Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.
Miller, Lisabeth D; Gardiner, Stuart K; Gubler, K Dean
This study sought to determine whether early referral from the emergency department (ED) would increase the number of organ donors and the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). This is a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients referred to a single organ procurement organization for a period of 60 months. Patients referred for organ donation evaluation from the ED were more likely to become organ donors than patients referred from the intensive care unit (19.3% vs 5.2%, P organ donation from the ED is associated with an increased likelihood of organ recovery and with an increased number of OTPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cash, Ayla; Luo, Xun; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary Grace; Shaffer, Ashton A; Doby, Brianna; Wickliffe, Corey E; Alexander, Charles; McRann, Deborah; Tobian, Aaron A R; Segev, Dorry L; Durand, Christine M
HIV-infected (HIV+) donor organs can be transplanted into HIV+ recipients under the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act. Quantifying HIV+ donor referrals received by organ procurement organizations (OPOs) is critical for HOPE Act implementation. We surveyed the 58 USA OPOs regarding HIV+ referral records and newly discovered HIV+ donors. Using data from OPOs that provided exact records and CDC HIV prevalence data, we projected a national estimate of HIV+ referrals. Fifty-five (95%) OPOs reported HIV+ referrals ranging from 0 to 276 and newly discovered HIV+ cases ranging from 0 to 10 annually. Six OPOs in areas of high HIV prevalence reported more than 100 HIV+ donor referrals. Twenty-seven (47%) OPOs provided exact HIV+ referral records and 28 (51%) OPOs provided exact records of discovered HIV+ cases, totaling 1450 HIV+ referrals and 39 discovered HIV+ donors in the prior year. These OPOs represented 67% and 59% of prevalent HIV cases in the USA; thus, we estimated 2164 HIV+ referrals and 66 discovered HIV+ cases nationally per year. OPOs reported a high volume of HIV+ referrals annually, of which a subset will be medically eligible for donation. Particularly in areas of high HIV prevalence, OPOs require ongoing support to implement the HOPE Act. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.
Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnaires submitted by the service users. Both sets of data were collected from an electronic archive of a southeastern state public library system that has participated in 24/7 Reference of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS. Results. Referrals in the collaborative chat reference service comprised approximately 30% of the total transactions. Circulation-related questions were the most often referred among all question types, possibly because of the inability of 'outside' librarians to access patron accounts. Most importantly, user satisfaction with referrals was found to be significantly lower than that of completed answers. Conclusion. The findings of this study addressed the importance of distinguishing two types of referrals: the expert research referrals conducive to collaborative virtual reference services; and the re-directional local referrals that increase unnecessary question traffic, thereby being detrimental to effective use of collaborative reference. Continuing efforts to conceptualize referrals in multiple dimensions are anticipated to fully grasp complex phenomena underlying referrals.
Introduction: This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference…
Wang, Jen-Pang; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Chou, Pesus
The police are the frontline workers in crisis situations involving patients with severe mental illness and act as a primary referral source for psychiatric emergency services (PES) in the community. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and characteristics of police referral among psychiatric patients in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of patients who visited the PES of Taipei City Psychiatric Center from January 2009 to December 2010. The associations between the factors of demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychiatric service utilization and police referral were evaluated. Among the 7656 psychiatric emergency visits, 3029 (39.6%) were referred by the police. These patients referred by police were more likely to be male and aged between 30 to 49 years. Clinical factors related to police referrals including a higher triage assessment level, chief problems included violence, disturbance, substance use, less anxiety, and a diagnosis of unspecified psychosis. The triage assessment level and chief problems assessed by nurses were major predictors. These patients tended to be referred from the catchment area and during the nighttime shift, were discharged during the daytime shift, and stayed longer in the PES. Disposition arrangements such as discharge against medical advice and involuntary admission were also associated with police referrals. Patients referred by the police to the PES were those with more severe psychiatric problems and illnesses assessed by psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists. They tended to have more complex service utilization at the PES. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Warren, J; White, S; Day, K J; Gu, Y; Pollock, M
Electronic referral (eReferral) from community into public secondary healthcare services was introduced to 30 referring general medical practices and 28 hospital based services in late 2007. To measure the extent of uptake of eReferral and its association with changes in referral processing. Analysis of transactional data from the eReferral message service and the patient information management system of the affected hospital; interview of clinical, operational and management stakeholders. eReferral use rose steadily to 1000 transactions per month in 2008, thereafter showing moderate growth to 1200 per month in 2010. Rate of eReferral from the community in 2010 is estimated at 56% of total referrals to the hospital from general practice, and as 71% of referrals from those having done at least one referral electronically. Referral latency from letter date to hospital triage improves significantly from 2007 to 2009 (psystem usability issues. With eReferrals, a referral's status can be checked, and its content read, by any authorized user at any time. The period of eReferral uptake was associated with significant speed-up in referral processing without changes in staffing levels. The eReferral system provides a foundation for further innovation in the community-secondary interface, such as electronic decision support and shared care planning systems. We observed substantial rapid voluntary uptake of eReferrals associated with faster, more reliable and more transparent referral processing.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood donor locator service. 401.200 Section... AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.200 Blood donor locator service... donors whose blood donations show that they are or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus...
Background: This study was aimed at establishing the degree of conformity with the referral system, level of pre-referral investigative evaluations and degree of diagnosis concordance between the referring centres and the referral hospital in Western region of Kenya. Methods: This was a hospital based descriptive, ...
Bennett, Alice L
The formerly named "Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder" (DSPD) units are no longer standalone services within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. These sites now provide personality disorder treatment services in the high-security prison estate as part of the new national Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) Pathway Strategy. The OPD Pathway intends to take responsibility for the assessment, treatment, and management of offenders who are likely to have a personality disorder and who present a high risk of re-offending (men and women) and serious harm to others (men). Further PD treatment and progression services are being commissioned in lower security prisons and in the community as part of the new PD Strategy. While the suitability criteria for the two male high-security PD treatment sites are the same, the individual units have their own assessment and treatment methods. This article aims to communicate the referral, assessment, and treatment methods employed within the prison-based Westgate Personality Disorder Treatment Service, HMP Frankland. © The Author(s) 2014.
Margreet van Rijn
Full Text Available Lifelong low-phenylalanine (Phe dietary management is the foundation of care in phenylketonuria (PKU. However, strict monitoring of food intake places a burden on patients and their caregivers, and adherence to the required diet frequently decreases in later childhood and adolescence. Rarely, parents of children with PKU refuse to recognise the importance of treatment and follow-up for this chronic condition. Here, two case studies are presented that document consideration of placement of children into foster care or kinship homes as a last resort to improve persistently high Phe concentrations. In the first case, social service referral led to a 3-year-old girl being placed in a kinship home with her grandparents, resulting in excellent Phe control thereafter. In the second case, discussion with the parents of possible placement of a 12-year-old child into foster care was sufficient to have a positive effect on Phe control. A staged approach for managing intractable non-adherence in PKU is proposed.
Berg, Shipra; Berg, Erlend
To investigate whether the youngest children in each school cohort are overrepresented as users of specialist mental health services. Dates of birth were obtained for all 9,157 children and adolescents referred to specialist mental health services in 3 London boroughs from 2008 to 2011. The actual frequency of referrals by month of birth is compared to the expected frequency of referrals as determined by birth statistics for the relevant age group. August-born children, who are the youngest in their cohorts in England, represent 9.38% of referrals but only 8.59% of the population in the relevant age segment. Hence, August-born children are overrepresented in referrals to specialist mental health services (P value = .007). September- and October-born children, who are the oldest in their cohorts, are underrepresented: September-born children represent 8.62% of the population but 7.99% of referrals to mental health services (P value = .032), and October-born children are 8.56% of the population but 7.86% of referrals (P value = .016). Being among the youngest in a school cohort is associated with a higher risk of referral to mental health services, while being among the oldest is a protective factor. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Carter, Marion W; Robbins, Cheryl L; Gavin, Loretta; Moskosky, Susan
Referrals to other medical services are central to healthcare, including family planning service providers; however, little information exists on the nature of referral practices among health centers that offer family planning. We used a nationally representative survey of administrators from 1,615 publicly funded health centers that offered family planning in 2013-14 to describe the use of six referral practices. We focused on associations between various health center characteristics and frequent use of three active referral practices. In the prior 3 months, a majority of health centers (73%) frequently asked clients about referrals at clients' next visit. Under half (43%) reported frequently following up with referral sources to find out if their clients had been seen. A third (32%) of all health centers reported frequently using three active referral practices. In adjusted analysis, Planned Parenthood clinics (adjusted odds ratio 0.55) and hospital-based clinics (AOR 0.39) had lower odds of using the three active referral practices compared with health departments, and Title X funding status was not associated with the outcome. The outcome was positively associated with serving rural areas (AOR 1.39), having a larger client volume (AOR 3.16), being a part of an insurance network (AOR 1.42), and using electronic health records (AOR 1.62). Publicly funded family planning providers were heavily engaged in referrals. Specific referral practices varied widely and by type of care. More assessment of these and other aspects of referral systems and practices is needed to better characterize the quality of care.
Ismail Abdus Shobar
Full Text Available Donor darah merupakan kegiatan kemanusiaan yang bertujuan untuk membantu anggota masyarakat yang membutuhkan darah. Kegiatan donor darah diselenggarakan dan dikelola oleh Palang Merah Indonesia. Menurut catatan Palang Merah Indonesia, secara keseluruhan kebutuhan kantung darah yang tidak terpenuhi melebihi satu juta kantung darah. Untuk itu dibutuhkan peningkatan produksi kantung darah. Salah satu solusi yang dapat dilakukan adalah perancangan suatu sistem informasi geografis (GIS yang memudahkan pendonor untuk mendonorkan darahnya kembali dengan reminder donor darah dan membantu PMI mendapatkan kantung darah. Makalah ini membahas perancangan sistem reminder donor darah dengan menggunakan teknologi location based service. Kemudian untuk menguji sistem, dibuatkan sebuah prototype dengan hasil pengujian sistem menunjukkan bahwa sistem reminder donor darah dapat memudahkan pendonor dalam mendonorkan darahnya kembali sehingga memberikan motivasi bagi pendonor untuk lebih giat dalam mendonorkan darahnya. Sistem ini berpotensi meningkatkan produktivitas PMI dalam mengumpulkan kantong darah sehingga pemenuhan kebutuhan kantung darah masyarakat dapat meningkat yang pada akhirnya dapat menyelamatkan lebih banyak nyawa manusia khususnya di Indonesia. Kata kunci: donor darah, reminder, GIS, location based service.
Lee, Joo-Young; Jung, Dooyoung; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Noh, Dong-Young; Hahm, Bong-Jin
Depression in cancer patients is under-recognized and under-treated. To better identify depression, we designed a voluntary depression screening system. Based on its data, we examined trends in oncologist-issued referrals for the psycho-oncology service (POS). The Electronic Voluntary Screening and Referral System for Depression (eVSRS-D) comprises self-screening, automated reporting, and referral guidance. Using touch-screen kiosks at a tertiary hospital in Korea, participants with cancer completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 at their convenience, received the results, and reported their willingness to participate in POS. At oncology appointments, oncologists received the screening reports and issued referrals following pre-recommended guidelines. The correlates of actual referrals were examined across all participants and within the willing and non-willing groups. Among the 838 participants, 56.3% reported severe depression symptoms, 30.5% wanted a referral, and 14.8% were actually referred. The correlates of participants' desire for referral were more severe depression symptoms, being unmarried, and being metastasis and recurrence free. Among all participants, the correlates of actual referrals were unemployment, less severe depression symptoms, poorer performance, treatment status, and wanting a referral. The sole correlate of actual referrals within the non-willing group was poorer performance, and no significant correlates existed within the willing group. The non-referrals were mostly (87.1%) because of postponed decisions. The eVSRS-D cannot definitively diagnose major depression but may efficiently self-select a population with significant depression symptoms. The patients' willingness to engage the POS most strongly predicted the actual referrals. Oncologist reviews of screening reports may not result in further depression severity-specific referrals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kennedy, I.; Jones, N.; Sharpley, J.; Greenberg, N.
Background The UK military runs a comprehensive mental health service ordinarily accessed via primary care referrals. Aims To evaluate the feasibility of self-referral to mental health services within a military environment. Methods Three pilot sites were identified; one from each service (Royal Navy, Army, Air Force). Socio-demographic information included age, rank, service and career duration. Clinical data included prior contact with general practitioner (GP), provisional diagnosis and assessment outcome. Results Of the 57 self-referrals, 69% (n = 39) had not previously accessed primary care for their current difficulties. After their mental health assessment, 47 (82%) were found to have a formal mental health problem and 41 (72%) were offered a further mental health clinician appointment. The data compared favourably with a large military mental health department that reported 87% of primary care referrals had a formal mental health condition. Conclusions The majority of self-referrals had formal mental health conditions for which they had not previously sought help from primary care; most were offered further clinical input. This supports the view that self-referral may be a useful option to encourage military personnel to seek professional care over and above the usual route of accessing care through their GP. PMID:27121634
Kennedy, I; Whybrow, D; Jones, N; Sharpley, J; Greenberg, N
The UK military runs a comprehensive mental health service ordinarily accessed via primary care referrals. To evaluate the feasibility of self-referral to mental health services within a military environment. Three pilot sites were identified; one from each service (Royal Navy, Army, Air Force). Socio-demographic information included age, rank, service and career duration. Clinical data included prior contact with general practitioner (GP), provisional diagnosis and assessment outcome. Of the 57 self-referrals, 69% (n = 39) had not previously accessed primary care for their current difficulties. After their mental health assessment, 47 (82%) were found to have a formal mental health problem and 41 (72%) were offered a further mental health clinician appointment. The data compared favourably with a large military mental health department that reported 87% of primary care referrals had a formal mental health condition. The majority of self-referrals had formal mental health conditions for which they had not previously sought help from primary care; most were offered further clinical input. This supports the view that self-referral may be a useful option to encourage military personnel to seek professional care over and above the usual route of accessing care through their GP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Verma, Amol A; Klich, John; Thurston, Adam; Scantlebury, Jordan; Kiss, Alex; Seddon, Gayle; Sinha, Samir K
We examined the association between paramedic-initiated home care referrals and utilization of home care, 9-1-1, and Emergency Department (ED) services. This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals who received a paramedic-initiated home care referral after a 9-1-1 call between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Home care, 9-1-1, and ED utilization were compared in the 6 months before and after home care referral. Nonparametric longitudinal regression was performed to assess changes in hours of home care service use and zero-inflated Poisson regression was performed to assess changes in the number of 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED. During the 24-month study period, 2,382 individuals received a paramedic-initiated home care referral. After excluding individuals who died, were hospitalized, or were admitted to a nursing home, the final study cohort was 1,851. The proportion of the study population receiving home care services increased from 18.2% to 42.5% after referral, representing 450 additional people receiving services. In longitudinal regression analysis, there was an increase of 17.4 hours in total services per person in the six months after referral (95% CI: 1.7-33.1, p = 0.03). The mean number of 9-1-1 calls per person was 1.44 (SD 9.58) before home care referral and 1.20 (SD 7.04) after home care referral in the overall study cohort. This represented a 10% reduction in 9-1-1 calls (95% CI: 7-13%, p home care referral and 0.79 (SD 6.27) after home care referral, representing a 7% reduction (95% CI: 3-11%, p home care records were included in the analysis, the reductions in 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED were attenuated but remained statistically significant. Paramedic-initiated home care referrals in Toronto were associated with improved access to and use of home care services and may have been associated with reduced 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED.
Cruz, Mario; Cruz, Patricia B; Weirich, Christine; McGorty, Ryan; McColgan, Maria D
To describe the referral patterns and utilization of on-site intimate partner violence (IPV) services in both inpatient and outpatient settings at a large urban children's hospital. Retrospective review of case records from IPV victims referred to an on-site IPV counselor between September 2005 and February 2010. Descriptive statistics were used to examine IPV victim demographics, number of referrals per hospital department, referral source (type of staff member), time spent by IPV counselor for initial consultation, and services provided to IPV victims. A total of 453 unique referrals were made to the IPV counselor: 81% were identified by universal screening and 19% by risk-based screening. Thirty-six percent of IPV victims were referred from primary care clinics; 26% from inpatient units; 13% from outpatient subspecialty clinics; 12.5% from the emergency department; 5% from the Child Protection Program; and 4% were employee self-referrals. Social workers generated the most referrals (55%), followed by attending physicians (17%), residents (13%), nurses (7%), and other individuals (self-referrals) (4%). The median initial IPV intervention required 42 minutes. Supportive counseling and safety planning were the services most often utilized by IPV victims. IPV screening can be successfully integrated in both inpatient and outpatient settings by a multidisciplinary group of hospital staff. Most referrals were generated by universal screening outside of the primary care setting. IPV victims generally desired supportive counseling and safety planning over immediate housing relocation. Many IPV screening opportunities were missed by using verbal screening alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Early detection and appropriate intervention for children with hearing impairment is important for maximizing functioning and quality of life. The lack of ear and hearing services in low income countries is a significant challenge, however, evidence suggests that even where such services are available, and children are referred to them, uptake is low. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of and barriers to referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Thyolo District, Malawi.This was a mixed methods study. A survey was conducted with 170 caregivers of children who were referred for ear and hearing services during community-based screening camps to assess whether they had attended their referral and reasons for non-attendance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of children who did not take up their referral to explore in-depth the reasons for non-uptake. In addition, 15 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted and emerging trends were analysed.Referral uptake was very low with only 5 out of 150 (3% children attending. Seven main interacting themes for non-uptake of referral were identified in the semi-structured interviews: location of the hospital, lack of transport, other indirect costs of seeking care, fear and uncertainty about the referral hospital, procedural problems within the camps, awareness and understanding of hearing loss, and lack of visibility and availability of services.This study has highlighted a range of interacting challenges faced by families in accessing ear and hearing services in this setting. Understanding these context specific barriers to non-uptake of ear and hearing services is important for designing appropriate interventions to increase uptake.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for referral to the hospital and 112 emergency ambulance service uses patterns of the inmates and convicts in an E type prison. Material and Method: In this descriptive study, it was evaluated the prison records associated with referral to the hospital and 112 emergency ambulance service uses for one year in 2010- 2011. Of the statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test and Fisher%u2019s Exact Test were used. Results: All inmates and convicts were man, the median of age was 30,0 (min 18- max 68 years and substance use was 34,5%. The number of prisoners were referred to the hospital 815, total referrals were 1491; (referrals ranged from one to six and most common in January; and according to frequency, reasons of the referral were eyes problems, musculoskeletal disorders and psychological problems. Emergency medical service was used for in medical causes (78,3%, accident, trauma and injuries (16,4%, suicide (5,3%. Discussion: Findings from the study show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered physical and mental health problems that compared to the rest of society and have significantly high substance use rates.
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75% accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities.
Green, Michelle T.; And Others
Gender differences in referral for child mental health services were explored through a survey of attitudes among 135 elementary teachers. Teachers were less likely to refer students with good academic performance, and tended to expect girls to transcend internalizing problems through maturation. Externalizing problems were thought to merit…
Thomas, James C; Reynolds, Heidi W; Alterescu, Xavier; Bevc, Christine; Tsegaye, Ademe
The service needs of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low-income settings are wide-ranging. Service provision in a community is often disjointed among a variety of providers. We sought to reduce unmet patient needs by increasing referral coordination for HIV and family planning, measured as network density, with an organizational network approach. We conducted organizational network analysis on two networks in sub-cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. There were 25 organizations in one sub-city network and 26 in the other. In one of them we sought to increase referrals through three network strengthening meetings. We then conducted the network analysis again in both sub-cities to measure any changes since baseline. We also quantitatively measured reported client service needs in both sub-cities before and after the intervention with two cross-sectional samples of face-to-face interviews with clients (459 at baseline and 587 at follow-up). In the sub-city with the intervention, the number of referral connections between organizations, measured as network density, increased 55%. In the control community, the density decreased over the same period. Reported unmet client service needs declined more consistently across services in the intervention community. This quasi experiment demonstrated that (1) an organizational network analysis can inform an intervention, (2) a modest network strengthening intervention can enhance client referrals in the network, (3) improvement in client referrals was accompanied by a decrease in atient-reported unmet needs and (4) a series of network analyses can be a useful evaluation tool. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Although, economically, referral systems make utilization of health facilities at different levels sound, in many countries caretakers often bypass primary care facilities that are regularly costlier for caretakers and health care systems. The main objective of the current study was to assess the utilization of hospital services with more emphasis on economic point of view. Materials and methods: The present study was a facility-based cross-sectional study. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The samples were randomly selected and interviewed on their consent. SPSS Software was also used to analyze the collected data through Chi-2, correlation, and t-test. Results: Just 29.4 percent of the attendees to the hospital were carrying out a referral slip from their family medicine. Five variables including type of care, type of attending, appointment arrangement, satisfaction with family medicine, and vising family medicine were statistically analyzed and found significantly related to carrying referral slip. Conclusion: Because of dysfunction of referral system, Iran’s health care system was found to be far from achieving economic advantages of a referral based DHS. It is actually an inappropriate use of limited health resources in a country like Iran that seriously suffers from shortage of financial and health system resources. This is likely due to deficiencies in the components of its referral system, therefore, a full revision of current reforms and appropriate remedies for deficiencies in the components of referral system was found to be in top priority in Iran.
Pettit, Sophie; Qureshi, Adam; Lee, William; Stirzaker, Alex; Gibson, Alex; Henley, William; Byng, Richard
Older people with common mental health problems (CMHPs) are known to have reduced rates of referral to psychological therapy. To assess referral rates to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services, contact with a therapist, and clinical outcome by age. Empirical research study using patient episodes of care from South West of England IAPT services. By analysing 82 513 episodes of care (2010-2011), referral rates and clinical improvement were compared with both total population and estimated prevalence in each age group using IAPT data. Probable recovery of those completing treatment was calculated for each group. Estimated prevalence of CMHPs peaks in 45-49-year-olds (20.59% of population). The proportions of patients identified with CMHPs being referred peaks at 20-24 years (22.95%) and reduces with increase in age thereafter to 6.00% for 70-74-year-olds. Once referred, the proportion of those attending first treatment increases with age between 20 years (57.34%) and 64 years (76.97%). In addition, the percentage of those having a clinical improvement gradually increases from the age of 18 years (12.94%) to 69 years (20.74%). Younger adults are more readily referred to IAPT services. However, as a proportion of those referred, probabilities of attending once, attending more than once, and clinical improvement increase with age. It is uncertain whether optimum levels of referral have been reached for young adults. It is important to establish whether changes to service configuration, treatment options, and GP behaviour can increase referrals for middle-aged and older adults. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Johnson, K; LaTour, M S
In a competitive market like chemical dependency treatment, segmenting the professional referral market according to an "ideal" service image may offer a service institution a strategic advantage. Results of this study suggest that while different professionals in a referral market may attach differential importance to the same service feature, a favorable or unfavorable "image" seems to encompass how well both the professional and the professionals' client are treated by the service institution.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK, audiology services deliver the majority of tinnitus patient care, but not all patients experience the same level of service. In 2009, the Department of Health released a Good Practice Guide to inform commissioners about key aspects of a quality tinnitus service in order to promote equity of tinnitus patient care in UK primary care, audiology, and in specialist multi-disciplinary centres. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate utilisation and opinions on pathways for the referral of tinnitus patients to and from English Audiology Departments. Methods We surveyed all audiology staff engaged in providing tinnitus services across England. A 36-item questionnaire was mailed to 351 clinicians in all 163 National Health Service (NHS Trusts identified as having a tinnitus service. 138 clinicians responded. The results presented here describe experiences and opinions of the current patient pathways to and from the audiology tinnitus service. Results The most common referral pathway was from general practice to a hospital-based Ear, Nose & Throat department and from there to a hospital-based audiology department (64%. Respondents considered the NHS tinnitus referral process to be generally effective (67%, but expressed needs for improving GP referral and patients' access to services. 'Open access' to the audiology clinic was rarely an option for patients (9%, nor was the opportunity to access specialist counselling provided by clinical psychology (35%. To decrease the number of inappropriate referrals, 40% of respondents called for greater awareness by referrers about the audiology tinnitus service. Conclusions Respondents in the present survey were generally satisfied with the tinnitus referral system. However, they highlighted some potential targets for service improvement including 1] faster and more appropriate referral from GPs, to be achieved through education on tinnitus referral criteria, 2] improved
Sears, Clinton; Andersson, Zach; Cann, Meredith
Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups. From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers. Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage data in Balaka hindered provider uptake
Moog, R; Fourné, K
In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind
White, T; Rutherford, H
This study describes the demographic, offence and diagnostic characteristics of subjects referred by the Procurators Fiscal operating from three courts in Tayside, Scotland. A comparison is made of referrals made between 1988 to 1995 and 1997 to 1998. There was an increased rate of referral on an urgent basis over time, primarily involving patients already in contact with the psychiatric services, 37% of whom were detained and admitted to hospital. This urgent assessment ensured that mentally-disordered offenders were not remanded in custody simply for the preparation of a report, and it allowed an early assessment to be made regarding the suitability for diversion from prosecution. This outcome is compatible with guidelines issued by the Home Office in 1990 (Home Office, 1990).
Full Text Available Objectives: Speech and language development is one of the main aspects of evolution in humans and is one of the most complex brain functions such that it is referred to as one of the highest cortical functions such as thinking, reading and writing. Speech and language disorders are considered as a major public health problem because they cause many secondary complications in the childhood and adulthood period which affect one’s socioeconomic status overall. Methods: This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was to identify all potential factors influencing delay in referral of children with speech and language disorders for receiving rehabilitation services, based on literature as well as the families’ and experts’ points of view. In the second phase of the study which was designed in a case-control manner, actual factors influencing the time of referral were compared between two groups of participants. Results: Parental knowledge of their children's problems related to speech and language had no significant impact on the on-time referral for treatment for children with speech and language disorders. After the child definite diagnosis of speech and language disorders, parents’ information about the consequences of speech and language disorders, had a significant influence on early referral for speech and language pathology services. Discussion: In this study family structure plays an important role in the early identification of children with developmental disorders. Two-parent families had access to more resources than single-parent families. In addition, single-parent families may be more involved in the work and business of life.
Burkhardt, T; Dimanski, B; Karl, R; Sievert, U; Karl, A; Hübler, C; Tonn, T; Sopvinik, I; Ertl, H; Moog, R
Donor vigilance is an important part of the quality management system of blood transfusion services. The evaluation of donor side effects helps to improve the donation process and donor compliance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate donor vigilance data in whole blood and plasmapheresis donors of a blood donor service. Donors fulfilling current national and European eligibility criteria underwent whole blood and plasmapheresis donation (PCS and MCS+ (Haemonetics, Braintree, USA), A 200 (Fenwal, Round Lake, USA). Whole blood was collected at fixed and mobile sites while plasmaphereses were performed at 8 plasma centers. From 2011 to 2013 donor information was provided for gender, age, body weight, height, first and repeat donation. Donors were monitored for venipuncture and circulatory associated side effects. The total incidences of adverse events were 5004 (0.56%) in repeat donors and 2111 (2.78%) in first time donors for whole blood donation and 3323 (1.01%) and 514 (7.96%) for plasmaphereses, respectively. Circulatory associated events were 2679 (0.30%) for whole blood donation and 1624 (0.49%) for plasmaphereses. Our donor vigilance data of a blood transfusion service show that whole blood and plasmapheresis are safe with low incidences of adverse events. Repeat donation and age are predictors for low rates of adverse events. On the other hand, first time donation and female gender were associated with higher incidences of adverse events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davies, Huw Ob; Popplewell, Matthew; Bate, Gareth; Kelly, Lisa; Darvall, Katy; Bradbury, Andrew W
Background Leg ulcers are a common cause of morbidity and disability and result in significant health and social care expenditure. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline (CG)168, published in July 2013, sought to improve care of patients with leg ulcers, recommending that patients with a break in the skin below the knee that had not healed within two weeks be referred to a specialist vascular service for diagnosis and management. Aim Determine the impact of CG168 on referrals to a leg ulcer service. Methods Patients referred with leg ulceration during an 18-month period prior to CG168 (January 2012-June 2013) and an 18-month period commencing six months after (January 2014-June 2015) publication of CG168 were compared. Results There was a two-fold increase in referrals (181 patients, 220 legs vs. 385 patients, 453 legs) but no change in mean age, gender or median-duration of ulcer at referral (16.6 vs. 16.2 weeks). Mean-time from referral to specialist appointment increased (4.8 vs. 6 weeks, p = 0.0001), as did legs with superficial venous insufficiency (SVI) (36% vs. 44%, p = 0.05). There was a trend towards more SVI endovenous interventions (32% vs. 39%, p = 0.271) with an increase in endothermal (2 vs. 32 legs, p = 0.001) but no change in sclerotherapy (24 vs. 51 legs) treatments. In both groups, 62% legs had compression. There was a reduction in legs treated conservatively with simple dressings (26% vs. 15%, p = 0.0006). Conclusions Since CG168, there has been a considerable increase in leg ulcer referrals. However, patients are still not referred until ulceration has been present for many months. Although many ulcers are multi-factorial and the mainstay of treatment remains compression, there has been an increase in SVI endovenous intervention. Further efforts are required to persuade community practitioners to refer patients earlier, to educate patients and encourage further investment in
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Patient referrals to outpatient health services may affect both health outcomes and health expenditures. General practitioners (GP have a crucial role in driving the use of outpatient services and recognizing factors which affect referrals is important for health managers and planners. OBJECTIVES. We investigated patient- and physician-related determinants of patient referrals in an Italian region. METHODS. This was cross-sectional study based on the individual linkage of administrative databases from the health information system of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. For each GP of the region, the association of the number of patient referrals to different types of outpatient services with the proportion of patients with chronic conditions, with the number of hospital admissions and drug prescriptions in 2012, and with GP's characteristics was investigated through multilevel multivariable Poisson regression models. RESULTS. Some chronic conditions (e.g., cancer, autoimmune diseases, endocrine diseases, digestive system diseases were positively associated with the number of referrals, as were hospital admissions and drug prescriptions. Time since GP's graduation was inversely related with referrals. CONCLUSION. Patient complexity and GP's experience affect referral rates. These factors should be considered in case of a reorganization of the general practice structure in Friuli Venezia Giulia.
Mao, Hui-Fen; Chang, Ling-Hui; Tsai, Athena Yi-Jung; Huang, Wen-Ni; Wang, Jye
Because resources for long-term care services are limited, timely and appropriate referral for rehabilitation services is critical for optimizing clients' functions and successfully integrating them into the community. We investigated which client characteristics are most relevant in predicting Taiwan's community-based occupational therapy (OT) service referral based on experts' beliefs. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using the Multidimensional Assessment Instrument (MDAI). Community-dwelling participants (n = 221) ≥ 18 years old who reported disabilities in the previous National Survey of Long-term Care Needs in Taiwan were enrolled. The standard for referral was the judgment and agreement of two experienced occupational therapists who reviewed the results of the MDAI. Logistic regressions and Generalized Additive Models were used for analysis. Two predictive models were proposed, one using basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and one using instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Dementia, psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, joint range-of-motion limitations, fear of falling, behavioral or emotional problems, expressive deficits (in the BADL-based model), and limitations in IADLs or BADLs were significantly correlated with the need for referral. Both models showed high area under the curve (AUC) values on receiver operating curve testing (AUC = 0.977 and 0.972, respectively). The probability of being referred for community OT services was calculated using the referral algorithm. The referral protocol facilitated communication between healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions for OT referrals. The methods and findings should be useful for developing referral protocols for other long-term care services.
Praneeta Jaswant Singh
Conclusion: Data highlight that RD contributed major source of blood supply in hospital-based blood transfusion services and the prevalence of TTI was higher among them in comparison to first-time voluntary donors. Thus, efforts should be made to increase the number of VBD.
Nunes, Miguel Baptista
Background This paper reports on a research study that aims to identify and explain barriers to knowledge sharing (KS) in the provision of healthcare referral services in Chinese healthcare organisations. Design An inductive case study approach was employed, in which 24 healthcare professionals and workers from four healthcare organisations in the province of Hubei, Central China, were interviewed using semi-structured scripts. Results Through data analysis, 14 KS barriers emerged in four main themes: interpersonal trust barriers, communication barriers, management and leadership barriers, and inter-institutional barriers. A cause–consequence analysis of the identified barriers revealed that three of them are at the core of the majority of problems, namely, the absence of national and local policies for inter-hospital KS, lack of a specific hospital KS requirement, and lack of mutual acquaintance. Conclusions To resolve KS problems, it is of great importance that healthcare governance agencies, both at the national and regional levels, take leadership in the process of KS implementation by establishing specific and strong policies for inter-institutional KS in the referral process. This paper raises important issues that exceed academic interests and are important to healthcare professionals, hospital managers, and Information communication technology (ICT) managers in hospitals, as well as healthcare politicians and policy makers. PMID:26895146
Rodrigues, Simey de Lima Lopes; Ferraz Neto, Jose Ben-Hur de Escobar; Sardinha, Luiz Antonio da Costa; Araujo, Sebastião; Zambelli, Helder Jose Lessa; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Athayde, Maria Valeria de Omena; Montone, Eliete Bombarda Bachega; Panunto, Marcia Raquel
Objective To characterize the profile of effective organ and tissue donors and to understand which organs and tissues were donated for transplantation. Methods This was a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory, retrospective study that analyzed clinical data from 305 donors between January 2006 to December 2010. The data were then analyzed using descriptive analyses, generating frequency tables, measures of position (mean, minimum and maximum) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation) for data that was social and clinical in nature. Results There was an overall predominance of white (72%) and male (55%) individuals between the ages of 41 and 60 years (44%). The primary cause of brain death was cerebrovascular accident (55%). In the patient history, 31% of the patients were classified as overweight, 27% as hypertensive and only 4.3% as having diabetes mellitus. Vasoactive drugs were used in 92.7% of the donors, and the main drug of choice was noradrenaline (81.6%). Hyperglycemia and hypernatremia were diagnosed in 78% and 71% of the donors, respectively. Conclusion Significant hemodynamic changes were found, and the results indicate that the use of vasoactive drugs was the main strategy used to control these changes. Furthermore, most donors presented with hyperglycemia and hypernatremia, which were frequently reported in association with brain death. The persistent nature of these findings suggests that the organ donors were inadequately maintained. PMID:24770685
Rosen, Craig S; Matthieu, Monica M; Norris, Fran H
An important aspect of crisis counseling is linking survivors with services for their unmet needs. We examined determinants of referrals for disaster relief, additional crisis counseling, and psychological services in 703,000 crisis counseling encounters 3-18 months after Hurricane Katrina. Referrals for disaster relief were predicted by clients' losses, age (adults rather than children), and urbanicity. Referrals for additional counseling and psychological services were predicted by urbanicity, losses and trauma exposure, prior trauma, and preexisting mental health problems. Counseling and psychological referrals declined over time despite continuing mental health needs. Results confirm large urban-rural disparities in access to services.
Cubbin, S; Llewellyn-Jones, S; Donnelly, P
It was noticed that over some years the number of referrals to the outpatient clinic (from various sources) which were marked 'urgent' had increased. We aimed to examine who makes these urgent referrals and the clinical factors associated with 'urgent' status. A sample of 201 referrals over a 26-month period was examined. Details of the referral requests were collected using a specially designed form. After each 'urgent' assessment, the referral was scored for appropriateness. This gave an indication of the agreement between referrer and clinic doctor as to what should constitute an ¤ urgent' referral. The majority of urgent referrals were from community psychiatric nurses, who, together with psychiatric social workers, make the most appropriate referrals. The more appropriate referrals clearly specified the clinical factors associated with urgent need for review. Patients regarded as suicidal were not associated with significantly higher appropriateness scores. Referrers should try and make 'urgent' outpatient requests as specific as possible: more clinical detail gives a clearer picture to the clinic doctor. Telephone consultations with general practitioners may help to ascertain a clearer picture of urgent requests if detail is lacking. Health professionals may all benefit from education in suicidal risk assessment. ( Int J Psych Clin Pract 2000; 4: 233 - 235).
Worku, Mesfin; Loha, Eskindir
Satisfaction refers to a state of pleasure or contentment with an action, event or service, especially one that was previously desired. Regarding to client, satisfaction is the level of happiness that clients experience having used a service. It therefore reflects the gap between the expected service and the experience of the service, from the client's point of view. Information was unavailable regarding the level of satisfaction of patients towards emergency health care servicesat Hawassa University Referral Hospital thatserve a huge catchment area; and this study addressed this gap. Cross-sectional study was conducted from March 13 to May 15/2014. Systematic sampling method was used to enroll study participants. The data was collected by trained data collectors using pre-structured questionnaire. A total 407 clients were enrolled under this study with respondent rate of 96.9%. Nearly two third of study participants were male, 270 (66.3%). 86.7% of study participants were satisfied by services provided in Emergency Out Patient Department (OPD). The percentage of study satisfaction with physical examination by Doctor, nursing, laboratory and pharmacy services were 95.6%, 89.9%, 84.7% and 67.6%, respectively. Only 31.9% were satisfied with availability of drugs in the pharmacy. Regarding to staff courtesy, 91.7% of study participants were satisfied by the manner shown by the staffs working in Emergency OPD. The vast majority of the participants (97%) were satisfied with the courtesy of Medical laboratory personnel and the least satisfaction (79.4%) was recorded for security guards. This study showed low level of patient satisfaction in pharmacy services specifically due to unavailability of drugs due to lack of sustained supply of drugs.
Tøt-Strate, Simone; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Gitte; Lassen, Karin
AIM: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are common in paediatric patients who are referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS), but little is known about current referral practices. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate clinical features of paediatric inpatients...... who had been referred and 44 children who had not. RESULTS: Most paediatric records lacked information on psychosocial factors and symptoms. Referred children were significantly more multisymptomatic of FSS (p controls, had longer symptom duration, underwent more clinical...... reasons were generally vague and psychosocial information was frequently missing. Clinical guidelines are needed to improve and systematise mental health referrals for children with FSS....
Njuguna, John; Kamau, Njoroge; Muruka, Charles
Kenya has a high maternal mortality rate. Provision of skilled delivery plays a major role in reducing maternal mortality. Cost is a hindrance to the utilization of skilled delivery. The Government of Kenya introduced a policy of free delivery services in government facilities beginning June 2013. We sought to determine the impact of this intervention on facility based deliveries in Kenya. We compared deliveries and antenatal attendance in 47 county referral hospitals and 30 low cost private hospitals not participating in the free delivery policy for 2013 and 2014 respectively. The data was extracted from the Kenya Health Information System. Multiple regression was done to assess factors influencing increase in number of deliveries among the county referral hospitals. The number of deliveries and antenatal attendance increased by 26.8% and 16.2% in county referral hospitals and decreased by 11.9% and 5.4% respectively in low cost private hospitals. Increase in deliveries among county referral hospitals was influenced by population size of county and type of county referral hospital. Counties with level 5 hospitals recorded more deliveries compared to those with level 4 hospitals. This intervention increased the number of facility based deliveries. Policy makers may consider incorporating low cost private hospitals so as to increase the coverage of this intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fax referral services that connect smokers to state quitlines have been implemented in 49 U.S. states and territories and promoted as a simple solution to improving smoker assistance in medical practice. This study is an in-depth examination of the systems-level changes needed to implement and sustain a fax referral program in primary care. Methods The study involved implementation of a fax referral system paired with a chart stamp prompting providers to identify smoking patients, provide advice to quit and refer interested smokers to a state-based fax quitline. Three focus groups (n = 26 and eight key informant interviews were conducted with staff and physicians at two clinics after the intervention. We used the Chronic Care Model as a framework to analyze the data, examining how well the systems changes were implemented and the impact of these changes on care processes, and to develop recommendations for improvement. Results Physicians and staff described numerous benefits of the fax referral program for providers and patients but pointed out significant barriers to full implementation, including the time-consuming process of referring patients to the Quitline, substantial patient resistance, and limitations in information and care delivery systems for referring and tracking smokers. Respondents identified several strategies for improving integration, including simplification of the referral form, enhanced teamwork, formal assignment of responsibility for referrals, ongoing staff training and patient education. Improvements in Quitline feedback were needed to compensate for clinics' limited internal information systems for tracking smokers. Conclusions Establishing sustainable linkages to quitline services in clinical sites requires knowledge of existing patterns of care and tailored organizational changes to ensure new systems are prioritized, easily integrated into current office routines, formally assigned to specific
José Juvenal Linhares
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the appropriateness of referrals of high-risk pregnancies in the basic healthcare network of Sobral, in Ceará, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive quantitative study. The medical files of 173 pregnant patients referred to the high-risk outpatient clinic of Centro de Especialidades Médicas of Sobral, during the period from July 2006 to April 2007, were analyzed. Variables analyzed were correctness of the referrals, professionals who made them, causes and origins of the referrals, and age bracket of the patients referred. The referrals were divided into “appropriate” and “inappropriate”, according to the classification of risk established by the technical manual of the Ministry of Health. Rresults: Of the 173 cases, 102 (59% were considered appropriate/correct, and 71 (41% referrals were considered inappropriate/incorrect. The referrals were divided according to the professional class of the referring individuals: physicians or nurses. Of the 173 referrals, 49 (28.3% were made by physicians, and 124 (71.7% by nurses. Of the 49 patients referred by physicians, 39 (79.6% were considered correct. Of the 124 referrals made by nurses, 63 (50.8% were considered incorrect, revealing a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.00001. The most common causes of referrals of pregnant patients were hypertensive syndromes (23.6%, physiological modifications of pregnancy (22.6%, prolonged pregnancy (15.1%, and diabetes (12.3%. Cconclusions: There was a low rate of appropriate/correct referrals. There is a need for training in the basic healthcare network for quality prenatal care, with special emphasis on referring nurses.
Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton
Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.
R Clive Landis
Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.
At baseline, it was found that 18 of 57 (31.6% attempts to book dietetic appointments were not successful due to fully booked clinics (7 new and 11 reviews. While 6 of the 11 reviews were for reasons of higher dietetic urgency e.g. hyperkalaemia and malnutrition, 6 out of 7 new referrals were for lifestyle related reasons e.g. obesity, diabetes, and cholesterol. It is felt the new categorised referral tool and pathways will provide better guidance for referral and appropriate use of dietetic resources for CKD management, to be evaluated in early 2012.
