SCH23390 binding in vitro and to act at an adenylate cyclase-linked receptor. Finally, the relative affinities of dopamine and SCH23390 for both D 1 receptors and [ 3 H]-SCH23390 binding sites were comparable. It is concluded that the behavioral effects of SCH23390 are mediated by actions at D 1 dopamine receptors only, and that the physiological importance of this class of receptors should be reevaluated

  6. Interaction of structural analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride with striatal dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of these studies were to determine if the nitrogen atom of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists drugs is required for interaction with the D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors and whether the positively charged or uncharged molecular species interacts with these receptors. To address these issues, permanently charged analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride were synthesized in which a dimethylsulfonium, dimethylselenonium or quaternary ammonium group replaced the amine group. Permanently uncharged analogs which contained a methylsulfide, methylselenide and sulfoxide group instead of an amine group were also synthesized. The interactions of these compounds with striatal dopamine receptors were studied. We found that the permanently charged dopamine analogs bound to the D-2 receptor of striatal membranes like conventional dopaminergic agonists and displayed agonist activity at the D-2 receptor regulating potassium-evoked [ 3 H] acetylcholine release. In contrast, the permanently uncharged analogs bound only to the high affinity state of the D-2 receptor and had neither agonist or antagonist activity

  7. Effects of alkylating agents on dopamine D(3) receptors in rat brain: selective protection by dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Weiss, N T; Tarazi, F I; Kula, N S; Baldessarini, R J

    1999-11-13

    Dopamine D(3) receptors are structurally highly homologous to other D(2)-like dopamine receptors, but differ from them pharmacologically. D(3) receptors are notably resistant to alkylation by 1-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), which readily alkylates D(2) receptors. We compared EEDQ with N-(p-isothiocyanatophenethyl)spiperone (NIPS), a selective D(2)-like receptor alkylating agent, for effects on D(3) and D(2) receptors in rat brain using autoradiographic analysis. Neither agent occluded D(3) receptors in vivo at doses that produced substantial blockade of D(2) receptors, even after catecholamine-depleting pretreatments. In vitro, however, D(3) receptors were readily alkylated by both NIPS (IC(50)=40 nM) and EEDQ (IC(50)=12 microM). These effects on D(3) sites were blocked by nM concentrations of dopamine, whereas microM concentrations were required to protect D(2) receptors from the alkylating agents. The findings are consistent with the view that alkylation of D(3) receptors in vivo is prevented by its high affinity for even minor concentrations of endogenous dopamine.

  8. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor

  9. The binding sites for benztropines and dopamine in the dopamine transporter overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Bisgaard; Larsen, M Andreas B; Mazier, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Analogs of benztropines (BZTs) are potent inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT) but are less effective than cocaine as behavioral stimulants. As a result, there have been efforts to evaluate these compounds as leads for potential medication for cocaine addiction. Here we use computational...

  10. Syntaxin 1A interaction with the dopamine transporter promotes amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binda, Francesca; Dipace, Concetta; Bowton, Erica

    2008-01-01

    of the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) as the site of direct interaction with SYN1A. Amphetamine (AMPH) increases the association of SYN1A with human DAT (hDAT) in a heterologous expression system (hDAT cells) and with native DAT in murine striatal synaptosomes. Immunoprecipitation of DAT from the biotinylated...

  11. De novo mutation in the dopamine transporter gene associates dopamine dysfunction with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, P J; Campbell, N G; Sharma, S

    2013-01-01

    De novo genetic variation is an important class of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, whole-exome sequencing of ASD families has identified a novel de novo missense mutation in the human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) gene, which results in a Thr to Met substitution...

  12. SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, C.; De Bruin, K.; Beekman, F.J.; Booij, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [123I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [123I]IBZM

  13. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain dopamine is critically involved in movement control, and its deficiency is the primary cause of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. Here we report development of an animal model of acute severe dopamine deficiency by using mice lacking the dopamine transporter. In the absence of transporter-mediated recycling mechanisms, dopamine levels become entirely dependent on de novo synthesis. Acute pharmacological inhibition of dopamine synthesis in these mice induces transient elimination of striatal dopamine accompanied by the development of a striking behavioral phenotype manifested as severe akinesia, rigidity, tremor, and ptosis. This phenotype can be reversed by administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, or by nonselective dopamine agonists. Surprisingly, several amphetamine derivatives were also effective in reversing these behavioral abnormalities in a dopamine-independent manner. Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs.

  14. Retinal dopamine mediates multiple dimensions of light-adapted vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chad R; Ruan, Guo-Xiang; Aseem, Fazila; Abey, Jane; Gamble, Karen; Stanwood, Greg; Palmiter, Richard D; Iuvone, P Michael; McMahon, Douglas G

    2012-07-04

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulator in the retina and brain that supports motor, cognitive, and visual function. Here, we developed a mouse model on a C57 background in which expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase, is specifically disrupted in the retina. This model enabled assessment of the overall role of retinal dopamine in vision using electrophysiological (electroretinogram), psychophysical (optokinetic tracking), and pharmacological techniques. Significant disruptions were observed in high-resolution, light-adapted vision caused by specific deficits in light responses, contrast sensitivity, acuity, and circadian rhythms in this retinal dopamine-depleted mouse model. These global effects of retinal dopamine on vision are driven by the differential actions of dopamine D1 and D4 receptors on specific retinal functions and appear to be due to the ongoing bioavailability of dopamine rather than developmental effects. Together, our data indicate that dopamine is necessary for the circadian nature of light-adapted vision as well as optimal contrast detection and acuity.

  15. Free and conjugated dopamine in human ventricular fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpless, N.S.; Thal, L.J.; Wolfson, L.I.; Tabaddor, K.; Tyce, G.M.; Waltz, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Free dopamine and an acid hydrolyzable conjugate of dopamine were measured in human ventricular fluid specimens with a radioenzymatic assay and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Only trace amounts of free norepinephrine and dopamine were detected in ventricular fluid from patients with movement disorders. When the ventricular fluid was hydrolyzed by heating in HClO 4 or by lyophilization in dilute HClO 4 , however, a substantial amount of free dopamine was released. Values for free plus conjugated dopamine in ventricular fluid from patients who had never taken L-DOPA ranged from 139 to 340 pg/ml when determined by HPLC and from 223 to 428 pg/ml when measured radioenzymatically. The correlation coefficient for values obtained by the two methods in the same sample of CSF was 0.94 (P<0.001). Patients who had been treated with L-DOPA had higher levels of conjugated dopamine in their ventricular CSF which correlated inversely with the time between the last dose of L-DOPA and withdrawal of the ventricular fluid. Additionally, one patient with acute cerebral trauma had elevated levels of free norepinephrine and both free and conjugated dopamine in his ventricular fluid. Conjugation may be an important inactivation pathway for released dopamine in man. (Auth.)

  16. Dopamine D2 receptors in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw van Weenen, Judith Elisabeth de

    2011-01-01

    Extensive literature links the dopamine receptor D2 to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2. However, many aspects of the functional relationship remain unclear. In this thesis we focused on unraveling the characteristics of the interplay between dopamine D2 receptors and glucose

  17. Novos agonistas dopaminérgicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTOS JAMES PITÁGORAS DE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos breve revisão da literatura sobre os agonistas dopaminérgicos. Referimos os cinco receptores conhecidos e onde estão localizados, as vantagens e as desvantagens de sua utilização nos pacientes com a doença de Parkinson.Introduzidos com o objetivo principal de controlar as limitações da levodopa, aumentando a janela terapêutica, analisamos a farmacocinética, a eficácia e os efeitos colaterais da cabergolina, do ropinirole e do pramipexole.

  18. Graphene Oxide Modified Electrodes for Dopamine Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters that plays an important role in the central nervous, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Since its discovery, tremendous effort has been made and various techniques have been developed for the DA detection. Recently, graphene-based materials have attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to their high sensitivity and rapid response towards effective detection of DA. This review focuses on current advances of graphene-based materials for DA detection based on recent articles published in the last five years.

  19. Illicit dopamine transients: reconciling actions of abused drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Roitman, Mitchell F; Garris, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. Although compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyperactivating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyperactivation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural rewards and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  1. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  2. A causal link between prediction errors, dopamine neurons and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Keiflin, Ronald; Boivin, Josiah R; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H

    2013-07-01

    Situations in which rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes, termed a reward prediction error. However, it is unknown whether dopamine neuron prediction error signaling and cue-reward learning are causally linked. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated dopamine neuron activity in rats in two behavioral procedures, associative blocking and extinction, that illustrate the essential function of prediction errors in learning. We observed that optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons concurrent with reward delivery, mimicking a prediction error, was sufficient to cause long-lasting increases in cue-elicited reward-seeking behavior. Our findings establish a causal role for temporally precise dopamine neuron signaling in cue-reward learning, bridging a critical gap between experimental evidence and influential theoretical frameworks.

  3. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C; McCool, Brian A; Jones, Sara R

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase in ethanol intake and anxiety

  4. Immobilization of epidermal growth factor on titanium and stainless steel surfaces via dopamine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeonghwa [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Tokyo, 192-0397 Japan (Japan); Sakuragi, Makoto; Shibata, Aya; Abe, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Takashi; Tada, Seiichi [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Mizutani, Masayoshi; Ohmori, Hitoshi [Material Fabrication Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Ayame, Hirohito [Diagnostic Biochip Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Intellectual Property Strategies, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Son, Tae Il [Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chung-Ang University, 40-1 San, Nae-Ri, Daeduck-myun, Ansung-si, Kyungki-do, 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Aigaki, Toshiro [Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Tokyo, 192-0397 Japan (Japan); Ito, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-ito@riken.jp [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Tokyo, 192-0397 Japan (Japan); Diagnostic Biochip Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Intellectual Property Strategies, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Titanium and stainless steel were modified with dopamine for the immobilization of biomolecules, epidermal growth factor (EGF). First, the treatment of metal surfaces with a dopamine solution under different pH conditions was investigated. At higher pH, the dopamine solution turned brown and formed precipitates. Treatment of the metals with dopamine at pH 8.5 also resulted in the development of brown color at the surface of the metals. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces increased after treatment with dopamine, independently of pH. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the formation of a significant amount of an organic layer on both surfaces at pH 8.5. According to ellipsometry measurements, the organic layer formed at pH 8.5 was about 1000 times as thick as that formed at pH 4.5. The amount of amino groups in the layer formed at pH 8.5 was also higher than that observed in the layer formed at pH 4.5. EGF molecules were immobilized onto the dopamine-treated surfaces via a coupling reaction using carbodiimide. A greater amount of EGF was immobilized on surfaces treated at pH 8.5 compared with pH 4.5. Significantly higher growth of rat fibroblast cells was observed on the two EGF-immobilized surfaces compared with non-immobilized surfaces in the presence of EGF. The present study demonstrated that metals can become bioactive via the surface immobilization of a growth factor and that the effect of the immobilized growth factor on metals was greater than that of soluble growth factor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epidermal growth factor was covalently immobilized on titan or stainless steel surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino groups were formed on the surfaces by the treatment and the growth factor was immobilized through amide bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The immobilized epidermal growth factor accelerated cell proliferation more than soluble ones on the surfaces.

  5. A photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-02-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [3H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol. The degree of D2 dopamine receptor photoinduced inactivation by azidoclebopride was not significantly affected by scavengers such as p-aminobenzoic acid and dithiothreitol. Furthermore, irradiation of striatal membranes with a concentration of azidoclebopride sufficient to inactivate dopamine D2 receptors by 60% did not significantly reduce dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), benzodiazepine, alpha 1- or beta-noradrenergic receptors. This study describes the use of a novel and selective photoaffinity ligand for brain dopamine D2 receptors. The molecule, in radiolabeled form, may aid in the

  6. Temporal Profiles Dissociate Regional Extracellular Ethanol versus Dopamine Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of dopamine via microdialysis has demonstrated that acute, systemic ethanol increases extracellular dopamine in regions innervated by dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Simultaneous measurement of dialysate dopamine and ethanol allows comparison of the time courses of their extracellular concentrations. Early studies demonstrated dissociations between the time courses of brain ethanol concentrations and dopaminergic responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) elicited by acute ethanol administration. Both brain ethanol and extracellular dopamine levels peak during the first 5 min following systemic ethanol administration, but the dopamine response returns to baseline while brain ethanol concentrations remain elevated. Post hoc analyses examined ratios of the dopamine response (represented as a percent above baseline) to tissue concentrations of ethanol at different time points within the first 25–30 min in the prefrontal cortex, NAc core and shell, and dorsomedial striatum following a single intravenous infusion of ethanol (1 g/kg). The temporal patterns of these “response ratios” differed across brain regions, possibly due to regional differences in the mechanisms underlying the decline of the dopamine signal associated with acute intravenous ethanol administration and/or to the differential effects of acute ethanol on the properties of subpopulations of midbrain dopamine neurons. This Review draws on neurochemical, physiological, and molecular studies to summarize the effects of acute ethanol administration on dopamine activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatal regions, to explore the potential reasons for the regional differences observed in the decline of ethanol-induced dopamine signals, and to suggest directions for future research. PMID:25537116

  7. Dopamine receptors in the Parkinsonian brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, U K; Loennberg, P; Koskinen, V [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Neurology

    1981-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptors were studied in 44 patients with Parkinson disease by the radioligand-binding technique using /sup 3/H-spiroperidol. The specific binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol was either significantly increased or reduced in the caudate nucleus and putamen of parkinsonian patients without levodopa therapy. Scatchard analysis showed that there were corresponding changes in the receptor number, but no significant changes in the mean dissociation constant. The increased binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol in the basal ganglia was also found in parkinsonian patients suffering from psychotic episodes and treated with neuroleptic drugs. Normal and low binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol was found in patients treated with levodopa. Clinically, the patient with low binding were more disabled and had lost the beneficial response to levodopa. Thus in Parkinson disease in some patients a denervation supersensitivity seemed to develop and in some others a loss of postsynaptic dopamine receptor sites in the neostriatium. The latter alteration may contribute to the decreased response of parkinsonian patients to chronic levodopa therapy.

  8. Dopamine receptors in the Parkinsonian brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, U.K.; Loennberg, P.; Koskinen, V.

    1981-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptors were studied in 44 patients with Parkinson disease by the radioligand-binding technique using 3 H-spiroperidol. The specific binding of 3 H-spiroperidol was either significantly increased or reduced in the caudate nucleus and putamen of parkinsonian patients without levodopa therapy. Scatchard analysis showed that there were corresponding changes in the receptor number, but no significant changes in the mean dissociation constant. The increased binding of 3 H-spiroperidol in the basal ganglia was also found in parkinsonian patients suffering from psychotic episodes and treated with neuroleptic drugs. Normal and low binding of 3 H-spiroperidol was found in patients treated with levodopa. Clinically, the patient with low binding were more disabled and had lost the beneficial response to levodopa. Thus in Parkinson disease in some patients a denervation supersensitivity seemed to develop and in some others a loss of postsynaptic dopamine receptor sites in the neostriatium. The latter alteration may contribute to the decreased response of parkinsonian patients to chronic levodopa therapy. (author)

  9. [Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yohei; Murata, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease. Neurological diseases that exhibit parkinsonism and have normal dopaminergic cells in the nigrostriatal system (e.g., essential tremor, psychogenic parkinsonism, DOPA-responsive dystonia, vascular parkinsonism, drug-induced parkinsonism, manganism, brain tumor, myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11), and fragile X syndrome) might be diagnosed with SWEDDs. True bradykinesia with fatigue or decrement may be useful for distinguishing between Parkinson's disease and SWEDDs. However, because SWEDDs encompass many diseases, their properties may not be uniform. In this review, we discuss DaT SPECT, the concept of SWEDDs, and differential diagnosis.

  10. Striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors: widespread influences on methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Noah B; Duncker, Patrick C; Marshall, John F

    2011-11-01

    Methamphetamine (mAMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug that releases monoamines through nonexocytotic mechanisms. In animals, binge mAMPH dosing regimens deplete markers for monoamine nerve terminals, for example, dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT), in striatum and cerebral cortex. Although the precise mechanism of mAMPH-induced damage to monoaminergic nerve terminals is uncertain, both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are known to be important. Systemic administration of dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists to rodents prevents mAMPH-induced damage to striatal dopamine nerve terminals. Because these studies employed systemic antagonist administration, the specific brain regions involved remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the contribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in striatum to mAMPH-induced DAT and SERT neurotoxicities. In this experiment, either the dopamine D1 antagonist, SCH23390, or the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, was intrastriatally infused during a binge mAMPH regimen. Striatal DAT and cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar SERT were assessed as markers of mAMPH-induced neurotoxicity 1 week following binge mAMPH administration. Blockade of striatal dopamine D1 or D2 receptors during an otherwise neurotoxic binge mAMPH regimen produced widespread protection against mAMPH-induced striatal DAT loss and cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar SERT loss. This study demonstrates that (1) dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in striatum, like nigral D1 receptors, are needed for mAMPH-induced striatal DAT reductions, (2) these same receptors are needed for mAMPH-induced SERT loss, and (3) these widespread influences of striatal dopamine receptor antagonists are likely attributable to circuits connecting basal ganglia to thalamus and cortex. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. α2A- and α2C-Adrenoceptors as Potential Targets for Dopamine and Dopamine Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Yano, Hideaki; Bender, Brian Joseph; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Moreno, Estefanía; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antoni; Meiler, Jens; Casadó, Vicent; Ferré, Sergi

    2018-03-18

    The poor norepinephrine innervation and high density of Gi/o-coupled α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors in the striatum and the dense striatal dopamine innervation have prompted the possibility that dopamine could be an effective adrenoceptor ligand. Nevertheless, the reported adrenoceptor agonistic properties of dopamine are still inconclusive. In this study, we analyzed the binding of norepinephrine, dopamine, and several compounds reported as selective dopamine D 2 -like receptor ligands, such as the D 3 receptor agonist 7-OH-PIPAT and the D 4 receptor agonist RO-105824, to α 2 -adrenoceptors in cortical and striatal tissue, which express α 2A -adrenoceptors and both α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors, respectively. The affinity of dopamine for α 2 -adrenoceptors was found to be similar to that for D 1 -like and D 2 -like receptors. Moreover, the exogenous dopamine receptor ligands also showed high affinity for α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors. Their ability to activate Gi/o proteins through α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors was also analyzed in transfected cells with bioluminescent resonance energy transfer techniques. The relative ligand potencies and efficacies were dependent on the Gi/o protein subtype. Furthermore, dopamine binding to α 2 -adrenoceptors was functional, inducing changes in dynamic mass redistribution, adenylyl cyclase activity, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Binding events were further studied with computer modeling of ligand docking. Docking of dopamine at α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors was nearly identical to its binding to the crystallized D 3 receptor. Therefore, we provide conclusive evidence that α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors are functional receptors for norepinephrine, dopamine, and other previously assumed selective D 2 -like receptor ligands, which calls for revisiting previous studies with those ligands.

  12. Metabolism of Dopamine in Nucleus Accumbens Astrocytes Is Preserved in Aged Mice Exposed to MPTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Winner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is prevalent in elderly individuals and is characterized by selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA neurons. Interestingly, not all dopamine (DA neurons are affected equally by PD and aging, particularly mesolimbic (ML DA neurons. Here, effects of aging were examined on presynaptic DA synthesis, reuptake, metabolism and neurotoxicant susceptibility of NSDA and mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA neurons and astrocyte DA metabolism. There were no differences in phenotypic markers of DA synthesis, reuptake or metabolism in NSDA or MLDA neurons in aged mice, but MLDA neurons displayed lower DA stores. Astrocyte metabolism of DA to 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT in the striatum was decreased in aged mice, but was maintained in the nucleus accumbens. Despite diminished DA vesicular storage capacity in MLDA neurons, susceptibility to acute neurotoxicant exposure was similar in young and aged mice. These results reveal an age- and neurotoxicant-induced impairment of DA metabolic activity in astrocytes surrounding susceptible NSDA neurons as opposed to maintenance of DA metabolism in astrocytes surrounding resistant MLDA neurons, and suggest a possible therapeutic target for PD.

  13. Progressive dopamine and hypocretin deficiencies in Parkinson's disease: is there an impact on sleep and wakefulness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienecke, Miriam; Werth, Esther; Poryazova, Rositsa; Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Bassetti, Claudio L; Weller, Michael; Waldvogel, Daniel; Storch, Alexander; Baumann, Christian R

    2012-12-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances are frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease, but prospective controlled electrophysiological studies of sleep in those patients are surprisingly sparse, and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances in Parkinson's disease remains largely elusive. In particular, the impact of impaired dopaminergic and hypocretin (orexin) signalling on sleep and wakefulness in Parkinson's disease is still unknown. We performed a prospective, controlled electrophysiological study in patients with early and advanced Parkinson's disease, e.g. in subjects with presumably different levels of dopamine and hypocretin cell loss. We compared sleep laboratory tests and cerebrospinal fluid levels with hypocretin-deficient patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, and with matched controls. Nocturnal sleep efficiency was most decreased in advanced Parkinson patients, and still lower in early Parkinson patients than in narcolepsy subjects. Excessive daytime sleepiness was most severe in narcolepsy patients. In Parkinson patients, objective sleepiness correlated with decrease of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels, and repeated hypocretin measurements in two Parkinson patients revealed a decrease of levels over years. This suggests that dopamine and hypocretin deficiency differentially affect sleep and wakefulness in Parkinson's disease. Poorer sleep quality is linked to dopamine deficiency and other disease-related factors. Despite hypocretin cell loss in Parkinson's disease being only partial, disturbed hypocretin signalling is likely to contribute to excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson patients. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease presenting as a severe infantile hypotonic parkinsonian disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jessie C; Wilson, Callum; Cunningham, Vicki; Glamuzina, Emma; Prosser, Debra O; Love, Donald R; Burgess, Trent; Taylor, Juliet; Swan, Brendan; Hill, Rosamund; Robertson, Stephen P; Snell, Russell G; Lehnert, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two male siblings from a consanguineous union presented in early infancy with marked truncal hypotonia, a general paucity of movement, extrapyramidal signs and cognitive delay. By mid-childhood they had made little developmental progress and remained severely hypotonic and bradykinetic. They developed epilepsy and had problems with autonomic dysfunction and oculogyric crises. They had a number of orthopaedic problems secondary to their hypotonia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitters were initially normal, apart from mildly elevated 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and the children did not respond favourably to a trial of levodopa-carbidopa. The youngest died from respiratory complications at 10 years of age. Repeat CSF neurotransmitters in the older sibling at eight years of age showed slightly low homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel mutation homozygous in both children in the monoamine transporter gene SLC18A2 (p.Pro237His), resulting in brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease. This is the second family to be described with a mutation in this gene. Treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexole in the surviving child resulted in mild improvements in alertness, communication, and eye movements. This case supports the identification of the causal mutation in the original case, expands the clinical phenotype of brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease and confirms that pramipexole treatment may lead to symptomatic improvement in affected individuals.

  15. Dopamine receptor activation reorganizes neuronal ensembles during hippocampal sharp waves in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeyuki Miyawaki

    Full Text Available Hippocampal sharp wave (SW/ripple complexes are thought to contribute to memory consolidation. Previous studies suggest that behavioral rewards facilitate SW occurrence in vivo. However, little is known about the precise mechanism underlying this enhancement. Here, we examined the effect of dopaminergic neuromodulation on spontaneously occurring SWs in acute hippocampal slices. Local field potentials were recorded from the CA1 region. A brief (1 min treatment with dopamine led to a persistent increase in the event frequency and the magnitude of SWs. This effect lasted at least for our recording period of 45 min and did not occur in the presence of a dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist. Functional multineuron calcium imaging revealed that dopamine-induced SW augmentation was associated with an enriched repertoire of the firing patterns in SW events, whereas the overall tendency of individual neurons to participate in SWs and the mean number of cells participating in a single SW were maintained. Therefore, dopaminergic activation is likely to reorganize cell assemblies during SWs.

  16. Molecular dynamics of conformation-specific dopamine transporter-inhibitor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Bernandie; Surratt, Christopher K; Madura, Jeffry D

    2017-09-01

    The recreational psychostimulant cocaine inhibits dopamine reuptake from the synapse, resulting in excessive stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in brain areas associated with reward and addiction. Cocaine binds to and stabilizes the outward- (extracellular-) facing conformation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, while the low abuse potential DAT inhibitor benztropine prefers the inward- (cytoplasmic-) facing conformation. A correlation has been previously postulated between psychostimulant abuse potential and preference for the outward-facing DAT conformation. The 3β-aryltropane cocaine analogs LX10 and LX11, however, differ only in stereochemistry and share a preference for the outward-facing DAT, yet are reported to vary widely in abuse potential in an animal model. In search of the molecular basis for DAT conformation preference, complexes of cocaine, benztropine, LX10 or LX11 bound to each DAT conformation were subjected to 100ns of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation. Results were consistent with previous findings from cysteine accessibility assays used to assess an inhibitor's DAT conformation preference. The respective 2β- and 2α-substituted phenyltropanes of LX10 and LX11 interacted with hydrophobic regions of the DAT S1 binding site that were inaccessible to cocaine. Solvent accessibility measurements also revealed subtle differences in inhibitor positioning within a given DAT conformation. This work serves to advance our understanding of the conformational selectivity of DAT inhibitors and suggests that MD may be useful in antipsychostimulant therapeutic design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New copper(II) complexes with dopamine hydrochloride and vanillymandelic acid: Spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; El-Nahas, R. G.

    2011-10-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. The Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of dopamine hydrochloride (DO.HCl) and vanillymandelic acid (VMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical techniques namely IR, magnetic and UV-vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Cu(II) forms 1:1 (Cu:DO) and 1:2 (Cu:VMA) chelates. DO behave as a uninegative tridentate ligand in binding to the Cu(II) ion while VMA behaves as a uninegative bidentate ligand. IR spectra show that the DO is coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in a tridentate manner with ONO donor sites of the phenolic- OH, -NH and carbonyl- O, while VMA is coordinated with OO donor sites of the phenolic- OH and -NH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Cu(II) chelates in octahedral and square planar geometries with DO and VMA, respectively. The thermal decomposition of Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  18. Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for drug addiction treatment: update on recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard; Collo, Ginetta; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Boileau, Isabelle; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Sokoloff, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor is located in the limbic area and apparently mediates selective effects on motivation to take drugs and drug-seeking behaviors, so that there has been considerable interest on the possible use of D3 receptor ligands to treat drug addiction. However, only recently selective tools allowing studying this receptor have been developed. This chapter presents an overview of findings that were presented at a symposium on the conference Dopamine 2013 in Sardinia in May 2013. Novel neurobiological findings indicate that drugs of abuse can lead to significant structural plasticity in rodent brain and that this is dependent on the availability of functional dopamine D3 autoreceptor, whose activation increased phosphorylation in the ERK pathway and in the Akt/mTORC1 pathway indicating the parallel engagement of a series of intracellular signaling pathways all involved in cell growth and survival. Preclinical findings using animal models of drug-seeking behaviors confirm that D3 antagonists have a promising profile to treat drug addiction across drugs of abuse type. Imaging the D3 is now feasible in human subjects. Notably, the development of (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine ligand used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans allows to measure D3 and D2 receptors based on the area of the brain under study. This PET ligand has been used to confirm up-regulation of D3 sites in psychostimulant users and to reveal that tobacco smoking produces elevation of dopamine at the level of D3 sites. There are now novel antagonists being developed, but also old drugs such as buspirone, that are available to test the D3 hypothesis in humans. The first results of clinical investigations are now being provided. Overall, those recent findings support further exploration of D3 ligands to treat drug addiction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential regulation of dopamine receptors after chronic typical and atypical antipsychotic drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creese, I.; Florijn, W.J.; Tarazi, F.I.

    1997-01-01

    Changes in dopamine receptor subtype binding in different brain regions were examined after 28 days treatment of rats with haloperidol, raclopride, clozapine or SCH23390 using in vitro receptor autoradiography. [ 3 H]7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin binding to dopamine D 3 receptors was not changed in any brain region by any of the drug treatments. [ 3 H]SCH23390 was only increased by chronic SCH23390 treatment. Haloperidol significantly increased [ 3 H]nemonapride and [ 3 H]spiperone binding to dopamine D 2 -like receptors in the caudate-putamen. In contrast, haloperidol caused a small, significant increase in [ 3 H]raclopride binding in the lateral caudate-putamen only. Raclopride also elevated, but to a lesser extent [ 3 H]nemonapride and [ 3 H]spiperone binding in caudate-putamen, whereas it did not affect [ 3 H]raclopride binding. Clozapine did not significantly change D 2 -like striatal binding of [ 3 H]nemonapride, [ 3 H]spiperone or [ 3 H]raclopride. The differences in radioligand binding suggest that [ 3 H]nemonapride and [ 3 H]spiperone may be binding to additional subsets of dopamine D 2 -like receptors (including D 4 -like receptors) that are not recognized by [ 3 H]raclopride, which has high affinity for D 2 and D 3 receptors only.Quantification of [ 3 H]nemonapride or [ 3 H]spiperone binding in the presence of 300 nM raclopride (to block D 2 and D 3 receptors) revealed that haloperidol, raclopride and clozapine up-regulated D 4 -like receptors in the caudate-putamen using either radioligand. These results suggest that D 4 -like receptors may be a common site of action of both typical and atypical antipsychotics. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. The role of dopamine receptors in the neurotoxicity of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares-Santos, S; Granado, N; Moratalla, R

    2013-05-01

    Methamphetamine is a synthetic drug consumed by millions of users despite its neurotoxic effects in the brain, leading to loss of dopaminergic fibres and cell bodies. Moreover, clinical reports suggest that methamphetamine abusers are predisposed to Parkinson's disease. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms involved in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Dopamine receptors may be a plausible target to prevent this neurotoxicity. Genetic inactivation of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors protects against the loss of dopaminergic fibres in the striatum and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Protection by D1 receptor inactivation is due to blockade of hypothermia, reduced dopamine content and turnover and increased stored vesicular dopamine in D1R(-/-) mice. However, the neuroprotective impact of D2 receptor inactivation is partially dependent on an effect on body temperature, as well as on the blockade of dopamine reuptake by decreased dopamine transporter activity, which results in reduced intracytosolic dopamine levels in D2R(-/-) mice. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Prandovszky

    Full Text Available The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates its host's behavior. In infected rodents, the behavioral changes increase the likelihood that the parasite will be transmitted back to its definitive cat host, an essential step in completion of the parasite's life cycle. The mechanism(s responsible for behavioral changes in the host is unknown but two lines of published evidence suggest that the parasite alters neurotransmitter signal transduction: the disruption of the parasite-induced behavioral changes with medications used to treat psychiatric disease (specifically dopamine antagonists and identification of a tyrosine hydroxylase encoded in the parasite genome. In this study, infection of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of dopamine several-fold, with a direct correlation between the number of infected cells and the quantity of dopamine released. Immunostaining brain sections of infected mice with dopamine antibody showed intense staining of encysted parasites. Based on these analyses, T. gondii orchestrates a significant increase in dopamine metabolism in neural cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was also found in intracellular tissue cysts in brain tissue with antibodies specific for the parasite-encoded tyrosine hydroxylase. These observations provide a mechanism for parasite-induced behavioral changes. The observed effects on dopamine metabolism could also be relevant in interpreting reports of psychobehavioral changes in toxoplasmosis-infected humans.