Kim, Won-Hyoung; Bae, Jae-Nam; Lim, Joohan; Lee, Moon-Hee; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Yi, Hyeon Gyu
This study was performed to identify relationships between physicians' perceived stigma toward depression and psycho-oncology service utilization on an oncology/hematology ward. The study participants were 235 patients in an oncology/hematology ward and 14 physicians undergoing an internal medicine residency training program in Inha University Hospital (Incheon, South Korea). Patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and residents completed the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination scale that evaluates perceived stigma toward depression. A total PHQ-9 score of ≥5 was defined as clinically significant depression. Physicians decided on referral on the basis of their opinions and those of their patients. The correlates of physicians' recommendation for referral to psycho-oncology services and real referrals psycho-oncology services were examined. Of the 235 patients, 143 had PHQ-9 determined depression, and of these 143 patients, 61 received psycho-oncology services. Physicians recommended that 87 patients consult psycho-oncology services. Multivariate analyses showed that lower physicians' perceived stigma regarding depression was significantly associated with physicians' recommendation for referral, and that real referral to psycho-oncology services was significantly associated with presence of a hematologic malignancy and lower physicians' perceived stigma toward depression. Physicians' perceived stigma toward depression was found to be associated with real referral to psycho-oncology services and with physician recommendation for referral to psycho-oncology services. Further investigations will be needed to examine how to reduce physicians' perceived stigma toward depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Knut Magne Augestad,1–3 Arthur Revhaug,1,3 Roar Johnsen,4 Stein-Olav Skrøvseth,2 Rolv-Ole Lindsetmo1,3 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 2Department of Integrated Care and Telemedicine, University Hospital North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Colorectal Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; 4Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: Poor coordination between levels of care plays a central role in determining the quality and cost of health care. To improve patient coordination, systematic structures, guidelines, and processes for creating, transferring, and recognizing information are needed to facilitate referral routines. Methods: Prospective observational survey of implementation of electronic medical record (EMR-supported guidelines for surgical treatment. Results: One university clinic, two local hospitals, 31 municipalities, and three EMR vendors participated in the implementation project. Surgical referral guidelines were developed using the Delphi method; 22 surgeons and seven general practitioners (GPs needed 109 hours to reach consensus. Based on consensus guidelines, an electronic referral service supported by a clinical decision support system, fully integrated into the GPs' EMR, was developed. Fifty-five information technology personnel and 563 hours were needed (total cost 67,000 £ to implement a guideline supported system in the EMR for 139 GPs. Economical analyses from a hospital and societal perspective, showed that 504 (range 401–670 and 37 (range 29–49 referred patients, respectively, were needed to provide a cost-effective service. Conclusion: A considerable amount of resources were needed to reach consensus on the surgical referral guidelines. A structured approach by the Delphi method and close collaboration between IT personnel, surgeons and primary care physicians were needed to
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); P.C. Verhoef (Peter); J.C. Hoekstra (Janny)
textabstractThe authors examine the effect of relational constructs (e.g., satisfaction, trust, and affective and calculative commitment) on customer referrals and the number of services purchased, as well as the moderating effect of age of the relationship on these relationships. The research
The impact of glaucoma referral refinement criteria on referral to, and first-visit discharge rates from, the hospital eye service: the Health Innovation & Education Cluster (HIEC) Glaucoma Pathways project.
Ratnarajan, Gokulan; Newsom, Wendy; French, Karen; Kean, Jane; Chang, Lydia; Parker, Mike; Garway-Heath, David F; Bourne, Rupert R A
To assess the impact of referral refinement criteria on the number of patients referred to, and first-visit discharges from, the Hospital Eye Service (HES) in relation to the National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE) Glaucoma Guidelines, Joint College Group Guidance (JCG) and the NICE commissioning guidance. All low-risk (one risk factor: suspicious optic disc, abnormal visual field (VF), raised intra-ocular pressure (IOP) (22-28 mmHg) or IOP asymmetry (>5 mmHg) and high-risk (more than one risk factor, shallow anterior chamber or IOP >28 mmHg) referrals to the HES from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. Low-risk referrals were seen by Optometrists with a specialist interest in glaucoma and high-risk referrals were referred directly to the HES. Two thousand nine hundred and twelve patient records were analysed. The highest Consultant first-visit discharge rates were for referrals based on IOP alone (45% for IOP 22-28 mmHg) and IOP asymmetry (53%), VF defect alone (46%) and for abnormal IOP and VF (54%). The lowest first-visit discharge rates were for referrals for suspicious optic disc (19%) and IOP >28 mmHg (22%). 73% of patients aged 65-80 and 60% of patients aged >80 who were referred by the OSI due to an IOP between 22-28 mmHg would have satisfied the JCG criteria for non-referral. For patients referred with an IOP >28 mmHg and an otherwise normal examination, adherence to the NICE commissioning guidance would have resulted in 6% fewer referrals. In 2010 this scheme reduced the number of patients attending the HES by 15%, which resulted in a saving of £16 258 (13%). The results support that referrals for a raised IOP alone or in combination with an abnormal VF be classified as low-risk and undergo referral refinement. Adherence to the JCG and the NICE commissioning guidance as onward referral criteria for specialist optometrists in this referral refinement scheme would result in fewer referrals. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College
Tan, Yen Y.; Fitzgerald, Lisa J.
This article explores the views of general practitioners and specialists on their referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services. Using a purposive maximum variation sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured interviews face-to-face with 28 general practitioners and specialists in public or private hospitals and specialist clinics between March and August 2011. General practitioners and specialists were recruited in a major metropolitan area in Australia. Interview transcripts were reviewed by two independent researchers, and thematic analysis was performed using NVivo10 software. The main barriers and motivators identified were: (1) clinician-related (e.g., familiarity with Lynch syndrome and family history knowledge); (2) patient-related (e.g., patients’ interests and personal experience with cancer); and (3) organizational-related (e.g., access to services, guidelines and referral pathway). Referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services is motivated and hindered by a range of individual, interpersonal and organizational factors. In order to improve the care and quality of life of patients and family with suspected Lynch syndrome, further research is needed to develop supportive tools for clinicians. PMID:25562140
Yen Y. Tan
Full Text Available This article explores the views of general practitioners and specialists on their referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services. Using a purposive maximum variation sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured interviews face-to-face with 28 general practitioners and specialists in public or private hospitals and specialist clinics between March and August 2011. General practitioners and specialists were recruited in a major metropolitan area in Australia. Interview transcripts were reviewed by two independent researchers, and thematic analysis was performed using NVivo10 software. The main barriers and motivators identified were: (1 clinician-related (e.g., familiarity with Lynch syndrome and family history knowledge; (2 patient-related (e.g., patients’ interests and personal experience with cancer; and (3 organizational-related (e.g., access to services, guidelines and referral pathway. Referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services is motivated and hindered by a range of individual, interpersonal and organizational factors. In order to improve the care and quality of life of patients and family with suspected Lynch syndrome, further research is needed to develop supportive tools for clinicians.
Paul C. Hewett
Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health services in Zambia is largely characterized by discrete service provision with weak client referral and linkage. The literature reveals gaps in the continuity of care for HIV and sexual and reproductive health. This study assessed whether improved service delivery models increased the uptake and cost-effectiveness of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services. Methods Adult clients 18+ years of age accessing family planning (females, HIV testing and counseling (females and males, and male circumcision services (males were recruited, enrolled and individually randomized to one of three study arms: 1 the standard model of service provision at the entry point (N = 1319; 2 an enhanced counseling and referral to add-on service with follow-up (N = 1323; and 3 the components of study arm two, with the additional offer of an escort (N = 1321. Interviews were conducted with the same clients at baseline, six weeks and six months. Uptake of services for HIV, family planning, male circumcision, and cervical cancer screening at six weeks and six months were the primary endpoints. Pairwise chi-square and multivariable logistic regression statistical tests assessed differences across study arms, which were also assessed for incremental cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results A total of 3963 clients, 1920 males and 2043 females, were enrolled; 82 % of participants at six weeks were tracked and 81 % at six months; follow-up rates did not vary significantly by study arm. The odds of clients accessing HIV testing and counseling, cervical cancer screening services among females, and circumcision services among males varied significantly by study arm at six weeks and six months; less consistent findings were observed for HIV care and treatment. Client uptake of family planning services did not vary significantly by study arm. Integrated services were found
As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.
The \\'accuracy\\' of age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration and diabetes (ABCD(2)) scoring by non-stroke specialists referring patients to a daily Rapid Access Stroke Prevention (RASP) service is unclear, as is the accuracy of ABCD(2) scoring by trainee residents. In this prospective study, referrals were classified as \\'confirmed TIAs\\' if the stroke specialist confirmed a clinical diagnosis of possible, probable or definite TIA, and \\'non-TIAs\\' if patients had a TIA mimic or completed stroke. ABCD(2) scores from referring physicians were compared with scores by experienced stroke specialists and neurology\\/geriatric medicine residents at a daily RASP clinic; inter-observer agreement was examined. Data from 101 referrals were analysed (mean age=60.0years, 58% male). The median interval between referral and clinic assessment was 1day. Of 101 referrals, 52 (52%) were \\'non-TIAs\\': 45 (86%) of 52 were \\'TIA mimics\\' and 7 (14%) of 52 were completed strokes. There was only \\'fair\\' agreement in total ABCD(2) scoring between referring physicians and stroke specialists (κ=0.37). Agreement was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists (κ=0.91). Twenty of 29 patients scored as \\'moderate to high risk\\' (score 4-6) by stroke specialists were scored \\'low risk\\' (score 0-3) by referring physicians. ABCD(2) scoring by referring doctors is frequently inaccurate, with a tendency to underestimate stroke risk. These findings emphasise the importance of urgent specialist assessment of suspected TIA patients, and that ABCD(2) scores by non-stroke specialists cannot be relied upon in isolation to risk-stratify patients. Inter-observer agreement in ABCD(2) scoring was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists, indicating short-term training may improve accuracy.
Choo, Wai K; McGeary, Katie; Farman, Colin; Greyling, Andre; Cross, Stephen J; Leslie, Stephen J
This study aimed to examine whether general practitioner (GP) practice locations in remote and rural areas affected the pattern of direct access echocardiography referral and to assess any variations in echocardiographic findings. All referrals made by all GP practices in the Scottish Highlands over a 36-month period were analysed. Referral patterns were examined according to distance and rurality based on the Scottish Government's Urban-Rural Classification. Reasons for referral and cardiac abnormality detection rates were also examined. In total, 1188 referrals were made from 49 different GP practices; range of referral rates was 0.3-20.1 per 1000 population with a mean of 6.5 referrals per 1000 population. Referral rates were not significantly different between urban and rural practices after correction for population size. There was no correlation between the referral rates and the distance from the centre (r2=0.004, p=0.65). The most common reason for referral was the presence of new murmur (46%). The most common presenting symptom was breathlessness (44%). Overall, 28% of studies had significant abnormal findings requiring direct input from a cardiologist. There was no clear relationship between referral rates and cardiac abnormality detection rates (r2=0.07, p=0.37). The average cardiac abnormality detection rate was 56%, (range 52-60%), with no variation based on rurality (p=0.891). In this cohort, rurality and distance were not barriers to an equitable direct access echocardiography service. Cardiac abnormality detection rates are consistent with that of other studies.
Alkilzy, Mohammad; Qadri, Ghalib; Horn, Janina; Takriti, Moutaz; Splieth, Christian
The caries patterns of child populations in Germany have changed during the last 20 years. This affects the referrals and provision of specialist dental care for children. This study has two aims: first, to investigate referrals received by a specialized pediatric dental institution in 1995 and 2008, and second, to assess the treatments performed during full oral rehabilitations under general anesthesia in this institution from 2007 to 2008. All data of referred patients were evaluated for 1995 and 2008 separately. Comparisons were carried out for different socio-demographic, medical, and dental parameters. All patients treated under general anesthesia (GA) between March/2007 and December/2008 were examined retrospectively and their data were analyzed. In 1995 (n = 191), significantly older children were referred to specialized pediatric dental care compared to 2008 (n = 179). In addition, a shift of surgical referrals to very young children with high caries levels was clearly noticed, resulting in considerably more oral rehabilitation performed under GA in 2008 (n = 73). Thus, the mean values of 6.4 fillings and 2.7 extractions per child were quite high. Preventive treatment approaches for primary dentition in Germany need further improvement by focusing on high caries-risk groups, as specialized pediatric dentistry bears the great burden of providing oral rehabilitations under GA in young children. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism
Ndetei, D M; Omar, A; Mutiso, V N; Ongecha, F A; Kokonya, D A
To document the socio-demographic characteristics and psychiatric profiles of the survivors of the Nairobi United States Embassy terrorist bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy (counselling) service. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Clinical interviews and structured questionnaires for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress were administered. Survivors of the bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy service one year or more after the bombing were included in the study. These survivors had been treated using psychopharmacotherapy and individualised (not group) therapy/counselling. Eighty-three consecutive referrals to a psychiatric service participated in this study. There were more males and the sample was generally well educated. The referrals made contact with the referring agency for a number of reasons including seeking psychological, financial and medical assistance. All the patients reported varying degrees of psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment on various aspects of social occupational functioning. High scores for PTSD and other related stress were recorded one or more years after the bombing. Although the survivors indicated that initial counselling following the blast had helped them, they still scored high on PTSD suggesting that clinically, the initial counselling had little, if any impact on the development of PTSD. There is need for a holistic approach to the management of psychotrauma in individuals.
Beasant, Lucy; Mills, Nicola; Crawley, Esther
Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalopathy (CFS/ME) is relatively common and disabling. Current guidance recommends referral to specialist services, although some general practitioners believe the label of CFS/ME is harmful and many are not confident about diagnosing CFS/ME. Aim Explore whether or not adolescents and their mothers value referral to a specialist service for young people with CFS/ME. A qualitative study nested within a feasibility study of interventions for CFS/ME [Specialist Medical Intervention and Lightning Evaluation (SMILE)]. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 13 mothers and 12 adolescents participating in the SMILE study. Transcripts were systematically assigned codes using the qualitative data organisation package NVivo and analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison. Gaining access to the specialist service was difficult and took a long time. Mothers felt that they needed to be proactive and persistent, partly because of a lack of knowledge in primary and secondary care. Having gained access, mothers felt the CFS/ME service was useful because it recognised and acknowledged their child's condition and opened channels of dialogue between health-care professionals and education providers. Adolescents reported that specialist medical care resulted in better symptom management, although some adolescents did not like the fact that the treatment approach limited activity. Adolescents and their mothers value receiving a diagnosis from a specialist service and making progress in managing CFS/ME. General practitioners should support adolescents with CFS/ME in accessing CFS/ME specialist services, consistent with current guidance.
An audit was undertaken in 2009 to determine the success of the new national orthodontic referral protocol introduced to the Health Service Executive (HSE) in 2007 and operated in the Dublin Mid-Leinster HSE region. It was repeated in 2011 to determine if the HSE austerity measures have had a bearing on the orthodontic service performance in the Dublin Mid-Leinster HSE region. The audit also measured the success of referring practitioners in identifying the correct Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) classification of the patient. In the 2011 audit, the figures were broken down to identify the occlusal variables that caused dental practitioners most difficulties in identification. The audit demonstrates a good referral to assessment timeframe in 2009 (85-80% compliance for IOTN 5 and 4 within three to six months, respectively), which deteriorates significantly in 2011 (26-4% for IOTN 5 and 4 within three to six months, respectively). The ability of dentists to identify the correct IOTN classification was better in 2009 (60% correct) compared to 2011 (51% correct), but both figures fell below the audit standard of 75% of referrals with correct IOTN classifications. The IOTN occlusal dental health components most readily identified by referring practitioners and meeting audit standards were 5a (overjet >9mm), 5i (impacted teeth) and 5h (extensive hypodontia). The remaining occlusal dental health components in the HSE IOTN fell below the audit standard. The audit clearly identifies a requirement for a continued educational effort to maintain the HSE IOTN skill base in primary care, and a need for additional resources to manage the demand for orthodontic assessments.
AlKindi, N A; Nunn, J
Access to health services is a right for every individual. However, there is evidence that people with disabilities face barriers in accessing dental health. One of the reasons associated with this is the unclear referral pathway existing in the Irish dental health service. The appropriate assignment of patients to relevant services is an important issue to ensure better access to healthcare. This is all the more pertinent because there are only a few trained dental practitioners to provide dental treatment for people with disabilities, as well as even fewer qualified specialists in special care dentistry. The aim of this part of the study was to assess the use of the BDA Case Mix Model to determine the need for referral of patients to specialist dental services, and to determine any association between patient complexity and the need for adjunct measures, such as sedation and general anaesthesia for the management of people with disabilities and complex needs. A retrospective analysis of dental records using the BDA Case Mix Model.Results The results showed that patients with different levels of complexities were being referred to the special care dentistry clinic at the Dublin Dental University Hospital. The results also showed that the need for supportive adjunct measures such as sedation and general anaesthesia was not necessarily the main reason for referring patients to specialist services. The assessment with the BDA Case Mix Model was comprehensive as it looked at many factors contributing to the cases' complexity. Not all categories in the Case Mix Model had significant association with the need for an adjunct.Conclusion The BDA Case Mix Model can be used to measure the need for supportive adjunct measures, such as sedation and general anaesthesia.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The physician referral data was initially provided as a response to a Freedom of Information (FOIA) request. These files represent data from 2009 through June 2013...
Greater involvement of HIV-infected peer-mothers in provision of reproductive health services as "family planning champions" increases referrals and uptake of family planning among HIV-infected mothers.
Mudiope, Peter; Musingye, Ezra; Makumbi, Carolyne Onyango; Bagenda, Danstan; Homsy, Jaco; Nakitende, Mai; Mubiru, Mike; Mosha, Linda Barlow; Kagawa, Mike; Namukwaya, Zikulah; Fowler, Mary Glenn
In 2012, Makerere University Johns - Hopkins University, and Mulago National Referral Hospital, with support from the National Institute of Health (under Grant number: NOT AI-01-023) undertook operational research at Mulago National Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinics. The study employed Peer Family Planning Champions to offer health education, counselling, and triage aimed at increasing the identification, referral and family planning (FP) uptake among HIV positive mothers attending the clinic. The Peer Champion Intervention to improve FP uptake was introduced into Mulago Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinic, Kampala Uganda. During the intervention period, peers provided additional FP counselling and education; assisted in identification and referral of HIV Positive mothers in need of FP services; and accompanied referred mothers to FP clinics. We compiled and compared the average proportions of mothers in need that were referred and took up FP in the pre-intervention (3 months), intervention (6 months), and post-intervention(3 months) periods using interrupted time series with segmented regression models with an autoregressive term of one. Overall, during the intervention, the proportion of referred mothers in need of FP increased by 30.4 percentage points (P family planning can be a valuable addition to clinic staff in limited-resource settings. The study provides additional evidence on the utilization of peer mothers in HIV care, improves health services uptake including family planning which is a common practice in many donor supported programs. It also provides evidence that may be used to advocate for policy revisions in low-income countries to include peers as support staff especially in busy clinic settings with poor services uptake.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergency referral services (ERS are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. METHODS: Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. RESULTS: On an average, an ambulance transported 3-4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7 per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35 per km travelled. CONCLUSION: Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system.
Mulisa, Teshome; Tessema, Fasil; Merga, Hailu
Patient satisfaction, one of the main components of quality of care, is a crucial phenomenon for the overall health care delivery system. Even though a number of studies have been conducted about patient satisfaction in different health services, studies in radiology services are flimsy in Ethiopia. This study aimed at assessing patient satisfaction towards radiological service and associated factors in Hawassa University Teaching and Referral hospital. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 321 adult patients presented for radiological service in the study area using stratified sampling technique. Patient satisfaction was measured using SERVQUAL (Service Quality) tool that consisted of seven items: accessibility, quality of radiological service, courtesy of radiology staff, existence of good communication with service provider and desk worker, physical environment and privacy technique. Exit interviews of patients were conducted using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Data was collected by three grade ten completed trained data collectors from May 12 to May 28, 2016. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify independent factors associated with patient satisfaction on radiological services using SPSS version 21. The overall patient satisfaction towards radiological service was 71.6%. Satisfaction to accessibility of the service was 84.5% while it was 80.6% to courtesy of the staff. Similarly, 81.6% reported satisfied with quality of the service and 59.4% and 71% of reported satisfied with physical environment and radiological service provider respectively. On the other hand, 99.7% of the respondents were dissatisfied with privacy of the service. The study revealed that patients who attended primary school (AOR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.11-0.88), unemployed patients (AOR = 0.067, 95% CI: 0.007-0.622) and patients who had short waiting time to enter into examination room less than one hour (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 1.4-11.62) were
Kahabi Ganka Isangula
Full Text Available Introduction Collection, processing and distribution of safe blood in Tanzania occurs within a free-for-service context, that is, a collection from non-remunerated blood donors and distributing freely to the needy people through health facilities. The safe blood services in the country appear to be crippled with many challenges and cannot meet the demand for blood and its products. As such, a need for rethinking collection methods, financial models and possible mechanisms for donor remuneration is evident. Methods In this paper, we venture on multi-stakeholder meetings and ongoing discussions regarding the internal mechanisms of safe blood transfusion financing. The intent is to offer a perspective on the considerations for self- sustaining safe blood services in the country and the extent to which they may be implemented or not. Results We suggest that despite huge demand, the external donor dependent financing mechanisms for safe blood services in the country are ineffective. Therefore, we discuss two potential ‘internal’ financing mechanisms that have been identified in recent shareholders forums 1 introducing a blood processing fee accompanied by policy change to allow direct charging of either recipients or hospitals or 2 influencing the introduction of ‘blood services’ within the current insurance schemes. Conclusion We conclude that there is a need for constructing alternative financial mechanisms to sustain the demand of safe blood in the country. We discuss two cost recovery mechanisms, blood processing fee and insurance schemes; however, warning is noted that their implementation warrants structural adjustments, massive community sensitization and optimum stakeholder engagement to maximize acceptability within the country.
Juneja, Monica; Jain, Rahul; Singhal, Swati; Mishra, Devendra
To identify the problems faced by parents of children with developmental disabilities in availing rehabilitative services and to find their satisfaction level. This study was carried out at a Child Development Clinic (CDC) located in Northern India. Children with developmental disabilities, who were availing services at CDC for at least last 3 mo and had at least 3 follow-up visits, were enrolled. A questionnaire pertaining to the socio-demographic profile, problems faced in availing services and satisfaction level was filled by the parents of the enrolled children. During the study period, 161 parents filled the questionnaire. 77.6% had some problems in getting the services, the major being difficulty in commuting (50%) and financial constraint (21.7%). More than 80% parents use public transport to reach CDC with 19% travelling more than 50 Km. 29.8% had difficulty in bringing their child to the clinic, either due to severe behavioral problems or physical disability. However, majority of the families were well satisfied with the services as 95% of them graded their satisfaction level at 3 or more on the scale of 0-5. Parents of children with developmental disabilities face many problems in getting rehabilitative services. They travel long distances, face hardships in carrying their child, and lose their day's earnings, apart from spending time and money for their child's therapy. However, most of the parents are well satisfied with the services.
Background Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. Conclusion According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients’ expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients. PMID:25064475
Aghamolaei, Teamur; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Rafati, Shideh; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ahangari, Shamsieh; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kahnouji, Ataollah; Hoseini, Seyedeh Hamideh
Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients' expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients.
Alisjahbana, A; Williams, C; Dharmayanti, R; Hermawan, D; Kwast, B E; Koblinsky, M
The Regionalization of Perinatal Care, an intervention study carried out in Tanjungsari, a subdistrict in rural West Java, aimed to develop a comprehensive maternal health program to improve maternal and perinatal health outcomes. The main inputs included training at all levels of the health care system (informal and formal) and the establishment of birthing homes in villages to make services more accessible. Special attention was given to referral, transportation, communication and appropriate case management, A social marketing program was conducted to inform people of the accessible birthing homes for clean delivery, located near the women, and with better transportation and communications to referral facilities should complications arise. The study design was longitudinal, following all pregnant women from early pregnancy until 42 days postpartum in an intervention and a comparison area. The population was +/- 90,000 in the intervention area and 40,000 in the comparison area. Inclusion criteria were all mother and infant units delivered between June 1st, 1992 and May 31st, 1993. Analysis showed the following results: Most women sought antenatal care (> 95%). In Tanjungsari, nearly 90% sought such care from professional providers as versus 75% in the control area of Cisalak. Most women with bleeding or bleeding and edema during pregnancy sought professional assistance in both the study and control areas. However, fever for more than 3 days received more attention in the study area versus control area (93 vs. 69%). Greater than 85% of deliveries in both areas were conducted by TBAs. However, in the study area, nearly one-third of those with intrapartum complications (17%) delivered in a health facility compared to one-tenth in the control area. This meant a hospital delivery, primarily with assistance of a doctor or doctor/midwife combination. Overall referral rates by TBAs were low -13% of women with complications in Tanjungsari and 6% in Cisalak. More women
Kawooya, M.; Perez, M.; Lau, L.; Reeed, M.
The medical imaging specialists called for global referral guidelines which would be made available to referring doctors. These referral guidelines should be:- Applicable in different health care settings, including resource-poor settings; Inclusive in terms of the range of clinical conditions; User-friendly and accessible (format/media); Acceptable to stakeholders, in particular to the referrers as the main target audience. To conceive evidence-based medicine as an integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. The Direct recipients of the Referral Guidelines would be:- Referrers: general practitioners / family doctors; paediatricians; emergency department doctors; other specialists and health workers. Providers (medical imaging practitioners): radiologists; nuclear medicine physicians; radiographers; other appropriately qualified practitioners providing diagnostic imaging services. For the Referral Guidelines to be effective there need to be: Credibility evidence-based Practicality end user involvement Context local resources, disease profiles Endorsement, opinion leaders Implementation- policy, education, CPOE - Monitoring of the use clinical audit, report feedback. The aim of the Referral Guidelines Project was to: Produce global referral guidelines that are evidence-based, cost effective and appropriate for the local setting, and include consideration of available equipment and expertise (RGWG; SIGs); Include supporting information about radiation doses, potential risks, protection of children and pregnant women (introductory chapter); Facilitate the implementation of the guidelines through guidance and tools (e.g. implementation guides, checklists, capacity building tools, guides on stakeholders engagement, audit support criteria); Conduct pilot testing in different clinical settings from each of the six WHO regions; Promote the inclusion of the referral guidelines in the curricula of medical schools; Develop and implement
Baiden, Philip; Fallon, Barbara
Although various studies have investigated factors associated with mental health service utilization, few studies have examined factors associated with referral for mental health services among maltreated children. The objective of this study was to examine the association between suicidal thoughts and self-harming behavior and referral for mental health services among children involved in the Child Welfare System in Ontario, Canada. Data for this study were obtained from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2013. An estimate 57,798 child maltreatment investigations was analyzed using binary logistic regression with referral for mental health service as the outcome variable. Of the 57,798 cases, 4709 (8.1%), were referred for mental health services. More than seven out of ten maltreated children who engaged in self-harming behavior and two out of three maltreated children who expressed suicidal thoughts were not referred for mental health services. In the multivariate logistic regression model, children who expressed suicidal thoughts had 2.39 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children with no suicidal thoughts (AOR = 2.39, 99% C.I. 2.05-2.77) and children who engaged in self-harming behavior had 1.44 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children who did not engage in self-harming behavior (AOR = 1.44, 99% C.I. 1.24-1.67), both after controlling for child demographic characteristics, maltreatment characteristics, and child functioning concerns. Given that referral is the initial step towards mental health service utilization, it is important that child welfare workers receive the necessary training so as to carefully assess and refer children in care who expressed suicidal thoughts or engaged in self-harming behavior for appropriate mental health services. The paper discusses the results and their implications for child welfare policy and practice
Cock, Don; Adams, Iain C; Ibbetson, Adrian B; Baugh, Phil
Background The development of an instrument accurately assessing service quality in the GP Exercise Referral Scheme (ERS) industry could potentially inform scheme organisers of the factors that affect adherence rates leading to the implementation of strategic interventions aimed at reducing client drop-out. Methods A modified version of the SERVQUAL instrument was designed for use in the ERS setting and subsequently piloted amongst 27 ERS clients. Results Test re-test correlations were calculated via Pearson's 'r' or Spearman's 'rho', depending on whether the variables were Normally Distributed, to show a significant (mean r = 0.957, SD = 0.02, p < 0.05; mean rho = 0.934, SD = 0.03, p < 0.05) relationship between all items within the questionnaire. In addition, satisfactory internal consistency was demonstrated via Cronbach's 'α'. Furthermore, clients responded favourably towards the usability, wording and applicability of the instrument's items. Conclusion REFERQUAL is considered to represent promise as a suitable tool for future evaluation of service quality within the ERS community. Future research should further assess the validity and reliability of this instrument through the use of a confirmatory factor analysis to scrutinise the proposed dimensional structure. PMID:16725021
Hacker, Karen; Goldstein, Joel; Link, David; Sengupta, Nandini; Bowers, Rachael; Tendulkar, Shalini; Wissow, Larry
Validated behavioral health (BH) screens are recommended for use at well-child visits. This study aimed to explore how pediatricians experience and use these screens for subsequent care decisions in primary care. The study took place at 4 safety net health centers. Fourteen interviews were conducted with pediatricians who were mandated to use validated BH screens at well-child visits. Interview questions focused on key domains, including clinic BH context, screening processes, assessment of screening scores, and decision making about referral to mental health services. Qualitative analysis used the Framework Approach. A variety of themes emerged: BH screens were well accepted and valued for the way they facilitated discussion of mental health issues. However, screening results were not always used in the way that instrument designers intended. Providers' beliefs about the face validity of the instruments, and their observations about performance of instruments, led to discounting scored results. As a result, clinical decisions were made based on a variety of evidence, including individual item responses, parent or patient concerns, and perceived readiness for treatment. Additionally, providers, although interested in expanding their mental health discussions, perceived a lack of time and of their own skills to be major obstacles in this pursuit. Screens act as important prompts to stimulate discussion of BH problems, but their actual scored results play a variable role in problem identification and treatment decisions. Modifications to scheduling policies, additional provider training, and enhanced collaboration with mental health professionals could support better BH integration in pediatric primary care.
Passin, Warren F; Kim, Angela S; Hutchinson, Angela B; Crepaz, Nicole; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Lyles, Cynthia M
The objectives of this study were to understand client and provider attitudes, experiences, and practices regarding HIV partner notification in the United States and to help identify future research and program needs. The goals of this study were to synthesize the literature reporting client and provider attitudes, experiences, and practices and to identify potential negative effects of HIV partner notification. This study consisted of a systematic qualitative review. Clients were willing to self-notify partners and participate in provider notification, and few reported negative effects. The majority of health care providers were in favor of HIV partner notification; however, they did not consistently refer index clients to HIV partner notification programs. Considering that clients have positive attitudes toward self- and provider referral, local HIV prevention programs need to ensure that all HIV-positive clients are offered partner notification services. Additional research is needed to assess the potential risks of notifying partners and to identify effective techniques to improve client and provider participation.
Bartels, Stephen J; Coakley, Eugenie H; Zubritsky, Cynthia; Ware, James H; Miles, Keith M; Areán, Patricia A; Chen, Hongtu; Oslin, David W; Llorente, Maria D; Costantino, Giuseppe; Quijano, Louise; McIntyre, Jack S; Linkins, Karen W; Oxman, Thomas E; Maxwell, James; Levkoff, Sue E
The authors sought to determine whether integrated mental health services or enhanced referral to specialty mental health clinics results in greater engagement in mental health/substance abuse services by older primary care patients. This multisite randomized trial included 10 sites consisting of primary care and specialty mental health/substance abuse clinics. Primary care patients 65 years old or older (N=24,930) were screened. The final study group consisted of 2,022 patients (mean age=73.5 years; 26% female; 48% ethnic minority) with depression (N=1,390), anxiety (N=70), at-risk alcohol use (N=414), or dual diagnosis (N=148) who were randomly assigned to integrated care (mental health and substance abuse providers co-located in primary care; N=999) or enhanced referral to specialty mental health/substance abuse clinics (i.e., facilitated scheduling, transportation, payment; N=1,023). Seventy-one percent of patients engaged in treatment in the integrated model compared with 49% in the enhanced referral model. Integrated care was associated with more mental health and substance abuse visits per patient (mean=3.04) relative to enhanced referral (mean=1.91). Overall, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and higher mental distress. For depression, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and more severe depression. For at-risk alcohol users, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and more severe problem drinking. For all conditions, greater engagement was associated with closer proximity of mental health/substance abuse services to primary care. Older primary care patients are more likely to accept collaborative mental health treatment within primary care than in mental health/substance abuse clinics. These results suggest that integrated service arrangements improve access to mental health and substance abuse services for older adults who underuse these services.
Colligan, David; McGowan, Neil; Seghatchian, Jerard
Blood Transfusion Services are striving to continually improve the efficacy and quality of their blood products whilst also simultaneously diversifying into novel cellular products. For this to be successful the relationships between the various arms of the organisation must be strong and interlinked. As new technologies impact on the products that blood transfusion services supply it should be noted that the interaction between the service and its donor base is also affected by advancing technologies. Social media has fundamentally altered the way in which the public can access information and news, as such blood services must engage and interact appropriately with these new forms of media. As a reflection of these challenges the Scotblood 2015 programme was focussed on service and product improvement, donor engagement and people centred transfusion. This commentary comprises summaries of the presentations, based in part on the abstracts provided by the speakers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Johnson, Medina; Howell, Annie; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Feder, Gene
Background Women experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are more likely to be in touch with health services than any other agency, yet doctors and nurses rarely ask about abuse, often failing to identify signs of DVA in their patients. Aim To understand women’s experience of disclosure of DVA in primary care settings and subsequent referral to a DVA advocate in the context of a DVA training and support programme for primary care clinicians: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS). Design and setting A service-user collaborative study using a qualitative study design. Recruitment was from across IRIS trial settings in Bristol and Hackney, London. Method Twelve women who had been referred to one of two specialist DVA advocates (based at specialist DVA agencies) were recruited by a GP taking part in IRIS. Women were interviewed by a survivor of DVA and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was thematic using constant comparison. Results GPs and nurses can play an important role in identifying women experiencing DVA and referring them to DVA specialist agencies. GPs may also have an important role to play in helping women maintain any changes they make as a result of referral to an advocate, by asking about DVA in subsequent consultations. Conclusion A short time interval between a primary care referral and initial contact with an advocate was valued by some women. For the initial contact with an advocate to happen as soon as possible after a primary care referral has been made, a close working relationship between primary care and the third sector needs to be cultivated. PMID:24567654
The trends in the provision of ecosystem services during restoration and succession of subtropical forests and plantations were quantified, in terms of both receiver and donor values, based on a case study of a 3-step secondary succession series that included a 400-year-old subtr...
Tomlinson, Mathew J; Pooley, Karen; Pierce, Angela; Hopkisson, James F
The marked decline in the number of sperm donors recruited in the UK has been largely attributed to changes in regulations and in particular those related to the removal of anonymity. After a 5-year period of inactivity, the sperm donor bank in Nottingham was provided with limited resources to try and recruit donors who were willing to be identified on the HFEA register. Marketing was sporadic and at first low cost and the enquiry rate only increased significantly when the centre's website became operational and higher cost advertising was used. Over a 4-year period, a total of 151 enquiries gave rise to 14 useable donors at a cost of approximately £5,500 each. Donor sperm was generally of high quality having been density gradient prepared prior to cryopreservation and provided an overall ongoing pregnancy rate of 21.6% and 45.6% by IUI and IVF, respectively. The overall exercise demonstrated that identifiable donors were coming forward but in lower numbers compared to those observed before 2005. At current treatment prices, centres should be aware that recouping the costs of donor recruitment and processing may be difficult and that the cost of both donor sperm and donor insemination are likely to rise significantly.
Bwititi, P T; Browne, J
Blood transfusion is an important transmission route of Trypanosoma cruzi (T cruzi), a major parasitic infection in Central and South America. The limited treatment options are most effective in acute Chagas' infection. At present, there is no current data on the prevalence of T cruzi in the blood donor population of Guyana. This information is necessary to protect the supply of the blood donation programme. This study sought to determine the prevalence of T cruzi in the blood supply at the National Blood Transfusion Services of Guyana with the hope of providing knowledge to the on-going surveillance for Chagas' disease worldwide and therefore address the risk of its spread by blood transfusion. Two commercialized ELISAs utilizing crude or recombinant T cruzi antigens were used to study 2000 blood samples voluntarily donated for the purpose of altruistic or family replacement donation retrospectively. The results showed that approximately 1 in 286 donations tested positive for antibodies to T cruzi. These results indicate that T cruzi continues to be a risk in Guyana and there is a need to continue screening donated blood. Trypanosoma cruzi is a life-long infection and infected persons may be asymptomatic chronic carriers of the disease. Education, housing improvement, and controlled use of insecticides should be introduced to contain Chagas' disease.
Schneider, Antonius; Hilbert, Bernadett; Hörlein, Elisabeth; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Linde, Klaus
In their everyday practice, primary-care physicians are often asked to refer patients to a specialist without a prior appointment in primary care. Such referrals are problematic, and one might suspect that patients who make such requests are more likely to have mental comorbidities predisposing them toward higher utilization of health-care services. In a cross-sectional study, 307 patients of 13 primary-care practices who requested referral to a specialist without a prior appointment in primary care were given a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) containing questions that related to depression, anxiety, panic disorder, and somatoform disorder (independent variables). Further information was obtained about these patients' primary-care contacts, referrals, and days taken off from work with a medical excuse over the course of one year (dependent variables). A regression model was used to compare these patients with 977 other primary-care patients. The groups of patients who did and did not request specialist referral without a primary-care appointment did not differ to any statistically significant extent with respect to mental comorbidity. In the overall group, somatoform disorder was found to be associated with a high rate of primary-care contacts (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-4.3). High rates of referral were strongly correlated (percentage of variance explained, R²) with depression (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0; R² = 35.3%), anxiety (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.8-9.6; R² = 34.5%), panic disorder (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.1-16.4; R² = 34.3%), and somatoform disorder (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0; R² = 34.6%). Taking a long time off from work with a medical excuse was correlated with depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-4.8), anxiety (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.5), and somatoform disorder (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). Mental comorbidity contributes to the increased utilization of health-care services. This should be borne in mind whenever a patient requests many referrals to
Hastings, Elizabeth A; Lumeng, Julie C; Clark, Sarah J
Children 3 to 5 years old with developmental delays are eligible for special education services. To assess primary care physicians' (PCPs) knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their referrals to the special education system on behalf of children 3 to 5 years old. Mail survey of 400 office-based general pediatricians and 414 family physicians in Michigan, fielded in fall 2012 and winter 2013, with a response rate of 44%. The 4-page survey included knowledge questions about special education eligibility, PCPs' role in accessing school-based services, and self-confidence in ability to help patients access these services. PCPs neither fully understood requirements for special education services nor were they very confident in identifying 3- to 5-year-old children eligible for special education services. PCPs recognize interacting with special education as a relative weakness, and they may be accepting of interventions to improve their knowledge and skills.
Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John
Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
Manickchund, Yashoda; Hadley, G P
Paediatric surgical disease is a neglected health problem. Patients travel great distances to tertiary level care for management. This study aimed at analysing referral patterns to design an outreach programme for paediatric surgery in KwaZulu Natal. Data forms of patients referred to the service between January and July 2016 were correlated with the clinical record. Delays in management were compared to morbidity and mortality. Out of 781, 158 referrals were accepted as emergencies. The majority (62%) were children aged < 1 year. Gastro-intestinal problems (38.4%) and congenital anomalies (26.9%) formed the majority. Patients who died had a significantly longer delay in transfer. Longer total delay was associated with statistically significant greater morbidity. In a setting where a large rural population is served by single-centre tertiary care, delays exist and contribute to morbidity. The authors advocate the establishment of an outreach programme to address these issues.
Full Text Available Health outcomes are poor in the developing world, hence donor organizations usually support health care delivery system of developing countries. In 2005, Enugu State commenced implementation of District Health System with a unitarised healthcare delivery structure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the PATHS programme (DFID support on the District Health service utilization in Enugu State. Seventy seven supported public primary health care facilities constituted the study population, while same number of non-supported ones were selected randomly as the control health facilities. Retrospective Intervention study technique was used. The study period was the last six months of the PATHS programme in the state (January to June, 2008. The study revealed among other findings that the support by DFID to Enugu State health sector through the PATHS programme resulted in significant increase in district health service utilization, as demonstrated in increased outpatient attendance from 15052 to 73336 (percentage increase of 387.22%, Chi square = 279.11, P and lt;0.0001 and delivery of babies from 647 to 1052 (percentage increase of 62.60%, Chi square = 32.08, P and lt;0.0001 in the supported health facilities. For control facilities, outpatient attendance increased from 8216 to 35126 (percentage increase of 327.50%, Chi square of 233.76, P and lt; 0.0001 and delivery from 370 to 441 (percentage increase of 19.19%, Chi square = 4.60, P and lt;0.47. The difference between the study and control facilities\\' outpatient attendance became wider after the intervention. The out-patient attendance increased significantly in both the study and control facilities after the intervention. Deliveries increased significantly in the supported facilities, while the increase in the control facilities was not significant.
Bibby, Anna C; Williams, Katie; Smith, Sarah; Bhatt, Nidhi; Maskell, Nick A
Multidisciplinary team meetings are standard care for cancer in the UK and Europe. Professional bodies recommend that mesothelioma cases should be discussed at specialist multidisciplinary team meetings. However, no evidence exists exploring the role of the specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting. To evaluate the clinical activity of 1 specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting and to determine how often a definitive diagnosis was made, whether the core requirements of the meeting were met and whether there was any associated benefit or detriment. A service evaluation using routinely collected data from 1 specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting in a tertiary referral hospital in the South-West of England. All cases discussed between 1/1/2014 and 31/12/2015. The primary outcome measure was whether a definitive diagnosis was made. Secondary outcomes included whether treatment advice was offered, information on clinical trials provided or further investigations suggested. Additional benefits of the multidisciplinary team meeting and time taken from referral to outcome were also collected. A definitive diagnosis was reached in 171 of 210 cases discussed (81%). Mesothelioma was diagnosed in 153/210 (73%). Treatment advice was provided for 127 of 171 diagnostic cases (74%) and further investigations suggested for all 35 non-diagnostic cases. 86/210 cases (41%) were invited to participate in a trial, of whom 43/86 (50%) subsequently enrolled. Additional benefits included the avoidance of postmortem examination if the coroner was satisfied with the multidisciplinary team decision. The overall process from referral to outcome dispatch was specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting was effective at making diagnoses and providing recommendations for further investigations or treatment. The core requirements of a specialist mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meeting were met. The process was timely, with most outcomes
Taylor, R M; Pietroski, R E; Hagan, M; Eisenbrey, A B; Fontana, R J
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and utilization of anti-hepatitis B core protein(+) and anti-hepatitis C virus(+) organ donor referrals in a large organ procurement organization. Between 1995 and 2006, 3,134 deceased organ donor referrals were tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV using commercial assays. The prevalence of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals significantly increased from 3.4% in 1994-1996 to 8.1% in 2003-2005 (P organ donor referrals remained unchanged at 3%-4% (P = .20). The 112 anti-HBc(+) (3.5%) and 173 anti-HCV(+) (5.5%) organ donor referrals were significantly older and more likely to be noncaucasian than seronegative organ donor referrals (P donor organs were significantly lower compared with seronegative organ donors (P donors over time (21% vs 46%; P = .026), whereas utilization of anti-HCV(+) liver donors remained unchanged over time (5% vs 18%; P = .303). In summary, the proportion of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals has significantly increased and the proportion of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals has remained stable. Both thoracic and abdominal organs from seropositive donors are largely underutilized. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings
Kebede, Yenew; Fonjungo, Peter N; Tibesso, Gudeta; Shrivastava, Ritu; Nkengasong, John N; Kenyon, Thomas; Kebede, Amha; Gadde, Renuka; Ayana, Gonfa
Nonstandardized specimen-transport logistics, lack of laboratory personnel to transport specimens, lack of standard specimen containers, and long turnaround time (TAT) hindered access to quality laboratory services. The objective of the Becton, Dickinson, and Company (BD)-US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Public-Private Partnership (PPP) was to support country-specific programs to develop integrated laboratory systems, services, and quality improvement strategies, with an emphasis on strengthening the specimen-referral system (SRS). In 2007, through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) joined with the BD-PEPFAR PPP to strengthen laboratory systems. A joint planning and assessment committee identified gaps in the SRS for prioritization and intervention and piloted the system in Addis Ababa and Amhara Region. The PPP established standardized, streamlined specimen logistics, using the Ethiopian Postal Service Enterprise to support a laboratory network in which 554 facilities referred specimens to 160 laboratories. The PPP supported procuring 400 standard specimen containers and the training of 586 laboratory personnel and 81 postal workers. The average TAT was reduced from 7 days (range, 2-14 days) to 2 days (range, 1-3 days) in Addis Ababa and from 10 days (range, 6-21 days) to 5 days (range, 2-6 days) in Amhara Region. This study highlights the feasibility and untapped potential of PPPs to strengthen laboratory systems. This planned and structured approach to improving specimen referral enhanced access to quality laboratory services. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing appropriate use and documentation of caesarean section (CS has the potential to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality in settings with low CS rates. We analyzed data collected as part of a comprehensive needs assessment of emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC facilities in Afghanistan to gain a greater understanding of the clinical indications, timeliness, and outcomes of CS deliveries. Methods Records were reviewed at 78 government health facilities expected to function as EmONC providers that were located in secure areas of the country. Information was collected on the three most recent CS deliveries in the preceding 12 months at facilities with at least one CS delivery in the preceding three months. After excluding 16 facilities with no recent CS deliveries, the sample includes 173 CS deliveries at 62 facilities. Results No CS deliveries were performed in the previous three months at 21% of facilities surveyed; all of these were lower-level facilities. Most CS deliveries (88% were classified as emergencies, and only 12% were referrals from another facility. General anesthesia was used in 62% of cases, and spinal or epidural anesthesia in 34%. Only 28% of cases were managed with a partograph. Surgery began less than one hour after the decision for a CS delivery in just 30% of emergency cases. Among the 173 cases, 27 maternal deaths, 28 stillbirths, and 3 early neonatal deaths were documented. In cases of maternal and fetal death, the most common indications for CS delivery were placenta praevia or abruption and malpresentation. In 62% of maternal deaths, the fetus was stillborn or died shortly after birth. In 48% of stillbirths, the fetus had a normal heart rate at the last check. Information on partograph use was missing in 38% of cases, information on parity missing in 23% of cases and indications for cesareans missing in 9%. Conclusions Timely referral within and to EmONC facilities would decrease
Adams, Zachary; Morris, Gail; Campbell, Todd; Mostert, Karen; Dibdin, Nicholas; Fearon, Margaret; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Mercer, Dena; Young, Kimberly; Allan, David
Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to the Canadian blood supply system. Stem cell donors within Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBB) and OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network (OM) now undergo screening measures designed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission. The impact these screening measures have on cord blood and unrelated adult stem cell donations is currently unknown. Among 146 donor workups initiated by OM between July 2016 and May 2017, 102 were completed and 44 workups were canceled. There were 17 potential donors (11.6%) with a risk of Zika virus exposure identified by the donor questionnaire (13 completed, 4 canceled workups). None of the workups involved a donor diagnosed with confirmed Zika virus within the past 6 months. Only 1 of the 44 canceled workups (and only 1 of 4 cases with a risk of Zika transmission) was canceled because of the risk of Zika transmission, and a backup donor was selected. Canadian Blood Services' CBB identified 25 of 875 cord blood units (2.9%) from women who donated their infants' cord blood and underwent screening that otherwise met the initial cell number thresholds for banking and had at least 1 risk factor for exposure to Zika virus. No women were diagnosed with Zika virus at any point of their pregnancy. All 25 units were discarded. Unrelated donors at OM have a higher incidence of a risk of exposure to Zika virus compared with cord blood donors. Only rarely did transplant centers cancel donor workups due to potential Zika virus exposure. The impact of screening for Zika virus exposure risk on cord blood banking was minor. Continued vigilance and surveillance is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M.
Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management .The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014 .The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused
Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M
Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management. The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014. The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused
Hendriks, H.J.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Elvers, J.W.H.; Dekker, J.; Zee, J. van der; Oostendorp, R.A.B.
The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of a one-time consultation of physiotherapists (PRs) by primary care physicians (PDPs) on utilization of physiotherapy services, functional outcomes, and number of treatment sessions of treatment episode. A 7-months observational study with 59
Miller, Jacqueline W.; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D.; Royalty, Janet E.; Richardson, Lisa C.
The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. PMID:25099897
Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah
Previous literature suggests that increasing numbers of development aid donors can reduce aid effectiveness but this has not been tested in the health sector, which has experienced substantial recent growth in aid volume and number of donors. Based on annual data for 1995-2010 on 139 low- and middle-income countries that received health sector aid from donors reporting to the OECD's Creditor Reporting System, the study used two-step system generalized method of moments regression models to test whether the number of health aid donors and an index of health aid donor fragmentation affect health services (measured by DTP3 immunization rate) or health outcomes (measured by infant mortality rate) for three subsectors of health aid. For total health aid and for the general and basic health aid subsector, controlling for economic and political conditions, increases in the number of donors were associated with increases in DTP3 immunization rate and reductions in infant mortality while increases in the donor fragmentation index were associated with decreases in DTP3 immunization rate and increases in infant mortality, though none of these relationships were statistically significant. For the population and reproductive health aid subsector, a one percent increase in the number of donors was associated with a 0.23 percent decrease in DTP3 immunization ( P < 0.01) while a one percent increase in donor fragmentation was associated with a 0.54 percent increase in DTP3 immunization rate ( P < 0.01); associations with infant mortality rates for this subsector were similar to those for total health aid. The results do not provide clear evidence in support of the hypothesis that donor proliferation negatively impacts development results in the health sector. Aid effectiveness policy prescriptions should distinguish responses to donor proliferation versus donor fragmentation and be adapted to specific subsectors of health aid. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford
Full Text Available Mikael Björkeborn,1 Henrik Nilsson,2 Jonas Anderud1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Växjö Hospital, Växjö, Sweden Aim: To assess the quality of routine oral surgery referrals received at Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital and to emphasize areas for improvement. Method: A retrospective study was performed on all routine oral surgery referrals received between 2014 and 2015 at both Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital. A total of 1,891 referral letters were assessed for their quality against a predetermined checklist of basic requirements of a satisfactory referral. The referrals were also categorized according to if it was sent by a male, female, private dental service, or the Swedish Public Dental Health service. Results: A diagnosis was missing in 30% of all referrals. Radiographs and information about previous radiographic examinations were not included in 10% of the referrals. Of those referrals that included radiographs, only around half were deemed adequate for diagnostic purposes. The presenting complaint was missing in 40% of all referrals. Current medical history was absent in 40% and current medication was omitted in 60% of the referrals. Information about tobacco use was only included in 10% of all referrals. Overall, female referrers performed better than male colleagues. Private referrals more regularly included information about diagnosis, previous treatment, and current medication. On the other hand, referrals from the public dental health service more frequently included radiographs, tobacco use, and current medical history. Conclusion: There is plenty of room for improving the standards of oral surgery referrals. We suggest that future electronic referral systems should only allow for submission once all of the essential information has been considered. Keywords: clinical audit, referral quality, oral surgery referrals
Schuttner, Linnaea; Sindano, Ntazana; Theis, Mathew; Zue, Cory; Joseph, Jessica; Chilengi, Roma; Chi, Benjamin H; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chintu, Namwinga
Mobile health (m-health) utilizes widespread access to mobile phone technologies to expand health services. Community health workers (CHWs) provide first-level contact with health facilities; combining CHW efforts with m-health may be an avenue for improving primary care services. As part of a primary care improvement project, a pilot CHW program was developed using a mobile phone-based application for outreach, referral, and follow-up between the clinic and community in rural Zambia. The program was implemented at six primary care sites. Computers were installed at clinics for data entry, and data were transmitted to central servers. In the field, using a mobile phone to send data and receive follow-up requests, CHWs conducted household health surveillance visits, referred individuals to clinic, and followed up clinic patients. From January to April 2011, 24 CHWs surveyed 6,197 households with 33,304 inhabitants. Of 15,539 clinic visits, 1,173 (8%) had a follow-up visit indicated and transmitted via a mobile phone to designated CHWs. CHWs performed one or more follow-ups on 74% (n=871) of active requests and obtained outcomes on 63% (n=741). From all community visits combined, CHWs referred 840 individuals to a clinic. CHWs completed all planned aspects of surveillance and outreach, demonstrating feasibility. Components of this pilot project may aid clinical care in rural settings and have potential for epidemiologic and health system applications. Thus, m-health has the potential to improve service outreach, guide activities, and facilitate data collection in Zambia.
Liddy, Clare; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Moroz, Isabella; Keely, Erin
In many countries, the referral-consultation process faces a number of challenges from inefficiencies and rising demand, resulting in excessive wait times for many specialties. We collected referral data from a sample of family doctors across the province of Ontario, Canada as part of a larger program of research. The purpose of this study is to describe referral patterns from primary care to specialist and allied health services from the primary care perspective. We conducted a prospective study of patient referral data submitted by primary care providers (PCP) from 20 clinics across Ontario between June 2014 and January 2016. Monthly referral volumes expressed as a total number of referrals to all medical and allied health professionals per month. For each referral, we also collected data on the specialty type, reason for referral, and whether the referral was for a procedure. PCPs submitted a median of 26 referrals per month (interquartile range 11.5 to 31.8). Of 9509 referrals eligible for analysis, 97.8% were directed to medical professionals and 2.2% to allied health professionals. 55% of medical referrals were directed to non-surgical specialties and 44.8% to surgical specialties. Medical referrals were for procedures in 30.8% of cases and non-procedural in 40.9%. Gastroenterology received the largest share (11.2%) of medical referrals, of which 62.3% were for colonoscopies. Psychology received the largest share (28.3%) of referrals to allied health professionals. We described patterns of patient referral from primary care to specialist and allied health services for 30 PCPs in 20 clinics across Ontario. Gastroenterology received the largest share of referrals, nearly two-thirds of which were for colonoscopies. Future studies should explore the use of virtual care to help manage non-procedural referrals and examine the impact that procedural referrals have on wait times for gastroenterology.
Hoffman, Kim A; Beltrán, Jessica; Ponce, Javier; García-Fernandez, Lisset; Calderón, María; Muench, John; Benites, Carlos; Soto, Leslie; McCarty, Dennis; Fiestas, Fabián
Screening and treatment for substance use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is highly recommended. Nevertheless, in Peru healthcare for PLWHA does not include a standardized or systematic assessment to identify substance use. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in healthcare settings attending people living with PLWHA. After providing training in SBIRT for PLWHA's healthcare personnel (including nurses and physicians) focus groups were conducted to explore knowledge, beliefs and perceived barriers to implementation and interviews were conducted to assess the barriers and facilitators of two tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. focus groups and interviews' thematic coding revealed three dimensions: 1) the unknown extent of substance use within PLWHA, 2) space and time limitations hinder completion of brief interventions during routine visits, and 3) insufficient access to substance use treatment appropriate for HIV patients. Multiple barriers, including lack of awareness of substance use problems, limited space and time of providers, and lack of specialized services to refer patients for treatment make it difficult to implement SBIRT in the Peruvian healthcare system.
Hadjina, G; Granić, D; Bekavac, A
New technologies in information and retrieval services of the Central Medical Library are presented, as well as comparison between traditional search of biomedical literature and search of biomedical bases available on CD-ROM and on-line. MeSH thesaurus represents the basis for all modes of searches, either through published indexes (Index Medicus, Biomedicina Iugoslavica), searches through on-line, or via CD-ROM technology. Experience in indexing according to MeSH structure helps us to search and retrieve biomedical literature on new media too. Great interest in new media for search and retrieval of biomedical literature among our users (100%) justifies their introduction into the Library. In the period of four months, 75% of our users chose CD-ROM technology in their search, 25% chose on-line search, and both technologies were combined by 33% of the users. Having these new media in our library we have reached the point from which we join the world biomedical information network and successfully meet the growing need for information in the field of biomedicine.
Tatiana A. Thieme
Full Text Available This paper sets out to analyse the three phases in the growth of the Community Cleaning Service initiative, sponsored by SC Johnson in the slums of Nairobi. After the launch of the BoP Protocol™, followed by the development of a micro-franchise system, CCS has become an independent non-profit social enterprise. In each of these three phases, the paper describes the complex relationships that develop – for the enterprise and for its micro-franchisees – between aid and the market.
Andrews, Jane M; Heddle, Richard; Hebbard, Geoffrey S; Checklin, Helen; Besanko, Laura; Fraser, Robert J
Awareness of patient demographics, common diagnoses and associations between these may improve the use and interpretation of manometric investigations. The aim of the present study therefore was to determine whether age and/or gender affect manometric diagnosis in a clinical motility service. An audit of all 452 clinical manometry reports issued from December 2003 to July 2005 with respect to age, gender and diagnosis was carried out. Patients were divided by age (17-24 years n = 14, 25-44 years n = 87, 45-64 years n = 216 and >or=65 years n = 135), and gender and data compared using contingency tables. Women were more commonly referred overall (59%) and in each age bracket except motor problems P = 0.01. With aging, normal motor function became less common (P = 0.013), with non-specific motor disorder, ineffective/hypotensive peristalsis and 'achalasia-like' conditions each more common (individual P = NS). Increasing age showed a trend for increased spastic motor disorders (P = 0.06). Gender did not, however, influence whether motility was abnormal (P = 0.5), spastic (P = 0.7) or whether a non-specific motor disorder was present (P = 0.1). In the total cohort, the principal manometric diagnoses were: non-specific motor disorder 33%, normal motility 29%, low basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure 18%, hypotensive/ineffective peristalsis 10%, achalasia/achalasia-like 6%, diffuse esophageal spasm 3% and other 1%. Aging leads to increasing esophageal motor abnormalities. Men and women have similar rates of dysfunction, although 'low-pressure problems' were more common in men.
Maina-Gathigi, L; Omolo, J; Wanzala, P; Lindan, C; Makokha, A
To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya. Women attending the antenatal clinic were selected through systematic sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services. Women who ingested folic acid or iron supplements for >4 days in a week were considered "highly compliant". The health worker in-charge of the antenatal clinic was interviewed about the frequency of supplement stock-outs during the past year. Haemoglobin concentration was measured directly from one drop of capillary blood and measured using portable HEMOCUE B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, only 23.6 % obtained antenatal care in the first trimester; 69.3 and 51.2 % received folic acid and iron supplements, respectively. However, only half (45-58 %) received any information about supplementation. Most women were initiated on folic acid (80.7 %) or iron (67.7 %) after 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, respectively, well after the recommended time period. However, more than 80 % of those who received folic acid and iron were highly compliant. Stock-outs were common at the facility. Of 361 women tested for Hb level, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb levels importance of supplements to pregnant women. Women who come late to antenatal clinic miss opportunities to start supplementation early in pregnancy. Problems with supply chain management exacerbate the problem.
Nielssen, Olav; Dear, Blake F; Staples, Lauren G; Dear, Rebecca; Ryan, Kathryn; Purtell, Carol; Titov, Nickolai
The MindSpot Clinic (MindSpot) provides remote screening assessments and therapist-guided treatment for anxiety and depression to adult Australians. Most patients are self-referred. The purpose of this study was to report on the procedures followed to maintain the safety of patients and to examine the circumstances of urgent referrals to local services made by this remote mental health service. A description of the procedures used to manage risk, and an audit of case summaries of patients who were urgently referred for crisis intervention. The reported measures were scores on self-report scales of psychological distress (K-10) and depression (PHQ-9), the number reporting suicidal thoughts and plans, and the number of acute referrals. A total of 9061 people completed assessments and consented for analysis of their data in the year from 1 July, 2013 to 30 June, 2014. Of these, 2599 enrolled in online treatment at MindSpot, and the remainder were supported to access local mental health services. Suicidal thoughts were reported by 2366 (26.1 %) and suicidal plans were reported by 213 (2.4 %). There were 51 acute referrals, of whom 19 (37.3 %) lived in regional or remote locations. The main reason for referral was the patients' self-report of imminent suicidal intent. The police were notified in three cases, and in another case an ambulance attended after the patient reported taking an overdose. For the remaining acute referrals, MindSpot therapists were able to identify a local mental health service or a general practitioner, confirm receipt of a written case summary, and confirm that the patient had been contacted, or that the local service intended to contact the patient. Around 0.6 % of the people seeking assessment or treatment by MindSpot were referred to local mental health services for urgent face to face care. The procedures for identifying and managing those patients were satisfactory, and in every case, either emergency services or local mental health
Is the Current Management of Patients Presenting With Spinal Trauma to District General Hospitals Fit for Purpose? Our Experience of Delivering a Spinal Service Using an Electronic Referral Platform in a Large District General Teaching Hospital Without Onsite Spinal Services.
Hill, Daniel S; Marynissen, Hans
A retrospective cross-sectional analysis. To describe the provision of a spinal service using an electronic platform to direct management from an external spinal unit, and quantify time taken to obtain definitive management plans whilst under prescribed spinal immobilization. Most attending district general hospitals following spinal trauma will have stable injuries and normal neurology, with only a small proportion requiring urgent transfer to a specialist centre. A retrospective review of 104 patients admitted following vertebral during a 12-month period. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma consensus that "spinal immobilisation is not recommended for more than 48 hours" was the standard of care measured against. 100 patients occupied a total of 975 hospital inpatient bed days. 117 radiological investigations were requested after the point of external referral (47 CT-scans, 37 MRI-scans, and 33 weight bearing radiographs). The period between initial referral to the regional spinal service and then receiving a definitive final management had a median value of 72 hours and a range of 0 - 33 days. Patients will have been under some form of prescribed spinal immobilisation until the definitive management plan was communicated. 34 patients (34% of the overall cohort) had a definitive management plan in place within 48 hours. 80 patients had vertebral injuries (73 stable, 6 unstable), 3 patients had prolapsed intervertebral disks, 1 had metastatic disease, and 17 had not evidence of an acute injury following evaluation. Patients are being placed under prescribed immobilisation for longer than is recommended. Delays in obtaining radiological imaging were an important factor, together with the time taken to receive a definitive management plan. Limitations in social care provision and delays in arranging this were additional barriers to hospital discharge following the final management plan. 4.
Martin, Sebastian; Greiling, Dorothea; Leibetseder, Nina
The procurement of blood is an essential challenge of today's health care. Current studies emphasize the influence of word-of-mouth (WOM) on health care behavior, including blood donation. Still, there exists no study which systematically investigates how WOM affects the behavior of blood donors. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to this lack of research by focusing on Austrian blood donors as possible receivers and senders of WOM. A survey was distributed to 300 donors of the Austrian Red Cross with a return of 245 surveys. The results highlight the strong influence of WOM on the awareness of the blood service and the willingness to donate blood. Further, structured and organized procedures, friendly employees and respectful interaction were found to be important factors determining willingness to recommend blood donation. Family members as well as friends are the preferred WOM-receivers and the personal face-to-face contact is the favored channel of communication. The results also show that WOM-behavior is strongly influenced by factors such as age, gender and donation frequency. By helping blood bank managers to better understand how WOM affects donation intention and behavior, this study provides a new approach to attract blood donors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Homayounfar, K; König, S; Rabe, C; Beck-Broichsitter, B; Lützen, U; Ghadimi, M B; Schmidt, C
Background Cut-throat competition, cost pressure, generation Y, shortage of qualified staff and feminisation influence human resources management in visceral surgery. The assessment of the current situation by chief surgeons (CS) as well as proof of transferability of strategies from industry and service business (ISB) have not yet been investigated. Material and Methods The CS of university hospitals and large referral centres (> 800 beds) were interviewed (n = 100) on the basis of a standardised questionnaire including 43 items. Closed questions were designed with a 5-point Likert scale and their analysis was presented as means (MW) and standard deviations (±). Ten human resources manager (HMR) of ISB were invited to participate in 45-minute telephone interviews. Results Thirty-seven CS participated in the survey, 15 of whom were full professors. Unsolicited applications (100%), job advertisements (78%) and direct approaches to final year students (78%) were the most common ways of recruitment. Only 17% of CS used a standardised form for preparation. Professional expertise (MW 2.2 ± 0.9), social skills (MW 1.9 ± 0.6) and excellent German language skills (MW 1.8 ± 0.8) were named as important qualifications for employment, while references and certificates were regarded as being less important (MW 3.2 ± 0.9). Personal development was regarded as important (MW 1.1 ± 0.2), but a defined period for residency was not guaranteed (MW 3.0 ± 1.5). Transparent selection criteria for career opportunities (MW 2.5 ± 1.1) and different career models (MW 2.7 ± 1.2) were only rarely available. Six HRM participated in the interviews. Active head-hunting (75%), Internet platforms (75%), presentations at conferences (75%), as well as hiring trainees (50%), job advertisements (50%) and social media (50%) were established options to find qualified employees. Professional and management careers were often separate career paths, while
Sharpe, G; Durham, J A; Preshaw, P M
To examine the attitudes of dental practitioners towards specialist periodontal referral in the North East of England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 10 practitioners. Interviews continued until data saturation occurred. The data were organised using a framework and analysed by two researchers working independently. Perceptions of periodontal disease and treatment appear to be heavily influenced by the NHS remuneration system. Treatment in general practice was limited to simple scaling and there was an apparent reluctance to treat advanced periodontitis. Such cases were commonly referred to specialists, confirming the demand for a referral service in periodontics. The perceived potential for medico-legal consequences was a strong driver of referrals. Distance to the referral centre and the perceived costs of treatment were significant barriers to referral. Dentists valued the specialist's personal reputation and clinical skills more highly than academic status. Deficiencies in communication between primary and secondary care were highlighted. Increased resources are required to manage periodontal diseases within the NHS. There is a need for a periodontal referral service in the North East of England to improve accessibility to specialist care. This would appear to be most appropriately delivered by increased numbers of specialist practitioners.
Fischer, Jane P
The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.
Full Text Available Referral of patients to a pediatric emergency department (PED should be medically justified and the need for referral well communicated. The objectives of this paper were (1 to create a list of criteria for referral from the community to the PED, (2 to describe how community physicians categorize their need for referral, and (3 to determine agreement between the physician's referral letter and the selected criteria. We present a descriptive study of referrals to the PED of Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel, during February to April 2003. A list of 22 criteria for referral was created, using the Delphi method for reaching consensus. One or more criteria could be selected from this list for each referral, by the referring community physicians and, independently, based on the physicians' referral letters, by two consultants, and compared. There were 140 referrals included in the study. A total of 262 criteria for referral were selected by the referring community physicians. The criteria most frequently selected were: “Need for same-day consultation/laboratory/imaging result not available in the community” (32.1%, “Suspected life- or organ-threatening infection” (16.4%, and “Need for hospitalization” (15.7%. Rates of agreement regarding criteria for referral between the referring physicians and the two consultants, and a senior community pediatrician and a senior PED pediatrician, were 57.9 and 48.6%, respectively. We conclude that the standard referral letter does not convey in full the level of need for referral to the PED. A list of criteria for referral could augment efficient utilization of emergency department services and improve communication between community physicians and the PED.
Development and pilot evaluation of a clinic-based mHealth app referral service to support adult cancer survivors increase their participation in physical activity using publicly available mobile apps.
Short, Camille E; Finlay, Amy; Sanders, Ilea; Maher, Carol
Participation in regular physical activity holds key benefits for cancer survivors, yet few cancer survivors meet physical activity recommendations. This study aimed to develop and pilot test a mHealth app referral service aimed at assisting cancer survivors to increase their physical activity. In particular, the study sought to examine feasibility and acceptability of the service and determine preliminary efficacy for physical activity behaviour change. A systematic search identified potentially appropriate Apple (iOS) and Android mHealth apps. The apps were audited regarding the type of physical activity encouraged, evidence-based behavioural strategies and other characteristics, to help match apps to users' preferences and characteristics. A structured service was devised to deliver the apps and counselling, comprising two face-to-face appointments with a mid-week phone or email check-up. The mHealth app referral service was piloted using a pre-post design among 12 cancer survivors. Participants' feedback regarding the service's feasibility and acceptability was sought via purpose-designed questionnaire, and analysed using inductive thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Change in physical activity was assessed using a valid and reliable self-report tool and analysed using paired t-tests. In line with recommendations for pilot studies, confidence intervals and effect sizes were reported to aid interpretation of clinical significance, with an alpha of 0.2 used to denote statistical significance. Of 374 mHealth apps identified during the systematic search, 54 progressed to the audit (iOS = 27, Android = 27). The apps consistently scored well for aesthetics, engagement and functionality, and inconsistently for gamification, social and behaviour change features. Ten participants completed the pilot evaluation and provided positive feedback regarding the service's acceptability and feasibility. On average, participants increased their moderate
Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral to the Corporation. 1619.3 Section 1619.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1619.3 Referral to the Corporation. If a person requests information, not required...
Musila, Nyokabi; Underwood, Martin; McCaskie, Andrew W; Black, Nick; Clarke, Aileen; van der Meulen, Jan H
Background. GPs have to respond to conflicting policy developments. As gatekeeper they are supposed to manage the growing demand for specialist services and as patient advocate they should be responsive to patients' preferences. We used an innovative approach to develop a referral guideline for patients with chronic knee pain that explicitly incorporates patients' preferences. Methods. A guideline development group of 12 members including patients, GPs, orthopaedic surgeons and other health care professionals used formal consensus development informed by systematic evidence reviews. They rated the appropriateness of referral for 108 case scenarios describing patients according to symptom severity, age, body mass, co-morbidity and referral preference. Appropriateness was expressed on scale from 1 (‘strongly disagree’) to 9 (‘strongly agree’). Results. Ratings of referral appropriateness were strongly influenced by symptom severity and patients' referral preferences. The influence of other patient characteristics was small. There was consensus that patients with severe knee symptoms who want to be referred should be referred and that patient with moderate or mild symptoms and strong preference against referral should not be referred. Referral preference had a greater impact on the ratings of referral appropriateness when symptoms were moderate or severe than when symptoms were mild. Conclusions. Referral decisions for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee should only be guided by symptom severity and patients' referral preferences. The guideline development group seemed to have given priority to avoiding inefficient resource use in patients with mild symptoms and to respecting patient autonomy in patients with severe symptoms. PMID:20817791
Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary
Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…
Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne
INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...
Farmer, A E; Griffiths, H
GPs and psychiatrists from South Wales were asked to make decisions based on the information included in each of 16 vignettes describing depressed and anxious subjects. This information contained randomly assigned sex, psychiatric label, good and bad psychosocial context and age as well as eight different severity ratings of depression and anxiety symptoms. Our results showed that both GPs and psychiatrists were influenced in their decision making by the severity of the illness, but that GPs alone were also strongly influenced by the presence of male sex and by the presence of a psychiatric label. Good or bad psychosocial context had no influence on the GPs' referral decision, and previous experience in psychiatry or other vocational training had no detectable effect, but this may be because of the sample size.
Suguitan, G A; Cabanayan-Casasola, C B; Danguilan, R A; Jaro, J M A
The Human Organ Preservation Effort is a government organ procurement organization that pioneered the Deceased Organ Donation Program in the Philippines. Deceased organ donation comprises only 20% of kidney transplantation in the Philippines in the last 3 years. Various measures were implemented to improve deceased organ donor referrals and organ retrieval. To compare outcome of deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 in the Philippines. This retrospective study reviewed the deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012. There were 437 referrals for potential deceased organ donors from 2009 to 2012, compared to 434 referrals from 2002 to 2008. Referrals were mainly trauma victims (76%) followed by those with cerebrovascular accidents (12%). In the recent cohort, 81% were approached and 60% consented for donation, but only 23% were retrieved and transplanted. Among those not retrieved, the majority (19%) were medically unsuitable and 6% retracted their consent. Although there was an increasing trend of organ donation referrals in the last 4 years, only 25% were procured. The reasons for nonprocurement should be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strike, Carol; Miskovic, Miroslav
Needle and syringe program (NSP) service delivery models encompass fixed sites, mobile services, vending machines, pharmacies, peer NSPs, street outreach, and inter-organizational agreements to add NSP services to other programs. For programs seeking to implement or improve mobile services, access to a synthesis of the evidence related to mobile services is beneficial, but lacking. We used a scoping study method to search MEDLINE, PSYCHInfo, Embase, Scopus, and Sociological for relevant literature. We identified 39 relevant manuscripts published between 1975 and November 2017 after removing duplicates and non-relevant manuscripts from the 1313 identified by the search. Charting of the data showed that these publications reported findings related to the service delivery model characteristics, client characteristics, service utilization, specialized interventions offered on mobile NSPs, linking clients to other services, and impact on injection risk behaviors. Mobile NSPs are implemented in high-, medium-, and low-income countries; provide equipment distribution and many other harm reduction services; face limitations to service complement, confidentiality, and duration of interactions imposed by physical space; adapt to changes in locations and types of drug use; attract people who engage in high-risk/intensity injection behavior and who are often not reached by other service models; and may lead to reduced injection-related risks. It is not clear from the literature reviewed, what are, or if there are, a "core and essential" complement of services that mobile NSPs should offer. Decisions about service complement for mobile NSPs need to be made in relation to the context and also other available services. Reports of client visits to mobile NSP provide a picture of the volume and frequency of utilization but are difficult to compare given varied measures and reference periods. Mobile NSPs have an important role to play in improving HIV and HCV prevention efforts
Karabilgin, Ö S; Altuğ, N; Çalışkan, S A; Bozoklar, C A; Durak, H I; Demiral Yılmaz, N
This study introduced the modified version of the Organ Transplantation Coordinator course including simulated donor family encounters (SDFEs) and communication skills. It also evaluated participants' opinions and achievement levels, and how they implemented what they learned in the course in their work settings. The course used the modified Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation model and was evaluated in 3 steps. The participants' views were obtained using the course overall evaluation form and communication skills evaluation form, their success was assessed with the posttest and SDFEs evaluation form, and the effects of what they learned during the course on their work settings were assessed through telephone interviews. At this step, the participants were asked to write letters about the targets they intended to achieve in their work settings. The letters were analyzed with the content analysis method, and a questionnaire consisting of 105 targets was developed. A year later the participants were telephoned and asked to what extent they achieved their targets. The participants' satisfaction from the whole course was high (x: 8.65 ± 1.06). In the communication skills evaluation form, the participants stated that they would mainly utilize their communication and empathy skills during donor family encounters. The participants' mean posttest score was high (x: 96.0 ± 3.8). During the SDFEs, 70% of the respondents' performance was considered sufficient. Telephone interviews conducted with the questionnaire revealed that 77.6% of the targets were fulfilled. It can be said that the course affected the participants in terms of implementing their knowledge and communication skills related to family encounters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matloob, Samir A; Hyam, Jonathan A; Thorne, Lewis; Bradford, Robert
Documentation of urgent referrals to neurosurgical units and communication with referring hospitals is critical for effective handover and appropriate continuity of care within a tertiary service. Referrals to our neurosurgical unit were audited and we found that the majority of referrals were not documented and this led to more calls to the on-call neurosurgery registrar regarding old referrals. We implemented a new referral system in an attempt to improve documentation of referrals, communication with our referring hospitals and to professionalise the service we offer them. During a 14-day period, number of bleeps, missed bleeps, calls discussing new referrals and previously processed referrals were recorded. Whether new referrals were appropriately documented and referrers received a written response was also recorded. A commercially provided secure cloud-based data archiving telecommunications and database platform for referrals was subsequently introduced within the Trust and the questionnaire repeated during another 14-day period 1 year after implementation. Missed bleeps per day reduced from 16% (SD ± 6.4%) to 9% (SD ± 4.8%; df = 13, paired t-tests p = 0.007) and mean calls per day clarifying previous referrals reduced from 10 (SD ± 4) to 5 (SD ± 3.5; df = 13, p = 0.003). Documentation of new referrals increased from 43% (74/174) to 85% (181/210), and responses to referrals increased from 74% to 98%. The use of a secure cloud-based data archiving telecommunications and database platform significantly increased the documentation of new referrals. This led to fewer missed bleeps and fewer calls about old referrals for the on call registrar. This system of documenting referrals results in improved continuity of care for neurosurgical patients, a significant reduction in risk for Trusts and a more efficient use of Registrar time.
Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.
The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction
Simba, Daudi O; Warsame, Marian; Kimbute, Omari; Kakoko, Deodatus; Petzold, Max; Tomson, Goran; Premji, Zul; Gomes, Melba
WHO recommends artemisinin suppository formulations as pre-referral treatment for children who are unable to take oral medication and cannot rapidly reach a facility for parenteral treatment. We investigated factors influencing caretakers' adherence to referral advice following pre-referral treatment of their children with rectal artesunate suppositories. The study was nested within an intervention study that involved pre-referral treatment of all children who came to a community dispenser for treatment because they were unable to take oral medications because of repeated vomiting, lethargy, convulsions or altered consciousness. All patients who did not comply with referral advice were stratified by actions taken post-referral: taking their children to a drug shop, a traditional healer, or not seeking further treatment, and added to a random selection of patients who complied with referral advice. Caretakers of the children were interviewed about their socio-economic status (SES), knowledge about malaria, referral advice given and actions they took following pre-referral treatment. Interview data for 587 caretakers were matched with symptoms of the children, the time of treatment, arrival at a health facility or other actions taken post-pre-referral treatment. The majority (93.5%) of caretakers reported being given referral advice by the community drug dispenser. The odds of adherence with this advice were three times greater for children with altered consciousness and/or convulsions than for children with other symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32-5.17, P < 0.001]. When questioned, caretakers who remembered when (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.23, P < 0.001) and why (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.95, P = 0.026) they were advised to proceed to health facility - were more likely to follow referral advice. Cost did not influence adherence except within a catchment area of facilities that charged for services. In these areas, costs deterred adherence by
Direct access referral for radiological investigations from General Practice (GP) provides an indispensable diagnostic tool and avoids the inherently long waiting time that referral through a hospital based specialty would entail. Improving access to hospital based radiology services is one of Health Information and Quality Authority\\'s key recommendations in its report on patient referrals from general practice. This study aimed to review all GP referrals for ultrasound investigations to a tertiary referral teaching hospital over a seven month period with respect to their demographics, waiting times and diagnostic outcomes. 1,090 ultrasounds originating in general practice were carried out during the study period. Positive findings were recorded in 332 (30.46%) examinations. The median waiting time from receipt of referral to the diagnostic investigation was 56 days (range 16 - 91 years). 71 (6.5%) patients had follow-up imaging investigations while recommendation for hospital based specialty referral was made in 35 cases (3.2%). Significant findings included abdominal aortic aneurysms, metastatic disease and lymphoma. Direct access to ultrasound for general practitioners allows the referring physician to make an informed decision with regard to the need for specialist referral. We believe these findings help support the case for national direct access to diagnostic ultrasound for general practitioners.
Anees, M.; Mumtaz, A.; Nazir, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Kausar, T.
To determine the referral pattern of dialysis patients to nephrologists and the effects of late referral on clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters in patients presenting for the first-time to dialysis center. This study was conducted on all patients of end stage renal diseases presenting for the first-time for undergoing hemodialysis at our center. Patients with acute renal failure were excluded from the study. At presentation, a history was taken from all the patients regarding seeking of nephrology services and referral pattern. Early and late referral was defined as the time of first referral or admission to a nephrologists greater or less than six months respectively before initiation of hemodialysis. All the patients were examined and their blood sample was drawn at the same time for routine hematological, biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, serum potassium, calcium, phosphate and albumin) and viral markers (Anti HCV and HbsAg). In this study, 248 patients were enrolled, amongst them, 131 (52.8%) were male and 117 (47.2%) were female. Major causes of renal failure were diabetes mellitus, chronic glomerulonephritis and hypertension. Most of the patients were euvolemic and hypertensive. Sixty percent of patients were having very high urea (>200 mg/dl) and creatinine (>8.0 mg/dl). Most of the patients, 226 (91.1%), were anemic (Hemoglobin <11gm/dl) and 224 (90%) were hypoalbuminemic (serum albumin < 4gm/dl) on first presentation. Majority of patients were hyperkalemic, 139 (56.0%), hypocalcemic, 168 (67.7%) and serum phosphate level was high in only 117 (47%) patients. All the patients presented in emergency room to nephrologists at very late stage (100% late referral), when disease was very much advanced. All of them did not have permanent vascular access for hemodialysis on first presentation to dialysis center. Reasons for late referral were non-availability of nephrologists and nephrology services, non-renal doctors biased, unawareness and
Kugler, Adriana D.
Many workers believe that personal contacts are crucial for obtaining jobs in high-wage sectors. On the other hand, firms in high-wage sectors report using employee referrals because they help provide screening and monitoring of new employees. This Paper develops a matching model that can explain the link between inter-industry wage differentials and the use of employee referrals. Referrals lower monitoring costs because high-effort referees can exert peer pressure on co-workers, allowing fir...
Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Hofmann, Bjoern Morten; Espeland, Ansgar
To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)
Halpern, Scott D; Hasz, Richard D; Abt, Peter L
All U.S. acute care hospitals must maintain protocols for recovering organs from donors after circulatory determination of death (DCDD), but the numbers, types, and whereabouts of available organs are unknown. To assess the maximal potential supply and distribution of DCDD organs in U.S. intensive care units. We conducted a population-based cohort study among a randomly selected sample of 50 acute care hospitals in the highest-volume donor service area in the United States. We identified all potentially eligible donors dying within 90 minutes of the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009. Using prespecified criteria, potential donors were categorized as optimal, suboptimal, or ineligible to donate their lungs, kidneys, pancreas, or liver. If only optimal DCDD organs were used, the deceased donor supplies of these organs could increase by up to 22.7, 8.9, 7.4, and 3.3%, respectively. If optimal and suboptimal DCDD organs were used, the corresponding supply increases could be up to 50.0, 19.7, 18.5, and 10.9%. Three-quarters of DCDD organs could be recovered from the 17.2% of hospitals with the highest annual donor volumes-typically those with trauma centers and more than 20 intensive care unit beds. Universal identification and referral of DCDD could increase the supply of transplantable lungs by up to one-half, and would not increase any other organ supply by more than one-fifth. The marked clustering of DCDD among a small number of identifiable hospitals could guide targeted interventions to improve DCDD identification, referral, and management.
Gebremedhn, Endale Gebreegziabher; Lemma, Girmay Fitiwi
Globally, increasing consideration has been given to the assessment of patient satisfaction as a method of monitor of the quality of health care provision in the health institutions. Perioperative patient satisfaction has been contemplated to be related with the level of postoperative pain intensity, patients' expectation of the outcome, patient health provider relationship, inpatient services, hospital facilities, access to care, waiting time, cost and helpfulness of treatments received. The study aimed to assess the level of patient satisfaction with perioperative surgical services and associated factors. Hospital based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in University of Gondar teaching hospital from April1-30, 2014. Structured Amharic version questionnaire and checklist used for data collection. All patients who operated upon during the study period were included. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model used to identify the variables which had association with the dependent variable. P-values patient satisfaction with perioperative surgical services was 98.1%. The variables that had association with the outcome variable from the multivariate analysis were patient admission status (AOR=0.073, CI=0.007-0.765, P=0.029), information about the disease and operation (AOR=0.010, CI=0.001-0.140, P=0.001) and operation theatre staff attention to the patients complains (AOR=0.028, CI=0.002-0.390, P=0.008) respectively. The level of patient satisfaction with perioperative surgical services was high compared with previous studies conducted in the country and other countries in the world. Health professionals need to give emphasis for information on care provision processes, patients' health progress and patients' complaints.
Dahl Jørgensen, Simon Mark; Erikstrup, Christian; Dinh, Khoa Manh
As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we...... investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire...... to rule out predisposing risk factors. Second, eligible blood donors had blood and fecal samples examined. Of 155 blood donors asked to participate, 137 (88%) completed the electronic pre-screening questionnaire, 16 declined, and 2 were excluded. Of the 137 donors who completed the questionnaire, 79 (58...
Which factors most influence referral for restorative dental treatment under sedation and general anaesthesia in children with complex disabilities: caries severity, child functioning, or dental service organisation?
Norderyd, Johanna; Faulks, Denise; Molina, Gustavo; Granlund, Mats; Klingberg, Gunilla
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child gives all children right to the highest standard of services for treatment and rehabilitation. For children with disabilities, sedation and general anaesthesia (GA) are often indicated for dental treatment; however, accessibility to this varies. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) enables a biopsychosocial description of children undergoing dental treatment. To investigate conscious sedation and GA in children with complex disabilities and manifest caries and analyse how caries, child functioning, and dental service organisation relate to dental GA (DGA), comparing Argentina, France, and Sweden using the ICF-CY. Quantitative, cross-sectional; data collected through structured interviews, observation, and dental records. Sedation and DGA were common. Children with limitations in interpersonal interactions and relationships were more likely to have had DGA (OR: 5.3, P = 0.015). Level of caries experience was strongly correlated with experience of DGA. There were significant differences between countries regarding caries prevalence, sedation, DGA, and functional and environmental factors. Although caries experience and child functioning are important, dental health service organisation had the most impact on the incidence of DGA, and for the use of conscious sedation, for children with complex disabilities. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mustard, C.A.; McClarty, B.M.; MacEwan, D.W. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)
The influence of referral protocols on the utilization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) services was studied. Three neuroradiologists and one radiologist reviewed the indications for MRI for 198 referrals to a facility in Winnipeg, selected at random from patients seen in 1991 for suspected disorders of the brain or the spine. Out-of-province referrals had not been subject to referral protocols, whereas those from within Manitoba had been subject to such protocols. At least three of the four radiologists agreed on whether an examination was appropriate in 88.4 % of the cases. Out-of-province referrals were significantly more likely to be considered inappropriate for MRI (24 %) than referrals from within Manitoba (10 %). It was estimated that the combined effect of instituting protocols and reviewing each referral before the examination could result in a 16 % to 31 % reduction in the demand for MRI services without compromising diagnostic information. 18 refs., 3 tabs.