  2. Dopamine induces soluble α-synuclein oligomers and nigrostriatal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Danielle E; Tsika, Elpida; Mazzulli, Joseph R; Gould, Neal S; Kim, Hanna; Daniels, Malcolm J; Doshi, Shachee; Gupta, Preetika; Grossman, Jennifer L; Tan, Victor X; Kalb, Robert G; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A; Wolfe, John H; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of Lewy body inclusions containing aggregated α-synuclein. Efforts to explain dopamine neuron vulnerability are hindered by the lack of dopaminergic cell death in α-synuclein transgenic mice. To address this, we manipulated both dopamine levels and α-synuclein expression. Nigrally targeted expression of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase with enhanced catalytic activity increased dopamine levels without damaging neurons in non-transgenic mice. In contrast, raising dopamine levels in mice expressing human A53T mutant α-synuclein induced progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and reduced locomotion. Dopamine elevation in A53T mice increased levels of potentially toxic α-synuclein oligomers, resulting in conformationally and functionally modified species. Moreover, in genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans models, expression of α-synuclein mutated at the site of interaction with dopamine prevented dopamine-induced toxicity. These data suggest that a unique mechanism links two cardinal features of PD: dopaminergic cell death and α-synuclein aggregation.

  3. Noncovalent Interactions between Dopamine and Regular and Defective Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana C Rossi; Castellani, Norberto J

    2017-08-05

    The role of noncovalent interactions in the adsorption of biological molecules on graphene is a subject of fundamental interest regarding the use of graphene as a material for sensing and drug delivery. The adsorption of dopamine on regular graphene and graphene with monovacancies (GV) is theoretically studied within the framework of density functional theory. Several adsorption modes are considered, and notably those in which the dopamine molecule is oriented parallel or quasi-parallel to the surface are the more stable. The adsorption of dopamine on graphene implies an attractive interaction of a dispersive nature that competes with Pauli repulsion between the occupied π orbitals of the dopamine ring and the π orbitals of graphene. If dopamine adsorbs at the monovacancy in the A-B stacking mode, a hydrogen bond is produced between one of the dopamine hydroxy groups and one carbon atom around the vacancy. The electronic charge redistribution due to adsorption is consistent with an electronic drift from the graphene or GV surface to the dopamine molecule. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dopamine-imprinted monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşır, Süleyman; Sarı, Duygu; Derazshamshir, Ali; Yılmaz, Fatma; Şarkaya, Koray; Denizli, Adil

    2017-11-01

    A dopamine-imprinted monolithic column was prepared and used in capillary electrochromatography as stationary phase for the first time. Dopamine was selectively separated from aqueous solution containing the competitor molecule norepinephrine, which is similar in size and shape to the template molecule. Morphology of the dopamine-imprinted column was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the organic solvent content of mobile phase, applied pressure and pH of the mobile phase on the recognition of dopamine by the imprinted monolithic column has been evaluated, and the imprinting effect in the dopamine-imprinted monolithic polymer was verified. Developed dopamine-imprinted monolithic column resulted in excellent separation of dopamine from structurally related competitor molecule, norepinephrine. Separation was achieved in a short period of 10 min, with the electrophoretic mobility of 5.81 × 10 -5  m 2 V -1 s -1 at pH 5.0 and 500 mbar pressure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  6. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine agonists are effective treatments for a variety of indications, including Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, but may have serious side effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations, and impulse control disorders (including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping/buying, and hypersexuality). The most effective way to alleviate these side effects is to taper or discontinue dopamine agonist therapy. A subset of patients who taper a dopamine agonist, however, develop dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS), which has been defined as a severe, stereotyped cluster of physical and psychological symptoms that correlate with dopamine agonist withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner, cause clinically significant distress or social/occupational dysfunction, are refractory to levodopa and other dopaminergic medications, and cannot be accounted for by other clinical factors. The symptoms of DAWS include anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. The severity and prognosis of DAWS is highly variable. While some patients have transient symptoms and make a full recovery, others have a protracted withdrawal syndrome lasting for months to years, and therefore may be unwilling or unable to discontinue DA therapy. Impulse control disorders appear to be a major risk factor for DAWS, and are present in virtually all affected patients. Thus, patients who are unable to discontinue dopamine agonist therapy may experience chronic impulse control disorders. At the current time, there are no known effective treatments for DAWS. For this reason, providers are urged to use dopamine agonists judiciously, warn patients about the risks of DAWS prior to the initiation of dopamine agonist therapy, and follow patients closely for withdrawal symptoms during dopamine agonist taper.

  7. Dopamine does double duty in motivating cognitive effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is subjectively costly, suggesting that engagement is modulated in relationship to incentive state. Dopamine appears to play key roles. In particular, dopamine may mediate cognitive effort by two broad classes of functions: 1) modulating the functional parameters of working memory circuits subserving effortful cognition, and 2) mediating value-learning and decision-making about effortful cognitive action. Here we tie together these two lines of research, proposing how dopamine serves “double duty”, translating incentive information into cognitive motivation. PMID:26889810

  8. Elevated Striatal Dopamine Function in Immigrants and Their Children: A Risk Mechanism for Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, A.; Howes, O. D.; Houle, S.; McKenzie, K.; Valmaggia, L. R.; Bagby, M. R.; Tseng, H-H; Bloomfield, M. A. P.; Kenk, M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Suridjan, I.; Chaddock, C. A.; Winton-Brown, T. T.; Allen, P.; Rusjan, P.

    2017-01-01

    Migration is a major risk factor for schizophrenia but the neurochemical processes involved are unknown. One candidate mechanism is through elevations in striatal dopamine synthesis and release. The objective of this research was to determine whether striatal dopamine function is elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants and the relationship with psychosis. Two complementary case–control studies of in vivo dopamine function (stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capaci...

  9. Dopamine synthesis and dopamine receptor expression are disturbed in recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Michael J; Stavrou, Stavroula; Kuhn, Christina; Hofmann, Simone; Hermelink, Kerstin; Heidegger, Helene; Hutter, Stefan; Mayr, Doris; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; Vattai, Aurelia

    2018-05-01

    l-dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is responsible for the synthesis of dopamine. Dopamine, which binds to the D 2 -dopamine receptor (D2R), plays an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Aim of our study was the analysis of DDC and D2R expression in placentas of spontaneous miscarriages (SMs) and recurrent miscarriages (RMs) in comparison to healthy controls. Patients with SM (n = 15) and RM (n = 15) were compared with patients from healthy pregnancies (n = 15) (pregnancy weeks 7-13 each). Placental tissue has been collected from SMs and RMs from the first trimester (Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, LMU Munich) and from abruptions (private practice, Munich). Placental cell lines, BeWo- and JEG-3 cells, were stimulated with the trace amines T 0 AM and T 1 AM in vitro . Levels of DDC and D2R in trophoblasts and the decidua were lower in RMs in comparison to healthy controls. Stimulation of BeWo cells with T 1 AM significantly reduced DDC mRNA and protein levels. Via double-immunofluorescence, a DDC-positive cell type beneath decidual stromal cells and foetal EVT in the decidua could be detected. Downregulation of DDC and D2R in trophoblasts of RMs reflects a reduced signal cascade of catecholamines on the foetal side. © 2018 The authors.

  10. Dopamine and Caffeine Encapsulation within Boron Nitride (14,0) Nanotubes: Classical Molecular Dynamics and First Principles Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Toral, Dolores; González-Melchor, Minerva; Rivas-Silva, Juan F; Meneses-Juárez, Efraín; Cano-Ordaz, José; H Cocoletzi, Gregorio

    2018-06-07

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are developed to investigate the dopamine and caffeine encapsulation within boron nitride (BN) nanotubes (NT) with (14,0) chirality. Classical MD studies are done at canonical and isobaric-isothermal conditions at 298 K and 1 bar in explicit water. Results reveal that both molecules are attracted by the nanotube; however, only dopamine is able to enter the nanotube, whereas caffeine moves in its vicinity, suggesting that both species can be transported: the first by encapsulation and the second by drag. Findings are analyzed using the dielectric behavior, pair correlation functions, diffusion of the species, and energy contributions. The DFT calculations are performed according to the BLYP approach and applying the atomic base of the divided valence 6-31g(d) orbitals. The geometry optimization uses the minimum-energy criterion, accounting for the total charge neutrality and multiplicity of 1. Adsorption energies in the dopamine encapsulation indicate physisorption, which induces the highly occupied molecular orbital-lower unoccupied molecular orbital gap reduction yielding a semiconductor behavior. The charge redistribution polarizes the BNNT/dopamine and BNNT/caffeine structures. The work function decrease and the chemical potential values suggest the proper transport properties in these systems, which may allow their use in nanobiomedicine.

  11. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  12. Role of Dopamine Signaling in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; Nong, Zhihuan; Li, Yaoxuan; Huang, Jianping; Chen, Chunxia; Huang, Luying

    2017-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease of the brain that includes drug-induced compulsive seeking behavior and consumption of drugs. Dopamine (DA) is considered to be critical in drug addiction due to reward mechanisms in the midbrain. In this article, we review the major animal models in addictive drug experiments in vivo and in vitro. We discuss the relevance of the structure and pharmacological function of DA receptors. To improve the understanding of the role of DA receptors in reward pathways, specific brain regions, including the Ventral tegmental area, Nucleus accumbens, Prefrontal cortex, and Habenula, are highlighted. These factors contribute to the development of novel therapeutic targets that act at DA receptors. In addiction, the development of neuroimaging method will increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying drug addiction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Hyun eBaik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DAmesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural rewards such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  14. Prefrontal cortex, dopamine, and jealousy endophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Poletti, Michele; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Baroni, Stefano; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-02-01

    Jealousy is a complex emotion characterized by the perception of a threat of loss of something that the person values,particularly in reference to a relationship with a loved one, which includes affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Neural systems and cognitive processes underlying jealousy are relatively unclear, and only a few neuroimaging studies have investigated them. The current article discusses recent empirical findings on delusional jealousy, which is the most severe form of this feeling, in neurodegenerative diseases. After reviewing empirical findings on neurological and psychiatric disorders with delusional jealousy, and after considering its high prevalence in patients with Parkinson's disease under dopamine agonist treatment, we propose a core neural network and core cognitive processes at the basis of (delusional) jealousy, characterizing this symptom as possible endophenotype. In any case,empirical investigation of the neural bases of jealousy is just beginning, and further studies are strongly needed to elucidate the biological roots of this complex emotion.

  15. A top-down perspective on dopamine, motivation and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony G; Vacca, Giada; Ahn, Soyon

    2008-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) activity, in the form of increased neural firing or enhanced release of transmitter from nerve terminals and varicosities, is linked to a number of important psychological processes including: movement; hedonic reactions to positive reward; provision of an error detection signal during the acquisition of new learning; response to novel stimuli; provision of reinforcement signals essential for acquisition of new action patterns; and incentive motivation. This review focuses primarily on our research linking dynamic changes in DA efflux on the timescale of minutes, with incentive motivation, as revealed by brain dialysis experiments in behaving animals. Recent experiments on sensory-specific satiety and successive positive and negative contrast are discussed along with the distinction between preparatory behaviors that precede contact with biologically significant stimuli and subsequent consummatory behaviors. The relationship between DA efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and foraging for food based on working memory is also discussed in support of the conjecture that DA may serve as a link between motivation and memory functions. Evidence in support of 'top-down' regulation of dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic DA pathways is reviewed briefly to introduce a mechanism by which activation of ascending DA projections in this manner might optimize dopaminergic modulation of executive function within regions such as the mPFC. Collectively, these processes could ensure coordination between cognitive processes that assess current opportunities and the motivational systems that select and engage patterns of approach behavior that bring organisms into contact with the essentials for survival.

  16. Ammonia Induces Autophagy through Dopamine Receptor D3 and MTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ji, Xinmiao; Wang, Wenchao; Liu, Juanjuan; Liang, Xiaofei; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jing; Eggert, Ulrike S.; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is frequently seen in tumor microenvironments as well as in liver diseases where it can lead to severe brain damage or death. Ammonia induces autophagy, a mechanism that tumor cells may use to protect themselves from external stresses. However, how cells sense ammonia has been unclear. Here we show that culture medium alone containing Glutamine can generate milimolar of ammonia at 37 degrees in the absence of cells. In addition, we reveal that ammonia acts through the G protein-coupled receptor DRD3 (Dopamine receptor D3) to induce autophagy. At the same time, ammonia induces DRD3 degradation, which involves PIK3C3/VPS34-dependent pathways. Ammonia inhibits MTOR (mechanistic target of Rapamycin) activity and localization in cells, which is mediated by DRD3. Therefore, ammonia has dual roles in autophagy: one to induce autophagy through DRD3 and MTOR, the other to increase autophagosomal pH to inhibit autophagic flux. Our study not only adds a new sensing and output pathway for DRD3 that bridges ammonia sensing and autophagy induction, but also provides potential mechanisms for the clinical consequences of hyperammonemia in brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. PMID:27077655

  17. HIV-1 proteins dysregulate motivational processes and dopamine circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sarah J; Mactutus, Charles F; Harrod, Steven B; Moran, Landhing M; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2018-05-18

    Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC 50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor. Cocaine-maintained responding was attenuated in HIV-1 Tg rats (FR1 0.33 mg/kg/infusion and PR 1.0 mg/kg/infusion). Dose-response tests (PR) revealed that HIV-1 Tg animals responded significantly less than F344 control rats and failed to earn significantly more infusions of cocaine as the unit dose increased. When choosing between cocaine and sucrose, control rats initially chose sucrose but with time shifted to a cocaine preference. In contrast, HIV-1 disrupted choice behaviors. DAT function was altered in the striatum of HIV-1 Tg rats; however, prior cocaine self-administration produced a unique effect on dopamine homeostasis in the HIV-1 Tg striatum. These findings of altered goal directed behaviors may determine neurobiological mechanisms of apathy in HIV-1+ patients.

  18. An Investigation of the Stoichiometry of Na+ Cotransport with Dopamine in Rat and Human Dopamine Transporters Expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schumacher, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The neuronal membrane transporter for dopamine (DAT) is a member of the Na+ and Cl dependent family of transporters and concentrates dopamine intracellularly up to 106 fold over extracellular levels...

  19. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka

    2012-01-01

    Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain—striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear...... function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [11C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common features include an unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) and muscle weakness. Related Information What ... Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Washington Univeristy, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (1 ...

  1. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka

    2012-01-01

    Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear...... function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [(11)C......]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand...

  2. Selective response of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective response of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid at gold nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes grafted with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid modified electrode.

  3. Diversion of the melanin synthetic pathway by dopamine product

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetylcysteine adducts of dopamine studied using quantum chemical ... cyclization reaction of dopaminoquinone which leads to the synthesis of melanin. ..... a hydrogen bond with the carbonyl oxygen (−O−H---O=C− and the second one points ...

  4. Dopamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production through the formation of dopamine quinone in murine microglia BV-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Yoshioka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA has been suggested to modulate functions of glial cells including microglial cells. To reveal the regulatory role of DA in microglial function, in the present study, we investigated the effect of DA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in murine microglial cell line BV-2. Pretreatment with DA for 24 h concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production was not inhibited by SCH-23390 and sulpiride, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, pretreatment with (−-(6aR,12bR-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-Hexahydro-7-methylindolo[4,3-a]phenanthridin (CY 208–243 and bromocriptine, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor agonists, respectively, did not affect the LPS-induced NO production. N-Acetylcysteine, which inhibits DA oxidation, completely inhibited the effect of DA. Tyrosinase, which catalyzes the oxidation of DA to DA quionone (DAQ, accelerated the inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production. These results suggest that DA attenuates LPS-induced NO production through the formation of DAQ in BV-2 cells.

  5. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  6. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0173 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...hypothesized that occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduces dopamine (DA) terminal densities in the basal ganglia. We found...motor function in women compared to similarly aged men with similar bone lead levels. These latter findings are the first to demonstrate a sexual

  7. SEP-225289 serotonin and dopamine transporter occupancy: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Lichenstein, Sarah; Schaefer, Karen; Dunn, Judith; Marshall, Randall; Organisak, Lisa; Kharidia, Jahnavi; Robertson, Brigitte; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2011-07-01

    SEP-225289 is a novel compound that, based on in vitro potencies for transporter function, potentially inhibits reuptake at dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters. An open-label PET study was conducted during the development of SEP-225289 to investigate its dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancy. Different single doses of SEP-225289 were administered to healthy volunteers in 3 cohorts: 8 mg (n = 7), 12 mg (n = 5), and 16 mg (n = 7). PET was performed before and approximately 24 h after oral administration of SEP-225289, to assess occupancy at trough levels. Dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancies were estimated from PET using (11)C-N-(3-iodoprop-2E-enyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-methylphenyl)nortropane ((11)C-PE2I) and (11)C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzylamine ((11)C-DASB), respectively. Plasma concentration of SEP-225289 was assessed before ligand injection, and subjects were monitored for adverse events. Average dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancies increased with increasing doses of SEP-225289. Mean dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancies were 33% ± 11% and 2% ± 13%, respectively, for 8 mg; 44% ± 4% and 9% ± 10%, respectively, for 12 mg; and 49% ± 7% and 14% ± 15%, respectively, for 16 mg. On the basis of the relationship between occupancy and plasma concentration, dopamine transporter IC(50) (the plasma concentration of drug at 50% occupancy) was determined (4.5 ng/mL) and maximum dopamine transporter occupancy was extrapolated (85%); however, low serotonin transporter occupancy prevented similar serotonin transporter calculations. No serious adverse events were reported. At the doses evaluated, occupancy of the dopamine transporter was significantly higher than that of the serotonin transporter, despite similar in vitro potencies, confirming that, in addition to in vitro assays, PET occupancy studies can be instrumental to the drug development process by informing early decisions about

  8. Developmental changes in human dopamine neurotransmission: cortical receptors and terminators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothmond Debora A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine is integral to cognition, learning and memory, and dysfunctions of the frontal cortical dopamine system have been implicated in several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is critical for working memory which does not fully mature until the third decade of life. Few studies have reported on the normal development of the dopamine system in human DLPFC during postnatal life. We assessed pre- and postsynaptic components of the dopamine system including tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine receptors (D1, D2 short and D2 long isoforms, D4, D5, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase (A and B in the developing human DLPFC (6 weeks -50 years. Results Gene expression was first analysed by microarray and then by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein expression was analysed by western blot. Protein levels for tyrosine hydroxylase peaked during the first year of life (p O-methyltransferase (p = 0.024 were significantly higher in neonates and infants as was catechol-O-methyltransferase protein (32 kDa, p = 0.027. In contrast, dopamine D1 receptor mRNA correlated positively with age (p = 0.002 and dopamine D1 receptor protein expression increased throughout development (p Conclusions We find distinct developmental changes in key components of the dopamine system in DLPFC over postnatal life. Those genes that are highly expressed during the first year of postnatal life may influence and orchestrate the early development of cortical neural circuitry while genes portraying a pattern of increasing expression with age may indicate a role in DLPFC maturation and attainment of adult levels of cognitive function.

  9. Could dopamine agonists aid in drug development for anorexia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K W

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways.

  10. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eFrank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways.

  11. Dopamine and glucose, obesity and Reward Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eBlum

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and many well described eating disorders are accurately considered a global epidemic. The consequences of Reward Deficiency Syndrome, a genetic and epigenetic phenomena that involves the interactions of powerful neurotransmitters, are impairments of brain reward circuitry, hypodopaminergic function and abnormal craving behavior. Numerous sound neurochemical and genetic studies provide strong evidence that food addiction is similar to psychoactive drug addiction. Important facts which could translate to potential therapeutic targets espoused in this review include: 1 brain dopamine (DA production and use is stimulated by consumption of alcohol in large quantities or carbohydrates bingeing; 2 in the mesolimbic system the enkephalinergic neurons are in close proximity, to glucose receptors; 3 highly concentrated glucose activates the calcium channel to stimulate dopamine release from P12 cells; 4 blood glucose and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of homovanillic acid, the dopamine metabolite, are significantly correlated and 5 2-deoxyglucose the glucose analogue, in pharmacological doses associates with enhanced dopamine turnover and causes acute glucoprivation. Evidence from animal studies and human fMRI support the hypothesis that multiple, but similar brain circuits are disrupted in obesity and drug dependence and DA-modulated reward circuits are involved in pathologic eating behaviors. Treatment for addiction to glucose and drugs alike, based on a consensus of neuroscience research, should incorporate dopamine agonist therapy, in contrast to current theories and practices that use dopamine antagonists. Until now, powerful dopamine-D2 agonists have failed clinically, due to chronic down regulation of D2 receptors instead, consideration of novel less powerful D2 agonists that up-regulate D2 receptors seems prudent. We encourage new strategies targeted at improving DA function in the treatment and prevention of obesity a subtype of

  12. Infantile parkinsonism-dystonia: a dopamine “transportopathy”

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) retrieves the neurotransmitter dopamine from the synaptic cleft at dopaminergic synapses. Variations in solute carrier family 6A, member 3 (SLC6A3/DAT1), the human gene encoding DAT, have been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity and bipolar disorders, and DAT is a prominent site of action for drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine. In this issue of the JCI, Kurian et al. report that an autosomal recessive infantile parkinsonism-dystonia is caused by lo...

  13. Dopamine and Reward: The Anhedonia Hypothesis 30 years on

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Roy A.

    2008-01-01

    The anhedonia hypothesis – that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards – was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat ...

  14. Sport physiology, dopamine and nitric oxide - Some speculations and hypothesis generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, J G; Esch, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Elite Spanish professional soccer players surprisingly showed a preponderance of an allele coding for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that resulted in lower nitric oxide (NO) compared with Spanish endurance and power athletes and sedentary men. The present paper attempts a speculative explanation. Soccer is an "externally-paced" (EP) sport and team work dependent, requiring "executive function skills". We accept that time interval estimation skill is, in part, also an executive skill. Dopamine (DA) is prominent among the neurotransmitters with a role in such skills. Polymorphisms affecting dopamine (especially DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1a which leads to lower density of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum, leading to increased striatal dopamine synthesis) and COMT val 158 met (which prolongs the action of dopamine in the cortex) feature both in the time interval estimation and the executive skills literatures. Our paper may be a pioneering attempt to stimulate empirical efforts to show how genotypes among soccer players may be connected via neurotransmitters to certain cognitive abilities that predict sporting success, perhaps also in some other externally-paced team sports. Graphing DA levels against time interval estimation accuracy and also against certain executive skills reveals an inverted-U relationship. A pathway from DA, via endogenous morphine and mu3 receptors on endothelia, to the generation of NO in tiny quantities has been demonstrated. Exercise up-regulates DA and this pathway. With somewhat excessive exercise, negative feedback from NO down-regulates DA, hypothetically keeping it near the peak of the inverted-U. Other research, not yet done on higher animals or humans, shows NO "fine-tuning" movement. We speculate that Caucasian men, playing soccer recreationally, would exemplify the above pattern and their nitric oxide synthase (NOS) would reflect the norm of their community, whereas professional players of soccer and perhaps other EP sports, with DA boosted by

  15. In vivo neurochemical characterization of clothianidin induced striatal dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, L R F; Oliveira, I M; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    2012-12-16

    Clothianidin (CLO) is a neonicotinoid insecticide with selective action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the neurochemical basis for CLO-induced striatal dopamine release using the microdialysis technique in freely moving and conscious rats. Intrastriatal administration of CLO (3.5mM), produced an increase in both spontaneous (2462 ± 627% with respect to basal values) and KCl-evoked (4672 ± 706% with respect to basal values) dopamine release. This effect was attenuated in Ca(2+)-free medium, and was prevented in reserpine pre-treated animals or in presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). To investigate the involvement of dopamine transporter (DAT), the effect of CLO was observed in presence of nomifensine. The coadministration of CLO and nomifensine produced an additive effect on striatal dopamine release. The results suggest that the effect of CLO on striatal dopamine release is predominantly mediated by an exocytotic mechanism, Ca(2+), vesicular and TTX-dependent and not by a mechanism mediated by dopamine transporter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M; Dickerson, Bradford C; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-02-28

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers' behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother's infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted.

  17. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  18. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [ 3 H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol

  19. Demonstration of specific dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Masafumi; Nakao, Haruyoshi; Arao, Masayo; Sato, Bunzo; Noma, Keizo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Kishimoto, Susumu; Mori, Shintaro; Uozumi, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenoma membranes were characterized using [ 3 H]spiperone as the radioligand. The specific [ 3 H]spiperone binding sites on prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma membranes were recognized as a dopamine receptor, based upon the data showing high affinity binding, saturability, specificity, temperature dependence, and reversibility. All of 14 PRL-secreting adenomas had high affinity dopamine receptors, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.85±0.11 nmol/l (mean±SEM) and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 428±48.6 fmol/mg protein. Among 14 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas examined, 8 (57%) had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.90±0.47 nmol/l and a Bmax of 131±36.9 fmol/mg protein. Furthermore, 15 of 24 (58%) nonsecreting pituitary adenomas also had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.86±0.37 nmol/l and a Bmax of 162±26.0 fmol/mg protein. These results indicate that some GH-secreting adenomas as well as some nonsecreting pituitary adenomas contain dopamine receptors. But their affinity and number of binding sites are significantly lower (P<0.05) and fewer (P<0.001) respectively, than those in PRL-secreting adenomas. (author)

  20. Development of specific dopamine D-1 agonists and antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakolchai, S.

    1987-01-01

    To develop potentially selective dopamine D-1 agonists and to investigate on the structural requirement for D-1 activity, the derivatives of dibenzocycloheptadiene are synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. The target compounds are 5-aminomethyl-10,11-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene hydrobromide 10 and 9,10-dihydroxy-1,2,3,7,8,12b-hexahydrobenzo[1,2]cyclohepta[3,4,5d,e]isoquinoline hydrobromide 11. In a dopamine-sensitive rat retinal adenylate cyclase assay, a model for D-1 activity, compound 10 is essentially inert for both agonist and antagonist activity. In contrast, compound 11 is approximately equipotent to dopamine in activation of the D-1 receptor. Based on radioligand and binding data, IC 50 of compound 11 for displacement of 3 H-SCH 23390, a D-1 ligand, is about 7 fold less than that for displacement of 3 H-spiperone, a D-2 ligand. These data indicate that compound 11 is a potent selective dopamine D-1 agonist. This study provides a new structural class of dopamine D-1 acting agent: dihydroxy-benzocycloheptadiene analog which can serve as a lead compound for further drug development and as a probe for investigation on the nature of dopamine D-1 receptor

  1. Demonstration of specific dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masafumi; Nakao, Haruyoshi; Arao, Masayo; Sato, Bunzo; Noma, Keizo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Kishimoto, Susumu; Mori, Shintaro; Uozumi, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenoma membranes were characterized using (/sup 3/H)spiperone as the radioligand. The specific (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding sites on prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma membranes were recognized as a dopamine receptor, based upon the data showing high affinity binding, saturability, specificity, temperature dependence, and reversibility. All of 14 PRL-secreting adenomas had high affinity dopamine receptors, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.85 +- 0.11 nmol/l (mean+-SEM) and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 428 +- 48.6 fmol/mg protein. Among 14 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas examined, 8 (57%) had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.90 +- 0.47 nmol/l and a Bmax of 131 +- 36.9 fmol/mg protein. Furthermore, 15 of 24 (58%) nonsecreting pituitary adenomas also had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.86 +- 0.37 nmol/l and a Bmax of 162 +- 26.0 fmol/mg protein. These results indicate that some GH-secreting adenomas as well as some nonsecreting pituitary adenomas contain dopamine receptors. But their affinity and number of binding sites are significantly lower (P<0.05) and fewer (P<0.001) respectively, than those in PRL-secreting adenomas.

  2. The effects of benzofury (5-APB) on the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2-dependent vasoconstriction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Patrick; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Moffatt, James D; Daniju, Yusuf; Dutta, Neelakshi; Ramsey, John; Davidson, Colin

    2014-01-03

    5-APB, commonly marketed as 'benzofury' is a new psychoactive substance and erstwhile 'legal high' which has been implicated in 10 recent drug-related deaths in the UK. This drug was available on the internet and in 'head shops' and was one of the most commonly sold legal highs up until its recent UK temporary ban (UK Home Office). Despite its prominence, very little is known about its pharmacology. This study was undertaken to examine the pharmacology of 5-APB in vitro. We hypothesised that 5-APB would activate the dopamine and 5-HT systems which may underlie its putative stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Autoradiographic studies showed that 5-APB displaced both [(125)I] RTI-121 and [(3)H] ketanserin from rat brain tissue suggesting affinity at the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2 receptor sites respectively. Voltammetric studies in rat accumbens brain slices revealed that 5-APB slowed dopamine reuptake, and at high concentrations caused reverse transport of dopamine. 5-APB also caused vasoconstriction of rat aorta, an effect antagonised by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin, and caused contraction of rat stomach fundus, which was reversed by the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist RS-127445. These data show that 5-APB interacts with the dopamine transporter and is an agonist at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in the rat. Thus 5-APB's pharmacology is consistent with it having both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. In addition, 5-APB's activity at the 5-HT2B receptor may cause cardiotoxicity. © 2013.