Pinzon,Vanessa Dentzien; Turkiewicz,Gizela; Monteiro,Denise Oliveira; Koritar,Priscila; Fleitlich-Bilyk,Bacy
Objectives: To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED) in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. Results: A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onse...
Patel, Madhukar S; De La Cruz, Salvador; Sally, Mitchell B; Groat, Tahnee; Malinoski, Darren J
Meeting donor management goals when caring for potential organ donors has been associated with more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). Concern persists, however, as to whether this indicates that younger/healthier donors are more likely to meet donor management goals or whether active management affects outcomes. A prospective observational study of all standard criteria donors was conducted by 10 organ procurement organizations across United Network for Organ Sharing Regions 4, 5, and 6. Donor management goals representing normal critical care end points were measured at 2 time points: when a catastrophic brain injury was recognized and a referral was made to the organ procurement organization by the DH; and after brain death was declared and authorization for organ donation was obtained. Donor management goals Bundle "met" was defined as achieving any 7 of 9 end points. A positive Bundle status change was defined as not meeting the Bundle at referral and subsequently achieving it at authorization. The primary outcomes measure was having ≥4 OTPD. Data were collected for 1,398 standard criteria donors. Of the 1,166 (83%) who did not meet the Bundle at referral, only 254 (22%) had a positive Bundle status change. On adjusted analysis, positive Bundle status change increased the odds of achieving ≥4 OTPD significantly (odds ratio 2.04; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.81; p management goal Bundle status change during donor hospital management is associated with a 2-fold increase in achieving ≥4 OTPD. Active critical care management of the potential organ donor, as evidenced by improvement in routinely measured critical care end points can be a means by which to substantially increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pinzon, Vanessa Dentzien; Turkiewicz, Gizela; Monteiro, Denise Oliveira; Koritar, Priscila; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy
To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED) in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%). Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p studies and indicate greater ED severity.
Vanessa Dentzien Pinzon
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. Results: A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%. Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our young Brazilian patients with ED present epidemiological and symptomatic characteristics very similar to those found in the scientific literature, including a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. The higher frequency of full syndrome ED, the predominance of cases with an early onset, the delay in beginning specialized treatment, and the more severe state of inpatients provide grounds for concern because these factors differ from what has been reported in reference studies and indicate greater ED severity.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral of non-JS-related complaints. 658... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job Service Complaint System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.414 Referral of non-JS-related complaints. (a) To facilitate the operation of the...
Naseriasl, Mansour; Adham, Davoud; Janati, Ali
around the world health systems constantly face increasing pressures which arise from many factors, such as an ageing population, patients and providers demands for equipment's and services. In order to respond these challenges and reduction of health system's transactional costs, referral solutions are considered as a key factor. This study was carried out to identify referral solutions that have had successes. relevant studies identified using keywords of referrals, consultation, referral system, referral model, referral project, electronic referral, electronic booking, health system, healthcare, health service and medical care. These searches were conducted using PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Scopus, Emerald, Web of Knowledge, Springer, Science direct, Mosby's index, SID, Medlib and Iran Doc data bases. 4306 initial articles were obtained and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles met the inclusion criteria. we identified seventeen e-referral systems developed in UK, Norway, Finland, Netherlands, Denmark, Scotland, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and U.S. Implemented solutions had variant degrees of successes such as improved access to specialist care, reduced wait times, timeliness and quality of referral communication, accurate health information transfer and integration of health centers and services. each one of referral solutions has both positive and changeable aspects that should be addressed according to sociotechnical conditions. These solutions are mainly formed in a small and localized manner.
Horne-Thompson, Anne; Daveson, Barbara; Hogan, Bridgit
The purpose of this project is to analyze music therapy (MT) referral trends from palliative care team members across nine Australian inpatient and community-based palliative care settings. For each referral 6 items were collected: referral source, reason and type; time from Palliative Care Program (PCP) admission to MT referral; time from MT referral to death/discharge; and profile of referred patient. Participants (196 female, 158 male) were referred ranging in age from 4-98 years and most were diagnosed with cancer (91%, n = 323). Nurses (47%, n = 167) referred most frequently to music therapy. The mean average time in days for all referrals from PCP admission to MT referral was 11.47 and then 5.19 days to time of death. Differences in length of time to referral ranged from 8.19 days (allied health staff) to 43.75 days (families). Forty-eight percent of referrals (48.5%, n = 172) were completed when the patient was rated at an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance (ECOG) of three. Sixty-nine percent (n = 244) were living with others at the time of referral and most were Australian born. Thirty-six percent (36.7%, n = 130) were referred for symptom-based reasons, and 24.5% (n = 87) for support and coping. Implications for service delivery of music therapy practice, interdisciplinary care and benchmarking of music therapy services shall be discussed.
Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar
Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparent...
Casalino, Lawrence P
Physician self-referral ranges from suggesting a follow-up appointment, to sending a patient to a facility in which the doctor has an ownership interest or financial relationship. Physician referral to facilities in which the physicians have an ownership interest is becoming increasingly common and not always medically appropriate. This Synthesis reviews the evidence on physician self-referral arrangements, their effect on costs and utilization, and their effect on general hospitals. Key findings include: the rise in self-referral is sparked by financial, regulatory and clinical incentives, including patient convenience and doctors trying to preserve their income in the changing health care landscape. Strong evidence suggests self-referral leads to increased usage of health care services; but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this increased usage reflects doctors meeting an unmet need or ordering clinically inappropriate care. The more significant a physician's financial interest in a facility, the more likely the doctor is to refer patients there. Arrangements through which doctors receive fees for patient referrals to third-party centers, such as "pay-per-click," time-share, and leasing arrangements, do not seem to offer benefits beyond increasing physician income. So far, the profit margins of general hospitals have not been harmed by the rise in doctor-owned facilities.
Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F
In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy
BACKGROUND: Several malaria endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programmes to increase access to populations underserved by health care. There is considerable evidence on CHW adherence to case management guidelines, however, there is limited evidence on the compliance...... in the control arm were trained to treat malaria with ACTs based on fever symptoms. Caregivers' referral forms were linked with CHW treatment forms to determine whether caregivers complied with the referral advice. Factors associated with compliance were examined with logistic regression. RESULTS: CHW saw 18......,497 child visits in the moderate-to-high transmission setting and referred 15.2% (2815/18,497) of all visits; in the low-transmission setting, 35.0% (1135/3223) of all visits were referred. Compliance to referral was low, in both settings
Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark
The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…
Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad
Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. OBTECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgG(TM)). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed.
Wood, Joanne N.; Pecker, Lydia H.; Russo, Michael E.; Henretig, Fred; Christian, Cindy W.
Objective: Although the majority of poisonings in young children are due to exploratory ingestions and might be prevented through improved caregiver supervision, the circumstances that warrant evaluation for suspected maltreatment and referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) are unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine…
Mitchell, Rachael; Jacob, Hannah; Morrissey, Benita; Macaulay, Chloe; Gomez, Kumudini; Fertleman, Caroline
Although a great deal of paediatric consultations are not urgent, doctors in training spend so much time providing service for acute conditions that they spend little time focusing on outpatient work before they become a consultant. Engaging clinicians in the managerial aspects of providing clinical care is a key to improving outcomes, and this article addresses these aspects of the outpatient consultation from referral to discharge. We aim to provide doctors in training with a tool to use during their training and their first few years as a consultant, to think about how outpatient work is organised and how it can be improved to maximise patient experience. The non-urgent consultation varies across the world; this article is aimed to be relevant to an international audience. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Yu, Wenya; Li, Meina; Nong, Xin; Ding, Tao; Ye, Feng; Liu, Jiazhen; Dai, Zhixing; Zhang, Lulu
downward referral. Doctors and patients should promote understandings of downward referral. Hospitals should realise the necessity of downward referral, effectively reduce workloads and provide continuing education for doctors. Increasing monetary reimbursement is urgent, as is improving the medical insurance system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.
Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D.
Radiotherapy is an effective but underutilized treatment modality for cancer patients. We decided to investigate the factors influencing radiotherapy referral among family physicians in our region. A 30-item survey was developed to determine palliative radiotherapy knowledge and factors influencing referral. It was sent to 400 physicians in eastern Ontario (Canada) and the completed surveys were evaluated. The overall response rate was 50% with almost all physicians seeing cancer patients recently (97%) and the majority (80%) providing palliative care. Approximately 56% had referred patients for radiotherapy previously and 59% were aware of the regional community oncology program. Factors influencing radiotherapy referral included the following: waiting times for radiotherapy consultation and treatment, uncertainty about the benefits of radiotherapy, patient age, and perceived patient inconvenience. Physicians who referred patients for radiotherapy were more than likely to provide palliative care, work outside of urban centres, have hospital privileges and had sought advice from a radiation oncologist in the past. A variety of factors influence the referral of cancer patients for radiotherapy by family physicians and addressing issues such as long waiting times, lack of palliative radiotherapy knowledge and awareness of Cancer Centre services could increase the rate of appropriate radiotherapy patient referral
Maria Arbatskaya; Hideo Konishi
We consider the optimal pricing and referral strategy of a monopoly that uses a simple consumer communication network (a chain) to spread product information. The first-best policy with fully discriminatory position-based referral fees involves standard monopoly pricing and referral fees that provide consumers with strictly positive referral incentives. Effective price discrimination among consumers based on their positions in the chain occurs in both the first-best solution and the second-be...
Adequação dos encaminhamentos de gestações de alto-risco na rede básica de atenção à saúde de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil High risk pregnancy referrals adequacy in the basic health services of Port Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Jorge Alberto Buchabqui
doctors and referral services were respectively 0.28 and 0.41. CONCLUSIONS: diagnosis agreement was determined to be low. There is a need for training to improve basic healthcare services specially focused on doctors working outside the metropolitan area.
Tatikonda, Vamsi Krishna; El-Ocla, Hosam
Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.
Pattison, Natalie; Eastham, Elizabeth
To explore referrals to a critical care outreach team (CCOT), associated factors around patient management and survival to discharge, and the qualitative exploration of referral characteristics (identifying any areas for service improvement around CCOT). A single-centre mixed method study in a specialist hospital was undertaken, using an explanatory design: participant selection model. In this model, quantitative results (prospective and retrospective episode of care review, including modified early warning system (MEWS), time and delay of referral and patient outcomes for admission and survival) are further explained by qualitative (interview) data with doctors and nurses referring to outreach. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS +17 and 19, and qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory principles. A large proportion of referrals (124/407 = 30·5%) were made by medical staff. For 97 (97/407 = 23·8%) referrals, there was a delay between the point at which patients deteriorated (as verified by retrospective record review and MEWS score triggers) and the time at when patients were referred. The average delay was 2·96 h (95% CI 1·97-3·95; SD 9·56). Timely referrals were associated with improved outcomes; however, no causal attribution can be made from the circumstances around CCOT referral. Qualitative themes included indications for referral, facilitating factors for referral, barriers to referral and consequences of referral, with an overarching core theory of reassurance. Outreach was seen as back-up and this core theory demonstrates the important, and somewhat less tangible, role outreach has in supporting ward staff to care for at-risk patients. Mapping outreach episodes of care and patient outcomes can help highlight areas for improvement. This study outlines reasons for referral and how outreach can facilitate patient pathways in critical illness. © 2011 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2011 British Association of Critical Care
Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Bailey, Patricia E; Yeji, Francis; Adongo, Ayire Emmanuel; Baffoe, Peter; Williams, Afua; Mercer, Sarah
Ghana Health Service conducted an audit to strengthen the referral system for pregnant or recently pregnant women and newborns in northern Ghana. The audit took place in 16 facilities with two 3-month cycles of data collection in 2011. Midwife-led teams tracked 446 referred women until they received definitive treatment. Between the two audit cycles, teams identified and implemented interventions to address gaps in referral services. During this time period, we observed important increases in facilitating referral mechanisms, including a decrease in the dependence on taxis in favour of national or facility ambulances/vehicles; an increase in health workers escorting referrals to the appropriate receiving facility; greater use of referral slips and calling ahead to alert receiving facilities and higher feedback rates. As referral systems require attention from multiple levels of engagement, on the provider end we found that regional managers increasingly resolved staffing shortages; district management addressed the costliness and lack of transport and increased midwives' ability to communicate with pregnant women and drivers; and that facility staff increasingly adhered to guidelines and facilitating mechanisms. By conducting an audit of maternal and newborn referrals, the Ghana Health Service identified areas for improvement that service providers and management at multiple levels addressed, demonstrating a platform for problem solving that could be a model elsewhere.
Moore, D R; Feurer, I D; Zavala, E Y; Shaffer, D; Karp, S; Hoy, H; Moore, D E
Most centers utilize phone or written surveys to screen candidates who self-refer to be living kidney donors. To increase efficiency and reduce resource utilization, we developed a web-based application to screen kidney donor candidates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of this web-based application. Method and time of referral were tabulated and descriptive statistics summarized demographic characteristics. Time series analyses evaluated use over time. Between January 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012, 1200 candidates self-referred to be living kidney donors at our center. Eight hundred one candidates (67%) completed the web-based survey and 399 (33%) completed a phone survey. Thirty-nine percent of donors accessed the application on nights and weekends. Postimplementation of the web-based application, there was a statistically significant increase (p web-based application as opposed to telephone contact. Also, there was a significant increase (p = 0.025) in the total number of self-referrals post-implementation from 61 to 116 per month. An interactive web-based application is an effective strategy for the initial screening of donor candidates. The web-based application increased the ability to interface with donors, process them efficiently and ultimately increased donor self-referral at our center. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.
Driver, J M; Nelson, T G; Simpson, R; Wall, C
There are currently over 9000 British soldiers serving in Afghanistan. The Defence Medical Services provide primary health care to soldiers at forward locations using Regimental Medical Officers (RMOs) and General Duties Medical Officers (GDMOs). If required, GDMOs can refer patients to senior colleagues. Currently, little is known about the reasons for referrals by GDMOs. This study aims to identify the main factors affecting why GDMOs refer from forward locations. Nine GDMOs, who deployed on Operation HERRICK 13, were invited to join the study. They maintained a log of their referrals for two 14 day periods, one in each half of their tour. In addition, a semi-structured interview was performed with each GDMO in order to elicit the common themes surrounding referrals. The mean referral rate was 0.9 referrals/GDMO/week. The main reasons for referral were dental problems, musculoskeletal injuries, abdominal pain of unknown cause, and ano-genital problems. Factors that influenced referrals included availability of forwardly projected services (dentist and physiotherapist), manpower availability at the locations, the availability of flights (affected by weather, enemy action, and schedule of routine flights), and the timing of the tour in relation to leave. Referrals from GDMOs were due to doctor inexperience in the treatment of a particular condition, lack of access to investigations and the potential for deterioration in a location without adequate support. The referral decision process was affected by the patient's importance with regards to the mission, the weather and access to safe transportation. The introduction of clinical guidelines for common conditions in conjunction with minor alterations to GDMO training could help reduce referrals from Role 1, preserving manpower, reducing costs, and minimising risk to evacuation aircraft.
A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant
F.T. de Charro (Frank); J.E.M. Akveld (Hans); E. Hessing (Ellen)
textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in
Wu, Cai; Sandoval, Alex; Hicks, Katrina N; Edwards, Tim J; Green, Lyle D
The Office of Physician Relations at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) has developed a dynamic referral productivity reporting tool for its Multidisciplinary Care Centers (MCC). The tool leverages information within the institution's Enterprise Information Warehouse (EIW) using business intelligent software Hyperion Intelligent Explorer Suite 8.3. the referral productivity reports are intended to provide each MCC with detailed referral and registration data outlining how, and from where, patients arrive here for treatment. The reports supports operational and strategic initiatives aimed at improving referral processes and market related program development.
Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke [Oslo University College, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Hofmann, Bjoern Morten [University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Gjoevik University College, Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Gjoevik (Norway); Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway)
To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)
Levin, Roger P
The research findings indicate that the field of implant dentistry will only grow at a moderately low level unless certain changes are made. Findings indicated that the effort by the implant companies has been nothing short of dramatic, and yet almost 60% of restorative doctors do not participate annually in any implant case. There was no clear indication that younger restorative doctors will significantly increase the number of implant referrals, as their overall implant education has not dramatically differed from those dentists who graduated in earlier years. Once the research was completed, it became obvious to Levin Group that the driving force behind implant referral growth will be implant surgeons, because of their one-to-one relationship with restorative doctors. The Levin Group Implant Management and Marketing Consulting Program is based on approaching restorative doctors in several different levels, starting with awareness all the way through to case facilitation and long-term tracking and communication. Finally, a continuing marketing/education effort needs to be consistently in place with effective materials, not only to create a high level of awareness, but also to motivate restorative doctors to refer cases and then work through the case with the implant surgeon to a satisfactory completion for the restorative doctor, implant surgeon, and patient. While the surgical insertion of implants may seem to carry a high-profit margin relative to the restoration of implants, the truth is that the restoration of implants usually provides a 40% higher profit margin for the restorative doctor than traditional dental services. One of the key issues is that referring doctors have not necessarily learned how to set fees and present cases with regard to implant dentistry. The key factor here is to ensure that the patient understands that implant services involve higher fees than traditional services, because of the necessarily higher levels of experience, education
Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza
Objectives: Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association. Methods: We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrol...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to establish a benchmark for referral rates in rural Niger so as to allow interpretation of routine referral data to assess the performance of the referral system in Niger. Methods Strict and controlled application of existing clinical decision trees in a sample of rural health centres allowed the estimation of the corresponding need for and characteristics of curative referrals in rural Niger. Compliance of referral was monitored as well. Need was matched against actual referral in 11 rural districts. The referral patterns were registered so as to get an idea on the types of pathology referred. Results The referral rate benchmark was set at 2.5 % of patients consulting at the health centre for curative reasons. Niger's rural districts have a referral rate of less than half this benchmark. Acceptability of referrals is low for the population and is adding to the deficient referral system in Niger. Mortality because of under-referral is highest among young children. Conclusion Referral patterns show that the present programme approach to deliver health care leaves a large amount of unmet need for which only comprehensive first and second line health services can provide a proper answer. On the other hand, the benchmark suggests that well functioning health centres can take care of the vast majority of problems patients present with.
Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V
Remuneration for blood donors, in the way as presently handled by governmental and communal blood transfusion services in Germany, is not generally accepted. It is feared that donors are recruited with increased risk to transmit infectious diseases, especially AIDS. Alternative incentives are discussed. After the so-called AIDS scandal in Germany, a change in the donor motivation was to be expected, associated with an increased willingness to renounce remuneration. Therefore, we performed the present survey, in which we evaluated the donor's willingness to renounce remuneration, possibilities of cashless remuneration and other alternative incentives. During March and April 1994, a total of 1,157 blood donors of the University Blood Bank Marburg were questioned anonymously by a questionnaire in the framework of whole-blood donations. Beside the above-mentioned aspects demoscopic data were included (age, sex, profession, journey). Cutting of remuneration without any other compensation was refused by 86.1% of the donors, 77% would not want to further donate blood in this case. Transfer of money to a bank account instead of cash payment was accepted by 78.6%, the use of non-negotiable cheques by 68.7%. Alternative compensation by tickets for theater, concert, cinema or coupons for restaurants met with the approval of only 27.3%; under these circumstances, 36.9% would be willing to continue blood donation. With increasing age and number of donations, but largely independent of social status, donors attached greater importance to retention of remuneration. Cutting of remuneration would result in a considerable reduction of the willingness to donate blood within the population of donors of the governmental and communal blood transfusion services. However, an increase of virus safety of the blood products would not be reached in this way, since especially the long-term donors would be driven away. Considerable bottlenecks, particularly in the specific blood supply of
Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.
... Practitioners (GMPS) sent the most referrals (507 or 74.0%), specialist medical practitioners (SMPs) sent 86(12.6%) and general dental practitioners (GDPs) sent 59(8.6%) referrals. The medical specialty with most referrals was paediatrics (29.0 % of the SMPs referrals). 44.5% of the referrals had no provisional diagnosis, ...
Over an 8-year period, 23 consenting infertile patients/ couples were given referral for assisted conception. The median age was 36 years and mean duration of infertility was 43 months. Indications for referral as shown in Table 1 were male factor in five (21.7%) patients, female factor in seven (30.4%) patients, and both ...
Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.
This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…
Kotecha, A; Brookes, J; Foster, P J
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of a technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging service with 'virtual review' of resultant data by a consultant ophthalmologist.Patients and methodsThe Glaucoma Screening Clinic reviewed new optometrist or GP-initiated glaucoma suspect referrals into a specialist ophthalmic hospital. Patients underwent testing by three ophthalmic technicians in a dedicated clinical facility. Data were reviewed at a different time and date by a consultant glaucoma ophthalmologist. Approximately 10% of discharged patients were reviewed in a face-to-face consultant-led clinic to examine the false-negative rate of the service.ResultsBetween 1 March 2014 and 31 March 2016, 1380 patients were seen in the clinic. The number of patients discharged following consultant virtual review was 855 (62%). The positive predictive value of onward referrals was 84%. Three of the 82 patients brought back for face-to-face review were deemed to require treatment, equating to negative predictive value of 96%.ConclusionsOur technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging clinic incorporates consultant 'virtual review' to provide a service model that significantly reduces the number of onward referrals into the glaucoma outpatient department. This model may be an alternative to departments where there are difficulties in implementing optometrist-led community-based referral refinement schemes.
... a nationwide contingency response plan. 2. Rapid Identification of Matched Donors : Increase operational efficiencies that accelerate the search process and increase patient access are key to preparedness in a contingency event. pa 3...
Hagedorn Douglas WJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited access to weight management care can have a negative impact on the health and well-being of obese children and youth. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of clients referred to a pediatric weight management centre and explore potential differences according to proximity. Methods All demographic and anthropometric data were abstracted from standardized, one-page referral forms, which were received by a pediatric weight management centre in Edmonton, AB (Canada between April, 2005 and April, 2009. Results Referrals (n = 555; 52% male; age [mean +/- standard deviation]: 12.4 +/- 2.6 y; BMI: 32.3 +/- 6.8 kg/m2; BMI percentile: 98.4 +/- 1.7; BMI z-score: 2.3 +/- 0.4 were received from 311 physicians. Approximately 95% of referrals were for boys and girls classified as obese or very obese. Based on postal code data, individuals were dichotomized as either living within (local; n = 455 or beyond (distant; n = 100 the Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area. Numerous families resided several hundred kilometres away from our centre. Overall, distant clients were taller, weighed more, and were more overweight than their local counterparts. For distant clients, the degree of overweight was higher in youth versus children. Conclusion Pediatric weight management services must be designed to optimize access to health services, especially for distant clients who may be at increased obesity-related health risk.
Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Swartz, Kathleen; Phillips, Chelsea; Hollenberger, Jennifer; Smith, Taylor; Steel, Jennifer L
Solid organ transplantation as a treatment for end stage organ failure has been an accepted treatment option for decades. Despite advances in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. Living donation has been an option that has increased the number of transplants despite the continued shortage of deceased organs. In the early 2000s live donor transplantation reached an all-time high in the United States. As a result, a consensus meeting was convened in 2000 to increase the oversight of living donor transplantation. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the United Network for Organ Sharing developed regulations that transplant programs performing live donor transplantation. These regulations and guidelines involve the education, evaluation, informed consent process and living donor follow-up care. Two areas in which had significant changes included the psychosocial and the independent living donor advocate (ILDA) evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to outline the current regulations and guidelines associated with the psychosocial and ILDA evaluation as well as provide further recommendations for the administration of a high quality evaluation of living donors. The goals and timing of the evaluation and education of donors; qualifications of the health care providers performing the evaluation; components of the evaluation; education provided to donors; documentation of the evaluation; participation in the selection committee meeting; post-decline and post-donation care of donors is described. Caveats including the paired donor exchange programs and non-directed and directed donation are also considered.
Experience of German Red Cross blood donor services with nucleic acid testing: results of screening more than 30 million blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus.
Hourfar, Michael K; Jork, Christine; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Weber-Schehl, Marijke; Brixner, Veronika; Busch, Michael P; Geusendam, Geert; Gubbe, Knut; Mahnhardt, Christina; Mayr-Wohlfart, Uschi; Pichl, Lutz; Roth, W Kurt; Schmidt, Michael; Seifried, Erhard; Wright, David J
The risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is predominantly attributable to donations given during the early stage of infection when diagnostic tests may fail. In 1997, nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-testing was introduced at the German Red Cross (GRC) blood donor services to reduce this diagnostic window period (WP). A total of 31,524,571 blood donations collected from 1997 through 2005 were screened by minipool NAT, predominantly with pool sizes of 96 donations. These donations cover approximately 80 percent of all the blood collected in Germany during that period. Based on these data, the WP risk in the GRC blood donor population was estimated by using a state-of-the-art mathematic model. During the observation period, 23 HCV, 7 HIV-1, and 43 HBV NAT-only-positive donations were detected. On the basis of these data and estimated pre-NAT infectious WPs, the residual risk per unit transfused was estimated at 1 in 10.88 million for HCV (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.51-19.72 million), 1 in 4.30 million for HIV-1 (95% CI, 2.39-21.37 million), and 1 in 360,000 for HBV (95% CI, 0.19-3.36 million). Based on observed cases of breakthrough infections, the risk of transfusion-related infections may be even lower. The risk of a blood recipient becoming infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HBV has reached an extremely low level. Introduction of individual donation testing for HCV and HIV-1 would have a marginal effect on interception of WP donations.
This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...
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... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of a medical history, tests, and...
Patel, Madhukar S; Zatarain, John; De La Cruz, Salvador; Sally, Mitchell B; Ewing, Tyler; Crutchfield, Megan; Enestvedt, C Kristian; Malinoski, Darren J
The shortage of organs available for transplant has led to the use of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) to extend the donor pool. These donors are older and have more comorbidities and efforts to optimize the quality of their organs are needed. To determine the impact of meeting a standardized set of critical care end points, or donor management goals (DMGs), on the number of organs transplanted per donor in ECDs. Prospective interventional study from February 2010 to July 2013 of all ECDs managed by the 8 organ procurement organizations in the southwestern United States (United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5). Implementation of 9 DMGs as a checklist to guide the management of every ECD. The DMGs represented normal cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and endocrine end points. Meeting the DMG bundle was defined a priori as achieving any 7 of the 9 end points and was recorded at the time of referral to the organ procurement organization, at the time of authorization for donation, 12 to 18 hours later, and prior to organ recovery. The primary outcome measure was 3 or more organs transplanted per donor and binary logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors with P organs transplanted per donor. Ten percent of the ECDs had met the DMG bundle at referral, 15% at the time of authorization, 33% at 12 to 18 hours, and 45% prior to recovery. Forty-three percent had 3 or more organs transplanted per donor. Independent predictors of 3 or more organs transplanted per donor were older age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95 per year [95% CI, 0.93-0.97]), increased creatinine level (OR = 0.73 per mg/dL [95% CI, 0.63-0.85]), DMGs met prior to organ recovery (OR = 1.90 [95% CI, 1.35-2.68]), and a change in the number of DMGs achieved from referral to organ recovery (OR = 1.11 per additional DMG [95% CI, 1.00-1.23]). Meeting DMGs prior to organ recovery with ECDs is associated with achieving 3 or more organs transplanted per donor. An increase in the number
Margaret Kathleen Menzel Ellis
Conclusions: Management of deceased organ donors should focus first on maintaining adequate perfusion to all organ systems through adherence to standard critical care guidelines, early referral to OPOs, and family support. Furthermore, several specific DMGs and strategies have been recently shown to improve both the rates and outcomes of organ transplantation.
Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore
Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.
Rao, Sowmya R.; Rogers, Robert S.; Mailhot, Johanna R.; Galvin, Robert
BACKGROUND Given increasing interest in helping consumers choose high-performing (higher quality, lower cost) physicians, one approach chosen by several large employers is to provide assistance in the form of a telephonic “health coach” — a registered nurse who assists with identifying appropriate and available providers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the health coach’s influence on provider choice and the quality of the user experience in the early introduction of this service. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey of 3490 employees and covered dependents of a large national firm that offered health coach services to all employees and covered dependents. The survey began in September 2007 with proportionate stratified sampling of 1750 employees and covered dependents who used the services between October 2007 and February 2008, and 1740 non-users. PARTICIPANTS Insured adults (ages 21–64) employed by a large national firm or covered dependents of employees. MEASUREMENTS Awareness of the service, reason for using service, visits to providers recommended by service, use of health advice provided by service, user satisfaction. MAIN RESULTS The primary reason for using the service was to obtain provider referrals (73%). Fifty-two percent of users sought a specialist referral, 33% a PCP referral and 9% a hospital referral. Eighty-nine percent of users seeking a provider referral were referred in-network; 81% of those referred visited the referred provider. Measures of satisfaction with both the service and the care delivered by recommended providers were over 70%. CONCLUSIONS Customers largely follow the provider recommendation of the health coach. Users express general satisfaction with existing health coach services, but differences in performance between vendors highlight the need for the services to be well implemented. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1428-4) contains supplementary material, which is available
Izadi, Maryam; Gill, Daljit S; Naini, Farhad B
The aim of this study was to determine the possible effects of the 2006 National Health Service General Dental Services contract changes on the referral pattern to the orthodontic department at St George's Hospital, South West London. This study was carried out on a retrospective basis. The notes of consecutive patients referred between 1st May and 30th September in 2005 and 2008 were assessed, and the patient's Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the source of referral noted. The total numbers of referrals increased from 260 in 2005 to 405 in 2008. The number of referrals from general dental practitioners decreased slightly from 165 to 156, as did the numbers of referrals from other sources, such as tertiary referrals. The number of referrals made by specialist practitioners increased from 41 in 2005 to 207 in 2008, representing an increase from 16% to 51% of overall referrals. Overall, the number of patients being referred with an IOTN dental health component grade of 5 increased from 27% to 55%. The increase in referrals from specialist practitioners may be partly due to the changes brought to the commissioning of orthodontic services for specialist practitioners. Overall, the number of cases being referred with IOTN grades 4 and 5 remains high at St George's Hospital, indicating that appropriate referrals are being made.
BACKGROUND: Cork University Hospital (CUH) provides a tertiary service for all neurophysiology referrals in the Southern Health Board region. AIM: To ascertain the number, source, symptoms and diagnosis of neurophysiology referrals at CUH. METHODS: We did a prospective audit of the referral patterns to the neurophysiology department over a 12 -week period. RESULTS: Of 635 referrals, 254 had electromyograms (EMG), 359 had electro-encephalograms (EEG), 18 had visual evoked potentials (VEP), three had somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and one had multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We analysed the demographic pattern, reason for referrals, the average waiting time for neurophysiology tests and the patterns of diagnosis in this audit. CONCLUSIONS: Patients from County Cork are making more use of the neurophysiology services than patients from other counties within the Southern Health Board. The average waiting time for an EEG was 32 days and for an EMG was 74 days. However, more than 35% of those patients waiting for an EEG or an EMG had their tests done within four weeks of referral. The appointments of EEG and EMG were assigned on the basis of clinical need.
Warren, Jim; Gu, Yulong; Day, Karen; White, Sue; Pollock, Malcolm
Between September 2010 and May 2011 we evaluated three implementations of electronic referral (eReferral) systems at Hutt Valley, Northland and Canterbury District Health Boards in New Zealand. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through project documentation, database records and stakeholder interviews. This paper reports on the user perspectives based on interviews with 78 clinical, management and operational stakeholders in the three regions. Themes that emerge across the regions are compared and synthesised. Interviews focused on pre-planned domains including quality of referral, ease of use and patient safety, but agendas were adapted progressively to elaborate and triangulate on themes emerging from earlier interviews and to clarify indications from analysis of database records. The eReferral users, including general practitioners, specialists and administrative staff, report benefits in the areas of: (1) availability and transparency of referral-related data; (2) work transformation; (3) improved data quality and (4) the convenience of auto-population from the practice management system into the referral forms. eReferral provides enhanced visibility of referral data and status within the limits of the implementation (which only goes to the hospital door in some cases). Users in all projects indicated the desire to further exploit IT to enhance two-way communication between community and hospital. Reduced administrative handling is a clear work transformation benefit with mixed feedback regarding clinical workload impact. Innovations such as GP eReferral triaging teams illustrate the further potential for workflow transformation. Consistent structure in eReferrals, as well as simple legibility, enhances data quality. Efficiency and completeness is provided by auto-population of forms from system data, but opens issues around data accuracy. All three projects highlight the importance of user involvement in design, implementation and refinement. In
AIM: To analyse inpatient consultation referrals to the Dermatology Department and to identify the educational needs of junior\\/trainee doctors. METHODS: Consultation data of inpatients referred to the Dermatology Department between 2001 and 2006 was reviewed. RESULTS: There were 703 referrals identified. Patients were referred from all wards in the hospital. There were a total of 113 different dermatological diagnoses in the group. One-fifth (22%) consultations were for skin infections, 12% had atopic dermatitis, 8% had psoriasis and 8% had clear or suspected drug cause for their rash. In 391 cases, the Consultant Dermatologist\\'s diagnosis was different to the inpatient referral diagnosis on the consultation referral form. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasise the need for junior dermatology trainees to undertake extra training in both the dermatologic conditions. This data supports the need for expansion of service provision of dermatology in the region.
on average 5 years younger than those with other allergies, and those allergic to nuts were much younger (26 Vs 38 than those with other food allergies. There was clear evidence for spatial clustering with marked clustering around the referral hospital. However, the geographical distribution varied between allergies; airborne (particularly pollen allergies clustered in North Dartmoor and Exmoor, food allergies (particularly nut allergies in the South Hams, and on small numbers, some indication of seafood allergy in the far south west of Cornwall and in the Padstow area. Conclusions This study shows marked geographical differences in allergy referrals which are likely to reflect a combination of environmental factors and GP referral patterns. The data suggest that GPs may benefit from education and ongoing decision support and be supported by public education on the nature of allergy. It suggests further research into what happens to patients with allergy where there has been low use of tertiary services and further research into cross-reactivity and co-occurrence, and spatial distribution of allergy.
Kortuem, Karsten; Fasler, Katrin; Charnley, Amanda; Khambati, Hussain; Fasolo, Sandro; Katz, Menachem; Balaskas, Konstantinos; Rajendram, Ranjan; Hamilton, Robin; Keane, Pearse A; Sim, Dawn A
The increasing incidence of medical retinal diseases has created capacity issues across UK. In this study, we describe the implementation and outcomes of virtual medical retina clinics (VMRCs) at Moorfields Eye Hospital, South Division, London. It represents a promising solution to ensure that patients are seen and treated in a timely fashion METHODS: First attendances in the VMRC (September 2016-May 2017) were included. It was open to non-urgent external referrals and to existing patients in a face-to-face clinic (F2FC). All patients received visual acuity testing, dilated fundus photography and optical coherence tomography scans. Grading was performed by consultants, fellows and allied healthcare professionals. Outcomes of these virtual consultations and reasons for F2FC referrals were assessed. A total number of 1729 patients were included (1543 were internal and 186 external referrals). The majority were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy (75.1% of internal and 46.8% of external referrals). Of the internal referrals, 14.6% were discharged, 54.5% continued in VMRC and 30.9% were brought to a F2FC. Of the external referrals, 45.5% were discharged, 37.1% continued in VMRC and 17.4% were brought to a F2FC. The main reason for F2FC referrals was image quality (34.7%), followed by detection of potentially treatable disease (20.2%). VMRC can be implemented successfully using existing resources within a hospital eye service. It may also serve as a first-line rapid-access clinic for low-risk referrals. This would enable medical retinal services to cope with increasing demand and efficiently allocate resources to those who require treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M
Referral for a second opinion is an important aspect of pathology practice, which reduces the rate of diagnostic error and ensures consistency with diagnoses. The Oral Pathology Centre (OPC) is the only specialist oral diagnostic centre in New Zealand. OPC provides diagnostic services to dentists and dental specialists throughout New Zealand and acts as a referral centre for second opinions for oral pathology specimens that have been sent to anatomical pathologists. The aim of this study was to review second opinion referral cases sent to the OPC over a 15-year period and to assess the levels of concordance between the original and final diagnoses. The findings indicated that the majority of referred cases were odontogenic lesions, followed by connective tissue, epithelial and salivary lesions. The most prevalent diagnoses were ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumour, followed by oral squamous cell carcinoma. Discordant diagnoses were recorded in 24% of cases. Diagnostic discrepancies were higher in odontogenic and salivary gland lesions, resulting in the change of diagnoses. Second opinion of oral pathology cases should be encouraged in view of the relative rarity of these lesions in general pathology laboratories and the rates of diagnostic discrepancy, particularly for odontogenic and salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goldman, Mindy; Osmond, Lori; Yi, Qi-Long; Cameron-Choi, Keltie; O'Brien, Sheila F
Adverse donor reactions can result in injury and decrease the likelihood of donor return. Reaction reports captured in the blood center's database provide an incomplete picture of reaction rates and risk factors. We performed an anonymous survey, mailed to 40,000 donors in 2008, including questions about symptoms, height, weight, sex, and donation status. Reaction rates were compared to those recorded in our database. Possible risk factors were assessed for various reactions. The response rate was 45.5%. A total of 32% of first-time and 14% of repeat donors reported having any adverse symptom, most frequently bruising (84.9 per 1000 donors) or feeling faint or weak (66.2 per 1000). Faint reactions were two to eight times higher than reported in our database, although direct comparison was difficult. Younger age, female sex, and first-time donation status were risk factors for systemic and arm symptoms. In females, low estimated blood volume (EBV) was a risk factor for systemic symptoms. Only 51% of donors who consulted an outside physician also called Canadian Blood Services. A total of 10% of first-time donors with reactions found adverse effects information inadequate. This study allowed us to collect more information about adverse reactions, including minor symptoms and delayed reactions. Based on our findings of the risk factors and frequency of adverse reactions, we are implementing more stringent EBV criteria for younger donors and providing more detailed information to donors about possible adverse effects and their management. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to ... Methods: A qualitative study method was used, as the purpose of this study was to .... The total list of topics ..... Research design: qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...
Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda
This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.
Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Abu Bakar Sulaiman
The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts
Perera D. A. K.
Full Text Available Abstract Blood and blood component transfusion is one of the major therapeutic practices throughout the world. National Blood Transfusion Service NBTS in Sri Lanka requires approximately 300000 blood units annually. After initiating mobile donor programme there have been two types of blood donation programs in Sri Lanka since 1980. Since second half of first decade of 21st century Sri Lanka shifted to 100 non-replacement blood transfusion policy. That means whole blood and blood component requirement of NBTS has to be collected through mobile blood donor program and voluntary In-house blood donor program. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the blood donors of selecting blood donor program in Western province Sri Lanka. Methodology This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The study composed of two components. .First the factors that cause the blood donor to select a blood donor programme second the facility survey of blood banks In-house donation. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 410 Mobile blood donors. Facility survey was done using a checklist. The dependant variables were the attendance of the blood donors to Mobile blood donation and In-house blood donation. Independent variables included were the factors related to socio demography service quality accessibility availability and intrinsic extrinsic motivation. The analytical statistics applied for testing the association of factors with the blood donor programme was chi-square test. The study has shown some important findings. There was significant association between income level and donating blood. Only 3.3 of In-house blood donor population was female. Majority of In-house population belonged to 30-41 age group. A statistically significant association exists between age and repeat blood donation. The female blood donors tendency of becoming repeat donors was very low. Distance problem and non
Penny, Rachel; Coffey, Rebecca; Jones, Larry; Bailey, J Kevin
It is generally agreed that patients with large burns will be referred to organized burn centers, however, the referral of patients with smaller burns is less certain. A two-part survey was conducted to identify referral patterns for burn patients that meet American Burn Association referral criteria, and any effect insurance type might have on the referral patterns. The emergency departments of our state hospital association's member hospitals were contacted seeking a referral for a fictitious patient with a third-degree scald of the dominant hand. The referral sites were contacted twice, first stating that the patient had commercial insurance, next stating that the patient had Medicaid. Data collected included wait time for an appointment or reasons for denial of an appointment. Of 218 hospitals, 46 were excluded because they did not offer emergency care, and eight because they were listed as burn centers on the American Burn Association website. Of the remaining 164, 119 (73%) would refer to a burn center, 21 (13%) to a plastic surgeon, 10 (6%) to a hand surgeon, 7 (4%) to a wound center, 7 (4%) to another nonburn physician resource. There was no difference in wait time to the first available appointment with regards to insurance type (6.56 ± 4.68 vs 6.53 ± 5.05 days). Our state's referral pattern gives us insight into the regional referral pattern. This information will be used to guide a focused education and communication program to provide better service for the burn victims of our state.
Claus, B.; Geyskens, K.; Millet, K.; Dewitte, S.
The present paper shows that when a person has the experience of giving advice but that advice is not acted upon, there is a reduced openness to external information. We call this the "referral backfire effect". We argue that this referral backfire effect is due to the identity threatening nature of
Evans, Bridie Angela; Ali, Khalid; Bulger, Jenna; Ford, Gary A; Jones, Matthew; Moore, Chris; Porter, Alison; Pryce, Alan David; Quinn, Tom; Seagrove, Anne C; Snooks, Helen; Whitman, Shirley; Rees, Nigel
To identify the features and effects of a pathway for emergency assessment and referral of patients with suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in order to avoid admission to hospital. Scoping review. PubMed, CINAHL Web of Science, Scopus. Reports of primary research on referral of patients with suspected TIA directly to specialist outpatient services. We screened studies for eligibility and extracted data from relevant studies. Data were analysed to describe setting, assessment and referral processes, treatment, implementation and outcomes. 8 international studies were identified, mostly cohort designs. 4 pathways were used by family doctors and 3 pathways by emergency department physicians. No pathways used by paramedics were found. Referrals were made to specialist clinic either directly or via a 24-hour helpline. Practitioners identified TIA symptoms and risk of further events using a checklist including the ABCD2 tool or clinical assessment. Antiplatelet medication was often given, usually aspirin unless contraindicated. Some patients underwent tests before referral and discharge. 5 studies reported reduced incident of stroke at 90 days, from 6-10% predicted rate to 1.3-2.1% actual rate. Between 44% and 83% of suspected TIA cases in these studies were referred through the pathways. Research literature has focused on assessment and referral by family doctors and ED physicians to reduce hospitalisation of patients with TIA. No pathways for paramedical use were reported. We will use results of this scoping review to inform development of a paramedical referral pathway to be tested in a feasibility trial. ISRCTN85516498. Stage: pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kyle Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s emergency admissions in England are increasing. Community Children’s Nursing Teams (CCNTs have developed services to manage acutely ill children at home to reduce demand for unscheduled care. Referral between General Practitioners (GPs and CCNTs may reduce avoidable admissions and minimise the psychosocial and financial impact of hospitalisation on children, families and the NHS. However, facilitators of GP referral to CCNTs are not known. The aim of this study was to identify facilitators of GP referral to CCNTs. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 39 health professionals were conducted between June 2009 and February 2010 in three Primary Care Trusts served by CCNTs in North West England. Interviewees included GPs, Community Children’s Nurses (CCNs, consultant paediatricians, commissioners, and service managers. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using the Framework approach in NVivo 8. Results Five facilitators were identified: 1 CCN/CCNT visibility; 2 clear clinical governance procedures; 3 financial and organisational investment in the role of CCNTs in acute care pathways; 4 access and out of hours availability; 5 facilitative financial frameworks. Conclusion GPs required confidence in CCNs’ competence to safely manage acutely ill children at home and secure rapid referral if a child’s condition deteriorated. Incremental approaches to developing GP referral to CCNTs underpinned by clear clinical governance protocols are likely to be most effective in building GP confidence and avoiding inappropriate admission.
Kim, Jimin; Barreix, Maria; Babcock, Christine; Bills, Corey B
Introduction Following two decades of armed conflict in Liberia, over 95% of health care facilities were partially or completely destroyed. Although the Liberian health system has undergone significant rehabilitation, one particular weakness is the lack of organized systems for referral and prehospital care. Acute care referral systems are a critical component of effective health care delivery and have led to improved quality of care and patient outcomes. Problem This study aimed to characterize the referral and transfer systems in the largest county of Liberia. A cross-sectional, health referral survey of a representative sample of health facilities in Montserrado County, Liberia was performed. A systematic random sample of all primary health care (PHC) clinics, fraction proportional to district population size, and all secondary and tertiary health facilities were included in the study sample. Collected data included baseline information about the health facility, patient flow, and qualitative and quantitative data regarding referral practices. A total of 62 health facilities-41 PHC clinics, 11 health centers (HCs), and 10 referral hospitals (RHs)-were surveyed during the 6-week study period. In sum, three percent of patients were referred to a higher-level of care. Communication between health facilities was largely unsystematic, with lack of specific protocols (n=3; 5.0%) and standardized documentation (n=26; 44.0%) for referral. While most health facilities reported walking as the primary means by which patients presented to initial health facilities (n=50; 81.0%), private vehicles, including commercial taxis (n=37; 60.0%), were the primary transport mechanism for referral of patients between health facilities. This study identified several weaknesses in acute care referral systems in Liberia, including lack of systematic care protocols for transfer, documentation, communication, and transport. However, several informal, well-functioning mechanisms for
Kumm, Kayla R; Galván, N Thao N; Koohmaraie, Sarah; Rana, Abbas; Kueht, Michael; Baugh, Katherine; Hao, Liu; Yoeli, Dor; Cotton, Ronald; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A
Drowning, a common cause of death in the pediatric population, is a potentially large donor pool for OLT. Anecdotally, transplant centers have deemed these organs high risk over concerns for infection and graft dysfunction. We theorized drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes and therefore should not be excluded from the donation pool. We reviewed our single-center experience of pediatric OLTs between 1988 and 2015 and identified 33 drowned donor recipients. These OLTs were matched 1:2 to head trauma donor OLTs from our center. A chart review assessed postoperative peak AST and ALT, incidence of HAT, graft and recipient survival. Recipient survival at one year between patients with drowned donor vs head trauma donor allografts was not statistically significant (94% vs 97%, P=.63). HAT incidence was 6.1% in the drowned donor group vs 7.6% in the control group (P=.78). Mean postoperative peak AST and ALT was 683 U/L and 450 U/L for drowned donors vs 1119 U/L and 828 U/L in the matched cohort. These results suggest drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes in comparison with those procured from head trauma donors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kulu Glasgow, I.; Delnoij, D.; Bakker, D. de
In the Netherlands general practitioners act as the primary level to the more specialized and more expensive secondary health-care. As a rule, patients are required to have a referral from their general practitioners to be able to utilize these services. Not all private insurance companies, however,
Cohon, Donald J., Jr.
This paper provides counselors and social service case workers serving Indochinese refugees in northern California with guidelines for identifying, treating and making referrals of clients with emotional problems. Freud's theory of trauma neurosis and its effect on refugees' language acquisition, learning ability and job readiness are described.…
Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL: case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT service
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP, those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD; and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166; the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118; and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210. Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous
Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.
To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)
Jeffries, Mark; Grogan, Sarah
Young men visit their general practitioner (GP) less frequently than young women and tend to utilise primary healthcare services reluctantly. This research aimed to explore the ways young men used their talk to make sense of their own masculinity in the context of their healthcare visits, and to explore the ways they used their talk to make sense of those visits in terms of multiple masculinities and gendered behaviours. This was an important area for research as previous work has not focused on young men. Interviews, lasting approximately 1 h, were conducted by a male researcher with seven men aged 22-33. Questions related to visiting the GP, attention to healthcare and help-seeking behaviours. These were analysed, using an eclectic approach informed by Foucauldian discourse analysis and discursive psychology. Participants subscribed to a hegemonic masculinity that constructed men as strong, stoical and reluctant to seek help. However, at times, these men negotiated and disengaged from such discourses. Women were constructed as immediately responding to symptoms and seeking help for minor illnesses. In contrast to traditional masculinity, the young men drew upon discourses of vulnerability and embarrassment. These results are discussed in relation to their implications for Health Psychology.
Krmpotic, Kristina; Payne, Clare; Isenor, Cynthia; Dhanani, Sonny
Rates of organ donation and transplantation have steadily increased in the United States and Canada over the past decade, largely attributable to a notable increase in donation after circulatory death. However, the number of patients awaiting solid organ transplantation continues to remain much higher than the number of organs transplanted each year. The objective of this study was to determine the potential to increase donation rates further by identifying gaps in the well-established donation after circulatory death process in Ontario. Retrospective cohort study. Provincial organ procurement organization. Patients who died in designated donation hospitals within the province of Ontario, Canada between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2015. None. Of 1,407 patient deaths following planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, 54.0% (n = 760) were medically suitable for donation after circulatory death. In 438 cases where next of kin was approached, consent rates reached 47.5%. A total of 119 patients became actual organ donors. Only 66.2% (n = 503) of suitable patients were appropriately referred, resulting in 251 missed potential donors whose next of kin could not be approached regarding organ donation because referral occurred after initiation of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy or not at all. The number of medically suitable patients who die within 2 hours of planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy is nearly six times higher than the number of actual organ donors, with the greatest loss of potential due to delayed referral until at the time of or after planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Intensive care teams are not meeting their ethical responsibility to recognize impending death and appropriately refer potential organ donors to the local organ procurement organization. In cases where patients had previously registered their consent decision, they were denied a healthcare right.
Blundell, N; Clarke, Aileen; Mays, N
To explore interpretations of "appropriate" and "inappropriate" elective referral from primary to secondary surgical care among senior clinical and non-clinical managers in five purposively sampled primary care trusts (PCTs) and their main associated acute hospitals in the English National Health Service (NHS). Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were undertaken with senior managerial staff from clinical and non-clinical backgrounds. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed according to the Framework approach developed at the National Centre for Social Research using N6 (NUD*IST6) qualitative data analysis software. Twenty-two people of 23 approached were interviewed (between three and five respondents per PCT and associated acute hospital). Three attributes relating to appropriateness of referral were identified: necessity: whether a patient with given characteristics was believed suitable for referral; destination or level: where or to whom a patient should be referred; and quality (or process): how a referral was carried out, including (eg, investigations undertaken before referral, information contained in the referral and extent of patient involvement in the referral decision. Attributes were hierarchical. "Necessity" was viewed as the most fundamental attribute, followed by "destination" and, finally, "quality". In general, but not always, all three attributes were perceived as necessary for a referral to be defined as appropriate. For senior clinical and non-clinical managers at the local level in the English NHS, three hierarchical attributes (necessity, appropriateness of destination and quality of referral process) contributed to the overall concept of appropriateness of referral from primary to secondary surgical care.
Rodolfo Delfini Cançado
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.
Blanchette, M. A.; Rivard, M.; Dionne, C. E.
, and the percentage of patients referred to other health care providers were associated with a higher number of MD referrals to DCs. The percentage of patients with somatovisceral conditions, using a particular chiropractic technique (hole in one and Thompson), taking his/her own radiographs, being the client...
... referral, a point of contact by name, a telephone number (commercial and DSN), and an e-mail address (if... record any FOIA request for investigative, intelligence, or any other type of records that are on loan to.... However, if for investigative or intelligence purposes, the outside agency desires anonymity, a DON...
Wiley, Matthew T; Rivas, Ryan L; Hristidis, Vagelis
There has been a recent growth in health provider search portals, where patients specify filters-such as specialty or insurance-and providers are ranked by patient ratings or other attributes. Previous work has identified attributes associated with a provider's quality through user surveys. Other work supports that intuitive quality-indicating attributes are associated with a provider's quality. We adopt a data-driven approach to study how quality indicators of providers are associated with a rich set of attributes including medical school, graduation year, procedures, fellowships, patient reviews, location, and technology usage. In this work, we only consider providers as individuals (e.g., general practitioners) and not organizations (e.g., hospitals). As quality indicators, we consider the referral frequency of a provider and a peer-nominated quality designation. We combined data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and several provider rating web sites to perform our analysis. Our data-driven analysis identified several attributes that correlate with and discriminate against referral volume and peer-nominated awards. In particular, our results consistently demonstrate that these attributes vary by locality and that the frequency of an attribute is more important than its value (e.g., the number of patient reviews or hospital affiliations are more important than the average review rating or the ranking of the hospital affiliations, respectively). We demonstrate that it is possible to build accurate classifiers for referral frequency and quality designation, with accuracies over 85 %. Our findings show that a one-size-fits-all approach to ranking providers is inadequate and that provider search portals should calibrate their ranking function based on location and specialty. Further, traditional filters of provider search portals should be reconsidered, and patients should be aware of existing pitfalls with these filters and educated on local
Liddy, Clare; Singh, Jatinderpreet; Kelly, Ryan; Dahrouge, Simone; Taljaard, Monica; Younger, Jamie
Several new primary care models have been implemented in Ontario, Canada over the past two decades. These practice models differ in team structure, physician remuneration, and group size. Few studies have examined the impact of these models on specialist referrals. We compared specialist referral rates amongst three primary care models: 1) Enhanced Fee-for-service, 2) Capitation- Non-Interdisciplinary (CAP-NI), 3) Capitation - Interdisciplinary (CAP-I). We conducted a cross-sectional study using health administrative data from primary care practices in Ontario from April 1st, 2008 to March 31st, 2010. The analysis included all family physicians providing comprehensive care in one of the three models, had at least 100 patients, and did not have a prolonged absence (eight consecutive weeks). The primary outcome was referral rate (# of referrals to all medical specialties/1000 patients/year). A multivariable clustered Poisson regression analysis was used to compare referral rates between models while adjusting for provider (sex, years since graduation, foreign trained, time in current model) and patient (age, sex, income, rurality, health status) characteristics. Fee-for-service had a significantly lower adjusted referral rate (676, 95% CI: 666-687) than the CAP-NI (719, 95% confidence interval (CI): 705-734) and CAP-I (694, 95% CI: 681-707) models and the interdisciplinary CAP-I group had a 3.5% lower referral rate than the CAP-NI group (RR = 0.965, 95% CI: 0.943-0.987, p = 0.002). Female and Canadian-trained physicians referred more often, while female, older, sicker and urban patients were more likely to be referred. Primary care model is significantly associated with referral rate. On a study population level, these differences equate to 111,059 and 37,391 fewer referrals by fee-for-service versus CAP-NI and CAP-I, respectively - a difference of $22.3 million in initial referral appointment costs. Whether a lower rate of referral is more appropriate or not is not
Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff
Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.
Olejaz, Maria; Hoeyer, Klaus
motivations, but rather as something made meaningful in the light of how donors understand their bodies; their social relations; and their societal position and experiences as patients in the healthcare system. The article thus contributes to the field by investigating the nature of the relationship between......For centuries, gross anatomy teaching and anatomical dissection have been fundamental elements in the training of medical doctors and surgeons across the world. Anatomy education and research rely on a stable and reliable supply of bodies in order to take place. Based on qualitative in...
... health, disability, or life insurance may be affected; (8) The donor's right to opt out of donation at... donor rights. 482.102 Section 482.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR...
Full Text Available Objectives. The national Department of Health strongly advocates the strengthening of primary health care systems, and recommendations for appropriate level of care referrals exist. Very few published data on the scope of current ambulatory specialised psychiatric hospital services in South Africa are currently available, making it difficult to assess whether these recommendations are being followed. As a starting point, an audit was conducted to obtain a profile of new non-urgent general adult patients seen at Stikland Hospital with a view to evaluating system needs and demands. Methods. The folders of 103 consecutively seen patients were selected for retrospective review. Patient demographic, referral and assessment information was entered into a single database. Descriptive statistics were compiled with reference to the above variables using SPSS. Results. Overall 58.3% of referrals were from the private sector. More than a third (36.7% of referral letters stated no clear reason for referral and 41.7% no psychiatric diagnosis, and 29.1% of patients were referred without psychotropic medication being started. On assessment 62.1% of patients were found to have a single Axis I diagnosis. Despite virtually no referral letters making any mention of them, substance use disorders (30.1%, personality traits/disorders (35.9% and co-morbid medical illness (36.7% were commonly found on assessment. Conclusions. A significant portion of the patients in our sample could have been managed at primary care level and were referred prematurely. The overall quality of referral letters was poor, and they lacked vital information required for appropriate pre-assessment decision making. Undergraduate training focusing on these skills should be intensified, and consideration should be given to incorporating aspects of our findings into primary health care updates.
Eskeland, Sigrun Losada; Brunborg, Cathrine; Seip, Birgitte; Wiencke, Kristine; Hovde, Øistein; Owen, Tanja; Skogestad, Erik; Huppertz-Hauss, Gert; Halvorsen, Fred-Arne; Garborg, Kjetil; Aabakken, Lars; de Lange, Thomas
To create and validate an objective and reliable score to assess referral quality in gastroenterology. An observational multicentre study. 25 gastroenterologists participated in selecting variables for a Thirty Point Score (TPS) for quality assessment of referrals to gastroenterology specialist healthcare for 9 common indications. From May to September 2014, 7 hospitals from the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority participated in collecting and scoring 327 referrals to a gastroenterologist. Correlation between the TPS and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for referral quality. The 327 referrals had an average TPS of 13.2 (range 1-25) and an average VAS of 4.7 (range 0.2-9.5). The reliability of the score was excellent, with an intra-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 and inter-rater ICC of 0.91. The overall correlation between the TPS and the VAS was moderate (r=0.42), and ranged from fair to substantial for the various indications. Mean agreement was good (ICC=0.47, 95% CI (0.34 to 0.57)), ranging from poor to good. The TPS is reliable, objective and shows good agreement with the subjective VAS. The score may be a useful tool for assessing referral quality in gastroenterology, particularly important when evaluating the effect of interventions to improve referral quality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K
Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation...... and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark...
Jordan, Gerald; Kinkaid, Miriam; Iyer, Srividya N; Joober, Ridha; Goldberg, Karen; Malla, Ashok; Shah, Jai L
To explore the unintended impact of a targeted case identification (TCI) campaign for first episode psychosis (FEP) on people not experiencing FEP ("non-cases") with respect to referral patterns and reasons for being a non-case. Sources of referral, reasons for being a non-case, and subsequent referral destinations of non-cases were examined before and after a TCI. Following the TCI, a greater proportion of non-cases lived outside the study catchment area. A smaller proportion was referred by the parent hospital's emergency room or had a substance-induced psychosis. TCIs for FEP may have unintended effects, with implications for early case identification and early intervention services.
referral of high risk and complicated pregnancies and deliveries (Afr. J. Reprod. Health 2010 ... proportion of pregnant women are attended at childbirth ... tility; management of threatened abortion; ... refuse referral and whatever is the outcome.
physicians' mode of referral of patients for physiotherapy in Nigeria. A total of 1192 physicians .... The Influence of Medical School of Graduation. Table 1 shows the .... This must have also been responsible for the high rate of referral observed.
Ibrahim, Nader; Virk, Jagdeep; George, Jason; Elmiyeh, Behrad; Singh, Arvind
A closed loop audit of the ear nose and throat (ENT) urgent referral clinic at a London hospital was conducted assessing the number of patients reviewed, referral source, appropriateness of referral, presenting complaint and assigned follow-up appointments. Data was sourced from clinic letters and the patient appointment system over a 3-mo period. The initial cycle analysed 490 patients and the subsequent cycle 396. The initial audit yielded clinically relevant and cost effective recommendations which were implemented, and the audit cycle was subsequently repeated. The re-audit demonstrated decreased clinic numbers from an average 9.8 to 7.2 patients per clinic, in keeping with ENT United Kingdom guidelines. A 21% decrease in patient follow-up and 13% decrease in inappropriate referrals was achieved. Direct bookings into outpatient clinics decreased by 8%, due to correct referral pathway utilisation. Comparisons of all data sets were found to show statistical significance P saving of £32490 in a period of 3 mo (£590 per clinic). We demonstrated that simple guidelines, supervision and consultant-led education which are non-labour intensive can have a significant impact on service provision and cost.
Kitchen, A D; Gillan, H L
The overall effectiveness of the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors is examined and evaluated in terms of current outcomes and how to improve upon these outcomes. The screening results and any subsequent confirmatory results from a total of 1659 samples from NHSBT deceased donors referred to NTMRL for screening for infectious agents were included in the analysis. Overall 1566/1659 (94.4%) of the samples were screen negative. A total of 93 were repeat reactive on screening for one or more of the mandatory markers screened for, of which only 12 (13%) were subsequently confirmed to be positive on confirmatory testing. The majority of the repeat reactive samples were demonstrating non-specific reactivity with the screening assays in use. Overall, the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors is very effective with a relatively low overall loss of donors because of non-specific reactivity. However, unnecessary loss of tissue products is not acceptable, and although this programme compares favourably with the outcomes of other such programmes, the confirmatory results obtained demonstrate both the need and the potential for improving the outcomes. This is particularly important as one donor may donate more than one product, and can be achieved very easily with a change to the screening algorithm followed, using the confirmatory data obtained to support and validate this change. CONTENTS SUMMARY: Critical analysis of the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors and a strategy involving the design and use of a different screening algorithm to improve these outcomes.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... Procedures § 17.9 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 17.8, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 1014.7 Section 1014.7... § 1014.7 Referral to Department of Justice. (a) When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 1014.6, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 235.6 Section 235.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.6 Referral to immigration judge. (a) Notice—(1) Referral by Form I...
Many referral mechanisms can be found in the context of entrepreneurship. Networks and third party referrals play a prominent role in spotting entrepreneurial opportunities and in acquiring the resources necessary for growth. In this dissertation, the focus is on the role of referrals in acquiring
The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community .... The three phases of delays model in accessing .... as dangerous at home and immediate care is required, the ... referral or is unable to pay the costs of referral, the ...
Tara E Power
Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.
Forsdike, Kirsty; Humphreys, Cathy; Diemer, Kristin; Ross, Stuart; Gyorki, Linda; Maher, Helena; Vye, Penelope; Llewelyn, Fleur; Hegarty, Kelsey
An innovative health-justice partnership was established to deliver legal assistance to women experiencing family violence who attended an Australian hospital. This paper reports on a multifaceted response to build capacity and willingness of health professionals to identify signs of family violence and engage with referral pathways to on-site legal assistance. A Realistic Evaluation analysed health professionals' knowledge and attitudes towards identification, response and referral for family violence before and after training; and use of referral pathways. Of 123 health professionals participating in training, 67 completed baseline and follow-up surveys. Training improved health professionals' self-reported knowledge of, and confidence in, responding to family violence and understanding of lawyers' roles in hospitals. Belief that patients should be referred to on-site legal services increased. Training did not correspond to actual increased referrals to legal assistance. The program built capacity and willingness of health professionals to identify signs of, and respond to, family violence. Increase in referral rates to legal assistance was not shown. Potential improvements include better data capture and greater availability of legal services. Implications for public health: Strong hospital system supports and reliable recording of family violence referrals need to be in place before introducing such partnerships to other hospitals. © 2017 The Authors.
Rhonda C. Boyd
Full Text Available Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1 screening and referral, (2 facilitators to referral, (3 barriers to referral, (4 culture and language, (5 life events, and (6 support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services.
Müller-Steinhardt, M; Müller-Kuller, T; Weiss, C; Menzel, D; Wiesneth, M; Seifried, E; Klüter, H
Within the coming decades, a steadily growing demand for blood products will face a shrinking blood donor population in many countries. After increasing the donor age of repeat donors for whole blood donation (WB) from 68 to 70 years in 2009 in our Blood Service, we investigated whether this is sufficient as a safe and effective strategy to sustain future blood supply. Between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2011, WB donations from donors aged between 69 and 70 and their proportion of total donations in 2010 were determined. We analysed adverse reaction rates in donors with respect to sex and age and calculated mean annual donation frequencies. Of all invited donors, 32·5% responded and contributed 0·98% (men) and 0·56% (women) to all WB units collected in 2010. The overall and systemic adverse reaction rate per 1·000 WB donations declined by age [men: 1·10 (95%CI: 0·84-1·35) vs. 0 (0-0·8), P donation frequencies were strongly correlated with increasing age (men: r = 0·953, P donate blood. Thus, we consider donations from repeat donors aged 69-70 safe and suggest it a powerful short- to midterm strategy to, at least partially, overcome the challenges of the demographic change. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Adriana de Fátima Lourençon
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.
Employee-referral schemes (‘introduce a friend’) are in common usage in recruitment. They carry a potential to discriminate by perpetuating an already unbalanced workforce (say, by gender and ethnicity). With this, or course, comes the risk of litigation and bad publicity as well as any inherent inefficiencies associated with discrimination. This article is threefold. First, it examines the present state of the law. Second, it is based on a survey of employers who use these schemes. Third, it...
Mustafa, Rozina; Hashmi, Haleema; Mustafa, Rubina
In Pakistan 90% of births are conducted by TBA's. In most cases, TBA's are unable to diagnose the complications and are often unable to take decisions on timely referral. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, nature and outcome of life threatening obstetrical conditions in referrals by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). This Observational, Descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2007, in the obstetrical unit of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, a tertiary care community based hospital. The study included patients referred by TBA's who developed life threatening obstetric conditions (LTOCs). Total 64 patients were referred by TBA's. The prevalence was 7.8%. Out of them, 53 (82.8%) patients admitted with life threatening obstetric conditions. The near-miss morbidities and mortalities were 45 (84.9%) and 8 (15%) respectively. Maternal mortality to Near-miss morbidity ratio was 1:6. Obstructed labour caused near-miss morbidity in 32 (60.3%) patients with no mortality. Postpartum haemorrhage as life threatening condition developed in 16 (30.1%) patients with 10 (18.8%) near-miss morbidities and 6 (11.3%) mortalities. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 1 (1.88%) near-miss morbidity and 2 (3.76%) mortalities. The mortality index for puerperal sepsis is (66.6%) almost double of postpartum haemorrhage (37.5%). Mortality to near miss morbidity ratio is high. Misidentification and late referrals of complicated cases by TBA's were responsible for near-miss morbidities and mortalities.
Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking
Walker, Mary Margaret
A discussion of donor records in college and university fund-raising programs looks at a variety of issues, including who sees them (administrators, donors, volunteers, and members of the legal profession), how access to them is controlled, and what is kept in them. Suggestions are offered for managing such records, and the experiences of a number…
Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary
Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. © The Author(s) 2013.
Shannon, Patricia J.; Vinson, Gregory A.; Cook, Tonya; Lennon, Evelyn
In this community based participatory research study, we explored key characteristics of mental health referrals of refugees using stories of providers collected through an on-line survey. Ten coders sorted 60 stories of successful referrals and 34 stories of unsuccessful referrals into domains using the critical incident technique. Principal Components Analysis yielded categories of successful referrals that included: active care coordination, proactive resolution of barriers, establishment of trust, and culturally responsive care. Unsuccessful referrals were characterized by cultural barriers, lack of care coordination, language barriers, system barriers, providers being unwilling to see refugees. Recommendations for training and policy are discussed. PMID:25735618
Rahman, M.U.; Akhtar, G.N.; Lodhi, Y.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)
Conclusions: Gaps in linking HIV patients to the HIV care continuum have been identified as a potentially problematic issue in delivery of HIV prevention services by GF funded NGOs. With an anticipated GF exit from Ukraine, the lack of clearly defined NGO-to-state referrals of HIV patients complicates the transition of NGO run services into state funding. Further steps to improve referral systems are necessary to ensure a smooth transition and enable Ukraine to fight its HIV epidemic effectively.
The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described
V. N. Poptsov
Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.
Khan, A A; Mustafa, M Z; Sanders, R
With the number of people with sight loss predicted to double to four million people in the UK by the year 2050, preventable visual loss is a significant public health issue. Sight loss is associated with an increased risk of falls, accidents and depression and evidence suggests that 50% of sight loss can be avoided. Timely diagnosis is central to the prevention of sight loss. Access to care can be a limiting factor in preventable cases. By improving referrals and access to hospital eye services it is possible to treat and minimise the number of patients with preventable sight loss and the impact this has on wider society. In 2005, NHS Fife took part in a flagship pilot funded by the Scottish government e-health department to evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost of electronic referral with images of patients directly from community optometrists to Hospital Eye Service (HES). The pilot study showed that electronic referral was feasible, fast, safe, and obviated the need for outpatient appointments in 128 (37%) patients with a high patient satisfaction. The results of the pilot study were presented and in May 2007, the electronic referral system was rolled out regionally in southeast Scotland. Referrals were accepted at a single site with vetting by a trained team and appointments were allocated within 48 hours. Following the implementation of electronic referral, waiting times were reduced from a median of 14 to 4 weeks. Significantly fewer new patients were seen (7462 vs 8714 [p electronic communication between community optometry practices and hospital eye departments. Five electronic forms were specifically designed for cataract, glaucoma, macula, paediatric and general ophthalmic disease. A Virtual Private Network was created which enabled optometrists to connect to the Scottish clinical information gateway system and send referrals to hospital and receive referral status feedback. Numerous hurdles have been encountered and overcome
Kelly, S B
BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend a timeline of 6 weeks from referral to neurology consultation and then 6 weeks to a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: We audited the clinical management of all new outpatient referrals diagnosed with MS between January 2007 and May 2010. METHODS: We analysed the timelines from referral to first clinic visit, to MRI studies and lumbar puncture (LP) (if performed) and the overall interval from first visit to the time the diagnosis was given to the patient. RESULTS: Of the 119 diagnoses of MS\\/Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), 93 (78%) were seen within 6 weeks of referral. MRI was performed before first visit in 61% and within 6 weeks in a further 27%. A lumbar puncture (LP) was performed in 83% of all patients and was done within 6 weeks in 78%. In total, 63 (53%) patients received their final diagnosis within 6 weeks of their first clinic visit, with 57 (48%) patients having their diagnosis delayed. The main rate-limiting steps were the availability of imaging and LP, and administrative issues. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, even with careful scheduling, it is difficult for a specialist service to obtain MRI scans and LP results so as to fulfil NICE guidelines within the optimal six-week period. An improved service would require MRI scans to be arranged before the first clinic visit in all patients with suspected MS.
Mancopes, Renata; Gonçalves, Bruna Franciele da Trindade; Costa, Cintia Conceição; Favero, Talita Cristina; Drozdz, Daniela Rejane Constantino; Bilheri, Diego Fernando Dorneles; Schumacher, Stéfani Fernanda
To correlate the reason for referral to speech therapy service at a university hospital with the results of clinical and objective assessment of risk for dysphagia. This is a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective analytical and quantitative study. The data were gathered from the database, and the information used was the reason for referral to speech therapy service, results of clinical assessment of the risk for dysphagia, and also from swallowing videofluoroscopy. There was a mean difference between the variables of the reason for the referral, results of the clinical and objective swallowing assessments, and scale of penetration/aspiration, although the values were not statistically significant. Statistically significant correlation was observed between clinical and objective assessments and the penetration scale, with the largest occurring between the results of objective assessment and penetration scale. There was a correlation between clinical and objective assessments of swallowing and mean difference between the variables of the reason for the referral with their respective assessment. This shows the importance of the association between the data of patient's history and results of clinical evaluation and complementary tests, such as videofluoroscopy, for correct identification of the swallowing disorders, being important to combine the use of severity scales of penetration/aspiration for diagnosis.
Biggerstaff, Mary Ellen; Short, Nancy
Transition to a value-based care system involves reducing costs improving population health and enhancing the patient experience. Many rural hospitals must rely on specialist referrals because of a lack of an internal system of specialists on staff. This evaluation of the existing specialist referrals from primary care was conducted to better understand and improve the referral process and address costs, population health, and the patient experience. A 6-month retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate quality and outcomes of specialty referrals submitted by 10 primary care providers. During a 6-month period in 2015, there was a total of 13,601 primary care patient visits and 3814 referrals, a referral rate of approximately 27%. The most striking result of this review was that nearly 50% of referred patients were not making the prescribed specialist appointment. Rather than finding a large number of unnecessary referrals, we found overall referral rates higher than expected, and a large percentage of our patients were not completing their referrals. The data and patterns emerging from this investigation would guide the development of referral protocols for a newly formed accountable care organization and lead to further quality improvement projects: a LEAN effort, dissemination of results to clinical and executive staff, protocols for orthopedic and neurosurgical referrals, and recommendations for future process improvements. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda’s under-five mortality is high, currently estimated at 66/1000 live births. Poor referral of sick children that seek care from the private sector is one of the contributory factors. The proposed intervention aims to improve referral and uptake of referral advice for children that seek care from private facilities (registered drug shops/private clinics. Methods/Design A cluster randomized design will be applied to test the intervention in Mukono District, central Uganda. A sample of study clusters will implement the intervention. The intervention will consist of three components: i raising awareness in the community: village health teams will discuss the importance of referral and encourage households to save money, ii training and supervision of providers in the private sector to diagnose, treat and refer sick children, iii regular meetings between the public and private providers (convened by the district health team to discuss the referral system. Twenty clusters will be included in the study, randomized in the ratio of 1:1. A minimum of 319 sick children per cluster and the total number of sick children to be recruited from all clusters will be 8910; adjusting for a 10 % loss to follow up and possible withdrawal of private outlets. Discussion The immediate sustainable impact will be appropriate treatment of sick children. The intervention is likely to impact on private sector practices since the scope of the services they provide will have expanded. The proposed study is also likely to have an impact on families as; i they may appreciate the importance of timely referral on child illness management, ii the cost savings related to reduced morbidity will be used by household to access other social services. The linkage between the private and public sectors will create a potential avenue for delivery of other public health interventions and improved working relations in the two sectors. Further, improved quality of
Fleming, Matthew; King, Caroline; Rajeev, Sindhya; Baruwal, Ashma; Schwarz, Dan; Schwarz, Ryan; Khadka, Nirajan; Pande, Sami; Khanal, Sumesh; Acharya, Bibhav; Benton, Adia; Rogers, Selwyn O; Panizales, Maria; Gyorki, David; McGee, Heather; Shaye, David; Maru, Duncan
Patients in isolated rural communities typically lack access to surgical care. It is not feasible for most rural first-level hospitals to provide a full suite of surgical specialty services. Comprehensive surgical care thus depends on referral systems. There is minimal literature, however, on the functioning of such systems. We undertook a prospective case study of the referral and care coordination process for cardiac, orthopedic, plastic, gynecologic, and general surgical conditions at a district hospital in rural Nepal from 2012 to 2014. We assessed the referral process using the World Health Organization's Health Systems Framework. We followed the initial 292 patients referred for surgical services in the program. 152 patients (52%) received surgery and four (1%) suffered a complication (three deaths and one patient reported complication). The three most common types of surgery performed were: orthopedics (43%), general (32%), and plastics (10%). The average direct and indirect cost per patient referred, including food, transportation, lodging, medications, diagnostic examinations, treatments, and human resources was US$840, which was over 1.5 times the local district's per capita income. We identified and mapped challenges according to the World Health Organization's Health Systems Framework. Given the requirement of intensive human capital, poor quality control of surgical services, and the overall costs of the program, hospital leadership decided to terminate the referral coordination program and continue to build local surgical capacity. The results of our case study provide some context into the challenges of rural surgical referral systems. The high relative costs to the system and challenges in accountability rendered the program untenable for the implementing organization.
Agnihotri, Naveen; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti R.
Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs) in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The s...
Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Phillips, David R
The referral system in health care has been noted as very influential in determining which services are accessed and when. Nonetheless, existing studies have relied on specific measurable factors relating to health personnel, transportation and communication infrastructure, and finance to explain the challenges facing the referral policy in developing countries. While this is understandable, the role of social capital remains mostly uncharted even though it is implicit in the well-known lay referral system. Using various facets of the social capital concept, this paper empirically examines how the resources embedded in both structural and cognitive aspects of social relationships influence knowledge of, and adherence to, referral policy. This study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 79 adults in the Ashanti Region of Ghana in 2015. Of the 79 participants, 28 lived in urban areas and 51 in rural localities. Eight health personnel and eight community leaders also contributed to the study. Additionally, six focus group discussions were held. The findings indicated that both cognitive and structural forms of social capital considerably underpinned the ability and willingness of people to adhere to the referral process. Moreover, the role of social capital was double-barrelled. It contributed in a significant way to encouraging or dissuading potential patients from rightly embracing the policy. In addition, precepts of social capital reinforced both positive and adverse effects of the other determinants of the policy such as finance and transportation. However, the magnitude of such impact was linked to how 'resourceful' and 'trustworthy' one's available social acquaintances were. The paper suggests that a cautious engagement with social capital will make it a potentially powerful tool for understanding the gaps in and improving the effectiveness of referral policy.
Tachi, K; Nkrumah, K N
Increasing endoscopy workload in open-access services necessitates adoption of appropriateness criteria to check abuse and improve yield. To assess the appropriateness of referrals for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and its relationship to yield at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra. Referrals, signs, and symptoms of 375 consecutive patients for diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were evaluated over four months. Indications were categorized as appropriate or inappropriate using the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines and endoscopic findings (yield) categorized as positive or negative. The relationship between these was analyzed and the diagnostic accuracy of the guidelines determined. There were 209 (55.7%) females, and 316 (84.3%) open-access procedures. Mean age was 46±17 years. Dyspepsia, 272 (72.5%) and epigastric tenderness, 192 (41.4 %) were the commonest symptom and sign respectively. Only 133 (35.5%) reported alarm symptoms. Appropriate referrals constituted 221(58.9%). Inappropriate referral rate was similar for endoscopists and non-endoscopists. Positive yield was 62.7%. Male sex, age > 45 years, haematemesis, persistent vomiting, gastroenterologists' referrals and epigastric tenderness were the best predictors of positive yield. Gastritis, 121 (32.3%), duodenal ulcer, 48 (12.5%) and oesophagitis, 36 (9.6%) were the leading endoscopy diagnoses. Carcinomas were reported only after 45 years and 18 (81.8%) of the cases had alarm symptoms. Inappropriate referral for OGD rate is high in Accra. Yield is improved by adherence to the ASGE guidelines but its accuracy as a screening tool for OGD at Korle- Bu Teaching Hospital is too low to recommend it for adoption.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie
The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Odelola, Catherine; Jabbar, Farid
The quality of information provided by referring general practitioners to secondary care mental health services are crucial elements in the effective management of patients. In order to establish effective communication, both primary and secondary care health professionals should contribute to planning and organising this process taking into account their different opinions and views. Anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect information on items that GPs and psychiatrist rated as most important items in GP referral letters to psychiatrists. The questionnaires were sent out electronically. Each item was scored using a rating scale where 0 was least important and 10 was most important. Items that scored 8 and above were agreed by all as the most important items. 76 GP letters were audited using a devised checklist of the identified most important items. Data was collected and analysed using a devised data collection tool. A re-audit was done 6months later. A response rate of 70% was obtained for both psychiatrists and GPs. Reasons for referral were described in almost all GP referral letters (95%). Only 24% referral letters had details about current physical health which improved to 59%. Concerns about risk were described in only 47% of letters and treatment provided by GP in 50% of letters. These improved in 79% and 71% of letters respectively in the re-audit. The involvement of professionals in devising a standardised approach for referral letters has improved communication in this re-audit between GPs and Psychiatrists. This is evident in the improvement in key aspects of the referral letters: past medical history, past psychiatric history, current physical health, treatment provided by GP. Efficient communication between GPs and psychiatrists improves the quality of health care for patients.
Rowlands, G; Willis, S; Singleton, A
GP referrals to secondary care are an important factor in the cost of running the NHS. The known variation in referral rates between doctors has the potential to cause tension within primary care which will be exacerbated by the latest reorganization of primary care and the trend towards capitation-based budgets. The importance of postgraduate learning for GPs has been recognized; continuing professional development is moving towards self-directed practice-based learning programmes. Educational interventions have been shown to alter doctors' prescribing behaviour. This, together with the pressure on accounting for referral activity, makes the prospect of improving, and possibly reducing, referral activity through educational interventions very attractive. This study complemented a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which investigated whether an intervention of the type which had reduced prescribing costs would have a similar effect on referral activity. The context of the study, description of the characteristics of the practice and the issues seen as important by the doctors and practice manager were identified through preliminary semi-structured interviews. The practice then held a series of educational in-practice meetings to discuss referrals and issues arising from referrals. The audio- and videotaped transcripts were interpreted using content and group dynamic analysis. Participants commented upon our preliminary findings. In addition, we used dimensional analysis to induce a preliminary theory describing the effect of the intervention on this general practice which enabled us to review the findings of the parallel RCT. The educational value of the meetings and the learning needs of the participants were also assessed. Our complementary study showed no alteration of practice referral rates following the educational intervention. The qualitative study, unencumbered by the assumptions inherent in the development of the hypothesis tested in the RCT, highlighted
Background: Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits have become an integral part of Blood Transfusion Services in the developed countries and has contributed greatly to its development. Hemovigilance begins with donors and must enable the collection of information on reactions occurring during the donation of blood, selections of donors and to prevent such incidents. The aim of study was to help identify the trends of adverse events , occurring in blood donors at a tertiary-care hospita...
Xia, Victor W; Braunfeld, Michelle
The shortage of suitable organs is the biggest obstacle for transplants. At present, most organs for transplant in the United States are from donation after neurologic determination of death (brain death). Potential organs for transplant need to maintain their viability during a series of insults, including the original disease, physiologic derangements during the dying process, ischemia, and reperfusion. Proper donor management before, during, and after procurement has potential to increase the number and quality of organs from donors. Anesthesiologists need to understand the physiologic derangements associated with brain death and the updated donor management during the periprocurement period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pokotilo, Yu.M.; Petukh, A.N.; Litvinov, V.V.
The electrophysical properties of the n-type conductivity germanium, irradiated through protons, is studied by the volt-farad method. It is shown that the heat treatment of the implanted germanium at the temperature of 200-300 deg C leads to formation of the fast-diffusing second-rate donors. It is established that the diffusion coefficient of the identified donors coincides with the diffusion coefficient of the atomic hydrogen with an account of the capture on the traps. The conclusion is made, that the atomic hydrogen is the second-rate donor center in germanium [ru
Pruett, Timothy L; Clark, Marissa A; Taranto, Sarah E
In 2013, the public health service (PHS) changed the criteria intended to identify organ donors that put the associated organ recipients at increased risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The changing donor demographics, organ utilization, and outcomes associated with this change are not known. A review of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database was performed to assess the impact of PHS donor designation on organ utilization and outcomes. After the 2013 modification, over 20% of all deceased organ donors in the United States were identified as PHS increased risk. Compared with the standard risk deceased organ donor, the PHS donor was younger, male, died from anoxia, more likely to be HCV and antibody reacting to hepatitis B core antigen+, and less likely to have diabetes or hypertension. Organs from the 18- to 34-year-old deceased donors with PHS risks (but relatively few medical comorbidities) and tested negative for HCV were less frequently transplanted compared with the standard risk donors (3.9 vs 4.2 organs transplanted per donor). However, the transplant patient and graft survival as well as risk of unexpected transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV were equivalent, irrespective of PHS donor status. The rationale of using PHS donor designation that negatively impacts utilization of high-quality organs without the benefit of identifying the subset of organs with demonstrable proclivity to transmit HIV, HBV, or HCV needs to be reexamined.
O'Brien, S F; Ram, S S; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M
Predonation screening questions about sexual risk factors should provide an extra layer of safety from recently acquired infections that may be too early to be detected by testing. Donors are required to read a definition of sex as it applies to predonation screening questions each time they come to donate, but how well donors apply such definitions has not been evaluated. We aimed to determine how donors define sex when answering screening questions. In total, 1297 whole blood donors were asked in a private interview to select from a list of sexual activities which ones they believed were being asked about in sexual background questions. Donors' definitions were coded as under-inclusive, correct or over-inclusive in relation to the blood services' definition. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 21 donors to understand reasoning behind definitions. Most donors had an over-inclusive definition (58.7%) or the correct definition (31.9%). Of the 9.4% of donors who had an under-inclusive definition, 95% included both vaginal and anal sex, but not oral sex. About 9% in each group were first-time donors (P > 0.05) who had never read the definition. The qualitative interviews indicated that donors reason their definition based on their own concept of transmissible disease risk. Donors apply a range of definitions of sex when answering questions about their sexual background. This may be due to different concepts of risk activities, and required reading of the definition has little impact.
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy
artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and recognize symptoms in children that required immediate referral to the nearest health centre. Intervention arm CHWs had additional training on how to conduct an RDT; CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria using clinical signs......Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...
Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification
Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor
The definition of 'over-servicing' in the Guidelines can assist in defining a meaning for ... As South Africa (SA) has no ethical guidelines for practitioners defining ... principle applies to referrals to another healthcare practitioner for a service or a procedure ... 'Underservicing' generally means failing to provide a patient with.
Hogben, M; St Lawrence, J S; Montaño, D E; Kasprzyk, D; Leichliter, J S; Phillips, W R
The United States has relied upon partner notification strategies to help break the chain of infection and re-infection for sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Physicians are a vital link in the system of STD control, but little is known of physician opinions about partner notification strategies. We collected opinions about partner notification from a national probability sample of physicians in specialties diagnosing STDs. Physicians responded to 17 questions about three relevant forms of STD partner notification: patient based referral, provider based referral, and case reporting. Exploratory factor analyses showed that responses for each form of partner notification could be grouped into four categories: perceived practice norms, infection control, patient relationships, and time/money. Multivariate analyses of the factors showed that physicians endorsed patient based referral most favourably and provider based referral least favourably. Physicians' opinions about partner notification strategies appear to reflect objective reality in some areas, but not in others. Strategies that improve the fit between physicians' opinions and effective notification are needed: some are discussed here.
Siddins, Mark; Hart, Gabrielle; He, Bulang; Kanchanabat, Burapa; Mohan Rao, M
Despite the increasing adoption of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, no study has examined donor perceptions following this procedure. In particular, it has been tacitly assumed that a less invasive procedure might in itself provide a more satisfactory donor experience. The present study reviews the experience of donors undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomy, and examines the extent to which contemporary management practice addresses issues relevant to consumerism. Forty-two donors participated in a structured telephone interview, and 33 (79%) returned a written questionnaire. Coming through the survey was a strong sense of commitment to donation, and most respondents were satisfied with the experience. The main criticisms related to hotel services, the duration of the preoperative investigations, the perceived quality of nursing care on the general wards, medical communication and the duration of postoperative follow up. The self-reported time to meet recovery goals was extremely broad. Considering the nature of criticisms offered by the respondents, it is concluded that the expectations of donors as health-care consumers will only be met through modification of existing protocols.
Naroditskiy, Victor; Rahwan, Iyad; Cebrian, Manuel; Jennings, Nicholas R.
Online social networks offer unprecedented potential for rallying a large number of people to accomplish a given task. Here we focus on information gathering tasks where rare information is sought through “referral-based crowdsourcing”: the information request is propagated recursively through invitations among members of a social network. Whereas previous work analyzed incentives for the referral process in a setting with only correct reports, misreporting is known to be both pervasive in crowdsourcing applications, and difficult/costly to filter out. A motivating example for our work is the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge where the level of misreporting was very high. In order to undertake a formal study of verification, we introduce a model where agents can exert costly effort to perform verification and false reports can be penalized. This is the first model of verification and it provides many directions for future research, which we point out. Our main theoretical result is the compensation scheme that minimizes the cost of retrieving the correct answer. Notably, this optimal compensation scheme coincides with the winning strategy of the Red Balloon Challenge. PMID:23071530
Full Text Available Because of insufficient communication between primary health care providers and specialists, which leads to inefficiencies and ineffectiveness in rural population health outcomes, to implement a well-functioning referral system is one of the most important tasks for some countries. Using purposive and snowballing sampling methods, we included health experts, policy-makers, family physicians, clinical specialists, and experts from health insurance organizations in this study according to pre-determined criteria. We recorded all interviews, transcribed and analyzed their content using qualitative methods. We extracted 1,522 individual codes initially. We also collected supplementary data through document review. From reviews and summarizations, four main themes, ten subthemes, and 24 issues emerged from the data. The solutions developed were: care system reform, education system reform, payment system reform, and improves in culture-building and public education. Given the executive experience, the full familiarity, the occupational and geographical diversity of participants, the solutions proposed in this study could positively affect the implementation and improvement of the referral system in Iran. The suggested solutions are complementary to each other and have less interchangeability.
Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to compare the patterns of psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals in Bombay viz. the King Edward Memorial Hospital (64 cases and the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre (62 cases. It was observed that depressive symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms in these patients attending either of the hospitals. Similarly, the commonest diagnoses were depression and organic mental disorder. Attempted suicide with organophosphorous compounds was the commonest reason for hospitalization at K.E.M. Hospital (p less than 0.001. A significant number of these patients were females (p less than 0.05. The psychiatric referrals at Jaslok had been hospitalized mainly for suspected medical or neurological illness (p less than 0.001. These patients belonged to higher economic strata and hence had a better paying capacity compared to patients at KEM hospital, a significant number of whom were unemployed (p less than 0.001. The duration of pre-referred illness of patients and their stay at Jaslok hospital were longer as compared to those at KEM Hospital (p less than 0.01. The number of non-relevant special investigations carried out on patients in Jaslok was more (p less than 0.01. Further analysis of diagnoses revealed that a significant number of patients at KEM Hospital were admitted as primary psychiatric illness (p less than 0.05.
Full Text Available The current state of evidence in non-pharmacological treatments amounts to an impending paradigm shift in neurology where physicians should be alerted that some rehabilitation interventions are already supported in current therapeutic guidelines. This manuscript aims to overview the best scientific data supporting referral to rehabilitation services in order to help physicians make the best use of the existing evidence for non-pharmacological treatments in the different stages of Parkinson´s disease.
Soedarmono, Yuyun S M
In most developing countries in South East Asia blood services have not been treated properly as an important service to support health program. Indonesia as a large archipelago country in South East Asia has specific obstacles in managing a blood service. To position the country blood service profile especially in term of donor issues, we compared our blood service with that in other South East Asia countries. Indonesia has 17 thousand islands with 220 million inhabitants. Blood services have been mostly run by the Indonesian Red Cross as a government assignment since 1950. Donor recruitment programs have been directed toward 100% of Voluntary Non Remunerated Blood Donor (VNRD), which now have reached 81.3%. Dissemination of information on VNRD, donor recruiter's training and VNRD appreciation programs are strategies to increase and maintain the VNRD. Limited female donors and insufficient blood supply during the fasting month and holidays constitute major challenges. Low hemoglobin level, low body weight and fear are reasons for low number of female donors. Poor management of blood stock during fasting month, long holidays and also poor networking of blood supply are reasons for insufficient blood supply during the year. Considering the great size of Indonesia with different ethnic groups and cultures, worsened by lack of infrastructure, decisive and effective strategies in donor recruitment and retention programs are needed. Copyright 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weber, Rebecca J; Gadow, Kenneth D
The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70. Somatic conditions evidenced variable associations with medical services utilization, educational interventions, family income, and maternal education. Youth with ASD with versus without epilepsy had more severe ASD social deficits (parents' ratings) and less severe ASD repetitive behaviors (teachers' ratings). Epilepsy was associated with more severe depression, mania, and schizophrenia symptoms in youth with ASD. Youth with allergy (psychiatry referrals only) had more severe anxiety and depression symptoms (parents' ratings) but less severe aggression (teachers' ratings) thus providing evidence of both context- and diagnostic-specificity. Youth with ASD versus non-ASD psychiatry referrals evidence a variable pattern of relations between somatic conditions and a range of clinical correlates, which suggests that the biologic substrates and psychosocial concomitants of neurodevelopmental disorders and their co-occurring somatic conditions may interact to produce unique clinical phenotypes.
Aims. To establish the true incidence of HCV infection in volunteer blood donors in the Western Gape, and compare risk factors and clinical and biochemical features of viraemic and non-viraemic subjects. Methods. All donors attending the Western Province. Blood Transfusion Service between December 1992 and.
Jarczyk, Kimberly S; Pieper, Pam; Brodie, Lori; Ezzell, Kelly; D'Alessandro, Tina
Evidence suggests that urinary and fecal incontinence and abnormal voiding and defecation dynamics are different manifestations of the same syndrome. This article reports the success of an innovative program for care of children with incontinence and dysfunctional elimination. This program is innovative because it is the first to combine subspecialty services (urology, gastroenterology, and psychiatry) in a single point of care for this population and the first reported independent nurse practitioner-run specialty referral practice in a free-standing pediatric ambulatory subspecialty setting. Currently, services for affected children are siloed in the aforementioned subspecialties, fragmenting care. Retrospective data on financial, patient satisfaction, and patient referral base were compiled to assess this program. Analysis indicates that this model is fiscally sound, has similar or higher patient satisfaction scores when measured against physician-run subspecialty clinics, and has an extensive geographic referral base in the absence of marketing. This model has potential transformative significance: (a) the impact of children achieving continence cannot be underestimated, (b) configuration of services that cross traditional subspecialty boundaries may have broader application to other populations, and (c) demonstration of effectiveness of non-physician provider reconfiguration of health care delivery in subspecialty practice may extend to the care of other populations. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association. Methods: We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences. Results: Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3% experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80% developed vasovagal reaction (VVR, 133 (25% had nausea, 63 (12% fainted, 35 (6% developed hyperventilation, 9 (2% had delayed syncope, and 9 (2% developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005. Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.
Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza
Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association. . We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences. . Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.
Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.
This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…
Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J; Caskey, Fergus
As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor...
Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the response rate of transfusion-transmissible infection (TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results for the year 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is an observational descriptive study performed in our department over a period of 1 year. We evaluated the response rate of TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results over 1 year as per the existing strategy (three telephonic and two postal communications. Results: During the study period, among the annual donation of 15,322 units, 464 blood donors were found to be seroreactive. Of these 464 seroreactive cases, 47 were HIV positive, 284 were reactive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, 49 were Hepatitis C (HCV positive and 84 were VDRL reactive. The TTI-reactive donors (464 for various markers were contacted: 229 (49.4% telephonically and the remaining 235 (50.6% not contacted on phone were informed by post. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2% as only 225 donors reported (221 on the first, three on second and one on the third call for one to one counseling. The remaining four non-responders were - one HIV and three HBsAg reactive. The remaining 235 (50.6% reactive donors did not respond to any communication. Conclusion: Donor notification and post-donation counseling are an essential aspect of the blood bank that entails provision of information on serological status, assess the impact of test results on the donor and finally referral for medical care. As in our data only 49.4% of the blood donors could be contacted successfully, incomplete demographic details was the major limiting factor in communicating with rest. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2%. A large majority (94.75% of the notified donors in our study contacted their health care provider when given clear instructions to do so. These results are encouraging because they indicate that a major element of the
Chen, C L; Chen, Y S; Liu, P P; Chiang, Y C; Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Eng, H L
Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) has been developed in response to the paediatric organ donor shortage. According to the International Living Donor Registry, 521 transplants had been performed in 515 patients between December 8 1988 and January 19 1996 in 30 centres worldwide. The overall actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 82.7 and 80%, respectively. Between June 17 1994 and November 30 1996, the authors performed 11 LRLT at the Chung Gung Memorial Hospital. The living donors consisted of 10 mothers and one father. The mean graft weight was 303 g and the mean graft recipient weight ratio was 2.2%. Donor hepatectomy was performed without vascular inflow occlusion. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 30 mL to 120 mL with an average of 61 mL, and blood transfusion was not required in all donors both intra-operatively and during the postoperative period. Underlying diseases of the recipients were biliary atresia (n = 10) and glycogen storage disease (n = 1). The mean graft cold ischaemia time was 106 min, the mean second warm ischaemia time was 51 min and the mean interval between portal and arterial reperfusion was 81 min. The initial LRLT results were promising with all donors having been discharged without complication. The recipients experienced a few complications, all of which were manageable with early intervention. All 11 recipients are alive and well. These are encouraging results and the authors hope to expand the use of live donors for liver transplantation to cope with demand.
In Germany more than 12,000 patients are presently waiting for an organ donation. Living donation makes sense for the long waiting time for a kidney, but it is not a permanent solution for the lack of organ donations. In the future topics which should be discussed are intensified public relations, a better family care and the allocation of rights and duties at the German coordinating agency. For all the prospects of success after a living donation the high standards of quality and security, which are targeted by the German donor organization in recipient protection, responsible evaluation of the expanded donor criteria and immunosuppressive therapy are all in favor of post-mortem organ donation. For all the phenomenal chance of success the priority of the post-mortem organ donation is regulated by law. The living donation remains an individual decision of the donor and the personal situation of life.
Corruption is bad for donor business. Corruption reduces popular support for aid in donor countries. However, aid agencies should pay attention to corruption because it is the right thing to do, rather than just the smart thing to do. Donor anti-corruption policies require a strong grounding in ethics. Corruption produces bad development outcomes. This is the reasoning largely underlying donor anti-corruption efforts. The focus on consequences of corruption makes donor anticorruptioneffo...
Tukaram E Jamale
Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.
... agency for services, although an EN and a State VR agency may want to enter into an individualized agreement to meet the needs of a single beneficiary. ...' Participation Agreements Between Employment Networks and State Vr Agencies § 411.410 Does each referral from an...
Full Text Available Background. While tobacco use by a renal transplant recipient has been shown to negatively affect graft and patient survival, the effect of smoking on the part of the kidney donor remains unknown. Methods. 29 smoking donors (SD and their recipients (SD-R as well as 71 non-smoking donors (ND and their recipients (ND-R were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative demographics and perioperative variables including serum creatinine (Cr and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were calculated and stratified by amount of tobacco exposure in pack-years. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with a Student's t-test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression analysis (=0.05. Results. At most recent followup, SD-R's had a significantly smaller percent decrease in postoperative Cr than ND-R's (−57% versus −81%; =0.015 and lower calculated GFR's (37.0 versus 53.0 mL/min per 1.73 m2; <0.001. SD's had a larger percent increase in Cr than ND's at most recent followup (57% versus 40%; <0.001, with active smokers having a larger increase than those who quit, although this difference was not statistically significant (68% versus 52%; =0.055. Conclusions. Use of tobacco by kidney donors is associated with decreased posttransplant renal function, although smoking cessation can improve outcomes. Kidneys from donors who smoke should be used with caution.
Narasimhan, Gomathy; Safwan, Mohamed; Kota, Venugopal; Reddy, Mettu S; Bharathan, Anand; Dabora, Abderrhaim; Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Kanagavelu, Rathnavel G; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Rela, Mohamed
Live donor liver transplantation is the predominant form of liver transplantation in India and in most Asian countries. Donor outcome reports are an important source of information to be shared with prospective donors at the time of informed consent. This is the first donor outcome series from India. Analysis of donor characteristics and morbidity of 275 live donors from a single large volume center is documented. Two hundred seventy-five patients donated from November 2009 to October 2014, 144 were women and 131 were men, 180 donated to adults and 95 donated to children. Right lobe donors were majority at 62.2% followed by left lateral segment 28%. Two thirds of the live donors did not have any morbidity; 114 complications were encountered in 85 patients. The complications were graded as per Clavien 5 tier grading and major morbidity (grade III b, grade IV grade V) was 4.36%. Postoperative biliary complication was seen in 3 donors. This large single-center study is the first donor outcome report from India, and the results are comparable to other published donor series. Documentation and regular audit of donor outcomes is important to help improve the safety of donor hepatectomy and to provide a database for informed consent of prospective donors.
With the help of an Upjohn Travelling Fellowship, I visited 15 units providing services for people under stress. There were nine residential units and six non-residential units, all were Christian charitable organisations and in all there was close co-operation with the medical profession. All these organisations accept referrals from general practitioners and deserve to be more widely known. PMID:1255548
With the help of an Upjohn Travelling Fellowship, I visited 15 units providing services for people under stress. There were nine residential units and six non-residential units, all were Christian charitable organisations and in all there was close co-operation with the medical profession.All these organisations accept referrals from general practitioners and deserve to be more widely known.
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referrals of Debts to Justice. 3.21 Section 3.21... and Compromise of Claims § 3.21 Referrals of Debts to Justice. An agency shall promptly refer to Justice for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in accordance with...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.108 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...
... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.8 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 820.72 Section 820.72... Referral to the Attorney General. If there is reason to believe a criminal violation of the Act or the DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements has occurred, DOE may refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 1601.29 Section 1601.29... of Civil Actions § 1601.29 Referral to the Attorney General. If the Commission is unable to obtain... shall inform the Attorney General of the appropriate facts in the case with recommendations for the...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to the Attorney General... Referral to the Attorney General. If the results of a complaint investigation or a compliance review... appropriate cases shall recommend that the General Counsel refer the case to the Attorney General of the...
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 430.54 Section 430.54... Business Exemptions § 430.54 Referral to the Attorney General. Notice of the application for exemption under this subpart shall be transmitted to the Attorney General by the Secretary and shall contain (a) a...
Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.6 Referral to immigration judge...
history, may not be elements that non-psychiatrist phy- sicians routinely collect during their examinations and, therefore, one would not expect such information to be available to be included in referral letters. Conclusion. Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are common.
Less than 20% of the referral letters included information on previous psychiatric consultations, current psychotropic medication, the outcome of physical examinations, and results of special investigations. Only 17 (6%) referral letters indicated a preliminary diagnosis according to an officially recognised classification system ...
Objective: To review the management of childhood intussusception at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret and identify factors that require attention for improved outcome. Design: A retrospective descriptive study covering the period January 2000 to December 2003. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, ...
Freeman, T; Jadva, V; Kramer, W; Golombok, S
This study investigates the new phenomenon of parents of donor offspring searching for and contacting their child's 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor) and donor. Online questionnaires were completed by 791 parents (39% lone-mother, 35% lesbian-couple, 21% heterosexual-couple, 5% non-specified) recruited via the Donor Sibling Registry; a US-based international registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Data were collected on parents' reasons for searching for their child's donor siblings and/or donor, the outcome of these searches and parents' and their child's experiences of any resulting contact. Parents' principal motivation for searching for their child's donor siblings was curiosity and for their donor, enhancing their child's sense of identity. Some parents had discovered large numbers of donor siblings (maximum = 55). Most parents reported positive experiences of contacting and meeting their child's donor siblings and donor. This study highlights that having access to information about a child's donor origins is important for some parents and has potentially positive consequences. These findings have wider implications because the removal of donor anonymity in the UK and elsewhere means that increasing numbers of donor offspring are likely to seek contact with their donor relations in the future.
Schaffer, W A; Holloman, F C
The traditional exchange of medical expertise between physicians for patient benefit has been accomplished by referral. Physicians have traditionally decided when and to whom to refer patients. Health care "systems" now dominate medical practice, and their formats can alter spontaneous collegial interaction in referral. Institutional programs now pursue patient referrals as part of a marketing strategy to attract new patients who then become attached to the institution, rather than to a physician. Referral behavior can affect a physician's personal income in prepaid insurance programs where referrals are discouraged. The referring physician may bear legal liability for actions of the consultant. New practice arrangements and affiliations may place physicians in financial conflict-of-interest situations, challenge ethical commitments, and add new moral responsibility.
Malinoski, Darren J; Daly, Michael C; Patel, Madhukar S; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Foster, Clarence E; Salim, Ali
There is a national shortage of organs available for transplantation. Implementation of preset donor management goals (DMGs) to improve outcomes is recommended, but uniform practices and data are lacking. We hypothesized that meeting DMGs before organ procurement would result in more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The eight organ procurement organization in United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 selected 10 critical care end points as DMGs. Each organ procurement organization submitted retrospective data from 40 standard criteria donors. "DMGs met" was defined as achieving any eight DMGs before procurement. The primary outcome was ≥4 OTPD. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of ≥4 OTPD with a pdonors had 3.6±1.6 OTPD. Donors with DMGs met had more OTPD (4.4 vs. 3.3, p50% (OR=4.0), Pao2:FIO2>300 (OR=4.6), and serum sodium 135 to 160 mEq/L (OR=3.4). Meeting DMGs before procurement resulted in more OTPD. Donor factors and critical care end points are independent predictors of organ yield. Prospective studies are needed to determine the true impact of each DMG on the number and function of transplanted organs.
Boot, C.L.; Luken, J.S.; van den Burg, P.J.M.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.; Koopman, M.M.W.; Vrielink, H.; van Schoor, N.M.; den Heijer, M.; Lips, P.
Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115
Ananiadou, Olga; Schmack, Bastian; Zych, Bartlomiej; Sabashnikov, Anton; Garcia-Saez, Diana; Mohite, Prashant; Weymann, Alexander; Mansur, Ashham; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Marczin, Nandor; De Robertis, Fabio; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Popov, Aron-Frederik
Abstract In the context of limited donor pool in cardiothoracic transplantation, utilization of organs from high risk donors, such as suicidal hanging donors, while ensuring safety, is under consideration. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group. Between January 2011 and December 2015, 265 LTx were performed at our center. Twenty-two recipients received lungs from donors after suicidal hanging (group 1). The remaining 243 transplantations were used as a control (group 2). Analysis of recipient and donor characteristics as well as outcomes was performed. No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics between analyzed groups, except for higher incidence of cardiac arrest, younger age and smoking history of hanging donors (P donor cause of death is not associated with poor mid-term survival or chronic lung allograft dysfunction following transplantation. These results encourage assessment of lungs from hanging donors, and their consideration for transplantation. PMID:29620623
Full Text Available Background: Children with chronic physical illnesses frequently have psychiatric comorbidities, which often go un-noticed and may lead to more resource utilization and morbidity. Pediatric liaison services can be effectively used to bridge this gap. Literature on pediatric liaison services is sparse. Aims: To study the referral patterns, reasons for referrals, psychiatric diagnoses and interventions in children and adolescents referred to psychiatry department in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of all children and adolescents below 19 years of age, referred to psychiatry department from 2010 to 2015, was done. Data was collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: Two hundred and nine subjects were included in the study. Mean age of sample was 12.15 (±4.20 years, with about 66.02% being males. About 54.06% of the participants were referred from pediatricians. Almost three fourth (72.25% of children had no diagnosable physical illness. Intellectual disability (19.62% was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, followed by depressive disorders (14.35%, and dissociative disorders (12.92%. Conclusions: In our study, majority of the referrals were the adolescent males from pediatric department. Intellectual disability, depressive disorder, and stress-related disorders were the common diagnoses. The fact that three-fourth of the referred children had no physical illness implies lack of awareness, stigma toward mental illness, and pathway of care.
Gill, John; Rose, Caren; Lesage, Julie; Joffres, Yayuk; Gill, Jagbir; O'Connor, Kevin
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are an important source of kidneys for transplantation, but DCD donor transplantation is less common in the United States than in other countries. In this study of national data obtained between 2008 and 2015, recovery of DCD kidneys varied substantially among the country's 58 donor service areas, and 25% of DCD kidneys were recovered in only four donor service areas. Overall, 20% of recovered DCD kidneys were discarded, varying from 3% to 33% among donor service areas. Compared with kidneys from neurologically brain dead (NBD) donors, DCD kidneys had a higher adjusted odds ratio of discard that varied from 1.25 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16 to 1.34) in kidneys with total donor warm ischemic time (WIT) of 10-26 minutes to 2.67 (95% CI, 2.34 to 3.04) in kidneys with total donor WIT >48 minutes. Among the 12,831 DCD kidneys transplanted, kidneys with WIT≤48 minutes had survival similar to that of NBD kidneys. DCD kidneys with WIT>48 minutes had a higher risk of allograft failure (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.41), but this risk was limited to kidneys with cold ischemia time (CIT) >12 hours. We conclude that donor service area-level variation in the recovery and discard of DCD kidneys is large. Additional national data collection is needed to understand the potential to increase DCD donor transplantation in the United States. Strategies to minimize cold ischemic injury may safely allow increased use of DCD kidneys with WIT>48 minutes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Quanjel, Tessa C C; Winkens, Anne; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Winkens, Ron A G; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk
Consistent evidence on the effects of specialist services in the primary care setting is lacking. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of an in-house internist at a GP practice on the number of referrals to specialist care in the hospital setting. Additionally, the involved GPs and internist were asked to share their experiences with the intervention. A retrospective interrupted times series study. Two multidisciplinary general practitioner (GP) practices. An internist provided in-house patient consultations in two GP practices and participated in the multidisciplinary meetings. The referral data extracted from the electronic medical record system of the GP practices, including all referral letters from the GPs to specialist care in the hospital setting. The number of referrals to internal medicine in the hospital setting. This study used an autoregressive integrated moving average model to estimate the effect of the intervention taking account of a time trend and autocorrelation among the observations, comparing the pre-intervention period with the intervention period. It was found that the referrals to internal medicine did not statistically significant decrease during the intervention period. This small explorative study did not find any clues to support that an in-house internist at a primary care setting results in a decrease of referrals to internal medicine in the hospital setting. Key Points An in-house internist at a primary care setting did not result in a significant decrease of referrals to specialist care in the hospital setting. The GPs and internist experience a learning-effect, i.e. an increase of knowledge about internal medicine issues.
Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar
Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparently in a healthy state today but with possible clinical disease consequences in the future. A retrospective study was conducted from April 2011 to November 2012. Screening was done using third generation ELISA kits used according to the manufacturer's directions; these kits were approved for use in blood banks by the Drug Controller General of India. Those testing repeat reactive were referred for further confirmation and management. The total number of TTI reactive donors was 787 (0.93 %, N = 83,865). The observed response rate in the present study is 21.6 % (167, N = 787). The risk factors for acquiring infections in TTI reactive donors were statistically significant history of high risk behaviour (20.3 %) for human immunodeficiency virus infection and history of jaundice in themselves, family or close contacts (16.1 %) for hepatitis B virus infection. One hundred and ten (65.8 %) of the referred donors were on outpatient clinical care when post-referral follow up was conducted. The study emphasises on continuing sensitization of blood donation camp organisers to the need of privacy during blood donor selection. The study also stresses the need to strengthen the pre-donation counselling at outdoor blood donation at the same time raise awareness amongst blood donors about the importance of post-donation counselling and follow up.
Grunwell, Jocelyn R; Marupudi, Neelima K; Gupta, Rohan V; Travers, Curtis D; McCracken, Courtney E; Williamson, Julie L; Stockwell, Jana A; Fortenberry, James D; Couloures, Kevin; Cravero, Joseph; Kamat, Pradip P
Guidelines for referral of children to general anesthesia (GA) to complete MRI studies are lacking. We devised a pediatric procedural sedation guide to determine whether a pediatric procedural sedation guide would decrease serious adverse events and decrease failed sedations requiring rescheduling with GA. We constructed a consensus-based sedation guide by combining a retrospective review of reasons for referral of children to GA (n = 221) with published risk factors associated with the inability to complete the MRI study with sedation. An interrupted time series analysis of 11 530 local sedation records from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium between July 2008 and March 2013, adjusted for case-mix differences in the pre- and postsedation guide cohorts, evaluated whether a sedation guide resulted in decreased severe adverse events (SAE) and failed sedation rates. A significant increase in referrals to GA following implementation of a sedation guide occurred (P pediatric procedural sedation services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim
First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.
CDC-funded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling, testing, and referral sites are an integral part of national HIV prevention efforts (1). Voluntary counseling, testing, and referral opportunities are offered to persons at risk for HIV infection at approximately 11,000 sites, including dedicated HIV counseling and testing sites, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, drug-treatment centers, hospitals, and prisons. Services also are offered to women in family planning and prenatal/obstetric clinics to increase HIV prevention efforts among women and decrease the risk for perinatal HIV transmission. To increase use of HIV counseling, testing, and referral services by those at risk for HIV infection, in 1995, the National Association of People with AIDS designated June 27 each year as National HIV Testing Day. This report compares use of CDC-funded counseling, testing, and referral services the week before and the week of June 27 from 1994 through 1998 and documents the importance of a national public health campaign designed to increase knowledge of HIV serostatus.
Most major donors don't need another plaque or formal dinner. Development officers need to be more imaginative and less materialistic in expressing their institution's thanks, personalizing them by tying the gesture in with something distinctive about the institution or the gift. Development office teamwork and care help promote donor…
... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... are considering one of these types of living donation, please talk to your transplant center about the organ-specific risks. Psychological concerns You may also have ...
Azema, Emilie; Callahan, Stacey
Although information regarding attitudes and characteristics of human blood donors has been researched, little is known about the motivations and demographic and personality characteristics of women who choose to donate their breast milk. Eight milk banks in France participated in a study examining donor characteristics, providing data on 103 women. The results showed that the donors were women of average childbearing age with strong support at home. Almost half did not work outside of the home, compared to the national average of 80% of women in this age group; similarly, a large number (currently working or not) were from the health and social services fields. Reasons for donation were largely altruistic, and a general optimistic attitude prevailed within the participants. The results of this study provide useful information for the recruitment of potential donors as well as information on how to facilitate and provide optimal service through milk donation.
van den Hurk, Katja; Zalpuri, Saurabh; Prinsze, Femmeke J.; Merz, Eva-Maria; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.
In donor health research, the 'Healthy Donor Effect' (HDE) often biases study results and hampers their interpretation. This refers to the fact that donors are a selected 'healthier' subset of a population due to both donor selection procedures and self-selection. Donors with long versus short donor
Since 2001 independent Organ Donor Facilities(OFOs) have been proposed within Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) with the aim of reducing organ procurement costs 1, cold ischemia time of donor organs and the flight-related risk 2 for donor surgeons, perfusionists and coordinators. An independent OFO has been established in 2001 in St. Louis 3, half away between the 2 Transplant Centers (TCs) (Washington University School of Medicine and St. Louis University) and now includes a two-bed intensive care facility, a complete laboratory, a cardiac catheterization facility, a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and an operating room. All brain-dead (BD) patients within OPO (Mid-America Transplant Services), after family's informed consent, are transferred, if necessary by an OPO owned and operated airplane, to this facility, where undergo multiorgan harvesting. By doing so the organ acquisition charges (OACs) apparently decreased, as well as delay in recovery, which can affect organ viability and move families to withdraw consent; also risks and tiring of transplant surgeons were reduced. This independent OFO successfully procured in 2001 not only livers, but also pancreas, kidneys, hearts and lungs 4-6. Cold ischemia time was reduced and there was no Primary Non Function (PNF) of harvested organs, but only kidney delayed graft function (DGF). In the past, heart donors were moved to the recipient's hospital. With the development of multiorgan harvesting, usually donor surgeons are sent by the TCs in order to evaluate liver, pancreas, heart and lungs, while the only local surgeons is the "nephrectomist", that in local hospital is not a transplant surgeon. To move a donor, although hemodinamically stable, is always a risk. Finally, the decrease of OAC must balance the extra expenses to create and operate independent OFOs. In all the papers published by the members of this OFO, the control group of the retrospective analysis consisted of less selected BD donors, requiring
Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M
Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Luiz Henrique Soares Gonçalves de Lima
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a viabilidade econômica da Unidade Móvel de um Serviço de Referência terciária em Oftalmologia. MÉTODOS: Foi considerado o montante gasto com a sua compra e construção no ano 2000 e as despesas com a sua manutenção e funcionamento no ano 2001, comparando-se com a receita gerada a partir de consultas, exames complementares e cirurgias oculares do Sistema Único de Saúde no ano 2001. Para fins de análise econômica, determinou-se uma taxa de juros de 10% ao ano e um período de depreciação de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: O valor total para aquisição e montagem da Unidade Móvel do Hospital Oftalmológico de Sorocaba foi de R$ 184.140,00. O montante gasto com despesas para a sua manutenção e funcionamento durante o ano 2001 foi de R$ 28.000,00. A Unidade funcionou, em média, durante 2 dias por semana no ano 2001 e foram realizadas, nesse período, 6.492 consultas, estabelecendo-se uma receita de R$ 32.460,00. As consultas geraram exames complementares e cirurgias oculares, contabilizando-se R$ 51.540,00. Portanto, a receita obtida diretamente com as consultas, exames complementares e cirurgias durante o ano 2001 foi R$ 84.000,00, pagos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, de acordo com valores pré-estabelecidos. A partir desses valores é possível uma análise econômica do empreendimento e esta foi feita com e sem poupança para depreciação, levando-se em consideração as despesas e as receitas. CONCLUSÃO: Além de prestar atendimento a comunidades carentes e distantes, uma Unidade Móvel pode ser fonte de renda para um Serviço de Oftalmologia.PURPOSE: To analyse the economic viability of a mobile eye clinic of a tertiary referral Ophthalmology Service. METHODS: The amount of money spent with the purchase and construction of the unit in 2000, and the expenses with its maintenance and operation in 2001 were considered, comparing these expenses with the income obtained from appointments, supplementary tests and eye
Pandey, K K; Joshi, H C; Pant, T C [Kumaun University, Nainital (India). Department of Physics
Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.
Quigley, M M; Collins, R L; Schover, L R
IVF with donated oocytes, followed by embryo placement in the uterus of a recipient who has been primed with exogenous steroids, is a successful treatment for special cases of infertility. Preliminary results indicate that the success rate in this situation is even greater than that usually seen with normal IVF (with placement of the embryos back into the uteri of the women from whom the oocytes were recovered). Although different sources for donated oocytes have been identified, the use of "excess" oocytes from IVF cycles and the attempted collection of oocytes at the time of otherwise indicated pelvic surgery have ethical and practical problems associated with their use. We have herein described the establishment of a successful program relying on anonymous volunteers who go through ovarian stimulation, monitoring, and oocyte recovery procedures solely to donate oocytes. The potential donors go through an exhaustive screening and education process before they are accepted in the program. Psychological evaluation of our potential donors indicated a great degree of turmoil in their backgrounds and a wide variety of motivations for actually participating. Despite the extensive educational and screening process, a substantial percentage of the donors did not complete a donation cycle, having either voluntarily withdrawn or been dropped because of lack of compliance. Further investigation of the psychological aspects of participating in such a program is certainly warranted. The use of donated oocytes to alleviate specific types of infertility is quite successful, but the application of this treatment is likely to be limited by the relative unavailability of suitable oocyte donors.
Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Hall, H Nikki; Sanders, Roshini
Ophthalmology departments face intensifying pressure to expedite sight-saving treatments and reduce the global burden of disease. The use of electronic communication systems, digital imaging, and redesigned service care models is imperative for addressing such demands. The recently developed Scottish Eyecare Integration Project involves an electronic referral system from community optometry to the hospital ophthalmology department using National Health Service (NHS) email with digital ophthalmic images attached, via a virtual private network connection. The benefits over the previous system include reduced waiting times, improved triage, e-diagnosis in 20% without the need for hospital attendance, and rapid electronic feedback to referrers. We draw on the experience of the Scottish Eyecare Integration Project and discuss the global applications of this and other advances in teleophthalmology. We focus particularly on the implications for management and screening of chronic disease, such as glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, and ophthalmic disease, such as retinopathy of prematurity where diagnosis is almost entirely and critically dependent on fundus appearance. Currently in Scotland, approximately 75% of all referrals are electronic from community to hospital. The Scottish Eyecare Integration Project is globally the first of its kind and unique in a national health service. Such speedy, safe, and efficient models of communication are geographically sensitive to service provision, especially in remote and rural regions. Along with advances in teleophthalmology, such systems promote the earlier detection of sight-threatening disease and safe follow-up of non-sight-threatening disease in the community. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.
Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali
Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person.
Holt, Kelsey; Janiak, Elizabeth; McCormick, Marie C; Lieberman, Ellice; Dehlendorf, Christine; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Caglia, Jacquelyn M; Langer, Ana
Primary care physicians (PCPs) can play a critical role in addressing unintended pregnancy through high-quality options counseling and referrals. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,000 PCPs in general, family, and internal medicine on practices and opinions related to options counseling for unintended pregnancy. We assessed predictors of physician practices using multivariable logistic regression weighted for sampling design and differential non-response. Response rate was 29%. Seventy-one percent believed residency training in options counseling should be required, and 69% believed PCPs have an obligation to provide abortion referrals even in the presence of a personal objection to abortion. However, only 26% reported routine options counseling when caring for women with unintended pregnancy compared to 60% who routinely discuss prenatal care. Among physicians who see women seeking abortion, 62% routinely provide referrals, while 14% routinely attempt to dissuade women. Family physicians were more likely to provide routine options counseling when seeing patients with unintended pregnancy than internal medicine physicians (32% vs 21%, P=0.002). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with higher odds of routine abortion referrals were more years in practice (OR=1.03 for each additional year, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05), identifying as a woman vs a man (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.31-3.40), practicing in a hospital vs private primary care/multispecialty setting (OR=3.17, 95% CI: 1.10-9.15), and no religious affiliation of practice vs religious affiliation (OR for Catholic affiliation=0.27, 95% CI: 0.11-0.66; OR for other religious affiliation=0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.83). Personal Christian religious affiliation among physicians who regularly attend religious services vs no religious affiliation was associated with lower odds of counseling (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.90) and referrals (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62), and higher odds of abortion dissuasion (OR=4.03, 95
S K Jindal
Full Text Available Treatment services constitute one of the five priority actions to face the global crisis due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. It is important to formulate standard treatment guidelines (STGs for an effective management, particularly at the primary and secondary levels of health care. Dissemination and implementation of STGs for NCDs on a country-wide scale involves difficult and complex issues. The management of NCDs and the associated costs are highly variable and huge. Besides the educational strategies for promotion of STGs, the scientific and administrative sanctions and sanctity are important for purposes of reimbursements, insurance, availability of facilities, and legal protection. An effective and functional referral- system needs to be built to ensure availability of appropriate care at all levels of health- services. The patient-friendly "to and fro" referral system will help to distribute the burden, lower the costs, and maintain the sustainability of services.
Competition in the mobile imaging arena has put radiologists, radiology directors, and other health care professionals in the unfamiliar position of being marketing agents for their services. Mobile imaging is being promoted through consumer advertising as well as through the traditional route of physician referral. This article offers some of the marketing lessons being learned in the mobile arena.
Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Lidenge, Salum J; Mpondo, Boniventura C T; Msangi, Silas; Lugazia, Edwin; Mwafongo, Victor; Runyon, Michael S; Reynolds, Teri A
In sub-Saharan Africa the availability of intensive care unit (ICU) services is limited by a variety of factors, including lack of financial resources, lack of available technology and well-trained staff. Tanzania has four main referral hospitals, located in zones so as to serve as tertiary level referral centers. All the referral hospitals have some ICU services, operating at varying levels of equipment and qualified staff. We analyzed and describe the disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in ICUs of the tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania. This was a retrospective analysis of ICU patient records, for three years (2009 to 2011) from all tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania, namely Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Mbeya Referral Hospital (MRH) and Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). MNH is the largest of the four referral hospitals with 1300 beds, and MRH is the smallest with 480 beds. The ratio of hospital beds to ICU beds is 217:1 at MNH, 54:1 at BMC, 39:1 at KCMC, and 80:1 at MRH. KCMC had no infusion pumps. None of the ICUs had a point-of-care (POC) arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. None of the ICUs had an Intensive Care specialist or a nutritionist. A masters-trained critical care nurse was available only at MNH. From 2009-2011, the total number of patients admitted to the four ICUs was 5627, male to female ratio 1.4:1, median age of 34 years. Overall, Trauma (22.2%) was the main disease category followed by infectious disease (19.7%). Intracranial injury (12.5%) was the leading diagnosis in all age groups, while pneumonia (11.7%) was the leading diagnosis in pediatric patients (<18 years). Patients with tetanus (2.4%) had the longest median length ICU stay: 8 (5,13) days. The overall in-ICU mortality rate was 41.4%. The ICUs in tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania are severely limited in infrastructure, personnel, and resources, making it difficult or impossible to provide optimum care
Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, 5Department of Obstetrics and ... Aim: The aim was to audit childbirth emergency referrals by trained TBAs to a ..... training of TBAs has been documented by previous African.
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal
Malaria-endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programs to provide malaria diagnosis and treatment to populations living beyond the reach of health systems. However, there is limited evidence describing the referral practices of CHWs. We examined the impact of malaria...... rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) on CHW referral in two cluster-randomized trials, one conducted in a moderate-to-high malaria transmission setting and one in a low-transmission setting in Uganda, between January 2010 and July 2012. All CHWs were trained to prescribe artemisinin-based combination therapy...... (ACT) for malaria and recognize signs and symptoms for referral to health centers. CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria based on clinical symptoms, whereas intervention arm CHWs used mRDTs. CHWs recorded ACT prescriptions, mRDT results, and referral inpatient registers...
CHILDREN PRESENTING AT THE EMERGENCY UNIT OF A TEACHING. HOSPITAL IN LAGOS ... infrequently reported in referral letters to a tertiary care hospital in Lagos,. Nigeria. .... researcher, a pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist.
Cairo, Mitchell S; Rocha, Vanderson; Gluckman, Eliane; Hale, Gregory; Wagner, John
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to be curative in a wide variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant diseases, and can be traced back over 50 years ago to the original report of Thomas et al. HLA matched sibling donors have been the gold standard for pediatric recipients requiring allogeneic donors for both nonmalignant and malignant conditions. However, only 25% of potential pediatric recipients possesses an HLA-matched sibling donor, and the frequency is even less in those with genetic nonmalignant conditions because of genetically affected other siblings within the family. Therefore, 75% to 90% of potential pediatric recipients require alternative allogeneic donor cells for treatment of their underlying conditions. Potential alternative allogeneic donor sources include unrelated cord blood donors, unrelated adult donors, and haploidentical family donors. In this article we review the experience of both unrelated cord blood donor and haploidentical family donor transplants in selected pediatric malignant and nonmalignant conditions.
Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro; Laura Castro Varela
The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested ac...
Smith, André; Matthews, Ralph; Fiddler, Jay
This study approaches the decision to donate blood as a dynamic process involving interplay between blood donors' personal motives, donors' social contexts, and the donor recruitment and retention activities of blood collection agencies. Data were gathered from four blood donation clinics using in-depth interviews with Canadian Blood Services employees, donors, and nondonors in 25 organizations participating in Life Link, a donor recruitment program that supports organizations to educate employees about the benefits of blood donation. Further data were obtained from ethnographic observations of blood collection and donor recruitment activities. Thematic analysis resulted in three umbrella themes: leveraging social networks, embedding the clinic in the community, and donating blood and social reciprocity. Donor recruitment activities at all four clinics enhanced awareness of blood donation in the workplace by using experienced donors to motivate their coworkers in making a first-time donation. Clinic employees reported varying success in improving awareness of blood donation in the broader community, in part because of varying employee engagement in community-wide activities and celebrations. Altruistic motives were mentioned by experienced donors, who also identified a desire to reciprocate to their community as another strong motive. This study contextualizes donor recruitment and retention as involving activities that tie blood donation to meaningful aspects of donors' social networks and community. The findings point to the need for further analyses of the institutional dimensions of blood donation to develop effective strategies beyond appeals to altruism. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.