  3. Clebopride enhances contractility of the guinea pig stomach by blocking peripheral D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Taniyama, K; Kuno, T; Sano, I; Ishikawa, T; Ohmura, I; Tanaka, C

    1991-05-01

    The mechanism of action of clebopride on the motility of guinea pig stomach was examined by the receptor binding assay for bovine brain membrane and by measuring gastric contractility and the release of acetylcholine from the stomach. The receptor binding assay revealed that clebopride bound to the D2 dopamine receptor with a high affinity and to the alpha-2 adrenoceptor and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor with relatively lower affinity, and not to D1 dopamine, alpha-1 adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, H1 histamine, or opioid receptor. In strips of the stomach, clebopride at 10(-8) M to 10(-5) M enhanced the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked contraction and the release of acetylcholine. This enhancement was attributed to the blockade of the D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor because: 1) Maximum responses obtained with specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone, and with specific alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, were smaller than that with clebopride, and the sum of the effects of these two specific receptor antagonists is approximately equal to the effect of clebopride. 2) The facilitatory effect of clebopride was partially eliminated by pretreatment of the sample with domperidone or yohimbine, and the facilitatory effect of clebopride was not observed in preparations treated with the combination of domperidone and yohimbine. Clebopride also antagonized the inhibitory effects of dopamine and clonidine on the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked responses. These results indicate that clebopride acts on post ganglionic cholinergic neurons at D2 and alpha-2 receptors in this preparation to enhance enteric nervous system stimulated motility.

  4. Clebopride enhances contractility of the guinea pig stomach by blocking peripheral D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, K.; Taniyama, K.; Kuno, T.; Sano, I.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohmura, I.; Tanaka, C.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of action of clebopride on the motility of guinea pig stomach was examined by the receptor binding assay for bovine brain membrane and by measuring gastric contractility and the release of acetylcholine from the stomach. The receptor binding assay revealed that clebopride bound to the D2 dopamine receptor with a high affinity and to the alpha-2 adrenoceptor and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor with relatively lower affinity, and not to D1 dopamine, alpha-1 adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, H1 histamine, or opioid receptor. In strips of the stomach, clebopride at 10 - 8 M to 10 - 5 M enhanced the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked contraction and the release of acetylcholine. This enhancement was attributed to the blockade of the D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor because: (1) Maximum responses obtained with specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone, and with specific alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, were smaller than that with clebopride, and the sum of the effects of these two specific receptor antagonists is approximately equal to the effect of clebopride. (2) The facilitatory effect of clebopride was partially eliminated by pretreatment of the sample with domperidone or yohimbine, and the facilitatory effect of clebopride was not observed in preparations treated with the combination of domperidone and yohimbine. Clebopride also antagonized the inhibitory effects of dopamine and clonidine on the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked responses. These results indicate that clebopride acts on post ganglionic cholinergic neurons at D2 and alpha-2 receptors in this preparation to enhance enteric nervous system stimulated motility

  5. Dopamine D2-like receptors (DRD2 and DRD4) in chickens: Tissue distribution, functional analysis, and their involvement in dopamine inhibition of pituitary prolactin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Can; Mo, Chunheng; Liu, Haikun; Wu, Chao; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2018-04-20

    Dopamine (DA) D2-like (and D1-like) receptors are suggested to mediate the dopamine actions in the anterior pituitary and/or CNS of birds. However, the information regarding the structure, functionality, and expression of avian D2-like receptors have not been fully characterized. In this study, we cloned two D2-like receptors (cDRD2, cDRD4) from chicken brain using RACE PCR. The cloned cDRD4 is a 378-amino acid receptor, which shows 57% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse DRD4. As in mammals, two cDRD2 isoforms, cDRD2L (long isoform, 437 a.a.) and cDRD2S (short isoform, 408 a.a.), which differ in their third intracellular loop, were identified in chickens. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we demonstrated that cDRD4, cDRD2L and cDRD2S could be activated by dopamine and quinpirole (a D2-like receptor agonist) dose-dependently, and their activation inhibits cAMP signaling pathway and stimulates MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, indicating that they are functional receptors capable of mediating dopamine actions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cDRD2 and cDRD4 are widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression noted in anterior pituitary, and their expressions are likely controlled by their promoters near exon 1, as demonstrated by dual-luciferase reporter assays in DF-1 cells. In accordance with cDRD2/cDRD4 expression in the pituitary, DA or quinpirole could partially inhibit vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced prolactin expression in cultured chick pituitary cells. Together, our data proves the functionality of DRD2 and DRD4 in birds and aids to uncover the conserved roles of DA/D2-like receptor system in vertebrates, such as its action on the pituitary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Dopamine, nitric oxide and their interactions in models for the study of schizophrenia / Dopamina, óxido nítrico e suas interações em modelos para o estudo da esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Salum

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models based on the increase of dopaminergic neurotransmission mimic behavioral and neurochemical schizophrenia-like aspects. Psychostimulants, as amphetamine, are used with this purpose because they increase extracellular dopamine levels in mesocorticolimbic and mesostriatal pathways. The limitations of direct manipulation uniquely based on the dopamine system in animal models have encouraged the use of new approaches. Nitric oxide (NO, an atypical neurotransmitter which inhibits dopamine reuptake and stimulates its release, seems to modulate dopamine-controlled behaviors. The prepulse inhibition test reveals deficits on the sensorimotor filter found in schizophrenics or after psichotomimetic treatments. This review presents evidences for the interaction between NO and DA systems on schizophrenia models as a new tool for the investigation of this pathology.

  7. Occupancy of pramipexole (Sifrol at cerebral dopamine D2/3 receptors in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Deutschländer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas positron emission tomography (PET with the antagonist ligand [18F]fallypride reveals the composite of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in brain, treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with the D3-prefering agonist pramipexole should result in preferential occupancy in the nucleus accumbens, where the D3-subtype is most abundant. To test this prediction we obtained pairs of [18F]fallypride PET recordings in a group of nine PD patients, first in a condition of treatment as usual with pramipexole (ON-Sifrol; 3 × 0.7 mg p.d., and again at a later date, after withholding pramipexole 48–72 h (OFF-Sifrol; in that condition the serum pramipexole concentration had declined by 90% and prolactin levels had increased four-fold, in conjunction with a small but significant worsening of PD motor symptoms. Exploratory comparison with historical control material showed 14% higher dopamine D2/3 availability in the more-affected putamen of patients OFF medication. On-Sifrol there was significant (p ˂ 0.01 occupancy at [18F]fallypride binding sites in globus pallidus (8% thalamus (9% and substantia nigra (19%, as well as marginally significant occupancy in frontal and temporal cortex of patients. Contrary to expectation, comparison of ON- and OFF-Sifrol results did not reveal any discernible occupancy in nucleus accumbens, or elsewhere in the extended striatum; present methods should be sensitive to a 10% change in dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatum; the significant findings elsewhere in the basal ganglia and in cerebral cortex are consistent with a predominance of D3 receptors in those structures, especially in substantia nigra, and imply that therapeutic effects of pramipexole may be obtained at sites outside the extended striatum.

  8. 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration of nigral dopamine neurons: differential effect on nigral and striatal D-1 dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porceddu, M.L.; Giorgi, O.; De Montis, G.; Mele, S.; Cocco, L.; Ongini, E.; Biggio, G.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase and 3 H-SCH 23390 binding parameters were measured in the rat substantia nigra and striatum 15 days after the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle. The activity of nigral dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase and the binding of 3 H-SCH 23390 to rat nigral D-1 dopamine receptors were markedly decreased after the lesion. On the contrary, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway enhanced both adenylate cyclase activity and the density of 3 H-SCH 23390 binding sites in striatal membrane preparations. The changes in 3 H-SCH 23390 binding found in both nigral and striatal membrane preparations were associated with changes in the total number of binding sites with no modifications in their apparent affinity. The results indicate that: a) within the substantia nigra a fraction (30%) of D-1 dopamine receptors coupled to the adenylate cyclase is located on cell bodies and and/or dendrites of dopaminergic neurons; b) striatal D-1 dopamine receptors are tonically innervated by nigrostriatal afferent fibers. 24 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  9. SPECT imaging of D{sub 2} dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Cynthia [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Q0S.459, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bruin, Kora de; Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beekman, Freek [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Q0S.459, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Technical University Delft, Department R3, Section Radiation, Detection and Matter, Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [{sup 123}I]IBZM has not been used in mice SPECT studies. This study evaluates the use of [{sup 123}I]IBZM for measuring D2R availability in mice. Pharmacokinetics of [{sup 123}I]IBZM in mice were studied with pinhole SPECT imaging after intravenous (i.v.) injection of [{sup 123}I]IBZM (20, 40, and 70 MBq). In addition, the ability to measure the release of endogenous dopamine after amphetamine administration with [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPECT was investigated. Thirdly, i.v. administration, the standard route of administration, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of [{sup 123}I]IBZM were compared. Specific binding of [{sup 123}I]IBZM within the mouse striatum could be clearly visualized with SPECT. Peak specific striatal binding ratios were reached around 90 min post-injection. After amphetamine administration, the specific binding ratios of [{sup 123}I]IBZM decreased significantly (-27.2%; n=6; p=0.046). Intravenous administration of [{sup 123}I]IBZM led to significantly higher specific binding than i.p. administration of the same dose. However, we found that i.v. administration of a dose of 70 MBq [{sup 123}I]IBZM might result in acute ethanol intoxication because ethanol is used as a preparative aid for the routine production of [{sup 123}I]IBZM. Imaging of D2R availability and endogenous dopamine release in mice is feasible using [{sup 123}I]IBZM single pinhole SPECT. Using commercially produced [{sup 123}I]IBZM, a dose of 40 MBq injected i.v. can be recommended. (orig.)

  10. SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Cynthia; Bruin, Kora de; Booij, Jan; Beekman, Freek

    2008-01-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [ 123 I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [ 123 I]IBZM has not been used in mice SPECT studies. This study evaluates the use of [ 123 I]IBZM for measuring D2R availability in mice. Pharmacokinetics of [ 123 I]IBZM in mice were studied with pinhole SPECT imaging after intravenous (i.v.) injection of [ 123 I]IBZM (20, 40, and 70 MBq). In addition, the ability to measure the release of endogenous dopamine after amphetamine administration with [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT was investigated. Thirdly, i.v. administration, the standard route of administration, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of [ 123 I]IBZM were compared. Specific binding of [ 123 I]IBZM within the mouse striatum could be clearly visualized with SPECT. Peak specific striatal binding ratios were reached around 90 min post-injection. After amphetamine administration, the specific binding ratios of [ 123 I]IBZM decreased significantly (-27.2%; n=6; p=0.046). Intravenous administration of [ 123 I]IBZM led to significantly higher specific binding than i.p. administration of the same dose. However, we found that i.v. administration of a dose of 70 MBq [ 123 I]IBZM might result in acute ethanol intoxication because ethanol is used as a preparative aid for the routine production of [ 123 I]IBZM. Imaging of D2R availability and endogenous dopamine release in mice is feasible using [ 123 I]IBZM single pinhole SPECT. Using commercially produced [ 123 I]IBZM, a dose of 40 MBq injected i.v. can be recommended. (orig.)

  11. Direct demonstration of D1 dopamine receptors in the bovine parathyroid gland using the D1 selective antagonist [125I]-SCH 23982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsma, F.J. Jr.; Sibley, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of D1 dopamine receptors in the parathyroid gland has been proposed based on the demonstration of dopaminergic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity and parathyroid hormone release in dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Using a radioiodinated D1 selective antagonist [125I]-SCH 23982, we have now directly labeled and characterized the D1 dopamine receptors in bovine parathyroid gland membranes. [125I]-SCH 23982 binds in a saturable manner with high affinity and low nonspecific binding to membranes prepared from bovine parathyroid glands. D1 dopamine receptors are present in this preparation at a concentration of approximately 130 fMoles/mg protein and [125I]-SCH 23982 binding increases with increasing protein concentration in a linear fashion. Determination of the Kd using the association (k1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants revealed good agreement with the Kd determined by saturation analysis (390 pM vs. 682 pM, respectively). Inhibition of 0.3 nM [125I]-SCH 23982 binding by a series of dopaminergic antagonists verified the D1 nature of this binding site, exhibiting appropriate affinities and rank order of potency. The competition curves of all antagonists exhibited Hill coefficients that were not significantly different from 1. Inhibition of [125I]-SCH 23982 binding by dopamine and other dopaminergic agonists revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Addition of 200 microM GppNHp effected a complete conversion of high affinity dopamine binding sites to a homogeneous population of low affinity dopamine sites. The D1 receptors identified in the parathyroid gland with [125I]-SCH 23982 appear to be pharmacologically identical with those previously characterized in the central nervous system

  12. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  13. Oxytocin, Motivation and the Role of Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has drawn the attention of scientists for more than a century. The understanding of the function of oxytocin has expanded dramatically over the years from a simple peptide adept at inducing uterine contractions and milk ejection to a complex neuromodulator with a capacity to shape human social behavior. Decades of research have outlined oxytocin’s ability to enhance intricate social activities ranging from pair bonding, sexual activity, affiliative preferences, and parental behaviors. The precise neural mechanisms underlying oxytocin’s influence on such behaviors have just begun to be understood. Research suggests that oxytocin interacts closely with the neural pathways responsible for processing motivationally relevant stimuli. In particular, oxytocin appears to impact dopaminergic activity within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which is crucial not only for reward and motivated behavior but also for the expression of affiliative behaviors. Though most of the work performed in this area has been done using animal models, several neuroimaging studies suggest similar relationships may be observed in humans. In order to introduce this topic further, this paper will review the recent evidence that oxytocin may exert some of its social-behavioral effects through its impact on motivational networks. PMID:23850525

  14. Biophysically realistic minimal model of dopamine neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprisan, Sorinel

    2008-03-01

    We proposed and studied a new biophysically relevant computational model of dopaminergic neurons. Midbrain dopamine neurons are involved in motivation and the control of movement, and have been implicated in various pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The model we developed is a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type parallel conductance membrane model. The model captures the essential mechanisms underlying the slow oscillatory potentials and plateau potential oscillations. The main currents involved are: 1) a voltage-dependent fast calcium current, 2) a small conductance potassium current that is modulated by the cytosolic concentration of calcium, and 3) a slow voltage-activated potassium current. We developed multidimensional bifurcation diagrams and extracted the effective domains of sustained oscillations. The model includes a calcium balance due to the fundamental importance of calcium influx as proved by simultaneous electrophysiological and calcium imaging procedure. Although there are significant evidences to suggest a partially electrogenic calcium pump, all previous models considered only elecrtogenic pumps. We investigated the effect of the electrogenic calcium pump on the bifurcation diagram of the model and compared our findings against the experimental results.

  15. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  16. Modulation for emergent networks: serotonin and dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Juyang; Paslaski, Stephen; Daly, James; VanDam, Courtland; Brown, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    In autonomous learning, value-sensitive experiences can improve the efficiency of learning. A learning network needs be motivated so that the limited computational resources and the limited lifetime are devoted to events that are of high value for the agent to compete in its environment. The neuromodulatory system of the brain is mainly responsible for developing such a motivation system. Although reinforcement learning has been extensively studied, many existing models are symbolic whose internal nodes or modules have preset meanings. Neural networks have been used to automatically generate internal emergent representations. However, modeling an emergent motivational system for neural networks is still a great challenge. By emergent, we mean that the internal representations emerge autonomously through interactions with the external environments. This work proposes a generic emergent modulatory system for emergent networks, which includes two subsystems - the serotonin system and the dopamine system. The former signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically aversive (e.g., stress or pain). The latter signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically appetitive (e.g., pleasure or sweet). We experimented with this motivational system for two settings. The first is a visual recognition setting to investigate how such a system can learn through interactions with a teacher, who does not directly give answers, but only punishments and rewards. The second is a setting for wandering in the presence of a friend and a foe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prefrontal Dopamine in Associative Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M. Victoria; Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulate associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  18. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  19. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  20. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High dendritic expression of Ih in the proximity of the axon origin controls the integrative properties of nigral dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dominique; Seutin, Vincent

    2015-11-15

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih is expressed in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra, but the subcellular distribution of the current and its role in synaptic integration remain unknown. We used cell-attached patch recordings to determine the localization profile of Ih along the somatodendritic axis of nigral dopamine neurons in slices from young rats. Ih density is higher in axon-bearing dendrites, in a membrane area close to the axon origin, than in the soma and axon-lacking dendrites. Dual current-clamp recordings revealed a similar contribution of Ih to the waveform of single excitatory postsynaptic potentials throughout the somatodendritic domain. The Ih blocker ZD 7288 increased the temporal summation in all dendrites with a comparable effect in axon- and non-axon dendrites. The strategic position of Ih in the proximity of the axon may influence importantly transitions between pacemaker and bursting activities and consequently the downstream release of dopamine. Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih present in the dendrites of some pyramidal neurons affects their membrane and integration properties, synaptic plasticity and higher functions such as memory. A gradient of increasing h-channel density towards distal dendrites has been found to be responsible for the location independence of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) waveform and temporal summation in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells. However, reports on other cell types revealed that smoother gradients or even linear distributions of Ih can achieve homogeneous temporal summation. Although the existence of a robust, slowly activating Ih current has been repeatedly demonstrated in nigral dopamine neurons, its subcellular distribution and precise role in synaptic integration

  2. De novo mutation in the dopamine transporter gene associates dopamine dysfunction with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P J; Campbell, N G; Sharma, S; Erreger, K; Herborg Hansen, F; Saunders, C; Belovich, A N; Sahai, M A; Cook, E H; Gether, U; McHaourab, H S; Matthies, H J G; Sutcliffe, J S; Galli, A

    2013-12-01

    De novo genetic variation is an important class of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, whole-exome sequencing of ASD families has identified a novel de novo missense mutation in the human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) gene, which results in a Thr to Met substitution at site 356 (hDAT T356M). The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a presynaptic membrane protein that regulates dopaminergic tone in the central nervous system by mediating the high-affinity reuptake of synaptically released DA, making it a crucial regulator of DA homeostasis. Here, we report the first functional, structural and behavioral characterization of an ASD-associated de novo mutation in the hDAT. We demonstrate that the hDAT T356M displays anomalous function, characterized as a persistent reverse transport of DA (substrate efflux). Importantly, in the bacterial homolog leucine transporter, substitution of A289 (the homologous site to T356) with a Met promotes an outward-facing conformation upon substrate binding. In the substrate-bound state, an outward-facing transporter conformation is required for substrate efflux. In Drosophila melanogaster, the expression of hDAT T356M in DA neurons-lacking Drosophila DAT leads to hyperlocomotion, a trait associated with DA dysfunction and ASD. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that alterations in DA homeostasis, mediated by aberrant DAT function, may confer risk for ASD and related neuropsychiatric conditions.

  3. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Romero-Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly

  4. The Impact of Exercise on the Vulnerability of Dopamine Neurons to Cell Death in Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zigmond, Michael J; Smith, Amanda; Liou, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease results in part from the loss of dopamine neurons. We hypothesize that exercise reduces the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxin exposure, whereas stress increases vulnerability...

  5. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2–mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  6. Dopamine and the Brainstem Locomotor Networks: From Lamprey to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Ryczko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion via their ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project to brainstem locomotor networks. An increased dopaminergic tone is associated with increase in locomotor activity. In pathological conditions where dopamine cells are lost, such as in Parkinson's disease, locomotor deficits are traditionally associated with the reduced ascending dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. However, a descending dopaminergic pathway originating from the substantia nigra pars compacta was recently discovered. It innervates the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR from basal vertebrates to mammals. This pathway was shown to increase locomotor output in lampreys, and could very well play an important role in mammals. Here, we provide a detailed account on the newly found dopaminergic pathway in lamprey, salamander, rat, monkey, and human. In lampreys and salamanders, dopamine release in the MLR is associated with the activation of reticulospinal neurons that carry the locomotor command to the spinal cord. Dopamine release in the MLR potentiates locomotor movements through a D1-receptor mechanism in lampreys. In rats, stimulation of the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited dopamine release in the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known part of the MLR. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease, a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the brainstem locomotor networks was reported. Dopaminergic fibers are also present in human pedunculopontine nucleus. We discuss the conserved locomotor role of this pathway from lamprey to mammals, and the hypothesis that this pathway could play a role in the locomotor deficits reported in Parkinson's disease.

  7. Plasma functionalized surface of commodity polymers for dopamine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabregat, Georgina [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain); Osorio, Joaquin [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Castedo, Alejandra [Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain); Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Armelin, Elaine [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain); and others

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Electrochemically inert polymers become electroactive after plasma functionalization. • Selective dopamine detection has been achieved functionalizing polymers with plasma. • Plasma-functionalized polymers are sensitive dopamine detectors. • XPS analyses reflect the transformation of inert polymers into electrosensors. - Abstract: We have fabricated potentially generalizable sensors based on polymeric-modified electrodes for the electrochemical detection of dopamine. Sensitive and selective sensors have been successfully obtained by applying a cold-plasma treatment during 1–2 min not only to conducting polymers but also to electrochemically inert polymers, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polycaprolactone and polystyrene. The effects of the plasma in the electrode surface activation, which is an essential requirement for the dopamine detection when inert polymers are used, have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results indicate that exposure of polymer-modified electrodes to cold-plasma produces the formation of a large variety of reactive species adsorbed on the electrode surface, which catalyse the dopamine oxidation. With this technology, which is based on the application of a very simple physical functionalization, we have defined a paradox-based paradigm for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors by using inert and cheap plastics.

  8. Tyrosinase-Based Biosensors for Selective Dopamine Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Florescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel tyrosinase-based biosensor was developed for the detection of dopamine (DA. For increased selectivity, gold electrodes were previously modified with cobalt (II-porphyrin (CoP film with electrocatalytic activity, to act both as an electrochemical mediator and an enzyme support, upon which the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr was cross-linked. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for electrochemical detection and the reduction current of dopamine-quinone was measured as a function of dopamine concentration. Our experiments demonstrated that the presence of CoP improves the selectivity of the electrode towards dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA, with a linear trend of concentration dependence in the range of 2–30 µM. By optimizing the conditioning parameters, a separation of 130 mV between the peak potentials for ascorbic acid AA and DA was obtained, allowing the selective detection of DA. The biosensor had a sensitivity of 1.22 ± 0.02 µA·cm−2·µM−1 and a detection limit of 0.43 µM. Biosensor performances were tested in the presence of dopamine medication, with satisfactory results in terms of recovery (96%, and relative standard deviation values below 5%. These results confirmed the applicability of the biosensors in real samples such as human urine and blood serum.

  9. Dopamine alleviates nutrient deficiency-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bowen; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Changqing; Wei, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Huang, Dong; Chen, Qi; Li, Chao; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-10-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, root system architecture, nutrient uptake, and responses to nutrient deficiencies in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Under a nutrient deficiency, plants showed significant reductions in growth, chlorophyll concentrations, and net photosynthesis, along with disruptions in nutrient uptake, transport, and distribution. However, pretreatment with 100 μM dopamine markedly alleviated such inhibitions. Supplementation with that compound enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity and development of the root system while promoting the uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, altering the way in which those nutrients were partitioned throughout the plant. The addition of dopamine up-regulated genes for antioxidant enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (MdcAPX, MdcGR, MdMDHAR, MdDHAR-1, and MdDHAR-2) but down-regulated genes for senescence (SAG12, PAO, and MdHXK). These results indicate that exogenous dopamine has an important antioxidant and anti-senescence effect that might be helpful for improving nutrient uptake. Our findings demonstrate that dopamine offers new opportunities for its use in agriculture, especially when addressing the problem of nutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Bertelsen, Camilla; Piccini, Paola

    2002-01-01

    This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a dep......This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized...... the frontal cortex to striatal neurons, which in turn project back to the frontal cortex via the pallidum and ventral thalamus. The present study was designed to investigate whether endogenous dopamine release increases during loss of executive control in meditation. Participants underwent two 11C......-raclopride PET scans: one while attending to speech with eyes closed, and one during active meditation. The tracer competes with endogenous dopamine for access to dopamine D2 receptors predominantly found in the basal ganglia. During meditation, 11C-raclopride binding in ventral striatum decreased by 7...

  11. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.

  12. The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wise, Roy A; Baler, Ruben

    2017-11-16

    Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum. Cues that predict a reinforcing stimulus also modulate extrasynaptic dopamine concentrations, energizing motivation. Repeated administration of the reinforcer (drugs, energy-rich foods) generates conditioned associations between the reinforcer and the predicting cues, which is accompanied by downregulated dopaminergic response to other incentives and downregulated capacity for top-down self-regulation, facilitating the emergence of impulsive and compulsive responses to food or drug cues. Thus, dopamine contributes to addiction and obesity through its differentiated roles in reinforcement, motivation and self-regulation, referred to here as the 'dopamine motive system', which, if compromised, can result in increased, habitual and inflexible responding. Thus, interventions to rebalance the dopamine motive system might have therapeutic potential for obesity and addiction.

  13. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummenacher, Peter; Mohr, Christine; Haker, Helene; Brugger, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is suggested to improve perceptual and cognitive decisions by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Somewhat paradoxically, a hyperdopaminergia (arguably more accentuated in the right hemisphere) has also been implied in the genesis of unusual experiences such as hallucinations and paranormal thought. To test these opposing assumptions, we used two lateralized decision tasks, one with lexical (tapping left-hemisphere functions), the other with facial stimuli (tapping right-hemisphere functions). Participants were 40 healthy right-handed men, of whom 20 reported unusual, "paranormal" experiences and beliefs ("believers"), whereas the remaining participants were unexperienced and critical ("skeptics"). In a between-subject design, levodopa (200 mg) or placebo administration was balanced between belief groups (double-blind procedure). For each task and visual field, we calculated sensitivity (d') and response tendency (criterion) derived from signal detection theory. Results showed the typical right visual field advantage for the lexical decision task and a higher d' for verbal than facial stimuli. For the skeptics, d' was lower in the levodopa than in the placebo group. Criterion analyses revealed that believers favored false alarms over misses, whereas skeptics displayed the opposite preference. Unexpectedly, under levodopa, these decision preferences were lower in both groups. We thus infer that levodopa (1) decreases sensitivity in perceptual-cognitive decisions, but only in skeptics, and (2) makes skeptics less and believers slightly more conservative. These results stand at odd to the common view that DA generally improves signal-to-noise ratios. Paranormal ideation seems an important personality dimension and should be assessed in investigations on the detection of signals in noise.

  14. Hypoinsulinemia regulates amphetamine-induced reverse transport of dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Williams

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH arise from their ability to elicit increases in extracellular dopamine (DA. These AMPH-induced increases are achieved by DA transporter (DAT-mediated transmitter efflux. Recently, we have shown that AMPH self-administration is reduced in rats that have been depleted of insulin with the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin (STZ. In vitro studies suggest that hypoinsulinemia may regulate the actions of AMPH by inhibiting the insulin downstream effectors phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB, or Akt, which we have previously shown are able to fine-tune DAT cell-surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that striatal Akt function, as well as DAT cell-surface expression, are significantly reduced by STZ. In addition, our data show that the release of DA, determined by high-speed chronoamperometry (HSCA in the striatum, in response to AMPH, is severely impaired in these insulin-deficient rats. Importantly, selective inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 within the striatum results in a profound reduction in the subsequent potential for AMPH to evoke DA efflux. Consistent with our biochemical and in vivo electrochemical data, findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments reveal that the ability of AMPH to elicit positive blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes in the striatum is significantly blunted in STZ-treated rats. Finally, local infusion of insulin into the striatum of STZ-treated animals significantly recovers the ability of AMPH to stimulate DA release as measured by high-speed chronoamperometry. The present studies establish that PI3K signaling regulates the neurochemical actions of AMPH-like psychomotor stimulants. These data suggest that insulin signaling pathways may represent a novel mechanism for regulating DA transmission, one which may be targeted for the treatment of AMPH abuse and potentially other dopaminergic disorders.

  15. Genetic Variation in the Dopamine System Influences Intervention Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochellys Diaz Heijtz

    2018-02-01

    Interpretation: Naturally occurring genetic variation in the dopamine system can influence treatment outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. A polygenic dopamine score might be valid for treatment outcome prediction and for designing individually tailored interventions for children with cerebral palsy.

  16. Dopamine precursor depletion improves punishment prediction during reversal learning in healthy females but not males.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, O.J.; Standing, H.R.; DeVito, E.E.; Cools, R.; Sahakian, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The neurotransmitter dopamine has frequently been implicated in reward processing but is also, increasingly, implicated in punishment processing. We have previously shown that both patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy individuals with low dopamine (DA) synthesis are better at

  17. Donor dopamine treatment limits pulmonary oedema and inflammation in lung allografts subjected to prolonged hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanusch, Christine; Nowak, Kai; Toerlitz, Patrizia; Gill, Ishar S.; Song, Hui; Rafat, Neysan; Brinkkoetter, Paul T.; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Van Ackern, Klaus C.; Yard, Benito A.; Beck, Grietje C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Endothelial barrier dysfunction severely compromises organ function after reperfusion. Because dopamine pretreatment improves hypothermia mediated barrier dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine treatment of lung allografts positively affects tissue damage associated with

  18. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  19. Fabrication of endothelial progenitor cell capture surface via DNA aptamer modifying dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin; Deng, Jinchuan; Yuan, Shuheng; Wang, Juan; Luo, Rifang; Chen, Si [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Huang, Nan [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The dopamine/PEI film with controlled amine density was successfully prepared. • The DNA aptamer was assembled onto the film via electrostatic incorporation. • The A@DPfilmscanspecificallyandeffectivelycaptureEPCs. • The A@DP film can support the survival of ECs, control the hyperplasia of SMCs. • The dynamic/co-culture models are useful for studying cells competitive adhesion. - Abstract: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mainly located in bone marrow and circulate, and play a crucial role in repairmen of injury endothelium. One of the most promising strategies of stents designs were considered to make in-situ endothelialization in vivo via EPC-capture biomolecules on a vascular graft to capture EPCs directly from circulatory blood. In this work, an EPC specific aptamer with a 34 bases single strand DNA sequence was conjugated onto the stent surface via dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film as a platform and linker. The assembled density of DNA aptamer could be regulated by controlling dopamine percentage in this copolymer film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle (WCA) and fluorescence test confirmed the successful immobilization of DNA aptamer. To confirm its biofunctionality and cytocompatibility, the capturing cells ability of the aptamer modified surface and the effects on the growth behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated. The aptamer functionalized sample revealed a good EPC-capture ability, and had a cellular friendly feature for both EPC and EC growth, while not stimulated the hyperplasia of SMCs. And, the co-culture experiment of three types of cells confirmed the specificity capturing of EPCs to aptamer modified surface, rather than ECs and SMCs. These data suggested that this aptamer functionalized surface may have a large potentiality for the application of vascular grafts with targeted endothelialization.

  20. Interaction between LSD and dopamine D2/3 binding sites in pig brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Nomikos, George G; Wade, Mark R; Jensen, Svend B; Olsen, Aage K; Cumming, Paul

    2005-06-15

    The psychoactive properties of the hallucinogen LSD have frequently been attributed to high affinity interactions with serotonin 5HT2 receptors in brain. Possible effects of LSD on dopamine D2/3 receptor availability have not previously been investigated in living brain. Therefore, we used PET to map the binding potential (pB) of [11C]raclopride in brain of three pigs, first in a baseline condition, and again at 1 and 4 h after administration of LSD (2.5 microg/kg, i.v.). There was a progressive treatment effect in striatum, where the pB was significantly reduced by 19% at 4 h after LSD administration. Concomitant maps of cerebral blood flow did not reveal significant changes in perfusion during this interval. Subsequent in vitro studies showed that LSD displaced [3H]raclopride (2 nM) from pig brain cryostat sections with an IC50 of 275 nM according to a one-site model. Fitting of a two-site model to the data suggested the presence of a component of the displacement curves with a subnanomolar IC50, comprising 20% of the total [3H]raclopride binding. In microdialysis experiments, LSD at similar and higher doses did not evoke changes in the interstitial concentration of dopamine or its acidic metabolites in rat striatum. Together, these results are consistent with a direct interaction between LSD and a portion of dopamine D2/3 receptors in pig brain, possibly contributing to the psychopharmacology of LSD. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Fabrication of endothelial progenitor cell capture surface via DNA aptamer modifying dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xin; Deng, Jinchuan; Yuan, Shuheng; Wang, Juan; Luo, Rifang; Chen, Si; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The dopamine/PEI film with controlled amine density was successfully prepared. • The DNA aptamer was assembled onto the film via electrostatic incorporation. • The A@DPfilmscanspecificallyandeffectivelycaptureEPCs. • The A@DP film can support the survival of ECs, control the hyperplasia of SMCs. • The dynamic/co-culture models are useful for studying cells competitive adhesion. - Abstract: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mainly located in bone marrow and circulate, and play a crucial role in repairmen of injury endothelium. One of the most promising strategies of stents designs were considered to make in-situ endothelialization in vivo via EPC-capture biomolecules on a vascular graft to capture EPCs directly from circulatory blood. In this work, an EPC specific aptamer with a 34 bases single strand DNA sequence was conjugated onto the stent surface via dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film as a platform and linker. The assembled density of DNA aptamer could be regulated by controlling dopamine percentage in this copolymer film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle (WCA) and fluorescence test confirmed the successful immobilization of DNA aptamer. To confirm its biofunctionality and cytocompatibility, the capturing cells ability of the aptamer modified surface and the effects on the growth behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated. The aptamer functionalized sample revealed a good EPC-capture ability, and had a cellular friendly feature for both EPC and EC growth, while not stimulated the hyperplasia of SMCs. And, the co-culture experiment of three types of cells confirmed the specificity capturing of EPCs to aptamer modified surface, rather than ECs and SMCs. These data suggested that this aptamer functionalized surface may have a large potentiality for the application of vascular grafts with targeted endothelialization.

  2. A Japanese Encephalitis Patient Presenting with Parkinsonism with Corresponding Laterality of Magnetic Resonance and Dopamine Transporter Imaging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Koh; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Sato, Kota; Maeki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ryo; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Shang, Jingwei; Takemoto, Mami; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Yamashita, Toru; Lim, Chang Kweng; Tajima, Shigeru; Abe, Koji

    2018-03-09

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) survivors often present with nigrostriatal aftereffects with parkinsonian features. A 67-year-old woman with JE showed right-dominant clinical parkinsonism and left-dominant substantia nigra lesions after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging using 123 I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) revealed a corresponding left-dominant decrease. The present case is the first to reveal a clear match of laterality between clinical parkinsonism, MRI-based substantia nigra lesions, and impaired DAT in presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in JE.

  3. Development and function of the midbrain dopamine system: what we know and what we need to

    OpenAIRE

    Bissonette, G. B.; Roesch, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in our understanding of the origin and development of the midbrain dopamine system. Much of this work has been focused on the aspects of dopamine neuron development related to the onset of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, with the intent of hopefully delaying, preventing or fixing symptoms. While midbrain dopamine degeneration is a major focus for treatment and research, many other human disorders are impacted by abnormal dopamine, in...

  4. Sources Contributing to the Average Extracellular Concentration of Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    OpenAIRE

    Owesson-White, CA; Roitman, MF; Sombers, LA; Belle, AM; Keithley, RB; Peele, JL; Carelli, RM; Wightman, RM

    2012-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine neurons fire in both tonic and phasic modes resulting in detectable extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In the past, different techniques have targeted dopamine levels in the NAc to establish a basal concentration. In this study we used in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in the NAc of awake, freely moving rats. The experiments were primarily designed to capture changes in dopamine due to phasic firing – that is, the measurement of dopa...

  5. Reliance on habits at the expense of goal-directed control following dopamine precursor depletion

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Sanne; Standing, Holly R.; DeVito, Elise E.; Robinson, Oliver J.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Robbins, Trevor W.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Dopamine is well known to play an important role in learning and motivation. Recent animal studies have implicated dopamine in the reinforcement of stimulus?response habits, as well as in flexible, goal-directed action. However, the role of dopamine in human action control is still not well understood. Objectives We present the first investigation of the effect of reducing dopamine function in healthy volunteers on the balance between habitual and goal-directed action control. Metho...

  6. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli M Money

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Dopamine D1 signaling organizes network dynamics underlying working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Joshua L; Tanner, Alexandra S; Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Rodriguez-Thompson, Anais; Silverstein, Noah J; Ho, New Fei; Nitenson, Adam Z; Chonde, Daniel B; Greve, Douglas N; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Buckner, Randy L; Manoach, Dara S; Rosen, Bruce R; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-06-01

    Local prefrontal dopamine signaling supports working memory by tuning pyramidal neurons to task-relevant stimuli. Enabled by simultaneous positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), we determined whether neuromodulatory effects of dopamine scale to the level of cortical networks and coordinate their interplay during working memory. Among network territories, mean cortical D1 receptor densities differed substantially but were strongly interrelated, suggesting cross-network regulation. Indeed, mean cortical D1 density predicted working memory-emergent decoupling of the frontoparietal and default networks, which respectively manage task-related and internal stimuli. In contrast, striatal D1 predicted opposing effects within these two networks but no between-network effects. These findings specifically link cortical dopamine signaling to network crosstalk that redirects cognitive resources to working memory, echoing neuromodulatory effects of D1 signaling on the level of cortical microcircuits.

  8. Dopamine reward prediction errors reflect hidden state inference across time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Clara Kwon; Babayan, Benedicte M.; Uchida, Naoshige; Gershman, Samuel J.

    2017-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward prediction error (RPE), or actual minus expected reward. The temporal difference (TD) learning model has been a cornerstone in understanding how dopamine RPEs could drive associative learning. Classically, TD learning imparts value to features that serially track elapsed time relative to observable stimuli. In the real world, however, sensory stimuli provide ambiguous information about the hidden state of the environment, leading to the proposal that TD learning might instead compute a value signal based on an inferred distribution of hidden states (a ‘belief state’). In this work, we asked whether dopaminergic signaling supports a TD learning framework that operates over hidden states. We found that dopamine signaling exhibited a striking difference between two tasks that differed only with respect to whether reward was delivered deterministically. Our results favor an associative learning rule that combines cached values with hidden state inference. PMID:28263301

  9. Preparation of (7,8-3H) dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiyuan; Tang Guozhong; Guo Zili

    1986-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. (7,8- 3 H) dopamine is an important tracer for the study of physiological functions and metabolic processes. It was prepared by catalytic reduction of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-8-nitro-styrene with tritium gas. At the end of reaction, hydrobromic acid was added and heated to remove the methoxyl group. The crude product was purified by paper chromatography. The purity of (7,8- 3 H) dopamine was identified by IR, UV, PC and 3 H-NMR spectra. The radiochemical purity was over 95% and the specific activity was 1.26 x 10 12 Bq/mmol (34 Ci/mmol). The distribution of labelled tritium in molecule was shown as follows: 55.4% at position 7 and 44.6% at position 8

  10. Raman Spectroscopic Signature Markers of Dopamine-Human Dopamine Transporter Interaction in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwal, Achut P; Yadav, Rajeev; Sprague, Jon E; Lu, H Peter

    2017-07-19

    Dopamine (DA) controls many psychological and behavioral activities in the central nervous system (CNS) through interactions with the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) and dopamine receptors. The roles of DA in the function of the CNS are affected by the targeted binding of drugs to hDAT; thus, hDAT plays a critical role in neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology. An effective experimental method is necessary to study the DA-hDAT interaction and effects of variety of drugs like psychostimulants and antidepressants that are dependent on this interaction. In searching for obtaining and identifying the Raman spectral signatures, we have used surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to record SERS spectra from DA, human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293), hDAT-HEK293, DA-HEK293, and DA-hDAT-HEK293. We have demonstrated a specific 2D-distribution SERS spectral analytical approach to analyze DA-hDAT interaction. Our study shows that the Raman modes at 807, 839, 1076, 1090, 1538, and 1665 cm -1 are related to DA-hDAT interaction, where Raman shifts at 807 and 1076 cm -1 are the signature markers for the bound state of DA to probe DA-hDAT interaction. On the basis of density function theory (DFT) calculation, Raman shift of the bound state of DA at 807 cm -1 is related to combination of bending modes α(C3-O10-H21), α(C2-O11-H22), α(C7-C8-H18), α(C6-C4-H13), α(C7-C8-H19), and α(C7-C8-N9), and Raman shift at 1076 cm -1 is related to combination of bending modes α(H19-N9-C8), γ(N9-H19), γ(C8-H19), γ(N9-H20), γ(C8-H18), and α(C7-C8-H18). These findings demonstrate that protein-ligand interactions can be confirmed by probing change in Raman shift of ligand molecules, which could be crucial to understanding molecular interactions between neurotransmitters and their receptors or transporters.

  11. Study and development of retinal dopamine nervous system in experimental myopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Juan; Liu Xingdang

    2007-01-01

    Myopia is the most familiar ametropia. Animal experimental models include form deprivation myopia and defocus myopia. Experimental animals we often use are chicken and mammals. The retinal dopamine system and vision experience have close relations with the regulation of eyeball's growth after birth, while the change of dopamine transporter may reflect the change of dopamine in the synaptic cleft more directly. (authors)

  12. The crystal structure of human dopamine  β-hydroxylase at 2.9 Å resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Trine Vammen; Harris, Pernille; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    , Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and cocaine dependence. We report the crystal structure of human dopamine β-hydroxylase, which is the enzyme converting dopamine to norepinephrine. The structure of the DOMON (dopamine β-monooxygenase N-terminal) domain, also found in >1600...

  13. The Aversive Agent Lithium Chloride Suppresses Phasic Dopamine Release Through Central GLP-1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Chartoff, Elena H; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2016-02-01

    Unconditioned rewarding stimuli evoke phasic increases in dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) while discrete aversive stimuli elicit pauses in dopamine neuron firing and reductions in NAc dopamine concentration. The unconditioned effects of more prolonged aversive states on dopamine release dynamics are not well understood and are investigated here using the malaise-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl). We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic increases in NAc dopamine resulting from electrical stimulation of dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Systemic LiCl injection reduced electrically evoked dopamine release in the NAc of both anesthetized and awake rats. As some behavioral effects of LiCl appear to be mediated through glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation, we hypothesized that the suppression of phasic dopamine by LiCl is GLP-1R dependent. Indeed, peripheral pretreatment with the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) potently attenuated the LiCl-induced suppression of dopamine. Pretreatment with Ex-9 did not, however, affect the suppression of phasic dopamine release by the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, supporting a selective effect of GLP-1R stimulation in LiCl-induced dopamine suppression. By delivering Ex-9 to either the lateral or fourth ventricle, we highlight a population of central GLP-1 receptors rostral to the hindbrain that are involved in the LiCl-mediated suppression of NAc dopamine release.

  14. No association between striatal dopamine transporter binding and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Hesse, Swen; Caan, Matthan W A

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is one among several neurotransmitters that regulate food intake and overeating. Thus, it has been linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and high body mass index (BMI). Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor availability is lower in obesity and there are indications that striatal dopamine...... transporter (DAT) availability is also decreased. In this study, we tested whether BMI and striatal DAT availability are associated....

  15. Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro eUeno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling.

  16. Reliance on habits at the expense of goal-directed control following dopamine precursor depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Standing, H.R.; DeVito, E.E.; Robinson, O.J.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Robbins, T.W.; Sahakian, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Dopamine is well known to play an important role in learning and motivation. Recent animal studies have implicated dopamine in the reinforcement of stimulus-response habits, as well as in flexible, goal-directed action. However, the role of dopamine in human action control is still not

  17. Research Review: Dopamine Transfer Deficit: A Neurobiological Theory of Altered Reinforcement Mechanisms in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R.

    2008-01-01

    This review considers the hypothesis that changes in dopamine signalling might account for altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement in children with ADHD. The existing evidence regarding dopamine cell activity in relation to positive reinforcement is reviewed. We focus on the anticipatory firing of dopamine cells brought about by a transfer…

  18. Dopamine controls Parkinson's tremor by inhibiting the cerebellar thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, Michiel F; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Aarts, Esther; Timmer, Monique H M; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan; Helmich, Rick C

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson's resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic medication reduces tremor in some patients, but many patients have a dopamine-resistant tremor. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test how a dopaminergic intervention influences the cerebral circuit involved in Parkinson's tremor. From a sample of 40 patients with Parkinson's disease, we selected 15 patients with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. We compared tremor-related activity and effective connectivity (using combined electromyography-functional magnetic resonance imaging) on two occasions: ON and OFF dopaminergic medication. Building on a recently developed cerebral model of Parkinson's tremor, we tested the effect of dopamine on cerebral activity associated with the onset of tremor episodes (in the basal ganglia) and with tremor amplitude (in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit). Dopaminergic medication reduced clinical resting tremor scores (mean 28%, range -12 to 68%). Furthermore, dopaminergic medication reduced tremor onset-related activity in the globus pallidus and tremor amplitude-related activity in the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus. Network analyses using dynamic causal modelling showed that dopamine directly increased self-inhibition of the ventral intermediate nucleus, rather than indirectly influencing the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit through the basal ganglia. Crucially, the magnitude of thalamic self-inhibition predicted the clinical dopamine response of tremor. Dopamine reduces resting tremor by potentiating inhibitory mechanisms in a cerebellar nucleus of the thalamus (ventral intermediate nucleus). This suggests that altered dopaminergic projections to the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit have a role

  19. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 μM) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 μM) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 μM) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD

  20. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutsch, Victoria L; Will, Ryan G; Robison, Christopher L; Martz, Julia R; Tobiansky, Daniel J; Dominguez, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, vs. animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience.

  1. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, V; Thompson, A C; Cassis, L A; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2013-08-01

    A rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to determine dopamine transporter (DAT) function, impulsivity and motivation as neurobehavioral outcomes and predictors of obesity. To evaluate neurobehavioral alterations following the development of DIO induced by an 8-week high-fat diet (HF) exposure, striatal D2-receptor density, DAT function and expression, extracellular dopamine concentrations, impulsivity, and motivation for high- and low-fat reinforcers were determined. To determine predictors of DIO, neurobehavioral antecedents including impulsivity, motivation for high-fat reinforcers, DAT function and extracellular dopamine were evaluated before the 8-week HF exposure. Striatal D2-receptor density was determined by in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]raclopride binding. DAT function was determined using in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]dopamine uptake, methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow and no-net flux in vivo microdialysis. DAT cell-surface expression was determined using biotinylation and western blotting. Impulsivity and food-motivated behavior were determined using a delay discounting task and progressive ratio schedule, respectively. Relative to obesity-resistant (OR) rats, obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited 18% greater body weight following an 8-week HF-diet exposure, 42% lower striatal D2-receptor density, 30% lower total DAT expression, 40% lower in vitro and in vivo DAT function, 45% greater extracellular dopamine and twofold greater methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow. OP rats exhibited higher motivation for food, and surprisingly, were less impulsive relative to OR rats. Impulsivity, in vivo DAT function and extracellular dopamine concentration did not predict DIO. Importantly, motivation for high-fat reinforcers predicted the development of DIO. Human studies are limited by their ability to determine if impulsivity, motivation and DAT function are causes or consequences of DIO. The current animal model shows that

  2. Dopamine Manipulation Affects Response Vigor Independently of Opportunity Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zénon, Alexandre; Devesse, Sophie; Olivier, Etienne

    2016-09-14

    Dopamine is known to be involved in regulating effort investment in relation to reward, and the disruption of this mechanism is thought to be central in some pathological situations such as Parkinson's disease, addiction, and depression. According to an influential model, dopamine plays this role by encoding the opportunity cost, i.e., the average value of forfeited actions, which is an important parameter to take into account when making decisions about which action to undertake and how fast to execute it. We tested this hypothesis by asking healthy human participants to perform two effort-based decision-making tasks, following either placebo or levodopa intake in a double blind within-subject protocol. In the effort-constrained task, there was a trade-off between the amount of force exerted and the time spent in executing the task, such that investing more effort decreased the opportunity cost. In the time-constrained task, the effort duration was constant, but exerting more force allowed the subject to earn more substantial reward instead of saving time. Contrary to the model predictions, we found that levodopa caused an increase in the force exerted only in the time-constrained task, in which there was no trade-off between effort and opportunity cost. In addition, a computational model showed that dopamine manipulation left the opportunity cost factor unaffected but altered the ratio between the effort cost and reinforcement value. These findings suggest that dopamine does not represent the opportunity cost but rather modulates how much effort a given reward is worth. Dopamine has been proposed in a prevalent theory to signal the average reward rate, used to estimate the cost of investing time in an action, also referred to as opportunity cost. We contrasted the effect of dopamine manipulation in healthy participants in two tasks, in which increasing response vigor (i.e., the amount of effort invested in an action) allowed either to save time or to earn more

  3. Carbon nanopillars for enhanced stem cell differentiation and dopamine detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, Ada-Ioana; Amato, Letizia; Valsesia, Andrea

    of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) into dopaminergic neurons and that they can also be employed for detecting dopamine release from mature neurons attached to them [1]. Here, we report 3D carbon nanopillars, fabricated through colloidal lithography, with even more pronounced effect on the electrochemical......Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a deficit of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter involved in the motor function. One of the future ideas for treatment is cell replacement therapy. Our group has previously shown that pyrolysed 3D carbon micropillars induce spontaneous differentiation...

  4. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Schlyer, D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Alpert, R.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.; Bendriem, B.; Christman, D.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated [ 18 F]N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of [ 18 F]N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval

  5. Strontium vanadate nanoribbons: Synthesis, characterization and detection of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qing; Shao, Mingwang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale, high-purity and uniform strontium vanadate (Sr 2 V 2 O 7 ) nanoribbons were easily synthesized via a hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The as-prepared products were up to hundreds of micrometers in length, 200-600 nm in width, and 20 nm in thickness. These nanomaterials were employed to modify glassy carbon electrode, which displayed excellent electrochemical sensitivity in detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. A linear relationship between the concentrations of dopamine and its oxidation peak currents was obtained. The modified electrode exhibited high reproducibility and stability, which might be found potential application in the biosensors.

  6. [11]Cocaine: PET studies of cocaine pharmacokinetics, dopamine transporter availability and dopamine transporter occupancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Gatley, S. John; Logan, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Cocaine was initially labeled with carbon-11 in order to track the distribution and pharmacokinetics of this powerful stimulant and drug of abuse in the human brain and body. It was soon discovered that [ 11 C]cocaine was not only useful for measuring cocaine pharmacokinetics and its relationship to behavior but that it is also a sensitive radiotracer for dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. Measures of DAT availability were facilitated by the development of a graphical analysis method (Logan Plot) for reversible systems which streamlined kinetic analysis. This expanded the applications of [ 11 C]cocaine to studies of DAT availability in the human brain and allowed the first comparative measures of the degree of DAT occupancy by cocaine and another stimulant drug methylphenidate. This article will summarize preclinical and clinical research with [ 11 C]cocaine

  7. Understanding dopamine and reinforcement learning: the dopamine reward prediction error hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-09-13

    A number of recent advances have been achieved in the study of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Understanding these advances and how they relate to one another requires a deep understanding of the computational models that serve as an explanatory framework and guide ongoing experimental inquiry. This intertwining of theory and experiment now suggests very clearly that the phasic activity of the midbrain dopamine neurons provides a global mechanism for synaptic modification. These synaptic modifications, in turn, provide the mechanistic underpinning for a specific class of reinforcement learning mechanisms that now seem to underlie much of human and animal behavior. This review describes both the critical empirical findings that are at the root of this conclusion and the fantastic theoretical advances from which this conclusion is drawn.

  8. Estradiol increases the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons to dopamine and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha J Vandegrift

    Full Text Available Gender differences in psychiatric disorders such as addiction may be modulated by the steroid hormone estrogen. For instance, 17β-estradiol (E2, the predominant form of circulating estrogen in pre-menopausal females, increases ethanol consumption, suggesting that E2 may affect the rewarding properties of ethanol and thus the development of alcohol use disorder in females. The ventral tegmental area (VTA is critically involved in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of ethanol. In order to determine the role of E2 in VTA physiology, gonadally intact female mice were sacrificed during diestrus II (high E2 or estrus (low E2 for electrophysiology recordings. We measured the excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine (DA of VTA DA neurons and found that both excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine were greater in diestrus II compared with estrus. Treatment of VTA slices from mice in diestrus II with an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780 reduced ethanol-stimulated neuronal firing, but had no effect on ethanol-stimulated firing of neurons in slices from mice in estrus. Surprisingly, ICI 182,780 did not affect the inhibition by DA, indicating different mechanisms of action of estrogen receptors in altering ethanol and DA responses. We also examined the responses of VTA DA neurons to ethanol and DA in ovariectomized mice treated with E2 and found that E2 treatment enhanced the responses to ethanol and DA in a manner similar to what we observed in mice in diestrus II. Our data indicate that E2 modulates VTA neuron physiology, which may contribute to both the enhanced reinforcing and rewarding effects of alcohol and the development of other psychiatric disorders in females that involve alterations in DA neurotransmission.

  9. Dopamine enhances duodenal epithelial permeability via the dopamine D5 receptor in rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X-Y; Zhang, D-N; Wang, Y-A; Fan, R-F; Hong, F; Zhang, Y; Li, Y; Zhu, J-X

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal barrier is made up of epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes to regulate epithelial ion transport and permeability. Dopamine (DA) is able to promote duodenal epithelial ion transport through D1-like receptors, which includes subtypes of D 1 (D 1 R) and D 5 (D 5 R), but whether D1-like receptors influence the duodenal permeability is unclear. FITC-dextran permeability, short-circuit current (I SC ), Western blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used in human D 5 R transgenic mice and hyperendogenous enteric DA (HEnD) rats in this study. Dopamine induced a downward deflection in I SC and an increase in FITC-dextran permeability of control rat duodenum, which were inhibited by the D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH-23390. However, DA decreased duodenal transepithelial resistance (TER), an effect also reversed by SCH-23390. A strong immunofluorescence signal for D 5 R, but not D 1 R, was observed in the duodenum of control rat. In human D 5 R knock-in transgenic mice, duodenal mucosa displayed an increased basal I SC with high FITC-dextran permeability and decreased TER with a lowered expression of tight junction proteins, suggesting attenuated duodenal barrier function in these transgenic mice. D 5 R knock-down transgenic mice manifested a decreased basal I SC with lowered FITC-dextran permeability. Moreover, an increased FITC-dextran permeability combined with decreased TER and tight junction protein expression in duodenal mucosa were also observed in HEnD rats. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that DA enhances duodenal permeability of control rat via D 5 R, which provides new experimental and theoretical evidence for the influence of DA on duodenal epithelial barrier function. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regenerative, Highly-Sensitive, Non-Enzymatic Dopamine Sensor and Impact of Different Buffer Systems in Dopamine Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Joshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used extensively in ultra-sensitive biomolecule sensing applications. Along with high sensitivity, the possibility of regeneration is highly desired in bio-sensors. An important constituent of such bio-sensing systems is the buffer used to maintain pH and provide an ionic conducting medium, among its other properties. In this work, we demonstrate highly-sensitive regenerative dopamine sensors and the impact of varying buffer composition and type on the electrolyte gated field effect sensors. The role of the buffer system is an often ignored condition in the electrical characterization of sensors. Non-enzymatic dopamine sensors are fabricated and regenerated in hydrochloric acid (HCl solution. The sensors are finally measured against four different buffer solutions. The impact of the nature and chemical structure of buffer molecules on the dopamine sensors is shown, and the appropriate buffer systems are demonstrated.

  11. Differential regulation of dopamine receptors after chronic typical and atypical antipsychotic drug treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, I; Florijn, W J; Tarazi, F I [Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1997-04-14

    Changes in dopamine receptor subtype binding in different brain regions were examined after 28 days treatment of rats with haloperidol, raclopride, clozapine or SCH23390 using in vitro receptor autoradiography. [{sup 3}H]7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin binding to dopamine D{sub 3} receptors was not changed in any brain region by any of the drug treatments. [{sup 3}H]SCH23390 was only increased by chronic SCH23390 treatment. Haloperidol significantly increased [{sup 3}H]nemonapride and [{sup 3}H]spiperone binding to dopamine D{sub 2}-like receptors in the caudate-putamen. In contrast, haloperidol caused a small, significant increase in [{sup 3}H]raclopride binding in the lateral caudate-putamen only. Raclopride also elevated, but to a lesser extent [{sup 3}H]nemonapride and [{sup 3}H]spiperone binding in caudate-putamen, whereas it did not affect [{sup 3}H]raclopride binding. Clozapine did not significantly change D{sub 2}-like striatal binding of [{sup 3}H]nemonapride, [{sup 3}H]spiperone or [{sup 3}H]raclopride. The differences in radioligand binding suggest that [{sup 3}H]nemonapride and [{sup 3}H]spiperone may be binding to additional subsets of dopamine D{sub 2}-like receptors (including D{sub 4}-like receptors) that are not recognized by [{sup 3}H]raclopride, which has high affinity for D{sub 2} and D{sub 3} receptors only.Quantification of [{sup 3}H]nemonapride or [{sup 3}H]spiperone binding in the presence of 300 nM raclopride (to block D{sub 2} and D{sub 3} receptors) revealed that haloperidol, raclopride and clozapine up-regulated D{sub 4}-like receptors in the caudate-putamen using either radioligand. These results suggest that D{sub 4}-like receptors may be a common site of action of both typical and atypical antipsychotics. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A de Souza Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dopamine (DA, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA, nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [123I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor.Methods: Rats were administered intranasal application of 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH, with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [123I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT two hours following administration of the radioligand. Results: 1 After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered dopamine had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration. 2 DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant

  13. Putting Desire on a Budget: Dopamine and Energy Expenditure, Reconciling Reward and Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the ‘reward deficiency hypothesis’ as a

  14. Dopamine system: Manager of neural pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eHong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1 the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel neural pathways (NPs. The DA system can be viewed as the manager of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2 there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to maintain a certain level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb, the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations.

  15. Dopamine activates masculine sexual behavior independent of the estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersinger, S R; Rissman, E F

    2000-06-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is believed to be a critical part of the regulatory processes involved in normal reproduction and sexual behavior. However, in this study we show the ERalpha is not required for display of masculine sexual behavior. Male and female, ERalpha knock-out (ERalphaKO) and wild-type mice were gonadectomized and implanted with testosterone. Sexual behavior and social preferences were tested after injection of the dopamine agonist, apomorphine (APO), or vehicle. All wild-type mice showed normal masculine behavior, including mounts and pelvic thrusts in females, and ejaculation in males. In agreement with past reports, ERalphaKO mice, given vehicle, failed to show mating behavior. Yet, ERalphaKO males given APO showed masculine copulatory behavior and chemoinvestigatory behavior directed at females. ERalphaKO females, treated with APO, mounted and thrusted when tested with receptive females. HPLC revealed that wild-type and ERalphaKO mice had equivalent catecholamine content in brain regions associated with masculine sexual behavior. These data show that the ERalpha is not essential during development or adulthood for the expression of masculine sexual behavior in mice. Moreover, dopamine can activate sexual behavior via a mechanism that either acts on an ER other than ERalpha or via an estrogen-independent pathway.

  16. Chronic Stressors and Adolescents' Externalizing Problems: Genetic Moderation by Dopamine Receptor D4. The TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Ormel, Johan; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2018-01-01

    The existing literature does not provide consistent evidence that carriers of the Dopamine D4 Receptor 7-repeat allele are more sensitive to adverse environmental influences, resulting in enhanced externalizing problems, compared to noncarriers. One explanation is that the adverse influences examined in prior studies were not severe, chronic, or distressing enough to reveal individual differences in sensitivity reflected by DRD4-7R. This study examined whether the 7-repeat allele moderated the association between chronic stressors capturing multiple stressful aspects of individuals' lives and externalizing problems in adolescence. We expected that chronic stressor levels would be associated with externalizing levels only in 7-repeat carriers. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1621 Dutch adolescents (52.2% boys), obtained in three measurement waves (mean age approximately 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) population-based birth cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort. Across informants, we found that higher levels of chronic stressors were related to higher externalizing levels in 7-repeat carriers but not in noncarriers, as hypothesized. Although previous studies on the 7-repeat allele as a moderator of environmental influences on adolescents' externalizing problems have not convincingly demonstrated individual differences in sensitivity to adverse environmental influences, our findings suggest that adolescent carriers of the Dopamine D4 Receptor 7-repeat allele are more sensitive to chronic, multi-context stressors than noncarriers.

  17. Imaging of D2 dopamine receptors of patients with Parkinson's disease using SPECT and 131I-IBZM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Jian; Jiang Yuping; Lu Chuanzhen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of SPECT with 131 I-IBZM in imaging of D 2 Dopamine receptors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Six patients which early unmedicated PD, six patients with moderate or advanced PD treated with long-term oral L-Dopa and Four control subjects were investigated with SPECT using 131 I-IBZM as dopamine receptor ligand. The ratio of basal ganglia to occipital cortex (BG/OC) and ratio of basal ganglia to frontal cortex (BG/FC) were calculated as semiquantitative parameter of striatal D 2 dopamine receptor's function. Results: The SPECT images revealed high uptake of IBZM in the basal ganglia. In the early unmedicated PD group, the BG/PC and BG/FC rates were significantly higher in the striatum contralateral to the parkinsonism. In the moderate or advanced PD group, no significant differences were observed bilaterally, and the BG/OC and the BG/FC rates in this group was lower than those of the control. Conclusion: 131 I-IBZM with SPECT imaging is useful in evaluating patients with Parkinson's disease

  18. Striatal dopamine in Parkinson disease: A meta-analysis of imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasinen, Valtteri; Vahlberg, Tero

    2017-12-01

    A meta-analysis of 142 positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography studies that have investigated striatal presynaptic dopamine function in Parkinson disease (PD) was performed. Subregional estimates of striatal dopamine metabolism are presented. The aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) defect appears to be consistently smaller than the dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 defects, suggesting upregulation of AADC function in PD. The correlation between disease severity and dopamine loss appears linear, but the majority of longitudinal studies point to a negative exponential progression pattern of dopamine loss in PD. Ann Neurol 2017;82:873-882. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  19. Blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors attenuates the mania-like hyperactive, risk-preferring, and high motivation behavioral profile of mice with low dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Groenink, Lucianne; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine transporter expression recreates many bipolar disorder mania-relevant behaviors (i.e. hyperactivity and risk-taking). The current study investigated whether dopamine D 1 -family receptor blockade would attenuate the risk-taking, hypermotivation, and hyperactivity of dopamine transporter knockdown mice. Dopamine transporter knockdown and wild-type littermate mice were tested in mouse versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (risk-taking), Progressive Ratio Breakpoint Test (effortful motivation), and Behavioral Pattern Monitor (activity). Prior to testing, the mice were treated with the dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 hydrochloride (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg), or vehicle. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited hyperactivity and hyperexploration, hypermotivation, and risk-taking preference compared with wild-type littermates. SCH 23390 hydrochloride treatment decreased premature responding in dopamine transporter knockdown mice and attenuated their hypermotivation. SCH 23390 hydrochloride flattened the safe/risk preference, while reducing activity and exploratory levels of both genotypes similarly. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited mania-relevant behavior compared to wild-type mice. Systemic dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonism attenuated these behaviors in dopamine transporter knockdown, but not all effects were specific to only the knockdown mice. The normalization of behavior via blockade of dopamine D 1 -family receptors supports the hypothesis that D 1 and/or D 5 receptors could contribute to the mania-relevant behaviors of dopamine transporter knockdown mice.

  20. Dopamine en overmatig alcoholgebruik: genen in interactie met hun omgeving [Dopamine and excessive alcohol consumption: how genes interact with their environment

    OpenAIRE

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Verkes, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    background Hereditary factors account for approximately 50% of the risk of developing alcohol dependence. Genes that affect the dopamine function in the brain have been extensively studied as candidate genes. aim To present the results of recent Dutch studies on the interaction between genes and their environment in relation to dopamine function and excessive alcohol use. method Two large scale research projects were recently carried out in order to study the relation between dopamine genes a...

  1. The role of the dopamine D1 receptor in social cognition: studies using a novel genetic rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.; VandenBroeke, M.; Youn, J.; Ellenbroek, A.K.; Karel, P.; Shan, L.; Boxtel, R. van; Ooms, S.; Balemans, M.; Langedijk, J.; Muller, M.; Vriend, G.; Cools, A.R.; Cuppen, E.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition is an endophenotype that is impaired in schizophrenia and several other (comorbid) psychiatric disorders. One of the modulators of social cognition is dopamine, but its role is not clear. The effects of dopamine are mediated through dopamine receptors, including the dopamine D1

  2. The role of the dopamine D1 receptor in social cognition : Studies using a novel genetic rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D A; VandenBroeke, Marie; Youn, Jiun; Ellenbroek, Arabella K.; Karel, Peter; Shan, Ling; Van Boxtel, Ruben; Ooms, Sharon; Balemans, Monique; Langedijk, Jacqueline; Muller, Mareike; Vriend, Gert; Cools, Alexander R.; Cuppen, Edwin; Ellenbroek, Bart A.

    2016-01-01

    Social cognitionisan endophenotype that is impaired in schizophrenia and several other (comorbid) psychiatric disorders. One of the modulators of social cognition is dopamine, but its role is not clear. The effects of dopamine are mediated through dopamine receptors, including the dopamine D1

  3. The role of the dopamine D1 receptor in social cognition : Studies using a novel genetic rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J R; Olivier, J D A; VandenBroeke, M; Youn, J; Ellenbroek, A K; Karel, P; Shan, L; van Boxtel, R; Ooms, S; Balemans, M; Langedijk, J; Muller, M; Vriend, G; Cools, A R; Cuppen, E; Ellenbroek, B A

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition is an endophenotype that is impaired in schizophrenia and several other (comorbid) psychiatric disorders. One of the modulators of social cognition is dopamine, but its role is not clear. The effects of dopamine are mediated through dopamine receptors, including the dopamine D1

  4. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  5. [123I]Epidepride neuroimaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptor in chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuan-Ruei; Shih, Jun-Ming; Chang, Kang-Wei; Huang, Chieh; Wu, Yu-Lung; Chen, Chia-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: [ 123 I]Epidepride is a radio-tracer with very high affinity for dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptors in brain. The importance of alteration in dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding condition has been wildly verified in schizophrenia. In the present study we set up a rat schizophrenia model by chronic injection of a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, to examine if [ 123 I]epidepride could be used to evaluate the alterations of dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding condition in specific brain regions. Method: Rats were given repeated injection of MK-801 (dissolved in saline, 0.3 mg/kg) or saline for 1 month. Afterwards, total distance traveled (cm) and social interaction changes were recorded. Radiochemical purity of [ 123 I]epidepride was analyzed by Radio-Thin-Layer Chromatography (chloroform: methanol, 9:1, v/v) and [ 123 I]epidepride neuroimages were obtained by ex vivo autoradiography and small animal SPECT/CT. Data obtained were then analyzed to determine the changes of specific binding ratio. Result: Chronic MK-801 treatment for a month caused significantly increased local motor activity and induced an inhibition of social interaction. As shown in [ 123 I]epidepride ex vivo autoradiographs, MK-801 induced a decrease of specific binding ratio in the striatum (24.01%), hypothalamus (35.43%), midbrain (41.73%) and substantia nigra (37.93%). In addition, [ 123 I]epidepride small animal SPECT/CT neuroimaging was performed in the striatum and midbrain. There were statistically significant decreases in specific binding ratio in both the striatum (P 123 I]epidepride is a useful radio-tracer to reveal the alterations of dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding in a rat schizophrenia model and is also helpful to evaluate therapeutic effects of schizophrenia in the future.

  6. Evidence for distinct sodium-, dopamine-, and cocaine-dependent conformational changes in transmembrane segments 7 and 8 of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Lene; Loland, Claus Juul; Gether, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    . Inhibitors such as cocaine did not alter the effect of MTSET in M371C. The protection of M371C inactivation by dopamine required Na+. Because dopamine binding is believed to be Na+-independent, this suggests that dopamine induces a transport-associated conformational change that decreases the reactivity of M......371C with MTSET. In contrast to M371C, cocaine decreased the reaction rate of A399C with MTSET, whereas dopamine had no effect. The protection by cocaine can either reflect that Ala-399 lines the cocaine binding crevice or that cocaine induces a conformational change that decreases the reactivity of A...

  7. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  8. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, J.; Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [ 11 C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  9. A peptide disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects against dopamine neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; Liu, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Dopamine reuptake from extracellular space to cytosol leads to accumulation of dopamine, which triggers neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies have shown that both dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) are involved in dopamine neurotoxicity. However, blockade of either D2R or DAT causes side effects due to antagonism of other physiological functions of these two proteins. We previously found that DAT can form a protein complex with D2R and its cell surface expression is facilitated via D2R-DAT interaction, which regulates dopamine reuptake and intracellular dopamine levels. Here we found that an interfering peptide (DAT-S1) disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects neurons against dopamine neurotoxicity, and this effect is mediated by inhibiting DAT cell surface expression and inhibiting both caspase-3 and PARP-1 cleavage. This study demonstrates the role of the D2R-DAT complex in dopamine neurotoxicity and investigated the potential mechanisms, which might help better understand the mechanisms of dopamine neurotoxicity. The peptide may provide some insights to improve treatments for dopamine neurotoxicity and related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, as well as methamphetamine- and 3,4-methsylenedioxy methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Dopamine and serotonin: influences on male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Elaine M; Muschamp, John W; Sato, Satoru

    2004-11-15

    Steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior primarily by slow, genomically mediated effects. These effects are realized, in part, by enhancing the processing of relevant sensory stimuli, altering the synthesis, release, and/or receptors for neurotransmitters in integrative areas, and increasing the responsiveness of appropriate motor outputs. Dopamine has facilitative effects on sexual motivation, copulatory proficiency, and genital reflexes. Dopamine in the nigrostriatal tract influences motor activity; in the mesolimbic tract it activates numerous motivated behaviors, including copulation; in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) it controls genital reflexes, copulatory patterns, and specifically sexual motivation. Testosterone increases nitric oxide synthase in the MPOA; nitric oxide increases basal and female-stimulated dopamine release, which in turn facilitates copulation and genital reflexes. Serotonin (5-HT) is primarily inhibitory, although stimulation of 5-HT(2C) receptors increases erections and inhibits ejaculation, whereas stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors has the opposite effects: facilitation of ejaculation and, in some circumstances, inhibition of erection. 5-HT is released in the anterior lateral hypothalamus at the time of ejaculation. Microinjections of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors there delay the onset of copulation and delay ejaculation after copulation begins. One means for this inhibition is a decrease in dopamine release in the mesolimbic tract.

  11. Parkinsonism in phenylketonuria: a consequence of dopamine depletion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, Marieke; Boot, Erik; Engelen, Marc; Hollak, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by a deficiency or inactivity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase that converts phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr). It has been proposed that a reduction of brain Tyr levels, as well as reduced activity of the key regulatory enzyme of dopamine (DA) synthesis

  12. Imaging of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Technological advances in molecular imaging made it possible to image synaptic neurotransmitter concentration in living human brain. The dopaminergic system has been most intensively studied because of its importance in neurological as well as psychiatric disorders. This paper provides a brief overview of recent progress in imaging studies of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations.

  13. Dopamine receptors - physiological understanding to therapeutic intervention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilien, G; Maloteaux, JM; Hoogenberg, K; Cragg, S

    1999-01-01

    There are two families of dopamine (DA) receptors, called D(1) and D(2), respectively. The D(1) family consists of D(1)- and D(5)-receptor subtypes and the D(2) family consists of D(2)-, D(3)-, and D(4)-receptor subtypes. The amino acid sequences of these receptors show that they all belong to a

  14. Dopamine controls Parkinson's tremor by inhibiting the cerebellar thalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, M.F.M.; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Aarts, E.; Timmer, M.H.M.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.; Helmich, R.C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic

  15. TFH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in germinal centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ilenia; Saliba, David; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Bustamante, Sonia; Canete, Pablo F; Gonzalez-Figueroa, Paula; McNamara, Hayley A; Valvo, Salvatore; Grimbaldeston, Michele; Sweet, Rebecca A; Vohra, Harpreet; Cockburn, Ian A; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Dustin, Michael L; Doglioni, Claudio; Vinuesa, Carola G

    2017-07-20

    Protective high-affinity antibody responses depend on competitive selection of B cells carrying somatically mutated B-cell receptors by follicular helper T (T FH ) cells in germinal centres. The rapid T-B-cell interactions that occur during this process are reminiscent of neural synaptic transmission pathways. Here we show that a proportion of human T FH cells contain dense-core granules marked by chromogranin B, which are normally found in neuronal presynaptic terminals storing catecholamines such as dopamine. T FH cells produce high amounts of dopamine and release it upon cognate interaction with B cells. Dopamine causes rapid translocation of intracellular ICOSL (inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand, also known as ICOSLG) to the B-cell surface, which enhances accumulation of CD40L and chromogranin B granules at the human T FH cell synapse and increases the synapse area. Mathematical modelling suggests that faster dopamine-induced T-B-cell interactions increase total germinal centre output and accelerate it by days. Delivery of neurotransmitters across the T-B-cell synapse may be advantageous in the face of infection.

  16. Dopamine natriuresis in salt-repleted, water-loaded humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Olsen, M H; Bonde, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to define the dose-response relationship between exogenous dopamine and systemic haemodynamics, renal haemodynamics, and renal excretory function at infusion rates in the range 0 to 12.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) in normal volunteers....

  17. Leptin regulates dopamine responses to sustained stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Paul R; Love, Tiffany M; Stohler, Christian S; Hodgkinson, Colin; Shen, Pei-Hong; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2012-10-31

    Neural systems that identify and respond to salient stimuli are critical for survival in a complex and changing environment. In addition, interindividual differences, including genetic variation and hormonal and metabolic status likely influence the behavioral strategies and neuronal responses to environmental challenges. Here, we examined the relationship between leptin allelic variation and plasma leptin levels with DAD2/3R availability in vivo as measured with [(11)C]raclopride PET at baseline and during a standardized pain stress challenge. Allelic variation in the leptin gene was associated with varying levels of dopamine release in response to the pain stressor, but not with baseline D2/3 receptor availability. Circulating leptin was also positively associated with stress-induced dopamine release. These results show that leptin serves as a regulator of neuronal function in humans and provides an etiological mechanism for differences in dopamine neurotransmission in response to salient stimuli as related to metabolic function. The capacity for leptin to influence stress-induced dopaminergic function is of importance for pathological states where dopamine is thought to play an integral role, such as mood, substance-use disorders, eating disorders, and obesity.

  18. Preparation and characterization of dopamine-decorated hydrophilic carbon black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lijun; Lu Yonglai [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Yiqing [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Wencai, E-mail: wangw@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by the bio-adhesive proteins secreted by mussels for attachment to almost all wet substrates, a facile method involving oxidative polymerization of dopamine was proposed to prepare highly hydrophilic carbon black (CB) particles. A self-assembled polydopamine (PDA) ad-layer was formed via the oxidative polymerization of dopamine on the surface of CB simply by dipping the CB into an alkaline dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. The process is simple, controllable, and environment-friendly. The surface composition and structure of the CB were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of the CB was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the PDA ad-layer was successfully deposited on the CB surfaces. The PDA-functionalized CB (CB-PDA) gave a stable colloidal dispersion in water. Contact angle measurement results indicated that the hydrophilicity of CB was significantly improved after dopamine modification. TGA results confirmed that the modified CB maintained good heat resistance. The method provided a facile route to prepare hydrophilic CB having terminal hydroxyl groups.

  19. Dopamine receptors - physiological understanding to therapeutic intervention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilien, G; Maloteaux, JM; Hoogenberg, K; Cragg, S

    There are two families of dopamine (DA) receptors, called D(1) and D(2), respectively. The D(1) family consists of D(1)- and D(5)-receptor subtypes and the D(2) family consists of D(2)-, D(3)-, and D(4)-receptor subtypes. The amino acid sequences of these receptors show that they all belong to a

  20. Study on dopamine D2 binding capacity in vascular parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashi, Hiroo; Nagata, Ken; Hirata, Yutaka; Hatazawa, Jun; Utsumi, Hiroya

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether the striatal dopamine receptor function is involved in the development of vascular parkinsonism (VP), a positron emission tomography (PET) study was conducted on 9 patients with VP by using [ 11 C] N-methylspiperone as the tracer. The rate of binding availability in the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor (k 3 ) was determined semiquantitatively, and the values were compared to the predicted normal values based on the results from 7 normal volunteers. Of 9 patients with VP, the normalized D 2 receptor binding [%k 3 ] was more than 90% in 5 patients, 89 to 87% in 3, and 75% in one. These values showed no evident correlation with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. The laterality of the striatal %k 3 did not correspond to that of the parkinsonism. Thus, the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor binding was not severely impaired and did not correlate with the neurological status in patients with VP. This may indicate that striatal dopamine D 2 receptor function is not primarily associated with the development of the parkinsonism in VP. (author)

  1. Dopamine and reward: the anhedonia hypothesis 30 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Roy A

    2008-10-01

    The anhedonia hypothesis--that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards--was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat a condition involving anhedonia (schizophrenia), attenuated in laboratory animals the positive reinforcement that we normally associate with pleasure. The hypothesis held only brief interest for psychiatrists, who pointed out that the animal studies reflected acute actions of neuroleptics whereas the treatment of schizophrenia appears to result from neuroadaptations to chronic neuroleptic administration, and that it is the positive symptoms of schizophrenia that neuroleptics alleviate, rather than the negative symptoms that include anhedonia. Perhaps for these reasons, the hypothesis has had minimal impact in the psychiatric literature. Despite its limited heuristic value for the understanding of schizophrenia, however, the anhedonia hypothesis has had major impact on biological theories of reinforcement, motivation, and addiction. Brain dopamine plays a very important role in reinforcement of response habits, conditioned preferences, and synaptic plasticity in cellular models of learning and memory. The notion that dopamine plays a dominant role in reinforcement is fundamental to the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction, to most neuroadaptation theories of addiction, and to current theories of conditioned reinforcement and reward prediction. Properly understood, it is also fundamental to recent theories of incentive motivation.

  2. Dopamine and Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weintraub, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that impulse control disorders (ICDs), including compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating, can occur as a complication of Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, other impulsive or compulsive disorders have been reported to occur, including dopamine

  3. Nucleus Accumbens Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Dopamine and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne L; Aitken, Tara J; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Ostlund, Sean B; Wassum, Kate M

    2016-11-01

    Environmental reward-predictive cues can motivate reward-seeking behaviors. Although this influence is normally adaptive, it can become maladaptive in disordered states, such as addiction. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) is known to mediate the motivational impact of reward-predictive cues, but little is known about how other neuromodulatory systems contribute to cue-motivated behavior. Here, we examined the role of the NAc cholinergic receptor system in cue-motivated behavior using a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task designed to assess the motivating influence of a reward-predictive cue over an independently-trained instrumental action. Disruption of NAc muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activity attenuated, whereas blockade of nicotinic receptors augmented cue-induced invigoration of reward seeking. We next examined a potential dopaminergic mechanism for this behavioral effect by combining fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with local pharmacological acetylcholine receptor manipulation. The data show evidence of opposing modulation of cue-evoked dopamine release, with muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists causing suppression and augmentation, respectively, consistent with the behavioral effects of these manipulations. In addition to demonstrating cholinergic modulation of naturally-evoked and behaviorally-relevant dopamine signaling, these data suggest that NAc cholinergic receptors may gate the expression of cue-motivated behavior through modulation of phasic dopamine release.

  4. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J.M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C.M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A.H.

    Background:Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced

  5. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J. M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced

  6. Dynamic shaping of dopamine signals during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Andrew S; Clark, Jeremy J; Phillips, Paul E M

    2015-01-01

    Cue- and reward-evoked phasic dopamine activity during Pavlovian and operant conditioning paradigms is well correlated with reward-prediction errors from formal reinforcement learning models, which feature teaching signals in the form of discrepancies between actual and expected reward outcomes. Additionally, in learning tasks where conditioned cues probabilistically predict rewards, dopamine neurons show sustained cue-evoked responses that are correlated with the variance of reward and are maximal to cues predicting rewards with a probability of 0.5. Therefore, it has been suggested that sustained dopamine activity after cue presentation encodes the uncertainty of impending reward delivery. In the current study we examined the acquisition and maintenance of these neural correlates using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rats implanted with carbon fiber electrodes in the nucleus accumbens core during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning. The advantage of this technique is that we can sample from the same animal and recording location throughout learning with single trial resolution. We report that dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core contains correlates of both expected value and variance. A quantitative analysis of these signals throughout learning, and during the ongoing updating process after learning in probabilistic conditions, demonstrates that these correlates are dynamically encoded during these phases. Peak CS-evoked responses are correlated with expected value and predominate during early learning while a variance-correlated sustained CS signal develops during the post-asymptotic updating phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspects of dopamine and acetylcholine release induced by glutamate receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paes, Paulo Cesar de Arruda

    2002-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in the motor control of rats and humans. This control involves different neurotransmitters and the mutual control of these key elements has been subject to several studies. In this work we determined the role of glutamate on the release of radioactively labelled dopamine and acetylcholine from chopped striatal tissue in vitro. The values of Effective Concentration 50% for glutamate, NMDA, kainic, quisqualic acids and AMPA on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine were obtained. The inhibitory effects of magnesium, tetrodotoxin, MK-801, AP5 and MCPG, as well as the effects of glycin were evaluated. The results suggested that dopamine is influenced by the NMDA type glutamate receptor while acetylcholine seems to be influenced by NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptors. Tetrodotoxin experiments suggested that kainate receptors are both present in cholinergic terminals and cell bodies while AMPA and NMDA receptors are preferentially distributed in cell bodies. Magnesium effectively blocked the NMDA stimulation and unexpectedly also AMPA- and quisqualate-induced acetylcholine release. The latter could not be blocked by MCPG ruling out the participation of methabotropic receptors. MK-801 also blocked NMDA-receptors. Results point out the importance of the glutamic acid control of dopamine and acetylcholine release in striatal tissue. (author)

  8. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  9. Copper nanoparticle modified carbon electrode for determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztekin, Yasemin; Tok, Mutahire; Bilici, Esra; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Yazicigil, Zafer; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and application of copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of dopamine. Electrochemical measurements were performed using differently modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Bare, oxidized before modification and copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes (bare-GC, ox-GC and CuNP/GC electrodes, respectively) were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of redox probes. Atomic force microscopy was used for the visualization of electrode surfaces. The CuNP/GC electrode was found to be suitable for the selective determination of dopamine even in the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, and p-acetamidophenol. The observed linear range of CuNP/GC for dopamine was from 0.1 nM to 1.0 μM while the detection limit was estimated to be 50 pM. It was demonstrated that here reported glassy carbon electrode modified by copper nanoparticles is suitable for the determination of dopamine in real samples such as human blood serum.

  10. Hybrid CMOS-Graphene Sensor Array for Subsecond Dopamine Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Bayan; Wu, Ting; Alharbi, Abdullah; You, Kae-Dyi; Gupta, Mayank; Sebastian, Sunit P; Kiani, Roozbeh; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a hybrid CMOS-graphene sensor array for subsecond measurement of dopamine via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The prototype chip has four independent CMOS readout channels, fabricated in a 65-nm process. Using planar multilayer graphene as biologically compatible sensing material enables integration of miniaturized sensing electrodes directly above the readout channels. Taking advantage of the chemical specificity of FSCV, we introduce a region of interest technique, which subtracts a large portion of the background current using a programmable low-noise constant current at about the redox potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this feature for enhancing the sensitivity by measuring the sensor response to a known dopamine concentration in vitro at three different scan rates. This strategy further allows us to significantly reduce the dynamic range requirements of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) without compromising the measurement accuracy. We show that an integrating dual-slope ADC is adequate for digitizing the background-subtracted current. The ADC operates at a sampling frequency of 5-10 kHz and has an effective resolution of about 60 pA, which corresponds to a theoretical dopamine detection limit of about 6 nM. Our hybrid sensing platform offers an effective solution for implementing next-generation FSCV devices that can enable precise recording of dopamine signaling in vivo on a large scale.

  11. Sub-second changes in accumbal dopamine during sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Phillips, P E; Budygin, E A; Trafton, B J; Garris, P A; Wightman, R M

    2001-08-08

    Transient (200--900 ms), high concentrations (200--500 nM) of dopamine, measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, occurred in the nucleus accumbens core of male rats at the presentation of a receptive female. Additional dopamine signals were observed during subsequent approach behavior. Background-subtracted cyclic voltammograms of the naturally-evoked signals matched those of electrically-evoked dopamine measured at the same recording sites. Administration of nomifensine amplified natural and evoked dopamine release, and increased the frequency of detectable signals. While gradual changes in dopamine concentration during sexual behavior have been well established, these findings dramatically improve the time resolution. The observed dopamine transients, probably resulting from neuronal burst firing, represent the first direct correlation of dopamine with sexual behavior on a sub-second time scale.

  12. The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Erritzoe, David; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-05-01

    For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. In this Opinion article, we review the origins of the dopamine theory of addiction and discuss the ability of addictive drugs to elicit the release of dopamine in the human striatum. There is robust evidence that stimulants increase striatal dopamine levels and some evidence that alcohol may have such an effect, but little evidence, if any, that cannabis and opiates increase dopamine levels. Moreover, there is good evidence that striatal dopamine receptor availability and dopamine release are diminished in individuals with stimulant or alcohol dependence but not in individuals with opiate, nicotine or cannabis dependence. These observations have implications for understanding reward and treatment responses in various addictions.

  13. Antibodies to dopamine: radioimmunological study of specificity in relation to immunocytochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffard, M.; Kah, O.; Onteniente, B.; Seguela, P.; Le Moal, M.; Delaage, M.

    1984-06-01

    Two classes of anti-3,4- dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) antibodies were raised in rabbits using dopamine conjugated to albumin either via formaldehyde or via glutaraldehyde. Each was usable for immunohistochemical detection of dopamine neurons provided that the tissue was fixed by the homologous cross-linking agent. However, anti-dopamine-glutaraldehyde antibodies turned out to be of more general use because of the better fixative properties of glutaraldehyde which fixed dopamine in rat and in teleost, whereas formaldehyde only worked in lower vertebrates (such as goldfish) and not in rat brain. The specificity of anti-dopamine-glutaraldehyde antibodies was firmly established by competition experiments in equilibrium dialysis, using an immunoreactive tritiated derivative synthesized by coupling dopamine to N-alpha-acetyl-L-lysine N-methylamide via glutaraldehyde. Specificity studies in vitro and immunohistological results demonstrating the specific staining of dopaminergic neurons were found to correlate well.

  14. Bitropic D3 Dopamine Receptor Selective Compounds as Potential Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Robert R; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Malik, Mahinder; Reichert, David E; Mach, R H

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent a substantial social and health care issue. The National Institutes of Health estimates that greater than 2 million adults suffer from neuropsychiatric disorders in the USA. These individuals experience symptoms that can include auditory hallucinations, delusions, unrealistic beliefs and cognitive dysfunction. Although antipsychotic medications are available, suboptimal therapeutic responses are observed for approximately one-third of patients. Therefore, there is still a need to explore new pharmacotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Many of the medications that are used clinically to treat neuropsychiatric disorders have a pharmacological profile that includes being an antagonist at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine receptor subtypes. However, dopamine receptor subtypes are involved in a variety of neuronal circuits that include movement coordination, cognition, emotion, affect, memory and the regulation of prolactin. Consequently, antagonism at D2-like receptors can also contribute to some of the adverse side effects associated with the long-term use of antipsychotics including the a) adverse extrapyramidal symptoms associated with the use of typical antipsychotics and b) metabolic side effects (weight gain, hyperglycemia, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and gynecomastia) associated with atypical antipsychotic use. Preclinical studies suggest that D3 versus D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds might represent an alternative strategy for the treatment of the symptoms of schizophrenia. In this review we discuss a) how bitropic Nphenylpiperazine D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds have been developed by modification of the primary (orthosteric) and secondary (allosteric or modulatory) pharmacophores to optimize D3 receptor affinity and D2/D3 binding selectivity ratios and b) the functional selectivity of these compounds. Examples of how these compounds might be

  15. A C-terminal PDZ domain-binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    believed to bind synaptic scaffolding proteins, but its functional significance is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that two different dopamine transporter knock-in mice with disrupted PDZ-binding motifs (dopamine transporter-AAA and dopamine transporter+Ala) are characterized by dramatic loss of dopamine......The dopamine transporter mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling dopamine transporter levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. The dopamine transporters contain a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain-binding sequence...... transporter expression in the striatum, causing hyperlocomotion and attenuated response to amphetamine. In cultured dopaminergic neurons and striatal slices from dopamine transporter-AAA mice, we find markedly reduced dopamine transporter surface levels and evidence for enhanced constitutive internalization...

  16. The treatment of Parkinson's disease with dopamine agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank, Wilhelm

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is a chronic degenerative organic disease with unknown causes. A disappearance of cells with melanin in the substantia nigra is considered as biological artefact of the disease, which causes a degenerative loss of neurons in the corpus striatum of mesencephalon. This structure produces also the transmitter substance dopamine. Due to this disappearance of cells dopamine is not produced in a sufficient quantity which is needed for movement of the body. The questions of this report are concerned the efficiency and safety of a treatment with dopamine agonists. Furthermore the cost-effectiveness is investigated as well as ethic questions. The goal is to give recommendation for the use of dopamine agonists to the German health system. A systematic literature search was done. The identified studies have different methodological quality and investigate different hypothesis and different outcome criteria. Therefore a qualitative method of information synthesis was chosen. Since the introduction of L-Dopa in the 1960´s it is considered as the most effective substance to reduce all the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson disease. This substance was improved in the course of time. Firstly some additional substances were given (decarbonxylase inhibitors, catechol-o-transferase inhibitors (COMT-inhibitors, monoaminoxydase-inhibitors (MAO-inhibitors and NMDA-antagonists (N-Methyl-d-aspartat-antagonists. In the practical therapy of Parkinson dopamine agonists play an important role, because they directly use the dopamine receptors. The monotherapy of Parkinson disease is basically possible and is used in early stages of the disease. Clinical practise has shown, that an add on therapy with dopamine agonists can led to a reduction of the dose of L-dopa and a reduction of following dyskinesia. The studies for effectiveness include studies for the initial therapy, monotherapy and add-on-therapy. Basically there is a good effectiveness of dopamine

  17. Dopamine-induced SULT1A3/4 promotes EMT and cancer stemness in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Juan; Li, Hong; Huang, Qianling; Liu, Xiaomin; Qi, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ying; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma has the second highest incidence rate among malignant cancers in China. Hepatocellular carcinoma development is complex because of the metabolism disequilibrium involving SULT1A3/4, a predominant sulfotransferase that metabolizes sulfonic xenobiotics and endogenous catecholamines. However, the correlation between SULT1A3/4 and hepatocellular carcinoma progression is unclear. By utilizing immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis, we found that in nine hepatocellular carcinoma clinical specimens, SULT1A3/4 was abundantly expressed in tumor tissues compared to that in the adjacent tissues. Moreover, liver cancer cells (HepG2, MHCC97-L, and MHCC97-H) had higher basal expression of SULT1A3/4 than immortalized liver cells (L02 and Chang liver). Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay results further revealed that the concentration of dopamine (a substrate of SULT1A3/4) was negatively correlated with SULT1A3/4 protein expression. As a transcriptional regulator of SULT1A3/4 in turn, dopamine was used to induce SULT1A3/4 in vitro. Interestingly, dopamine significantly induced SULT1A3/4 expression in liver cancer HepG2 cells, while decreased that in L02 cells. More importantly, the expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition biomarkers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and cell stemness biomarkers (nanog, sox2, and oct3/4) considerably increased in HepG2 with dopamine-induced SULT1A3/4, whereas in L02, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-associated proteins were contrarily decreased. Furthermore, invasion and migration assays further revealed that dopamine-induced SULT1A3/4 dramatically stimulated the metastatic capacity of HepG2 cells. Our results implied that SULT1A3/4 exhibited bidirectional effect on tumor and normal hepatocytes and may thus provide a novel strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma clinical targeting. In addition, SULT1A3/4 re-expression could serve as a biomarker for

  18. Atypical dopamine transporter inhibitors R-modafinil and JHW 007 differentially affect D2 autoreceptor neurotransmission and the firing rate of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Alicia J; Cao, Jianjing; Newman, Amy Hauck; Beckstead, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular DA levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function. Here we used patch clamp electrophysiology in mouse brain slices to explore the effects of two atypical DAT inhibitors (R-modafinil and JHW 007) on the physiology of single DA neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Despite their commonalities of being DAT inhibitors that lack cocaine-like behavioral profiles, these compounds exhibited surprisingly divergent cellular effects. Similar to cocaine, R-modafinil slowed DA neuron firing in a D2 receptor-dependent manner and rapidly enhanced the amplitude and duration of D2 receptor-mediated currents in the midbrain. In contrast, JHW 007 exhibited little effect on firing, slow DAT blockade, and an unexpected inhibition of D2 receptor-mediated currents that may be due to direct D2 receptor antagonism. Furthermore, pretreatment with JHW 007 blunted the cellular effects of cocaine, suggesting that it may be valuable to investigate similar DAT inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. Further exploration of these and other atypical DAT inhibitors may reveal important cellular effects of compounds that will have potential as pharmacotherapies for treating cocaine use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  20. Dopamine agonists and risk: impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Gao, Jennifer; Brezing, Christina; Symmonds, Mkael; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Dolan, Raymond J; Hallett, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Impulse control disorders are common in Parkinson's disease, occurring in 13.6% of patients. Using a pharmacological manipulation and a novel risk taking task while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the relationship between dopamine agonists and risk taking in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulse control disorders. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects chose between two choices of equal expected value: a 'Sure' choice and a 'Gamble' choice of moderate risk. To commence each trial, in the 'Gain' condition, individuals started at $0 and in the 'Loss' condition individuals started at -$50 below the 'Sure' amount. The difference between the maximum and minimum outcomes from each gamble (i.e. range) was used as an index of risk ('Gamble Risk'). Sixteen healthy volunteers were behaviourally tested. Fourteen impulse control disorder (problem gambling or compulsive shopping) and 14 matched Parkinson's disease controls were tested ON and OFF dopamine agonists. Patients with impulse control disorder made more risky choices in the 'Gain' relative to the 'Loss' condition along with decreased orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate activity, with the opposite observed in Parkinson's disease controls. In patients with impulse control disorder, dopamine agonists were associated with enhanced sensitivity to risk along with decreased ventral striatal activity again with the opposite in Parkinson's disease controls. Patients with impulse control disorder appear to have a bias towards risky choices independent of the effect of loss aversion. Dopamine agonists enhance sensitivity to risk in patients with impulse control disorder possibly by impairing risk evaluation in the striatum. Our results provide a potential explanation of why dopamine agonists may lead to an unconscious bias towards risk in susceptible individuals.

  1. VMN hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in anorectic septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, G F; Meguid, M M; Miyata, G; Fetissov, S O; Carter, J L; Kim, H J; Muscaritoli, M; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2000-03-01

    During sepsis, catabolism of proteins and associated changes in plasma amino acids occur. Tryptophan and tyrosine, and their derivatives serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), influence hypothalamic feeding-related areas and are associated with the onset of anorexia. We hypothesized that anorexia of sepsis is associated with changes in serotonin and dopamine in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis by measuring intra-VMN changes of these two neurotransmitters at the onset of anorexia during sepsis. Fischer 344 male rats had an intracerebral guide cannula stereotaxically implanted into the VMN. Ten days later, in awake, overnight-food-deprived rats, a microdialysis probe was inserted through the in situ VMN cannula. Two hours thereafter, serial baseline serotonin and dopamine concentrations were measured. Then cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis or a control laparotomy was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. VMN microdialysis samples were serially collected every 30 min for 8 h after the surgical procedure to determine 5-HT and DA changes in response to sepsis. During the hypermetabolic response to sepsis, a strong association occurred between anorexia and a significant reduction of VMN dopamine concentration (P anorexia of sepsis. Six hours after operation, a single meal was offered for 20 min to assess the response of neurotransmitters to food ingestion. Food intake was minimal in anorectic septic rats (mean size of the after food-deprived meal in the Septic group was 0.03+/-0.01 g, that of the Control group was 1.27+/-0.14 g; P = 0.0001), while Control rats demonstrated anticipated changes in neurotransmitters in response to eating. We conclude that the onset of anorexia in septic rats is associated with a reduction in VMN dopamine.

  2. Developmental imaging genetics: linking dopamine function to adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to non-invasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, yet the biological basis of maternal neglect is poorly understood and a rodent model is lacking.The current study characterizes a population of mice (MaD1 which naturally exhibit maternal neglect (little or no care of offspring at an average rate of 17% per generation. We identified a set of risk factors that can predict future neglect of offspring, including decreased self-grooming and elevated activity. At the time of neglect, neglectful mothers swam significantly more in a forced swim test relative to nurturing mothers. Cross-fostered offspring raised by neglectful mothers in turn exhibit increased expression of risk factors for maternal neglect and decreased maternal care as adults, suggestive of possible epigenetic contributions to neglect. Unexpectedly, offspring from neglectful mothers elicited maternal neglect from cross-fostered nurturing mothers, suggesting that factors regulating neglect are not solely within the mother. To identify a neurological pathway underlying maternal neglect, we examined brain activity in neglectful and nurturing mice. c-Fos expression was significantly elevated in neglectful relative to nurturing mothers in the CNS, particularly within dopamine associated areas, such as the zona incerta (ZI, ventral tegmental area (VTA, and nucleus accumbens. Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker for dopamine production was significantly elevated in ZI and higher in VTA (although not significantly in neglectful mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase levels were unaltered, suggesting a dysregulation of dopamine activity rather than cell number. Phosphorylation of DARPP-32, a marker for dopamine D1-like receptor activation, was elevated within nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen in neglectful versus nurturing dams.These findings suggest that atypical dopamine activity within the maternal brain, especially within regions involved in reward, is involved in naturally

  4. A sensitive and selective chemiluminescence sensor for the determination of dopamine based on silanized magnetic graphene oxide-molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-03-15

    Based on silanized magnetic graphene oxide-molecularly imprinted polymer (Si-MG-MIP), a sensitive and selective chemiluminescence sensor for dopamine measurement was developed. Si-MG-MIP, in which silanes was introduced to improve the mass transfer, graphene oxide was employed to improve absorption capacity, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were applied for separation easily and molecularly imprinted polymer was used to improve selectivity, demonstrated the advantages of the sensor. All the composites were confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR. Under the optimal conditions of chemiluminescence, dopamine could be assayed in the range of 8.0-200.0 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of linear regression of 0.9970. The detection limit was 1.5 ng/mL (3δ) and the precision for 11 replicate detections of 80.0 ng/mL dopamine was 3.4% (RSD). When the sensor was applied in determining dopamine in actual samples, recovery ranged from 94% to 110%, which revealed that the results were satisfactory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Forgetting in Reinforcement Learning Links Sustained Dopamine Signals to Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ayaka; Morita, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values. This account, however, did not explain the suggested link between tonic/sustained DA and motivation. In the present work, we explored the motivational effects of the value-decay in self-paced approach behavior, modeled as a series of 'Go' or 'No-Go' selections towards a goal. Through simulations, we found that the value-decay can enhance motivation, specifically, facilitate fast goal-reaching, albeit counterintuitively. Mathematical analyses revealed that underlying potential mechanisms are twofold: (1) decay-induced sustained RPE creates a gradient of 'Go' values towards a goal, and (2) value-contrasts between 'Go' and 'No-Go' are generated because while chosen values are continually updated, unchosen values simply decay. Our model provides potential explanations for the key experimental findings that suggest DA's roles in motivation: (i) slowdown of behavior by post-training blockade of DA signaling, (ii) observations that DA blockade severely impairs effortful actions to obtain rewards while largely sparing seeking of easily obtainable rewards, and (iii) relationships between the reward amount, the level of motivation reflected in the speed of behavior, and the average level of DA. These results indicate that reinforcement learning with value-decay, or forgetting, provides a parsimonious mechanistic account for the DA's roles in value-learning and motivation. Our results also suggest that when biological systems for value

  6. Forgetting in Reinforcement Learning Links Sustained Dopamine Signals to Motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Kato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dopamine (DA represents reward-prediction-error (RPE defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values. This account, however, did not explain the suggested link between tonic/sustained DA and motivation. In the present work, we explored the motivational effects of the value-decay in self-paced approach behavior, modeled as a series of 'Go' or 'No-Go' selections towards a goal. Through simulations, we found that the value-decay can enhance motivation, specifically, facilitate fast goal-reaching, albeit counterintuitively. Mathematical analyses revealed that underlying potential mechanisms are twofold: (1 decay-induced sustained RPE creates a gradient of 'Go' values towards a goal, and (2 value-contrasts between 'Go' and 'No-Go' are generated because while chosen values are continually updated, unchosen values simply decay. Our model provides potential explanations for the key experimental findings that suggest DA's roles in motivation: (i slowdown of behavior by post-training blockade of DA signaling, (ii observations that DA blockade severely impairs effortful actions to obtain rewards while largely sparing seeking of easily obtainable rewards, and (iii relationships between the reward amount, the level of motivation reflected in the speed of behavior, and the average level of DA. These results indicate that reinforcement learning with value-decay, or forgetting, provides a parsimonious mechanistic account for the DA's roles in value-learning and motivation. Our results also suggest that when biological systems

  7. Pulmonary Artery Occlusion and Mediastinal Fibrosis in a Patient on Dopamine Agonist Treatment for Hyperprolactinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Junjing; Simonsen, Ulf; Carlsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Unusual forms of pulmonary hypertension include pulmonary hypertension related to mediastinal fibrosis and the use of serotonergic drugs. Here, we describe a patient with diffuse mediastinal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension while she was on dopamine agonist therapy. A young woman, who...... showed fibrosis and chronic inflammation. Subsequent investigations revealed that diffuse mediastinal fibrosis with concurrent pulmonary hypertension, and not CTEPH, was the most likely diagnosis and cabergoline and bromocriptine may have triggered the fibrotic changes. Both drugs are ergot...... was treated with cabergoline and bromocriptine for hyperprolactinemia, presented with progressive dyspnea over several months. Based on the clinical investigation results, in particular, elevated pulmonary arterial pressures and significant perfusion defects on computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography...

  8. Branch-specific plasticity of a bifunctional dopamine circuit encodes protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qili; Tabuchi, Masashi; Liu, Sha; Kodama, Lay; Horiuchi, Wakako; Daniels, Jay; Chiu, Lucinda; Baldoni, Daniel; Wu, Mark N

    2017-05-05

    Free-living animals must not only regulate the amount of food they consume but also choose which types of food to ingest. The shifting of food preference driven by nutrient-specific hunger can be essential for survival, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We identified a dopamine circuit that encodes protein-specific hunger in Drosophila The activity of these neurons increased after substantial protein deprivation. Activation of this circuit simultaneously promoted protein intake and restricted sugar consumption, via signaling to distinct downstream neurons. Protein starvation triggered branch-specific plastic changes in these dopaminergic neurons, thus enabling sustained protein consumption. These studies reveal a crucial circuit mechanism by which animals adjust their dietary strategy to maintain protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yanfang; Yang, Hualan; Luan, Wenjie; Song, Jiaojiao; Cui, Dongyang; Dong, Yi; Lai, Bin; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2015-07-24

    One reported mechanism for morphine activation of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the disinhibition model of VTA-DA neurons. Morphine inhibits GABA inhibitory neurons, which shifts the balance between inhibitory and excitatory input to VTA-DA neurons in favor of excitation and then leads to VTA-DA neuron excitation. However, it is not known whether morphine has an additional strengthening effect on excitatory input. Our results suggest that glutamatergic input to VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by GABAergic interneurons via GABAB receptors and that morphine promotes presynaptic glutamate release by removing this inhibition. We also studied the contribution of the morphine-induced disinhibitory effect on the presynaptic glutamate release to the overall excitatory effect of morphine on VTA-DA neurons and related behavior. Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors.

  10. Atypical dopamine efflux caused by 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) via the human dopamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Aparna; Aguilar, Jenny I; Galli, Greta; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Brandt, Simon D; Ruoho, Arnold E; Baumann, Michael H; Matthies, Heinrich J G; Galli, Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic cathinones are similar in chemical structure to amphetamines, and their behavioral effects are associated with enhanced dopaminergic signaling. The past ten years of research on the common constituent of bath salts, MDPV (the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), has aided the understanding of how synthetic cathinones act at the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT). Several groups have described the ability of MDPV to block the DAT with high-affinity. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a new mode of action of MDPV, namely its ability to promote DAT-mediated DA efflux. Using single cell amperometric assays, we determined that low concentrations of MDPV (1nM) can cause reverse transport of DA via DAT. Notably, administration of MDPV leads to hyperlocomotion in Drosophila melanogaster. These data describe further how MDPV acts at the DAT, possibly paving the way for novel treatment strategies for individuals who abuse bath salts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Membrane mobility and microdomain association of the dopamine transporter studied with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adkins, Erika M; Samuvel, Devadoss J; Fog, Jacob U

    2007-01-01

    To investigate microdomain association of the dopamine transporter (DAT), we employed FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). In non-neuronal cells (HEK293), FCS measurements revealed for the YFP-DAT (DAT tagged with yellow fluorescent...... protein) a diffusion coefficient (D) of approximately 3.6 x 10(-9) cm2/s, consistent with a relatively freely diffusible protein. In neuronally derived cells (N2a), we were unable to perform FCS measurements on plasma membrane-associated protein due to photobleaching, suggesting partial immobilization...

  12. Dopamine and extinction: a convergence of theory with fear and reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D; Neve, Kim A; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-02-01

    Research on dopamine lies at the intersection of sophisticated theoretical and neurobiological approaches to learning and memory. Dopamine has been shown to be critical for many processes that drive learning and memory, including motivation, prediction error, incentive salience, memory consolidation, and response output. Theories of dopamine's function in these processes have, for the most part, been developed from behavioral approaches that examine learning mechanisms in reward-related tasks. A parallel and growing literature indicates that dopamine is involved in fear conditioning and extinction. These studies are consistent with long-standing ideas about appetitive-aversive interactions in learning theory and they speak to the general nature of cellular and molecular processes that underlie behavior. We review the behavioral and neurobiological literature showing a role for dopamine in fear conditioning and extinction. At a cellular level, we review dopamine signaling and receptor pharmacology, cellular and molecular events that follow dopamine receptor activation, and brain systems in which dopamine functions. At a behavioral level, we describe theories of learning and dopamine function that could describe the fundamental rules underlying how dopamine modulates different aspects of learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Excessive D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Dorsal Striatum Promotes Autistic-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Juli; Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2018-07-01

    The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist. Pharmacological activation of D1 dopamine receptors in normal mice or the genetic knockout (KO) of D2 dopamine receptors also produced typical autistic-like behaviors. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated inhibition of D2 dopamine receptors in the dorsal striatum was sufficient to replicate autistic-like phenotypes in D2 KO mice. Intervention of D1 dopamine receptor functions or the signaling pathways-related D1 receptors in D2 KO mice produced anti-autistic effects. Together, our results indicate that increased dopamine function in the dorsal striatum promotes autistic-like behaviors and that the dorsal striatum is the neural correlate of ASD core symptoms.

  14. Elevated Striatal Dopamine Function in Immigrants and Their Children: A Risk Mechanism for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Howes, Oliver D; Houle, Sylvain; McKenzie, Kwame; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Bagby, Michael R; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Kenk, Miran; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Suridjan, Ivonne; Chaddock, Chistopher A; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Allen, Paul; Rusjan, Pablo; Remington, Gary; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip K; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-03-01

    Migration is a major risk factor for schizophrenia but the neurochemical processes involved are unknown. One candidate mechanism is through elevations in striatal dopamine synthesis and release. The objective of this research was to determine whether striatal dopamine function is elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants and the relationship with psychosis. Two complementary case-control studies of in vivo dopamine function (stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capacity) in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants were performed in Canada and the United Kingdom. The Canadian dopamine release study included 25 immigrant and 31 nonmigrant Canadians. These groups included 23 clinical high risk (CHR) subjects, 9 antipsychotic naïve patients with schizophrenia, and 24 healthy volunteers. The UK dopamine synthesis study included 32 immigrants and 44 nonimmigrant British. These groups included 50 CHR subjects and 26 healthy volunteers. Both striatal stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capacity were significantly elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants, independent of clinical status. These data provide the first evidence that the effect of migration on the risk of developing psychosis may be mediated by an elevation in brain dopamine function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  15. The role of dopamine in human addiction: from reward to motivated attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H A; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-12-05

    There is general consensus among preclinical researchers that dopamine plays an important role in the development and persistence of addiction. However, the precise role of dopamine in addictive behaviors is far from clear and only a few clinical studies on the role of dopamine in human addiction have been conducted so far. The present paper reviews studies addressing the role of dopamine in humans. There is substantial and consistent evidence that dopamine is involved in the experience of drug reward in humans. Dopamine may also be involved in motivational processes such as drug craving. However, given the inconsistent findings of studies using dopamine receptor (ant)agonists, the role of dopamine in the experience of craving is far from resolved. Recent theories claiming that dopamine signals salience and makes the brain paying attention to biological relevant stimuli may provide an interesting framework for explaining addictive behaviors. There is accumulating evidence that patients with drug and alcohol addiction have an aberrant focus on drug-related stimuli. Although there is some preliminary support for the role of dopamine in these attention processes, more studies have to be carried out in order to test the validity of these theories in human subjects.

  16. Thorndike’s Law 2.0: Dopamine and the regulation of thrift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is widely associated with reward, motivation and reinforcement learning. Research on dopamine has emphasized its contribution to compulsive behaviors, such as addiction and overeating, with less examination of its potential role in behavioral flexibility in normal, non-pathological states. In the study reviewed here, we investigated the effect of increased tonic dopamine in a two-lever homecage operant paradigm where the relative value of the levers was dynamic, requiring the mice to constantly monitor reward outcome and adapt their behavior. The data were fit to a temporal difference learning model that showed that mice with elevated dopamine exhibited less coupling between reward history and behavioral choice. This work suggests a way to integrate motivational and learning theories of dopamine into a single formal model where tonic dopamine regulates the expression of prior reward learning by controlling the degree to which learned reward values bias behavioral choice. Here I place these results in a broader context of dopamine’s role in instrumental learning and suggest a novel hypothesis that tonic dopamine regulates thrift, the degree to which an animal needs to exploit its prior reward learning to maximize return on energy expenditure. Our data suggest that increased dopamine decreases thriftiness, facilitating energy expenditure and permitting greater exploration. Conversely, this implies that decreased dopamine increases thriftiness, favoring the exploitation of prior reward learning and diminishing exploration. This perspective provides a different window onto the role dopamine may play in behavioral flexibility and its failure, compulsive behavior.

  17. Development of an enzyme-radioimmunoassay for the measurement of dopamine in human plasma and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, B.A.; Walker, W.R.; Camp, V.M.; Ali, F.M.; Cobbs, W.B. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An enzyme-radioimmunoassay for the measurement of dopamine is described. It is based on the incubation of plasma or urine in the presence of catechol-0-methyltransferase and S-adenosylmethionine. The 0-methylated dopamine metabolite formed (3-0-methyldopamine) was characterized by radioimmunoassay. As little as 0.5 ng of dopamine can be detected. The assay was found to be specific, since no cross-reactivity was noted for several compounds related to dopamine. The enzyme-radioimmunoassay of dopamine was used to determine the concentrations of dopamine in urine and plasma of normal volunteers. In this group, urinary dopamine averaged 182.1 +- 2.2 μg/24 hr, and the plasma concentration 0.211 +- 0.052 ng/ml. However, in children wPth neuroblastoma, there was a several-fold increase over controls in the average urinary and plasma levels of dopamine (8,500 μ/24 hr and 2.3 ng/ml). The assay was also used to monitor blood levels of dopamine following the administration of L-dopa and dopamine to patients with cardiomyopathy

  18. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  19. Systemic effects of low-dose dopamine during administration of cytarabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James; Benani, Dina J; Newman, Matthew; Burton, Bradley; Crow, Jessica; Levis, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Low-dose dopamine has been utilized to improve renal blood flow, urine output, and reduce drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in renal function, cardiovascular adverse events, and neurologic toxicity in patients receiving cytarabine with or without low-dose dopamine. Methods A retrospective, single-center, cohort study of patients receiving cytarabine at 667 mg/m 2 /dose or greater, with or without dopamine at ≤5 mcg/kg/min. Cohorts were based upon initiation or absence of low-dose dopamine; cytarabine only, cytarabine + pre- and day of low-dose dopamine, and cytarabine + post-low-dose dopamine. Renal outcomes (urine output, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance) were compared with baseline and between cohorts. Safety endpoints (arrhythmias, tachycardia, and neurotoxicity) were compared between cohorts based on low-dose dopamine exposure. Results There was no difference in urine output from baseline in all cohorts. Comparing cytarabine only and pre- and day of low-dose dopamine cohorts, there was no difference in urine output. In those receiving low-dose dopamine, there was no difference in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance from baseline. No arrhythmias were documented during the study period, and there was no difference in the incidence of tachycardia between groups (P = 0.66). Neurotoxicity was reported in three patients who were on low-dose dopamine. Conclusion Though variation existed in individual patients administered low-dose dopamine, the use of low-dose dopamine did not significantly impact renal function in this small sample at a single institution. In addition, low-dose dopamine did not negatively impact cardiovascular function.

  20. Pharmacological differences between the D-2 autoreceptor and the D-1 dopamine receptor in rabbit retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubocovich, M.L.; Weiner, N.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists was studied on the calcium-dependent release of [ 3 H]dopamine elicited by field stimulation at 3 Hz for a duration of 1 min (20 mA, 2 msec) from the rabbit retina in vitro and on adenylate cyclase activity in homogenates of rabbit retina. The relative order of potency of dopamine receptor agonists to inhibit the stimulation-evoked [ 3 H]dopamine release was pergolide greater than bromocriptine greater than apomorphine greater than LY 141865 greater than N,N-di-n-propyldopamine greater than or equal to dopamine. The relative order of potencies of dopamine receptor antagonists to increase [ 3 H]dopamine release was: S-sulpiride greater than or equal to domperidone greater than or equal to spiroperidol greater than metoclopramide greater than fluphenazine greater than or equal to R-sulpiride. alpha-Flupenthixol (0.01-1 microM) and (+)-butaclamol (0.01-1 microM) did not increase [ 3 H]dopamine overflow when added alone, but they antagonized the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of apomorphine (0.1-10 microM). These results suggest that the dopamine inhibitory autoreceptor involved in the modulation of dopamine release from the rabbit retina possesses the pharmacological characteristics of a D-2 dopamine receptor. Maximal stimulation by 30 microM dopamine resulted in a 3-fold increase in adenylate cyclase activity with half-maximal stimulation occurring at a concentration of 2.46 microM. Apomorphine and pergolide elicited a partial stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. However, at low concentrations both compounds were more potent than dopamine

  1. Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion of phasic dopamine in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Taylor, Sarah C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Zandy, Shannon L; Cofresí, Roberto U; Doherty, James M; Lynch, William B; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Gonzales, Rueben A; Robinson, Donita L

    2016-06-01

    Dopamine plays a critical role in striatal and cortical function, and depletion of the dopamine precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine is used in humans to temporarily reduce dopamine and probe the role of dopamine in behavior. This method has been shown to alter addiction-related behaviors and cognitive functioning presumably by reducing dopamine transmission, but it is unclear what specific aspects of dopamine transmission are altered. We performed this study to confirm that administration of an amino acid mixture omitting phenylalanine and tyrosine (Phe/Tyr[-]) reduces tyrosine tissue content in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to test the hypothesis that Phe/Tyr[-] administration reduces phasic dopamine release in the NAc. Rats were injected with a Phe/Tyr[-] amino acid mixture, a control amino acid mixture, or saline. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the concentration of tyrosine, dopamine, or norepinephrine in tissue punches from the PFC and ventral striatum. In a separate group of rats, phasic dopamine release was measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the NAc core after injection with either the Phe/Tyr[-] mixture or the control amino acid solution. Phe/Tyr[-] reduced tyrosine content in the PFC and NAc, but dopamine and norepinephrine tissue content were not reduced. Moreover, Phe/Tyr[-] decreased the frequency of dopamine transients, but not their amplitude, in freely moving rats. These results indicate that depletion of tyrosine via Phe/Tyr[-] decreases phasic dopamine transmission, providing insight into the mechanism by which this method modifies dopamine-dependent behaviors in human imaging studies.

  2. Effect of dopamine, dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptor modulation on ACTH and cortisol levels in normal men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by dopamine is not fully understood. Therefore, we have studied the effect of dopamine, metoclopramide, a D-2 receptor antagonist, and fenoldopam, a specific D-1 receptor agonist, on ACTH and cortisol levels in normal subjects. Normal women...

  3. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and dopamine release during cue-elicited craving in recently abstinent opiate-dependent males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Fleur; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by relapse behaviour, often preceded by craving and anhedonia. Chronic craving and anhedonia have been associated with low availability of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and cue-elicited craving has been linked with endogenous dopamine release. We

  4. Active and passive sexual roles that arise in Drosophila male-male courtship are modulated by dopamine levels in PPL2ab neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Shiu-Ling Chen; Yu-Hui Chen; Chuan-Chan Wang; Yhu-Wei Yu; Yu-Chen Tsai; Hsiao-Wen Hsu; Chia-Lin Wu; Pei-Yu Wang; Lien-Cheng Chen; Tsuo-Hung Lan; Tsai-Feng Fu

    2017-01-01

    The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of ...

  5. Decoding the dopamine signal in macaque prefrontal cortex: a simulation study using the Cx3Dp simulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ayumi Spühler

    Full Text Available Dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in reward based learning, working memory and attention. Dopamine is thought to be released non-synaptically into the extracellular space and to reach distant receptors through diffusion. This simulation study examines how the dopamine signal might be decoded by the recipient neuron. The simulation was based on parameters from the literature and on our own quantified, structural data from macaque prefrontal area 10. The change in extracellular dopamine concentration was estimated at different distances from release sites and related to the affinity of the dopamine receptors. Due to the sparse and random distribution of release sites, a transient heterogeneous pattern of dopamine concentration emerges. Our simulation predicts, however, that at any point in the simulation volume there is sufficient dopamine to bind and activate high-affinity dopamine receptors. We propose that dopamine is broadcast to its distant receptors and any change from the local baseline concentration might be decoded by a transient change in the binding probability of dopamine receptors. Dopamine could thus provide a graduated 'teaching' signal to reinforce concurrently active synapses and cell assemblies. In conditions of highly reduced or highly elevated dopamine levels the simulations predict that relative changes in the dopamine signal can no longer be decoded, which might explain why cognitive deficits are observed in patients with Parkinson's disease, or induced through drugs blocking dopamine reuptake.

  6. Decoding the Dopamine Signal in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex: A Simulation Study Using the Cx3Dp Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spühler, Isabelle Ayumi; Hauri, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in reward based learning, working memory and attention. Dopamine is thought to be released non-synaptically into the extracellular space and to reach distant receptors through diffusion. This simulation study examines how the dopamine signal might be decoded by the recipient neuron. The simulation was based on parameters from the literature and on our own quantified, structural data from macaque prefrontal area 10. The change in extracellular dopamine concentration was estimated at different distances from release sites and related to the affinity of the dopamine receptors. Due to the sparse and random distribution of release sites, a transient heterogeneous pattern of dopamine concentration emerges. Our simulation predicts, however, that at any point in the simulation volume there is sufficient dopamine to bind and activate high-affinity dopamine receptors. We propose that dopamine is broadcast to its distant receptors and any change from the local baseline concentration might be decoded by a transient change in the binding probability of dopamine receptors. Dopamine could thus provide a graduated ‘teaching’ signal to reinforce concurrently active synapses and cell assemblies. In conditions of highly reduced or highly elevated dopamine levels the simulations predict that relative changes in the dopamine signal can no longer be decoded, which might explain why cognitive deficits are observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease, or induced through drugs blocking dopamine reuptake. PMID:23951205

  7. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dopamine agonists and risk: impulse control disorders in Parkinson's; disease

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, Valerie; Gao, Jennifer; Brezing, Christina; Symmonds, Mkael; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Dolan, Raymond J.; Hallett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Impulse control disorders are common in Parkinson's; disease, occurring in 13.6% of patients. Using a pharmacological manipulation and a novel risk taking task while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the relationship between dopamine agonists and risk taking in patients with Parkinson's; disease with and without impulse control disorders. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects chose between two choices of equal expected value: a ‘Sure’ choice an...

  9. APRESS: apical regulatory super system, serotonin, and dopamine interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc, Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, MN, USABackground: The monoamines serotonin and dopamine are known to exist in two separate states: the endogenous state and the competitive inhibition state. The presence of the competitive inhibition state has been known to science for many years, but from a functional standpoint it has been noted in the literature as being "meaningless."Methods: A large database of monoamine transporter response to amino acid precursor administration variations with clinical outcomes was accumulated. In the process, a new organic cation transporter (OCT model has been published, and OCT functional status determination along with amino acid precursor manipulation methods have been invented and refined.Results: Methodology was developed whereby manipulation of the OCT, in the competitive inhibition state, is carried out in a predictable manner. This, in turn, has disproved the long-held assertion that the monoamine competitive inhibition state is functionally meaningless.Conclusion: The most significant aspect of this paper is the documentation of newly recognized relationships between serotonin and dopamine. When transport of serotonin and dopamine are both in the competitive inhibition state, manipulation of the concentrations of one will lead to predictable changes in concentrations of the other. From a functional standpoint, processes regulated and controlled by changes to only serotonin can now be controlled by changes to dopamine, and vice versa, in a predictable manner.Keywords: catecholamine, monoamine, competitive inhibition state

  10. Dopamine improves hypothermic machine preservation of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Thomas; Lüer, Bastian; Efferz, Patrik

    2011-10-01

    Hypothermic machine preservation (HMP) is currently reconsidered as alternative to standard cold storage of organs from non-heart-beating donors. The present study was aimed at investigating the possible synergistic effect of HMP and the addition of dopamine to the circulating perfusate during preservation. Cardiac arrest was induced in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) by phrenotomy. Thirty minutes later livers were flushed via the portal vein and subjected to 20 h of HMP at 5ml/min at 4°C. During HMP the preservation solution was equilibrated with 100% oxygen and dopamine was added at 0, 10, 50 or 100 μM (D0, D10, D50, D100; n=6 resp.). Graft viability was assessed thereafter upon warm reperfusion in vitro for 2h. During HMP, D50 and D100 significantly reduced hepatic release of ALT to about 50%. No influence of dopamine was found on vascular resistance, oxygen uptake or lactate production at any concentration. D50 significantly reduced enzyme release during reperfusion (∼50%), enhanced bile flow and oxygen consumption. D10 was less effective while D100 even rose enzyme release compared with D0. Enhanced oxygen free radical mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO), found in the tissue of D0 livers was significantly reduced by D50; D50 significantly abrogated molecular upregulation of vWillebrand factor upon reperfusion suggesting vascular protection of the endothelial cell. Efficiency of HMP might be increased by stimulating livers with dopamine during ex vivo preservation, limiting vascular side effects and improving functional recovery upon early reperfusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik B Oleson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: 1 fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, 2 the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, 3 over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety 4 the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain’s incentive-motivational circuitry.

  12. Inverted-U shaped dopamine actions on human working memory and cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, R; D’Esposito, M

    2011-01-01

    Brain dopamine has long been implicated in cognitive control processes, including working memory. However, the precise role of dopamine in cognition is not well understood, partly because there is large variability in the response to dopaminergic drugs both across different behaviors and across different individuals. We review evidence from a series of studies with experimental animals, healthy humans and patients with Parkinson’s disease, which highlight two important factors that contribute to this large variability. First, the existence of an optimum dopamine level for cognitive function implicates the need to take into account baseline levels of dopamine when isolating dopamine’s effects. Second, cognitive control is a multi-factorial phenomenon, requiring a dynamic balance between cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility. These distinct components might implicate the prefrontal cortex and the striatum respectively. Manipulating dopamine will thus have paradoxical consequences for distinct cognitive control processes depending on distinct basal or optimal levels of dopamine in different brain regions. PMID:21531388

  13. Progress of study on the dopamine D4 receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Haibin; Zhang Lan; Zhang Chunfu; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi

    2001-01-01

    Dopamine receptors were originally classified into five receptors subtypes, the dopamine D 4 receptor was included. Schizophrenic pathophysiology may be associated with expression and function of the dopamine D 4 receptor; it is of great importance to study the imaging agent of dopamine D 4 receptor. The study on radioactivity distribution and metabolize of radioligand remains hampered by the lack radioligand for the D 4 receptor which can be labeled using suitable nuclei. This paper reviews the progress of study on the dopamine D 4 receptor imaging agent, with particular emphasis vary nuclei, for example 11 C, 18 F, 123 I, labeled D 4 receptor ligands, antagonists and analogs as PET or SPECT imaging agents. Authors estimated affinity and selectivity of radioligands for the dopamine D 4 receptor in laboratory animal tests

  14. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard; Rasmussen, Martin Bo; Hahn, Gitte Holst

    2017-01-01

    measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA) capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA...... capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057). Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion. Conclusion......: Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by dopamine infusion. Thus, dopamine does not appear to impair CA in newborn piglets....

  15. Selective Activation of Cholinergic Interneurons Enhances Accumbal Phasic Dopamine Release: Setting the Tone for Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cachope

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays a critical role in motor control, addiction, and reward-seeking behaviors, and its release dynamics have traditionally been linked to changes in midbrain dopamine neuron activity. Here, we report that selective endogenous cholinergic activation achieved via in vitro optogenetic stimulation of nucleus accumbens, a terminal field of dopaminergic neurons, elicits real-time dopamine release. This mechanism occurs via direct actions on dopamine terminals, does not require changes in neuron firing within the midbrain, and is dependent on glutamatergic receptor activity. More importantly, we demonstrate that in vivo selective activation of cholinergic interneurons is sufficient to elicit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, the control of accumbal extracellular dopamine levels by endogenous cholinergic activity results from a complex convergence of neurotransmitter/neuromodulator systems that may ultimately synergize to drive motivated behavior.

  16. Quantum chemical study of TiO2/dopamine-DNA triads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Arroyo, Manuel; LeBreton, Pierre R.; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry A.; Rajh, Tijana

    2007-01-01

    Photoinduced charge separation in triads of DNA covalently linked to an anatase nanoparticle via a dopamine bridge was studied by ab initio calculations of the oxidation potentials of carboxyl-DNA trimers and the TiO 2 /dopamine complex. Conjugation of dopamine to the TiO 2 surface results in a lower oxidation potential of the complex relative to the surface and in localization of photogenerated holes on dopamine, while photogenerated electrons are excited into the conduction band of TiO 2 . Linking dopamine to the DNA trimers at the 5' end of the oligonucleotide may lead to further hole migration to the DNA. Calculations show that for several different sequences hole migration is favorable in double stranded DNA and unfavorable in single-stranded DNA. This extended charge separation was shown to follow from the redox properties of DNA sequence rather than from the modification of DNA's electron donating properties by the dopamine linker, which explains experimental observations

  17. Ventral tegmental area dopamine revisited: effects of acute and repeated stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Elizabeth N.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression. PMID:26676983

  18. Poly(dopamine) coating to biodegradable polymers for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Bor; Chen, Wen-Tung; Chien, Hsiu-Wen; Kuo, Wei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a technique based on poly(dopamine) deposition to promote cell adhesion was investigated for the application in bone tissue engineering. The adhesion and proliferation of rat osteoblasts were evaluated on poly(dopamine)-coated biodegradable polymer films, such as polycaprolactone, poly(l-lactide) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), which are commonly used biodegradable polymers in tissue engineering. Cell adhesion was significantly increased to a plateau by merely 15 s of dopamine incubation, 2.2-4.0-folds of increase compared to the corresponding untreated substrates. Cell proliferation was also greatly enhanced by poly(dopamine) deposition, indicated by shortened cell doubling time. Mineralization was also increased on the poly(dopamine)-deposited surfaces. The potential of poly(dopamine) deposition in bone tissue engineering is demonstrated in this study.

  19. Effects of Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolites on Evoked Striatal Dopamine Release, Dopamine Receptors, and Monoamine Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Adem; Zanos, Panos; Moaddel, Ruin; Kang, Hye Jin; Dossou, Katinia S. S.; Wainer, Irving W.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Frost, Douglas O.; Huang, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Following administration at subanesthetic doses, (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) induces rapid and robust relief from symptoms of depression in treatment-refractory depressed patients. Previous studies suggest that ketamine’s antidepressant properties involve enhancement of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Ketamine is rapidly metabolized to (2S,6S)- and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), which have antidepressant actions independent of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor inhibition. These antidepressant actions of (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK, or other metabolites, as well as ketamine’s side effects, including abuse potential, may be related to direct effects on components of the dopaminergic (DAergic) system. Here, brain and blood distribution/clearance and pharmacodynamic analyses at DA receptors (D1–D5) and the DA, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters were assessed for ketamine and its major metabolites (norketamine, dehydronorketamine, and HNKs). Additionally, we measured electrically evoked mesolimbic DA release and decay using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry following acute administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.). Following ketamine injection, ketamine, norketamine, and multiple hydroxynorketamines were detected in the plasma and brain of mice. Dehydronorketamine was detectable in plasma, but concentrations were below detectable limits in the brain. Ketamine did not alter the magnitude or kinetics of evoked DA release in the nucleus accumbens in anesthetized mice. Neither ketamine’s enantiomers nor its metabolites had affinity for DA receptors or the DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin transporters (up to 10 μM). These results suggest that neither the side effects nor antidepressant actions of ketamine or ketamine metabolites are associated with direct effects on mesolimbic DAergic neurotransmission. Previously observed in vivo changes in DAergic neurotransmission following ketamine administration are likely indirect. PMID

  20. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon nanopipette electrodes for dopamine detection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Hillary R; Anderson, Sean E; Privman, Eve; Bau, Haim H; Venton, B Jill

    2015-04-07

    Small, robust, sensitive electrodes are desired for in vivo neurotransmitter measurements. Carbon nanopipettes have been previously manufactured and used for single-cell drug delivery and electrophysiological measurements. Here, a modified fabrication procedure was developed to produce batches of solid carbon nanopipette electrodes (CNPEs) with ∼250 nm diameter tips, and controllable lengths of exposed carbon, ranging from 5 to 175 μm. The electrochemical properties of CNPEs were characterized with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for the first time. CNPEs were used to detect the electroactive neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. CNPEs were significantly more sensitive for serotonin detection than traditional carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). Similar to CFMEs, CNPEs have a linear response for dopamine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and a limit of detection of 25 ± 5 nM. Recordings with CNPEs were stable for over 3 h when the applied triangle waveform was scanned between -0.4 and +1.3 V vs Ag/AgCl/Cl(-) at 400 V/s. CNPEs were used to detect endogenous dopamine release in Drosophila larvae using optogenetics, which verified the utility of CNPEs for in vivo neuroscience studies. CNPEs are advantageous because they are 1 order of magnitude smaller in diameter than typical CFMEs and have a sharp, tunable geometry that facilitates penetration and implantation for localized measurements in distinct regions of small organisms, such as the Drosophila brain.

  2. Dopamine-Mediated Sclerotization of Regenerated Chitin in Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Shin, Sara; Lim, Chanoong; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2013-09-06

    Chitin is a promising structural material for biomedical applications, due to its many advantageous properties and abundance in nature. However, its usage and development in the biomedical field have been stagnant, because of chitin's poor mechanical properties in wet conditions and the difficulties in transforming it into an applicable form. To overcome these challenges, we created a novel biomimetic chitin composite. This regenerated chitin, prepared with ionic liquid, showed improved mechanical properties in wet conditions by mimicking insect cuticle and squid beak sclerotization, i.e. , catechol-meditated cross-linking. By ionic liquid-based heat treatment, dopamine oxidation produced melanin-like compounds and dopamine-meditated cross-links without any solvent evaporation and oxidant utilization. The dopamine-meditated sclerotization increased the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the regenerated chitin by 2.52-fold, measured after six weeks of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) submersion. In addition, the linear swelling ratio (LSR) of the chitin film was reduced by about 22%. This strategy raises a possibility of using regenerated chitin as an artificial hard tissue in wet conditions.

  3. Dopamine-Mediated Sclerotization of Regenerated Chitin in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyeop X. Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a promising structural material for biomedical applications, due to its many advantageous properties and abundance in nature. However, its usage and development in the biomedical field have been stagnant, because of chitin’s poor mechanical properties in wet conditions and the difficulties in transforming it into an applicable form. To overcome these challenges, we created a novel biomimetic chitin composite. This regenerated chitin, prepared with ionic liquid, showed improved mechanical properties in wet conditions by mimicking insect cuticle and squid beak sclerotization, i.e., catechol-meditated cross-linking. By ionic liquid-based heat treatment, dopamine oxidation produced melanin-like compounds and dopamine-meditated cross-links without any solvent evaporation and oxidant utilization. The dopamine-meditated sclerotization increased the ultimate tensile strength (UTS of the regenerated chitin by 2.52-fold, measured after six weeks of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS submersion. In addition, the linear swelling ratio (LSR of the chitin film was reduced by about 22%. This strategy raises a possibility of using regenerated chitin as an artificial hard tissue in wet conditions.

  4. New Targets for Schizophrenia Treatment beyond the Dopamine Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert C. Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia has been primarily associated with dopamine dysfunction, and treatments have been developed that target the dopamine pathway in the central nervous system. However, accumulating evidence has shown that the core pathophysiology of schizophrenia might involve dysfunction in dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA signaling, which may lead to aberrant functioning of interneurons that manifest as cognitive, behavioral, and social dysfunction through altered functioning of a broad range of macro- and microcircuits. The interactions between neurotransmitters can be modeled as nodes and edges by using graph theory, and oxidative balance, immune, and glutamatergic systems may represent multiple nodes interlocking at a central hub; imbalance within any of these nodes might affect the entire system. Therefore, this review attempts to address novel treatment targets beyond the dopamine hypothesis, including glutamate, serotonin, acetylcholine, GABA, and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we outline that these treatment targets can be possibly integrated with novel treatment strategies aimed at different symptoms or phases of the illness. We anticipate that reversing anomalous activity in these novel treatment targets or combinations between these strategies might be beneficial in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  5. Dopamine negatively modulates the NCA ion channels in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalidou, Irini; Cooper, Kirsten; Pereira, Laura; Ailion, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The NALCN/NCA ion channel is a cation channel related to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. NALCN has been reported to be a sodium leak channel with a conserved role in establishing neuronal resting membrane potential, but its precise cellular role and regulation are unclear. The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of NALCN, NCA-1 and NCA-2, act in premotor interneurons to regulate motor circuit activity that sustains locomotion. Recently we found that NCA-1 and NCA-2 are activated by a signal transduction pathway acting downstream of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq and the small GTPase Rho. Through a forward genetic screen, here we identify the GPCR kinase GRK-2 as a new player affecting signaling through the Gq-Rho-NCA pathway. Using structure-function analysis, we find that the GPCR phosphorylation and membrane association domains of GRK-2 are required for its function. Genetic epistasis experiments suggest that GRK-2 acts on the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3 to inhibit Go signaling and positively modulate NCA-1 and NCA-2 activity. Through cell-specific rescuing experiments, we find that GRK-2 and DOP-3 act in premotor interneurons to modulate NCA channel function. Finally, we demonstrate that dopamine, through DOP-3, negatively regulates NCA activity. Thus, this study identifies a pathway by which dopamine modulates the activity of the NCA channels.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome in Parkinson’s disease: dopamine as cure or cause?

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Elizabeth A.; Laughlin, Ruple S.

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome has been reported as being more common in Parkinson’s disease patients than the general population. While the pathophysiology is unclear, decreased dopamine levels and dopamine dysregulation are hypothesized to play a role. We report a patient with Parkinson’s disease who developed burning mouth syndrome with carbidopa/levodopa. Our patient had resolution of burning mouth symptoms when carbidopa/levodopa was replaced with a dopamine agonist. Based on our patient’s clini...

  7. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, A.; Valmaggia, L. R.; Howes, O. D.; Day, F.; Chaddock, C. A.; Allen, P.; Winton-Brown, T. T.; Bloomfield, M. A. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Chilcott, J.; Lappin, J. M.; Murray, R. M.; McGuire, P.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and he...

  8. Circulating Dopamine and C-Peptide Levels in Fasting Nondiabetic Hypertensive Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaschitz, Andreas; Ritz, Eberhard; Kienreich, Katharina; Pieske, Burkert; M?rz, Winfried; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Drechsler, Christiane; Meinitzer, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Accumulating evidence supports a potential role for dopamine in the regulation of insulin secretion. We examined the association between circulating dopamine and C-peptide concentrations using data from the Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension (GECOH) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After 12 h of fasting, we measured plasma dopamine and serum C-peptide levels and established determining factors of insulin secretion in 201 nondiabetic hypertensive patients (mean age 48.1 ? 16.0 y...

  9. VMAT2 and Parkinson’s disease: harnessing the dopamine vesicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Kelly M; Miller, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Despite a movement away from dopamine-focused Parkinson’s disease (PD) research, a recent surge of evidence now suggests that altered vesicular storage of dopamine may contribute to the demise of the nigral neurons in this disease. Human studies demonstrate that the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2) is dysfunctional in PD brain. Moreover, studies with transgenic mice suggest that there is an untapped reserve capacity of the dopamine vesicle that could be unbridled by increasi...

  10. Continuous cerebroventricular administration of dopamine: A new treatment for severe dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, C; Gouel, F; Lachaud, C; Timmerman, K; Do Van, B; Jonneaux, A; Petrault, M; Garcon, G; Rouaix, N; Moreau, C; Bordet, R; Duce, J A; Devedjian, J C; Devos, D

    2017-07-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) depletion of dopamine in the nigro-striatal pathway is a main pathological hallmark that requires continuous and focal restoration. Current predominant treatment with intermittent oral administration of its precursor, Levodopa (l-dopa), remains the gold standard but pharmacological drawbacks trigger motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of dopamine previously failed as a therapy because of an inability to resolve the accelerated dopamine oxidation and tachyphylaxia. We aim to overcome prior challenges by demonstrating treatment feasibility and efficacy of continuous i.c.v. of dopamine close to the striatum. Dopamine prepared either anaerobically (A-dopamine) or aerobically (O-dopamine) in the presence or absence of a conservator (sodium metabisulfite, SMBS) was assessed upon acute MPTP and chronic 6-OHDA lesioning and compared to peripheral l-dopa treatment. A-dopamine restored motor function and induced a dose dependent increase of nigro-striatal tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in mice after 7days of MPTP insult that was not evident with either O-dopamine or l-dopa. In the 6-OHDA rat model, continuous circadian i.c.v. injection of A-dopamine over 30days also improved motor activity without occurrence of tachyphylaxia. This safety profile was highly favorable as A-dopamine did not induce dyskinesia or behavioral sensitization as observed with peripheral l-dopa treatment. Indicative of a new therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from l-dopa related complications with dyskinesia, continuous i.c.v. of A-dopamine has greater efficacy in mediating motor impairment over a large therapeutic index without inducing dyskinesia and tachyphylaxia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA

    OpenAIRE

    Gantz, Stephanie C.; Levitt, Erica S.; Llamosas Muñozguren, Nerea; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigr...

  12. Metabolism of Dopamine in Nucleus Accumbens Astrocytes Is Preserved in Aged Mice Exposed to MPTP

    OpenAIRE

    Brittany M. Winner; Brittany M. Winner; Harue Zhang; McKenzie M. Farthing; Lalitha M. Karchalla; Keith J. Lookingland; Keith J. Lookingland; Keith J. Lookingland; John L. Goudreau; John L. Goudreau; John L. Goudreau; John L. Goudreau

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is prevalent in elderly individuals and is characterized by selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons. Interestingly, not all dopamine (DA) neurons are affected equally by PD and aging, particularly mesolimbic (ML) DA neurons. Here, effects of aging were examined on presynaptic DA synthesis, reuptake, metabolism and neurotoxicant susceptibility of NSDA and mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA) neurons and astrocyte DA metabolism. There were no differences in ...

  13. An electrochemical dopamine sensor based on the ZnO/CuO nanohybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, K; Ibupoto, Z H; Liu, X; Mansor, N A; Turner, A P F; Beni, V; Willander, M

    2014-09-01

    The selective detection of dopamine (DA) is of great importance in the modern medicine because dopamine is one of the main regulators in human behaviour. In this study, ZnO/CuO nanohybrid structures, grown on the gold coated glass substrate, have been investigated as a novel electrode material for the electrochemical detection of dopamine. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used for the material characterization and the obtained results are in good agreement. The selective determination of dopamine was demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric experiments. The amperometric response was linear for dopamine concentrations between 1.0 x 10(-3) and 8.0 mM with a sensitivity of 90.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The proposed dopamine biosensor is very stable, selective over common interferents as glucose, uric acid and ascorbic acid, and also good reproducibility was observed for seven electrodes. Moreover, the dopamine sensor exhibited a fast response time of less than 10 s. The wide range and acceptable sensitivity of the presented dopamine sensor provide the possible application in analysing the dopamine from the real samples.

  14. Mutation of Drosophila dopamine receptor DopR leads to male-male courtship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, He; Ren, Jing; Guo, Aike

    2012-07-06

    In Drosophila, dopamine plays important roles in many biological processes as a neuromodulator. Previous studies showed that dopamine level could affect fly courtship behaviors. Disturbed dopamine level leads to abnormal courtship behavior in two different ways. Dopamine up-regulation induces male-male courtship behavior, while down-regulation of dopamine level results in increased sexual attractiveness of males towards other male flies. Until now, the identity of the dopamine receptor involved in this abnormal male-male courtship behavior remains unknown. Here we used genetic approaches to investigate the role of dopamine receptors in fly courtship behavior. We found that a dopamine D1-like receptor, DopR, was involved in fly courtship behavior. DopR mutant male flies display male-male courtship behavior. This behavior is mainly due to the male's increased propensity to court other males. Expression of functional DopR successfully rescued this mutant phenotype. Knock-down of D2-like receptor D2R and another D1-like receptor, DAMB, did not induce male-male courtship behavior, indicating the receptor-type specificity of this phenomenon. Our findings provide insight into a possible link between dopamine level disturbance and the induced male-male courtship behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitoxicity and Environmental, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    .... Similarly, the psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine also produces relatively selective damage to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and is a widespread problem and drug of abuse throughout the U.S...

  16. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitotoxicity and Environmental, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    .... Similarly, the psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine also produces relatively selective damage to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and is a widespread problem and drug of abuse throughout the U.S...

  17. Dopamine and extinction: A convergence of theory with fear and reward circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D.; Neve, Kim A.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Research on dopamine lies at the intersection of sophisticated theoretical and neurobiological approaches to learning and memory. Dopamine has been shown to be critical for many processes that drive learning and memory, including motivation, prediction error, incentive salience, memory consolidation, and response output. Theories of dopamine’s function in these processes have, for the most part, been developed from behavioral approaches that examine learning mechanisms in reward-related tasks. A parallel and growing literature indicates that dopamine is involved in fear conditioning and extinction. These studies are consistent with long-standing ideas about appetitive-aversive interactions in learning theory and they speak to the general nature of cellular and molecular processes that underlie behavior. We review the behavioral and neurobiological literature showing a role for dopamine in fear conditioning and extinction. At a cellular level, we review dopamine signaling and receptor pharmacology, cellular and molecular events that follow dopamine receptor activation, and brain systems in which dopamine functions. At a behavioral level, we describe theories of learning and dopamine function that could describe the fundamental rules underlying how dopamine modulates different aspects of learning and memory processes. PMID:24269353

  18. Development and function of the midbrain dopamine system: what we know and what we need to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, G B; Roesch, M R

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in our understanding of the origin and development of the midbrain dopamine system. Much of this work has been focused on the aspects of dopamine neuron development related to the onset of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, with the intent of hopefully delaying, preventing or fixing symptoms. While midbrain dopamine degeneration is a major focus for treatment and research, many other human disorders are impacted by abnormal dopamine, including drug addiction, autism and schizophrenia. Understanding dopamine neuron ontogeny and how dopamine connections and circuitry develops may provide us with key insights into potentially important avenues of research for other dopamine-related disorders. This review will provide a brief overview of the major molecular and genetic players throughout the development of midbrain dopamine neurons and what we know about the behavioral- and disease-related implications associated with perturbations to midbrain dopamine neuron development. We intend to combine the knowledge of two broad fields of neuroscience, both developmental and behavioral, with the intent on fostering greater discussion between branches of neuroscience in the service of addressing complex cognitive questions from a developmental perspective and identifying important gaps in our knowledge for future study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Dopamine regulation of [3H]acetylcholine release from guinea-pig stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, M.; Taniyama, K.; Tanaka, C.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement of dopamine receptors in cholinergic transmission of guinea-pig stomach was investigated by analyzing the effects of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists on acetylcholine (ACh) release from this organ. Electrical stimulation (1-20 Hz) of strips of guinea-pig stomach preloaded with [ 3 H] choline induced a [ 3 H]ACh release that was calcium dependent and tetrodotoxin sensitive. Dopamine inhibited this transmural stimulation-induced [ 3 H]ACh release in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-8)-10(-4) M). This effect of dopamine was not altered by 10(-5) M hexamethonium, thereby suggesting that the major dopamine receptors are located on the postganglionic cholinergic neurons. Concentration-response curves for dopamine on [ 3 H]ACh release were inhibited by haloperidol, sulpiride and domperidone but not by prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol and ketanserin. LY 171555, an agonist for the D2 dopamine receptor, but not SKF 38-393, an agonist for the D1 dopamine receptor, to some extent decreased the release of [ 3 H]ACh induced by transmural stimulation. In view of the results, the release of ACh from postganglionic cholinergic neurons is probably required through dopamine receptors antagonized by D2 antagonists but not by adrenergic or serotonin receptor antagonists

  20. Dopamine receptors in the guinea-pig heart. A binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrini, M.; Benelli, A.; Baraldi, M.

    1984-01-01

    The binding of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists to guinea-pig myocardial membrane preparations was studied using 3 H-dopamine and 3 H-spiperone as radioligand. 3 H-Dopamine bound specifically to heart membranes while 3 H-spiperone did not. A Scatchard analysis of 3 H-dopamine binding showed a curvilinear plot indicating the presence of two dopamine receptor populations that we have termed high- (K/sub d/ = 1.2 nM, B/sub mx/ = 52.9 fmol/mg prot.) and low- (K/sub d/ = 11.8 nM, B/sub mx/ = 267.3 fmol/gm prot.) affinity binding sites, respectively. The charactization of the high-affinity component of 3 H-dopamine binding indicated that the binding is rapid, saturable, stereospecific, pH- and temperature-dependent, and displaced by dopaminergic agonists and antagonists known to act similarly in vivo. The finding that pretreatment with dibenamine (which has been described as an α-adrenoceptor irreversible blocker) did not affect the binding of dopamine to cardiac membrane preparations suggests that α-adrenoceptors and dopamine receptors have separate recognition sites in the heart. It is concluded that 3 H-dopamine binds to specific dopamine receptors in the heart of guinea-pigs

  1. Amphetamine Elicits Opposing Actions on Readily Releasable and Reserve Pools for Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Juliano, Steven A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

  2. Dopamine dynamics and cocaine sensitivity differ between striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Armando G.; Davis, Margaret I.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is typically classified according to its major output pathways, which consist of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons. The striatum is also divided into striosome and matrix compartments, based on the differential expression of a number of proteins, including the mu opioid receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT), and Nr4a1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1). Numerous functional differences between the striosome and matrix compartments are implicated in dopamine-related neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease and addiction. Using Nr4a1-eGFP mice, we provide evidence that electrically evoked dopamine release differs between the striosome and matrix compartments in a regionally-distinct manner. We further demonstrate that this difference is not due to differences in inhibition of dopamine release by dopamine autoreceptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, cocaine enhanced extracellular dopamine in striosomes to a greater degree than in the matrix and concomitantly inhibited dopamine uptake in the matrix to a greater degree than in striosomes. Importantly, these compartment differences in cocaine sensitivity were limited to the dorsal striatum. These findings demonstrate a level of exquisite microanatomical regulation of dopamine by the DAT in striosomes relative to the matrix. PMID:27036891

  3. The second sodium site in the dopamine transporter controls cation permeability and is regulated by chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Lars; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted mutagene......The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted...

  4. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  5. Socially isolated rats exhibit changes in dopamine homeostasis pertinent to schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Helboe, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Post-weaning social isolation of rats produces an array of behavioral and neurochemical changes indicative of altered dopamine function. It has therefore been suggested that post-weaning social isolation mimics some aspects of schizophrenia. Here we replicate and extent these findings to include...... dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, it did cause a significant reduction of basal dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, social isolation lead to a significantly larger dopamine response to an amphetamine challenge, in both the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex compared...

  6. Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD; clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Zhu, W.; Logan, J.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity - is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate biological bases that might underlie a reward/motivation deficit by imaging key components of the brain dopamine reward pathway (mesoaccumbens). We used positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synaptic markers (transporters and D 2 /D 3 receptors) in 53 nonmedicated adults with ADHD and 44 healthy controls between 2001-2009 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We measured specific binding of positron emission tomographic radioligands for dopamine transporters (DAT) using [ 11 C]cocaine and for D 2 /D 3 receptors using [ 11 C]raclopride, quantified as binding potential (distribution volume ratio -1). For both ligands, statistical parametric mapping showed that specific binding was lower in ADHD than in controls (threshold for significance set at P 2 /D 3 receptors, the mean accumbens for controls was 2.85 vs 2.68 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.06-0.30, P = .004); and in the midbrain, it was for controls 0.28 vs 0.18 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.17, P = .01). The analysis also corroborated differences in the left caudate: the mean DAT for controls was 0.66 vs 0.53 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = .003) and the mean D 2 /D 3 for controls was 2.80 vs 2.47 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.10-0.56; P = .005) and differences in D 2 /D 3 in the hypothalamic region, with controls having a mean of 0.12 vs 0.05 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.12; P = .004). Ratings of attention correlated with D 2 /D 3 in the accumbens (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P = .001), midbrain (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.52; P = .001), caudate (r = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.50; P = .003), and hypothalamic (r = 0.31; CI, 0.10-0.49; P = .003) regions and with DAT in the midbrain

  7. The rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy is myopic with low retinal dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Favazza, Tara L; Baglieri, Anna Maria; Benador, Ilan Y; Noonan, Emily R; Fulton, Anne B; Hansen, Ronald M; Iuvone, P Michael; Akula, James D

    2013-12-19

    Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter implicated both in modulating neural retinal signals and in eye growth. Therefore, it may participate in the pathogenesis of the most common clinical sequelae of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual dysfunction and myopia. Paradoxically, in ROP myopia the eye is usually small. The eye of the rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is characterized by retinal dysfunction and short axial length. There have been several investigations of the early maturation of DA in rat retina, but little at older ages, and not in the OIR rat. Therefore, DA, retinal function, and refractive state were investigated in the OIR rat. In one set of rats, the development of dopaminergic (DAergic) networks was evaluated in retinal cross-sections from rats aged 14 to 120 days using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of DA). In another set of rats, retinoscopy was used to evaluate spherical equivalent (SE), electoretinography (ERG) was used to evaluate retinal function, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate retinal contents of DA, its precursor levodopamine (DOPA), and its primary metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). The normally rapid postnatal ramification of DAergic neurons was disrupted in OIR rats. Retinoscopy revealed that OIR rats were relatively myopic. In the same eyes, ERG confirmed retinal dysfunction in OIR. HPLC of those eyes' retinae confirmed low DA. Regression analysis indicated that DA metabolism (evaluated by the ratio of DOPAC to DA) was an important additional predictor of myopia beyond OIR. The OIR rat is the first known animal model of myopia in which the eye is smaller than normal. Dopamine may modulate, or fail to modulate, neural activity in the OIR eye, and thus contribute to this peculiar myopia.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in coding regions of canine dopamine- and serotonin-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingaas Frode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphism in genes of regulating enzymes, transporters and receptors of the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system have been associated with altered behaviour, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs represent the most frequent type of genetic variation. The serotonin and dopamine signalling systems have a central influence on different behavioural phenotypes, both of invertebrates and vertebrates, and this study was undertaken in order to explore genetic variation that may be associated with variation in behaviour. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms in canine genes related to behaviour were identified by individually sequencing eight dogs (Canis familiaris of different breeds. Eighteen genes from the dopamine and the serotonin systems were screened, revealing 34 SNPs distributed in 14 of the 18 selected genes. A total of 24,895 bp coding sequence was sequenced yielding an average frequency of one SNP per 732 bp (1/732. A total of 11 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs, which may be involved in alteration of protein function, were detected. Of these 11 nsSNPs, six resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with concomitant change in structural parameters. Conclusion We have identified a number of coding SNPs in behaviour-related genes, several of which change the amino acids of the proteins. Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein. The reported coding SNP frequency of the studied genes falls within the range of SNP frequencies reported earlier in the dog and other mammalian species. Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes. The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

  9. Examination of association to autism of common genetic variationin genes related to dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B M; Schnetz-Boutaud, N; Bartlett, J; Wright, H H; Abramson, R K; Cuccaro, M L; Gilbert, J R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L

    2008-12-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a triad of complications. Autistic individuals display significant disturbances in language and reciprocal social interactions, combined with repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. Prevalence studies suggest that autism is more common than originally believed, with recent estimates citing a rate of one in 150. Although multiple genetic linkage and association studies have yielded multiple suggestive genes or chromosomal regions, a specific risk locus has yet to be identified and widely confirmed. Because many etiologies have been suggested for this complex syndrome, we hypothesize that one of the difficulties in identifying autism genes is that multiple genetic variants may be required to significantly increase the risk of developing autism. Thus, we took the alternative approach of examining 14 prominent dopamine pathway candidate genes for detailed study by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although we did observe a nominally significant association for rs2239535 (P=0.008) on chromosome 20, single-locus analysis did not reveal any results as significant after correction for multiple comparisons. No significant interaction was identified when Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction was employed to test specifically for multilocus effects. Although genome-wide linkage scans in autism have provided support for linkage to various loci along the dopamine pathway, our study does not provide strong evidence of linkage or association to any specific gene or combination of genes within the pathway. These results demonstrate that common genetic variation within the tested genes located within this pathway at most play a minor to moderate role in overall autism pathogenesis.

  10. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Bunner, Kendra D.; Schuweiler, Douglas R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  11. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Bunner, Kendra D; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Cheer, Joseph F; Garris, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  12. Effects of acute nicotine on hemodynamics and binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2,3 receptors in pig brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Paul; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Watanabe, Hideaki; Smith, Donald; Bender, Dirk; Clarke, Paul B S; Gjedde, Albert

    2003-07-01

    Positive reinforcing properties of nicotine and the psychostimulants have been attributed to elevated dopamine release in the basal ganglia. It is well known that the specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride to dopamine D(2,3) receptors in living striatum is reduced by cocaine and amphetamines, revealing increased competition between endogenous dopamine and [(11)C]raclopride for dopamine D(2,3) receptors. However, the sensitivity of [(11)C]raclopride binding to nicotine-induced dopamine release is less well documented. In order to provide the basis for mapping effects of nicotine, we first optimized reference tissue methods for quantifying [(11)C]raclopride binding sites in striatum of living pigs (n = 16). In the same animals, the rate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was mapped using [(15)O]water. Neither a low dose of nicotine (50 mu kg(-1), iv) nor a high dose of nicotine (500 microg kg(-1), iv) altered CBF in the pig brain, an important condition for calculating the binding of radioligands when using a reference tissue to estimate the free ligand concentration. The methods of Logan and of Lammertsma were compared using the cerebellum or the occipital cortex as reference tissues for calculating the binding potential (pB) of [(11)C]raclolpride in brain. Irrespective of the method used, the mean undrugged baseline pB in striatum (ca. 2.0) was significantly asymmetric, with highest binding in the left caudate and right putamen. Test-retest estimates of pB were stable. Subtraction of Logan pB maps revealed that the low dose of nicotine reduced the pB of [(11)C]raclopride by 10% in a cluster of voxels in the left anteroventral striatum, but this effect did not persist after correction for multiple comparisons. The high dose of nicotine (n = 9) acutely reduced pB by 10% bilaterally in the ventral striatum; 3 h after the high nicotine dose, the reductions had shifted dorsally and caudally into the caudate and putamen. Evidently, nicotine challenge enhances the competition

  13. In the Blink of an Eye: Relating Positive-Feedback Sensitivity to Striatal Dopamine D2-Like Receptors through Blink Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Stephanie M.; James, Alex S.; Seu, Emanuele; Tran, Steven; Clark, Taylor A.; Harpster, Sandra N.; Crawford, Maverick; Burtner, Joanna Lee; Feiler, Karen; Roth, Robert H.; Elsworth, John D.; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    For >30 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has proven to be a powerful approach for measuring aspects of dopaminergic transmission in the living human brain; this technique has revealed important relationships between dopamine D2-like receptors and dimensions of normal behavior, such as human impulsivity, and psychopathology, particularly behavioral addictions. Nevertheless, PET is an indirect estimate that lacks cellular and functional resolution and, in some cases, is not entirely pharmacologically specific. To identify the relationships between PET estimates of D2-like receptor availability and direct in vitro measures of receptor number, affinity, and function, we conducted neuroimaging and behavioral and molecular pharmacological assessments in a group of adult male vervet monkeys. Data gathered from these studies indicate that variation in D2-like receptor PET measurements is related to reversal-learning performance and sensitivity to positive feedback and is associated with in vitro estimates of the density of functional dopamine D2-like receptors. Furthermore, we report that a simple behavioral measure, eyeblink rate, reveals novel and crucial links between neuroimaging assessments and in vitro measures of dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25339755

  14. Progressive supranuclear palsy dopamine D2 receptor tomoscintigraphy to detect L-dopamine efficiency. Paralysies supra-nucleaires progressives. Quantification des recepteurs dopaminergiques D2 par tomoscintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F; Henry Le Bras, F; Toffol, B de; Autret, A; Guilloteau, D; Baulieu, J L [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1994-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may sometimes be misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease in its early stages, hence an early positive diagnosis of PSP based on dopamine D2 receptor density could be extremely valuable. In the present case report, the absence of dopamine D2 receptors was clearly demonstrated in the striatum using [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) tomoscintigraphy. This illustrates the potential use of IBZM tomoscintigraphy to identify Parkinson-like's disease presenting with decreased dopamine D2 receptor density; and hence to predict L-Dopa effectiveness. Further studies are needed to evaluate the value of IBZM tomoscintigraphy in the different Parkinson's like diseases. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Reduced dopamine transporter binding predates impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Chris; Nordbeck, Anna H; Booij, Jan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Pattij, Tommy; Voorn, Pieter; Raijmakers, Pieter; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Berendse, Henk W; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2014-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generally are regarded as adverse effects of dopamine replacement therapy, although certain demographic and clinical risk factors are also involved. Previous single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies showed reduced ventral striatal dopamine transporter binding in Parkinson patients with ICD compared with patients without. Nevertheless, these studies were performed in patients with preexisting impulse control impairments, which impedes clear-cut interpretation of these findings. We retrospectively procured follow-up data from 31 medication-naïve PD patients who underwent dopamine transporter SPECT imaging at baseline and were subsequently treated with dopamine replacement therapy. We used questionnaires and a telephone interview to assess medication status and ICD symptom development during the follow-up period (31.5 ± 12.0 months). Eleven patients developed ICD symptoms during the follow-up period, eight of which were taking dopamine agonists. The PD patients with ICD symptoms at follow-up had higher baseline depressive scores and lower baseline dopamine transporter availability in the right ventral striatum, anterior-dorsal striatum, and posterior putamen compared with PD patients without ICD symptoms. No baseline between-group differences in age and disease stage or duration were found. The ICD symptom severity correlated negatively with baseline dopamine transporter availability in the right ventral and anterior-dorsal striatum. The results of this preliminary study show that reduced striatal dopamine transporter availability predates the development of ICD symptoms after dopamine replacement therapy and may constitute a neurobiological risk factor related to a lower premorbid dopamine transporter availability or a more pronounced dopamine denervation in PD patients susceptible to ICD. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Dopamine dynamics during emotional cognitive processing: Implications of the specific actions of clozapine compared with haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Masahiko; Oshibuchi, Hidehiro; Kawano, Takaaki; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Yamada, Makiko; Inada, Ken; Ishigooka, Jun

    2016-06-15

    Clozapine has improved efficacy relative to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment, particularly regarding emotional symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic benefits remain unclear. Using a methamphetamine-sensitised rat model, we measured changes in dopamine levels in the amygdalae in response to a fear-conditioned cue, serving as a biochemical marker of emotional cognitive processing disruption in psychosis, for analysing the biochemical mechanisms associated with the clinical benefits of clozapine. We also compared how clozapine and haloperidol affected basal dopamine levels and phasic dopamine release in response to the fear-conditioned cue. Extracellular dopamine was collected from the amygdalae of freely moving rats via microdialysis and was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clozapine or haloperidol was injected during microdialysis, followed by exposure to the fear-conditioned cue. We analysed the ratio of change in dopamine levels from baseline. Haloperidol treatment increased the baseline dopamine levels in both non-sensitised and sensitised rats. Conversely, clozapine only increased the basal dopamine levels in the non-sensitised rats, but not in the sensitised rats. Although both antipsychotics attenuated phasic dopamine release in both the non-sensitised and sensitised rats, the attenuation extent was greater for clozapine than for haloperidol under both dopaminergic conditions. Our findings indicate that stabilized dopamine release in the amygdalae is a common therapeutic mechanism of antipsychotic action during emotional processing. However, the specific dopaminergic state-dependent action of clozapine on both basal dopamine levels and stress-induced dopamine release may be the underlying mechanism for its superior clinical effect on emotional cognitive processing in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dopamine D1 receptors and phosphorylation of dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 in the medial preoptic area are involved in experience-induced enhancement of male sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Jenna A; Bell, Genevieve A; Parrish, Bradley P; Hull, Elaine M

    2012-08-01

    The medial preoptic area (MPOA) is an integral site for male sexual behavior. Dopamine is released in the MPOA before and during copulation and facilitates male rat sexual behavior. Repeated sexual experience and noncopulatory exposures to an estrous female facilitate subsequent copulation. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate such enhancement remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine D₁ receptors in the MPOA in experience-induced enhancement of male sexual behavior in rats. In experiment 1, microinjections of the D₁ antagonist SCH-23390 into the MPOA before each of seven daily 30-min noncopulatory exposures to a receptive female impaired copulation on a drug-free test on Day 8, compared to vehicle-treated female-exposed animals. Copulatory performance in drug-treated animals was similar to that of vehicle-treated males that had not been preexposed to females. This effect was site specific. There were no group differences in locomotor activity in an open field on the copulation test day. In experiment 2, a separate cohort of animals was used to examine phosphorylation of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) in the MPOA of animals with acute and/or chronic sexual experience. DARPP-32 is a downstream marker of D₁ receptor signaling and substrate of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Western immunoblot analysis revealed that p-DARPP-32 expression was greatest in the MPOA of males that received both acute and chronic sexual experience, compared to all other mated conditions and naïve controls. These data suggest that D₁ receptors in the MPOA contribute to experience-induced enhancement of male sexual behavior, perhaps through a PKA regulated mechanism.

  18. Hypothermia-induced loss of endothelial barrier function is restored after dopamine pretreatment : Role of p42/p44 activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkoetter, Paul-Thomas; Beck, Grietje C.; Gottmann, Uwe; Loesel, Ralf; Schnetzke, Ulf; Rudic, Boris; Hanusch, Christine; Rafat, Neysan; Liu, Zhenzi; Weiss, Christel; Leuvinik, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger; Braun, Claude; Schnuelle, Peter; van der Woude, Fokko J.; Yard, Benito A.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Donor dopamine usage is associated with improved immediate graft function after renal transplantation. Although prolonged cold preservation results in an increased vascular permeability, the present study was conducted to examine in vitro and in vivo if dopamine Pretreatment influences

  19. The Impact of Exercise on the Vulnerability of Dopamine Neurons to Cell Death in Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zpgmond, Michael J; Smith, Amanda; Liou, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease results in part from the loss of dopamine neurons. We hypothesize that exercise reduces the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxin exposure, which is modulated by stress...

  20. The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eBrisch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia.The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them, but also an outline of dopamine and it`s interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed.

  1. Intranasal Dopamine Reduces In Vivo [(123)I]FP-CIT Binding to Striatal Dopamine Transporter: Correlation with Behavioral Changes and Evidence for Pavlovian Conditioned Dopamine Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Mattern, Claudia; Decheva, Cvetana; Huston, Joseph P; Sadile, Adolfo G; Beu, Markus; Müller, H-W; Nikolaus, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [(123)I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor. Rats were administered 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH), with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming) were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT 2 h following administration of the radioligand. (1) After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered DA had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration; and (2) DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased) the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant drugs. (a) demonstrate a direct central action of intranasally

  2. Disruptions in effort-based decision-making and consummatory behavior following antagonism of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Cindee F; Johnson, Alexander W

    2017-03-01

    Dopamine is known to influence motivational processes, however the precise role of this neurotransmitter remains a contentious issue. In the current study we sought to further characterize dopamine signaling in reward-based decision-making and consummatory behavior in mice, via lateral ventricle infusion of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride. In Experiment 1, we examined effort-based decision-making, in which mice had a choice between one lever, where a single response led to the delivery of a low value reward (2% sucrose); and a second lever, which led to a higher value reward (20% sucrose) that gradually required more effort to obtain. As the response schedule for the high value reward became more strict, low dose (4μg in 0.5μl) central infusions of eticlopride biased preference away from the high value reward, and toward the lever that led to the low value reward. Similarly, a higher dose of eticlopride (8μg in 0.5μl) also disrupted choice responding for the high value reward, however it did so by increasing omissions. In Experiment 2, we assessed the effects of eticlopride on consumption of 20% sucrose. The antagonist led to a dose-dependent reduction in intake, and through an analysis of licking microstructure, it was revealed that this in part reflected a reduction in the motivation to engage in consummatory behavior, rather than alterations in the evaluation of the reward. These results suggest that disruptions in D2 receptor signaling reduce the willingness to engage in effortful operant responding and consumption of a desirable outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tyrosine-induced release of dopamine is under inhibitory control of presynaptic dopamine D2 and, probably, D3 receptors in the dorsal striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusa, K.; Saigusa, T.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Stimulation of dopamine D2-like receptors decreases extracellular dopamine in the dorsal striatum and the nucleus accumbens. It is unknown whether the role of these receptors differs from that of dopamine D3 receptors. It is also unknown to what extent the role of these two types of receptors varies

  4. Tyrosine-induced release of dopamine is under inhibitory control of presynaptic dopamine D2 and, probably, D3 receptors in the dorsal striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusa, K.; Saigusa, T.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Stimulation of dopamine D2-like receptors decreases extracellular dopamine in the dorsal striatum and the nucleus accumbens. It is unknown whether the role of these receptors differs from that of dopamine D3 receptors. It is also unknown to what extent the role of these two types of receptors varies

  5. Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD; clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Kollins, S.H., Wigal, t.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Zhu, W.; Logan, J.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2009-09-09

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity - is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate biological bases that might underlie a reward/motivation deficit by imaging key components of the brain dopamine reward pathway (mesoaccumbens). We used positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synaptic markers (transporters and D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors) in 53 nonmedicated adults with ADHD and 44 healthy controls between 2001-2009 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We measured specific binding of positron emission tomographic radioligands for dopamine transporters (DAT) using [{sup 11}C]cocaine and for D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors using [{sup 11}C]raclopride, quantified as binding potential (distribution volume ratio -1). For both ligands, statistical parametric mapping showed that specific binding was lower in ADHD than in controls (threshold for significance set at P < .005) in regions of the dopamine reward pathway in the left side of the brain. Region-of-interest analyses corroborated these findings. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI] of mean difference) for DAT in the nucleus accumbens for controls was 0.71 vs 0.63 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.13, P = .004) and in the midbrain for controls was 0.16 vs 0.09 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.12; P {le} .001); for D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors, the mean accumbens for controls was 2.85 vs 2.68 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.06-0.30, P = .004); and in the midbrain, it was for controls 0.28 vs 0.18 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.17, P = .01). The analysis also corroborated differences in the left caudate: the mean DAT for controls was 0.66 vs 0.53 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = .003) and the mean D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} for controls was 2.80 vs 2.47 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0

  6. The role of dopamine in Drosophila larval classical olfactory conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Selcho

    Full Text Available Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt as well as appetitive (odor-sugar associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive

  7. Dopamine reward prediction error responses reflect marginal utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Schultz, Wolfram

    2014-11-03

    Optimal choices require an accurate neuronal representation of economic value. In economics, utility functions are mathematical representations of subjective value that can be constructed from choices under risk. Utility usually exhibits a nonlinear relationship to physical reward value that corresponds to risk attitudes and reflects the increasing or decreasing marginal utility obtained with each additional unit of reward. Accordingly, neuronal reward responses coding utility should robustly reflect this nonlinearity. In two monkeys, we measured utility as a function of physical reward value from meaningful choices under risk (that adhered to first- and second-order stochastic dominance). The resulting nonlinear utility functions predicted the certainty equivalents for new gambles, indicating that the functions' shapes were meaningful. The monkeys were risk seeking (convex utility function) for low reward and risk avoiding (concave utility function) with higher amounts. Critically, the dopamine prediction error responses at the time of reward itself reflected the nonlinear utility functions measured at the time of choices. In particular, the reward response magnitude depended on the first derivative of the utility function and thus reflected the marginal utility. Furthermore, dopamine responses recorded outside of the task reflected the marginal utility of unpredicted reward. Accordingly, these responses were sufficient to train reinforcement learning models to predict the behaviorally defined expected utility of gambles. These data suggest a neuronal manifestation of marginal utility in dopamine neurons and indicate a common neuronal basis for fundamental explanatory constructs in animal learning theory (prediction error) and economic decision theory (marginal utility). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dopamine signaling and myopia development: What are the key challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangtian; Pardue, Machelle T; Iuvone, P Michael; Qu, Jia

    2017-11-01

    In the face of an "epidemic" increase in myopia over the last decades and myopia prevalence predicted to reach 2.5 billion people by the end of this decade, there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutic interventions to slow down this "myopia booming" and prevent myopia-related complications and vision loss. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the retina and mediates diverse functions including retina development, visual signaling, and refractive development. Inspired by the convergence of epidemiological and animal studies in support of the inverse relationship between outdoor activity and risk of developing myopia and by the close biological relationship between light exposure and dopamine release/signaling, we felt it is timely and important to critically review the role of DA in myopia development. This review will revisit several key points of evidence for and against DA mediating light control of myopia: 1) the causal role of extracellular retinal DA levels, 2) the mechanism and action of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and 3) the roles of cellular/circuit retinal pathways. We examine the experiments that show causation by altering DA, DA receptors and visual pathways using pharmacological, transgenic, or visual environment approaches. Furthermore, we critically evaluate the safety issues of a DA-based treatment strategy and some approaches to address these issues. The review identifies the key questions and challenges in translating basic knowledge on DA signaling and myopia from animal studies into effective pharmacological treatments for myopia in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  10. Ih current is necessary to maintain normal dopamine fluctuations and sleep consolidation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gonzalo-Gomez

    Full Text Available HCN channels are becoming pharmacological targets mainly in cardiac diseases. But apart from their well-known role in heart pacemaking, these channels are widely expressed in the nervous system where they contribute to the neuron firing pattern. Consequently, abolishing Ih current might have detrimental consequences in a big repertoire of behavioral traits. Several studies in mammals have identified the Ih current as an important determinant of the firing activity of dopaminergic neurons, and recent evidences link alterations in this current to various dopamine-related disorders. We used the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to investigate how lack of Ih current affects dopamine levels and the behavioral consequences in the sleep:activity pattern. Unlike mammals, in Drosophila there is only one gene encoding HCN channels. We generated a deficiency of the DmIh core gene region and measured, by HPLC, levels of dopamine. Our data demonstrate daily variations of dopamine in wild-type fly heads. Lack of Ih current dramatically alters dopamine pattern, but different mechanisms seem to operate during light and dark conditions. Behaviorally, DmIh mutant flies display alterations in the rest:activity pattern, and altered circadian rhythms. Our data strongly suggest that Ih current is necessary to prevent dopamine overproduction at dark, while light input allows cycling of dopamine in an Ih current dependent manner. Moreover, lack of Ih current results in behavioral defects that are consistent with altered dopamine levels.

  11. O papel do sistema dopaminérgico na fobia social

    OpenAIRE

    Kauer-SantAnna,Márcia; Lavinsky,Michelle; Aguiar,Rogério Wolf de; Kapczinski,Flávio

    2002-01-01

    Os autores descrevem o papel do sistema dopaminérgico na fobia social. Evidências que indicam disfunção dopaminérgica são descritas, e o papel da dopamina como um regulador da atividade social é discutido.

  12. Reward-based hypertension control by a synthetic brain-dopamine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössger, Katrin; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-11-05

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic trigger-controlled devices that can reprogram mammalian cells to interface with complex metabolic activities. In the brain, the neurotransmitter dopamine coordinates communication with target neurons via a set of dopamine receptors that control behavior associated with reward-driven learning. This dopamine transmission has recently been suggested to increase central sympathetic outflow, resulting in plasma dopamine levels that correlate with corresponding brain activities. By functionally rewiring the human dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to synthetic promoters containing cAMP response element-binding protein 1(CREB1)-specific cAMP-responsive operator modules, we have designed a synthetic dopamine-sensitive transcription controller that reversibly fine-tunes specific target gene expression at physiologically relevant brain-derived plasma dopamine levels. Following implantation of circuit-transgenic human cell lines insulated by semipermeable immunoprotective microcontainers into mice, the designer device interfaced with dopamine-specific brain activities and produced a systemic expression response when the animal's reward system was stimulated by food, sexual arousal, or addictive drugs. Reward-triggered brain activities were able to remotely program peripheral therapeutic implants to produce sufficient amounts of the atrial natriuretic peptide, which reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive mice to the normal physiologic range. Seamless control of therapeutic transgenes by subconscious behavior may provide opportunities for treatment strategies of the future.

  13. Blockade of Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Impairs Learning Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman-Assif, Orit; Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to investigate the role of dopamine activity in learning to inhibit conditioned fear responses (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, rats systemically injected with the D2 dopamine antagonist, haloperidol, froze more across multiple extinction sessions and on a drug-free retention test than control rats. In…

  14. Effects of Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide on the dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshavkin, V K; Batishcheva, E Yu; Kost, N V; Sokolov, O Yu; Trufanova, A V; Samonina, G E

    2011-08-01

    Tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro interacted with dopamine receptors in vitro and reduced behavioral manifestations of apomorphine-induced hyperfunction of the dopamine system in verticalization, stereotypy, and yawning tests. Presumably, the behavioral effects of Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide were mediated through post- and presynaptic D(2)and D(3)receptors.

  15. Purification and characterization of the recombinant human dopamine D2S receptor from Pichia pastoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lutea; Grünewald, S; Franke, J.P.; Uges, Donald; Bischoff, Rainer

    The human dopamine D2S receptor was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, where the receptor with a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa exhibited specific and saturable binding properties. The dopamine antagonist [H-3]spiperone showed an average dissociation constant K-d of 0.6

  16. Differential Dopamine Regulation of Ca2+ Signaling and Its Timing Dependence in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immani Swapna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc is thought to drive appetitive behavior and Pavlovian reward learning. However, it remains controversial how dopamine achieves these behavioral effects by regulating medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs of the NAc, especially on a behaviorally relevant timescale. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR-induced Ca2+ signaling dependent on the Ca2+- releasing messenger inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 plays a critical role in controlling neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that transient dopamine application facilitates mGluR/IP3-induced Ca2+ signals within a time window of ∼2–10 s in a subpopulation of MSNs in the NAc core. Dopamine facilitation of IP3-induced Ca2+ signaling is mediated by D1 dopamine receptors. In dopamine-insensitive MSNs, activation of A2A adenosine receptors causes enhancement of IP3-evoked Ca2+ signals, which is reversed by D2 dopamine receptor activation. These results show that dopamine differentially regulates Ca2+ signaling on the order of seconds in two distinct MSN subpopulations.

  17. Cutaneous synergistic analgesia of bupivacaine in combination with dopamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hung, Ching-Hsia

    2016-05-04

    The main goal of the study was to investigate the interaction between bupivacaine and dopamine on local analgesia. After the blockade of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) responses, which occurred following the drugs were subcutaneously injected in rats, the cutaneous analgesic effect of dopamine in a dosage-dependent fashion was compared to that of bupivacaine. Drug-drug interactions were evaluated by isobolographic methods. We showed the dose-dependent effects of dopamine on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the rank of drug potency was bupivacaine (1.99 [1.92-2.09] μmol/kg) greater than dopamine (190 [181-203] μmol/kg) (Pbupivacaine. The addition of dopamine to the bupivacaine solution exhibited a synergistic effect. Our pre-clinical data showed that dopamine produced a dose-dependent effect in producing cutaneous analgesia. When compared with bupivacaine, dopamine produced a lesser potency with a similar duration of cutaneous analgesia. Dopamine added to the bupivacaine preparation resulted in a synergistic analgesic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tonic and Phasic Dopamine Fluctuations as Reflected in Beta-power Predict Interval Timing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kononowicz, Tadeusz; van Rijn, Hedderik

    It has been repeatedly shown that dopamine impacts interval timing in humans and animals (for a review, see Coull, Cheng, & Meck, 2012). Particularly, administration of dopamine agonists or antagonists speeds-up or slows down internal passage of time, respectively (Meck, 1996). This co-variations in