Full Text Available Although home-based care (HBC programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs, in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs. An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25% of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa
Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Benson, B E; Smith, C A; McKinney, P E; Litovitz, T L; Tandberg, W D
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which poison center triage guidelines influence healthcare facility referral rates for acute, unintentional acetaminophen-only poisoning and acute, unintentional adult formulation iron poisoning. Managers of US poison centers were interviewed by telephone to determine their center's triage threshold value (mg/kg) for acute iron and acute acetaminophen poisoning in 1997. Triage threshold values and healthcare facility referral rates were fit to a univariate logistic regression model for acetaminophen and iron using maximum likelihood estimation. Triage threshold values ranged from 120-201 mg/kg (acetaminophen) and 16-61 mg/kg (iron). Referral rates ranged from 3.1% to 24% (acetaminophen) and 3.7% to 46.7% (iron). There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between the triage value and the referral rate for acetaminophen (p variability in poison center triage values and referral rates for iron and acetaminophen poisoning. Guidelines can account for a meaningful proportion of referral variation. Their influence appears to be substance dependent. These data suggest that efforts to determine and utilize the highest, safe, triage threshold value could substantially decrease healthcare costs for poisonings as long as patient medical outcomes are not compromised.
Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.
Jacob A. Akoh
Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.
Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.
Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...
Prizer, Lindsay P; Gay, Jennifer L; Perkins, Molly M; Wilson, Mark G; Emerson, Kerstin G; Glass, Anne P; Miyasaki, Janis M
A palliative approach is recommended in the care of Parkinson's disease patients; however, many patients only receive this care in the form of hospice at the end of life. Physician attitudes about palliative care have been shown to influence referrals for patients with chronic disease, and negative physician perceptions may affect early palliative referrals for Parkinson's disease patients. To use Social Exchange Theory to examine the association between neurologist-perceived costs and benefits of palliative care referral for Parkinson's disease patients and their reported referral practices. A cross-sectional survey study of neurologists. A total of 62 neurologists recruited from the National Parkinson Foundation, the Medical Association of Georgia, and the American Academy of Neurology's clinician database. Participants reported significantly stronger endorsement of the rewards ( M = 3.34, SD = 0.37) of palliative care referrals than the costs ( M = 2.13, SD = 0.30; t(61) = -16.10, p < 0.0001). A Poisson regression found that perceived costs, perceived rewards, physician type, and the number of complementary clinicians in practice were significant predictors of palliative care referral. Physicians may be more likely to refer patients to non-terminal palliative care if (1) they work in interdisciplinary settings and/or (2) previous personal or patient experience with palliative care was positive. They may be less likely to refer if (1) they fear a loss of autonomy in patient care, (2) they are unaware of available programs, and/or (3) they believe they address palliative needs. Initiatives to educate neurologists on the benefits and availability of non-terminal palliative services could improve patient access to this care.
Full Text Available There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral.
Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.
Carter, K; Cheung, P P; Rome, K; Santosa, A; Lahiri, M
Foot disease is highly prevalent in people with inflammatory arthritis and is often under-recognized. Podiatry intervention can significantly reduce foot pain and disability, with timely access being the key factor. The aim of this study was to plan and implement a quality improvement project to identify the barriers to, and improve, uptake of podiatry services among patients with inflammatory arthritis-related foot problems seen at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A 6-month quality improvement program was conducted by a team of key stakeholders using quality improvement tools to identify, implement and test several interventions designed to improve uptake of podiatry services. The number of patients referred for podiatry assessment was recorded on a weekly basis by an experienced podiatrist. The criterion for appropriate referral to podiatry was those patients with current or previous foot problems such as foot pain, swelling and deformity. Interventions included education initiatives, revised workflow, development of national guidelines for inflammatory arthritis, local podiatry guidelines for the management of foot and ankle problems, routine use of outcome measures, and introduction of a fully integrated rheumatology-podiatry service with reduced cost package. Referral rates increased from 8% to 11%, and were sustained beyond the study period. Complete incorporation of podiatry into the rheumatology consultation as part of the multidisciplinary team package further increased referrals to achieve the target of full uptake of the podiatry service. Through a structured quality improvement program, referrals to podiatry increased and improved the uptake and acceptance of rheumatology-podiatry services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referrals to the Department of Justice... COLLECTION STANDARDS Referrals § 13.33 Referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) Prompt referral. The... Justice, Washington, DC 20530. (2) Unless otherwise provided by DOJ regulations or procedures, EPA refers...
Cain, Katherine L; Collins, Ragan P
As part of accreditation, Public Health Accreditation Board site visitors recommended that the New Orleans Health Department strengthen its quality improvement program. With support from the Public Health Accreditation Board, the New Orleans Health Department subsequently embarked on a data-driven planning process through which it prioritized quality improvement projects for 2016. One of these projects aimed to improve referrals to New Orleans Health Department's direct services programs from local clinics and hospitals to better provide our most vulnerable residents with a continuum of care. After completing a cause-and-effect analysis, we implemented a solution involving increased outreach to health care institutions and saw annual participation increase in 3 out of 4 of our programs. We leveraged this work to successfully apply for funding to create a centralized referral system, which will facilitate partnerships among local health and human service agencies and improve access to services. This is one example of how accreditation has benefited our health department and our community. We have found that the accreditation process promotes a culture of quality and helps health departments identify and address areas for improvement.
Pauwels, Nele S; Cusack, Leila; De Buck, Emmy; Compernolle, Veerle; Vandekerckhove, Philippe
Blood services are reliant upon healthy blood donors to provide a safe and adequate supply of blood products. Inappropriate variables contained within blood donor exclusion criteria can defer potentially appropriate donors. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of low pre-donation blood pressure, as compared with normal blood pressure, on adverse events in allogeneic whole blood donors. A systematic review was performed using highly sensitive search strategies within five databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) from inception date until April 12, 2013. Out of 8305 records, 10 observational studies were identified that addressed the question. Five of these studies (with a combined total of 1,482,020 donations and 2903 donors) included either a statistical analysis or an appropriate study design that controlled for possible confounding factors. Based on the currently available evidence, hypotension has not been shown to be an independent predictive factor for donor complications. However, the overall quality of evidence was rather limited and rated 'low,' using the GRADE approach. In conclusion there is currently no evidence that hypotensive blood donors have a greater risk for donor adverse events compared with their normotensive counterparts. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stouder, Donald B; Schmid, Adam; Ross, Sharon S; Ross, Larry G; Stocks, Lisa
Understanding how organ donors' families recover from their grief can help organ procurement organizations improve consent rates and increase the number of deceased donor organs available for transplant. To determine what helps the loved ones of deceased organ donors heal from their grief and loss, and to better understand families' needs during the consent process as a way of improving overall consent rates for organ donation. Written survey of all organ and tissue donors' families in the San Diego and Imperial County (California) service area during 2006 and 2007. Responses to the 20-question survey addressing factors that help healing from grief, as well as contextual information about the families' experience at the hospital and the consent process. Most respondents (84%) indicated that family support was the most helpful thing in dealing with their grief, followed by the support of friends (74%) and religious and cultural beliefs (37%). Most (75%) indicated that they agreed to donation so that something positive could result from their loss. Most respondents (93%) felt that they were given enough information to make an informed decision about donation, and 6% indicated that the donation process interfered with funeral or memorial arrangements. More than 95% understood that their loved one had died before they were approached for consent. Consistent with previous studies, 12% said they still had unanswered questions about aspects of donation, and 15% of respondents indicated that the discussion about organ donation added more emotional stress to their overall experience.
José Carlos Jaime-Pérez
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the experience of one referral service with patients diagnosed with Evans syndrome, the treatment and response and to briefly review current treatment strategies and results.METHODS: Patients enrolled in this study fulfilled criteria for Evans syndrome. Data were retrieved from the clinical files and electronic databases of the Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González". Treatment modalities and response and the use of additional therapies were evaluated. The literature was reviewed in the context of the clinical course of the studied patients.RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with Evans syndrome in the study period. Patient 1 was treated with steroids, relapsed twice and was again treated with steroids. Patient 2 treated initially with steroids plus intravenous immunoglobulin was subsequently lost to follow-up. A good response was achieved in Patients 3 and 4, who were treated with steroids plus rituximab; patient 4 also received danazol as a second-line therapy. However both relapsed and subsequently underwent splenectomy at ten and nine months, respectively. One patient, number 5, treated with steroids, danazol and rituximab did not relapse within four years of follow-up and Patient 6, who received steroids plus danazol did not relapse within three years of follow-up.CONCLUSION: Evans syndrome is an uncommon hematologic condition rarely diagnosed and not widely studied. Clinicians must have it in mind when evaluating a patient with a positive direct antiglobulin test, anemia and thrombocytopenia, since prognosis depends on its early recognition and opportune therapy, but even this leads to variable results.
Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on allogeneic whole blood donors over a period of 14 months, i.e., from January 2002 to February 2003. A total of 37,896 donors were monitored for any AEs: 22587 (59.6% were voluntary donors (VD and 15,309 (40.4% were replacement donors (RD. Results: Overall reaction rate was 2.5% with vasovagal reactions constituting 63.5% and hematomas 35.0% of all reactions. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, lower weight, first time donation status, female gender, and nature of blood donation camps. Amongst male donors, RDs had more reactions (P=0.03 than VDs. Majority of donors (85% with vasovagal reactions admitted to some fear or anxiety prior to donation. Hematoma formation occurred significantly more when less trained staff performed phlebotomy. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential prerequisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of donor reactions and adopting appropriate donor motivational strategies, pre-donation counseling, and care during and after donation.
Khalid-Raja, M; Tzifa, K
This study aimed to evaluate the activity of paediatric otolaryngology services required for children with Down's syndrome in a tertiary referral centre. A review of the paediatric otolaryngology input for children with Down's syndrome was performed; data were obtained from the coding department for a two-year period and compared with other surgical specialties. Between June 2011 and May 2013, 106 otolaryngology procedures were performed on children with Down's syndrome. This compared to 87 cardiac and 81 general paediatrics cases. The most common pathologies in children with Down's syndrome were obstructive sleep apnoea, otitis media, hearing loss and cardiac disease. The most common otolaryngology procedures performed were adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, grommet insertion and bone-anchored hearing aid implant surgery. ENT manifestations of Down's syndrome are common. Greater provisions need to be made to streamline the otolaryngology services for children and improve transition of care to adult services.
Mitre Anuar I.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
Anuar I. Mitre
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
For many decades, hemagglutination has been the sole means to type blood donors. Since the first blood group gene cloning in the early 1990s, knowledge on the molecular basis of most red blood cell, platelet and neutrophil antigens brought the possibility of using nucleotide-based techniques to predict phenotype. This review will summarized methodologies available to genotype blood groups from laboratory developed assays to commercially available platforms, and how proficiency assays become more present. The author will also share her vision of the transfusion medicine future. The field is presently at the crossroads, bringing new perspectives to a century old practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550
An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.
Neubauer, Antje; Bendig, Juergen; Rettig, Wolfgang
Derivatives of N-pyrrolobenzene with a para-donor and a para-acceptor substituent on the benzene ring are compared. It is shown that by a suitable increase of the donor strength of the pyrrolo group, CT fluorescence can be achieved even for donor-donor-substituted benzenes. The ICT emission for sterically hindered compounds is more forbidden than that of unhindered phenyl pyrroles. This suggests conformational effects which induce a narrower twist angle distribution around a perpendicular minimum in the excited state.
Hunter, MJ; Hippman, Catriona; Honer, William G; Austin, Jehannine C.
Purpose Recent studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia and their family members are interested in genetic counseling, but few have received this service. We conducted an exploratory, retrospective study to describe (a) the population of individuals who were referred to the provincial program for genetic counseling for a primary indication of schizophrenia, and (b) trends in number of referrals between 1968 and 2007. Methods Referrals for a primary indication of schizophrenia were identified through the provincial program database. Charts were reviewed and the following information was recorded: discipline of referring physician, demographics, psychiatric diagnosis, referred individual’s and partner’s (if applicable) family history, and any current pregnancy history. Data were characterized using descriptive statistics. Results Between 1968 and 2007, 288 referrals were made for a primary indication of schizophrenia. Most referrals were made: (a) for individuals who had a first-degree family member with schizophrenia, rather than for affected individuals, (b) for preconception counseling, and (c) by family physicians (69%), with only 2% by psychiatrists. Conclusions In British Columbia, individuals affected with schizophrenia and their family members are rarely referred for psychiatric genetic counseling. There is a need to identify barriers to psychiatric genetic counseling and develop strategies to improve access. PMID:20034078
Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Ballen, Karen K
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is potentially curative for a wide variety of malignant diseases, including acute and leukemias, lymphoma, and myelodysplasia. Choice of a stem cell donor is dependent on donor availability, donor compatibility and health, recipient disease type, and recipient condition. Current sources of stem cell donation for HSCT are matched sibling donors (MSDs), matched unrelated donors (MUDs), 1-antigen mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs), haploidentical donors (haplo), and umbilical cord blood (UCB) units. Historically, preferred donors for HSCT have been human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors; however, only about 30% of U.S. patients will have a MSD available. The majority of patients referred for HSCT will require an alternative donor graft: MUD, MMUD, UCB, or haplo. The likelihood of finding a MUD varies depending on the ethnicity of the recipient. White Caucasians of European descent have the greatest chance of finding a MUD. Chances of finding a MUD are significantly less for African-American or Hispanic recipients due to HLA polymorphisms. Therefore, MMUD, UCB, and haplo donor graft sources expand the donor pool for recipients who do not have a MSD or MUD available. Given the variety of different donor stem cell sources available today, nearly every patient who needs an allogeneic HSCT has a potential donor in 2017. All transplant-eligible patients with hematologic malignancies should be evaluated by a transplant center to determine if HSCT is a viable treatment option for their underlying disease process. The goal of this review is to increase the awareness of oncology practitioners to the availability of alternative donor stem cell transplants for patients with hematologic malignancies. Despite new agents, stem cell transplant remains the only curative therapy for many patients with acute and chronic leukemia, myelodysplasia, and lymphoma. Given the variety of different donor stem cell sources available today
Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Tomimori, Jane
BACKGROUND Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral center between 08/01/2004 and 08/31/2009. Analyzed variables were: gender, age, skin phototype, occupational and recreational sun exposure, use of photoprotection, personal and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer, clinical type and location, time between transplantation and the appearance of the first nonmelanoma skin cancer, occurrence of viral warts, timing of transplantation, type of donor, cause of kidney failure, previous transplants, comorbidities, pre-transplant dialysis, type and duration of dialysis. RESULTS 64 subjects were included. Males - 71.9%; low skin phototypes (up to Fitzpatrick III) - 89%; mean age - 57.0 years - and mean age at transplant - 47.3 years; sun exposure - 67.2% occupational - and 64.1% recreational; photoprotection - 78.2% (although only 34.4% in a regular manner); squamous cell carcinoma - 67.2%; squamous cell carcinoma/basal cell carcinoma ratio - 2:1; personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer - 25% - and family history - 10.9%; location at photoexposed area - 98.4%; average latency time between transplantation and first nonmelanoma skin cancer appearance - 78.3 months; viral warts (HPV) after transplant - 53.1%; average timing of transplantation - 115.5 months; living donor - 64.1%; triple regimen (antirejection) - 73.2%; comorbidities - 92.2%; pre-transplant dialysis - 98.4%; hemodialysis - 71.7%; average duration of dialysis - 39.1 months; previous transplants - 3.1%; hypertension as cause of renal failure - 46.9%. CONCLUSION This study allowed
Briançon, S; Germain, L; Baudelot, C; Bannay, A; Virion, J-M; Thuong, M
The renal transplantation is nowadays the reference treatment of ESRD. Living donor kidney transplantation is less often performed in France than in other countries. Nevertheless, numerous French and international surveys have evidenced that it provides the recipients a longer life expectancy and a better quality of life. Donors themselves, what do they become? How are they? For the first time in France, a survey has been implemented to investigate the quality of life of living kidney donor to one of their close relations. This study has been undertaken by the Agency of the biomedecine and the service Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation (EEC), of the University teaching hospital of Nancy. The main objective was to describe the quality of life of the living donors having given a kidney for more than a year and less than 5 years. The secondary objective was to contribute to the knowledge of the main factors associated to the living kidney donor quality of life, one year after the donation. Participants had to be living in France at the time of the donation which had taken place between June 30(th), 2005 and March 1(st), 2009. A folder gathering various self-administrated questionnaires was sent to the place of residence of the donor between March and April, 2010. These data were completed by medical data collected near the transplantation centres by the Agency of biomedecine within the framework of the register CRISTAL. They included the characteristics of the donation and of the donor at the very time of the donation, 3 months after the donation and at the last annual assessment. Three living donors in four, that is 501 persons, agreed to fully participate. They constituted a representative national sample of all the living donors of this period. The non participants were younger (4.5 years on average) and had a less adequate annual follow-up. The women were more represented (61 %) than men. The median age was 53 years. More of 2/3 were employed at the time of the
van den Akker, O B A; Crawshaw, M A; Blyth, E D; Frith, L J
What are the experiences of donor-conceived adults and donors who are searching for a genetic link through the use of a DNA-based voluntary register service? Donor-conceived adults and donors held positive beliefs about their search and although some concerns in relation to finding a genetically linked relative were reported, these were not a barrier to searching. Research with donor-conceived people has consistently identified their interest in learning about-and in some cases making contact with-their donor and other genetic relatives. However, donor-conceived individuals or donors rarely have the opportunity to act on these desires. A questionnaire was administered for online completion using Bristol Online Surveys. The survey was live for 3 months and responses were collected anonymously. The survey was completed by 65 donor-conceived adults, 21 sperm donors and 5 oocyte donors who had registered with a DNA-based voluntary contact register in the UK. The questionnaire included socio-demographic questions, questions specifically developed for the purposes of this study and the standardized Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ). Motivations for searching for genetic relatives were varied, with the most common reasons being curiosity and passing on information. Overall, participants who were already linked and those awaiting a link were positive about being linked and valued access to a DNA-based register. Collective identity (reflecting self-defining feelings of continuity and uniqueness), as assessed by the AIQ, was significantly lower for donor-conceived adults when compared with the donor groups (P 0.05) for donor-conceived adults. Participants were members of a UK DNA-based registry which is unique. It was therefore not possible to determine how representative participants were of those who did not register for the service, those in other countries or of those who do not seek information exchange or contact. This is the first survey exploring the
Increasing numbers of donor-conceived individuals (and/or parents) are seeking individuals genetically related through donor conception. One route is through 'direct-to-consumer' (DTC) DNA testing, prompting calls for fertility services to alert donors and prospective parents to the increasing unsustainability of anonymity and secrecy. The complexity of interpreting DNA results in this context has also been discussed, including their lack of absolute certainty, as has the need for professional and peer support. This commentary highlights a different 'threat', from individuals learning of their donor-conception origins through the use of such tests by themselves or relatives for such purposes as genealogy or health checks. It illustrates the personal complexities faced by three older women and their families on learning not only of their genetic relationship to each other but also to 15 more donor-related siblings. DTC DNA services are a growing feature of modern life. This commentary raises ethical questions about their responsibilities towards those inadvertently learning of donor conception origins and the responsibilities of fertility services to inform prospective parents and donors of this new phenomenon. Considerations of how and when parents should tell their children of their donor-conception origins here instead become how and when children should inform their parents.
Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard
Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.
Low, G.; Wiebe, E.; Walji, A.H.; Bigam, D.L.
Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques
Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith
Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.
Goldberg, A E; Scheib, J E
What are female-partnered and single mothers' motivations and experiences at one donor insemination (DI) program with regard to contacting other families who share the same sperm donor? By and large, women reported seeking contact to obtain (i) support for their children and/or themselves, and (ii) information about shared traits and medical problems, ultimately describing a range of contact experiences, both positive (e.g. special bond created) and negative (e.g. uncomfortable encounters). There is a growing phenomenon of donor insemination families-parents and/or offspring-seeking others who share their donor (i.e. are 'donor-linked'). There is limited understanding about parental motivations and experiences-especially in the presence of a second parent-due to the methodological constraints of previous quantitative studies. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 50 donor insemination mothers (14 single, 36 female-partnered). Participants were recruited by email invitation to parent members of a family-matching service at one donor insemination program in the USA. The criterion for inclusion was having matched to at least one donor-linked family. Among the 50 mothers interviewed, all had at least one child conceived via donor insemination, who was between ages 0 and 15 years at first contact. Families matched with a median of three donor-linked families (range 1-10). Interview data were analyzed through qualitative (i.e. thematic) analysis. Overarching themes emerged of seeking contact to obtain (i) support and (ii) information about children's shared physical and psychological traits. Some wanted to increase their child's family network, through adding a sibling, but more often as extended family. Data, from partnered parents especially, revealed the challenges of balancing the boundaries of family formed without the genetic link with the perceived benefits of exploring the child's donor origins. Interviews focused on openness and information
Kloetzel, Megan K; Huebner, Colleen E; Milgrom, Peter
Oral health is essential to overall health in the prenatal period. Pregnancy is not a time to delay dental care. Several studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and poor pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth. Interventions to provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women yield inconsistent results regarding preterm birth but have established the safety of periodontal therapy during pregnancy. Postpartum women in poor dental health readily transmit the tooth decay pathogen Streptococcus mutans from their saliva to their infants, resulting in increased risk of early childhood caries. Preventive services and treatment for acute problems should be recommended, fears allayed, and women referred. Dental radiographs may be performed safely with the use of appropriate shielding. Nonemergent interventions are best provided between 14 and 20 weeks' gestation for comfort and optimal fetal safety. Most gravid women do not seek dental care. Increased interprofessional communication to encourage dentists to treat pregnant women will reduce the number of women without care. In states where it is available, Medicaid coverage of dental services for pregnant women is typically allowed during pregnancy and for 2 months postpartum. Women's health providers should understand the importance of protecting oral health during pregnancy and educate their patients accordingly. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Kramer, Wendy; Golombok, Susan
This study investigates a new phenomenon whereby individuals conceived by donor insemination are searching for and contacting their donor and/or 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor who are their genetic half siblings). On-line questionnaires were completed by members of the Donor Sibling Registry (DSR), a US-based registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Of the 165 donor offspring who completed the survey, 15% were searching for their donor siblings, 13% were searching for their donor, and 64% were searching for both. Differences were found according to family type and age of disclosure. Fewer offspring from heterosexual couple families had told their father about their search when compared with offspring from lesbian couple families who had told their co-parent. Offspring who had found out about their conception after age 18 were more likely to be searching for medical reasons, whereas those who had found out before age 18 tended to be searching out of curiosity. Some offspring had discovered large numbers of half siblings (maximum=13). The majority of offspring who had found their donor relations reported positive experiences and remained in regular contact with them. Copyright (c) 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Price, John F.
The National Referral Center (NRC) and its many services to the scientific and technical community are discussed in some detail as a preamble to a proposal of a cooperative arrangement between NRC and the American Geological Institute (AGI), its supporting societies, and all geoscientists in a combined effort to enlarge and maintain a…
Lester, Pamela Denise
A qualitative method of research was chosen for this study. This ethnographic case study examined school psychologists' and the referral process for special education services. The participants included school psychologists in a specific county in the state of Maryland. School psychologists are considered crucial members of an Individualized…
Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Yunus, Md; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis
Background and Aims: Pre-operative investigations are often required to supplement information for risk stratification and assessing reserve for undergoing surgery. Although there are evidence-based recommendations for which investigations should be done, clinical practice varies. The present study aimed to assess the pre-operative investigations and referral practices and compare it with the standard guidelines. Methods: The present observational study was carried out during 2014–appen2015 in a teaching institute after the approval from Institute Ethical Committee. A designated anaesthesiologist collected data from the completed pre-anaesthetic check-up (PAC) sheets. Investigations already done, asked by anaesthesiologists as well as referral services sought were noted and compared with an adapted master table prepared from standard recommendations and guidelines. Data were expressed in frequencies, percentage and statistically analysed using INSTAT software (GraphPad Prism software Inc., La Zolla, USA). Results: Seventy-five out of 352 patients (42.67% male, 57.33% female; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III) were included in this study. Nearly, all patients attended PAC with at least 5 investigations done. Of them, 89.33% were subjected to at least one unnecessary investigation and 91.67% of the referral services were not required which lead to 3.5 ( SD ±1.64) days loss. Anaesthesiologist-ordered testing was more focused than surgeons. Conclusion: More than two-third of pre-operative investigations and referral services are unnecessary. Anaesthesiologists are relatively more rational in ordering pre-operative tests yet; a lot can be done to rationalise the practice as well as reducing healthcare cost. PMID:27601737
Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.
Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036
Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for
Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S
BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...
Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L
The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.
Widge, A; Cleland, J
This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were -conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be -maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, -professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using -relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, -unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing -information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring -monitoring, proper documentation and transparency.
Miller, Melissa B.; Hendren, Ryan; Gilligan, Peter H.
A North Carolinian developed fatal coccidioidomycosis immediately after bilateral lung transplantation. The donor had previously traveled to Mexico, and the recipient had no travel history to an area where Coccidioides immitis is endemic. Immunosuppresive therapy of the transplant recipient likely reactivated latent Coccidioides infection in the donor lungs, leading to posttransplant coccidioidomycosis.
For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance
Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed.
M. L. Arefjev
Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation.
... section, the railroad treats the referral and subsequent handling, including counseling and treatment, as confidential. (3) The railroad will, to the extent necessary for treatment and rehabilitation, grant the employee a leave of absence from the railroad for the period necessary to complete primary treatment and...
The distribution of oesophageal, liver, stomach and colorectal cancers diagnosed per year across the five referral hospitals was ... Conclusion: Oesophageal, liver, stomach and colorectal cancer remain the most common gastrointestinal malignancies and their rate is .... intake, poor dietary patterns such as consumption of a.
clinical practice in both primary and secondary care.4 It is therefore ... specifically related to stigma4, severity of illness and past ... patients, stigma, concerns about the effect of psychiatric referral on ... They found the use of psychotropic drugs often necessary, ... The cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of.
Most patients were young males from Addis Ababa-the capital. The commonest single diagnosis was osteoarthritis, followed by ACL tear. The top three procedures for which the patients were referred are total hip replacement, ACL reconstruction and total knee replacement. Inter-consultant variation in number of referrals ...
Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for ...
Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.; Hansen, J.; Velden, L. van der; Nijpels, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de
BACKGROUND: Primary care nurses play an important role in diabetes care, and were introduced in GP-practice partly to shift care from hospital to primary care. The aim of this study was to assess whether the referral rate for hospital treatment for diabetes type II (T2DM) patients has changed with
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Referral to Department of Justice. 15.8 Section 15.8 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED... Justice. An award, compromise or settlement of a claim under § 2672 title 28, United States Code, and this...
The paper discusses a small segment of the findings of a sociolinguistic study that was conducted at a Republic of China-funded referral hospital located in the predominantly Chitumbuka-speaking Northern Malawi. The main objective of the study was to identify linguistic barriers to communication that existed at the hospital ...
Delays in diagnosis, referral and management of head and neck cancer presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ... Vol 83, No 4 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Background: The most important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer is the stage of the disease at presentation.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intake, referrals and targeting. 628.510 Section 628.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS... training have been provided subsequent to the objective assessment. (g) The SDA's method of meeting the...
Grote, F.K.; Dommelen, P. van; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.; Buuren, S. van
Objective: To establish evidence based guidelines for growth monitoring on a population basis. Study design: Several auxological referral criteria were formulated and applied to longitudinal growth data from four different patient groups, as well as three samples from the general population.
Wijers, D.; Wieske, L.; Vergouwen, M. D. I.; Richard, E.; Stam, J.; Smets, E. M. A.
Although the number of neurological second opinions (SOs) and tertiary referrals (TRs) is increasing, only little is known about expectations and patient satisfaction in this group of patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore expectations of patients who get a neurological SO or
Bender, A D; Geoghegan, S S; Lundquist, S H; Cantone, J M; Krasnick, C J
With increasing competition among hospitals, primary care referral development and management programs offer an opportunity for hospitals to increase their admissions. Such programs require careful development, the commitment of the hospital staff to the strategy, an integration of hospital activities, and an understanding of medical practice management.
The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community perception of seriousness of the condition, difficulty to access and cost involved in transport, living expenses at the hospital, and perceived quality of care at facility level. The hospitals were seen as providing acceptable quality of care, whereas, the ...
Predicting referral practices of traditional healers of their patients with a mental illness: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. ... From the TPB application, the following cognitive variables were found to predict intentions: attitudes (ß = 0.612, p< 0.01); perceived behavioural control (ß = 0.355, p< 0.01); and past ...
Nov 1, 2013 ... One can find support for all three proposals in the scientific literature.. Though this is a ... associations is the particular risk that the schizophrenic patient ... illness. This is comparable to the current study, in that all referrals for.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 502.37 Section 502.37 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF...
Background. Referral between psychiatrists and spiritual workers (e.g. Christian pastoral care workers, traditional healers, imams, rabbis and others) in the heterogeneous South African (SA) society is complicated and requires investigation to establish appropriate norms. Objective. To capture the views of some local ...
Sohal, Alex Hardip; Pathak, Neha; Blake, Sarah; Apea, Vanessa; Berry, Judith; Bailey, Jayne; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene
Sexual health and gynaecological problems are the most consistent and largest physical health differences between abused and non-abused female populations. Sexual health services are well placed to identify and support patients experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA). Most sexual health professionals have had minimal DVA training despite English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations. We sought to determine the feasibility of an evidence-based complex DVA training intervention in female sexual health walk-in services (IRIS ADViSE: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety whilst Assessing Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments). An adaptive mixed method pilot study in the female walk-in service of two sexual health clinics. Following implementation and evaluation at site 1, the intervention was refined before implementation at site 2. The intervention comprised electronic prompts, multidisciplinary training sessions, clinic materials and simple referral pathways to IRIS ADViSE advocate-educators (AEs). The pilot lasted 7 weeks at site 1 and 12 weeks at site 2. Feasibility outcomes were to assign a supportive DVA clinical lead, an IRIS ADViSE AE employed by a local DVA service provider, adapt electronic records, develop local referral pathways, assess whether enquiry, identification and referral rates were measurable. Both sites achieved all feasibility outcomes: appointing a supportive DVA clinical lead and IRIS ADViSE AE, establishing links with a local DVA provider, adapting electronic records, developing local referral pathways and rates of enquiry, identification and referral were found to be measurable. Site 1: 10% enquiry rate (n=267), 4% identification rate (n=16) and eight AE referrals. Site 2: 61% enquiry rate (n=1090), a 7% identification rate (n=79) and eight AE referrals. IRIS ADViSE can be successfully developed and implemented in sexual health clinics. It fulfils the unmet need for DVA training. Longer
Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R
In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship. © FPI, Inc.
Taylor, A H; Fox, K R; Hillsdon, M; Anokye, N; Campbell, J L; Foster, C; Green, C; Moxham, T; Mutrie, N; Searle, J; Trueman, P; Taylor, R S
Objective To assess the impact of exercise referral schemes on physical activity and health outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and ongoing trial registries up to October 2009. We also checked study references. Study selection Design: randomised controlled trials or non-randomised controlled (cluster or individual) studies published in peer review journals. Population: sedentary individuals with or without medical diagnosis. Exercise referral schemes defined as: clear referrals by primary care professionals to third party service providers to increase physical activity or exercise, physical activity or exercise programmes tailored to individuals, and initial assessment and monitoring throughout programmes. Comparators: usual care, no intervention, or alternative exercise referral schemes. Results Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, comparing exercise referral schemes with usual care (six trials), alternative physical activity intervention (two), and an exercise referral scheme plus a self determination theory intervention (one). Compared with usual care, follow-up data for exercise referral schemes showed an increased number of participants who achieved 90-150 minutes of physical activity of at least moderate intensity per week (pooled relative risk 1.16, 95% confidence intervals 1.03 to 1.30) and a reduced level of depression (pooled standardised mean difference −0.82, −1.28 to −0.35). Evidence of a between group difference in physical activity of moderate or vigorous intensity or in other health outcomes was inconsistent at follow-up. We did not find any difference in outcomes between exercise referral schemes and the other two comparator groups. None of the included trials separately reported outcomes in individuals with specific medical diagnoses.Substantial heterogeneity in the quality and nature of the exercise referral
Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K
The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P donor under age 70 years has the potential to donate 4.6 to 6.7 organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raines, Tara C.
The overrepresentation of minority students identified for special education services continues to plague schools and serves as a challenge for researchers and practitioners (Ferri & Conner, 2005). Teacher nomination, office discipline referrals (ODR), and functional behavior assessments (FBA) continue to guide referral processes (Bradshaw, Mitchell, O'Brennen, & Leaf, 2010; Eklund, et al., 2009; Mustian, 2010). These methods have been found to be riddled with inconsistencies. Practices used to identify students for behavioral and emotional interventions over-identify students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The use of a behavioral and emotional screener to make data-based decisions regarding placement and services could provide an objective assessment of student risk. The first chapter of this dissertation reviews methods used in the identification of students for behavioral and emotional support services. Additionally, the use of universal screening in conjunction with student self-report are proposed as tools for alleviating the overrepresentation of minority students in special education programs for behavioral and emotional disorders. The second chapter of this dissertation explores the measurement equivalence of Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Student form (BESS Student) across the Black, Hispanic, and White participants in the norming sample. The BESS Student as a universal screening tool is poised to alleviate the disproportionate number of children of color identified by schools as having behavior and emotional disorders. This instrument also provides an avenue to identify students with internalizing disorders who are often overlooked in present referral practices (Bradshaw, Buckley, & Ialongo, 2008; Kataoka, Zhang, & Wells, 2002). The findings of the measurement equivalence study suggests that the BESS Student is, as designed, identifying behavioral and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition and referral of sick children to a facility where they can obtain appropriate treatment is critical for helping reduce child mortality. A well-functioning referral system and compliance by caretakers with referrals are essential. This paper examines referral patterns for sick children, and factors that influence caretakers’ compliance with referral of sick children to higher-level health facilities in Afghanistan. Methods The study was conducted in 5 rural districts of 5 Afghan provinces using interviews with parents or caretakers in 492 randomly selected households with a child from 0 to 2 years old who had been sick within the previous 2 weeks with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI, or fever. Data collectors from local nongovernmental organizations used a questionnaire to assess compliance with a referral recommendation and identify barriers to compliance. Results The number of referrals, 99 out of 492 cases, was reasonable. We found a high number of referrals by community health workers (CHWs, especially for ARI. Caretakers were more likely to comply with referral recommendations from community members (relative, friend, CHW, traditional healer than with recommendations from health workers (at public clinics and hospitals or private clinics and pharmacies. Distance and transportation costs did not create barriers for most families of referred sick children. Although the average cost of transportation in a subsample of 75 cases was relatively high (US$11.28, most families (63% who went to the referral site walked and hence paid nothing. Most caretakers (75% complied with referral advice. Use of referral slips by health care providers was higher for urgent referrals, and receiving a referral slip significantly increased caretakers’ compliance with referral. Conclusions Use of referral slips is important to increase compliance with referral recommendations in rural Afghanistan.
Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Werner, Robert; Mujadidi, Farooq
Recognition and referral of sick children to a facility where they can obtain appropriate treatment is critical for helping reduce child mortality. A well-functioning referral system and compliance by caretakers with referrals are essential. This paper examines referral patterns for sick children, and factors that influence caretakers' compliance with referral of sick children to higher-level health facilities in Afghanistan. The study was conducted in 5 rural districts of 5 Afghan provinces using interviews with parents or caretakers in 492 randomly selected households with a child from 0 to 2 years old who had been sick within the previous 2 weeks with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI), or fever. Data collectors from local nongovernmental organizations used a questionnaire to assess compliance with a referral recommendation and identify barriers to compliance. The number of referrals, 99 out of 492 cases, was reasonable. We found a high number of referrals by community health workers (CHWs), especially for ARI. Caretakers were more likely to comply with referral recommendations from community members (relative, friend, CHW, traditional healer) than with recommendations from health workers (at public clinics and hospitals or private clinics and pharmacies). Distance and transportation costs did not create barriers for most families of referred sick children. Although the average cost of transportation in a subsample of 75 cases was relatively high (US$11.28), most families (63%) who went to the referral site walked and hence paid nothing. Most caretakers (75%) complied with referral advice. Use of referral slips by health care providers was higher for urgent referrals, and receiving a referral slip significantly increased caretakers' compliance with referral. Use of referral slips is important to increase compliance with referral recommendations in rural Afghanistan.
Parikh, Neehar D; Hutton, David; Marrero, Wesley; Sanghani, Kunal; Xu, Yongcai; Lavieri, Mariel
With the aging US population, demographic shifts, and obesity epidemic, there is potential for further exacerbation of the current liver donor shortage. We aimed to project the availability of liver grafts in the United States. We performed a secondary analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database of all adult donors from 2000 to 2012 and calculated the total number of donors available and transplanted donor livers stratified by age, race, and body mass index (BMI) group per year. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention historical data to stratify the general population by age, sex, race, and BMI. We then used US population age and race projections provided by the US Census Bureau and the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service and made national and regional projections of available donors and donor liver utilization from 2014 to 2025. We performed sensitivity analyses and varied the rate of the rise in obesity, proportion of Hispanics, population growth, liver utilization rate, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) utilization. The projected adult population growth in the United States from 2014 to 2025 will be 7.1%. However, we project that there will be a 6.1% increase in the number of used liver grafts. There is marked regional heterogeneity in liver donor growth. Projections were significantly affected by changes in BMI, DCD utilization, and liver utilization rates but not by changes in the Hispanic proportion of the US population or changes in the overall population growth. Overall population growth will outpace the growth of available donor organs and thus potentially exacerbate the existing liver graft shortage. The projected growth in organs is highly heterogeneous across different United Network for Organ Sharing regions. Focused strategies to increase the liver donor pool are warranted. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Venkat, Arvind; Baker, Eileen F; Schears, Raquel M
On a daily basis, emergency physicians are confronted by patients with devastating neurological injuries and insults. Some of these patients, despite our best efforts, will not survive. However, from these tragedies, there may be benefit given to others who are awaiting organ transplantation. Steps taken in the emergency department (ED) can be critical to preserving the option of organ donation in patients whose neurologic insult places them on a potential path to declaration of brain death. Much of the literature on this subject has focused on the utilitarian value of clinical interventions in the potential organ donor to optimize the likelihood of effective organ procurement. In this article, we present an actual case that reveals additional ethical perspectives to consider in how emergency physicians manage patients in the ED who can be confidently predicted to progress to death, as attested by neurologic criteria, and become organ donors. The case involves a patient with a devastating, nonsurvivable intracerebral hemorrhage who rapidly progressed to hemodynamic instability. This case reveals how the current organ donor referral and maintenance system raises ethical tensions for emergency physicians and ED personnel. This process imposes limitations on communication with patient surrogate decision-makers while calling for interventions with the primary purpose of benefiting off-site patients awaiting transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P
This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.
healthcare systems in certain regions of SA. ... Care Unit owing to incorrect use of referral pathways or during ... Due to budget constraints, limited resources .... Hospital. Home. Primary care clinic. Fig. 2. Origin of referral for each SD for 2011.
Andersen, Merethe Kirstine Kousgaard; Torfing, Trine; Ulrichsen, Walther
and MRI regarding musculoskeletal issues. The reviews were conducted according to a preformed registration schema. Themes for the survey were: Relevance of referral, relevance of chosen modality, exhaustiveness of referral information, relevance of information and eventual suggestions for a more relevant......-scanning was the most relevant (87%). Overall, referral information was relevant in 80% of the cases, and most relevant in referrals to x-ray (87%). In 9.5% of referrals the chosen modality was not the optimal, which was most pronounced for ultrasound referrals (13%). Referral information was most insufficient...... regarding MRI, where 56.4% of information was described as less insufficient/insufficient. It was a frequent notation, that there was too much irrelevant information, which was ascribed to copy-paste from the general practitioners’ records. Conclusion A majority of referrals from general practice...
Conclusions Three iterations of the model correctly predicted at least 75% of the approved referrals in the validation set. A correct prediction of whether or not a referral will be approved can be made in three out of four cases.
Berney, M J
Sagittal synostosis (SS) is the commonest form of craniosynostosis. Children with sagittal synostosis in Ireland are treated in the National Paediatric Craniofacial Centre (NPCC) in Temple Street Children’s University Hospital. This retrospective study analysed the correlation between referral patterns to the unit and age at operation. The notes of 81 patients referred over a 5 year period (April 2008 – April 2013) to the NPCC with non-syndromic SS were reviewed and demographics and referral information were recorded. Of 81 patients reviewed, 60 (74%) were referred before 6 months of age, while 21 (26%) had late referrals. Neonatologists referred 100% of infants before 6 months, paediatricians referred 71%, and GPs 64%. Later referral was associated with a more complex referral pathway, including multiple-steps of referral and unnecessary investigations. Improved clinician knowledge and emphasis on the importance of early referral may lead to a reduction in late referrals.
Shimul A Shah
Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.
Full Text Available Objectives: The Sami people constitute the indigenous people in northern Norway. The objective of this study was to clarify whether they have a similar supply of somatic specialist health care (SHC as others. Methods: The referrals from general practitioners (GPs in the primary health care (PHC in the administration area of the Sami language law (8 municipalities were matched with a control group of 11 municipalities. Population data was accessed from Statistics Norway and the time period 2007–2010 was analysed. The main outcome was the number of referrals per 1,000 inhabitants according to age group, gender and place of living. Results: 504,292 referrals in northern Norway were indentified and the Sami and control group constituted 23,093 and 22,541 referrals, respectively. The major findings were a similar referral ratio (RR (1.14 and 1.17 (p = 0.624 and women more commonly referred (female/male ratio 1.45 and 1.41 in both groups. GPs in both groups were loyal to their local hospital trust. Conclusion: Inhabitants in Sami-speaking municipalities in northern Norway have a similar supply of SHC services as controls. Inter-municipal variation was significant in both groups.
Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten
Objectives The Sami people constitute the indigenous people in northern Norway. The objective of this study was to clarify whether they have a similar supply of somatic specialist health care (SHC) as others. Methods The referrals from general practitioners (GPs) in the primary health care (PHC) in the administration area of the Sami language law (8 municipalities) were matched with a control group of 11 municipalities. Population data was accessed from Statistics Norway and the time period 2007–2010 was analysed. The main outcome was the number of referrals per 1,000 inhabitants according to age group, gender and place of living. Results 504,292 referrals in northern Norway were indentified and the Sami and control group constituted 23,093 and 22,541 referrals, respectively. The major findings were a similar referral ratio (RR) (1.14 and 1.17) (p =0.624) and women more commonly referred (female/male ratio 1.45 and 1.41) in both groups. GPs in both groups were loyal to their local hospital trust. Conclusion Inhabitants in Sami-speaking municipalities in northern Norway have a similar supply of SHC services as controls. Inter-municipal variation was significant in both groups. PMID:22456052
Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten
The Sami people constitute the indigenous people in northern Norway. The objective of this study was to clarify whether they have a similar supply of somatic specialist health care (SHC) as others. The referrals from general practitioners (GPs) in the primary health care (PHC) in the administration area of the Sami language law (8 municipalities) were matched with a control group of 11 municipalities. Population data was accessed from Statistics Norway and the time period 2007-2010 was analysed. The main outcome was the number of referrals per 1,000 inhabitants according to age group, gender and place of living. 504,292 referrals in northern Norway were indentified and the Sami and control group constituted 23,093 and 22,541 referrals, respectively. The major findings were a similar referral ratio (RR) (1.14 and 1.17) (p = 0.624) and women more commonly referred (female/male ratio 1.45 and 1.41) in both groups. GPs in both groups were loyal to their local hospital trust. Inhabitants in Sami-speaking municipalities in northern Norway have a similar supply of SHC services as controls. Inter-municipal variation was significant in both groups.
Fingland, P; Carswell, V; Tikka, T; Douglas, C M; Montgomery, J
In Scotland, patients with suspected head and neck cancer are referred on the basis of the Scottish Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer, rather than the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. A chest X-ray should be requested by the general practitioner at the same time as referral for persistent hoarseness. The evidence for this is level 4. This audit identified adherence to this recommendation and X-ray results. All 'urgent suspicion of cancer' referrals to the ENT department in the National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde for 2015-2016 were audited. Persistent hoarseness for more than 3 weeks instigated referral in 318 patients (15.7 per cent). Chest X-ray was performed in 120 patients (38 per cent), which showed: no abnormality in 116 (96.7 per cent), features of infection in 2 (1.7 per cent) and something else in 2 patients (1.7 per cent). No chest X-ray altered the management of a patient. Performance of chest X-ray does not alter management and its removal from the Scottish Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer is recommended.
Mehra, Darshan; Kaushik, Rajeev M; Kaushik, Reshma; Rawat, Jagdish; Kakkar, Rajesh
Initial default is a serious issue which can enhance the transmission of TB. We determined the magnitude of and the causative factors for initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. In this prospective study, 2310 patients attending a referral hospital in Uttarakhand state, north India, with presumptive TB were investigated and 555 patients with sputum-positive PTB were followed-up for initiation of anti-TB treatment (ATT) during 2010-2012. The patients not confirmed as having started ATT were considered initial defaulters. Initial default was seen in 120 (21.6%) patients comprising 22 (18.3%) defaulters during diagnosis and 98 (81.6%) defaulters after referral for directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The initial default rate was significantly higher among patients from rural areas than urban areas, illiterate patients than literate patients and smokeless tobacco-users than non-users (pdefault among patients referred for DOTS were limited trust in DOTS (n = 44, 44.8%), adverse effects of previous ATT (n = 41, 41.8%), dissatisfaction with health services (n = 38, 38.7%), local deaths while taking DOTS (n = 28, 28.5%), advice by others against DOTS (n = 25, 25.5%), disbelief in the diagnosis (n = 18, 18.3%) and patient death before starting treatment (n = 4, 4.0%). A high initial default rate was seen among patients with PTB. There is an urgent need to promote public awareness to lower the initial default rate.
Hysong, Sylvia J; Esquivel, Adol; Sittig, Dean F; Paul, Lindsey A; Espadas, Donna; Singh, Simran; Singh, Hardeep
Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP), the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs) (i.e., e-referrals), lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and subspecialists, e-referrals remain prone to coordination
Paul Lindsey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP, the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs (i.e., e-referrals, lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and
Greenfeld, Dorothy A
The present review examines recent publications that provide insight into how the trend toward nonanonymity and disclosure in gamete donation impacts donors, intended parents, and their donor-conceived children. Recent findings show an increase in donor programs that offer open-identity between donors and offspring. The psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly given consideration. Qualitative research on how parents of donor gamete offspring make decisions about disclosure reveals that even when couples initially disagree about disclosing to offspring, most ultimately come to a united disclosure decision. The literature on the impact of disclosure on donor gamete offspring has extended to include children conceived through embryo donation and children born as a result of surrogacy. The absence of genetic or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships. Parents through surrogacy tend to disclose the method of family creation to their child, whereas parents through embryo donation tend to be secretive about their child's origins. The trend toward greater openness in gamete donation has been accompanied by an increase in programs offering open-identity donation. In addition, the psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly being given consideration. Parents of donor gamete offspring give careful thought to their disclosure decisions, and the psychological well being of donor-conceived children does not seem to be impacted by those decisions.
Davis, LaShara A; Grogan, Tracy M; Cox, Joy; Weng, Francis L
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is more common among Blacks, but Blacks are less likely to receive a live donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The objective of this study is to identify barriers and coping mechanisms that Black LDKT recipients and donors experienced while receiving or donating a kidney. A qualitative study was conducted using structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used for data interpretation. All 20 participants identified as Black, with two participants identifying themselves as multiracial. The mean age for the 14 recipients was 60, and the average age for the 6 living donors was 47. Themes emerging from the data suggest both recipients and donors faced barriers in the LDKT experience. Recipients faced barriers associated with their denial and avoidance of the severity of their ESRD, their desire to maintain the privacy of their health status, and their refusal to approach potential donors. Donors encountered negative responses from others about the donors' desire to donate and the initial refusal of recipients to accept a LDKT offer. Recipients identified faith as a coping mechanism, while donors identified normalization of donation as their method of coping. Various types of social support helped donors and recipients navigate the transplant process. Black LDKT recipients and donors must overcome barriers prior to receiving or donating a kidney. Most of these barriers arise from communication and interactions with others that are either lacking or undesirable. Future interventions to promote LDKT among Blacks may benefit by specifically targeting these barriers.
Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure
Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.
Taniguchi, K; Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Ikegame, K; Kaida, K; Hayashi, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Okada, M; Onuma, T; Fujii, N; Kusunoki, Y; Soma, T; Saji, H; Ogawa, H
Pre-existing donor-specific HLA antibodies in patients undergoing HLA-mismatched SCT have increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for primary graft failure. However, the clinical implications of the presence of HLA antibodies in donors remain unknown. We prospectively examined 123 related donors for the presence of HLA antibodies by using a Luminex-based single antigen assay. Of these, 1/57 (1.8%) male, 6/27 (22%) parous female and 0/39 (0%) nonparous female donors were HLA antibody-positive. Then, we determined the presence of HLA antibodies in seven patients who received SCT from antibody-positive donors. Of these, four became HLA antibody-positive after SCT. The specificities of the antibodies that emerged in the patients closely resembled those of the antibodies found in the donors, indicating their production by donor-derived plasma cells. Moreover, the kinetics of the HLA antibody levels were similar in all four patients: levels started increasing within 1 week after SCT and peaked at days 10-21, followed by a gradual decrease. These results suggest that donor-derived HLA antibody production frequently occurs in patients undergoing SCT from antibody-positive donors. Further studies are warranted for clarifying the clinical significance of donor-derived HLA antibodies, including the role of these antibodies in post transplant platelet transfusion refractoriness.
Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.
Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor
Kisch, Annika; Bolmsjö, Ingrid; Lenhoff, Stig; Bengtsson, Mariette
There is a lack of knowledge about sibling stem cell donors' experiences pre-donation and the waiting period before the donation might have been long. The donors and their corresponding sibling recipients were simultaneously included in two different interview studies. The results from the recipient study have been presented in a separate paper. The aim was to explore the experiences of being a stem cell donor for a sibling, prior to donation. Ten adult sibling donors were interviewed prior to stem cell donation. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The main theme Being a cog in a big wheel describes the complex process of being a sibling donor prior to donation, covering a mixture of emotions and thoughts. The four subthemes Being available, Being anxious, Being concerned and Being obliged cover the various experiences. The sibling donors' experiences are influenced by the quality of the relationship with the sick sibling. Sibling stem cell donors go through a complex process once they have accidentally got involved in. They have been asked to become a donor; it was not a voluntary choice. In caring for sibling stem cell donors the nurses should be aware of the complexity of the process they experience and take into consideration their personal situation and needs. Providing optimal care for both sibling donors and their corresponding recipients is a challenge, and further improvement and exploration are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartung, J.; Weber, J.
Photothermal ionization spectroscopy on neutron-irradiated and subsequently hydrogen-plasma-treated silicon reveals the existence of new shallow donors. The binding energies of the observed effective-mass-like donors are between 34 and 53 meV. The optical dipole transitions of the different donors are shifted towards higher energies by ΔE=0.1--0.2 cm -1 , when deuterium is used in the plasma instead of hydrogen. This isotope shift of the optical dipole transitions between the electronic levels of the defects is direct proof of the incorporation of hydrogen in these defects
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars
The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...
The capacity to consent to bodily harm is explored in relation to the trade in kidneys obtained from impoverished healthy live donors for cash. The British medical profession has unambiguously condemned the practice, but the law in Britain allows a donor to consent to serious injury where the act had some social purpose, recognized by the law as valid. Allegations against the private Humana Hospital Wellington that indigent Turks were brought to Britain to be paid kidney donors, and similar practices elsewhere, are discussed. Questions are raised about the illegality of such contracts in Britain and the possibility of a Parliamentary Act making brokerage and involvement with such cash transactions a criminal offense.
Christopher A Smith
Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.
... 0720-AB36 TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech... referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and... practitioners will be allowed to issue referrals to patients for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...
Conclusions: Patient referral systems in Liberia are relatively unsystematic. While formal and informal mechanisms for referrals exist at both rural and urban health facilities, establishing guidelines for referral care practices and transportation strategies tailored to each of these settings will help to strengthen the healthcare system as a whole.
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referrals to the Department of Justice. 11.13 Section 11.13 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.13 Referrals to the Department of Justice. Referrals of debts to the Department of Justice for collection will...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Referral to the Department of Justice. 304.9... Procedures § 304.9 Referral to the Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 304.8, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice... THE UNITED STATES Referrals to the Department of Justice § 1015.505 Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) DOE shall not refer for litigation claims of less than $2,500, exclusive of...
... referrals to the Department of Justice. 1.953 Section 1.953 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.953 Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Department of Justice. 15.67 Section 15.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Referral of a Claim § 15.67 Referral to the Department of Justice. (a) Unless excepted by DOJ, the NRC shall complete the CCLR accompanied by...
Objectives: To determine the referral pattern and assess the quality and accuracy of referral letters to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: This study is a prospective cross-sectional survey of all new ophthalmic referrals to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic at University of ...
Mallett, Ross; Bakker, Edward; Burton, Maria
The aim of the present study was to establish if physiotherapy self-referral (SR) is viable, cost effective and beneficial to musculoskeletal outpatients in a primary care setting. In an urban National Health Service (NHS) primary care physiotherapy service, waiting times, attendance rates and treatment ratios (thus, episode-of-care costs) were deemed unsustainable. The introduction of 'Any Qualified Provider' is imminent and will drive NHS physiotherapy services to compete directly with private counterparts. Current literature, healthcare policy and the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy strongly advocate SR to promote value for money and improve the patient experience. A repeated measure prospective cohort study introduced an SR pathway parallel to existing general practice (GP) referrals and compared costs, attendance and data relating to the patient experience across groups. SR referral groups were found to have a higher proportion of female patients presenting with acute conditions. Cost minimization analysis indicated an average 32.3% reduction in episode-of-care cost with an SR-initiated intervention. An estimated cost minimization of between £84,387.80 and £124,472.06 was calculated if SR were to be expanded service-wide. SR referral reduced waiting times and improved patient satisfaction relating to waiting times and communication compared with traditional pathways. The results of the present study showed that the introduction of the described SR pathway was feasible, cost-effective and offered comparable care. Certain aspects of the SR patient experience compared more favourably than those studied in traditional GP referral routes. They also added to an existing body of evidence supporting SR with a variety of administrative processes in various socioeconomic settings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel
Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of
Sibulesky, Lena; Javed, Imran; Reyes, Jorge D; Limaye, Ajit P
Approximately 8-11% of all organ donors are classified by Public Health Service (PHS) as increased-risk. The proportion of PHS increased-risk donors is on the rise. At the University of Washington Medical Center, in 2014, the proportion of transplants from PHS increased-risk donors was 28% of liver transplants and 23% of kidney transplants. Nationally, transplant providers have been reluctant to use organs from PHS increased-risk donors because of concern for transmission of HIV, HCV, or HBV. There is also patient apprehension when these organs are being offered, and thus the discard rate of these otherwise good quality organs is high. Because of the organ shortage, preventing underutilization of such organs is essential. We provide data and considerations that should be used to guide the use of organs from PHS increased-risk donors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vertanous, T; Czer, L S C; de Robertis, M; Kiankhooy, A; Kobashigawa, J; Esmailian, F; Trento, A
The influence of new donor registrations through the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry on the local OneLegacy Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) was examined during a 6-year period. Publicly available data from Donate Life America for California were examined for the 6 calendar years of 2009-2014. Performance data from OneLegacy for the same 6 years for organ donors and number of transplants were also examined. The donor designation rate (DDR) was defined as the rate at which new individuals joined the state donor registry as a percentage of all driver licenses and ID cards issued within a calendar year. The total donor designation (TDD) was defined as the sum of the new and existing people who were registered organ donors. Donor designation share (DDS) was the total number of designated donors as a percentage of all residents of the state who were ≥18 years old. The business practices and educational efforts of the OneLegacy OPO were examined as well. In California, from 2009 through 2014, the DDR was 25.5%-28%. When added to the existing donor registrations, the TDD and DDS increased each year from 2009 through 2014. With the current level of growth, it is projected that California will be able to reach a DDS of 50% by 2017. For the OneLegacy OPO, designated donors from the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry made up 15% of the total donations in 2009, and 39% of the total donations in 2014, increasing by ∼5% each year since 2009. By increasing professionalization and transparency, and widening its educational and training efforts, OneLegacy was able to take advantage of an increasing percentage of donors who were designated donors and to increase the overall number of donors and organs transplanted, becoming one of the largest OPOs in the nation. This can be a model for OPOs in other donor service areas, and it may set the stage for the United States to serve as an example to the global community in the practice of organ donation. Copyright
Kuo, P C; Johnson, L B
A tenet of microeconomics is that new technology will shift the supply curve to the right. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a new technique for removal of living donor kidneys. Centers performing this procedure have noted an increased number of patients presenting for donor evaluation. This has not been previously studied. The records of all LDN performed from May 1998 to February 1999 were reviewed. The following variables were examined: sex, age, related vs. unrelated donation, estimated blood loss, i.v. analgesia, length of stay, and time out of work. Donors undergoing traditional open donor nephrectomy during January 1997 to May 1998 served as the control group. A composite cost index was constructed. LDN significantly decreased length of stay, pain, and time out of work; the supply function shifted to the right. Telephone interviews revealed that 47% donated solely because of the LDN procedure. LDN increases the supply of living donor kidneys.
Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.
Watson, Christopher J E; Johnson, Rachel J; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, Dave; Bradley, J Andrew
We sought to determine the deceased donor factors associated with outcome after kidney transplantation and to develop a clinically applicable Kidney Donor Risk Index. Data from the UK Transplant Registry on 7620 adult recipients of adult deceased donor kidney transplants between 2000 and 2007 inclusive were analyzed. Donor factors potentially influencing transplant outcome were investigated using Cox regression, adjusting for significant recipient and transplant factors. A United Kingdom Kidney Donor Risk Index was derived from the model and validated. Donor age was the most significant factor predicting poor transplant outcome (hazard ratio for 18-39 and 60+ years relative to 40-59 years was 0.78 and 1.49, respectively, Pinformed consent.
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
879 November 2012, Vol. 102, No. 11 SAMJ. REVIEW. Paediatric living donor liver transplantation ... been excellent after left lateral segmentectomy, with a usually quoted ... has led to the development of new surgical techniques to increase.
For people with end-stage kidney disease, a transplant is the promise of a future without dialysis. Living donor kidney transplantation comprises many specificities and is distinct from cadaveric donor transplantation. Some psychological aspects explain these specificities. They may be subconscious and difficult to access, but it is essential to decipher them in order to adapt the support provided to these people. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Razdan, Manik; Smith, Kenneth J; Bryce, Cindy L; Degenholtz, Howard B
Transplant medicine's impact on America's public health is seriously limited by acute shortage of transplantable organs. Consequently, the United Sates has witnessed considerable investment in the promotion of organ donor registries. Although there is no evidence to support that donor registry promotion alleviates organ shortage, this belief continues to drive investments into registry promotion. In this study, return on investment in donor registry promotion was examined using cost-outcomes analysis. Cost of promoting the donor registry was estimated in US dollars whereas the outcome was measured as the number of individuals who join the registry (registrants) and their value in terms of organ donors. The study was conducted from the perspective of a regional Organ Procurement Organization (OPO). Costs were directly obtained from the OPO. The number of new registrants was obtained from the OPO and the departments of motor vehicles that maintain the donor registry. The value of registrants in terms of organ donors was computed based on a registrant's age-dependent risk of dying and age-dependent probability of becoming an organ donor. Six thousand seven hundred eight individuals joined the organ donor registry (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5429-7956) at a cost of $455 per registrant (95% CI, US $383-US $562). These individuals result in 4.2 present-day donors (95% CI, 2.5-6.6) at a cost of US $726 000 (95% CI, US $462000-US $1.2 million). Because the cost per registrant and cost per donor is less than society's willingness to pay, donor registry promotion offers positive return on investment. Investment in registry promotion should at the minimum be maintained at current levels.
Conner-Spady, Barbara L; Marshall, Deborah A; Bohm, Eric; Dunbar, Michael J; Loucks, Lynda; Hennigar, Allan W; Frank, Cy; Noseworthy, Tom W
Although the option of next available surgeon can be found on surgeon referral forms for total joint replacement surgery, its selection varies across surgical practices. Objectives are to assess the determinants of (a) a patient's request for a particular surgeon; and (b) the actual referral to a specific versus the next available surgeon. Questionnaires were mailed to 306 consecutive patients referred to orthopedic surgeons. We assessed quality of life (Oxford Hip and Knee scores, Short Form-12, EuroQol 5D, Pain Visual Analogue Scale), referral experience, and the importance of surgeon choice, surgeon reputation, and wait time. We used logistic regression to build models for the 2 objectives. We obtained 176 respondents (response rate, 58%), 60% female, 65% knee patients, mean age of 65 years, with no significant differences between responders versus nonresponders. Forty-three percent requested a particular surgeon. Seventy-one percent were referred to a specific surgeon. Patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 6.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.57-16.64] and with household incomes of $90,000+ versus <$30,000 (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.56-21.03) were more likely to request a particular surgeon. Hip patients (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.18-7.78), better Physical Component Summary-12 (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), and patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.56-9.70) were more likely to be referred to a specific surgeon. Most patients want some choice in the referral decision. Providing sufficient information is important, so that patients are aware of their choices and can make an informed choice. Some patients prefer a particular surgeon despite longer wait times.
Down-referral was associated with reduced transportation and meal costs (p ≤ 0.001) and travel time to an ART facility (p = 0.043). The down-referred users were less likely to complain of long queues (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.06; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.01–0.29), were more likely to feel respected by health ...
Steltenkamp Carol L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer is critical in the primary care to specialist referral process and has been examined extensively in the US and other countries, yet there has been little attention to the patient's perspective of the information transfer process. This cross-sectional study examined the quality of the information received by patients with a chronic condition from the referring and specialist physician in the specialist referral process and the relationship of the quality of information received to trust in the physicians. Methods Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 250 patients who had experienced a referral to a specialist for the first visit for a chronic condition within the prior six months. The sample was selected from the patients who visited specialist physicians at any of the 500 hospitals from the National Research Corporation client base. Results Most patients (85% received a good explanation about the reason for the specialist visit from the referring physician yet 26% felt unprepared about what to expect. Trust in the referring physician was highly associated with the preparatory information patients received. Specialists gave good explanations about diagnosis and treatment, but 26% of patients got no information about follow-up. Trust in the specialist correlated highly with good explanations of diagnosis, treatment, and self-management. Conclusion Preparatory information from referring physicians influences the quality of the referral process, the subsequent coordination of care, and trust in the physician. Changes in the health care system can improve the information transfer process and improve coordination of care for patients.
Yamagishi, Akemi; Morita, Tatsuya; Kawagoe, Shohei; Shimizu, Megumi; Ozawa, Taketoshi; An, Emi; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori
This study aims to clarify the length of home hospice care, family-perceived timing of referrals, and their effects on the family-perceived quality of care and quality of death and dying of terminally ill cancer patients who died at home and identify the determinants of perceived late referrals. A multicenter questionnaire survey was conducted involving 1,052 family members of cancer patients who died at home supported by 15 home-based hospice services throughout Japan. A total of 693 responses were analyzed (effective response rate, 66 %). Patients received home-based hospice care for a median of 35.0 days, and 8.0 % received home hospice care for less than 1 week. While 1.5 % of the families reported the timing of referrals as early, 42 % reported the timing as late or too late. The families of patients with a length of care of less than 4 weeks were more likely to regard the timing of referrals as late or too late. The patients of family members who regarded the timing of referrals as late or too late had a significantly lower perceived quality of care (effect size, 0.18; P = 0.039) and lower quality of death and dying (effect size, 0.15, P = 0.063). Independent determinants of higher likelihoods of perceived late referrals included: frequent visits to emergency departments, patient being unprepared for worsening condition, and patient having concerns about relationship with new doctor. Discharge nurse availability was independently associated with lower likelihoods of perceived late referrals. A significant number of bereaved families regarded the timing of referrals to home hospices as late, and the perceived timing was associated with the family-perceived quality of care and quality of death and dying. Systematic strategies to overcome the barriers related to perceived late referrals are necessary.
... connection with employment or participation in an employability service. (g) Case management services, when...: Assessment and short-term counseling to persons or families in a perceived crisis; referral to appropriate... mental health needs and maintain or improve their physical and mental health. (3) Home management...
Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga
This article considers the disclosure, sharing and exchange of information on being donor conceived within families, drawing on data from a study undertaken with donor-conceived adults registered with UK Donor Link (a voluntary DNA-linking register). This paper considers the narratives of how respondents found out they were donor-conceived and what events triggered disclosure of this information. This paper then goes on to examine the role secrecy played in their family life and uses the concept of 'display' to explore how secrecy affected their relationships with their immediate and extended family. Secrets are notoriously 'leaky' and we found complex patterns of knowing and uncertainty about whom in the family knew that the person was donor-conceived. We argue that what is kept secret and from whom provides insights into the multifaceted web of social relationships that can be created by donor-conception, and how knowledge can be managed and controlled in attempts to display and maintain family narratives of biogenetic connection. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Sales, Gabriele; Costamagna, Andrea; Fanelli, Vito; Boffini, Massimo; Pugliese, Francesco; Mascia, Luciana; Brazzi, Luca
Over the last two decades, lung transplantation emerged as the standard of care for patients with advanced and terminal lung disease. Despite the increment in lung transplantation rates, in 2016 the overall mortality while on waiting list in Italy reached 10%, whereas only 39% of the wait-list patients were successfully transplanted. A number of approaches, including protective ventilatory strategy, accurate management of fluid balance, and administration of a hormonal resuscitation therapy, have been reported to improve lung donor performance before organ retrieval. These approaches, in conjunction with the use of ex-vivo lung perfusion technique contributed to expand the lung donor pool, without affecting the harvest of other organs and the outcomes of lung recipients. However, the efficacy of issues related to the ex-vivo lung perfusion technique, such as the optimal ventilation strategy, the ischemia-reperfusion induced lung injury management, the prophylaxis of germs transmission from donor to recipient and the application of targeted pharmacologic therapies to treat specific donor lung injuries are still to be explored. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the "state-of-art" strategies to optimize the donor lungs and to present the actual role of ex-vivo lung perfusion in the process of lung transplant. Moreover, different approaches about the technique reported in literature and several issues that are under investigation to treat specific donor lung injury will be discussed.
W. F. Harris
Full Text Available A previous paper develops the general theory of aperture referral in linear optics and shows how several ostensibly distinct concepts, including the blur patch on the retina, the effective corneal patch, the projective field and the field of view, are now unified as particular applications of the general theory. The theory allows for astigmatism and heterocentricity. Symplecticity and the generality of the approach, however, make it difficult to gain insight and mean that the material is not accessible to readers unfamiliar with matrices and linear algebra. The purpose of this paper is to examine whatis, perhaps, the most important special case, that in which astigmatism is ignored. Symplecticity and, hence, the mathematics become greatly simplified. The mathematics reduces largely to elementary vector algebra and, in some places, simple scalar algebra and yet retains the mathematical form of the general approach. As a result the paper allows insight into and provides a stepping stone to the general theory. Under referral an aperture under-goes simple scalar magnification and transverse translation. The paper pays particular attention to referral to transverse planes in the neighbourhood of a focal point where the magnification may be positive, zero or negative. Circular apertures are treated as special cases of elliptical apertures and the meaning of referred apertures of negative radius is explained briefly. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(1 3-11
Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios
In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.
Erim, Yesim; Beckmann, Mingo; Kroencke, Sylvia; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Paul, Andreas; Senf, Wolfgang; Schulz, Karl-Heinz
In the context of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), German transplantation law stipulates that donor candidates should primarily be relatives of the recipients or persons with distinct and close relationships. In this study, we investigated the influence of the relationship between the donor and the recipient on the donor's emotional strain before transplantation. Donors were categorized according to the following subgroups: (1) parents donating for their children, (2) children donating for their parents, (3) siblings, (4) spouses, (5) other relatives, and (6) nonrelatives. The sample consisted of 168 donor candidates. Anxiety (F = 2.8, P = 0.02), depression (F = 2.6, P = 0.03), and emotional quality of life (F = 3.1, P = 0.01) differed significantly according to the relationship between the donor and the recipient. In comparison with healthy controls, parents donating for their children were significantly less stressed before LDLT and demonstrated fewer anxiety (P depression symptoms (P < 0.05). Adult children donating for their parents demonstrated the highest mental burden and the lowest emotional quality of life. However, this was not due to the responsibility of these children for their own families because differences between donors with children and donors without children could not be ascertained. This group should be given special attention before LDLT and during follow-up visits, and psychological help should be provided when it is necessary. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to examine an audit that was performed of all patients referred to a liaison psychiatry inpatient consultation service which sought to establish a baseline for demographics, type of referral, and management of referrals, with a view to introducing improved evidence-based treatments. It also aims to examine timeliness of response to referrals benchmarked against published standards. DESIGN\\/METHODOLOGY\\/APPROACH: All inpatient referrals to a liaison psychiatry service were recorded over a six-month period, including demographics, diagnosis, management and timeliness of response to referrals. The data were retrospectively analysed and compared against international standards. FINDINGS: A total of 172 referrals were received in the six months. Commonest referral reasons included assessments regarding depressive disorders (23.8 per cent), delirium\\/other cognitive disorders (19.2 per cent), alcohol-related disorders (18.6 per cent), anxiety disorders (14.5 per cent), and risk management (12.2 per cent). Evidence-based practices were not utilised effectively for a number of different types of presentations. A total of 40.1 per cent of referrals were seen on the same day, 75.4 per cent by the end of the next day, and 93.4 per cent by the end of the following day. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Use of a hospital protocol for management of delirium may improve outcomes for these patients. Evidence-based techniques, such as brief intervention therapies, may be beneficial for referrals involving alcohol dependence. Referrals were seen reasonably quickly, but there is room for improvement when compared with published standards. ORIGINALITY\\/VALUE: This paper provides valuable information for those involved in management of liaison psychiatry consultation services, providing ideas for development and implementation of evidence based practices.
Lyne, John; Hill, Michelle; Burke, Patricia; Ryan, Martina
The purpose of this paper is to examine an audit that was performed of all patients referred to a liaison psychiatry inpatient consultation service which sought to establish a baseline for demographics, type of referral, and management of referrals, with a view to introducing improved evidence-based treatments. It also aims to examine timeliness of response to referrals benchmarked against published standards. All inpatient referrals to a liaison psychiatry service were recorded over a six-month period, including demographics, diagnosis, management and timeliness of response to referrals. The data were retrospectively analysed and compared against international standards. A total of 172 referrals were received in the six months. Commonest referral reasons included assessments regarding depressive disorders (23.8 per cent), delirium/other cognitive disorders (19.2 per cent), alcohol-related disorders (18.6 per cent), anxiety disorders (14.5 per cent), and risk management (12.2 per cent). Evidence-based practices were not utilised effectively for a number of different types of presentations. A total of 40.1 per cent of referrals were seen on the same day, 75.4 per cent by the end of the next day, and 93.4 per cent by the end of the following day. Use of a hospital protocol for management of delirium may improve outcomes for these patients. Evidence-based techniques, such as brief intervention therapies, may be beneficial for referrals involving alcohol dependence. Referrals were seen reasonably quickly, but there is room for improvement when compared with published standards. This paper provides valuable information for those involved in management of liaison psychiatry consultation services, providing ideas for development and implementation of evidence based practices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of maternal mortality ratio by two-thirds by 2015 is an international development goal with unrestricted access to high quality emergency obstetric care services promoted towards the attainment of that goal. The objective of this qualitative study was to assess the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care services in Gambia's main referral hospital. Methods From weekend admissions a group of 30 women treated for different acute obstetric conditions including five main diagnostic groups: hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, dystocia, sepsis and anemia were purposively selected. In-depth interviews with the women were carried out at their homes within two weeks of discharge. Results Substantial difficulties in obtaining emergency obstetric care were uncovered. Health system inadequacies including lack of blood for transfusion, shortage of essential medicines especially antihypertensive drugs considerably hindered timely and adequate treatment for obstetric emergencies. Such inadequacies also inflated the treatment costs to between 5 and 18 times more than standard fees. Blood transfusion and hypertensive treatment were associated with the largest costs. Conclusion The deficiencies in the availability of life-saving interventions identified are manifestations of inadequate funding for maternal health services. Substantial increase in funding for maternal health services is therefore warranted towards effective implementation of emergency obstetric care package in The Gambia.
Full Text Available Previous research indicates interest among some donor-conceived people, donors and recipient parents in having contact. Outcomes of such contact appear largely, but not universally, positive. This paper seeks to understand better the characteristics of associated support services. Information gathered using the authors' direct experiences and professional and personal networks in different parts of the world indicates the emergence of four main groupings: (i publically funded services outside of treatment centers; (ii services provided by fertility treatment or gamete bank services; (iii services provided privately by independent psychosocial or legal practitioners; and (4 services organized by offspring and/or recipient parents. Key operational features examined were: (i who can access such services and when; (ii what professional standards and funding are in place to provide them; and (iii how ‘matching’ and contact processes are managed. Differences appear influenced variously by the needs of those directly affected, local policies, national legislation and the interests of the fertility services which recruit gamete donors and/or deliver donor conception treatments. The paper is intended to inform fuller debate about how best to meet the needs of those seeking information and contact, the implications for the way that fertility treatment and gametes donation services are currently provided and future research needs.
García-Haro, J; Fernández-Briz, N
This study discusses the need of specific criteria for psychotherapy referral in the public services. the use of psychotherapy as a supplement to traditional medication, and its comparison with informal methods of support, has been questioned. This study proposes the establishment of basic criteria for the integration of psychotherapy, based on an analysis of the conditions that allow it to function. It thus aims to contribute to improving the reputation and the practice conditions of psychotherapy in the public health system. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; Burnside, Amanda N; Smith, Patricia K; Kramer, Anne C; Wills, Allie; A King, Cheryl
Gatekeeper training is a public health approach to suicide prevention that encourages community members to identify those at risk for suicide, respond appropriately, and refer for clinical services. Despite widespread use, few studies have examined whether training results in behavior change in participants. This study employed a naturalistic pre-post design to follow 434 participants in Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training, finding small but significant increases in self-reported identification of at-risk youth, some helpful responses to youth, and numbers of youth referred to treatment from pre-test to 6- to 9-month follow-up. Changes in active listening and helping behaviors meant to support treatment referrals (such as convincing a youth to seek treatment) were not observed over time. Additional analyses explored predictors of self-reported skill utilization including identification as a "natural helper" and attitudes about suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Carolina Bonet Bub
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Successful transfusion of platelet refractory patients is a challenge. Many potential donors are needed to sustain human leukocyte antigen matched-platelet transfusion programs because of the different types of antigens and the constant needs of these patients. For a highly mixed population such as the Brazilian population, the pool size required to provide adequate platelet support is unknown. Methods: A mathematical model was created to estimate the appropriate size of an unrelated donor pool to provide human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet support for a Brazilian population. A group of 154 hematologic human leukocyte antigen-typed patients was used as the potential patient population and a database of 65,500 human leukocyte antigen-typed bone marrow registered donors was used as the donor population. Platelet compatibility was based on the grading system of Duquesnoy. Results: Using the mathematical model, a pool containing 31,940, 1710 and 321 donors would be necessary to match more than 80% of the patients with at least five completely compatible (no cross-reactive group, partial compatible (one cross-reactive group or less compatible (two cross-reactive group donors, respectively. Conclusion: The phenotypic diversity of the Brazilian population has probably made it more difficulty to find completely compatible donors. However, this heterogeneity seems to have facilitated finding donors when cross-reactive groups are accepted as proposed by the grading system of Duquesnoy. The results of this study may help to establish unrelated human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet transfusions, a procedure not routinely performed in most Brazilian transfusion services.
Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P
To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver ( P = 0.027). Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation.
Siegel, Jason T.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Jones, Sara Pace
There is little debate over Hispanics' need for viable organs. Although organ donor registries can potentially assist in alleviating this need, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has called on researchers to investigate methods to maximize such potential. This research effort answers the aforementioned call by surveying…
Ganly, Peter S; Keeman, Helen; Spearing, Ruth L; Smith, Mark P; Patton, Nigel; Merriman, Eileen G; Gibbons, Steve S
To measure the safety and acceptability of providing written advice (WA) for selected patients referred to a haematology service, as an alternative to inpatient or outpatient assessment. Review of the initial management and subsequent course of patients newly referred to a tertiary referral hospital in Christchurch, New Zealand, between 16 October 2003 and 8 June 2006. Structured questionnaires were sent to all referring doctors and patients recently managed with WA. Numbers and diagnoses of patients managed with WA, early assessment or delayed assessment; re-referral and treatment details; characteristics of WA letters; and opinions of referring doctors and their patients on the WA process. 26% of new referrals (714/2785) were managed with prompt WA, while 16% (455/2785) received the alternative of delayed assessment. After a median follow-up of 23 months (range, 8-40 months), 13% of those managed with WA (91/714) were re-referred back to the same haematologists; 7% (52/714) were assessed in hospital and 2% (15/714) eventually required treatment. There were no deaths due to haematological causes. Over 90% of responding referring doctors said the WA process was rapid and effective, and 77% of recently managed patients were pleased to be treated by their own doctors. Using WA to manage a substantial minority of patients referred to haematologists can be rapid and safe. It is widely accepted by referring doctors.
Chiniara, Lyne; Perry, Rebecca J; Van Vliet, Guy; Huot, Céline; Deal, Cheri
In 2001, a chart review of children referred to the authors' endocrine clinic because of short stature revealed that many were referred with insufficient baseline data, had normal height velocity and were within genetic target height. Therefore, a two-way fax communication system was implemented between referring physicians and the authors' service before the first visit. Aspects that were assessed included whether this system increased the information accompanying the patient at referral, resulted in children with nonpathological shortness not being seen in the clinic, and was used differently by paediatricians and general practitioners. Between January and December 2006, 138 referrals for short stature, diagnosed with familial short stature, constitutional delay or idiopathic short stature, were audited (69 with and 69 without previous fax communication). Data collected included source of referral, clinical information provided, available growth measurements, and results from laboratory and imaging studies. Fax communication resulted in growth curves being provided more often (95.6% of cases versus 40.5% of cases without fax communication [Pshort stature being given to 31 children based on the growth curve, laboratory and imaging results, without the children being seen in the endocrine clinic. Fax communication was also used more frequently by paediatricians (84%) than by general practitioners (15%). The fax communication system resulted in a more complete evaluation of referred patients by their physicians and reduced the number of unnecessary visits to the authors' specialty clinic while promoting medical education.
Hassan M K Ghomrawi
Full Text Available Efforts to reduce racial disparities in total hip replacement (THR have focused mainly on patient behaviors. While these efforts are no doubt important, they ignore the potentially important role of provider- and system-level factors, which may be easier to modify. We aimed to determine whether the patterns of interaction among physicians around THR episodes differ in communities with low versus high concentrations of black residents.We analyzed national Medicare claims from 2008 to 2011, identifying all fee-for-service beneficiaries who underwent THR. Based on physician encounter data, we then mapped the physician referral networks at the hospitals where beneficiaries' procedures were performed. Next, we measured two structural properties of these networks that could affect care coordination and information sharing: clustering, and the number of external ties. Finally, we estimated multivariate regression models to determine the relationship between the concentration of black residents in the community [as measured by the hospital service area (HSA] served by a given network and each of these 2 network properties.Our sample included 336,506 beneficiaries (mean age 76.3 ± SD, 63.1% of whom were women. HSAs with higher concentrations of black residents tended to be more impoverished than those with lower concentrations. While HSAs with higher concentrations of black residents had, on average, more acute care beds and medical specialists, they had fewer surgeons per capita than those with lower concentrations. After adjusting for these differences, we found that HSAs with higher concentrations of black residents were served by physician referral networks that had significantly higher within-network clustering but fewer external ties.We observed differences in the patterns of interaction among physicians around THR episodes in communities with low versus high concentrations of black residents. Studies investigating the impact of these differences
A study of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, was carried out between December, 2003 and April, 2004. A total of 500 blood samples were collected from blood donors consisting of 262 commercial donors and 238 relation-donors, using ...
Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.
Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation
Jackson, Taylor J; Blumberg, Todd J; Shah, Apurva S; Sankar, Wudbhav N
Musculoskeletal injuries are among the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visits in the pediatric population. Many such injuries can be managed with a single follow-up outpatient visit. However, untimely (ie, premature) referrals by emergency physicians to orthopaedic surgeons are common and may inadvertently create need for a second visit, generating unnecessary expenditures. We sought to elucidate the cost of premature musculoskeletal follow-up visits to the patients, families, and the health care system. We performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients with acute musculoskeletal injuries referred from our ED (without a formal orthopaedic consult) to our outpatient clinic. Patients were retrospectively reviewed in a consecutive fashion. The appropriateness of the recommended follow-up time interval was determined for each patient, and the direct and indirect cost of the inappropriate services were calculated utilizing a combination of traditional cost accounting techniques and time-driven activity-based costing. The characteristics of patients with appropriate and untimely follow-up referrals were compared. Two hundred consecutive referrals from the ED were reviewed. Overall, 96.5% of the follow-up visits recommended by the ED were premature, which led 106 (53%) patients to require a second visit to complete their clinical care. Patients who required a second visit were significantly younger (P=0.005), more likely to be male (P=0.042), more likely to have a fracture (Pcost of $342.93 per patient. Untimely referrals for follow-up of acute pediatric musculoskeletal conditions are very common and represent a significant financial burden to patients, families, and the health care system. Over 40% of unnecessary visits resulted from just 3 diagnoses. Improved orthopaedic follow-up guidelines, particularly for these readily recognizable conditions, and feedback to referring providers may reduce poorly timed clinic visits and decrease costs in
Aldridge, Arnie; Linford, Robyn; Bray, Jeremy
To estimate changes in the substance use behaviors of patients who received services as part of the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program. We use a pre-post design and performance monitoring data collected by SBIRT organizations. For a sample of 17 575 patients, we compare pre-SBIRT substance use with substance use 6 months after receipt of SBIRT services. SBIRT's correlation with changes in substance use was estimated using generalized linear mixed models to account for the clustering of patients within health-care facility and US state. From pre- to post-SBIRT we found large and statistically significant decreases for almost every measure of substance use. Model-adjusted means indicate that the prevalence of alcohol use was lower 6 months later by 35.6%, heavy drinking by 43.4% and illicit drug use by 75.8%. Greater intervention intensity was associated with larger decreases in substance use. The study design does not support causal conclusions and estimated decreases in reported substance use are due, at least in part, to a well-known set of confounders and natural substance use patterns that may be unrelated to any particular SBIRT intervention. Compared with previously published findings on the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment grant program, our estimates of substance use reduction were smaller, but still consistently large in absolute magnitude and within ranges of estimates from past trials of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Shah, Shimul A; Levy, Gary A; Adcock, Lesley D; Gallagher, Gary; Grant, David R
The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of decease...
Dahhan, Ali; Maddox, William R; Krothapalli, Siva; Farmer, Matthew; Shah, Amit; Ford, Benjamin; Rhodes, Marc; Matthews, Laurie; Barnes, Vernon A; Sharma, Gyanendra K
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective preventive measure that remains underutilised in the United States. The study aimed to determine the CR referral rate (RR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at an academic tertiary care centre, identify barriers to referral, and evaluate awareness of CR benefits and indications (CRBI) among cardiologists. Subsequently, it aimed to evaluate if an intervention consisting of physicians' education about CRBI and implementation of a formal CR referral system could improve RR and consequently participation rate (PR). Data were retrospectively collected for all consecutive patients who underwent PCI over 12 months. Referral rate was determined and variables were compared for differences between referred and non-referred patients. A questionnaire was distributed among the physicians in the Division of Cardiology to assess awareness of CRBI and referral practice patterns. After implementation of the intervention, data were collected retrospectively for consecutive patients who underwent PCI in the following six months. Referral rate and changes in PRs were determined. Prior to the intervention, RR was 17.6%. Different barriers were identified, but the questionnaire revealed lack of physicians' awareness of CRBI and inconsistent referral patterns. After the intervention, RR increased to 88.96% (Odds Ratio 37.73, 95% CI 21.34-66.70, pEducation of providers and implementation of a formal referral system can improve RR and PR. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Blyth, Eric; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Frith, Lucy; van den Akker, Olga
This paper reports on a study of the views and experiences of 21 sperm donors and five egg donors registered with UK DonorLink (UKDL), a voluntary DNA-based contact register established to facilitate contact between adults who wish to identify and locate others to whom they are genetically related following donor conception. Specifically, the paper examines donors' reasons for searching for, or making information about themselves available to donor-conceived offspring. Their expectations of registration with UKDL, experiences of being registered and finally, the experiences of those who had contacted donor-conceived offspring and other genetic relatives are investigated. While most respondents reported largely positive experiences of registration, the study found significant issues relating to concerns about donation, DNA testing, possible linking with offspring and expectations of any relationship that might be established with offspring that have implications for support, mediation and counselling. Research that puts the experiences, perceptions and interests of gamete donors as the central focus of study is a relatively recent phenomenon. This study contributes to this debate and highlights directions for future research in this area.
Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter
Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages