WorldWideScience

Sample records for donor history questionnaire-user

  1. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Cameroon: evidence for the design of an Africa-specific donor history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagny, Claude T; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Fopa, Diderot; Ashu, Celestin; Tante, Estel; Ngo Balogog, Pauline; Donfack, Olivier; Mbanya, Dora; Laperche, Syria; Murphy, Edward

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Variables with univariate associations were entered into a logistic regression model to assess independent associations. A scoring scheme to distinguish between HIV-positive and HIV-negative donors was developed using receiver operating characteristics curves. We identified 16 risk factors including sex with sex worker, past history or treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and having a partner who used injected or noninjected illegal drugs. Two novel risks were related to local behavior: polygamy (odds ratio [OR], 22.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-86.7) and medical or grooming treatment on the street (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Using the 16 selected items the mean scores (>100) were 82.6 ± 6.7 (range, 53.2-95.1) and 85.1 ± 5.2 for HIV-negative donors versus 77.9 ± 6.8 for HIV-positive ones (p = 0.000). Donors who scored between 80 and 90 were more likely to be HIV negative than those who scored less (OR, 31.4; 95% CI, 3.1-313.9). We identified both typical and novel HIV risk factors among Cameroonian blood donors. An adapted DHQ and score that discriminate HIV-negative donors may be an inexpensive means of reducing transfusion-transmitted HIV through predonation screening. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Deceased-Donor Smoking History Is Associated With Increased Recipient Mortality After Kidney Transplant: A Population-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillott, Holly; Jackson Spence, Francesca; Tahir, Sanna; Hodson, James; Nath, Jay; Sharif, Adnan

    2018-05-16

    Historical data have suggested that donor smoking is associated with detrimental clinical outcomes for recipients of kidneys from deceased donors. However, the effects of smoking status of a kidney donor on the outcomes of the recipient in a contemporary setting of immunosuppression and transplant practice have not yet been ascertained. This retrospective, population-cohort study analyzed data of all deceased-donor kidney-alone transplant procedures performed in the United Kingdom between April 2001 and April 2013. Our study included 11?199 deceased-donor kidney allograft recipients, with median follow-up of 46 months posttransplant. In our cohort, 5280 deceased donors (47.1%) had a documented history of smoking. Deceased donors with versus those without smoking history were more likely to be younger (mean age of 48 vs 50 years; P history (hazard ratio of 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.25; P = .044). No significant association was seen for death-censored or overall graft survival. Our multivariate survival analyses showed that, after accounting for confounding factors, the effects of donor smoking status remained significant for patient survival (hazard ratio of 1.16, 95% CI, 1.03-1.29; P =.011) but not graft survival. This population-cohort study suggests that deceased-donor kidneys from smokers contribute to an increased risk of death for kidney allograft recipients. These study findings imply donor smoking history should be factored into the risk stratification decision for recipient selection to optimize decision making; however, further clarification and validation of these data are warranted.

  3. The effect of prior transfusion history on blood donor anti-hepatitis C virus antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazda, T; Nakata, K; Ota, K; Kaminuma, Y; Katayama, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the major transfusion-associated disease is non-A, non-B hepatitis. We studied the relationship between transfusion history and blood donor antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV). The positive rate of antibodies to the HCV nonstructural protein (c100-3) depended on age and the time elapsed since transfusion. The anti-c100-3 ratio for subjects with transfusions made prior to 20 years ago was high. One quarter century ago, a change occurred in national blood policy from paid to non-paid voluntary donations. We also have studied the anti-HCV positive rate among donors with prior transfusion using a second generation HCV test kit which includes anti-HCV core antibody detection. The anti-HCV positive rate for the second generation test was higher than that for the anti-c100-3 test. Introduction of the second generation test is therefore more useful in screening than the anti-c100-3 test for blood programs.

  4. Deceased Organ Donors With a History of Increased Risk Behavior for the Transmission of Blood-Borne Viral Infection: The UK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.

  5. Association of Blood Transfusion From Female Donors With and Without a History of Pregnancy With Mortality Among Male and Female Transfusion Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram-Deelder, Camila; Kreuger, Aukje L.; Evers, Dorothea; de Vooght, Karen M. K.; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C. V.; Hudig, Francisca; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; van der Bom, Johanna G.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Transfusion of red blood cells from female donors has been associated with increased mortality in male recipients. Objective To quantify the association between red blood cell transfusion from female donors with and without a history of pregnancy and mortality of red blood cell recipients. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study of first-time transfusion recipients at 6 major Dutch hospitals enrolled from May 30, 2005, to September 1, 2015; the final follow-up date was September 1, 2015. The primary analysis was the no-donor-mixture cohort (ie, either all red blood cell transfusions exclusively from male donors, or all exclusively from female donors without a history of pregnancy, or all exclusively from female donors with a history of pregnancy). The association between mortality and exposure to transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors was analyzed using life tables and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models. Exposures Red blood cell transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors, compared with red blood cell transfusions from male donors. Main Outcomes and Measures All-cause mortality during follow-up. Results The cohort for the primary analyses consisted of 31 118 patients (median age, 65 [interquartile range, 42-77] years; 52% female) who received 59 320 red blood cell transfusions exclusively from 1 of 3 types of donors (88% male; 6% ever-pregnant female; and 6% never-pregnant female). The number of deaths in this cohort was 3969 (13% mortality). For male recipients of red blood cell transfusions, all-cause mortality rates after a red blood cell transfusion from an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 101 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (time-dependent “per transfusion” hazard ratio [HR] for death, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.01-1.26]). For receipt of transfusion from a never-pregnant female donor vs male donor, mortality rates were 78 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (HR

  6. Association of Blood Transfusion From Female Donors With and Without a History of Pregnancy With Mortality Among Male and Female Transfusion Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram-Deelder, Camila; Kreuger, Aukje L; Evers, Dorothea; de Vooght, Karen M K; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C V; Hudig, Francisca; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; van der Bom, Johanna G; Middelburg, Rutger A

    2017-10-17

    Transfusion of red blood cells from female donors has been associated with increased mortality in male recipients. To quantify the association between red blood cell transfusion from female donors with and without a history of pregnancy and mortality of red blood cell recipients. Retrospective cohort study of first-time transfusion recipients at 6 major Dutch hospitals enrolled from May 30, 2005, to September 1, 2015; the final follow-up date was September 1, 2015. The primary analysis was the no-donor-mixture cohort (ie, either all red blood cell transfusions exclusively from male donors, or all exclusively from female donors without a history of pregnancy, or all exclusively from female donors with a history of pregnancy). The association between mortality and exposure to transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors was analyzed using life tables and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models. Red blood cell transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors, compared with red blood cell transfusions from male donors. All-cause mortality during follow-up. The cohort for the primary analyses consisted of 31 118 patients (median age, 65 [interquartile range, 42-77] years; 52% female) who received 59 320 red blood cell transfusions exclusively from 1 of 3 types of donors (88% male; 6% ever-pregnant female; and 6% never-pregnant female). The number of deaths in this cohort was 3969 (13% mortality). For male recipients of red blood cell transfusions, all-cause mortality rates after a red blood cell transfusion from an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 101 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (time-dependent "per transfusion" hazard ratio [HR] for death, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.01-1.26]). For receipt of transfusion from a never-pregnant female donor vs male donor, mortality rates were 78 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.81-1.06]). Among female recipients of red blood cell transfusions, mortality rates for

  7. Prediction of hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors: how to model donation history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.; Vergouwe, Y.; Atsma, F.; Moons, K.G.; Kort, W.L. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, prediction models for hemoglobin (Hb) deferral risk have been developed. These models consider the previous Hb level plus change in Hb. Here, we investigated if the performance of models could be improved by considering more information on Hb level history. STUDY DESIGN AND

  8. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with a clinical history of sexual transmission of HIV-1 from a single donor reveals transmission of highly distinct variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClure Myra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1, a successful vaccine will need to cope with the variability of transmissible viruses. Human hosts infected with HIV-1 potentially harbour many viral variants but very little is known about viruses that are likely to be transmitted, or even if there are viral characteristics that predict enhanced transmission in vivo. We show for the first time that genetic divergence consistent with a single transmission event in vivo can represent several years of pre-transmission evolution. Results We describe a highly unusual case consistent with a single donor transmitting highly related but distinct HIV-1 variants to two individuals on the same evening. We confirm that the clustering of viral genetic sequences, present within each recipient, is consistent with the history of a single donor across the viral env, gag and pol genes by maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo based phylogenetic analyses. Based on an uncorrelated, lognormal relaxed clock of env gene evolution calibrated with other datasets, the time since the most recent common ancestor is estimated as 2.86 years prior to transmission (95% confidence interval 1.28 to 4.54 years. Conclusion Our results show that an effective design for a preventative vaccine will need to anticipate extensive HIV-1 diversity within an individual donor as well as diversity at the population level.

  9. Suicidal hanging donors for lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Olga; Schmack, Bastian; Zych, Bartlomiej; Sabashnikov, Anton; Garcia-Saez, Diana; Mohite, Prashant; Weymann, Alexander; Mansur, Ashham; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Marczin, Nandor; De Robertis, Fabio; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Popov, Aron-Frederik

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the context of limited donor pool in cardiothoracic transplantation, utilization of organs from high risk donors, such as suicidal hanging donors, while ensuring safety, is under consideration. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group. Between January 2011 and December 2015, 265 LTx were performed at our center. Twenty-two recipients received lungs from donors after suicidal hanging (group 1). The remaining 243 transplantations were used as a control (group 2). Analysis of recipient and donor characteristics as well as outcomes was performed. No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics between analyzed groups, except for higher incidence of cardiac arrest, younger age and smoking history of hanging donors (P donor cause of death is not associated with poor mid-term survival or chronic lung allograft dysfunction following transplantation. These results encourage assessment of lungs from hanging donors, and their consideration for transplantation. PMID:29620623

  10. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  11. Recruitment of feces donors among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Jørgensen, Simon Mark; Erikstrup, Christian; Dinh, Khoa Manh

    2018-01-01

    As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we...... investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire...... to rule out predisposing risk factors. Second, eligible blood donors had blood and fecal samples examined. Of 155 blood donors asked to participate, 137 (88%) completed the electronic pre-screening questionnaire, 16 declined, and 2 were excluded. Of the 137 donors who completed the questionnaire, 79 (58...

  12. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, G.; Wiebe, E.; Walji, A.H.; Bigam, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques

  13. Posttransplantation Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Acquired from Donor Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; Hendren, Ryan; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A North Carolinian developed fatal coccidioidomycosis immediately after bilateral lung transplantation. The donor had previously traveled to Mexico, and the recipient had no travel history to an area where Coccidioides immitis is endemic. Immunosuppresive therapy of the transplant recipient likely reactivated latent Coccidioides infection in the donor lungs, leading to posttransplant coccidioidomycosis.

  14. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....

  15. Donor Smoking and Older Age Increases Morbidity and Mortality After Lung Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, H H; Møller, C H; Zemtsovski, M

    2017-01-01

    survival as well as CLAD-free survival was significantly lower with donors ≥55 years. CONCLUSIONS: Donor smoking history and older donor age impact lung function, mortality, and CLAD-free survival after transplantation. Because of a shortage of organs, extended donor criteria may be considered while taking......BACKGROUND: The lack of lung transplant donors has necessitated the use of donors with a smoking history and donors of older age. We have evaluated the effects of donor smoking history and age on recipient morbidity and mortality with baseline values of pulmonary function and survival free...... of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) as morbidity variables. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 588 consecutive lung transplant recipients and their corresponding 454 donors. Donors were divided into three groups: group 1 included smokers, group 2 nonsmokers, and group 3 had unknown smoking...

  16. Predictors of Donor Heart Utilization for Transplantation in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Jaimin R; Cheng, Allen; Gallo, Michele; Schumer, Erin M; Massey, H Todd; Slaughter, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Optimum use of donor organs can increase the reach of the transplantation therapy to more patients on waiting list. The heart transplantation (HTx) has remained stagnant in United States over the past decade at approximately 2,500 HTx annually. With the use of the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor database (DCD) we aimed to evaluate donor factors predicting donor heart utilization. UNOS DCD was queried from 2005 to 2014 to identify total number of donors who had at least one of their organs donated. We then generated a multivariate logistic regression model using various demographic and clinical donor factors to predict donor heart use for HTx. Donor hearts not recovered due to consent or family issues or recovered for nontransplantation reasons were excluded from the analysis. During the study period there were 80,782 donors of which 23,606 (29%) were used for HTx, and 38,877 transplants (48%) were not used after obtaining consent because of poor organ function (37%), donor medical history (13%), and organ refused by all programs (5%). Of all, 22,791 donors with complete data were used for logistic regression (13,389 HTx, 9,402 no-HTx) which showed significant predictors of donor heart use for HTx. From this model we assigned probability of donor heart use and identified 3,070 donors with HTx-eligible unused hearts for reasons of poor organ function (28%), organ refused by all programs (15%), and recipient not located (9%). An objective system based on donor factors can predict donor heart use for HTx and may help increase availability of hearts for transplantation from existing donor pool. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of potential heart donors: A statement from the French heart transplant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorent, Richard; Gandjbakhch, Estelle; Goéminne, Céline; Ivanes, Fabrice; Sebbag, Laurent; Bauer, Fabrice; Epailly, Eric; Boissonnat, Pascale; Nubret, Karine; Amour, Julien; Vermes, Emmanuelle; Ou, Phalla; Guendouz, Soulef; Chevalier, Philippe; Lebreton, Guillaume; Flecher, Erwan; Obadia, Jean-François; Logeart, Damien; de Groote, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Assessment of potential donors is an essential part of heart transplantation. Despite the shortage of donor hearts, donor heart procurement from brain-dead organ donors remains low in France, which may be explained by the increasing proportion of high-risk donors, as well as the mismatch between donor assessment and the transplant team's expectations. Improving donor and donor heart assessment is essential to improve the low utilization rate of available donor hearts without increasing post-transplant recipient mortality. This document provides information to practitioners involved in brain-dead donor management, evaluation and selection, concerning the place of medical history, electrocardiography, cardiac imaging, biomarkers and haemodynamic and arrhythmia assessment in the characterization of potential heart donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  19. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test for...

  20. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of a medical history, tests, and...

  1. Anonymous living liver donation: donor profiles and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, T W; Fox, A; Adcock, L; Wright, L; Abbey, S E; Levy, G; Grant, D R

    2010-09-01

    There are no published series of the assessment process, profiles and outcomes of anonymous, directed or nondirected live liver donation. The outcomes of 29 consecutive potential anonymous liver donors at our center were assessed. We used our standard live liver assessment process, augmented with the following additional acceptance criteria: a logical rationale for donation, a history of social altruism, strong social supports and a willingness to maintain confidentiality of patient information. Seventeen potential donors were rejected and 12 donors were ultimately accepted (six male, six female). All donors were strongly motivated by a desire and sense of responsibility to help others. Four donations were directed toward recipients who undertook media appeals. The donor operations included five left lateral segmentectomies and seven right hepatectomies. The overall donor morbidity was 40% with one patient having a transient Clavien level 3 complication (a pneumothorax). All donors are currently well. None expressed regret about their decision to donate, and all volunteered the opinion that donation had improved their lives. The standard live liver donor assessment process plus our additional requirements appears to provide a robust assessment process for the selection of anonymous live liver donors. Acceptance of anonymous donors enlarges the donor liver pool. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  3. Systems of donor transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. de Charro (Frank); J.E.M. Akveld (Hans); E. Hessing (Ellen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in

  4. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  5. National Marrow Donor Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Setterholm, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    ... a nationwide contingency response plan. 2. Rapid Identification of Matched Donors : Increase operational efficiencies that accelerate the search process and increase patient access are key to preparedness in a contingency event. pa 3...

  6. Eye bank procedures: donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sidney Júlio de Faria E; Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E

    2018-01-01

    Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history. These lists are guardians of the Hippocratic principle "primum non nocere." However, each transplantation carries risk of transmission of potentially harmful agents to the recipient. The aim of the procedures is not to eliminate risk, but limit it to a reasonable level. The balance between safety and corneal availability needs to be maintained by exercising prudence without disproportionate rigor.

  7. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  8. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  9. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  15. DAT positivity in blood donors: a perplexing scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Ravneet Kaur; Mittal, Kshitija; Sood, Tanvi; Kumar, Rakesh; Praveen, Ajay S

    2014-04-01

    A blood request was received for 70 year male patient suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with anemia. One unit was found incompatible in AHG phase. Patient's antibody screen, indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and auto control was negative. DAT of donor unit was positive with anti IgG gel card and negative with C3d reagent along with positive auto control. Donor was 30 year male with no history of blood transfusion and medication and had no evidence of hemolysis. Donors with positive DAT should be deferred, notified and referred to physician but further studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are drowned donors marginal donors? A single pediatric center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, Kayla R; Galván, N Thao N; Koohmaraie, Sarah; Rana, Abbas; Kueht, Michael; Baugh, Katherine; Hao, Liu; Yoeli, Dor; Cotton, Ronald; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A

    2017-09-01

    Drowning, a common cause of death in the pediatric population, is a potentially large donor pool for OLT. Anecdotally, transplant centers have deemed these organs high risk over concerns for infection and graft dysfunction. We theorized drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes and therefore should not be excluded from the donation pool. We reviewed our single-center experience of pediatric OLTs between 1988 and 2015 and identified 33 drowned donor recipients. These OLTs were matched 1:2 to head trauma donor OLTs from our center. A chart review assessed postoperative peak AST and ALT, incidence of HAT, graft and recipient survival. Recipient survival at one year between patients with drowned donor vs head trauma donor allografts was not statistically significant (94% vs 97%, P=.63). HAT incidence was 6.1% in the drowned donor group vs 7.6% in the control group (P=.78). Mean postoperative peak AST and ALT was 683 U/L and 450 U/L for drowned donors vs 1119 U/L and 828 U/L in the matched cohort. These results suggest drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes in comparison with those procured from head trauma donors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.

  18. Suicidal hanging donors for lung transplantation: Is this chapter still closed? Midterm experience from a single center in United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Olga; Schmack, Bastian; Zych, Bartlomiej; Sabashnikov, Anton; Garcia-Saez, Diana; Mohite, Prashant; Weymann, Alexander; Mansur, Ashham; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Marczin, Nandor; De Robertis, Fabio; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Popov, Aron-Frederik

    2018-04-01

    In the context of limited donor pool in cardiothoracic transplantation, utilization of organs from high risk donors, such as suicidal hanging donors, while ensuring safety, is under consideration. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group.Between January 2011 and December 2015, 265 LTx were performed at our center. Twenty-two recipients received lungs from donors after suicidal hanging (group 1). The remaining 243 transplantations were used as a control (group 2). Analysis of recipient and donor characteristics as well as outcomes was performed.No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics between analyzed groups, except for higher incidence of cardiac arrest, younger age and smoking history of hanging donors (P donor cause of death is not associated with poor mid-term survival or chronic lung allograft dysfunction following transplantation. These results encourage assessment of lungs from hanging donors, and their consideration for transplantation.

  19. Meet the donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olejaz, Maria; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    motivations, but rather as something made meaningful in the light of how donors understand their bodies; their social relations; and their societal position and experiences as patients in the healthcare system. The article thus contributes to the field by investigating the nature of the relationship between......For centuries, gross anatomy teaching and anatomical dissection have been fundamental elements in the training of medical doctors and surgeons across the world. Anatomy education and research rely on a stable and reliable supply of bodies in order to take place. Based on qualitative in...

  20. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  1. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation...... and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark...

  2. The Dirt on the Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary Margaret

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of donor records in college and university fund-raising programs looks at a variety of issues, including who sees them (administrators, donors, volunteers, and members of the legal profession), how access to them is controlled, and what is kept in them. Suggestions are offered for managing such records, and the experiences of a number…

  3. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  4. Expanding the pool of kidney donors: use of kidneys with acute renal dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho de; Requião-Moura, Lúcio Roberto; Clarizia, Gabriela; Durão Junior, Marcelino de Souza; Tonato, Eduardo José; Chinen, Rogério; Arruda, Érika Ferraz de; Filiponi, Thiago Corsi; Pires, Luciana Mello de Mello Barros; Bertocchi, Ana Paula Fernandes; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the shortage of organs transplantation, some strategies have been adopted by the transplant community to increase the supply of organs. One strategy is the use of expanded criteria for donors, that is, donors aged >60 years or 50 and 59 years, and meeting two or more of the following criteria: history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinine >1.5mg/dL, and stroke as the donor´s cause of death. In this review, emphasis was placed on the use of donors with acute renal failure, ...

  5. Profile of effective donors from organ and tissue procurement services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Simey de Lima Lopes; Ferraz Neto, Jose Ben-Hur de Escobar; Sardinha, Luiz Antonio da Costa; Araujo, Sebastião; Zambelli, Helder Jose Lessa; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Athayde, Maria Valeria de Omena; Montone, Eliete Bombarda Bachega; Panunto, Marcia Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the profile of effective organ and tissue donors and to understand which organs and tissues were donated for transplantation. Methods This was a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory, retrospective study that analyzed clinical data from 305 donors between January 2006 to December 2010. The data were then analyzed using descriptive analyses, generating frequency tables, measures of position (mean, minimum and maximum) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation) for data that was social and clinical in nature. Results There was an overall predominance of white (72%) and male (55%) individuals between the ages of 41 and 60 years (44%). The primary cause of brain death was cerebrovascular accident (55%). In the patient history, 31% of the patients were classified as overweight, 27% as hypertensive and only 4.3% as having diabetes mellitus. Vasoactive drugs were used in 92.7% of the donors, and the main drug of choice was noradrenaline (81.6%). Hyperglycemia and hypernatremia were diagnosed in 78% and 71% of the donors, respectively. Conclusion Significant hemodynamic changes were found, and the results indicate that the use of vasoactive drugs was the main strategy used to control these changes. Furthermore, most donors presented with hyperglycemia and hypernatremia, which were frequently reported in association with brain death. The persistent nature of these findings suggests that the organ donors were inadequately maintained. PMID:24770685

  6. Anesthesia Management of Organ Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Victor W; Braunfeld, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The shortage of suitable organs is the biggest obstacle for transplants. At present, most organs for transplant in the United States are from donation after neurologic determination of death (brain death). Potential organs for transplant need to maintain their viability during a series of insults, including the original disease, physiologic derangements during the dying process, ischemia, and reperfusion. Proper donor management before, during, and after procurement has potential to increase the number and quality of organs from donors. Anesthesiologists need to understand the physiologic derangements associated with brain death and the updated donor management during the periprocurement period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New hydrogen donors in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilo, Yu.M.; Petukh, A.N.; Litvinov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The electrophysical properties of the n-type conductivity germanium, irradiated through protons, is studied by the volt-farad method. It is shown that the heat treatment of the implanted germanium at the temperature of 200-300 deg C leads to formation of the fast-diffusing second-rate donors. It is established that the diffusion coefficient of the identified donors coincides with the diffusion coefficient of the atomic hydrogen with an account of the capture on the traps. The conclusion is made, that the atomic hydrogen is the second-rate donor center in germanium [ru

  8. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  9. Governance, resource curse and donor

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor

  10. Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

  11. Kidney transplant outcomes from older deceased donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J; Caskey, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor...

  12. Living related donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Chen, Y S; Liu, P P; Chiang, Y C; Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Eng, H L

    1997-10-01

    Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) has been developed in response to the paediatric organ donor shortage. According to the International Living Donor Registry, 521 transplants had been performed in 515 patients between December 8 1988 and January 19 1996 in 30 centres worldwide. The overall actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 82.7 and 80%, respectively. Between June 17 1994 and November 30 1996, the authors performed 11 LRLT at the Chung Gung Memorial Hospital. The living donors consisted of 10 mothers and one father. The mean graft weight was 303 g and the mean graft recipient weight ratio was 2.2%. Donor hepatectomy was performed without vascular inflow occlusion. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 30 mL to 120 mL with an average of 61 mL, and blood transfusion was not required in all donors both intra-operatively and during the postoperative period. Underlying diseases of the recipients were biliary atresia (n = 10) and glycogen storage disease (n = 1). The mean graft cold ischaemia time was 106 min, the mean second warm ischaemia time was 51 min and the mean interval between portal and arterial reperfusion was 81 min. The initial LRLT results were promising with all donors having been discharged without complication. The recipients experienced a few complications, all of which were manageable with early intervention. All 11 recipients are alive and well. These are encouraging results and the authors hope to expand the use of live donors for liver transplantation to cope with demand.

  13. [Lack of donor organs as an argument for living donors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, G

    2010-09-01

    In Germany more than 12,000 patients are presently waiting for an organ donation. Living donation makes sense for the long waiting time for a kidney, but it is not a permanent solution for the lack of organ donations. In the future topics which should be discussed are intensified public relations, a better family care and the allocation of rights and duties at the German coordinating agency. For all the prospects of success after a living donation the high standards of quality and security, which are targeted by the German donor organization in recipient protection, responsible evaluation of the expanded donor criteria and immunosuppressive therapy are all in favor of post-mortem organ donation. For all the phenomenal chance of success the priority of the post-mortem organ donation is regulated by law. The living donation remains an individual decision of the donor and the personal situation of life.

  14. Why Should Donors Care about Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is bad for donor business. Corruption reduces popular support for aid in donor countries. However, aid agencies should pay attention to corruption because it is the right thing to do, rather than just the smart thing to do. Donor anti-corruption policies require a strong grounding in ethics. Corruption produces bad development outcomes. This is the reasoning largely underlying donor anti-corruption efforts. The focus on consequences of corruption makes donor anticorruptioneffo...

  15. Function following Living Donor Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Heldt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While tobacco use by a renal transplant recipient has been shown to negatively affect graft and patient survival, the effect of smoking on the part of the kidney donor remains unknown. Methods. 29 smoking donors (SD and their recipients (SD-R as well as 71 non-smoking donors (ND and their recipients (ND-R were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative demographics and perioperative variables including serum creatinine (Cr and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were calculated and stratified by amount of tobacco exposure in pack-years. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with a Student's t-test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression analysis (=0.05. Results. At most recent followup, SD-R's had a significantly smaller percent decrease in postoperative Cr than ND-R's (−57% versus −81%; =0.015 and lower calculated GFR's (37.0 versus 53.0 mL/min per 1.73 m2; <0.001. SD's had a larger percent increase in Cr than ND's at most recent followup (57% versus 40%; <0.001, with active smokers having a larger increase than those who quit, although this difference was not statistically significant (68% versus 52%; =0.055. Conclusions. Use of tobacco by kidney donors is associated with decreased posttransplant renal function, although smoking cessation can improve outcomes. Kidneys from donors who smoke should be used with caution.

  16. Dengue antibodies in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. OBTECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgG(TM)). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed.

  17. Donor Outcomes in Living Donor Liver Transplantation-Analysis of 275 Donors From a Single Centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gomathy; Safwan, Mohamed; Kota, Venugopal; Reddy, Mettu S; Bharathan, Anand; Dabora, Abderrhaim; Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Kanagavelu, Rathnavel G; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Live donor liver transplantation is the predominant form of liver transplantation in India and in most Asian countries. Donor outcome reports are an important source of information to be shared with prospective donors at the time of informed consent. This is the first donor outcome series from India. Analysis of donor characteristics and morbidity of 275 live donors from a single large volume center is documented. Two hundred seventy-five patients donated from November 2009 to October 2014, 144 were women and 131 were men, 180 donated to adults and 95 donated to children. Right lobe donors were majority at 62.2% followed by left lateral segment 28%. Two thirds of the live donors did not have any morbidity; 114 complications were encountered in 85 patients. The complications were graded as per Clavien 5 tier grading and major morbidity (grade III b, grade IV grade V) was 4.36%. Postoperative biliary complication was seen in 3 donors. This large single-center study is the first donor outcome report from India, and the results are comparable to other published donor series. Documentation and regular audit of donor outcomes is important to help improve the safety of donor hepatectomy and to provide a database for informed consent of prospective donors.

  18. Gamete donation: parents' experiences of searching for their child's donor siblings and donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T; Jadva, V; Kramer, W; Golombok, S

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates the new phenomenon of parents of donor offspring searching for and contacting their child's 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor) and donor. Online questionnaires were completed by 791 parents (39% lone-mother, 35% lesbian-couple, 21% heterosexual-couple, 5% non-specified) recruited via the Donor Sibling Registry; a US-based international registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Data were collected on parents' reasons for searching for their child's donor siblings and/or donor, the outcome of these searches and parents' and their child's experiences of any resulting contact. Parents' principal motivation for searching for their child's donor siblings was curiosity and for their donor, enhancing their child's sense of identity. Some parents had discovered large numbers of donor siblings (maximum = 55). Most parents reported positive experiences of contacting and meeting their child's donor siblings and donor. This study highlights that having access to information about a child's donor origins is important for some parents and has potentially positive consequences. These findings have wider implications because the removal of donor anonymity in the UK and elsewhere means that increasing numbers of donor offspring are likely to seek contact with their donor relations in the future.

  19. Screening of post-mortem tissue donors for Coxiella burnetii infection after large outbreaks of Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Marja J.; Maas, D. Willemijn; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Hogema, Boris M.

    2014-01-01

    After the largest outbreaks of Q fever ever recorded in history occurred in the Netherlands, concern arose that Coxiella may be transmitted via donated tissues of latent or chronically infected donors. The Dutch Health Council recently advised to screen tissue donors, donating high risk tissues, for

  20. Achieving donor management goals before deceased donor procurement is associated with more organs transplanted per donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Daly, Michael C; Patel, Madhukar S; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Foster, Clarence E; Salim, Ali

    2011-10-01

    There is a national shortage of organs available for transplantation. Implementation of preset donor management goals (DMGs) to improve outcomes is recommended, but uniform practices and data are lacking. We hypothesized that meeting DMGs before organ procurement would result in more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The eight organ procurement organization in United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 selected 10 critical care end points as DMGs. Each organ procurement organization submitted retrospective data from 40 standard criteria donors. "DMGs met" was defined as achieving any eight DMGs before procurement. The primary outcome was ≥4 OTPD. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of ≥4 OTPD with a pdonors had 3.6±1.6 OTPD. Donors with DMGs met had more OTPD (4.4 vs. 3.3, p50% (OR=4.0), Pao2:FIO2>300 (OR=4.6), and serum sodium 135 to 160 mEq/L (OR=3.4). Meeting DMGs before procurement resulted in more OTPD. Donor factors and critical care end points are independent predictors of organ yield. Prospective studies are needed to determine the true impact of each DMG on the number and function of transplanted organs.

  1. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.L.; Luken, J.S.; van den Burg, P.J.M.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.; Koopman, M.M.W.; Vrielink, H.; van Schoor, N.M.; den Heijer, M.; Lips, P.

    2015-01-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115

  2. [ALAT and viral RNA as risk factors in 68 blood donors with anti-hepatitis C antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullen, E; De Saussure, P; Soulier-Lauper, M

    1993-01-23

    Determine the risk factors in blood donors with anti hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV ab) possible liver involvement and evaluation of their infectious potential by a search for viral RNA in blood. Between July 1990 and October 1991, 19,632 blood donors were screened for hepatitis C. Antibodies to HCV were detected in 74 donors (2nd generation ELISA, Abbott). We evaluated the risk factors, determined ALAT levels and looked for circulating RNA virus by amplification of the non-coding region of the viral genome (RTPCR) in 68 of these 74 donors screened. A control was chosen arbitrarily from 103 donors with high ALAT levels, but with no antibodies to HCV nor detectable circulating viral DNA. The prevalence of anti-HCV ab in blood donors in 0.37%. No risk factor was found in 29 donors (43%). Parenteral exposure (former i.v. drug addiction and history of transfusions) was found to be the mode of transmission of hepatitis C in 23 donors (34%). History of NANB jaundice (non-post transfusion) was reported in 1 donor (1%). The remaining 15 donors (22%) were found to have minor risk factors - either isolated or in combination (exposure, tatoos, multiple sexual partners). Former i.v. drug addiction (p = 0.0000006) as well as a history of transfusions (p = 0.0071) are significantly more frequent in the group of donors with antibodies to HCV. None of the 35 sexual partners of the tested donors proved to be positive. 21 donors (30%) had high ALAT (+2 SD). Viral RNA was detected in blood of 26 donors (38%). The proportion of cases with positive viral RNA was 61% if only those donors with high ALAT levels were taken into consideration (13 positive of 21). Risk factors were found in 39 donors (57%) with antibodies to HCV. History of parenteral exposure was found to be significantly more frequent than in the control group (p = 0.0000054). Sexual transmission within couples was not demonstrated in the population tested. A positive PCR test is a probable indicator of a continuous

  3. For Donors Who Have Everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubeck, Theresa

    1990-01-01

    Most major donors don't need another plaque or formal dinner. Development officers need to be more imaginative and less materialistic in expressing their institution's thanks, personalizing them by tying the gesture in with something distinctive about the institution or the gift. Development office teamwork and care help promote donor…

  4. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... are considering one of these types of living donation, please talk to your transplant center about the organ-specific risks. Psychological concerns You may also have ...

  5. Associations of health status with subsequent blood donor behavior-An alternative perspective on the Healthy Donor Effect from Donor InSight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, Katja; Zalpuri, Saurabh; Prinsze, Femmeke J.; Merz, Eva-Maria; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    In donor health research, the 'Healthy Donor Effect' (HDE) often biases study results and hampers their interpretation. This refers to the fact that donors are a selected 'healthier' subset of a population due to both donor selection procedures and self-selection. Donors with long versus short donor

  6. AEL Continuous School Improvement Questionnaire. User Manual and Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Craig, James R.; Balow, Nancy; Childers, Robert D.

    The Continuous School Improvement Questionnaire (CSIQ) developed by the AEL helps a school staff gauge its performance on six dimensions related to continuous school improvement. Each member of the staff responds to the CSIQ individually. Although results might be used at the district or regional level, the most widely intended unit for applying…

  7. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1/2 in blood donors in northern pakistan: implication for blood donor screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)

  8. Influence of donor-donor transport on excitation energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K K; Joshi, H C; Pant, T C [Kumaun University, Nainital (India). Department of Physics

    1989-01-01

    Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Establishment of an oocyte donor program. Donor screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, M M; Collins, R L; Schover, L R

    1991-01-01

    IVF with donated oocytes, followed by embryo placement in the uterus of a recipient who has been primed with exogenous steroids, is a successful treatment for special cases of infertility. Preliminary results indicate that the success rate in this situation is even greater than that usually seen with normal IVF (with placement of the embryos back into the uteri of the women from whom the oocytes were recovered). Although different sources for donated oocytes have been identified, the use of "excess" oocytes from IVF cycles and the attempted collection of oocytes at the time of otherwise indicated pelvic surgery have ethical and practical problems associated with their use. We have herein described the establishment of a successful program relying on anonymous volunteers who go through ovarian stimulation, monitoring, and oocyte recovery procedures solely to donate oocytes. The potential donors go through an exhaustive screening and education process before they are accepted in the program. Psychological evaluation of our potential donors indicated a great degree of turmoil in their backgrounds and a wide variety of motivations for actually participating. Despite the extensive educational and screening process, a substantial percentage of the donors did not complete a donation cycle, having either voluntarily withdrawn or been dropped because of lack of compliance. Further investigation of the psychological aspects of participating in such a program is certainly warranted. The use of donated oocytes to alleviate specific types of infertility is quite successful, but the application of this treatment is likely to be limited by the relative unavailability of suitable oocyte donors.

  10. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3·3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52·6 (range 21–74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  11. Nucleic acid amplification test for detection of west nile virus infection in pakistani blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)

  12. Live donor transplantation--the incompetent donor: comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali

    2008-12-01

    Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person.

  13. Alternative allogeneic donor sources for transplantation for childhood diseases: unrelated cord blood and haploidentical family donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Rocha, Vanderson; Gluckman, Eliane; Hale, Gregory; Wagner, John

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to be curative in a wide variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant diseases, and can be traced back over 50 years ago to the original report of Thomas et al. HLA matched sibling donors have been the gold standard for pediatric recipients requiring allogeneic donors for both nonmalignant and malignant conditions. However, only 25% of potential pediatric recipients possesses an HLA-matched sibling donor, and the frequency is even less in those with genetic nonmalignant conditions because of genetically affected other siblings within the family. Therefore, 75% to 90% of potential pediatric recipients require alternative allogeneic donor cells for treatment of their underlying conditions. Potential alternative allogeneic donor sources include unrelated cord blood donors, unrelated adult donors, and haploidentical family donors. In this article we review the experience of both unrelated cord blood donor and haploidentical family donor transplants in selected pediatric malignant and nonmalignant conditions.

  14. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro; Laura Castro Varela

    2008-01-01

    The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested ac...

  15. Calcium in drinking water: effect on iron stores in Danish blood donors-results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Ejsing, Benedikte H; Sørensen, Erik; Pedersen, Ole B; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2018-03-25

    Studies confirm that calcium inhibits iron absorption. Danish tap water comes from groundwater, which contains varying amounts of calcium depending on the subsoil. We investigated the association of calcium in drinking water with iron levels in Danish blood donors. We used data on Danish blood donors including dietary and lifestyle habits, blood donation history, and physiologic characteristics including measures of ferritin levels along with information on area of residence from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Data on calcium levels in groundwater ("water hardness") were obtained through the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the effect of water hardness on ferritin levels and risk of having iron deficiency (defined as ferritin levels water hardness and ferritin levels in both men and women. Risk of iron deficiency was correspondingly increased in both men (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.12) and women (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) with increasing water hardness. In analyses restricted to individuals who received supplemental iron tablets no significant association between groundwater hardness and ferritin levels was observed. As measured by ferritin levels, residential drinking water calcium content is associated with blood donors- iron levels and risk of iron deficiency. However, effect sizes are small. © 2018 AABB.

  16. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  17. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  18. The effect of repeated blood donations on the iron status of male Saudi blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saleh M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Regular blood donation can lead to iron deficiency. Screening donors’ serum ferritin levels at the time of first donation and subsequently once every year is a very rational way to pick up iron deficiency in a voluntary blood donor population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of blood donation and the prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency (sideropenia) in Saudi male blood donors. Materials and methods. The study was prospectively conducted, between December 2008 and March 2009, on 182 male native Saudi blood donors at King Fahd Central Hospital in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Each donor gave 450±50 mL of whole blood. Following the donation, samples were removed into 2.5 mL EDTA tubes for measurement of mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and into 7.5 mL plain tubes for estimation of iron and serum ferritin concentrations. The blood donors were divided into five groups, according to the number of donations they had given in the preceding 3 years. The blood donors in group I were first-time donors, with no previous history of blood donation. Group II donors had donated once in the last 3 years. Subjects in groups III, IV and V had donated more than once in the preceding 3 years and were considered regular donors. Results. The mean serum iron was significantly higher among subjects with no previous history of blood donation (group I) than among regular donors who had donated twice or more. The difference in serum ferritin concentration was statistically significant (pdonated once in the last 3 years, and in first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L) was not statistically significant (pdonated between two to five times had iron deficiency. The prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency in regular blood donors was 4.3%. Conclusion. The results of this study show that an increase in the number of donations results in an increase in the frequency of depleted iron stores and subsequently in

  19. An Adoptive Mother Who Became a Human Milk Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Antón, Beatriz; García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Inducing lactation in the absence of pregnancy (nonpuerperal lactation) is not always successful and, in many cases, only partial breastfeeding is achieved. Different protocols have been described, but scientific evidence and research are lacking in this area. The authors describe the case of a woman with a history of a miscarriage, for whom the lactation induction process was so effective that she became a milk donor even before she received her adopted child. She had not previously used hormone treatment. She was given domperidone as a galactogogue for 1 month. The pumping protocol began with a double electric breast pump combined with manual pumping 6 months before her child was delivered, and 3 months later, she was accepted as a donor by our milk bank. This highlights the importance of regular stimulation as a milk production mechanism. This is the first case of human milk donation in an adoptive mother described in the literature.

  20. Analyzing actual risk in malaria-deferred donors through selective serologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Megan L; Goff, Tami; Gibble, Joan; Steele, Whitney R; Leiby, David A

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 150,000 US blood donors are deferred annually for travel to malaria-endemic areas. However, the majority do not travel to the high-risk areas of Africa associated with transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) but visit low-risk areas such as Mexico. This study tests for Plasmodium infection among malaria-deferred donors, particularly those visiting Mexico. Blood donors deferred for malaria risk (travel, residence, or previous infection) provided blood samples and completed a questionnaire. Plasma was tested for Plasmodium antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA); repeat-reactive (RR) samples were considered positive and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Accepted donors provided background testing data. During 2005 to 2011, a total of 5610 malaria-deferred donors were tested by EIA, including 5412 travel deferrals. Overall, 88 (1.6%) were EIA RR; none were PCR positive. Forty-nine (55.7%) RR donors previously had malaria irrespective of deferral category, including 34 deferred for travel. Among 1121 travelers to Mexico, 90% visited Quintana Roo (no or very low risk), but just 2.2% visited Oaxaca/Chiapas (moderate or high risk). Only two Mexican travelers tested RR; both previously had malaria not acquired in Mexico. Travel to Mexico represents a large percentage of US donors deferred for malaria risk; however, these donors primarily visit no- or very-low-risk areas. No malaria cases acquired in Mexico were identified thereby supporting previous risk estimates. Consideration should be given to allowing blood donations from U.S. donors who travel to Quintana Roo and other low-risk areas in Mexico. A more effective approach to preventing TTM would be to defer all donors with a history of malaria, even if remote. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  2. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  3. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  4. Molecular blood grouping of donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    For many decades, hemagglutination has been the sole means to type blood donors. Since the first blood group gene cloning in the early 1990s, knowledge on the molecular basis of most red blood cell, platelet and neutrophil antigens brought the possibility of using nucleotide-based techniques to predict phenotype. This review will summarized methodologies available to genotype blood groups from laboratory developed assays to commercially available platforms, and how proficiency assays become more present. The author will also share her vision of the transfusion medicine future. The field is presently at the crossroads, bringing new perspectives to a century old practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Donor free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  6. Impression management during evaluation and psychological reactions post-donation of living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Lee; Melchert, Timothy P; Anderson, Rebecca C

    2014-08-01

    Many healthcare providers have been concerned about the extent to which potential kidney donors use impression management or concealment of important information regarding their medical history, current functioning, or other circumstances that could affect whether they are accepted as donors. To date, however, there has been very little empirical examination of these questions. It is also not known whether donors' use of impression management pre-donation is related to their reactions and adjustment post-donation. This study surveyed 76 individuals who had donated a kidney one to six yr previously regarding their use of impression management and their concealing of information during their psychological evaluations. They were also asked about their reactions to the donation and whether they would make the same decision again. In addition, 21 of these donors participated in focus groups that explored these questions in depth. Many of the kidney donors reported that they possessed very strong motivation to donate and consequently used impression management in their interactions with medical professionals pre-donation. Very few donors, however, indicated that they concealed information during their pre-donation evaluations. The donors' psychological reactions post-donation were generally positive, and nearly all indicated that they would make the same decision again. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Impact of a quality improvement project on deceased organ donor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Andrea; Feiner, John; Hirose, Ryutaro; Swain, Sharon; Blasi, Annabel; Roberts, John P.; Niemann, Claus U.

    2017-01-01

    Context Donors showed poor glucose control in the period between declaration of brain death and organ recovery. The level of hyperglycemia in the donors was associated with a decline in terminal renal function. Objective To determine whether implementation of a quality improvement project improved glucose control and preserved renal function in deceased organ donors. Methods Data collected retrospectively included demographics, medical history, mechanism of death, laboratory values, and data from the United Network for Organ Sharing. Results After implementation of the quality improvement project, deceased donors had significantly lower mean glucose concentrations (mean [SD], 162 [44] vs 212 [42] mg/dL; P donor cohorts from before and after the quality improvement project were analyzed together, mean glucose concentration remained a significant predictor of terminal creatinine level (P donors indicated that higher terminal creatinine level was associated with delayed graft function in recipients (P donor glucose homeostasis, and the data confirm that poor glucose homeostasis is associated with worsening terminal renal function. PMID:26645930

  8. Control of charge transfer by conformational and electronic effects: Donor-donor and donor-acceptor phenyl pyrroles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Antje; Bendig, Juergen; Rettig, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives of N-pyrrolobenzene with a para-donor and a para-acceptor substituent on the benzene ring are compared. It is shown that by a suitable increase of the donor strength of the pyrrolo group, CT fluorescence can be achieved even for donor-donor-substituted benzenes. The ICT emission for sterically hindered compounds is more forbidden than that of unhindered phenyl pyrroles. This suggests conformational effects which induce a narrower twist angle distribution around a perpendicular minimum in the excited state.

  9. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  10. Alternative Donor Graft Sources for Adults with Hematologic Malignancies: A Donor for All Patients in 2017!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Ballen, Karen K

    2017-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is potentially curative for a wide variety of malignant diseases, including acute and leukemias, lymphoma, and myelodysplasia. Choice of a stem cell donor is dependent on donor availability, donor compatibility and health, recipient disease type, and recipient condition. Current sources of stem cell donation for HSCT are matched sibling donors (MSDs), matched unrelated donors (MUDs), 1-antigen mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs), haploidentical donors (haplo), and umbilical cord blood (UCB) units. Historically, preferred donors for HSCT have been human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors; however, only about 30% of U.S. patients will have a MSD available. The majority of patients referred for HSCT will require an alternative donor graft: MUD, MMUD, UCB, or haplo. The likelihood of finding a MUD varies depending on the ethnicity of the recipient. White Caucasians of European descent have the greatest chance of finding a MUD. Chances of finding a MUD are significantly less for African-American or Hispanic recipients due to HLA polymorphisms. Therefore, MMUD, UCB, and haplo donor graft sources expand the donor pool for recipients who do not have a MSD or MUD available. Given the variety of different donor stem cell sources available today, nearly every patient who needs an allogeneic HSCT has a potential donor in 2017. All transplant-eligible patients with hematologic malignancies should be evaluated by a transplant center to determine if HSCT is a viable treatment option for their underlying disease process. The goal of this review is to increase the awareness of oncology practitioners to the availability of alternative donor stem cell transplants for patients with hematologic malignancies. Despite new agents, stem cell transplant remains the only curative therapy for many patients with acute and chronic leukemia, myelodysplasia, and lymphoma. Given the variety of different donor stem cell sources available today

  11. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  12. Prisoners as Living Donors: A Vulnerabilities Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

    2018-01-01

    Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.

  13. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  14. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2015-11-04

    Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.

  15. Medical Students' Perceptions of the Body Donor as a "First Patient" or "Teacher": A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Bosch, Peter; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) students attending a seminar on the history and ethics of anatomical dissection were fascinated by a report on the dissection room experience in Thailand that relates the body donor's status as a teacher. The students felt that they had naturally adopted the "body as teacher" approach in their…

  16. Experiences of offspring searching for and contacting their donor siblings and donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Kramer, Wendy; Golombok, Susan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates a new phenomenon whereby individuals conceived by donor insemination are searching for and contacting their donor and/or 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor who are their genetic half siblings). On-line questionnaires were completed by members of the Donor Sibling Registry (DSR), a US-based registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Of the 165 donor offspring who completed the survey, 15% were searching for their donor siblings, 13% were searching for their donor, and 64% were searching for both. Differences were found according to family type and age of disclosure. Fewer offspring from heterosexual couple families had told their father about their search when compared with offspring from lesbian couple families who had told their co-parent. Offspring who had found out about their conception after age 18 were more likely to be searching for medical reasons, whereas those who had found out before age 18 tended to be searching out of curiosity. Some offspring had discovered large numbers of half siblings (maximum=13). The majority of offspring who had found their donor relations reported positive experiences and remained in regular contact with them. Copyright (c) 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. BLOODR: blood donor and requester mobile application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Vamsi Krishna; El-Ocla, Hosam

    2017-01-01

    With rapid increase in the usage of social networks sites across the world, there is also a steady increase in blood donation requests as being noticed in the number of posts on these sites such as Facebook and twitter seeking blood donors. Finding blood donor is a challenging issue in almost every country. There are some blood donor finder applications in the market such as Blood app by Red Cross and Blood Donor Finder application by Neologix. However, more reliable applications that meet the needs of users are prompted. Several software technologies including languages and framework are used to develop our blood-donor web application known as BLOODR application. These technologies comprise Ruby programming language (simply known as Ruby) along with JavaScript and PostgreSQL for database are used. Ruby on Rails (simply known as Rails) is an open source Web framework that makes it possible to quickly and easily create data-based web applications. We show screenshots for the BLOODR application for different types of users including requester, donor, and administrator. Various features of the application are described and their needs of use are analyzed. If a patient needs a blood at a clinic, blood donors in vicinity can be contacted through using a clinic management service provided in this application. Registered donors will get notification for the blood requests only if their blood group is compatible with the requested blood type and in the same city/region. Then matching blood donors can go to the requesting clinic and donate. BLOODR application provides a reliable platform to connect local blood donors with patients. BLOODR creates a communication channel through authenticated clinics whenever a patient needs blood donation. It is a useful tool to find compatible blood donors who can receive blood request posts in their local area. Clinics can use this web application to maintain the blood donation activity. Future improvement of the BLOODR is explained.

  18. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  19. Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for

  20. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  1. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  2. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widge, A; Cleland, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were -conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be -maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, -professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using -relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, -unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing -information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring -monitoring, proper documentation and transparency.

  3. Psychosocial counselling in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance

  4. Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R

    2006-01-01

    Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed.

  5. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  6. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  7. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  8. Socioepidemiological screening of serologically ineligible blood donors due to Chagas disease for the definition of inconclusive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M Ferreira-Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological screening combined with serological tests has become an important tool at blood banks for the characterization of donors with or without Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Thus, the objective of the present study was to describe the sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics of blood donors with non-negative serology for T. cruzito determine possible risk factors associated with serological ineligibility. Sociodemographic and epidemiological data were collected by analysis of patient histories and interviews. The data were analyzed descriptively using absolute and relative frequencies and odds ratio (OR evaluation. The frequency of serological ineligibility was 0.28%, with a predominance of inconclusive reactions (52% and seropositivity among first-time donors (OR = 607, donors older than 30 years (OR = 3.7, females (OR = 1.9, donors from risk areas (OR = 4 and subjects living in rural areas (OR = 1.7. The risk of seropositivity was higher among donors who had contact with the triatomine vector (OR = 11.7 and those with a family history of Chagas disease (OR = 4.8. The results demonstrate the value of detailed clinical-epidemiological screening as an auxiliary tool for serological definition that, together with more specific and more sensitive laboratory methods, will guarantee a higher efficacy in the selection of donors at blood centres.

  9. A high risk of hepatitis C infection among Egyptian blood donors: the role of parenteral drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassily, S; Hyams, K C; Fouad, R A; Samaan, M D; Hibbs, R G

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian blood donors, 188 consecutive adult blood donors from four hospitals and one temporary donor center located in Cairo, Egypt were evaluated. Sera were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Sera that were repeatedly reactive by ELISA were further verified by a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Antibodies to HCV were detected by RIBA in 26.6% of the blood donors, which is higher than the 10-19% prevalence of antibody found in other studies of Egyptian blood donors. A history of selling blood (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1) and the use of illicit parenteral drugs (OR = 2.5) were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. These data indicate that the use of illicit drugs may be one reason for high levels of reported HCV infection among Egyptian blood donors. These findings also indicate that Egyptian blood donors should be screened for anti-HCV and individuals who have a history of drug abuse should be deferred from donating blood.

  10. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.

    2016-01-01

    nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors......, symptomatic patients, and swine. RESULTS: Eleven donations (0.04%) were confirmed as positive for HEV RNA (median HEV RNA level, 13 IU/mL). Two donations were successfully genotyped as HEV-gt-3. Only one donor had a travel history outside Europe. Nine of 11 donors were male, but the gender ratio...

  11. Parents' contributions to the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie

    2003-12-01

    Donated sperm, eggs, and embryos are an increasing feature of assisted reproduction; people conceived in this way have different genetic and social histories. Although most offspring of donor-assisted conception are ignorant of their genetic history, recipient parents must negotiate increasing demand for full disclosure to offspring. This paper illustrates some of the reasons parents give for not telling their children, underlines the experience of many parents of being uncertain of how to go about telling, presents information from some parents who have endeavoured to be open with their children about conception from very early childhood, and discusses implications for the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception. Recipient parents (n=55) and offspring (12) from Australia; Canada, US, England, and Argentina were interviewed and subsequently consulted about the development of their narrative accounts and the way in which these have been interpreted. Parental narratives were found to be located along a continuum, broadly encompassing: (1). Parents who intend to exclude donor-assisted conception from the narratives they construct for their children, (2). parents who are uncertain about what they want to do, or confused about the best way to disclose and discuss donor conception with their children and (3). those have incorporated the donor in their children's narratives from the beginning. From interviews with offspring and on the basis of human rights issues and the increasing salience of genetic knowledge, it is concluded that disclosure to offspring before adolescence should be encouraged.

  12. Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

    2013-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship. © FPI, Inc.

  13. Correlation between donor age and organs transplanted per donor: our experience in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K

    2014-05-01

    The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P donor under age 70 years has the potential to donate 4.6 to 6.7 organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  15. Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul A Shah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.

  16. Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) for detection of hepatitis B virus in blood donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereva, K I [Central Blood Bank, Colombo, General Hospital, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    1990-03-01

    Hepatitis B is a blood-borne viral disease which affects more than 250 million people world-wide, mostly in the third world. The disease can cause fatal liver cancer in adult life, if infected when young. This deals with the laboratory techniques used in the detection of hepatitis B virus of the donor blood. Natural blood transfusion service of Sri Lanka screens the hepatitis B surface antigen using the RIA technique to find out whether the normal healthy donors without a history of hepatitis are infected with hepatitis B virus.

  17. The impact of disclosure on donor gamete participants: donors, intended parents and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2008-06-01

    The present review examines recent publications that provide insight into how the trend toward nonanonymity and disclosure in gamete donation impacts donors, intended parents, and their donor-conceived children. Recent findings show an increase in donor programs that offer open-identity between donors and offspring. The psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly given consideration. Qualitative research on how parents of donor gamete offspring make decisions about disclosure reveals that even when couples initially disagree about disclosing to offspring, most ultimately come to a united disclosure decision. The literature on the impact of disclosure on donor gamete offspring has extended to include children conceived through embryo donation and children born as a result of surrogacy. The absence of genetic or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships. Parents through surrogacy tend to disclose the method of family creation to their child, whereas parents through embryo donation tend to be secretive about their child's origins. The trend toward greater openness in gamete donation has been accompanied by an increase in programs offering open-identity donation. In addition, the psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly being given consideration. Parents of donor gamete offspring give careful thought to their disclosure decisions, and the psychological well being of donor-conceived children does not seem to be impacted by those decisions.

  18. Inter- and Intrapersonal Barriers to Living Donor Kidney Transplant among Black Recipients and Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, LaShara A; Grogan, Tracy M; Cox, Joy; Weng, Francis L

    2017-08-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is more common among Blacks, but Blacks are less likely to receive a live donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The objective of this study is to identify barriers and coping mechanisms that Black LDKT recipients and donors experienced while receiving or donating a kidney. A qualitative study was conducted using structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used for data interpretation. All 20 participants identified as Black, with two participants identifying themselves as multiracial. The mean age for the 14 recipients was 60, and the average age for the 6 living donors was 47. Themes emerging from the data suggest both recipients and donors faced barriers in the LDKT experience. Recipients faced barriers associated with their denial and avoidance of the severity of their ESRD, their desire to maintain the privacy of their health status, and their refusal to approach potential donors. Donors encountered negative responses from others about the donors' desire to donate and the initial refusal of recipients to accept a LDKT offer. Recipients identified faith as a coping mechanism, while donors identified normalization of donation as their method of coping. Various types of social support helped donors and recipients navigate the transplant process. Black LDKT recipients and donors must overcome barriers prior to receiving or donating a kidney. Most of these barriers arise from communication and interactions with others that are either lacking or undesirable. Future interventions to promote LDKT among Blacks may benefit by specifically targeting these barriers.

  19. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  20. Donor-derived HLA antibody production in patients undergoing SCT from HLA antibody-positive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Ikegame, K; Kaida, K; Hayashi, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Okada, M; Onuma, T; Fujii, N; Kusunoki, Y; Soma, T; Saji, H; Ogawa, H

    2012-10-01

    Pre-existing donor-specific HLA antibodies in patients undergoing HLA-mismatched SCT have increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for primary graft failure. However, the clinical implications of the presence of HLA antibodies in donors remain unknown. We prospectively examined 123 related donors for the presence of HLA antibodies by using a Luminex-based single antigen assay. Of these, 1/57 (1.8%) male, 6/27 (22%) parous female and 0/39 (0%) nonparous female donors were HLA antibody-positive. Then, we determined the presence of HLA antibodies in seven patients who received SCT from antibody-positive donors. Of these, four became HLA antibody-positive after SCT. The specificities of the antibodies that emerged in the patients closely resembled those of the antibodies found in the donors, indicating their production by donor-derived plasma cells. Moreover, the kinetics of the HLA antibody levels were similar in all four patients: levels started increasing within 1 week after SCT and peaked at days 10-21, followed by a gradual decrease. These results suggest that donor-derived HLA antibody production frequently occurs in patients undergoing SCT from antibody-positive donors. Further studies are warranted for clarifying the clinical significance of donor-derived HLA antibodies, including the role of these antibodies in post transplant platelet transfusion refractoriness.

  1. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor

  2. Being a haematopoietic stem cell donor for a sick sibling: Adult donors' experiences prior to donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Annika; Bolmsjö, Ingrid; Lenhoff, Stig; Bengtsson, Mariette

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about sibling stem cell donors' experiences pre-donation and the waiting period before the donation might have been long. The donors and their corresponding sibling recipients were simultaneously included in two different interview studies. The results from the recipient study have been presented in a separate paper. The aim was to explore the experiences of being a stem cell donor for a sibling, prior to donation. Ten adult sibling donors were interviewed prior to stem cell donation. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The main theme Being a cog in a big wheel describes the complex process of being a sibling donor prior to donation, covering a mixture of emotions and thoughts. The four subthemes Being available, Being anxious, Being concerned and Being obliged cover the various experiences. The sibling donors' experiences are influenced by the quality of the relationship with the sick sibling. Sibling stem cell donors go through a complex process once they have accidentally got involved in. They have been asked to become a donor; it was not a voluntary choice. In caring for sibling stem cell donors the nurses should be aware of the complexity of the process they experience and take into consideration their personal situation and needs. Providing optimal care for both sibling donors and their corresponding recipients is a challenge, and further improvement and exploration are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shallow hydrogen-related donors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.; Weber, J.

    1993-01-01

    Photothermal ionization spectroscopy on neutron-irradiated and subsequently hydrogen-plasma-treated silicon reveals the existence of new shallow donors. The binding energies of the observed effective-mass-like donors are between 34 and 53 meV. The optical dipole transitions of the different donors are shifted towards higher energies by ΔE=0.1--0.2 cm -1 , when deuterium is used in the plasma instead of hydrogen. This isotope shift of the optical dipole transitions between the electronic levels of the defects is direct proof of the incorporation of hydrogen in these defects

  4. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  5. Kidney for sale by live donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1989-02-04

    The capacity to consent to bodily harm is explored in relation to the trade in kidneys obtained from impoverished healthy live donors for cash. The British medical profession has unambiguously condemned the practice, but the law in Britain allows a donor to consent to serious injury where the act had some social purpose, recognized by the law as valid. Allegations against the private Humana Hospital Wellington that indigent Turks were brought to Britain to be paid kidney donors, and similar practices elsewhere, are discussed. Questions are raised about the illegality of such contracts in Britain and the possibility of a Parliamentary Act making brokerage and involvement with such cash transactions a criminal offense.

  6. Human decellularized bone scaffolds from aged donors show improved osteoinductive capacity compared to young donor bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Smith

    Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.

  7. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Associations of recipient illness history with hypertension and diabetes after living kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Krista L; Schnitzler, Mark A; Xiao, Huiling; Davis, Connie L; Axelrod, David; Abbott, Kevin C; Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Burroughs, Thomas E; Saab, Georges; Brennan, Daniel C

    2011-06-15

    Little is known about associations of family health history with outcomes after kidney donation. Using a database wherein Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network identifiers for 4650 living kidney donors in 1987 to 2007 were linked to administrative data of a US private health insurer (2000-2007 claims), we examined associations of recipient illness history as a measure of family history with postdonation diagnoses and drug-treatment for hypertension and diabetes. Cox regression with left and right censoring was applied to estimate associations (adjusted hazards ratios, aHR) of recipient illness history with postnephrectomy donor diagnoses, stratified by donor-recipient relationship. Recipient end-stage renal disease from hypertension, as compared with other recipient end-stage renal disease causes, was associated with modest, significant increases in the age- and gender-adjusted relative risks of hypertension diagnosis (aHR, 1.37%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.74) after donor nephrectomy among related donors. After adjustment for age, gender, and race, recipient type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic recipient status was associated with twice the relative risk of postdonation diabetes (aHR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.28-3.55; P=0.003) among related donors. These patterns were significant among white but not among non-white related donors. Recipient type 1 diabetes was associated with postdonation diabetes only in black related donors (aHR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.04-9.98; P=0.04). Recipient illness did not correlate significantly with outcomes in unrelated donors. These data support a need for further study of family health history as a potential sociodemographic correlate of donor outcomes, including examination of potential mediating factors and variation in risk discrimination among donors of different racial groups.

  9. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy increases the supply of living donor kidneys: a center-specific microeconomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P C; Johnson, L B

    2000-05-27

    A tenet of microeconomics is that new technology will shift the supply curve to the right. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a new technique for removal of living donor kidneys. Centers performing this procedure have noted an increased number of patients presenting for donor evaluation. This has not been previously studied. The records of all LDN performed from May 1998 to February 1999 were reviewed. The following variables were examined: sex, age, related vs. unrelated donation, estimated blood loss, i.v. analgesia, length of stay, and time out of work. Donors undergoing traditional open donor nephrectomy during January 1997 to May 1998 served as the control group. A composite cost index was constructed. LDN significantly decreased length of stay, pain, and time out of work; the supply function shifted to the right. Telephone interviews revealed that 47% donated solely because of the LDN procedure. LDN increases the supply of living donor kidneys.

  10. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  11. A simplified donor risk index for predicting outcome after deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J E; Johnson, Rachel J; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, Dave; Bradley, J Andrew

    2012-02-15

    We sought to determine the deceased donor factors associated with outcome after kidney transplantation and to develop a clinically applicable Kidney Donor Risk Index. Data from the UK Transplant Registry on 7620 adult recipients of adult deceased donor kidney transplants between 2000 and 2007 inclusive were analyzed. Donor factors potentially influencing transplant outcome were investigated using Cox regression, adjusting for significant recipient and transplant factors. A United Kingdom Kidney Donor Risk Index was derived from the model and validated. Donor age was the most significant factor predicting poor transplant outcome (hazard ratio for 18-39 and 60+ years relative to 40-59 years was 0.78 and 1.49, respectively, Pinformed consent.

  12. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  13. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  14. FORUM Paediatric living donor liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    879 November 2012, Vol. 102, No. 11 SAMJ. REVIEW. Paediatric living donor liver transplantation ... been excellent after left lateral segmentectomy, with a usually quoted ... has led to the development of new surgical techniques to increase.

  15. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  16. [Psychological specificities of living donor kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeloux-Heitzmann, Élodie

    2016-12-01

    For people with end-stage kidney disease, a transplant is the promise of a future without dialysis. Living donor kidney transplantation comprises many specificities and is distinct from cadaveric donor transplantation. Some psychological aspects explain these specificities. They may be subconscious and difficult to access, but it is essential to decipher them in order to adapt the support provided to these people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Promoting Organ Donor Registries Through Public Education: What Is the Cost of Securing Organ Donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Manik; Smith, Kenneth J; Bryce, Cindy L; Degenholtz, Howard B

    2016-06-01

    Transplant medicine's impact on America's public health is seriously limited by acute shortage of transplantable organs. Consequently, the United Sates has witnessed considerable investment in the promotion of organ donor registries. Although there is no evidence to support that donor registry promotion alleviates organ shortage, this belief continues to drive investments into registry promotion. In this study, return on investment in donor registry promotion was examined using cost-outcomes analysis. Cost of promoting the donor registry was estimated in US dollars whereas the outcome was measured as the number of individuals who join the registry (registrants) and their value in terms of organ donors. The study was conducted from the perspective of a regional Organ Procurement Organization (OPO). Costs were directly obtained from the OPO. The number of new registrants was obtained from the OPO and the departments of motor vehicles that maintain the donor registry. The value of registrants in terms of organ donors was computed based on a registrant's age-dependent risk of dying and age-dependent probability of becoming an organ donor. Six thousand seven hundred eight individuals joined the organ donor registry (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5429-7956) at a cost of $455 per registrant (95% CI, US $383-US $562). These individuals result in 4.2 present-day donors (95% CI, 2.5-6.6) at a cost of US $726 000 (95% CI, US $462000-US $1.2 million). Because the cost per registrant and cost per donor is less than society's willingness to pay, donor registry promotion offers positive return on investment. Investment in registry promotion should at the minimum be maintained at current levels.

  18. Secrets and disclosure in donor conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the disclosure, sharing and exchange of information on being donor conceived within families, drawing on data from a study undertaken with donor-conceived adults registered with UK Donor Link (a voluntary DNA-linking register). This paper considers the narratives of how respondents found out they were donor-conceived and what events triggered disclosure of this information. This paper then goes on to examine the role secrecy played in their family life and uses the concept of 'display' to explore how secrecy affected their relationships with their immediate and extended family. Secrets are notoriously 'leaky' and we found complex patterns of knowing and uncertainty about whom in the family knew that the person was donor-conceived. We argue that what is kept secret and from whom provides insights into the multifaceted web of social relationships that can be created by donor-conception, and how knowledge can be managed and controlled in attempts to display and maintain family narratives of biogenetic connection. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  19. How to optimize the lung donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Gabriele; Costamagna, Andrea; Fanelli, Vito; Boffini, Massimo; Pugliese, Francesco; Mascia, Luciana; Brazzi, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Over the last two decades, lung transplantation emerged as the standard of care for patients with advanced and terminal lung disease. Despite the increment in lung transplantation rates, in 2016 the overall mortality while on waiting list in Italy reached 10%, whereas only 39% of the wait-list patients were successfully transplanted. A number of approaches, including protective ventilatory strategy, accurate management of fluid balance, and administration of a hormonal resuscitation therapy, have been reported to improve lung donor performance before organ retrieval. These approaches, in conjunction with the use of ex-vivo lung perfusion technique contributed to expand the lung donor pool, without affecting the harvest of other organs and the outcomes of lung recipients. However, the efficacy of issues related to the ex-vivo lung perfusion technique, such as the optimal ventilation strategy, the ischemia-reperfusion induced lung injury management, the prophylaxis of germs transmission from donor to recipient and the application of targeted pharmacologic therapies to treat specific donor lung injuries are still to be explored. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the "state-of-art" strategies to optimize the donor lungs and to present the actual role of ex-vivo lung perfusion in the process of lung transplant. Moreover, different approaches about the technique reported in literature and several issues that are under investigation to treat specific donor lung injury will be discussed.

  20. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  1. Influence of kinship on donors' mental burden in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erim, Yesim; Beckmann, Mingo; Kroencke, Sylvia; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Paul, Andreas; Senf, Wolfgang; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2012-08-01

    In the context of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), German transplantation law stipulates that donor candidates should primarily be relatives of the recipients or persons with distinct and close relationships. In this study, we investigated the influence of the relationship between the donor and the recipient on the donor's emotional strain before transplantation. Donors were categorized according to the following subgroups: (1) parents donating for their children, (2) children donating for their parents, (3) siblings, (4) spouses, (5) other relatives, and (6) nonrelatives. The sample consisted of 168 donor candidates. Anxiety (F = 2.8, P = 0.02), depression (F = 2.6, P = 0.03), and emotional quality of life (F = 3.1, P = 0.01) differed significantly according to the relationship between the donor and the recipient. In comparison with healthy controls, parents donating for their children were significantly less stressed before LDLT and demonstrated fewer anxiety (P depression symptoms (P < 0.05). Adult children donating for their parents demonstrated the highest mental burden and the lowest emotional quality of life. However, this was not due to the responsibility of these children for their own families because differences between donors with children and donors without children could not be ascertained. This group should be given special attention before LDLT and during follow-up visits, and psychological help should be provided when it is necessary. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Heart transplantation on the first day of life from an anencephalic donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, F; Squitieri, C; Carotti, A; Di Carlo, D; Gagliardi, M G

    1999-05-01

    Heart transplantation on the first day of life, and graft harvesting from anencephalic donors, have been very rare events in the history of transplantation. At Bambino Gesù Hospital (Rome), heart transplantation was performed on a newborn 9 h after birth, using a graft harvested from an anencephalic donor. This graft achieved a good cardiocirculatory function, but the recipient died of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on post-operative day (POD) 10. Despite failure, this case and other reports support the concept that hearts from anencephalic donors can work normally, and indicate that heart transplantation on the first day of life may have a favorable outcome if postoperative maintenance of multi-organ balance and function is successful.

  3. Demographic, risk factors and motivations among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Oliveira, C D L; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-06-01

    To identify the demographic characteristics, risk factors and motivations for donating among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Post-donation interviews with syphilis seropositive blood donors improve recruitment and screening strategies. This case-control study compares 75 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) > 8, EIA+ (enzyme immunoassay) and FTA-ABS+ (fluorescent treponemal antibody); 80 VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+; and 34 VDRL- and EIA- donors between 2004 and 2009. Donors were assessed by their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of alcohol and illicit drugs use, and motivations to donate. Donors with VDRL > 8 were more likely to be divorced [AOR = 12·53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·30-120·81], to have had more than six sexual partners (AOR=7·1; 95% CI 1·12-44·62) and to report male-male-sex in the past 12 months (AOR=8·18; 95% CI 1·78-37·60). Donors with VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ were less likely to be female (AOR=0·26; 95% CI 0·07-0·96), more likely to be older (AOR=10·2; 95% CI 2·45-42·58 ≥ 39 and illicit drugs use; 30·7% (VDRL > 8) and 12·5% (VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+) of donors reported that they had been at risk for HIV infection (P = 0·004). One-third of donors came to the blood bank to help a friend or a relative who needed blood. Although donors exposed to syphilis reported and recognised some high risk behaviour, most were motivated by direct appeal to donate blood. Monitoring the risk profile of blood donors can benefit public health and improve blood safety. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  5. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, was carried out between December, 2003 and April, 2004. A total of 500 blood samples were collected from blood donors consisting of 262 commercial donors and 238 relation-donors, using ...

  6. Parvovirus B19 viraemia in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation

  7. Hypertension in standard criteria deceased donors is associated with inferior outcomes following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder P; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Gautreaux, Michael; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Hartmann, Erica; Doares, William; Iskandar, Samy; Adams, Patricia; Stratta, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension may be a either a cause or an effect of kidney disease. Although hypertension is an important component of the expanded criteria donor definition, risks of transplanting deceased donor kidneys from hypertensive standard criteria donors (SCD) are less well understood. Retrospective single-center study in all adult patients who received a deceased donor kidney transplant from a SCD to evaluate the role of donor hypertension as a pre-transplant risk factor for death-censored graft loss (DCGL) and renal function. From October 2001 through May 2008, 297 kidney transplants were performed from donation after brain death SCDs. A total of 47 (15.8%) grafts were lost, including 19 (6.4%) deaths with functioning grafts. Univariate analysis of death-censored cases (n = 278) identified history of donor hypertension, cold ischemia time (CIT) >30 h, and African American (AA) recipients as significant pre-transplant risk factors predictive for DCGL at five yr follow-up (mean 38 months, all p hypertension (relative risk 2.2, p = 0.04) to be a significant risk factor for DCGL, whereas CIT >30 h and AA recipient ethnicity showed only trends toward DCGL. Renal function as determined by serum creatinine levels was significantly higher in recipients of hypertensive compared with non-hypertensive SCD kidneys at all time points out to 48 months follow-up and the disparity in renal function increased over time. Transplanting SCD kidneys from hypertensive donors is associated with worse graft function and an increased risk of graft loss. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. The Use of Electron Donors to Increase Stereospecificity in Ziegler-Natta Propylene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Nouri-Ahangarani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different chemical components in traditional Ziegler–Natta catalytic system include: (1 titanium and vanadium containing compounds, mostly TiCl4, as an active centre, (2 trialkylaluminium-based Lewis acid compounds, especially triethylaluminium, as precatalyst and alkylating agent, and (3 inorganic compounds, specifically MgCl2 and silica, as catalyst supports. Besides these compounds, shortly after the first discovery of Ziegler-Natta catalysts, electron donors have been considered as the key components for MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts, as they improve the stereospecificity and activity of these types of catalysts. Most electron donor compounds have oxygen atom and only a few contain nitrogen atom in their structure. Starting from benzoate for third-generation Ziegler–Natta catalysts, the discovery of new donors has always updated the performance of Ziegler–Natta catalysts. Since the first discovery of these compounds numerous efforts have been devoted in both industry and academic laboratories, not only to discover new electron donors but also to understand their roles in Ziegler–Natta olefin polymerization and suitable MgCl2-alcohol adducts formation. This article reviews the history of such research and development efforts. The first part of the article describes the historical developments of catalyst, with a special focus on donors of industrial importance, followed by an account given on recent trends in the latest donors developed. The next part of the article covers the historical progress toward mechanistic understanding of how donors improve the performance of Ziegler–Natta catalysts and how they undergo decomposition by interaction with Lewis acidic species such as the AlEt3 and TiCl.

  9. Pre-banking microbial contamination of donor conjunctiva and storage medium for penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takenori; Ono, Koichi; Matsuba, Tsuyoshi; Shiang, Tina; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Nakatani, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Akira

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of positive donor tissue cultures before transfer to preservation medium (Optisol™-GS) for penetrating keratoplasty, to verify the efficacy of antibiotics contained in Optisol™-GS by examining the drug susceptibility and to assess the relationship between the results of our microbial assessments as well as donor factors and the incidence of contamination. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study using Juntendo Eye Bank records for all corneal transplantations. Two hundred donor conjunctiva harvestings and storage medium (EP-II ® ) cultures were performed between July 2008 and June 2011. We analyzed the associations between donor factors (age, gender, history of cataract surgery, death-to-preservation interval, cause of death) and contamination rates using multivariate analysis by the generalized estimating equation model. We obtained positive bacterial cultures from 154 of the 200 eyes (77.0%). The isolated bacteria were indigenous, such as coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Corynebacterium sp., and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There was significant resistance to levofloxacin (18 eyes, 9.0%) and gentamicin (12 eyes, 6.0%), and no vancomycin-resistant bacteria were detected. The donor factors did not correlate with the prevalence of bacterial contamination in our criteria. Pre-banking microbial assessment allows for microbial detection, bacterial susceptibility and resistance testing. This is useful for developing preservation mediums containing effective spectrum antibiotic agents for high quality control of corneal banking.

  10. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death underwent a transesophageal (TE Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia. The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV. Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For

  11. Low prevalence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus-I/II among blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Naglaa A; Tamim, Hala; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2005-04-01

    The seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I/II was assessed in 13,443 consecutive blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2001. Screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by Western blot resulted in 8 (0.060%) positive cases, of which 5 (0.056%) belonged to Saudi and 3 (0.113%) to non-Saudi donors. The majority of the HTLV-positive donations (6/8) were for patients, and none had a history of known risk factor for HTLV-I/II transmission. Although the very low prevalence of HTLV-I/II among Saudi donors does not support routine screening, screening of donors from other nationalities may be initiated, especially those from HTLV-I/II endemic areas.

  12. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  13. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  14. Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Shimul A; Levy, Gary A; Adcock, Lesley D; Gallagher, Gary; Grant, David R

    2006-01-01

    The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of decease...

  15. Gamete donors' reasons for, and expectations and experiences of, registration with a voluntary donor linking register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eric; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Frith, Lucy; van den Akker, Olga

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on a study of the views and experiences of 21 sperm donors and five egg donors registered with UK DonorLink (UKDL), a voluntary DNA-based contact register established to facilitate contact between adults who wish to identify and locate others to whom they are genetically related following donor conception. Specifically, the paper examines donors' reasons for searching for, or making information about themselves available to donor-conceived offspring. Their expectations of registration with UKDL, experiences of being registered and finally, the experiences of those who had contacted donor-conceived offspring and other genetic relatives are investigated. While most respondents reported largely positive experiences of registration, the study found significant issues relating to concerns about donation, DNA testing, possible linking with offspring and expectations of any relationship that might be established with offspring that have implications for support, mediation and counselling. Research that puts the experiences, perceptions and interests of gamete donors as the central focus of study is a relatively recent phenomenon. This study contributes to this debate and highlights directions for future research in this area.

  16. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  17. Development of organ-specific donor risk indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K; Asrani, Sumeet K; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, W Ray; Israni, Ajay K

    2012-04-01

    Because of the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival with various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. Here we review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and the liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The KDRI has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The LDRI allows a greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C virus-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, the rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. The use of livers with high donor risk indices is associated with increased hospital costs that are independent of recipient risk factors, and the transplantation of livers with high donor risk indices into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores indices for liver transplantation, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. Although substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Are live kidney donors at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, T.; Zaheer, K.; Hussain, S.W.; Zahid, K.H.; Akhtar, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)

  19. Breast milk donation: women's donor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez de; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury

    2009-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3% of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.

  20. Donor insemination: eugenic and feminist implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, F A

    2001-09-01

    One concern regarding developments in genetics is that, when techniques such as genetic engineering become safe and affordable, people will use them for positive eugenics: to "improve" their offspring by enpowering them with exceptional qualities. Another is whether new reproductive technologies are being used to improve the condition of women or as the tools of a patriarchal system that appropriates female functions to itself and exploits women to further its own ends. Donor insemination is relevant to both of these issues. The degree to which people have used donor insemination in the past for positive eugenic purposes may give some insight into the likelihood of developing technologies being so used in the future. Donor insemination provides women with the opportunity to reproduce with only the most remote involvement of a man. To what degree do women take advantage of this to liberate themselves from male dominance? Through questionnaires and interviews, women who have used donor insemination disclosed their criteria for selecting sperm donors. The results are analyzed for the prevalence of positive eugenic criteria in the selection process and women's attitudes toward minimizing the male role in reproduction.

  1. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Nyame

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature.

  2. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  3. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  4. Rewriting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  5. Energy status of pig donor organs after ischemia is independent of donor type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Stiegler, Philipp; Taeubl, Philipp; Sereinigg, Michael; Puntschart, Andreas; Bradatsch, Andrea; Curcic, Pero; Seifert-Held, Thomas; Zmugg, Gerda; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Leopold, Barbara; Blattl, Daniela; Horki, Vera; Mayrhauser, Ursula; Wiederstein-Grasser, Iris; Leber, Bettina; Jürgens, Günther; Tscheliessnigg, Karlheinz; Hallström, Seth

    2013-04-01

    Literature is controversial whether organs from living donors have a better graft function than brain dead (BD) and non-heart-beating donor organs. Success of transplantation has been correlated with high-energy phosphate (HEP) contents of the graft. HEP contents in heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas from living, BD, and donation after cardiac death in a pig model (n=6 per donor type) were evaluated systematically. BD was induced under general anesthesia by inflating a balloon in the epidural space. Ten hours after confirmation, organs were retrieved. Cardiac arrest was induced by 9V direct current. After 10min of ventricular fibrillation without cardiac output, mechanical and medical reanimation was performed for 30min before organ retrieval. In living donors, organs were explanted immediately. Freeze-clamped biopsies were taken before perfusion with Celsior solution (heart) or University of Wisconsin solution (abdominal organs) in BD and living donors or with Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutaric solution (all organs) in non-heart-beating donors, after perfusion, and after cold ischemia (4h for heart, 6h for liver and pancreas, and 12h for kidney). HEPs (adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and phosphocreatine), xanthine, and hypoxanthine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Energy charge and adenosine triphosphate-to-adenosine diphosphate ratio were calculated. After ischemia, organs from different donor types showed no difference in energy status. In all organs, a decrease of HEP and an increase in hypoxanthine contents were observed during perfusion and ischemia, irrespective of the donor type. Organs from BD or non-heart-beating donors do not differ from living donor organs in their energy status after average tolerable ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of whole-blood donor adverse events on blood donor return rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bruce H; Newman, Daniel T; Ahmad, Raffat; Roth, Arthur J

    2006-08-01

    Some blood donation-related adverse events (AEs) can negatively impact the blood donor return rate (BDRR) and decrease donor retention. One-thousand randomly selected whole-blood donors were interviewed 3 weeks after a 525-mL index whole-blood donation for seven AEs. The number of return visits and duration of follow-up were recorded for each of the 1000 donors. A negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of the four most common AEs to the BDRR, and interactions between these AEs were also evaluated. The four most common AEs were bruise alone (15.1%), sore arm "alone" (7.0%), fatigue "alone" (5.1%), and donor reaction "alone" (4.2%), where "alone" is defined to also include donors who had a bruise but no other AE. The estimated BDRR for donations without AEs was 1.32 visits per year. The estimated BDRRs for the four most common AEs were: bruise alone, 1.32 visits per year; sore arm alone, 1.30 visits per year (2% reduction in BDRR); fatigue alone, 1.06 visits per year (20% reduction in BDRR); and donor reaction alone, 0.87 visits per year (34% reduction in BDRR). The BDRR for donor reaction, fatigue, and sore arm together was 0.20 visits per year (85% reduction in BDRR). Donor reaction had the most negative impact on the BDRR. There appears to be a synergistic effect between donor reaction, fatigue, and sore arm. Theoretically, amelioration of some AEs has the potential to improve BDRRs.

  7. The Psychosocial and Independent Living Donor Advocate Evaluation and Post-surgery Care of Living Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Swartz, Kathleen; Phillips, Chelsea; Hollenberger, Jennifer; Smith, Taylor; Steel, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplantation as a treatment for end stage organ failure has been an accepted treatment option for decades. Despite advances in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. Living donation has been an option that has increased the number of transplants despite the continued shortage of deceased organs. In the early 2000s live donor transplantation reached an all-time high in the United States. As a result, a consensus meeting was convened in 2000 to increase the oversight of living donor transplantation. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the United Network for Organ Sharing developed regulations that transplant programs performing live donor transplantation. These regulations and guidelines involve the education, evaluation, informed consent process and living donor follow-up care. Two areas in which had significant changes included the psychosocial and the independent living donor advocate (ILDA) evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to outline the current regulations and guidelines associated with the psychosocial and ILDA evaluation as well as provide further recommendations for the administration of a high quality evaluation of living donors. The goals and timing of the evaluation and education of donors; qualifications of the health care providers performing the evaluation; components of the evaluation; education provided to donors; documentation of the evaluation; participation in the selection committee meeting; post-decline and post-donation care of donors is described. Caveats including the paired donor exchange programs and non-directed and directed donation are also considered.

  8. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertility...... clinics in Denmark. SAMPLE: In total n = 311 childless women initiating assisted reproduction using donor semen. METHODS: Self-reported questionnaire responses from n = 184 single women seeking treatment by using donor semen were compared with responses from n = 127 cohabiting women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES......: Sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, attitudes towards motherhood. RESULTS: Single women were 3.5 years older on average when initiating treatment compared with cohabiting women. No significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic characteristics, previous long...

  9. Comparison of outcomes from smoking and nonsmoking donors: thirteen-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marius; Goldsmith, Kim; Jenkins, David; Sudarshan, Catherine; Catarino, Pedro; Sukumaran, Nair; Dunning, John; Sharples, Linda D; Tsui, Steven; Parmar, Jasvir

    2010-12-01

    Lung transplantation remains the best treatment option for a variety of end-stage lung diseases. Pressure on the limited donor pool has led to the use of extended criteria donors. One aspect of this has been the liberalization of the use of smoking donors (SmD). This study is a retrospective review of lung transplants performed between April 1995 and August 2008 at a single institute. We examined the impact of donor smoking on short-term and long-term survival in relationship to recipient and donor demographics such as ischemic time, cytomegalovirus status, rates of rejection and infection, ventilation, and intensive care stay. Endpoints were survival, infection, and rejection. During this 13-year period, 454 lung transplants were performed. Smoking history was available on 424 (93.4%) of these (SmD, n = 184; NSmD, n = 240). Seventy-one patients died within 3 months of transplant leaving 353 alive at 3 months posttransplant. Fatalities within the first 3 months were significantly higher in the SmD group (21% vs 13%, odds ratio 1.9, hazard ratio 3.3, p = 0.04). No significant difference in rejection and infection rates between recipients of lungs from SmD and NSmD at 3 months and at 1 year posttransplantation (p = 0.51 and 0.09) was found. Although recipients of lungs from SmD had higher odds of ventilation for more than 10 hours, the odds were only increased by 20%, which was not statistically significant. Recipients from SmD had significantly longer stays in the intensive care (odds ratio 1.9, p = 0.002). There was little evidence for an effect of SmD on the development of bronchiolitis obliterans. In this large cohort of patients, donor smoking history has an effect on early survival but no effect on long-term survival. The cause of this early mortality is independent of infection and rejection. However, these data suggest that overall outcomes from the use of donor lungs from smokers are acceptable, particularly in the current era with limited donor organs

  10. Syntheses of donor-acceptor-functionalized dihydroazulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt......The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine...

  11. Radioimmunological determination of neopterin in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Gerstner, L.

    1985-01-01

    In 518 sera from blood donors below 30 years of age neopterin was determined by radioimmunoassay. 21 of these patients (4.05%) showed elevated serum levels for neopterin. By clinical investigation of these cases viral infections of the upper airways were found. Furthermore after elimination of elevated values significant differences in normal neopterin serum levels could be demonstrated for female and male blood donors (p < 0.01). Because elevated neopterin serum levels indicate immune responses to several antigens, determination of neopterin from serum may be useful for detection of infectious blood samples. (author)

  12. Donor Diabetes and Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time Synergistically Increase the Risk of Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüggenwirth, Isabel M A; Dolgin, Natasha H; Porte, Robert J; Bozorgzadeh, Adel; Martins, Paulo N A

    BACKGROUND: Both prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) and donor history of diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with reduced graft survival after liver transplantation. However, it is unknown whether the adverse effect of prolonged CIT on posttransplant graft survival is more pronounced after

  13. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  14. Initial experience with purely laparoscopic living-donor right hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S K; Lee, K W; Choi, Y; Kim, H S; Ahn, S W; Yoon, K C; Kim, H; Yi, N J; Suh, K S

    2018-05-01

    There may be concerns about purely laparoscopic donor right hepatectomy (PLDRH) compared with open donor right hepatectomy, especially when performed by surgeons accustomed to open surgery. This study aimed to describe technical tips and pitfalls in PLDRH. Data from donors who underwent PLDRH at Seoul National University Hospital between December 2015 and July 2017 were analysed retrospectively. Endpoints analysed included intraoperative events and postoperative complications. All operations were performed by a single surgeon with considerable experience in open living donor hepatectomy. A total of 26 donors underwent purely laparoscopic right hepatectomy in the study interval. No donor required transfusion during surgery, whereas two underwent reoperation. In two donors, the dissection plane at the right upper deep portion of the midplane was not correct. One donor experienced portal vein injury during caudate lobe transection, and one developed remnant left hepatic duct stenosis. One donor experienced remnant portal vein angulation owing to a different approach angle, and one experienced arterial damage associated with the use of a laparoscopic energy device. One donor had postoperative bleeding due to masking of potential bleeding foci owing to intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy. Two donors experienced right liver surface damage caused by a xiphoid trocar. Purely laparoscopic donor hepatectomy differs from open donor hepatectomy in terms of angle and caudal view. Therefore, surgeons experienced in open donor hepatectomy must gain adequate experience in laparoscopic liver surgery and make adjustments when performing PLDRH. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. River history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  17. Environmental History

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  18. Comparison of donor, and early and late recipient outcomes following hand assisted and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Steven M; Liaw, Aron; Mhapsekar, Rishi; Yelfimov, Daniel; Goggins, William C; Powelson, John A; Png, Keng Siang; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2013-02-01

    While laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has encouraged living kidney donation, debate exists about the safest laparoscopic technique. We compared purely laparoscopic and hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies in terms of donor outcome, early graft function and long-term graft outcome. We reviewed the records of consecutive laparoscopic and hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies performed by a single surgeon from 2002 to 2011. Donor operative time and perioperative morbidity were compared. Early graft function for kidneys procured by each technique was evaluated by rates of delayed graft function, need for dialysis and recipient discharge creatinine. Long-term outcomes were evaluated by graft function. A total of 152 laparoscopic donor nephrectomies were compared with 116 hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. Hand assisted procedures were more often done for the right kidney (41.1% vs 17.1%, p recipient outcomes were also similar. Delayed function occurred after 0% hand assisted vs 0.9% purely laparoscopic nephrectomies, dialysis was required in 0.9% vs 1.7% and rejection episodes developed in 9.7% vs 18.4% (p >0.05). At last followup the organ was nonfunctioning in 6.1% of hand assisted and 7.7% of purely laparoscopic cases (p >0.05). The recipient glomerular filtration rate at discharge home was similar in the 2 groups. Hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy had shorter warm ischemia time but perioperative donor morbidity and graft outcome were comparable. The choice of technique should be based on patient and surgeon preference. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency and risk factors for donor reactions in an anonymous blood donor survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mindy; Osmond, Lori; Yi, Qi-Long; Cameron-Choi, Keltie; O'Brien, Sheila F

    2013-09-01

    Adverse donor reactions can result in injury and decrease the likelihood of donor return. Reaction reports captured in the blood center's database provide an incomplete picture of reaction rates and risk factors. We performed an anonymous survey, mailed to 40,000 donors in 2008, including questions about symptoms, height, weight, sex, and donation status. Reaction rates were compared to those recorded in our database. Possible risk factors were assessed for various reactions. The response rate was 45.5%. A total of 32% of first-time and 14% of repeat donors reported having any adverse symptom, most frequently bruising (84.9 per 1000 donors) or feeling faint or weak (66.2 per 1000). Faint reactions were two to eight times higher than reported in our database, although direct comparison was difficult. Younger age, female sex, and first-time donation status were risk factors for systemic and arm symptoms. In females, low estimated blood volume (EBV) was a risk factor for systemic symptoms. Only 51% of donors who consulted an outside physician also called Canadian Blood Services. A total of 10% of first-time donors with reactions found adverse effects information inadequate. This study allowed us to collect more information about adverse reactions, including minor symptoms and delayed reactions. Based on our findings of the risk factors and frequency of adverse reactions, we are implementing more stringent EBV criteria for younger donors and providing more detailed information to donors about possible adverse effects and their management. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. [Survey of blood donors on the topic of "reimbursement for blood donors"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1995-02-01

    Remuneration for blood donors, in the way as presently handled by governmental and communal blood transfusion services in Germany, is not generally accepted. It is feared that donors are recruited with increased risk to transmit infectious diseases, especially AIDS. Alternative incentives are discussed. After the so-called AIDS scandal in Germany, a change in the donor motivation was to be expected, associated with an increased willingness to renounce remuneration. Therefore, we performed the present survey, in which we evaluated the donor's willingness to renounce remuneration, possibilities of cashless remuneration and other alternative incentives. During March and April 1994, a total of 1,157 blood donors of the University Blood Bank Marburg were questioned anonymously by a questionnaire in the framework of whole-blood donations. Beside the above-mentioned aspects demoscopic data were included (age, sex, profession, journey). Cutting of remuneration without any other compensation was refused by 86.1% of the donors, 77% would not want to further donate blood in this case. Transfer of money to a bank account instead of cash payment was accepted by 78.6%, the use of non-negotiable cheques by 68.7%. Alternative compensation by tickets for theater, concert, cinema or coupons for restaurants met with the approval of only 27.3%; under these circumstances, 36.9% would be willing to continue blood donation. With increasing age and number of donations, but largely independent of social status, donors attached greater importance to retention of remuneration. Cutting of remuneration would result in a considerable reduction of the willingness to donate blood within the population of donors of the governmental and communal blood transfusion services. However, an increase of virus safety of the blood products would not be reached in this way, since especially the long-term donors would be driven away. Considerable bottlenecks, particularly in the specific blood supply of

  1. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  2. Marrow donor registry and cord blood bank in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Dao

    2002-08-01

    Unrelated Bone marrow transplant was initiated thirty years ago. Though there are over millions of donors registered with the bone marrow registries worldwide, Asian patients rarely find a match with all these donors. Tzu Chi Marrow Donor Registry was established to meet this need. It has become the largest Asian marrow donor registry in the world. With the introduction of high technology to test the HLA of the donors and recipients, the success rate of bone marrow transplant is greatly improved among Asian countries. 50% of blood disease Asian patients who cannot find a bone marrow matched donor will be complemented by the establishment of cord blood banks in Taiwan.

  3. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  4. Criteria for selecting organ donors and recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, P

    1990-11-01

    As there is a world-wide shortage of organs for transplantation, the selection of the patients is more defined by the availability of transplantable organs than by the medical condition of the potential recipient. This shortage of cadaveric organs is mainly responsible for the use of living donors. With HLA identical sibling donors the results are better than with cadaveric organs, but the ethical problems are usually underestimated. For the parent-to-child donation, the HLA compatibility is less than what could be achieved with well-matched cadaveric donors. The use of genetically unrelated donors is unacceptable from the ethical as well as from the medical point of view. The short- and long-term risk of donation has been insufficiently documented. The experience with the introduction of an opting-out legislation in Belgium in 1987 demonstrates that the shortage of cadaveric organs can be overcome. Harmonization of the legislation is, however, necessary so as to achieve comparable organ retrieval rates between countries participating in organ-exchange organisations.

  5. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  6. Non-organ donors' attitudes toward incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Abdullah, Nawi; Ng, Kok-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Malaysians indicating that they did not intend to become organ donors upon their death were surveyed regarding interest in non-fungible financial incentives to be granted to surviving family members. Among the 730 (56% of the total sample of 1311) indicating unwillingness to be donors, 29.6% (216/730) subsequently indicated that they would be willing donors if the government introduced policies that, upon their death, "rewarded your (their) family with incentives for your (their) deeds." Among the 69% (504/730) who insisted that they would not become organ donor even with incentive, nearly 80% (404/501) of them were able to identify relevant incentives they thought should be provided by the state to those who make organ donations upon death. The majority of both groups preferred the state provide medical benefits to a surviving family member, suggesting this may be an attractive policy option for the state to raise the deceased organ donation pool. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. [Outcome of living kidney donors for transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanot, Antoine; Bouvier, Nicolas; Chatelet, Valérie; Lecouf, Angélique; Tillou, Xavier; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, several treatments exist to treat terminal chronic renal failure. Best results for the recipients are obtained with kidney transplantation concerning mortality and quality of life. Transplantation is also the cheaper option for society. Living kidney donation raises the issue of the becoming of the donor, an absolutely healthy subject who gets to a surgical procedure. The becoming of living kidney donors has been compared with the one of controls subjects in several studies. The evaluations focused on the complications of nephrectomy in the short and long-term: kidney failure, hypertension, proteinuria, possibility of pregnancy, quality of life, and mortality. The first results did not show any risk linked to kidney donation, compared to general population. However, since 2013, kidney donors were found at higher risk for kidney failure and even for mortality, compared with controls selected like donor candidates. The risk of kidney donation is nevertheless acceptable and minimal, on the condition of rigorous selection of candidates and regular follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. BLOOD DONOR HAEMATOLOGY PARAMETERS IN TWO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... determine distribution frequencies (including mean and median) and 95% percentile ranges (defined as the mean ± 2SD). These were determined individually for Kisumu and Nairobi, and comparisons between the two donor groups were made using the independent samples t-test. RESULTS. Red blood ...

  9. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Ana L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  10. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparently in a healthy state today but with possible clinical disease consequences in the future. A retrospective study was conducted from April 2011 to November 2012. Screening was done using third generation ELISA kits used according to the manufacturer's directions; these kits were approved for use in blood banks by the Drug Controller General of India. Those testing repeat reactive were referred for further confirmation and management. The total number of TTI reactive donors was 787 (0.93 %, N = 83,865). The observed response rate in the present study is 21.6 % (167, N = 787). The risk factors for acquiring infections in TTI reactive donors were statistically significant history of high risk behaviour (20.3 %) for human immunodeficiency virus infection and history of jaundice in themselves, family or close contacts (16.1 %) for hepatitis B virus infection. One hundred and ten (65.8 %) of the referred donors were on outpatient clinical care when post-referral follow up was conducted. The study emphasises on continuing sensitization of blood donation camp organisers to the need of privacy during blood donor selection. The study also stresses the need to strengthen the pre-donation counselling at outdoor blood donation at the same time raise awareness amongst blood donors about the importance of post-donation counselling and follow up.

  11. Adult dual kidney transplantations obtained from marginal donors: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Jung, J H; Song, K B; Chung, Y S; Park, J B; Cho, Y M; Jang, H J; Kim, S-C; Han, D J

    2012-01-01

    Organ shortage has led us to use grafts from expanded criteria donors (ECD). Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) using organs from an ECD, which are not acceptable for single kidney transplantation (KT), may overcome the insufficient functioning nephron mass. We performed DKTs in two recipients, the first DKT to be reported from Korea. In case 1, the donor was a 36-year-old man with hypertension. The cause of his brain death was intracranial hemorrhage. He had no known underlying renal disease; his serum creatinine level was 4.2 mg/dL. Despite the relatively young age of the donor, a biopsy revealed mild interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with moderate arteriolar narrowing. The recipient's postoperative course was uneventful over the 69-month follow-up; her last serum creatinine was 1.3 mg/dL. In case 2, the 80-year-old male donor with a history of hypertension had a normal creatinine. The donor biopsy revealed mild glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis with moderate arteriolar narrowing. The recipient had undergone a previous KT 14 years previously on the right side of the abdomen, but had resumed dialysis 2 years previously due to chronic allograft nephropathy. There was no delayed graft function. At month 4 posttransplantation, lymphoceles were treated by fenestration. At 6-month follow-up, her creatinine was 1.0 mg/dL. In our experience with these two cases, DKT with ECD kidney grafts seemed to be a successful strategy to avoid poor graft outcomes and overcome the donor organ shortage. Further studies including histological criteria for DKT, should be performed to determine the safest means to utilize ECD grafts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Seropositive abdominal and thoracic donor organs are largely underutilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Pietroski, R E; Hagan, M; Eisenbrey, A B; Fontana, R J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and utilization of anti-hepatitis B core protein(+) and anti-hepatitis C virus(+) organ donor referrals in a large organ procurement organization. Between 1995 and 2006, 3,134 deceased organ donor referrals were tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV using commercial assays. The prevalence of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals significantly increased from 3.4% in 1994-1996 to 8.1% in 2003-2005 (P organ donor referrals remained unchanged at 3%-4% (P = .20). The 112 anti-HBc(+) (3.5%) and 173 anti-HCV(+) (5.5%) organ donor referrals were significantly older and more likely to be noncaucasian than seronegative organ donor referrals (P donor organs were significantly lower compared with seronegative organ donors (P donors over time (21% vs 46%; P = .026), whereas utilization of anti-HCV(+) liver donors remained unchanged over time (5% vs 18%; P = .303). In summary, the proportion of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals has significantly increased and the proportion of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals has remained stable. Both thoracic and abdominal organs from seropositive donors are largely underutilized. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Donor-derived aspergillosis from use of a solid organ recipient as a multiorgan donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N J; Weisser, M; Fehr, T; Wüthrich, R P; Müllhaupt, B; Lehmann, R; Imhof, A; Aubert, J-D; Genoni, M; Kunz, R; Weber, M; Steiger, J

    2010-02-01

    The growing need for organs and the scarcity of donors has resulted in an increased use of extended criteria donors. We report a case where a recipient of a cardiac graft was used as an organ donor. Death of the recipient occurred 9 days after transplantation and was attributed to presumed cerebral hemorrhage, which post mortem was diagnosed as invasive aspergillosis of the brain. One recipient of a kidney transplant lost the graft due to infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, whereas prompt initiation of therapy successfully prevented disseminated aspergillosis in the other recipients. Despite the pressure to extend the use of organs by lowering the acceptance criteria, organs should only be accepted if the cause of death of the donors is unequivocally explained.

  14. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... needed. Upon review of research possibilities being discussed in meetings and in the literature, HRSA... their experiences and opinions regarding the importance of further study into donor management and its...

  15. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect....

  16. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  17. Retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Review of the first 50 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but the working space in the initial stages of the operation is ... To evaluate donor safety and graft outcomes for the first 50 retroperitoneoscopic ... maintained during the early learning curve of the transition to minimalaccess donor nephrectomy ...

  18. Anaesthesia and peri-operative care for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.R.A.M. Mertens Zur Borg (Ingrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA successful renal transplant for patients with kidney failure reduces mortality rate when compared to patients who continue dialysis. Organ donation from living donors has significant better results over organ donation from deceased donors. Traditionally the surgical

  19. Computer Algorithms in the Search for Unrelated Stem Cell Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Steiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a “donor search process” by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU. Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  20. Prevalence of HIV infection among former commercial plasma donors in rural eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Rou, K; Detels, R

    2001-03-01

    Sporadic reports of HIV-1 infection among commercial plasma donors in China between 1994 and 1995. (1) To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among repeat plasma donors; (2) to identify factors associated with HIV infection; and (3) to describe characteristics associated with secondary transmission. Plasma/blood donors who had a history of donating plasma/blood before March 1, 1995, their spouses, and their children under 5 years were recruited for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire and an HIV test were collected anonymously. Information collected included demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, recreational drug use and history of medical care and blood/plasma donation. HIV antibody was identified by the Hema-Strip rapid test and confirmed by Western blot. The prevalence of HIV infection was calculated and risk factors associated with infection determined by univariate analyses followed by multivariate modelling. A total of 1517 individuals were interviewed and tested, of whom 1043 adults admitted to donating plasma. The prevalence of HIV infection among plasma donors was 12.5% and among their non-donor spouses was 2.1%. Prevalence was inversely related to educational level and was higher in married participants, but was not associated with medical care, drug abuse or multiple sexual partners. A higher frequency of plasma donation was directly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that being HIV-positive was associated with being 30 to 49 years old [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9], donating both plasma and blood (OR = 2.5), and the frequency of plasma donation (OR = 14 for >10 donations per month). The study demonstrated that the prevalence of HIV infection in the commercial plasma donor population was alarmingly high. Many married individuals and those getting married in the future will transmit the virus to their spouses and future children. Plasma donors need to be alerted to the risk of being infected with

  1. Trends in organ donor management: 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Devon S; Kim, Dennis; Bricker, Scott; Neville, Angela; Putnam, Brant; Smith, Jennifer; Bongard, Frederic; Plurad, David

    2014-10-01

    Refinements in donor management have resulted in increased numbers and quality of grafts after neurologic death. We hypothesize that the increased use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been accompanied by improved outcomes over time. Using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network donor database, all brain-dead donors procured from July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2012 were studied. Hormone replacement therapy was identified by an infusion of thyroid hormone. An expanded criteria donor was defined as age 60 years or older. Incidence of HRT administration and number of donors and organs recovered were calculated. Using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network thoracic recipient database transplant list, wait times were examined. There were 74,180 brain-dead donors studied. Hormone replacement therapy use increased substantially from 25.6% to 72.3% of donors. However, mean number of organs procured per donor remained static (3.51 to 3.50; p = 0.083), and the rate of high-yield donors decreased (46.4% to 43.1%; p donors decreased (42.1% to 33.9%; p donors (22.1% to 26%). Despite this, there has been an increase in the raw number of donors (20,558 to 24,308; p organs (5,857 to 6,945; p organs per traumatic brain injury donor (4.02 to 4.12; p = 0.002) and a decrease in days on the waiting list (462.2 to 170.4 days; p donors has been accompanied by increased organ availability overall. Potential mechanisms might include successful conversion of previously unacceptable donors and improved recovery in certain subsets of donors. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Online sperm donors: the impact of family, friends, personality and risk perception on behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Stephen; Savage, David A; Torgler, Benno

    2017-12-01

    As informal sperm donation becomes more prevalent worldwide, understanding donor psychology and interactions is critical in providing effective policy, equitable legislative frameworks and frontline health support to an ever-growing number of global participants. We analyse data of informal sperm donors who were members of the connection website PrideAngel to identify the role and effect of several factors, e.g. kinship, social networks, personality, and risk perception, on behaviour. A key strength of the study is the ability to analyse various factors, such as the level and history of informal donation, risk concerns, number of women to whom donations are informally made and the number of offspring. Our results indicate donors who have also been active in formal clinical settings (compared with those who exclusively donate informally), donate to more women in the informal market and realise more offspring. Donor's sexual orientation also affects activity. From a personality perspective, conscientiousness provides comparative advantage. It is possible this characteristic provides positive externalities, as more conscientious men may be more efficient or organised in a market that requires increased cooperation and communication. The importance of kin and social networks seems to affect frequency of donation only, possibly representing a time constraint (or opportunity cost). Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Viral Infectivity Markers in Donor Blood: A Retrospective Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 12,540 homologous donors seen between 1993 and 1999 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) blood bank were analysed with respect to the frequency of viral infectivity markers (HBsAg and HIV antibodies) as it relates to donor categories. Fifteen percent and 4.07% of voluntary donors were ...

  4. Explaining differences between hospitals in number of organ donors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.; Coppen, R.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The shortage of donor organs calls for a careful examination of all improvement options. In this study, 80 Dutch hospitals were compared. They provided 868 donors in a 5-year period, constituting 91% of all donors in that period in The Netherlands. Multilevel regression analysis was used to explain

  5. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and intensity of malaria in blood donors at Nnamdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and intensity of malaria in blood donors at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... Apprentices and primary school dropouts constituted the most frequent donors. These differences were between the two donor-groups statistically significant (p<0.05). Screening ...

  7. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood donor locator service. 401.200 Section... AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.200 Blood donor locator service... donors whose blood donations show that they are or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus...

  8. The evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Khoza, S.; Van Hulst, M.; Postma, M.J.; Mvere, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Donor selection is one of the first steps in blood donation aimed at improving the safety of blood and blood products. It is the only line of protection for donors and against certain infections for which testing is not performed. There is paucity of published data on reasons for donor

  9. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  10. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  11. Cygnus History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  12. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  13. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of heterosexual couples with children conceived using donor sperm or eggs)

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Hazel; Nordqvist, Petra; Smart, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of heterosexual couples who have, or are planning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children told usabout their experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a series of four, written for parents and grandparents with donor-conceived children. They are based on research from the Relative Strangers project.

  14. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin

    2010-01-01

    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea......'s ODA policy, along with its growth in quantity, is at a crossroads for the enhancement of its quality. Discussions and debates are going on regarding the reforms in Korea's ODA activities, and this paper examines key issues raised. It first reviews the past and present of Korea's ODA, and identifies...... like the objective of ODA, positioning of Korea's ODA as an emerging donor and the nature of aid to North Korea. We also argue that a shift of ODA policy is required to promote reform, based on a thorough reflection on the role of ODA in the alleviation of poverty and promoting sustainable development...

  15. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  16. Deceased donor organ transplantation with expanded criteria donors: a single-center experience from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplani, K R; Firoz, A; Ramakrishana, P; Shah, P R; Gumber, M R; Patel, H V; Vanikar, A V; Trivedi, H L

    2010-01-01

    Deceased donor organ transplantation (DDOT) accounts for DKT) and 19 single (SKT). Fourteen donors had hypertension, a cerebrovascular accident as the cause of death, 9 had both, and 4 had diabetes. Mean donor age was 70.3 +/- 8.9 years. Decisions on the procedure were based upon frozen section biopsy in 13 of 21 donors. Mean DKT donor age was 76 +/- 9.7 years versu 64 +/- 5.7 years of SKT donors. The native kidney diseases were chronic glomerulonephritis (n = 14), diabetic nephropathy (n = 7), tubulointerstitial nephritis (n = 4) and polycystic kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, lupus nephritis and patchy cortical necrosis, (n = 1 each). Mean recipient age of DKT versus SKT was 43.5 versus 42.3 years. All recipients received rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, followed by steroid, mycophenolate mofetil/calcinueurin inhibitor. Over a mean follow-up of 341 days, the mean serum creatinine (SCr) of 25/29 patients was 1.60 mg/dL (range, 1.0-2.6). The mean SCr of SKT patients was 1.59 +/- 0.63 mg/dL and of DKT, 1.62 +/- 0.48 mg/dL. Ten patients had delayed graft function and 11 had biopsy proven acute tubular necrosis. Seven (24%) patients had rejection (grade 3 Banff update '05, type IA; 4, type 2A); 6 responded to antirejection; 1 graft was lost at 7 months due to chronic rejection. Three (10.3%) patients were lost, 1 each due to AMI, sepsis, and CMV disease. In the circumstances of organ shortage, DDOT with expanded criteria donor is a feasible option.

  17. Donor conversion and procurement failure: the fate of our potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Bernardino C; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Salim, Ali; Barmparas, Galinos; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Talving, Peep; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-02-01

    Donor availability remains the primary limiting factor for organ transplantation today. The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of procurement failure amongst potential organ donors. After Institutional Review Board approval, all surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients admitted to the LAC+USC Medical Center from 01/2006 to 12/2008 who became potential organ donors were identified. Demographics, clinical data, and procurement data were abstracted. In non-donors, the causes of procurement failure were documented. During the 3-year study period, a total of 254 patients were evaluated for organ donation. Mean age was 44.8±18.7 years; 191 (75.2%) were male, 136 (53.5%) were Hispanic, and 148 (58.3%) were trauma patients. Of the 254 patients, 116 (45.7%) were not eligible for donation: 34 had multi-system organ failure, 24 did not progress to brain death and had support withdrawn, 18 had uncontrolled sepsis, 15 had malignancy, 6 had human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C, and 19 patients had other contraindications to organ donation. Of the remaining 138 eligible patients, 83 (60.2%) did not donate: 56 because the family denied consent, 9 by their own choice. In six, next of kin could not be located, five died because of hemodynamic instability before organ procurement was possible, four had organs that could not be placed, and three had their organs declined by the organ procurement organization. The overall consent rate was 57.5% (n=67). From the 55 donors, 255 organs were procured (yield 4.6 organs/donor). Of all patients screened for organ donation, only a fifth actually donated. Denial of consent was the major potentially preventable cause of procurement failure, whereas hemodynamic instability accounted for only a small percentage of donor losses. With such low conversion rates, the preventable causes of procurement failure warrant further study.

  18. The effect of World Blood Donor Day on digital information seeking and donor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Floris J; Kreuger, Aukje L; Arbous, M Sesmu; Laeijendecker, Daphne; van Kraaij, Marian G J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of World Blood Donor Day (WBDD) is to raise awareness for the importance of blood donation. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of WBDD on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. Google Trends data were used to quantify seeking behavior on "blood donation" and "blood donor." Differences in relative search volume (RSV) between the 3 weeks surrounding WBDD and the rest of the year were calculated. Second, mean differences in RSV were compared to assess the additional effect of hosting using translated search terms. Third, we compared the period around WBDD with the control period regarding page views of the Sanquin website and Facebook likes and number of newly registered donors in 2016. The mean RSV for "blood donation" in the period of interest was 78.6, compared to 72.1 in the control period (difference, 6.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-11.8). For "blood donor" this was 78.9 compared to 65.9 (difference, 12.9; 95% CI, 8.1-17.8). We found no additional effect of hosting. In the period of interest, the website of Sanquin was visited 6862 times a day and 4293 times in the control period (difference, 2569; 95% CI, 1687-3451). In June 2016, 54.6% (95% CI, 53.0-56.2) more new donors were registered compared to the control period. An international campaign like WBDD raises the awareness of blood donation and is effective in convincing people to register as blood donors. © 2017 AABB.

  19. [Ethics and kidney transplants with living donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamzer Bruneel, Marie-France

    2016-12-01

    The ethical debate surrounding transplant practices questions our societies. International recommendations set out numerous precautions which must be taken to ensure that donors act with their free will. While in most countries, including France, organ donation is a voluntary and non-commercial act, a black market exists in the world resulting in the trafficking of organs and tragic transplant tourism. Copyright © 2016. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  1. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiden, H.A. van; Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. METHODS: This study

  2. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  3. Anonymous body or first patient? A status report and needs assessment regarding the personalization of donors in dissection courses in German, Austrian, and Swiss Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselblatt, Friederike; Messerer, David A C; Keis, Oliver; Böckers, Tobias M; Böckers, Anja

    2018-05-06

    Many Anglo-American universities have undertaken a paradigm shift in how the dissection of human material is approached, such that students are encouraged to learn about the lives of body donors, and to respectfully "personalize" them as human beings, rather than treating the specimens as anonymous cadavers. For the purposes of this study, this provision of limited personal information regarding the life of a body donor will be referred to as "personalization" of body donors. At this time, it is unknown whether this paradigm shift in the personalization of body donors can be translated into the German-speaking world. A shift from donor anonymity to donor personalization could strengthen students' perception of the donor as a "first patient," and thereby reinforce their ability to empathize with their future patients. Therefore, this study aimed to collect data about the current status of donation practices at German-speaking anatomy departments (n = 44) and to describe the opinions of anatomy departments, students (n = 366), and donors (n = 227) about possible donor personalization in medical education. Anatomy departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were invited to participate in an online questionnaire. One-tenth of registered donors at Ulm University were randomly selected and received a questionnaire (20 items, yes-no questions) by mail. Students at the University of Ulm were also surveyed at the end of the dissection course (31 items, six-point Likert-scale). The majority of students were interested in receiving additional information about their donors (78.1%). A majority of donors also supported the anonymous disclosure of information about their medical history (92.5%). However, this information is only available in about 28% of the departments surveyed and is communicated to the students only irregularly. Overall, 78% of anatomy departments were not in favor of undertaking donor personalization. The results appear to reflect

  4. Factors influencing the virological testing of cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Tobias; Beck, Robert; Jürgens, Stefan; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Bramkamp, Matthias; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    To assess the influence of donor, environment, and logistical factors on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.Data from 670 consecutive cornea donors were analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.The mean annual rate of donors with serology-reactive or not evaluable result was 14.8% (99 of 670) (range 11.9%-16.9%). The cause of donor death by cancer increased the risk of serology-reactive or not evaluable result (P = .0300). Prolonged time between death and post mortem blood removal was associated with a higher rate of serology-reactive or not evaluable result (P donors, sex, and donor age had no significant impact on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.The cause of donor death by cancer and a prolonged time between death and post mortem blood removal seem to be mainly responsible for serology-reactive or not evaluable result of blood samples from cornea donors. The percentage of discarded corneas caused by serology-reactive or not evaluable result may be reduced by shortening the period of time between death and post mortem blood removal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal

  6. Whole-blood donation: blood donor suitability and adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bruce H

    2004-11-01

    Approximately 3% to 3.5% of the US population donates whole blood each year. Physicians might be approached by a blood donor because of a donor suitability issue, a positive postdonation test, or a donation-related complication. Approximately 83% of blood donors successfully donate; but 13% are rejected because of a donor suitability issue; 1% have a positive test, which is often nonspecific or false-positive; and 2% to 4% of the phlebotomies are not successful. The most common adverse physical events based on donor interviews are bruise (23%), sore arm (10%), fatigue (8%), and vasovagal reaction (7%), while uncommon events include nerve irritation (0.9%), syncope (0.1-0.3%), and arterial puncture (0.01%). One in 3400 donors (0.033%) report seeking outside medical care. Serious injuries occur but are very rare. More often, blood donors do well and feel satisfied with the blood donation experience.

  7. Philanthropic Donor Perspectives on Supporting Nursing Excellence in a Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickley, Sharon K; Mishler, Ray R; Black, Amelia S; DeGuzman, Pam B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore donors' perspectives on support of nursing excellence in a community hospital. Philanthropic support is rapidly becoming critical to support nursing excellence in hospitals, including continuing education, nursing research, and professional development. However, no research has examined the experience of private donors who support nursing programs in community hospitals. Structured interviews were conducted with individuals with a history of providing significant financial support (gifts >$50 000) targeted specifically for nursing in a 176- bed community hospital in the southeastern United States. Analysis was performed using descriptive content analysis. Four themes emerged that centered around making a difference, helping nurses meet new challenges, an existing foundation of service, and valuing excellent nursing care received. This research provides specific information that nursing administrators can use when seeking philanthropic gifts to support nursing excellence programs in US community hospitals.

  8. Contribution of the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS to research on blood transfusion safety in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Loureiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS program was established in the United States in 1989 with the purpose of increasing blood transfusion safety in the context of the HIV/AIDS and human T-lymphotropic virus epidemics. REDS and its successor, REDS-II were at first conducted in the US, then expanded in 2006 to include international partnerships with Brazil and China. In 2011, a third wave of REDS renamed the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III was launched. This seven-year research program focuses on both blood banking and transfusion medicine research in the United States of America, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The main goal of the international programs is to reduce and prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other known and emerging infectious agents through transfusion, and to address research questions aimed at understanding global issues related to the availability of safe blood. This article describes the contribution of REDS-II to transfusion safety in Brazil. Articles published from 2010 to 2013 are summarized, including database analyses to characterize blood donors, deferral rates, and prevalence, incidence and residual risk of the main blood-borne infections. Specific studies were developed to understand donor motivation, the impact of the deferral questions, risk factors and molecular surveillance among HIV-positive donors, and the natural history of Chagas disease. The purpose of this review is to disseminate the acquired knowledge and briefly summarize the findings of the REDS-II studies conducted in Brazil as well as to introduce the scope of the REDS-III program that is now in progress and will continue through 2018.

  9. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  10. Emergency department referral for organ donation: more organ donors and more organs per donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisabeth D; Gardiner, Stuart K; Gubler, K Dean

    2014-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether early referral from the emergency department (ED) would increase the number of organ donors and the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). This is a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients referred to a single organ procurement organization for a period of 60 months. Patients referred for organ donation evaluation from the ED were more likely to become organ donors than patients referred from the intensive care unit (19.3% vs 5.2%, P organ donation from the ED is associated with an increased likelihood of organ recovery and with an increased number of OTPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Why search for a sperm donor online? The experiences of women searching for and contacting sperm donors on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Tranfield, Erika; Golombok, Susan

    2018-06-01

    Whilst studies have examined the experiences of women who use clinic donors, to date there has been limited research investigating women's motivations and experiences of searching for a sperm donor online. A total of 429 women looking for a sperm donor on Pride Angel (a website that facilitates contact between donors and recipients) completed an online survey. Fifty-eight percent (249) saw advantages of obtaining donated sperm online with the most common advantage reported as being able to connect with and meet the donor (n = 50 (24%)). A third (n = 157 (37%)) of the participants gave disadvantages, the most common reported was encountering 'dishonest donors' (n = 63 (40%)). Most recipients (n = 181 (61%)) wanted the donor to be 'just a donor' (i.e. to provide sperm and have no further contact). Whilst it was important for recipients to know the identity of the donor, some did not see this as important for the child and thus the level of information that parents have about the donor, and that which the child has, can differ. Finding a donor online blurs the distinction between categories of 'anonymous', 'known' and 'identity release' donations. Whilst the survey had a large sample size, the representativeness of the sample is not known.

  12. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-07-01

    Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  13. Management to optimize organ procurement in brain dead donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, L; Mastromauro, I; Viberti, S; Vincenzi, M; Zanello, M

    2009-03-01

    The demand for donor organs continues to exceed the number of organs available for transplantation. Many reasons may account for this discrepancy, such as the lack of consent, the absence of an experienced coordinator team able to solve logistical problems, the use of strict donor criteria, and suboptimal, unstandardized critical care management of potential organ donors. This has resulted in efforts to improve the medical care delivered to potential organ donors, so as to reduce organ shortages, improve organ procurement, and promote graft survival. The physiological changes that follow brain death entail a high incidence of complications jeopardizing potentially transplantable organs. Adverse events include cardiovascular changes, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, and disruption of internal homeostasis. Brain death also upregulates the release of pro-inflammatory molecules. Recent findings support the hypothesis that a preclinical lung injury characterized by an enhanced inflammatory response is present in potential donors and may predispose recipients to an adverse clinical prognosis following lung transplantation. In clinical practice, hypotension, diabetes insipidus, relative hypothermia, and natremia are more common than disseminated intravascular coagulation, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, acute lung injury, and metabolic acidosis. Strategies for the management of organ donors exist and consist of the normalization of donor physiology. Management has been complicated by the recent use of ''marginal'' donors and donors of advanced age or with ''extended'' criteria. Current guidelines suggest that the priority of critical care management for potential organ donors should be shifted from a ''cerebral protective'' strategy to a multimodal strategy aimed to preserve peripheral organ function.

  14. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Maghsudlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.

  15. Reproducing whiteness and enacting kin in the Nordic context of transnational egg donation: Matching donors with cross-border traveller recipients in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homanen, Riikka

    2018-04-01

    The multimillion-euro fertility industry increasingly tailors its treatments to infertile people who are willing to travel across national borders for treatments inaccessible at home, especially reproductive tissue donor treatments. Finland is the Nordic destination for access to donor eggs, particularly for Swedes and Norwegians hoping for a donor match that will achieve a child of phenotypically plausible biological descent. Finns are seen as Nordic kin, and the inheritability of "Nordicness" is reinforced at clinics. Drawing on ethnographic material from three fertility clinics in Finland during 2015-2017, this article discusses how Nordic relatedness and whiteness are enacted in the practices of matching of donors with recipient parents. The analysis shows a selective and exclusionary rationale to matching built around whiteness: matches between donors with dark skin tone and recipients with fair skin tone are rejected, but a match of a donor with fair skin and recipients with dark skin may be made. Within the context of transnational egg donation, the whiteness or Nordicness of Finns is not questioned as it has been in other historical circumstances. Even the establishment of a state donor register offers a guarantee of kin-ness, especially non-Russian kin-ness. It is concluded that the logics of matching protect the "purity" of whiteness but not browness or blackness, enacting Nordic(kin)ness in ways that are part of broader intra-European histories of racism and post-socialist Othering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Candida Endophthalmitis After Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty With Grafts From Both Eyes of a Donor With Possible Systemic Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Sotiria; Sivaraman, Kavitha; Joag, Madhura; Sise, Adam; Batlle, Juan F; Miller, Darlene; Espana, Edgar M; Amescua, Guillermo; Yoo, Sonia H; Galor, Anat; Karp, Carol L

    2018-04-01

    To report 2 cases with late postoperative Candida albicans interface keratitis and endophthalmitis after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with corneal grafts originating from a single donor with a history of presumed pulmonary candidiasis. Two patients underwent uncomplicated DSAEK by 2 corneal surgeons at different surgery centers but with tissue from the same donor and were referred to the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute with multifocal infiltrates at the graft-host cornea interface 6 to 8 weeks later, and anterior chamber cultures that were positive for the same genetic strain of C. albicans. Immediate explantation of DSAEK lenticules and daily intracameral and instrastromal voriconazole and amphotericin injections failed to control the infection. Thus, both patients underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty with intraocular lens explantation, pars plana vitrectomy, and serial postoperative intraocular antifungal injection. Both patients are doing well at 2 years postoperatively with best-corrected vision of 20/20 and 20/30+ with rigid gas permeable lenses. One patient required repeat optical penetrating keratoplasty and glaucoma tube implantation 1 year after the original surgery. Literature review reveals that donor lenticule explantation and intraocular antifungals are often inadequate to control fungal interface keratitis, and a therapeutic graft is commonly needed. Interface fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis due to infected donor corneal tissue is difficult to treat, and both recipients of grafts originating from the same donor are at risk of developing this challenging condition.

  17. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Hassall, Oliver; Bates, Imelda; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Ullum, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    To describe the recalled medical history, clinical manifestations, and treatment of yaws and syphilis by syphilis seroreactive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Of the blood donors at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana tested with the syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and later by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, 526 were seroreactive. Four hundred and seventy-one (89.5%) of these subjects were confirmed with the Ortho-Vitros Syphilis TP test as the gold standard and were interviewed to determine past or present clinical manifestations of yaws and syphilis. Of the 471 respondent donors, 28 (5.9%) gave a history of skin lesions and sores; four (14.3%) of these subjects, who were all male and RPR-positive, recalled a diagnosis of syphilis. All four reported having had skin lesions/bumps with slow-healing sores, but only one of them had had these symptoms before the age of 15 years. A small proportion of confirmed seroreactive donors in this sample had any recall of symptoms or treatment for yaws or syphilis. These data suggest that clinical questioning adds little further information to the current screening algorithm. The relative contribution of yaws and syphilis to frequent positive tests in endemic areas remains speculative. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  19. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  20. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  1. Variation in semen parameters derived from computer-aided semen analysis, within donors and between donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijchman, JG; De Wolf, BTHM; Graaff, R; Arts, EGJM

    2001-01-01

    The development of computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) has made it possible to study sperm motility characteristics objectively and longitudinally. In this 2-year study of 8 sperm donors, we used CASA to measure 7 semen parameters (concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa, curvilinear

  2. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.

    2016-11-21

    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  3. Donor level of interstitial hydrogen in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, L.; Bonde Nielsen, K.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The first data evidencing the existence of the donor level of the interstitial hydrogen in GaAs are presented. The abundant formation of the (0/+) donor level after in situ low-temperature implantation of hydrogen into the depletion layer of GaAs Schottky diodes has been observed and the activation energy and annealing properties have been determined by Laplace DLTS. The activation energy for electron emission of this donor state is 0.14eV. Above 100K the hydrogen deep donor state is unstable, converting to a more stable form when there are electrons available for the capture process. A slightly perturbed form of the hydrogen donor in its neutral charge state can be recovered by illuminating the sample. This process releases twice as many electrons as the ionisation process of the hydrogen donor state itself. This fact, by analogy with the silicon case, evidences the negative-U behaviour of hydrogen in GaAs

  4. Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. History of the Dental Trauma Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg

    2012-01-01

    The history of the Dental Trauma Guide dates back to 1965, where guidelines were developed for trauma records and treatment of various trauma entities at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University Hospital in Copenhagen. In 1972, a unique possibility came up at the Serum...... Institute in Copenhagen to test various dental trauma procedures in monkeys, which served as kidney donors in the polio vaccine production. Over the years, 40 000 dental trauma patients were treated at the Trauma Centre according to established guidelines, and 4000 of these have been enrolled in long...

  6. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  8. [Is there an age limit for cadaveric kidney donors currently?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofán Pujol, F; Oppenheimer Salinas, F; Talbot-Wright, R; Carretero González, P

    1996-12-01

    The insufficient number of kidney transplants has gradually raised the age limit to the cadaver kidney donor. The use of grafts harvested from older donors has been debated due to the existing structural and functional changes that might influence renal function and long-term graft survival. The foregoing aspects are discussed herein. The anatomical, histological and functional changes in the kidney associated with ageing are analyzed. The clinical experience with renal grafts from older donors before and after cyclosporine became available are reviewed. The ethical issues on whether grafts from very old donors should be used and who should receive these grafts are discussed. The use of grafts from donors over 60 years old had no significant short and medium term differences in comparison with younger donors in terms of graft survival, although a higher incidence of acute tubular necrosis and poor renal function have been observed. There are no conclusive studies on the long-term effects on graft survival when kidneys from donors aged over 65 are utilized. In our experience, the results achieved with grafts from donors over 70 has been unsatisfactory. The guidelines utilized in the selection of grafts derived from older donors are presented. Grafts from donors aged 60 to 70 may be utilized in renal transplantation following precise selection criteria. Graft survival has been satisfactory, although a higher incidence of acute tubular necrosis and higher creatinine levels have been observed. We do not advocate the use of grafts from donors over 70, except in very exceptional cases. Long-term multicenter studies on grafts from very old donors and trials using alternative immunosuppressor modalities that might permit optimal use of these grafts are warranted.

  9. Celebrate Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  10. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Raj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Results: Among the 509 donors, 295 (58% were male, and 420 (82.50% belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5% died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9% cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3% were nonreactive, 12 (2.4% donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and 1 (0.2% was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12% donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32% donors were accepted and 34 (6.67% were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00. Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00. Conclusion: The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4% and 1 (0.2%, respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling

  11. Donor management parameters and organ yield: single center results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, George Ryne; Mangus, Richard S; Powelson, John A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Tector, A Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Management of organ donors in the intensive care unit is an emerging subject in critical care and transplantation. This study evaluates organ yield outcomes for a large number of patients managed by the Indiana Organ Procurement Organization. This is a retrospective review of intensive care unit records from 2008-2012. Donor demographic information and seven donor management parameters (DMP) were recorded at admission, consent, 12 h after consent, and before procurement. Three study groups were created: donors meeting 0-3, 4, or 5-7 DMP. Active donor Organ Procurement Organization management began at consent; so, data analysis focuses on the 12-h postconsent time point. Outcomes included organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) and transplantation of individual solid organs. Complete records for 499 patients were reviewed. Organ yield was 1415 organs of 3992 possible (35%). At 12 h, donors meeting more DMP had more OTPD: 2.2 (0-3) versus 3.0 (4) versus 3.5 (5-7) (P organ except intestine. Oxygen tension, vasopressor use, and central venous pressure were the most frequent independent predictors of organ usage. There were significantly more organs transplanted for donors meeting all three of these parameters (4.5 versus 2.7, P organs, with analysis of individual parameters suggesting that appropriate management of oxygenation, volume status, and vasopressor use could lead to more organs procured per donor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kidney transplantation from donors with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Bao; Zheng, Yi-Tao; Zhou, Jian; Han, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Chang-Xi; He, Xiao-Shun

    2017-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis in deceased donors usually causes acute renal failure (ARF), which may be considered a contraindication for kidney transplantation. From January 2012 to December 2016, 30 kidneys from 15 deceased donors with severe rhabdomyolysis and ARF were accepted for transplantation at our center. The peak serum creatinine (SCr) kinase, myoglobin, and SCr of the these donors were 15 569±8597 U/L, 37 092±42 100 μg/L, and 422±167 μmol/L, respectively. Two donors received continuous renal replacement therapy due to anuria. Six kidneys exhibited a discolored appearance (from brown to glossy black) due to myoglobin casts. The kidney transplant results from the donors with rhabdomyolysis donors were compared with those of 90 renal grafts from standard criteria donors (SCD). The estimated glomerular filtration rate at 2 years was similar between kidney transplants from donors with rhabdomyolysis and SCD (70.3±14.6 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs 72.3±15.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). We conclude that excellent graft function can be achieved from kidneys donors with ARF caused by rhabdomyolysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Quality of life of elderly live kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Karel W J; Dols, Leonienke F C; Weimar, Willem; Dooper, Ine M; IJzermans, Jan N M; Kok, Niels F M

    2013-10-15

    Expanding the use of elderly live donors may help meet the demand for kidney transplants. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the surgical procedure on the quality of life (QOL) of elderly donors compared with younger donors. Alongside three prospective studies (two randomized) running between May 2001 and October 2010, we asked 501 live donors to fill out the Short Form-36 questionnaire preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. We defined live donors 60 years or older as elderly. Between-group analyses regarding QOL were adjusted for baseline values and gender. One hundred thirty-five donors were older and 366 donors were younger than 60 years. The response rate was high, with 87% at 12 months postoperatively. Elderly donors less often scored as American Society of Anaesthesiology classification 1 (60% vs. 81%; Pvitality" (5 points; P=0.008). At 3 months, "bodily pain" (3 points, P=0.04) and "role physical" (8 points, P=0.02) were still in favor of the older group. At 6 and 12 months, "physical function" was in favor of the younger group (3 and 5 points, respectively; P=0.04 and P<0.001). This study demonstrates that elderly donors recover relatively fast. The perspective of excellent postoperative QOL may help convince elderly individuals to donate.

  14. Scar evaluation of split thickness skin graft donor site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Muha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Split thickness skin graft harvesting causes a certain degree of scaring on the donor site. Donor site scar can cause aesthetic and functional sequelae on the patient's body. Our goal was to study the process of donor site selection, and then evaluate donor site scars and their impact on patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This retrospective study included 45 patients aged 5 to 61 years (in average 36, who have been treated with STSG in the 2004–2010 period. 57.8% of them were men. On a follow-up visit, we photographed healed skin defects and donor sites. We then determined and compared the surface areas of skin defect and the donor site using the Adobe® Illustrator® CS5 computer program. Donor site scars were assessed according to the Vancouver scar scale (VSS. We examined scar’s light touch sensitivity with monofilaments and skin colouring compared to adjacent healthy skin using colorimeter. Patients were also interviewed about their treatment course in a form of a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS. Our research has revealed that 20.0% of patients participated in the decision making process of choosing the donor site, while in 80.0% the donor site was chosen by the surgeon himself. 6.7% of patients were not satisfied with their donor site. Most of the patients (37/45 had donor sites on their thighs. In average, the donor site surface area was 94% bigger than the skin defect area. We found statistically significant differences in VSS values, light touch sensitivity and skin colouring between donor site scaring and adjacent healthy skin. CONCLUSIONS. Donor site scar can represent a lasting aesthetic and functional disability for patients. Our research has shown that most of the patients do not participate in the donor site selection process, but are satisfied with their donor site. In most cases, STGSs are harvested from the thigh, other anatomical regions, where scarring would be aesthetically less obtrusive, are underused

  15. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Mittal, Garima; Bahadur, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Among the 509 donors, 295 (58%) were male, and 420 (82.50%) belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5%) died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9%) cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3%) were nonreactive, 12 (2.4%) donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 1 (0.2%) was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12%) donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32%) donors were accepted and 34 (6.67%) were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00). Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00). The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4%) and 1 (0.2%), respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling will be done in donor cornea.

  16. [Vascular anatomy of donor and recipient in living kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqing; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2009-09-01

    To review the vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient for the living kidney transplantation. The recent literature about the vessels of donor and recipient in clinical applications was extensively reviewed. The pertinent vascular anatomy of the donor and recipient was essential for the screening of the proper candidates, surgical planning and long-term outcome. Early branching and accessory renal artery of the donor were particularly important to deciding the side of nephrectomy, surgical technique and anastomosing pattern, and their injuries were the most frequent factor of the conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery. With increase of laparoscopic nephrectomy in donors, accurate venous anatomy was paid more and more attention to because venous bleeding could also lead to conversion to open nephrectomy. Multidetector CT (MDCT) could supplant the conventional excretory urography and renal catheter angiography and could accurately depict the donors' vessels, vascular variations. In addition, MDCT can excellently evaluate the status of donor kidney, collecting system and other pertinent anatomy details. Accurate master of related vascular anatomy can facilitate operation plan and success of operation and can contribute to the rapid development of living donor kidney transplantation. MDCT has become the choice of preoperative one-stop image assessment for living renal donors.

  17. Embryo donation parents' attitudes towards donors: comparison with adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Fiona

    2009-03-01

    Embryo donation produces a family structure where neither rearing parent is genetically related to the child, as in adoption. It is not known how embryo donation parents view the donors compared with how adoptive parents view the birth parents. 21 couples with an embryo donation child aged 2-5 years were compared with 28 couples with an adopted child. Parents were administered a semi-structured interview, assessing knowledge of the donors/birth parents, frequency of thoughts and discussions about the donors/birth parents and disclosure of the donor conception/adoption to the child. Comparisons were made between mothers and fathers to examine gender differences. Embryo donation parents generally knew only the donors' physical characteristics, and thought about and talked about the donors less frequently than adoptive parents thought about and talked about the birth parents. Embryo donation fathers tended to think about the donors less often than did mothers. Disclosure of the child's origins in embryo donation families was far less common than in adoptive families (P parents' views on the donors differ from adoptive parents' views on the birth parents, with donors having little significance in family life once treatment is successful.

  18. Increasing the supply of kidneys for transplantation by making living donors the preferred source of donor kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-12-01

    At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation. We believe that it is ethically sound to have living kidney donation as the primary source for organs when the mortality and morbidity risks to the donor are known and kept extremely low, when the donor is properly informed and protected from coercion, and when accepted national and local guidelines for living donation are followed.

  19. On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Daly; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Speiser, Shammai; Peskin, Uri

    2009-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

  20. Liver transplantation from maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors: a source to increase the donor pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, M; Suárez, F; Arnal, F; Fernández-García, A; Aguirrezabalaga, J; García-Buitrón, J; Alvarez, J; Máñez, R

    2004-04-01

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBD was compared with that of 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (CPS; n = 6) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n = 14) was used to maintain the donors. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survival rates with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBD were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with organs from HBDs. The graft survival rates was 83% for livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB.

  1. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  2. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F; De Kort, Wim L A M; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood supply.

  3. Skin Recurrence of Transformed Mycosis Fungoides Postumbilical Cord Blood Transplant despite Complete Donor Chimerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allogeneic stem cell transplant is the treatment of choice for systemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL which provides graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Herein we discuss a case of recurrence of CTCL skin lesions after cord blood transplant in a patient who continued to have 100% donor chimerism in bone marrow. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old female with history of mycosis fungoides (MF presented with biopsy proven large cell transformation of MF. PET scan revealed multiple adenopathy in abdomen and chest suspicious for lymphoma and skin biopsy showed large cell transformation. She was treated with multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Posttherapy PET scan showed resolution of lymphadenopathy. Later she underwent ablative preparative regimen followed by single cord blood transplant. Bone marrow chimerism studies at day +60 after transplant showed 100% donor cells without presence of lymphoma. However 5 months after transplant she had recurrence of MF with the same genotype as prior skin lesion. Bone marrow chimerism study continued to show 100% donor cells. Conclusion. A differential graft-versus-lymphoma effect in our case prevented lymphoma recurrence systemically but failed to do so in skin. We hypothesize that this response may be due to presence of other factors in the bone marrow and lymph node microenvironments preventing recurrence in these sites.

  4. Diaphragmatic herniation following donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation: a serious complication not given due recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, Rajiv; Saif, Rehan; Ganjoo, Naveen; Sakpal, Mallikarjun; Panackal, Charles; Raja, Kaiser; Reddy, Jayanth; Asthana, Sonal; Jacob, Mathew

    2017-11-01

    A clear appreciation of benefits and risks associated with living donor hepatectomy is important to facilitate counselling for the donor, family, and recipient in preparation for living donor liver transplant (LDLT). We report a life-threatening complication occurring in one of our live liver donors at 12 weeks following hemi-liver donation. We experienced five donor complications among our first 50 LDLT: Clavien Grade 1, n=1; Clavien grade 2, n=3; and Clavien grade 3B, n=1. The one with Clavien grade 3B had a life-threatening diaphragmatic hernia occurring 12 weeks following hepatectomy. This was promptly recognized and emergency surgery was performed. The donor is well at 1-year follow-up. Here we provide a review of reported instances of diaphragmatic hernia following donor hepatectomy with an attempt to elucidate the pathophysiology behind such occurrence. Life-threatening donor risk needs to be balanced with recipient benefit and risk on a tripartite basis during the counselling process for LDLT. With increasing use of LDLT, we need to be aware of such life-threatening complication. Preventive measures in this regard and counselling for such complication should be incorporated into routine work-up for potential live liver donor.

  5. Dual kidney transplants from adult marginal donors successfully expand the limited deceased donor organ pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farooq, Umar; Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Gautreaux, Michael D; Iskandar, Samy S; Hairston, Gloria; Brim, Elizabeth; Mangus, Margaret; El-Hennawy, Hany; Khan, Muhammad; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The need to expand the organ donor pool remains a formidable challenge in kidney transplantation (KT). The use of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) represents one approach, but kidney discard rates are high because of concerns regarding overall quality. Dual KT (DKT) may reduce organ discard and optimize the use of kidneys from marginal donors. We conducted a single-center retrospective review of outcomes in adult recipients of DKTs from adult marginal deceased donors (DD) defined by limited renal functional capacity. If the calculated creatinine clearance in an adult DD was DKT. Over 11.5 yr, 72 DKTS were performed including 45 from ECDs, 17 from donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors, and 10 from standard criteria donors (SCD). Mean adult DD and recipient ages were both 60 yr, including 29 DDs and 26 recipients ≥65 yr of age. Mean pre-DKT waiting and dialysis vintage times were 12 months and 25 months, respectively. Actual patient and graft survival rates were 84.7% and 70.8%, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 58 months. One yr and death-censored graft survival rates were 90% and 80%, respectively. Outcomes did not differ by DD category, recipient age, or presence of delayed graft function (DGF). Eleven patients died at a mean of 32 months post-DKT (eight with functioning grafts) and 13 other patients experienced graft losses at a mean of 33 months. The incidence of DGF was 25%; there were two cases (2.8%) of primary non-function. Mean length of initial hospital stay was 7.2 d. Mean serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate levels at 12 and 24 months were 1.5 and 53 and 1.5 mg/dL and 51 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , respectively. DKT graft survival and function were superior to concurrent single ECD and similar to concurrent SCD KTs. Two patients underwent successful kidney retransplantation, so the dialysis-free rate in surviving patients was 87%. The proportion of total renal function transplanted from adult DD to DKT recipients was 77% compared to 56% for

  6. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research......The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge...... and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding...

  7. The impact of meeting donor management goals on the number of organs transplanted per donor: results from the United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 prospective donor management goals study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Patel, Madhukar S; Daly, Michael C; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Salim, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Many organ procurement organizations have implemented critical care end points as donor management goals in efforts to increase organs transplanted per donor after neurologic determination of death. Although retrospective studies have demonstrated an association between meeting donor management goals and organ yield, prospective studies are lacking. In June 2008, nine donor management goals were prospectively implemented as a checklist and every donor after neurologic determination of death was managed to meet them. The donor management goals represented normal cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and endocrine end points. Data were collected for 7 months. Donor management goals "met" was defined a priori as achieving any seven of the nine donor management goals, and this was recorded at the time of consent, 12-18 hrs later, and prior to organ recovery. The primary outcome measure was ≥4 organs transplanted per donor, and binary logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of this outcome with a porgan procurement organizations in the five Southwestern United States (United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5). All standard criteria donors after neurologic determination of deaths. Prospective implementation of a donor management goal checklist. There were 380 standard criteria donors with 3.6±1.7 organs transplanted per donor. Fifteen percent had donor management goals met at the time of consent, 33% at 12-18 hrs, and 38% prior to organ recovery. Forty-eight percent had ≥4 organs transplanted per donor. Donors with ≥4 organs transplanted per donor had significantly more individual donor management goals met at all three time points. Independent predictors of ≥4 organs transplanted per donor were age (odds ratio=0.95 per year), final creatinine (odds ratio=0.75 per 1-unit increase), donor management goals "met" at consent (odds ratio=2.03), donor management goals "met" prior to organ recovery (odds ratio=2.34), and a change in the number of

  8. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  9. Settlement Ends Dispute between Princeton and Donors' Heirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn; Gose, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Princeton University has settled a long-running dispute with the heirs of a major donor by agreeing to pay $50-million to the heirs' foundation and approximately the same amount for their legal fees. The case has been closely watched as a test of how strictly institutions must adhere to donors' wishes. The settlement…

  10. Seroprevalence of hiv and hepatitis viruses in directed blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B viruses in directed blood donors in Nguru and also to see if there is co-infection of these viruses in this category of donor population. Method: This is a prospective study carried out at the blood bank of the Federal Medical Centre Nguru, Yobe State between ...

  11. Optimal screening and donor management in a public stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, Abbas; Burgess, James; Burns, Laura J; Wein, Lawrence M

    2015-12-17

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is being investigated as a treatment for other microbiota-associated diseases. To facilitate these activities, an international public stool bank has been created, which screens donors and processes stools in a standardized manner. The goal of this research is to use mathematical modeling and analysis to optimize screening and donor management at the stool bank. Compared to the current policy of screening active donors every 60 days before releasing their quarantined stools for sale, costs can be reduced by 10.3 % by increasing the screening frequency to every 36 days. In addition, the stool production rate varies widely across donors, and using donor-specific screening, where higher producers are screened more frequently, also reduces costs, as does introducing an interim (i.e., between consecutive regular tests) stool test for just rotavirus and C. difficile. We also derive a donor release (i.e., into the system) policy that allows the supply to approximately match an exponentially increasing deterministic demand. More frequent screening, interim screening for rotavirus and C. difficile, and donor-specific screening, where higher stool producers are screened more frequently, are all cost-reducing measures. If screening costs decrease in the future (e.g., as a result of bringing screening in house), a bottleneck for implementing some of these recommendations may be the reluctance of donors to undergo serum screening more frequently than monthly.

  12. Increasing the pool of deceased donor organs for kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-03-27

    Expanding the pool of available deceased donor kidneys is critical for improving the outcomes of prospective and current renal transplant candidates. A number of interventions have been proposed that may increase the pool of donors in the US. However, these interventions have variable levels of empirical evidence supporting their potential beneficial impact. Proposed interventions include the instigation of policies for presumed donor consent, the expansion of donor registration, increased quality oversight of transplant providers, financial incentives for donors, increased reimbursement for higher risk donors, alterations in organ allocation policies and distribution, and the selective use of donors with potential or known risk for disease transmission. Many of these interventions have contentious elements that may have delayed or impeded their implementation; however, these options should be considered in the context of the diminishing prognoses for prospective transplant patients, given the increasing scarcity of donor organs relative to the population need. In this Review, we outline the proposed interventions and briefly discuss salient issues that characterize the debates concerning their implementation and effectiveness. Ultimately, any intervention must be based on the best evidence available, with consideration of numerous stakeholders and in conjunction with a careful evaluation of long-term and potential unintended consequences.

  13. Optimization of IVF pregnancy outcomes with donor spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeff G; Douglas, Nataki C; Prosser, Robert; Kort, Daniel; Choi, Janet M; Sauer, Mark V

    2009-03-01

    To identify risk factors for suboptimal IVF outcomes using insemination with donor spermatozoa and to define a lower threshold that may signal a conversion to fertilization by ICSI rather than insemination. Retrospective, age-matched, case-control study of women undergoing non-donor oocyte IVF cycles using either freshly ejaculated (N=138) or cryopreserved donor spermatozoa (N=69). Associations between method of fertilization, semen sample parameters, and pregnancy rates were analyzed. In vitro fertilization of oocytes with donor spermatozoa by insemination results in equivalent fertilization and pregnancy rates compared to those of freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normal semen analyses when the post-processing motility is greater than or equal to 88%. IVF by insemination with donor spermatozoa when the post-processing motility is less than 88% is associated with a 5-fold reduction in pregnancy rates when compared to those of donor spermatozoa above this motility threshold. When the post-processing donor spermatozoa motility is low, fertilization by ICSI is associated with significantly higher pregnancy rates compared to those of insemination. While ICSI does not need to be categorically instituted when using donor spermatozoa in IVF, patients should be counseled that conversion from insemination to ICSI may be recommended based on low post-processing motility.

  14. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Programs | Past Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Our Donors Testimonials Our Donors Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education DuPage Area Occupational Education Systems Technology Center DuPage/Kane Educational Service Center Fermi

  15. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  16. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  17. Parasitological profile of perstans filariasis among blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at Ile – Ife, in Osun State Southwest Nigeria between March and September, 2009 with a view to determine the prevalence of blood filariasis among blood donors. The blood samples of 250 blood donors were parasitologically examined directly with wet preparation, while the thick and thin films ...

  18. You...as Blood Donor: Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroat, Diane Zagare; And Others

    This curriculum guide for teaching about blood donation was prepared to improve school-community participation in the New York City Blood Donor Program. It contains plans for five lessons on the following topics: (1) the nature of blood; (2) blood and technology--modern-day advances; (3) blood and your personal health; (4) the blood donor as good…

  19. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  20. Modeling charge transfer at organic donor-acceptor semiconductor interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.; Brocks, G.

    2012-01-01

    We develop an integer charge transfer model for the potential steps observed at interfaces between donor and acceptor molecular semiconductors. The potential step can be expressed as the difference between the Fermi energy pinning levels of electrons on the acceptor material and holes on the donor

  1. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two thousand five hundred and thirty two (2,532) males, aged 25 – 50 years potential blood donors were randomly selected from the total number of volunteer blood donors who satisfied the initial screening criteria for donating blood, and were screened for HIV using Immunocomb II (HIV 1 and 2 Bispot) and Recombigen ...

  2. Current status of malaria parasite among blood donors in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite among blood donors at the Police Clinic Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The standard parasitological techniques using both thick and thin blood films from the donors for the detection of malaria parasite was followed. Venous blood was ...

  3. Prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male. 85. (99%). 193. (99%). 34. (100%). 102. (97%). 414. Female. 1(1%). 2(1%). 0. 3(3%). 6. Total. 86. 195. 34. 105. 420. Figure 1. Distribution (percent) of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors. Table 3. Distribution of blood groups among blood donors. Blood group. Frequency. Percentage (%). A+ve. 270. 24.7.

  4. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-04-03

    Apr 3, 2006 ... Department of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching. Hospital ... screening volunteer donors by initial criteria alone does not fully eliminate all HIV positive donors. The prevalence of HIV ... HIV test criteria alone to qualify for blood donation in the.

  5. Prevalence of haemolysins in blood donors in Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The presence of high titres of haemolysins (lytic antibodies) in the sera of donors could predispose to adverse blood transfusion reactions. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of haemolysins among blood donors at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State. Methodology: A ...

  6. Seroprevalence of Treponema Pallidum in Donor Blood at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum in Donor blood at University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Materials and Method: This is a descriptive hospital based study. Donor blood supplied to the hospital blood bank was screened for syphilis. The study was conducted between February ...

  7. The Prevalence of Syphilis Among Blood Donors in a Centralized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis is one of the mandatory transfusion transmissible infections to be tested for in any unit of blood for homologous transfusion. The paucity of voluntary blood donors in Nigeria has compelled health care providers to rely on paid and family replacement donors for blood. AIMS: This study was carried ...

  8. Malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin has not been documented. In this study, we determined the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, as well as, the sociodemographic and other factors associated with it. Method: This was a hospital- based cross ...

  9. Transfusion of the dangerous universal donor blood leading to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In a health-care setting in which group-identical donor blood is not always available for transfusion, group O whole blood, in the obsolete concept of its being a universal donor, is sometimes given to group A and B recipients without necessary precautions. Objectives: The objective is to draw attention to the ...

  10. Active Donor Management During the Hospital Phase of Care Is Associated with More Organs Transplanted per Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Madhukar S; De La Cruz, Salvador; Sally, Mitchell B; Groat, Tahnee; Malinoski, Darren J

    2017-10-01

    Meeting donor management goals when caring for potential organ donors has been associated with more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). Concern persists, however, as to whether this indicates that younger/healthier donors are more likely to meet donor management goals or whether active management affects outcomes. A prospective observational study of all standard criteria donors was conducted by 10 organ procurement organizations across United Network for Organ Sharing Regions 4, 5, and 6. Donor management goals representing normal critical care end points were measured at 2 time points: when a catastrophic brain injury was recognized and a referral was made to the organ procurement organization by the DH; and after brain death was declared and authorization for organ donation was obtained. Donor management goals Bundle "met" was defined as achieving any 7 of 9 end points. A positive Bundle status change was defined as not meeting the Bundle at referral and subsequently achieving it at authorization. The primary outcomes measure was having ≥4 OTPD. Data were collected for 1,398 standard criteria donors. Of the 1,166 (83%) who did not meet the Bundle at referral, only 254 (22%) had a positive Bundle status change. On adjusted analysis, positive Bundle status change increased the odds of achieving ≥4 OTPD significantly (odds ratio 2.04; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.81; p management goal Bundle status change during donor hospital management is associated with a 2-fold increase in achieving ≥4 OTPD. Active critical care management of the potential organ donor, as evidenced by improvement in routinely measured critical care end points can be a means by which to substantially increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Change in donor profile influenced the percentage of organs transplanted from multiple organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, C; Van Raemdonck, D; Van Gelder, F; Van Hees, D; Desschans, B; De Roey, J; Vanhaecke, J; Pirenne, J

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that the change in donor profile over the years influenced the percentage of transplantations. We reviewed medical records for all multiple-organ donors (MODs) within our network. The percentage of transplanted organs was compared between 1991-1992 (A) and 2006-2007 (B). In period A, 156 potential MODs were identified compared with 278 in period B. Fifteen potential donors (10%) in period A and 114 (41%) in period B were rejected because they were medically not suitable (40% vs 75%) or there was no family consent (60% vs 25%). Of the remaining effective MODs (141 in period A and 164 in period B), mean (standard deviation = SD) age was 34 (5) years vs 49 (17) years (P organs transplanted in periods A vs B was kidneys, 97% vs 79%; livers, 64% vs 85%; hearts, 60% vs 26%; lungs, 7% vs 35%; and pancreas, 6% vs 13% (P organs (17%), mainly because of medical contraindications. The MOD profile changed to older age, fewer traumatic brain deaths, and longer ventilation time. We transplanted more livers, lungs, and pancreases but fewer kidneys and hearts.

  12. Donor-acceptor-donor thienyl/bithienyl-benzothiadiazole/quinoxaline model oligomers: experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, João; de Melo, J Seixas; Breusov, D; Scherf, Ullrich

    2013-09-28

    A comprehensive spectral and photophysical investigation of four donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) oligomers consisting of electron-deficient 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole or quinoxaline moieties linked to electron-rich thienyl or bithienyl units has been undertaken. Additionally, a bis(dithienyl) substituted naphthalene was also investigated. The D-A-D nature of these oligomers resulted in the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, which was further substantiated by solvatochromism studies (analysis with the Lippert-Mataga formalism). Hereby, significant differences have been obtained for the fluorescence quantum yields of the oligomers in the non-polar solvent methylcyclohexane vs. the polar ethanol. The study was further complemented with the determination of the optimized ground-state molecular geometries for the oligomers together with the prediction of the lowest vertical one-electron excitation energy and the relevant molecular orbital contours using DFT calculations. The electronic transitions show a clear HOMO to LUMO charge-transfer character. In contrast to the thiophene oligomers (the oligothiophenes with n = 1-7), where the intersystem crossing (ISC) yield decreases with n, the studied DAD oligomers were found to show an increase in the ISC efficiency with the number of (donor) thienyl units.

  13. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  14. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  15. The role of the donor liaison officer at PlusLife (Perth Bone and Tissue Bank Inc.), Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Claire; White, Nicola; Winter, Joyleen; Cowie, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Femoral head donation at the time of hip replacement surgery provides a much needed resource of bone allograft to orthopaedic surgeons. Prior to 2005, potential femoral head donors were identified and consented in the hospital setting on the day of surgery. This resulted in over 40 % of donations failing post operatively suggesting that more effort could be given to pre-operative screening resulting in substantial savings in the cost associated with collection and testing of donors who were subsequently failed. The Donor Liaison role was implemented in 2005 to coordinate a Femoral Head Donation program maximising the number of successful donations through pre-operative screening. This study reviews the effectiveness of pre-operative screening of potential femoral head donors at PlusLife from 2002-2012. A retrospective audit of the database was undertaken 2002-2012 and medical/social reasons for pre-operative and postoperative failures were collated into 4 main categories to enable comparison: malignancy, autoimmune conditions, variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease risk and general medical/social reasons. The number of femoral heads failed post operatively has decreased significantly from 26 % in 2003 to 6 % in 2012. A cost of $121,000 was expended on femoral heads failed post operatively in 2004, as compared to $20,350 in 2012. Donors excluded due to the 4 main categories (medical/social history) were identified pre-operatively in over 80 % of all cases. Preoperative screening of femoral head donors through a coordinated Femoral Head Donation Program is a safe and cost effective method.

  16. The Impact of Total Ischemic Time, Donor Age and the Pathway of Donor Death on Graft Outcomes After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Germaine; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Pleass, Henry; McDonald, Stephen; Lim, Wai H

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged ischemia is a known risk factor for delayed graft function (DGF) and its interaction with donor characteristics, the pathways of donor death, and graft outcomes may have important implications for allocation policies. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant registry (1994-2013), we examined the relationship between total ischemic time with graft outcomes among recipients who received their first deceased donor kidney transplants. Total ischemic time (in hours) was defined as the time of the donor renal artery interruption or aortic clamp, until the time of release of the clamp on the renal artery in the recipient. A total of 7542 recipients were followed up over a median follow-up time of 5.3 years (interquartile range of 8.2 years). Of these, 1823 (24.6%) experienced DGF and 2553 (33.9%) experienced allograft loss. Recipients with total ischemic time of 14 hours or longer experienced an increased odd of DGF compared with those with total ischemic time less than 14 hours. This effect was most marked among those with older donors (P value for interaction = 0.01). There was a significant interaction between total ischemic time, donor age, and graft loss (P value for interaction = 0.03). There was on average, a 9% increase in the overall risk of graft loss per hour increase in the total ischemic time (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.02) in recipients with older donation after circulatory death grafts. There is a clinically important interaction between donor age, the pathway of donor death, and total ischemic time on graft outcomes, such that the duration of ischemic time has the greatest impact on graft survival in recipients with older donation after circulatory death kidneys.

  17. The profile of potential organ and tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Edvaldo Leal de; Silva, Leonardo Borges de Barros E; Moraes, Tatiana Cristine de; Paixão, Nair Cordeiro dos Santos da; Izumi, Nelly Miyuki Shinohara; Guarino, Aparecida de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize donors according to gender, age group, cause of brain death; quantify donors with hypernatremia, hyperpotassemia and hypopotassemia; and get to know which organs were the most used in transplantations. This quantitative, descriptive, exploratory and retrospective study was performed at the Organ Procurement Organization of the University of São Paulo Medical School Hospital das Clínicas. Data from the medical records of 187 potential donors were analyzed. Cerebrovascular accidents represented 53.48% of all brain death causes, sodium and potassium disorders occurred in 82.36% of cases and 45.46% of the potential donors were between 41 and 60 years old. The results evidenced that natural death causes exceeded traumatic deaths, and that most donors presented sodium and potassium alterations, likely associated to inappropriate maintenance.

  18. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  19. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.

  20. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Zn vacancy-donor impurity complexes in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodason, Y. K.; Johansen, K. M.; Bjørheim, T. S.; Svensson, B. G.; Alkauskas, A.

    2018-03-01

    Results from hybrid density functional theory calculations on the thermodynamic stability and optical properties of the Zn vacancy (VZn) complexed with common donor impurities in ZnO are reported. Complexing VZn with donors successively removes its charge-state transition levels in the band gap, starting from the most negative one. Interestingly, the presence of a donor leads only to modest shifts in the positions of the VZn charge-state transition levels, the sign and magnitude of which can be interpreted from a polaron energetics model by taking hole-donor repulsion into account. By employing a one-dimensional configuration coordinate model, luminescence lineshapes and positions were calculated. Due to the aforementioned effects, the isolated VZn gradually changes from a mainly nonradiative defect with transitions in the infrared region in n -type material, to a radiative one with broad emission in the visible range when complexed with shallow donors.

  2. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...... and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6...

  3. Causes of iron overload in blood donors - a clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A H; Bjerrum, O W; Friis-Hansen, L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the obligate iron loss from blood donation, some donors present with hyperferritinaemia that can result from a wide range of acute and chronic conditions including hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). The objective of our study was to investigate the causes...... of hyperferritinaemia in the blood donor population and explore the value of extensive HH mutational analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive donors (f = 6, m = 43) were included prospectively from the Capital Regional Blood Center. Inclusion criteria were a single ferritin value >1000 μg/l or repeated...... four donors had apparent alternative causes of hyperferritinaemia. CONCLUSION: HH-related mutations were the most frequent cause of hyperferritinaemia in a Danish blood donor population, and it appears that several different HH-genotypes can contribute to hyperferritinaemia. HH screening in blood...

  4. Transfusion transmitted virus in screened United Arab Emirates blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaresi, Mubarak S.; Alzaabi, Azza S.; Islam, Adeel A.; Elkoush, Abida A.; Elnazer, Ayat M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the rate of infection caused by Torque teno virus (TTV) in United Arab Emirates (UAEs) healthy population as a pilot study in detecting TTV DNA in 100 healthy blood donors. We randomly choose a total of 100 healthy blood donors who attended Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE from January 20 to May 30, 2005. We carried out a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect TTV DNA. Real-time for TTV was positive in 75 (75%) donors. Eight (73%) non-UAE donors were TTV positive while 67 (75%) were UAEs. Among these donors, 72 (77%) were males and 3 (50%) were females. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of TTV in UAE. (author)

  5. Robotic-Assisted Live Donor Ileal Segmentectomy for Intestinal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Wu, MD, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Every effort should be made to optimize surgical techniques and to minimize potential morbidity rates associated with live donor operations. Advances in a minimally invasive approach by robotic surgery to donor nephrectomy have raised the possibility of applying this technique to live donor bowel resections for intestinal transplantation. Methods. We report the first 5 consecutive cases of a robotic-assisted live donor ileal segmentectomy. We describe the technical aspects of the procedure, discuss the rationale for considering this option, and evaluate potential advantages of this approach. Results. We found that this new approach is associated with less postoperative discomfort, a shorter hospital length of stay, and a faster recovery of bowel function compared to our previous open surgery. Conclusions. Our initial experience suggests that robotic surgery is a safe and feasible procedure for live donor ileal resection for intestinal transplantation and is a useful alternative to conventional open surgery.

  6. NOAA History - Main Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA History Banner gold bar divider home - takes you to index page about the site contacts noaa americas science and service noaa legacy 1807 - 2007 NOAA History is an intrinsic part of the history of Initiative scroll divider More NOAA History from Around the Nation scroll divider drawing of a tornado NOAA

  7. Reinventing Entrepreneurial History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Lubinski, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship remains fragmented in business history. A lack of conceptual clarity inhibits comparisons between studies and dialogue among scholars. To address these issues, we propose to reinvent entrepreneurial history as a research field. We define “new entrepreneurial history...... and reconfiguring resources, and legitimizing novelty. The article elaborates on the historiography, premises, and potential contributions of new entrepreneurial history....

  8. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  9. Eighteen years experience of granulocyte donations-acceptable donor safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axdorph Nygell, Ulla; Sollén-Nilsson, Agneta; Lundahl, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are given to patients with life-threatening infections, refractory to treatment. The donors are stimulated with corticosteroids ± granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, data regarding the donors' safety is sparse. The objective was therefore to evaluate short- and long-term adverse events (AE) in G-CSF stimulated donors. All consecutive granulocyte donors from 1994 to 2012 were identified through our registry. From the donation records, the number of aphereses, stimulation therapy, AE, blood values post donation, and recent status were evaluated. One hundred fifty-four volunteer donors were mobilized for 359 collections. Age at first granulocyte donation was 43 years (median; range 19-64 years). Follow-up was 60 months (median; range 0-229 months). The dose of G-CSF per collection was 3.8 ug/kg body weight (median; range 1.6-6.0 ug/kg). Sedimentation agent was HES. Short-term AE were mild. Blood values 4 weeks post donation with minor reductions/elevations mostly resolved in later donations. Fourteen donors were excluded from the registry due to hypertension (4), diabetes (2), atrial flutter (1), breast carcinoma (1), urethral carcinoma in situ (1), MGUS (1), thrombosis (1), anaphylaxis (1), primary biliary cirrhosis (1), and unknown (1). Three donors are deceased due to diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, and unknown cause. All excluded/deceased donors except one were excluded/died at least 6 months after first granulocyte donation. No serious short-term AE were observed. Due to the variability of diagnoses among excluded/deceased donors, we propose that it is less likely that granulocyte donations have a causative impact on these donors' exclusion or death. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cosmic growth history and expansion history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic expansion history tests the dynamics of the global evolution of the universe and its energy density contents, while the cosmic growth history tests the evolution of the inhomogeneous part of the energy density. Precision comparison of the two histories can distinguish the nature of the physics responsible for the accelerating cosmic expansion: an additional smooth component--dark energy--or a modification of the gravitational field equations. With the aid of a new fitting formula for linear perturbation growth accurate to 0.05%-0.2%, we separate out the growth dependence on the expansion history and introduce a new growth index parameter γ that quantifies the gravitational modification

  11. Donor versus no-donor comparison of newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the HOVON-50 multiple myeloma study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, Henk M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Kersten, Marie-José; van Oers, Marinus; Raymakers, Reinier; Minnema, Monique C.; Zweegman, Sonja; Janssen, Jeroen J.; Zijlmans, Mark; Bos, Gerard; Schaap, Nicolaas; Wittebol, Shulamiet; de Weerdt, Okke; Ammerlaan, Rianne; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for myeloma as part of first-line therapy, a donor versus no-donor analysis was performed of patients treated in the HOVON-50 study, a study that was originally designed to examine thalidomide combined with intensive therapy.

  12. Determine The Factors Affecting The Blood Donors Of Selecting Blood Donor Program Me In Western Province Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera D. A. K.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood and blood component transfusion is one of the major therapeutic practices throughout the world. National Blood Transfusion Service NBTS in Sri Lanka requires approximately 300000 blood units annually. After initiating mobile donor programme there have been two types of blood donation programs in Sri Lanka since 1980. Since second half of first decade of 21st century Sri Lanka shifted to 100 non-replacement blood transfusion policy. That means whole blood and blood component requirement of NBTS has to be collected through mobile blood donor program and voluntary In-house blood donor program. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the blood donors of selecting blood donor program in Western province Sri Lanka. Methodology This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The study composed of two components. .First the factors that cause the blood donor to select a blood donor programme second the facility survey of blood banks In-house donation. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 410 Mobile blood donors. Facility survey was done using a checklist. The dependant variables were the attendance of the blood donors to Mobile blood donation and In-house blood donation. Independent variables included were the factors related to socio demography service quality accessibility availability and intrinsic extrinsic motivation. The analytical statistics applied for testing the association of factors with the blood donor programme was chi-square test. The study has shown some important findings. There was significant association between income level and donating blood. Only 3.3 of In-house blood donor population was female. Majority of In-house population belonged to 30-41 age group. A statistically significant association exists between age and repeat blood donation. The female blood donors tendency of becoming repeat donors was very low. Distance problem and non

  13. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  14. Live Donor Liver Transplantation Without Blood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Nicolas; Gagandeep, Singh; Mateo, Rodrigo; Sher, Linda; Strum, Earl; Donovan, John; Kahn, Jeffrey; Peyre, Christian G.; Henderson, Randy; Fong, Tse-Ling; Selby, Rick; Genyk, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Developing strategies for transfusion-free live donor liver transplantation in Jehovah's Witness patients. Summary Background Data: Liver transplantation is the standard of care for patients with end-stage liver disease. A disproportionate increase in transplant candidates and an allocation policy restructuring, favoring patients with advanced disease, have led to longer waiting time and increased medical acuity for transplant recipients. Consequently, Jehovah's Witness patients, who refuse blood product transfusion, are usually excluded from liver transplantation. We combined blood augmentation and conservation practices with live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) to accomplish successful LDLT in Jehovah's Witness patients without blood products. Our algorithm provides broad possibilities for blood conservation for all surgical patients. Methods: From September 1998 until June 2001, 38 LDLTs were performed at Keck USC School of Medicine: 8 in Jehovah's Witness patients (transfusion-free group) and 30 in non-Jehovah's Witness patients (transfusion-eligible group). All transfusion-free patients underwent preoperative blood augmentation with erythropoietin, intraoperative cell salvage, and acute normovolemic hemodilution. These techniques were used in only 7%, 80%, and 10%, respectively, in transfusion-eligible patients. Perioperative clinical data and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Data from both groups were statistically analyzed. Results: Preoperative liver disease severity was similar in both groups; however, transfusion-free patients had significantly higher hematocrit levels following erythropoietin augmentation. Operative time, blood loss, and postoperative hematocrits were similar in both groups. No blood products were used in transfusion-free patients while 80% of transfusion-eligible patients received a median of 4.5+/− 3.5 units of packed red cell. ICU and total hospital stay were similar in both groups. The survival rate was 100% in

  15. A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood

    OpenAIRE

    東,良平

    1993-01-01

    A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood was made in 23 patients undergoing open heart surgery (non-donor blood group). For comparison, 14 patients receiving cardiopulmonary bypass with donor blood prime (donor blood group) were also evaluated. 1)Serum transferrin level showed significantly more rapid recovery in the non-donor blood group compared to the donor blood group on the 7th post operative day. 2)Total protein, serum albumin, arm...

  16. Identifying potential kidney donors using social networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E; Turner, Hang T; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H; Grams, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2-69); 88% were US residents. Other posted information included the individual's photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live-donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Increased Procurement of Thoracic Donor Organs After Thyroid Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzky, Dimitri; Mi, Zhibao; Collins, Joseph F; Cooper, David K C

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal therapy to the brain-dead organ donor can include thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine [T3] or levothyroxine [T4]), antidiuretic hormone, corticosteroids, or insulin. There has been a controversy on whether thyroid hormone enables more organs to be procured. Data on 63,593 donors of hearts and lungs (2000-2009) were retrospectively reviewed. Documentation on T3/T4 was available in all donors (study 1), and in 40,124 details of all 4 hormones were recorded (study 2). In this cohort, group A (23,022) received T3/T4 and group B (17,102) no T3/T4. Univariate analyses and multiple regressions were performed. Posttransplant graft and recipient survival at 1 and 12 months were compared. In study 1, 30,962 donors received T3/T4, with 36.59% providing a heart and 20.05% providing 1 or both lungs. Of the 32,631 donors who did not receive T3/T4, only 29.62% provided a heart and 14.61% provided lungs, an increase of 6.97% hearts and 5.44% lungs from T3/T4-treated donors (both P donor was associated with either improved posttransplant graft and recipient survival or no difference in survival. T3/T4 therapy results in more transplantable hearts and lungs, with no detriment to posttransplant graft or recipient survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  19. The doctor-patient relationship in living donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2007-11-01

    A therapeutic and effective doctor-patient relationship and patient-doctor relationship is at the core of all successful medical care. The medical and psychological evaluation of a potential kidney donor serves to protect the long-term health of both the donor and the potential recipient. Careful assessment of risk and donor education is at the core of donor evaluation and the decision to progress with donation requires refined clinical judgment by the medical team and critical thinking by the donor. Increasing pressure to increase the numbers of living donor transplants and suggestions by some that the process should be commercialized make it timely to consider the nature of the relationship between the doctor and the patient in the unusual circumstance of living donation. A high rate of complications in recipients of purchased kidneys and a lack of knowledge of the fate of paid donors have been reported. Commercialization of transplantation undermines the therapeutic doctor-patient relationship and threatens the healthy development of the international transplant endeavor.

  20. Safety and frequency of whole blood donations from elderly donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhardt, M; Müller-Kuller, T; Weiss, C; Menzel, D; Wiesneth, M; Seifried, E; Klüter, H

    2012-02-01

    Within the coming decades, a steadily growing demand for blood products will face a shrinking blood donor population in many countries. After increasing the donor age of repeat donors for whole blood donation (WB) from 68 to 70 years in 2009 in our Blood Service, we investigated whether this is sufficient as a safe and effective strategy to sustain future blood supply. Between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2011, WB donations from donors aged between 69 and 70 and their proportion of total donations in 2010 were determined. We analysed adverse reaction rates in donors with respect to sex and age and calculated mean annual donation frequencies. Of all invited donors, 32·5% responded and contributed 0·98% (men) and 0·56% (women) to all WB units collected in 2010. The overall and systemic adverse reaction rate per 1·000 WB donations declined by age [men: 1·10 (95%CI: 0·84-1·35) vs. 0 (0-0·8), P donation frequencies were strongly correlated with increasing age (men: r = 0·953, P donate blood. Thus, we consider donations from repeat donors aged 69-70 safe and suggest it a powerful short- to midterm strategy to, at least partially, overcome the challenges of the demographic change. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. The Renal Allograft Donor with Isolated Microhematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkar Ayman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been extensive debate about extending the criteria for accepting living donors to include the presence of mild renal abnormalities such as isolated microhematuria. Hematuria defined as the detection of greater than five red blood cells per high power field can be associated with abnormalities throughout the urinary tract. Detection of casts or dysmorphic red blood cells in the urine sediment with or without proteinuria could indicate underlying intrinsic renal disease. Anatomic causes, such as stones and tumors, should be excluded; cystoscopy may be indicated to exclude bladder pathology. Obviously, urinary tract infection, uncontrolled hypertension and latent diabetes mellitus must be excluded. Microscopic hematuria could be associated with mesangial IgA deposits; as 10% of first-degree relatives of patients with IgA glomerulonephritis suffer from microhematuria and/or proteinuria that may require consideration of renal biopsy. Microhematuria could also be associated with other known hereditary renal diseases such as C3 deposits disease, IgM nephropathy, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Alport′s syndrome or thin basement membrane disease. In conclusion, careful assessment of isolated microhematuria, in the context of living kidney donation, is mandatory as results may reveal occult renal disease that may contraindicate kidney donation.

  2. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  3. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  4. Plateletpheresis adverse events in relation to donor and plateletpheresis session profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Bassi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Apheresis donations performed on cell separators are safe. Meticulous donor vigilance, superior technical personnel training and experienced transfusion medicine specialist's supervision will make donor's experience more pleasant.

  5. Silicon Quantum Dots with Counted Antimony Donor Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Meenakshi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Pacheco, Jose L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Perry, Daniel Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Garratt, E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Ten Eyck, Gregory A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Wendt, Joel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Luhman, Dwight [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Bielejec, Edward S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Lilly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies

    2015-10-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. A focused ion beam is used to implant close to quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of ions implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. Regular coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization, are observed in devices with counted implants.

  6. A New Approximate Chimera Donor Cell Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop chimera-based full potential methodology which is compatible with overflow (Euler/Navier-Stokes) chimera flow solver and to develop a fast donor cell search algorithm that is compatible with the chimera full potential approach. Results of this work included presenting a new donor cell search algorithm suitable for use with a chimera-based full potential solver. This algorithm was found to be extremely fast and simple producing donor cells as fast as 60,000 per second.

  7. Initial experience with hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Majken Højrup; Toft, Anja; Jahn, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    -38 kg/m²) in males. The median intraoperative bleeding was 175 ml. The median warm ischaemia time was 3.2 min (1.5-6.7 min). The median operative time was 230 min (161-360 min). The median hospital stay was 4 days (2-10 days). Thirty donors (28%) had 34 early complications. Six donors (6%) needed...... recipients had a functional transplant after 1 year. CONCLUSION: Hand-assisted donor nephrectomy is a safe procedure. Potential candidates should be advised...

  8. Radioimmunoassay of serum β2-microglobulin in donor's blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shihua; Song Shiyun; Li Kelin; Chen Guanglian; Liu Fengmin

    1993-01-01

    Serum β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG) was tested by radioimmunoassay in 149 donors' and 54 healthy volunteers' blood. The results were 203 +- 33.0 nmol/l and 176 +- 26.2 nmol/l, respectively. There was significant difference statistically between them (P 2 -MG content. In order to increase the quality of donated blood and to keep the health of blood donor, it is suggested that the high content of serum β 2 -MG is the indicator of too frequent blood donating. The results also showed that the content of β 2 -MG in donor's blood is not a normal reference value

  9. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know

  10. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin P Ghonge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  11. Comparison of postoperative coagulation profiles and outcome for sugammadex versus pyridostigmine in 992 living donors after living-donor hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Jun, In-Gu; Hwang, Gyu-Sam

    2018-03-01

    Donor safety is the major concern in living donor liver transplantation, although hepatic resection may be associated with postoperative coagulopathy. Recently, the use of sugammadex has been gradually increased, but sugammadex is known to prolong prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). We compared the postoperative coagulation profiles and outcomes of sugammadex versus pyridostigmine group in donors receiving living donor hepatectomy.Consecutive donor hepatectomy performed between September 2013 and August 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. For reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, donors received sugammadex 4 mg/kg or pyridostigmine 0.25 mg/kg. The primary end-points were laboratory findings (PT, aPTT, hemoglobin, platelet count) and clinically evaluated postoperative bleeding (relaparotomy for bleeding, cumulative volume collected in drains). Secondary outcomes were anesthesia time, postoperative hospital day.Of 992 donors, 383 treated with sugammadex and 609 treated with pyridostigmine for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade. There were no significant differences between both groups for drop in hemoglobin and platelet, prolongation in PT, aPTT, and the amount of 24-h drain volume. Bleeding events within 24 h were reported in 2 (0.3%) for pyridostigmine group and 0 (0%) for sugammadex group (P = .262). Anesthesia time was significantly longer in pyridostigmine group than that in sugammadex group (438.8 ± 71.4 vs. 421.3 ± 62.3, P sugammadex group (P = .002).Sugammadex 4 mg/kg was not associated with increased bleeding tendency, but associated with reduced anesthesia time and hospital stay. Therefore, sugammadex may be safely used and will decrease morbidity in donor undergoing living-donor hepatectomy.

  12. CMV infection after transplant from cord blood compared to other alternative donors: the importance of donor-negative CMV serostatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulska, Małgorzata; Raiola, Anna Maria; Bruzzi, Paolo; Varaldo, Riccardo; Annunziata, Silvana; Lamparelli, Teresa; Frassoni, Francesco; Tedone, Elisabetta; Galano, Barbara; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Viscoli, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are important complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplant, particularly after transplant from alternative donors. Allogeneic cord blood transplantation (CBT) is being increasingly used, but immune recovery may be delayed. The aim of this study was to compare CMV infection in CBT with transplants from unrelated or mismatched related donors, from now on defined as alternative donors. A total of 165 consecutive transplants were divided in 2 groups: (1) alternative donors transplants (n = 85) and (2) CBT recipients (n = 80). Donor and recipient (D/R) CMV serostatus were recorded. The incidence of CMV infection, its severity, timing, and outcome were compared. Median follow-up was 257 days (1-1328). CMV infection was monitored by CMV antigenemia and expressed as CMV Ag positive cell/2 × 10(5) polymorphonuclear blood cells. There was a trend toward a higher cumulative incidence of CMV infection among CBT than alternative donor transplant recipients (64% vs 51%, P = .12). The median time to CMV reactivation was 35 days, and was comparable in the 2 groups (P = .8). The maximum number of CMV-positive cells was similar in the 2 groups (11 versus 16, P = .2). The time interval between the first and the last positive CMV antigenemia was almost 4 times longer in CBT compared with alternative donor transplants (109 vs 29 days, respectively, P = .008). The incidence of late CMV infection was also higher in CBT (62% vs 24%, P donor transplants, whereas no difference in mortality was observed. The duration and incidence of late CMV infection were similar when D-/R+ CBT were compared with D-/R+ alternative donor transplants. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  15. "Hillary - en god historie"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november......Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november...

  16. HLA polymorphism in Sudanese renal donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer M Dafalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28, A30 (0.12, A3 (0.09, A24 (0.09, A1 (0.09, and A68 (0.06 were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092, B41 (0.081, B39 (0.078, B57 (0.060, B35 (0.068, B 50 (0.053 and B 52 (0.051 were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444 and DR15 (0.160 showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498, while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185 and (0.238, respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.

  17. Laboratory identification of donor-derived coxsackievirus b3 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, I J; Papadakis, G; Kaye, M; Opdam, H; Hutton, H; Angus, P W; Johnson, P D R; Kanellis, J; Westall, G; Druce, J; Catton, M

    2015-02-01

    Unexpected donor-to-recipient infectious disease transmission is an important, albeit rare, complication of solid organ transplantation. Greater work and understanding about the epidemiology of these donor-derived transmissions is continually required to further mitigate this risk. Herein we present the first reported case of proven donor-derived transmission of coxsackievirus serogroup-3, an enterovirus, following solid organ transplant. Swift and effective communication between the organ donation agency, treating physicians, laboratory testing and notification ensured a coordinated approach. The resulting clinical syndromes in the organ recipients were mild. This case highlights the requirement for ongoing surveillance over a broad range of infecting pathogens that may present as a donor-derived infection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Technical Report of the National Marrow Donor Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Setterholm, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    ... a nationwide contingency response plan. Rapid Identification of Matched Donors: Increase operational efficiencies that accelerate the search process and increase patient access are key to preparedness in a contingency event...

  19. Frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the frequency of. ABO and Rhesus blood groups amongst blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria and ... geographical information that can advance the fields of blood transfusion, organ transplantation ..... alternative medicine in the management of ...

  20. Thiophene dendrimer-based low donor content solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Dani M.; Ma, Chang-Qi; Nagiri, Ravi C. R.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Bäuerle, Peter; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Low donor content solar cells containing polymeric and non-polymeric donors blended with fullerenes have been reported to give rise to efficient devices. In this letter, we report that a dendrimeric donor can also be used in solution-processed low donor content devices when blended with a fullerene. A third generation dendrimer containing 42 thiophene units (42T) was found to give power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.5% when blended with PC70BM in optimized devices. The best efficiency was measured with 10 mole percent (mol. %) of 42T in PC70BM and X-ray reflectometry showed that the blends were uniform. Importantly, while 42T comprised 10 mol. % of the film, it made up 31% of the film by volume. Finally, it was found that solvent annealing was required to achieve the largest open circuit voltage and highest device efficiencies.

  1. Dithienosilolothiophene: A New Polyfused Donor for Organic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Bob C.

    2015-08-13

    We report the synthesis of a novel pentacyclic donor moiety, dithienosilolothiophene, and its incorporation into low bandgap semiconducting polymers. The unique geometry of this new donor allowed attaching four solubilizing side chains on the same side of the fused ring system, thus ensuring sufficient solubility when incorporated into conjugated polymers while simultaneously reducing the steric hindrance between adjacent polymer chains. The optoelectronic properties of three new polymers comprising the novel pentacyclic donor were investigated and compared to structurally similar thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) polymers. Organic solar cells were fabricated in order to evaluate the new materials’ potential as donor polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells and gain further insight into how the single-sided side-chain arrangement affects the active layer blend morphology.

  2. Dithienosilolothiophene: A New Polyfused Donor for Organic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Bob C.; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Nielsen, Christian B.; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; McCulloch, Iain

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a novel pentacyclic donor moiety, dithienosilolothiophene, and its incorporation into low bandgap semiconducting polymers. The unique geometry of this new donor allowed attaching four solubilizing side chains on the same side of the fused ring system, thus ensuring sufficient solubility when incorporated into conjugated polymers while simultaneously reducing the steric hindrance between adjacent polymer chains. The optoelectronic properties of three new polymers comprising the novel pentacyclic donor were investigated and compared to structurally similar thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) polymers. Organic solar cells were fabricated in order to evaluate the new materials’ potential as donor polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells and gain further insight into how the single-sided side-chain arrangement affects the active layer blend morphology.

  3. Multi-donor Research Platform on Social Protection, Financial ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Multi-donor Research Platform on Social Protection, Financial Inclusion and ICTs ... been some experiments linking a financial inclusion component to CCT programs, ... Institution. Universidad de Chile. Pays d' institution. Chile. Site internet.

  4. Multi-donor Research Platform on Social Protection, Financial ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Multi-donor Research Platform on Social Protection, Financial Inclusion and ... There have been some experiments linking a financial inclusion component to CCT programs, ... Universidad de Chile. Institution Country. Chile. Institution Website.

  5. Ureaplasma Transmitted From Donor Lungs Is Pathogenic After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ramiro; Ratliff, Amy; Crabb, Donna; Waites, Ken B; Bharat, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    Hyperammonemia is a highly fatal syndrome in lung recipients that is usually refractory to medical therapy. We recently reported that infection by a Mollicute, Ureaplasma, is causative for hyperammonemia and can be successfully treated with antimicrobial agents. However, it remains unknown whether the pathogenic strain of Ureaplasma is donor or recipient derived. Here we provide evidence that donor-derived Ureaplasma infection can be pathogenic. As such, we uncover a previously unknown lethal donor-derived opportunistic infection in lung recipients. Given the high mortality associated with hyperammonemia, strategies for routine donor screening or prophylaxis should be further evaluated in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  7. Living-donor vs deceased-donor liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-09-27

    With the increasing prevalence of living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), some authors have reported a potential increase in the HCC recurrence rates among LDLT recipients compared to deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT) recipients. The aim of this review is to encompass current opinions and clinical reports regarding differences in the outcome, especially the recurrence of HCC, between LDLT and DDLT. While some studies report impaired recurrence - free survival and increased recurrence rates among LDLT recipients, others, including large database studies, report comparable recurrence - free survival and recurrence rates between LDLT and DDLT. Studies supporting the increased recurrence in LDLT have linked graft regeneration to tumor progression, but we found no association between graft regeneration/initial graft volume and tumor recurrence among our 125 consecutive LDLTs for HCC cases. In the absence of a prospective study regarding the use of LDLT vs DDLT for HCC patients, there is no evidence to support the higher HCC recurrence after LDLT than DDLT, and LDLT remains a reasonable treatment option for HCC patients with cirrhosis.

  8. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation: A fourteen-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In countries without a national organization for retrieval and distribution of organs of the deceased donors, problem of organ shortage is still not resolved. In order to increase the number of kidney transplantations we started with the program of living unrelated - spousal donors. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcome and renal graft function in patients receiving the graft from spousal and those receiving ghe graft from living related donors. Method. We retrospectively identified 14 patients who received renal allograft from spousal donors between 1996 and 2009 (group I. The control group consisted of 14 patients who got graft from related donor retrieved from the database and matched than with respect to sex, age, kidney disease, immunological and viral pretransplant status, the initial method of the end stage renal disease treatment and ABO compatibility. In the follow-up period of 41 ± 38 months we recorded immunosuppressive therapy, surgical complications, episodes of acute rejection, CMV infection and graft function, assessed by serum creatinine levels at the beginning and in the end of the follow-up period. All patients had pretransplant negative cross-match. In ABO incompatible patients pretransplant isoagglutinine titer was zero. Results. The patients with a spousal donor had worse HLA matching. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical, infective, immunological complications and graft function. Two patients from the group I returned to hemodialysis after 82 and 22 months due to serious comorbidities. Conclusion. In spite of the worse HLA matching, graft survival and function of renal grafts from spousal donors were as good as those retrieved from related donors.

  9. Theory of Primary Photoexcitations in Donor-Acceptor Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, Karan; Dutta, Tirthankar; Huynh, Uyen N. V.; Vardeny, Zeev Valy; Mazumdar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    We present a generic theory of primary photoexcitations in low band gap donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers. Because of the combined effects of strong electron correlations and broken symmetry, there is considerable mixing between a charge-transfer exciton and an energetically proximate triplet-triplet state with an overall spin singlet. The triplet-triplet state, optically forbidden in homopolymers, is allowed in donor-acceptor copolymers. For an intermediate difference in electron affiniti...

  10. Donor cross-linking for keratoplasty: a laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Achyut; Hayes, Sally; Aslanides, Ioannis; Lanchares, Elena; Meek, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    This laboratory-based investigation compares the topographic outcomes of conventional penetrating keratoplasty with that of a novel procedure in which donor corneas are cross-linked prior to keratoplasty. Penetrating keratoplasty procedures with continuous running sutures were carried out in a porcine whole globe model. Sixty eyes were randomly paired as 'donor' and 'host' tissue before being assigned to one of two groups. In the cross-linked group, donor corneas underwent riboflavin/UVA cross-linking prior to being trephined and sutured to untreated hosts. In the conventional keratoplasty group, both host and donor corneas remained untreated prior to keratoplasty. Topographic and corneal wavefront measurements were performed following surgery, and technical aspects of the procedure evaluated. Mean keratometric astigmatism was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 3.67D (SD 1.8 D), vs. 8.43 D (SD 2.4 D) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean wavefront astigmatism was also significantly reduced in the cross-linked donor group 4.71 D (SD 2.1) vs. 8.29D (SD 3.6) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean RMS higher order aberration was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 1.79 um (SD 0.98), vs. 3.05 um (SD 1.9) in the conventional keratoplasty group (P = 0.02). Qualitative analysis revealed less tissue distortion at the graft-host junction in the cross-linked group. Cross-linking of donor corneas prior to keratoplasty reduces intraoperative induced astigmatism and aberrations in an animal model. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the implications of this potential modification of keratoplasty surgery.

  11. A Methyl Substituted Thiophenic-TTF Donor and its Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafaela A. L.; Santos, Isabel C.; Lopes, Elsa B.; Rabaça, Sandra; Galindo, Sergi; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Rovira Angulo, Concepció

    2015-01-01

    α-Methyldithiophene–tetrathiafulvalene (α-mDT-TTF), the first alkyl-substituted thiophene–tetrathiafulvalene electronic donor, and some of its charge-transfer salts were explored. The crystal structure of α-mDT-TTF is composed of molecular stacks aligned parallel to each other. Its cyclic voltammetry shows higher electron-donor ability than the unsubstituted analogue. This material was employed as a semiconductor in an organic field-effect transistor and showed a mobil...

  12. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-12-01

    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in multiple factors contribute to the perception of infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  14. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  15. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  16. History of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  17. Teaching Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, George

    1995-01-01

    Argues that women's history should stress the broad sociological view of women's roles not only in politics but in mundane, day-to-day life throughout all of history, rather that reducing women's history to a few token figures. Notes that many college and secondary texts and testing materials have recognized the trend toward the inclusion of…

  18. Towards Household History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rappard, J.F.H.

    1998-01-01

    It is maintained that in contradistinction to the natural sciences, in psychology (and other human sciences) ‘history is not past tense’. This is borne out by the contemporary relevance of a specific part of the history of psychology, which focuses on the internal-theoretical significance of history

  19. Film and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  20. History of mathematics and history of science

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...

  1. Digital subtraction angiography in 105 living renal transplant donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Ho Jong; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, So Sun; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck

    1989-01-01

    In order to analyze the number and length of the renal arteries and to evaluate abnormalities of the renal parenchyma and vessel, digital subtraction angiogram images of 105 potential renal donors (45 men and 60 women aged 17-66 years) were studied retrospectively. For the entire series, 31 donors had multiple renal arteries on one side (15 on the left, 11 on the right) and 5 donors on the both sides. 89 donors were family related either parents or siblings of recipients. The estimation of the length of the renal artery was based on the mean height of the second lumbar vertebral body (L2). The right renal artery is significant longer than on the left and measured more than the height of L2 vertebral body in 84 cases on the right and 60 cases on the left. Twenty two donors underwent right nephrectomy due to presence of multiple renal arteries on the left (N=14), proximal bifurcation of left main renal artery (N=3), and young females in reproductive age (N=5). Unexpected abnormalities found with angiogram were seen in 7 cases and they include renal artery stenosis (N=2), renal cysts (N=4) and focal infarction (N=1). In cases of the renal cysts and focal infarction, there were no serious complications related to the abnormalities. It is conclude that intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography is safe and efficient method to image renal anatomy of the potential renal donors

  2. Transplantation With Livers From Deceased Donors Older Than 75 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Trygve; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bennet, William

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs limits the number of patients in need who are offered liver transplantation. Measures to expand the donor pool are crucial to prevent on-list mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of livers from deceased donors who were older than 75...... years. METHODS: Fifty-four patients who received a first liver transplant (D75 group) from 2001 to 2011 were included. Donor and recipient data were collected from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry and medical records. The outcome was compared with a control group of 54 patients who received a liver...... graft from donors aged 20 to 49 years (D20-49 group). Median donor age was 77 years (range, 75-86 years) in the D75 group and 41 years (range, 20-49 years) in the D20-49 group. Median recipient age was 59 years (range, 31-73 years) in the D75 group and 58 years (range, 31-74 years) in the D20-49 group...

  3. Few electron quantum dot coupling to donor implanted electron spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Martin; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Neilson, Erik; Gamble, John; Muller, Richard; Jacobson, Toby; Ten-Eyck, Greg; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Donor-based Si qubits are receiving increased interest because of recent demonstrations of high fidelity electron or nuclear spin qubits and their coupling. Quantum dot (QD) mediated interactions between donors are of interest for future coupling of two donors. We present experiment and modeling of a polysilicon/Si MOS QD, charge-sensed by a neighboring many electron QD, capable of coupling to one or two donor implanted electron spins (D) while tuned to the few electron regime. The unique design employs two neighboring gated wire FETs and self-aligned implants, which supports many configurations of implanted donors. We can access the (0,1) ⇔(1,0) transition between the D and QD, as well as the resonance condition between the few electron QD and two donors ((0,N,1) ⇔(0,N +1,0) ⇔(1,N,0)). We characterize capacitances and tunnel rate behavior combined with semi-classical and full configuration interaction simulations to study the energy landscape and kinetics of D-QD transitions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Triangulating the Position of Antimony Donors Implanted in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau-Oxton, Chloe; Nielsen, Erik; Luhman, Dwight; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Pluym, Tammy; Wendt, Joel; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    A potential candidate for a quantum bit is a single Sb atom implanted in silicon. A single-electron-transistor (SET) situated close to an Sb donor can be used to measure the occupancy and spin of the electron on the donor while the lithographically patterned poly-silicon gates defining the SET can be used to control donor occupancy. In our samples two clusters of Sb donors have been implanted adjacent to opposite sides of the SET through a self-aligned process. In this talk, we will present experimental results that allow us to determine the approximate position of different donors by determining their relative capacitance to pairs of the SET's poly-silicon gates. We will present the results of capacitive-based modeling calculations that allow us to further locate the position of the donors. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: meeting the challenge of consumerism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddins, Mark; Hart, Gabrielle; He, Bulang; Kanchanabat, Burapa; Mohan Rao, M

    2003-11-01

    Despite the increasing adoption of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, no study has examined donor perceptions following this procedure. In particular, it has been tacitly assumed that a less invasive procedure might in itself provide a more satisfactory donor experience. The present study reviews the experience of donors undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomy, and examines the extent to which contemporary management practice addresses issues relevant to consumerism. Forty-two donors participated in a structured telephone interview, and 33 (79%) returned a written questionnaire. Coming through the survey was a strong sense of commitment to donation, and most respondents were satisfied with the experience. The main criticisms related to hotel services, the duration of the preoperative investigations, the perceived quality of nursing care on the general wards, medical communication and the duration of postoperative follow up. The self-reported time to meet recovery goals was extremely broad. Considering the nature of criticisms offered by the respondents, it is concluded that the expectations of donors as health-care consumers will only be met through modification of existing protocols.

  6. The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Lyn

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation and half of their genome, was an outcome unanticipated by the architects of the donor insemination programme. Genetic paternity testing realised the possibility of fixed and certain knowledge about paternity. This paper outlines medicine's role in the formation of normative families through the use of donor insemination. Extending information from an Australian study on the use of DNA paternity testing, it analyses what the social and scientific changes that have emerged and gained currency in the last several decades mean for the new 'openness' and the role of paternity testing in this context. It concludes with recommendations about how to deal with the verification of paternity in linking donor conceived adult children to their donor.

  7. Sero prevalence of hepatitis -C antibodies in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.U.; Akhtar, G.N.; Lodhi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)

  8. Donor leucocyte imaging in patients with AIDS: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Doherty, M.J.; Kent and Canterbury Hospital; Revell, P.; Page, C.J.; Nunan, T.O.; Lee, S.; Mountford, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Four patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and fever were investigated using donor leucocyte scans. The lung/liver and lung/spleen uptake ratios in these patients were compared with the uptake ratios in donor leucocyte scans in seven neutropenic (non-AIDS) patients and five patients who had autologous leucocyte scans performed over the same time period. All scans used indium oxine In 111 labelled leucocytes except that for one AIDS patient which used technetium hexamethyl-propylene amine oxide Tc99m labelled donor leucocytes. There were no adverse reactions to the donor cell infusions. Two patients had repeat studies 8 weeks apart (from different donors) without ill effect. There were no differences in the 111 In uptake ratios between the three groups. There were three positive studies in the patients with AIDS, and these elucidated the cause of the pyrexia in all three. The negative case is more difficult to confirm, but the clinical course and the absence of focal disease on post-mortem have been taken to support the scan findings. There was no difference in the acceptibility of the technique or the distribution of the labelled leucocytes between the AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Donor leucocyte imaging of patients with AIDS is probably more effective and considerably less hazardous for technical staff than autologous leucocyte methods. This study demonstrates that the technique can be applied successfully to patients with AIDS. (orig.)

  9. Sistem Reminder Donor Darah dengan Memanfaatkan Teknologi Location Based Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Abdus Shobar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Donor darah merupakan kegiatan kemanusiaan yang bertujuan untuk membantu anggota masyarakat yang membutuhkan darah. Kegiatan donor darah diselenggarakan dan dikelola oleh Palang Merah Indonesia. Menurut catatan Palang Merah Indonesia, secara keseluruhan kebutuhan kantung darah yang tidak terpenuhi melebihi satu juta kantung darah. Untuk itu dibutuhkan peningkatan produksi kantung darah. Salah satu solusi yang dapat dilakukan adalah perancangan suatu sistem informasi geografis (GIS yang memudahkan pendonor untuk mendonorkan darahnya kembali dengan reminder donor darah dan membantu PMI mendapatkan kantung darah. Makalah ini membahas perancangan sistem reminder donor darah dengan menggunakan teknologi location based service. Kemudian untuk menguji sistem, dibuatkan sebuah prototype dengan hasil pengujian sistem menunjukkan bahwa sistem reminder donor darah dapat memudahkan pendonor dalam mendonorkan darahnya kembali sehingga memberikan motivasi bagi pendonor untuk lebih giat dalam mendonorkan darahnya. Sistem ini berpotensi meningkatkan produktivitas PMI dalam mengumpulkan kantong darah sehingga pemenuhan kebutuhan kantung darah masyarakat dapat meningkat yang pada akhirnya dapat menyelamatkan lebih banyak nyawa manusia khususnya di Indonesia. Kata kunci: donor darah, reminder, GIS, location based service.

  10. Restless legs syndrome, pica, and iron status in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan R; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J; Glynn, Simone A; Rye, David B; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Cable, Ritchard G

    2013-08-01

    The association of blood donation-related iron deficiency with pica or restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study. RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15 to 24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. There were 9 and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of probable or probable/possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron-replete females, 13% in those with ferritin high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  12. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  13. Working with previously anonymous gamete donors and donor-conceived adults: recent practice experiences of running the DNA-based voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda

    2013-03-01

    This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.

  14. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Dam, Ruth E.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Berendsen, Elsbeth C. M.; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J. A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Evers, Andrea W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This

  15. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background. The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics

  16. World History Workshop (1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    history appeared tenuous. While the study of American history was viewed as necessary to "indoctrinate kids ," world history is unable to make such a...world" which is hard to avoid in world history, where one examines China in 1500, China in 1800, and so on. A pedagogical goal in the new course was to...the historian to make intelligent decisions about what information he is going to talk about. Viewing world history as a scenario also has a pedagogic

  17. Mellem historie- og krigsvidenskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Schøning, Anna Sofie

    2016-01-01

    history was used to establish national and organisational identity. In the 1880s, military history was used as a means to find, explain and apply universal principles of war and, in the 1910s, military history should be used as a means to gain general insight that could potentially lead to a better......The article investigates how military history was taught as part of the Danish higher officer education from 1830 to 1920 and how the subject was affected by developments in academic history and the science of war. It argues that military history, as it was taught in the formal officer education......, could not be seen solely as a historic subject but also as a subject under the influence of the discipline of military science. Three very different understandings of how military history can contribute to higher officer education are shown through the analysis of textbooks. In the 1830s military...

  18. Three concepts of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Campillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, I will outline the diverse usages that the concept of history has taken on throughout Western history. These different usages may be grouped together in three semantic fields (history as a way of knowing, as a way of being and as a way of doing, which correspond to three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History: as Epistemology of History, as Ontology of historicity and as ethical-political Critique of the present. On the other hand, I will show that these three concepts of history (and, accordingly, the three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History refer mutually to each other and, thus, are inseparable from each other.

  19. HIV-1/2 indeterminate Western blot results: follow-up of asymptomatic blood donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARNEIRO-PROIETTI A.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and public health importance of indeterminate results in HIV-1/2 testing is still difficult to evaluate in volunteer blood donors. At Fundação Hemominas, HIV-1/2 ELISA is used as the screening test and, if reactive, is followed by Western blot (WB. We have evaluated 84 blood donors who had repeatedly reactive ELISA tests for HIV-1/2, but indeterminate WB results. Sixteen of the 84 donors (19.0% had history of sexually transmitted diseases; 18/84 (21.4% informed receiving or paying for sex; 3/84 (3.6% had homosexual contact; 2/26 women (7.6% had past history of multiple illegal abortions and 3/84 (3.6% had been previously transfused. Four out of 62 donors (6.5% had positive anti-nuclear factor (Hep2, with titles up to 1:640. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed eggs of S. mansoni in 4/62 (6.4% donors and other parasites in 8/62 (12.9%. Five (5.9% of the subjects presented overt seroconversion for HIV-1/2, 43/84 (51.2% had negative results on the last visit, while 36/84 (42.9% remained WB indeterminate. Although some conditions could be found associated with the HIV-1/2 indeterminate WB results and many donors had past of risky behavior, the significance of the majority of the results remains to be determined.

  20. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: Recipient′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukaram E Jamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  1. Chagas' disease: an algorithm for donor screening and positive donor counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical serological screening assays for Chagas' disease are time consuming and subjective. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the enzyme immuno-assay (ELISA methodology and to propose an algorithm for blood banks to be applied to Chagas' disease. Seven thousand, nine hundred and ninety nine blood donor samples were screened by both reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Samples reactive on RPHA and/or IFA were submitted to supplementary RPHA, IFA and complement fixation (CFA tests. This strategy allowed us to create a panel of 60 samples to evaluate the ELISA methodology from 3 different manufacturers. The sensitivity of the screening by IFA and the 3 different ELISA's was 100%. The specificity was better on ELISA methodology. For Chagas disease, ELISA seems to be the best test for blood donor screening, because it showed high sensitivity and specificity, it is not subjective and can be automated. Therefore, it was possible to propose an algorithm to screen samples and confirm donor results at the blood bank.Os testes sorológicos clássicos utilizados na triagem de doadores de sangue são trabalhosos e subjetivos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é o de avaliar a metodologia imuno-enzimática (ELISA e propor um algorítmo para doença de Chagas em bancos de sangue. Foram estudados 7999 doadores de sangue e/ou componentes cujas amostras foram testadas com o objetivo de tria-las sorologicamente para doença de Chagas utilizando hemaglutinação passiva reversa (RPHA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFA. As amostras reativas em pelo menos uma destas metodologias, foram retestadas com reativos diferentes por RPHA, IFA e fixação de complemento (CFA. Esta estratégia nos permitiu criar um painel de 60 amostras com as quais tornou-se possível a avaliação do método imunoenzimático (ELISA. A sensibilidade da triagem dos doadores pelos métodos ELISA e IFA foi de 100%. A especificidade

  2. Charged dopants in neutral supercells through substitutional donor (acceptor): nitrogen donor charging of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Robin; Pawar, Ravinder; Öberg, Sven; Larsson, J. Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Charged defects are traditionally computed by adding (subtracting) electrons for negative (positive) impurities. When using periodic boundary conditions this results in artificially charged supercells that also require a compensating background charge of the opposite sign, which makes slab supercells problematic because of an arbitrary dependence on the vacuum thickness. In this work, we test the method of using neutral supercells through the use of a substitutional electron donor (acceptor) to describe charged systems. We use density functional theory (DFT) to compare the effects of charging the well-studied NV-center in diamond by a substitutional donor nitrogen. We investigate the influence of the donor-N on the NV-center properties as a function of the distance between them, and find that they converge toward those obtained when adding an electron. We analyze the spin density and conclude that the donor-N has a zero magnetic moment, and thus, will not be seen in electron spin resonance. We validate our DFT energies through comparison to GW simulations. Charging the NV-center with a substitutional donor-N enables accurate calculations of slabs, without the ambiguity of using charged supercells. Implantation of donor-N atoms opens up the possibility to engineer NV-centers with the desired charge state for future ICT and sensor applications.

  3. Gonosomal mosaicism for an NF1 deletion in a sperm donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callum, P; Messiaen, L M; Bower, P V

    2012-01-01

    Screening of gamete donors can reduce but cannot eliminate the risks for medical problems in donor-conceived offspring. We present a case of gonosomal mosaicism discovered in an anonymous sperm donor after receiving two reports of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in donor-conceived offspring...

  4. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...] Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and... Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact on donor safety and blood availability, and potential...

  5. 21 CFR 1271.80 - What are the general requirements for donor testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.80 What are... mother instead of a specimen from the donor. (b) Timing of specimen collection. You must collect the donor specimen for testing at the time of recovery of cells or tissue from the donor; or up to 7 days...

  6. Cocrystals of 6-methyl-2-thiouracil: presence of the acceptor-donor-acceptor/donor-acceptor-donor synthon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hützler, Wilhelm Maximilian; Egert, Ernst

    2015-03-01

    The results of seven cocrystallization experiments of the antithyroid drug 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS, with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine and 6-amino-3H-isocytosine (viz. 2,6-diamino-3H-pyrimidin-4-one) are reported. MTU features an ADA (A = acceptor and D = donor) hydrogen-bonding site, while the three coformers show complementary DAD hydrogen-bonding sites and therefore should be capable of forming an ADA/DAD N-H...O/N-H...N/N-H...S synthon with MTU. The experiments yielded one cocrystal and six cocrystal solvates, namely 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (1/1/2), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)·2C(5)H(9)NO, (I), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine (1/1), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4), (II), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-N,N-dimethylacetamide (2/1/2), 2C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)·2C(4)H(9)NO, (III), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-N,N-dimethylformamide (2/1/2), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·0.5C(4)H(6)N(4)·C(3)H(7)NO, (IV), 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidinium 6-methyl-2-thiouracilate-6-methyl-2-thiouracil-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/1/2), C(4)H(8)N(5)(+)·C(5)H(5)N(2)OS(-)·C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·2C(3)H(7)NO, (V), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-6-amino-3H-isocytosine-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/1/1), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)O·C(3)H(7)NO, (VI), and 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-6-amino-3H-isocytosine-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1/1), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)O·C(2)H(6)OS, (VII). Whereas in cocrystal (I) an R(2)(2)(8) interaction similar to the Watson-Crick adenine/uracil base pair is formed and a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network is observed, the cocrystals (II)-(VII) contain the triply hydrogen-bonded ADA/DAD N-H...O/N-H...N/N-H...S synthon and show a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network. Although 2,4-diaminopyrimidine possesses only one DAD hydrogen-bonding site, it is, due to orientational disorder, triply connected to two MTU molecules in (III) and (IV).

  7. Independent organ donor facilities: The future of organ donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001 independent Organ Donor Facilities(OFOs) have been proposed within Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) with the aim of reducing organ procurement costs 1, cold ischemia time of donor organs and the flight-related risk 2 for donor surgeons, perfusionists and coordinators. An independent OFO has been established in 2001 in St. Louis 3, half away between the 2 Transplant Centers (TCs) (Washington University School of Medicine and St. Louis University) and now includes a two-bed intensive care facility, a complete laboratory, a cardiac catheterization facility, a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and an operating room. All brain-dead (BD) patients within OPO (Mid-America Transplant Services), after family's informed consent, are transferred, if necessary by an OPO owned and operated airplane, to this facility, where undergo multiorgan harvesting. By doing so the organ acquisition charges (OACs) apparently decreased, as well as delay in recovery, which can affect organ viability and move families to withdraw consent; also risks and tiring of transplant surgeons were reduced. This independent OFO successfully procured in 2001 not only livers, but also pancreas, kidneys, hearts and lungs 4-6. Cold ischemia time was reduced and there was no Primary Non Function (PNF) of harvested organs, but only kidney delayed graft function (DGF). In the past, heart donors were moved to the recipient's hospital. With the development of multiorgan harvesting, usually donor surgeons are sent by the TCs in order to evaluate liver, pancreas, heart and lungs, while the only local surgeons is the "nephrectomist", that in local hospital is not a transplant surgeon. To move a donor, although hemodinamically stable, is always a risk. Finally, the decrease of OAC must balance the extra expenses to create and operate independent OFOs. In all the papers published by the members of this OFO, the control group of the retrospective analysis consisted of less selected BD donors, requiring

  8. Donors in Semiconductors - are they Understood in Electronic Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Janusz E

    2007-01-01

    The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering

  9. Exchange donor transplantation: ethical option for living renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, A; Kaçar, S; Varılsuha, C; Tilif, S; Turunç, V; Doǧan, M; Dheir, H; Sahin, S

    2011-04-01

    Taking in consideration the opinion of our team, which necessitates obligation of a relative relation between donors and recipients (genetic or matrimonial), we performed donor exchanges as an ethical alternative in living donor transplantations. We reviewed the outcomes of our exchange series. Between July 2003 and August 2010 we performed 110 exchange donor transplantations in four hospitals: one four-way, two three-way, and 100 two-way cases. Donors were mostly spouses (n = 71) or mothers (n = 15). The mean age of the donors was 48.8 (range = 23-69) and the recipients 41.4 years (range = 5-66). Two were transplanted preemptively and the others had a mean dialysis duration of 43 months (range = 1-120). Among 110 patients, three compatible pairs joined the group voluntarily; 71, due to ABO incompatibility and 36, due to crossmatch positivity. Induction therapy was used in 92 patients. HLA mismatches (MM) were: one MM in three; two MM in three; three MM in 18, four MM in 36; five MM in 34; and six MM in 18. Among 90 patients tested for panel-reactive antibodies PRA, five showed class I and 10, class II positivity. In 11 patients, B-cell positivity was detected by flow cytometry. Delayed graft function (n = 2), acute rejection (n = 11), BK virus infection (n = 1), and cytomegalovirus infection (n = 3) were seen postoperatively. Three (2.7%) patients died due to sepsis. Five patients returned to dialysis program due to interstitial fibrosis tubular atrophy (IFTA) (n = 2), renal vein thrombosis (n = 1), de novo glomerulopathy (n = 1), or primary nonfunction (n = 1). The 1- and 5-year patient and graft survival rates were 96% and 96%, 95% and 89%, respectively. We believe that exchange donor transplantation is as successful as direct transplants; it is a good, ethical alternative to unrelated living transplantations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Time-resolved autofluorescence imaging of human donor retina tissue from donors with significant extramacular drusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Gaillard, Elizabeth R; Dillon, James; Mullins, Robert F; Russell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Birgit; Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Biskup, Christoph

    2012-06-08

    Time and spectrally resolved measurements of autofluorescence have the potential to monitor metabolism at the cellular level. Fluorophores that emit with the same fluorescence intensity can be discriminated from each other by decay time of fluorescence intensity after pulsed excitation. We performed time-resolved autofluorescence measurements on fundus samples from a donor with significant extramacular drusen. Tissue sections from two human donors were prepared and imaged with a laser scanning microscope. The sample was excited with a titanium-sapphire laser, which was tuned to 860 nm, and frequency doubled by a BBO crystal to 430 nm. The repetition rate was 76 MHz and the pulse width was 170 femtoseconds (fs). The time-resolved autofluorescence was recorded simultaneously in 16 spectral channels (445-605 nm) and bi-exponentially fitted. RPE can be discriminated clearly from Bruch's membrane, drusen, and choroidal connective tissue by fluorescence lifetime. In RPE, bright fluorescence of lipofuscin could be detected with a maximum at 510 nm and extending beyond 600 nm. The lifetime was 385 ps. Different types of drusen were found. Most of them did not contain lipofuscin and exhibited a weak fluorescence, with a maximum at 470 nm. The lifetime was 1785 picoseconds (ps). Also, brightly emitting lesions, presumably representing basal laminar deposits, with fluorescence lifetimes longer than those recorded in RPE could be detected. The demonstrated differentiation of fluorescent structures by their fluorescence decay time is important for interpretation of in vivo measurements by the new fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) ophthalmoscopy on healthy subjects as well as on patients.

  11. Desensitization Protocol in Recipients of Deceased Kidney Donor With Donor-Specific Antibody-Low Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter Berga, J; Sancho Calabuig, A; Gavela Martinez, E; Puig Alcaraz, N; Avila Bernabeu, A; Crespo Albiach, J; Molina Vila, P; Beltrán Catalan, S; Pallardó Mateu, L

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the better option for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization, the wait times are significantly longer than for patients without antibodies. Many desensitization protocols have been described involving strong immunosuppression, the use of apheresis, and B-cell-modulating therapies. We have designed a desensitization protocol from day 0 for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Our aim was to present our initial experience with five kidney transplant patients. All patients had a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match. The desensitization protocol included five to seven doses of thymoglobulin (1.25 mg/kg) and three sessions of plasmapheresis (PP) within the first week after transplantation, with intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg) after each PP session and one dose of rituximab on day 8. The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) was analyzed by use of Luminex technology; levels between 1000 and 3000 mean fluorescence intensity were considered for desensitization. The median age was 44 years and median renal replacement therapy time was 9 years. All recipients presented 1 to 3 DSA specificities. There were no severe side effects related to PP, infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, or rituximab. The median follow-up period was 19.3 months. Median serum creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.7 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed in all patients. Graft and patient survival was 100%. Until now, few data are available concerning whether HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation after desensitization would benefit patients with ERSD. The desensitization strategy using the combination of PP, low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab at our center resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The healthy donor effect impacts self-reported physical and mental health - results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Skytthe, A; Erikstrup, C

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed at quantifying the healthy donor effect by comparing self-perceived mental and physical health between blood donors and non-donors. BACKGROUND: In theory, the selection process known as the healthy donor effect should result in better self-perceived, health-related quality...... of life in donors than in non-donors. METHODS: The Short Form-12 data from the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) was compared with the data from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS). Data on age, sex and smoking status were included in the analyses. The multivariable linear regression analysis was stratified......-perceived mental health was associated with a blood donor. With the increase in age, better self-perceived physical health was associated with blood donation....

  13. Urgent Living-Donor Liver Transplantation in a Patient With Concurrent Active Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B-H; Park, J-I; Lee, S-G

    2018-04-01

    Although active tuberculosis (TB) is considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT), this is the only treatment in patients with liver failure and concurrent active TB. We report a case with successful urgent living-donor LT for irreversible liver failure in the presence of active TB. A 48-year-old man, with a history of decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis, was presented with stupor. At admission, his consciousness had deteriorated to semi-coma, and his renal function also rapidly deteriorated to hepatorenal syndrome. A preoperative computed tomography scan of the chest revealed several small cavitary lesions in both upper lobes, and acid-fast bacillus stain from his sputum was graded 2+. Adenosine deaminase levels from ascites were elevated, suggesting TB peritonitis. A first-line anti-TB drug regimen was started immediately (rifampin, isoniazid, levofloxacin, and amikacin). An urgent living-donor LT was performed 2 days later. After LT, the regimen was changed to second-line anti-TB drugs (amikacin, levofloxacin, cycloserine, and pyridoxine). The sputum acid-fast bacillus stain tested negative on postoperative day 10. His liver function remained well preserved, even after the reversion to first-line anti-TB treatment. The patient recovered without any anti-TB medication-related complications and was discharged. LT can be prudently performed as a life-saving option, particularly for patients with liver failure and concurrent active TB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. History of mathematics and history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  15. The teaching of history through histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Calvas-Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The comic strips have been introduced into the world of history as a didactic resource for their learning; However, there are still shortcomings in their use by teachers, motivated on many occasions due to lack of knowledge and insufficient methodological preparation; The purpose of this work is to socialize knowledge related to these didactic resources to contribute to the didactic-methodological enrichment of the teacher, in order to change this attitude. The methodological strategy responds to the quantitative-qualitative paradigm; in the collection of the information a participant observation guide was used to the history classes and interview to a sample of 9 teachers of Third Degree of the schools of the city of Machala randomly selected. We recorded the observations of the knowledge acquired by the 98 students who received the classes mediated by comic strips, which allowed us to conclude that comics for the teaching and learning of History constitute a powerful didactic resource.

  16. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen - a Danish multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Schmidt, Lone

    2015-05-01

    To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. All nine public fertility clinics in Denmark. In total n = 311 childless women initiating assisted reproduction using donor semen. Self-reported questionnaire responses from n = 184 single women seeking treatment by using donor semen were compared with responses from n = 127 cohabiting women. Sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, attitudes towards motherhood. Single women were 3.5 years older on average when initiating treatment compared with cohabiting women. No significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic characteristics, previous long-term relationships, previous pregnancies, or attitudes towards motherhood between single women and cohabiting women. The vast majority of single women wanted to achieve parenthood with a partner, 85.8% wished to have a partner in the future, and approximately half of them preferred for a partner to take parental responsibilities. In this study single women seeking treatment with donor semen in the public health system did not differ from cohabiting women, except that they were older. To be a single mother by choice is not their preferred way of parenthood, but a solution they needed to accept. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Gambaran Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Tindakan Donor Darah pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak

    OpenAIRE

    Sabdiah Eka Sari

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mortality rate caused by the lack of blood supply wasincreased in development countries. The fact, blood donor percentage stilllow that caused restrictiveness to fill blood requirement that moreincreased. Restrictiveness amount of blood donor can caused by the lowof knowledge about blood donor, any wrong perception about blood donor,or the anxiety about blood donor procedure.Objective. To know description of knowledge, attitude, and blood donorpractice of college student at Medica...

  18. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods: We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrol...

  19. Risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Hussein, Nawfal

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem. The lack of information about the seroprevalence and risk factors is an obstacle for preventive public health plans to reduce the burden of viral hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted in Iraq, where no studies had been performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HBV infection. Blood samples were collected form 438 blood donors attending blood bank in Duhok city. Serum samples were tested for HBV core-antibodies (HBcAb) and HBV surface-antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. Various risk factors were recorded and multivariate analysis was performed. 5/438 (1.14%) of the subjects were HBsAg positive (HBsAg and HBcAb positive) and 36/438 (8.2%) were HBcAb positive. Hence, 41 cases were exposed to HBV and data analysis was based on that. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations between history of illegitimate sexual contact, history of alcohol or history of dental surgeries and HBV exposure (p<0.05 for all). Then, multivariate analysis was conducted to find HBV exposure predictive factors. It was found that history of dental surgery was a predictive factor for exposure to the virus (P=0.03, OR: 2.397). This study suggested that the history of dental surgery was predictive for HBV transmission in Duhok city. Further population-based study is needed to determine HBV risk factors in the society and public health plan based on that should be considered.

  20. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  1. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  2. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  3. Electrical Manipulation of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon and Germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigillito, Anthony James

    Many proposals for quantum information devices rely on electronic or nuclear spins in semiconductors because of their long coherence times and compatibility with industrial fabrication processes. One of the most notable qubits is the electron spin bound to phosphorus donors in silicon, which offers coherence times exceeding seconds at low temperatures. These donors are naturally isolated from their environments to the extent that silicon has been coined a "semiconductor vacuum". While this makes for ultra-coherent qubits, it is difficult to couple two remote donors so quantum information proposals rely on high density arrays of qubits. Here, single qubit addressability becomes an issue. Ideally one would address individual qubits using electric fields which can be easily confined. Typically these schemes rely on tuning a donor spin qubit onto and off of resonance with a magnetic driving field. In this thesis, we measure the electrical tunability of phosphorus donors in silicon and use the extracted parameters to estimate the effects of electric-field noise on qubit coherence times. Our measurements show that donor ionization may set in before electron spins can be sufficiently tuned. We therefore explore two alternative options for qubit addressability. First, we demonstrate that nuclear spin qubits can be directly driven using electric fields instead of magnetic fields and show that this approach offers several advantages over magnetically driven spin resonance. In particular, spin transitions can occur at half the spin resonance frequency and double quantum transitions (magnetic-dipole forbidden) can occur. In a second approach to realizing tunable qubits in semiconductors, we explore the option of replacing silicon with germanium. We first measure the coherence and relaxation times for shallow donor spin qubits in natural and isotopically enriched germanium. We find that in isotopically enriched material, coherence times can exceed 1 ms and are limited by a

  4. Double versus single renal allografts from aged donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, A; Morales, J M; Herrero, J C; Praga, M; Morales, E; Hernández, E; Ortuño, T; Rodício, J L; Martínez, M A; Usera, G; Díaz, R; Polo, G; Aguirre, F; Leiva, O

    2000-05-27

    The age limit of the cadaver kidney donors is increasing in response to the growing demand for renal transplantation. Simultaneous double kidney transplantation (SDKT) with kidneys obtained from elderly adults has been proposed to increase the transplantation number and improve its results. However, if SDKT is performed when there are no clear indications, a negative effect could be produced on the total number of transplanted patients as both kidneys would be used for only one recipient. In December 1996 we designed a transplantation protocol to be able to extend the selection of cadaver kidney donors with normal serum creatinine levels without establishing any age limit. A pregraft renal biopsy was always performed to analyze the glomerulosclerosis (GE) percentage whenever the donors were 60 years of age or older. A SDKT was performed in a single recipient when the donor age was 75 years or older or when the donors between 60 and 74 years old had a GE rate of more than 15%. On the contrary, a single kidney transplantation was performed in two different recipients for kidneys from donors between 60 and 74 years of age with a GE rate of less than 15%. Kidneys having GE rates of more than 50% were discarded for transplantation. Donor kidneys from subjects younger than 60 years of age were always used for a single kidney transplantation. Based on the above mentioned protocol, from December 1996 to May 1998, 181 patients received a kidney transplantation in our hospital. These patients were divided into three groups: group I which included the SDKT recipients (n=21), group II or single kidney recipients from 60- to 74-year-old donors (n=40), and group III or recipients from actuarial patient survival (100, 95, and 98%, respectively) or graft survival rates (95, 90, and 93%, respectively). The 6-month serum creatinine levels were excellent in the three groups, although there were significant differences between groups I and II (1.6+/-0.3 vs. 1.9+/-0.6 mg/dl, P75 years

  5. LAPAROSCOPIC LEFT LATERAL SECTIONECTOMY IN LIVING LIVER DONOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Living donor liver transplantation has proved to be an effective, safe and radical treatment modality for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Left lateral section (LLS of donor’s liver is used in pediatric recipients. Laparoscopic LLS procurement was fi rst described by D. Cherqui in 2002. At present, this technique is routinely used only by 5 hospitals in the world. However, up to date, some authors consider it to be a new standard to perform such a surgery in living donors.Aim. To analyze the fi rst Russian experience in laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LapLLS in living related donor.Materials and methods. From May to September 2016 fi ve LapLLS were performed in living donors. In all cases donors were women (mothers in 4 cases and aunt in 1 case. Recipients were children aged from 6 months through 3 years with body mass from 5.6 to 12.5 kg. Liver transection was carried out under conditions of maintained blood supply. Parenchymal transection was performed using a harmonic scalpel, bipolar coagulation and ultrasound dissection.Results. Average donor age was 32 ± 5 years. Average operation time was 287 ± 16 min. Average LLS graft weight was 220 ± 16 g. Intraoperative blood loss did not exceed 100 ml (95 ± 5 ml. Donors were discharged on the 3rd–4th post-op day. There were no postoperative complications in donors. Recipients were also characterized by a standard course of the postoperative period.Conclusion. LapLLS is an effective and safe method with several advantages. Primarily, these are early rehabilitation of the donors and shortening of the hospital stay, which are important for the quick return to normal way of live. Excellent visualization of anatomical structures, including vascular and biliary ones, allows performing precise selection. In addition, good cosmetic effect is also an important aspect.

  6. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrey Gajjar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but

  7. The dead donor rule and the concept of death: severing the ties that bind them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Elysa R

    2003-01-01

    One goal of the transplant community is to seek ways to increase the number of people who are willing and able to donate organs. People in states between life and death are often medically excellent candidates for donating organs. Yet public policy surrounding organ procurement is a delicate matter. While there is the utilitarian goal of increasing organ supply, there is also the deontologic concern about respect for persons. Public policy must properly mediate between these two concerns. Currently the dead donor (dd) rule is appealed to as an attempt at such mediation. I argue that given the lack of consensus on a definition of death, the dd rule is no longer successful at mediating utilitarian and deontologic concerns. I suggest instead that focusing on a particular person's history can be successful.

  8. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  9. Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donor Matching Probability and Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Tiercy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from unrelated donors a high HLA compatibility level decreases the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease and mortality. The diversity of the HLA system at the allelic and haplotypic level and the heterogeneity of HLA typing data of the registered donors render the search process a complex task. This paper summarizes our experience with a search algorithm that includes at the start of the search a probability estimate (high/intermediate/low to identify a HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQB1-compatible donor (a 10/10 match. Based on 2002–2011 searches about 30% of patients have a high, 30% an intermediate, and 40% a low probability search. Search success rate and duration are presented and discussed in light of the experience of other centers. Overall a 9-10/10 matched HSC donor can now be identified for 60–80% of patients of European descent. For high probability searches donors can be selected on the basis of DPB1-matching with an estimated success rate of >40%. For low probability searches there is no consensus on which HLA incompatibilities are more permissive, although HLA-DQB1 mismatches are generally considered as acceptable. Models for the discrimination of more detrimental mismatches based on specific amino acid residues rather than specific HLA alleles are presented.

  10. The Living Donor Lost Wages Trial: Study Rationale and Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Carroll, Michaela; Evenson, Amy R; Pavlakis, Martha; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Baliga, Prabhakar; Howard, David H; Schold, Jesse D

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the background, rationale, and design of an NIH-funded, single-center study to test the impact of offering reimbursement for donor lost wages incurred during the post-nephrectomy recovery period on the live donor kidney transplant (LDKT) rate in newly evaluated kidney transplant candidates, to examine whether offering reimbursement for donor lost wages reduces racial disparity in LDKT rates, and to determine whether higher reimbursement amounts lead to higher LDKT rates. LDKT is the optimal treatment for renal failure. However, living kidney donation has declined in the past decade, particularly among men, younger adults, blacks, and low-income adults. There is evidence that donation-related costs may deter both transplant candidates and potential donors from considering LDKT. Lost wages is a major source of financial loss for some living donors and, unlike travel and lodging expenses, is not reimbursed by financial assistance programs. The study addresses the transplant community's call to reduce the financial burden of living donation and examine its impact on LDKT rates. Findings have the potential to influence policy, clinical practice, LDKT access, and income-related and racial disparities in LDKT and living donation.

  11. Patient experiences in advertising for an egg donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoweiski, Sarah; Matic, Hayley; Foster, Penelope

    2011-06-01

    Advertising is a commonly used means of recruiting an egg donor within Australia. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and outcomes of people's attempts to recruit an egg donor through advertising in a printed publication, Melbourne's Child. Individuals and couples who placed a new advertisement between July 2007 and December 2008 were invited to participate (n = 84), and those who expressed interest were mailed a questionnaire specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Thirty-one advertisers (37%) agreed to be sent the questionnaire and 28 were completed and returned (33%). Results showed that over half (56%) of respondents successfully recruited an egg donor through their advertisement in Melbourne's Child, 75% received at least one genuine reply and most people received a response within 2 weeks (50%) or 1-2 months (32%) after publication. At the time of completing the questionnaire, 48% had undergone a treatment cycle using donor eggs. Advertising was recalled as a stressful experience and 79% of respondents felt that more information about the success of advertising would have been helpful prior to embarking on this process. Results will be used to inform current clinical practice in assisting patients to recruit an egg donor. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypophosphatemia after Right Hepatectomy for Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly W Burak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypophosphatemia has been described in patients undergoing right hepatectomy for liver cancer and in living donors for liver transplantation who also received total parenteral nutrition. At the study centre, significant hypophosphatemia (0.36 mmol/L or less requiring intravenous replacement was seen in two of the first nine living donors for adult-to-adult liver transplantation. To determine the frequency of hypophosphatemia in living donors, the authors obtained phosphate levels on stored serum samples from postoperative days 0, 1, 3 and 7 in all nine patients, none of whom were on total parenteral nutrition. Within the first week, hypophosphatemia developed in 55.6% of patients and phosphate levels returned to normal by day 7 in all nine patients. One patient had normal phosphate levels during the first week, but had profound hypophosphatemia (0.32 mmol/L on day 14 when he presented with a Staphylococcus aureus infection of a bile collection and significant hypoxemia. The extent of hepatectomy and the rate of liver regeneration, estimated by baseline and postoperative day 7 volumetric computed tomography scans, did not correlate with the development of hypophosphatemia. In conclusion, hypophosphatemia is common in living donors undergoing right hepatectomy and may be associated with complications. All living donors should be monitored for the development of hypophosphatemia during the first two postoperative weeks.

  13. Left versus right deceased donor renal allograft outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.

  14. The effect of donor gender on renal allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugarten, J; Srinivas, T; Tellis, V; Silbiger, S; Greenstein, S

    1996-02-01

    Donor gender plays a role in the outcome of renal transplantation, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are unclear. In this study, actuarial graft survival in 1049 recipients transplanted at Montefiore Medical Center between 1979 and 1994 was examined. It was found that donor gender had no influence on graft survival in recipients treated with precyclosporine immunosuppressive agents. In contrast, graft survival time was greater in cyclosporine-treated recipients of male donor kidneys compared with female kidneys (p demand results in hyperfiltration-mediated glomerular injury and that this is responsible for reduced survival time of female allografts. Any hypothesis purporting to explain gender-related differences in graft survival time must take into account this study's observations that the donor-gender effect was observed only in cyclosporine-treated recipients, was not seen in African-American donors, appeared soon after renal transplantation, and did not increase progressively with time. These observations are most consistent with the hypothesis that gender-related differences in graft survival time may reflect differences in susceptibility to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity or differences in the therapeutic response to cyclosporine.

  15. Transport spectroscopy of coupled donors in silicon nano-transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Daniel; Samanta, Arup; Anh, Le The; Mizuno, Takeshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Tabe, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    The impact of dopant atoms in transistor functionality has significantly changed over the past few decades. In downscaled transistors, discrete dopants with uncontrolled positions and number induce fluctuations in device operation. On the other hand, by gaining access to tunneling through individual dopants, a new type of devices is developed: dopant-atom-based transistors. So far, most studies report transport through dopants randomly located in the channel. However, for practical applications, it is critical to control the location of the donors with simple techniques. Here, we fabricate silicon transistors with selectively nanoscale-doped channels using nano-lithography and thermal-diffusion doping processes. Coupled phosphorus donors form a quantum dot with the ground state split into a number of levels practically equal to the number of coupled donors, when the number of donors is small. Tunneling-transport spectroscopy reveals fine features which can be correlated with the different numbers of donors inside the quantum dot, as also suggested by first-principles simulation results. PMID:25164032

  16. A case of Hepatitis E in a blood donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita A Tendulkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of hepatitis E is being felt in blood banks in recent times. The disease is usually self-limiting, but may progress to a fulminant fatal form. We report a unique case of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-positive asymptomatic blood donor who later developed jaundice and informed the blood bank. A blood donor passed all eligibility criteria tests and donated blood. After 20 days, the blood bank was informed by the donor that he had developed vomiting and jaundice 1 day postdonation. He was investigated by a local laboratory 1 day postdonation for liver profile, which was high. There had been a major outbreak in his community of similar symptoms during the same period. HEV IgM antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive. Silent infections may be lurking in apparently healthy donors. Donors need to be encouraged to revert in case of any significant developments after donation and maintain open channels of communication.

  17. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  18. Algorithm for recall of HIV reactive Indian blood donors by sequential immunoassays enables selective donor referral for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakral B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.

  19. Living donor liver transplantation from a donor previously treated with interferon for hepatitis C virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Kazuhiko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Selecting a marginal donor in liver transplantation (LT remains controversial but is necessary because of the small number of available donors. Case presentation A 46-year-old Japanese woman was a candidate to donate her liver to her brother, who had decompensated liver cirrhosis of unknown origin. Eight years before the donation, she had a mild liver dysfunction that was diagnosed as a hepatitis C virus (HCV infection (serotype 2. She had received anti-viral therapy with interferon α-2b three times weekly for 24 weeks and had a sustained viral response (SVR. A biopsy of her liver before the donation showed normal findings without any active hepatitis, and her serum was negative for HCV-RNA. Only 67 patients have undergone LT from a cadaveric donor in Japan. The family in this case decided to have living donor LT. A careful selection for the liver graft donation was made; however, since she was the only candidate, we approved her as a living donor. She was discharged nine days after the liver donation. Her liver function recovered immediately. A computed tomography scan showed sufficient liver regeneration one year later. Her brother also had good liver function after LT and had no HCV infection 48 months after surgery and no de novo malignancy. Neither of the siblings has developed an HCV infection. Conclusions A patient with SVR status after interferon therapy might be considered a candidate for living donor LT but only if there are no other possibilities of LT for the recipient. A careful follow-up of the donor after donation is needed. The recipient also must have a very close follow-up because it is difficult to predict what might happen to the graft with post-transplant immunosuppression.

  20. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  1. Public and popular history

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This interdisciplinary collection considers public and popular history within a global framework, seeking to understand considerations of local, domestic histories and the ways they interact with broader discourses. Grounded in particular local and national situations, the book addresses the issues associated with popular history in a globalised cultural world, such as: how the study of popular history might work in the future; new ways in which the terms 'popular' and 'public' might inform one another and nuance scholarship; transnational, intercultural models of 'pastness'; cultural translat

  2. A history of the histories of econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel; Dupont-Kieffer, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    Econometricians have from the start considered historical knowledge of their own discipline as reflexive knowledge useful for delineating their discipline, that is, for setting its disciplinary boundaries with respect to its aims, its methods, and its scientific values. As such, the histories

  3. Living unrelated donors in kidney transplants: better long-term results than with non-HLA-identical living related donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, A; Durand, B; Gillingham, K; Payne, W D; Sutherland, D E; Matas, A J

    2000-05-15

    Given the severe organ shortage and the documented superior results obtained with living (vs. cadaver) donor kidney transplants, we have adopted a very aggressive policy for the use of living donors. Currently, we make thorough attempts to locate a living related donor (LRD) or a living unrelated donor (LURD) before proceeding with a cadaver transplant. We compared the results of our LURD versus LRD transplants to determine any significant difference in outcome. Between 1/1/84 and 6/30/98, we performed 711 adult kidney transplants with non-HLA-identical living donors. Of these, 595 procedures used LRDs and 116 used LURDs. Immunosuppression for both groups was cyclosporine-based, although LURD recipients received 5-7 days of induction therapy (antilymphocyte globulin or antithymocyte globulin), whereas LRD recipients did not. LURD recipients tended to be older, to have inferior HLA matching, and to have older donors than did the LRD recipients (all factors potentially associated with decreased graft survival). Short-term results, including initial graft function and incidence of acute rejection, were similar in the two groups. LURD recipients had a slightly higher incidence of cytomegalovirus disease (P=NS). We found no difference in patient and graft survival rates. However, the incidence of biopsy-proven chronic rejection was significantly lower among LURD recipients (16.7% for LRD recipients and 10.0% for LURD recipients at 5 years posttransplant; P=0.05). LRD recipients also had a greater incidence of late (>6 months posttransplant) acute rejection episodes than did the LURD recipients (8.6% vs. 2.6%, P=0.04). The exact reason for these findings is unknown. Although LURD recipients have poorer HLA matching and older donors, their patient and graft survival rates are equivalent to those of non-HLA-identical LRD recipients. The incidence of biopsy-proven chronic rejection is lower in LURD transplants. Given this finding and the superior results of living donor (vs

  4. Preventing Mitochondrial Diseases: Embryo-Sparing Donor-Independent Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adashi, Eli Y; Cohen, I Glenn

    2018-05-01

    Mutant mitochondrial DNA gives rise to a broad range of incurable inborn maladies. Prevention may now be possible by replacing the mutation-carrying mitochondria of zygotes or oocytes at risk with donated unaffected counterparts. However, mitochondrial replacement therapy is being held back by theological, ethical, and safety concerns over the loss of human zygotes and the involvement of a donor. These concerns make it plain that the identification, validation, and regulatory adjudication of novel embryo-sparing donor-independent technologies remains a pressing imperative. This Opinion highlights three emerging embryo-sparing donor-independent options that stand to markedly allay theological, ethical, and safety concerns raised by mitochondrial replacement therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Theory of Primary Photoexcitations in Donor-Acceptor Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, Karan; Dutta, Tirthankar; Huynh, Uyen N V; Vardeny, Zeev Valy; Mazumdar, Sumit

    2015-12-31

    We present a generic theory of primary photoexcitations in low band gap donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers. Because of the combined effects of strong electron correlations and broken symmetry, there is considerable mixing between a charge-transfer exciton and an energetically proximate triplet-triplet state with an overall spin singlet. The triplet-triplet state, optically forbidden in homopolymers, is allowed in donor-acceptor copolymers. For an intermediate difference in electron affinities of the donor and the acceptor, the triplet-triplet state can have a stronger oscillator strength than the charge-transfer exciton. We discuss the possibility of intramolecular singlet fission from the triplet-triplet state, and how such fission can be detected experimentally.

  6. A game-theoretic approach to donor kidney sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, B J

    1988-01-01

    Graft survival in renal transplantation is a function, amongst other things, of the degree of histocompatibility lymphocyte-A (HLA) tissue matching achieved between donor and recipient. Yet a donor procured at centre A might match a transplant candidate at centre B and vice versa. This raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, surgeons will offer and exchange donor kidneys and gain from such trade in terms of graft survival. We analyse the problem in a game-theoretic framework where the choice of strategy 'to offer or not?' is evaluated in the context of the uncertainty of reciprocation by the other player(s) in the game. The equilibrium solution to a number of variations of the game is predicted to be non-cooperation resulting in collectively sub-optimal graft survival rates. Some policy options for improving cooperation are considered including exchange incentives and coercive measures.

  7. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited.

  8. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, K; Zorkani, I; Jorio, A

    2011-01-01

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χ dia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χ dia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy E b shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  9. CHAPTER 3. High-performance Organic Photovoltaic Donor Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-11-08

    The field of organic photovoltaics has advanced a great deal over the last decade, with device efficiencies now exceeding 11%. A large part of this success can be attributed to the development of donor polymer materials, from their humble beginnings as homopolymers to the highly tuned push-pull copolymer and terpolymer materials that are now being reported on a regular basis. Through the careful use of chemical modification, it has been possible to design and synthesize a wide variety of donor polymers, allowing optimization of both the optoelectronic and structural properties of the materials. In doing so, more favourable active layer blends have been achieved and therefore significant improvements in device performance have been observed. Herein we discuss how the chemical design of donor polymers for organic photovoltaics has led to the emergence of high-performance materials.

  10. Declining prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies among Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte K; Moessner, Belinda K; Engle, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of reported hepatitis E cases in Europe has focused attention on hepatitis E virus (HEV) and the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to HEV (anti-HEV) among Danish blood donors...... in 2013 and to compare it to previous studies in Denmark. In addition we wanted to compare the relative reactivity of two different assays. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 504 blood donors were collected and analyzed for anti-HEV with an in-house assay developed at the National Institutes of Health...... (NIH). In addition the samples were analyzed with the Wantai anti-HEV assay. Demographic information and possible HEV exposure was collected by self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Using the NIH assay the prevalence of anti-HEV among Danish blood donors was 10.7% and with the Wantai assay...

  11. CHAPTER 3. High-performance Organic Photovoltaic Donor Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Baran, Derya; Gorman, Jeffrey; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has advanced a great deal over the last decade, with device efficiencies now exceeding 11%. A large part of this success can be attributed to the development of donor polymer materials, from their humble beginnings as homopolymers to the highly tuned push-pull copolymer and terpolymer materials that are now being reported on a regular basis. Through the careful use of chemical modification, it has been possible to design and synthesize a wide variety of donor polymers, allowing optimization of both the optoelectronic and structural properties of the materials. In doing so, more favourable active layer blends have been achieved and therefore significant improvements in device performance have been observed. Herein we discuss how the chemical design of donor polymers for organic photovoltaics has led to the emergence of high-performance materials.

  12. Ethics: an essential dimension of soliciting philanthropic gifts from donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Fraley, Milinda; Golding, Joe

    2010-12-01

    Obstetrics and gynecology continues to experience fiscal pressures that challenge its core missions. In such an increasingly economically unforgiving environment, philanthropy will become a major source of revenue. This article provides ethical guidance for seeking philanthropic gifts by translating ethical theory into practice. The basis for this guidance is an account of the ethics of philanthropy that identifies both its consequentialist and deontologic components and shows their relevance to the ethical significance of donors' motivations and directiveness. The prevention of abuse of vulnerable donors and of distortions of the physician-patient relationship is emphasized. Ethics is an essential component of the responsible solicitation of philanthropic support from donors. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast milk donation and social support: reports of women donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize the behavior of human milk donation and to describe the informal social and formal institutional support, according to reports from women donors. It is an exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive study using domicile interviews based on structured and semi-structured scripts. The participants were 36 women enrolled in two human milk banks of the public health system of the Federal District. Statistical analysis of quantitative data and categorical content analysis of qualitative data were performed. Categories of reasons that most influenced the frequency of expressing were: food, time availability, negative emotions and fluid intake. The manual expressing technique was reported as predominant. The use of breast shells was cited by almost a third of the donors. Most frequent suggestions for improving institutional support were more attention and support from the milk banks for the donor. The study may serve as a stimulus for the implementation of technical and political strategies to encourage this practice.

  14. Ruthenium Complexes as NO Donors for Vascular Relaxation Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Galvão de Lima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO donors are substances that can release NO. Vascular relaxation induction is among the several functions of NO, and the administration of NO donors is a pharmacological alternative to treat hypertension. This review will focus on the physicochemical description of ruthenium-derived NO donor complexes that release NO via reduction and light stimulation. In particular, we will discuss the complexes synthesized by our research group over the last ten years, and we will focus on the vasodilation and arterial pressure control elicited by these complexes. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC and potassium channels are the main targets of the NO species released from the inorganic compounds. We will consider the importance of the chemical structure of the ruthenium complexes and their vascular effects.

  15. The affinity of the uranyl ion for nitrogen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; De Sousa, A.S.; Hancock, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Established ligand design principles are used to predict the solution chemistry of UO 2 2+ with nitrogen donor ligands which do not contain carboxylate donors. pK a 's of the nitrogen donors are lowered by addition of hydroxylalkyl groups causing UO 2 2+ to have a greater affinity for these ligands than for hydroxide. Potentiometric studies using the ligands N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)1,2-diaminoethane, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane; 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine with UO 2 2+ showed that UO 2 2+ has a considerable aqueous solution chemistry with these ligands. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of donor states in ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seghier, D.; Gislason, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    We performed electrical and optical measurements on as-grown ZnO which exhibits n-type conductivity. So far, neither the origin of the residual conductivity nor the electrical properties of the responsible defects is fully understood. We investigated shallow and deep donors in ZnO materials grown with pulsed laser injection using admittance spectroscopy. We identifed shallow donors with ionization energies as low as 15 meV which may be attributed to native defects. Annealing in nitrogen ambient enhances the conductivity by further lowering the ionization energy of the shallow donors. Using optically excited admittance spectroscopy we also found deep defects. They are strongly metastable and account for a significant part of the persistent photoconductivity in our ZnO materials

  17. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Dam, Ruth E; van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; Berendsen, Elsbeth C M; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J A; Hoitsma, Andries J; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Evers, Andrea W M

    2017-03-01

    Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to assess pre-donation motivations, expectations and worries regarding donation, entitled the Donation Cognition Instrument (DCI). Psychometric properties of the DCI were examined using exploratory factor analysis for scale structure and associations with validated questionnaires for construct validity assessment. From seven Dutch transplantation centres, 719 potential living kidney donors were included. The DCI distinguishes cognitions about donor benefits, recipient benefits, idealistic incentives, gratitude and worries about donation (Cronbach's alpha 0.76-0.81). Scores on pre-donation cognitions differed with regard to gender, age, marital status, religion and donation type. With regard to construct validity, the DCI was moderately correlated with expectations regarding donor's personal well-being and slightly to moderately to health-related quality of life. The DCI is found to be a reliable instrument assessing cognitions surrounding living organ donation, which might add to pre-donation quality of life measures in facilitating psychosocial donor evaluation by healthcare professionals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of living liver donors using contrast enhanced multidetector CT – The radiologists impact on donor selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringe Kristina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT is a valuable and legitimate treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Computed tomography (CT has proven to be an important tool in the process of donor evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of CT in the donor selection process. Methods Between May 1999 and October 2010 170 candidate donors underwent biphasic CT. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the CT and liver volumetry, and assessed reasons for rejection. Results 89 candidates underwent partial liver resection (52.4%. Based on the results of liver CT and volumetry 22 candidates were excluded as donors (31% of the cases. Reasons included fatty liver (n = 9, vascular anatomical variants (n = 4, incidental finding of hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 1 and small (n = 5 or large for size (n = 5 graft volume. Conclusion CT based imaging of the liver in combination with dedicated software plays a key role in the process of evaluation of candidates for LDLT. It may account for up to 1/3 of the contraindications for LDLT.

  19. Evaluation of living liver donors using contrast enhanced multidetector CT – The radiologists impact on donor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringe, Kristina Imeen; Ringe, Bastian Paul; Falck, Christian von; Shin, Hoen-oh; Becker, Thomas; Pfister, Eva-Doreen; Wacker, Frank; Ringe, Burckhardt

    2012-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a valuable and legitimate treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Computed tomography (CT) has proven to be an important tool in the process of donor evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of CT in the donor selection process. Between May 1999 and October 2010 170 candidate donors underwent biphasic CT. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the CT and liver volumetry, and assessed reasons for rejection. 89 candidates underwent partial liver resection (52.4%). Based on the results of liver CT and volumetry 22 candidates were excluded as donors (31% of the cases). Reasons included fatty liver (n = 9), vascular anatomical variants (n = 4), incidental finding of hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 1) and small (n = 5) or large for size (n = 5) graft volume. CT based imaging of the liver in combination with dedicated software plays a key role in the process of evaluation of candidates for LDLT. It may account for up to 1/3 of the contraindications for LDLT

  20. Kidney transplantation from deceased donors with elevated serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinat, Anja; Leerhoff, Sabine; Paul, Andreas; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Schulze, Maren; Witzke, Oliver; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C

    2016-12-01

    Elevated donor serum creatinine has been associated with inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation (KT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of elevated donor serum creatinine on short and long-term outcomes and to determine possible ways to optimize the use of these organs. All kidney transplants from 01-2000 to 12-2012 with donor creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dl were considered. Risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF) were explored with uni- and multivariate regression analyses. Donor and recipient data were analyzed with uni- and multivariate cox proportional hazard analyses. Graft and patient survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Seventy-eight patients were considered. Median recipient age and waiting time on dialysis were 53 years and 5.1 years, respectively. After a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 63 patients are alive. 1, 3, and 5-year graft and patient survival rates were 92, 89, and 89 % and 96, 93, and 89 %, respectively. Serum creatinine level at procurement and recipient's dialysis time prior to KT were predictors of DGF in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0164 and p = 0.0101, respectively). Charlson comorbidity score retained statistical significance by multivariate regression analysis for graft survival (p = 0.0321). Recipient age (p = 0.0035) was predictive of patient survival by multivariate analysis. Satisfactory long-term kidney transplant outcomes in the setting of elevated donor serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dl can be achieved when donor creatinine is <3.5 mg/dl, and the recipient has low comorbidities, is under 56 years of age, and remains in dialysis prior to KT for <6.8 years.

  1. A Web-based approach to blood donor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Copley, Diane M; Lewis, Kristin N; Ellis, Gary D; McGlone, Sarah T; Sinclair, Kadian S

    2013-02-01

    Written and video approaches to donor education have been shown to enhance donation attitudes and intentions to give blood, particularly when the information provides specific coping suggestions for donation-related concerns. This study extends this work by comparing Web-based approaches to donor preparation among donors and nondonors. Young adults (62% female; mean [±SD] age, 19.3 [±1.5] years; mean [range] number of prior blood donations, 1.1 [0-26]; 60% nondonors) were randomly assigned to view 1) a study Web site designed to address common blood donor concerns and suggest specific coping strategies (n = 238), 2) a standard blood center Web site (n = 233), or 3) a control Web site where participants viewed videos of their choice (n = 202). Measures of donation attitude, anxiety, confidence, intention, anticipated regret, and moral norm were completed before and after the intervention. Among nondonors, the study Web site produced greater changes in donation attitude, confidence, intention, and anticipated regret relative to both the standard and the control Web sites, but only differed significantly from the control Web site for moral norm and anxiety. Among donors, the study Web site produced greater changes in donation confidence and anticipated regret relative to both the standard and the control Web sites, but only differed significantly from the control Web site for donation attitude, anxiety, intention, and moral norm. Web-based donor preparation materials may provide a cost-effective way to enhance donation intentions and encourage donation behavior. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. HLA matching in unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, D J

    1996-11-01

    The availability of an HLA-matched sibling donor in only 30% to 35% of patients requiring allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has led to the proposal of unrelated donors as an alternative source of bone marrow. The greater HLA incompatibility, which, although present, was undetected until recently in many unrelated donor BMT cases, has resulted in a higher rate of posttransplant complications and impaired acturial survival when compared with HLA-matched sibling BMT. Molecular HLA typing enables us to evaluate the impact of incompatibility at each locus in the outcome of unrelated donor BMT. The overall retrospective data would recommend that HLA-A, -B and -C allelic molecular matching should be implemented in addition to HLA-DR allelic matching. Further retrospective analysis is needed in order to assess which incompatibility or combinations are better tolerated than others. Only the definitive knowledge at the sequence level of the donor and the recipient HLA allelic diversity involved in controlling the allogeneic immune response will allow us to understand the precise biologic rationale of the graft-versus-host disease. Knowledge and control of the HLA incompatibilities should allow us to offset the detrimental effects of histoincompatibility while developing strategies to take advantage of the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effect. Also the role of minor histocompatibility antigens remains largely unknown and will require careful evaluation before minor antigens can be used as a selection criterion in BMT. Carefully designed prospective studies will enable us to test the impact of each HLA locus. HLA typing and BMT represent a successful example of productive cooperation between basic and clinical sciences that should be pursued for the improvement of the clinical outcome of unrelated donor BMT.

  3. Blood donor haemovigilance in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchinda, E C; Tagny, C T; Mbanya, D

    2012-08-01

    Blood availability is an issue of concern in countries of sub-Saharan Africa where both the demand and discard rates of blood are high. Although some degree of attention is paid when transfusion reactions occur in recipients, no information is available on donor reactions in this setting. This study was carried out in order to obtain some data on adverse reactions (ARs) to blood donations. It would make it possible to monitor and improve the safety of the donation procedure, which constitutes a strategy towards increasing donor supply by encouraging first-time donors to return in the absence of any negative outcomes of donation. A hospital blood bank-based descriptive and prospective study was carried out to document ARs among 1034 blood donors from September 2010 to January 2011. A pre-structured data collection tool was used to record the signs and symptoms observed. The ARs occurred at a rate of 2.8%. The most frequent reaction was hypotension which constituted 26.62% of all ARs. Haematomas represented 18.42% while weakness and dizziness were each noted in 13.16% of donors. There was no severe vasovagal reaction. Associated factors to vasovagal reactions were first-time donor status (P = 0.004), female sex (P = 0.01) and low body weight (P = 0.02). Our results suggest that blood donation is a relatively safe procedure in our context. The frequency is higher than studies from developed countries. The association of AR with first-time blood donation needs to be verified in a larger study. However, it could suggest another benefit of regular blood donation. © 2012 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2012 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Madhuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM medical college and hospital on 24 th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country.

  5. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  6. Business history and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Gourvish

    2003-01-01

    CARR, in association with the Centre for Business History, University of Leeds, held a successful workshop on 'Business History and Risk' on 20 February 2002. The workshop, which was sponsored by the ESRC, brought together business historians, economists, accountants and risk analysts to develop an interdisciplinary discussion on understandings of risk by employers, workers and governments in different historical settings.

  7. Aggersborg through history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  8. The Two World Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…

  9. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  10. Trap spectrum of the ``new oxygen donor'' in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzlein, K.; Pensl, G.; Schulz, M.

    1984-07-01

    Electronic properties of the new oxygen donor generated in phosphorus-doped Czochralski-silicon at 650‡C are investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. A continuous distribution of trap states (1014 1016 cm-3 eV-1) is detected in the upper half of the band gap with increasing values towards the conduction band. The magnitude of the state density observed increases with the oxygen content, the heat duration, and a preanneal at temperatures lower than 650‡C. The continuous trap spectrum of the new donor is explained by interface states occuring at the surface of SiO x precipitates.

  11. [Quality of life of living kidney donor: a national report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briançon, S; Germain, L; Baudelot, C; Bannay, A; Virion, J-M; Thuong, M

    2011-07-01

    The renal transplantation is nowadays the reference treatment of ESRD. Living donor kidney transplantation is less often performed in France than in other countries. Nevertheless, numerous French and international surveys have evidenced that it provides the recipients a longer life expectancy and a better quality of life. Donors themselves, what do they become? How are they? For the first time in France, a survey has been implemented to investigate the quality of life of living kidney donor to one of their close relations. This study has been undertaken by the Agency of the biomedecine and the service Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation (EEC), of the University teaching hospital of Nancy. The main objective was to describe the quality of life of the living donors having given a kidney for more than a year and less than 5 years. The secondary objective was to contribute to the knowledge of the main factors associated to the living kidney donor quality of life, one year after the donation. Participants had to be living in France at the time of the donation which had taken place between June 30(th), 2005 and March 1(st), 2009. A folder gathering various self-administrated questionnaires was sent to the place of residence of the donor between March and April, 2010. These data were completed by medical data collected near the transplantation centres by the Agency of biomedecine within the framework of the register CRISTAL. They included the characteristics of the donation and of the donor at the very time of the donation, 3 months after the donation and at the last annual assessment. Three living donors in four, that is 501 persons, agreed to fully participate. They constituted a representative national sample of all the living donors of this period. The non participants were younger (4.5 years on average) and had a less adequate annual follow-up. The women were more represented (61 %) than men. The median age was 53 years. More of 2/3 were employed at the time of the

  12. [Organ donation process: perception by relatives of cadaverous donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosSantos, Marcelo José; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to disclose how relatives of cadaverous donors perceive the organ donation process for transplantation. A phenomenological, qualitative research was carried out on the basis of the "situated-phenomenon structure". The statements revealed that, for the relatives of the donors, the process of donation begins with the patients' hospital admission and only ends when they are buried. Furthermore, it is considered bureaucratic, long, consuming and tiring. This situation results in suffering and stress, but there is no regret about the organ donation since, although the pain caused by the loss does not end, the donation initiative comforts and brings satisfaction.

  13. Donor-specific rejection: Clinical and scan correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Mehta, R.C.; Perlman, S.B.; Servilla, K.; Sollinger, H.W.; Deierhoi, M.H.; Belzer, F.O.

    1986-01-01

    All 470 scans on 132 consecutive renal transplantation patients were reviewed. Scan patterns identified included acute tubular necrosis and conventional rejection. A new pattern, donor specific rejection (DSR), was identified in 24 of 42 patients on the living related donor specific transfusion (DST) protocol. This was characterized by good perfusion and extraction but significant renal stasis of tracer. This pattern was unique to the DST recipients and improved with antirejection therapy. The clinical features (incidence, temporal onset) and severity (duration, serum creatinines) are compared in these patient populations. DSR occurs more frequently than conventional rejection but is a milder process

  14. Synthesis and characterization of the cyanobenzene-ethylenedithio-TTF donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrina Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A dissymmetric TTF-type electron donor, cyanobenzene-ethylenedithio-tetrathiafulvalene (CNB-EDT-TTF, was obtained in high yield, by a cross-coupling reaction with triethyl phosphite between 2-thioxobenzo[d][1,3]dithiole-5-carbonitrile and 5,6-dihydro-[1,3]dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dithiin-2-one. This new donor was characterized namely by single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, NMR, UV-visible and IR spectroscopy.

  15. A European survey on donor deferral for allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garraud, O; Martin, C; Haddad, A

    2017-01-01

    Allergy accounts to near 0.5% of all reported transfusion adverse events. The responsibility of blood components themselves and - therefore - of blood donors is still questioned. The European Community undertook a large international survey to address the consistency and homogeneity of medical...... selection of blood donors with regard to the risk of allergy, and especially of transferring allergy to recipients. This short report presents the salient points of the survey, stressing that there is inconsistency in addressing the allergy question within countries or systems, with paths of improvement....

  16. A nitric oxide donor (nitroglycerin) triggers genuine migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Kruuse, C; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    Supersensitivity to induction of headache and arterial dilatation by a donor of nitric oxide (nitroglycerin) has recently been demonstrated in migraine sufferers. The aims of the present study were to examine whether the nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin may induce a typical migraine attack......, to exclude placebo-related effects and to describe the relation between middle cerebral artery dilatation and provoked migraine. Nitroglycerin (0.5 μg/kg/min for 20 min) or placebo was infused into 12 migraine patients in a double-blind cross-over trial. Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery...

  17. Emergency heart retransplantation with a positive donor crossmatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, G; Martinelli, L; Minzioni, G; Goggi, C; Graffigna, A; Rinaldi, M; Campana, C; Ascari, E; Vigano, M

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of one patient who underwent emergency retransplantation with a highly positive donor crossmatch. Standard immunosuppression was integrated by the addition of plasma exchange during extracorporeal circulation, polyclonal IgG, and cyclophosphamide for the first 30 days. After transplantation the clinical outcome was normal; immunosuppression induced a complete disappearance of the donor-specific antibody. In spite of the heavy immunosuppression, we did not observe any infectious complications. We suggest that a greater immunosuppression established soon after the transplant and adjusted on the basis of immunological monitoring may allow a heart transplant with a positive crossmatch.

  18. [Kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dazhkova, N G; Salimov, E L

    2013-01-01

    The experience of 28 kidney allotransplantations from the AB0-incompatible donors was analyzed. The comparative group consisted of 38 patients, who received the AB0-compatible organ. The results were assessed using the following parameters: renal function, morphology of the biopsy samples of the transplanted kidney and actuary survival of the recipients with functioning transplants in both groups. The comparative analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups, giving the right to consider the kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors safe and effective.

  19. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Ebola and Marburg Viruses Seroprevalence in Blood Donors in the Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanikaly Moyen

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV.In 2011, we conducted a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study amongst 809 blood donors recruited in rural (75; 9.3% and urban (734; 90.7% areas of the Republic of Congo. Serum titres of IgG antibodies to MARV and EBOV were assessed by indirect double-immunofluorescence microscopy. MARV seroprevalence was 0.5% (4 in 809 without any identified risk factors. Prevalence of IgG to EBOV was 2.5%, peaking at 4% in rural areas and in Pointe Noire. Independent risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were contact with bats and exposure to birds.This MARV and EBOV serological survey performed in the Republic of Congo identifies a probable role for environmental determinants of exposure to EBOV. It highlights the requirement for extending our understanding of the ecological and epidemiological risk of bats (previously identified as a potential ecological reservoir and birds as vectors of EBOV to humans, and characterising the protection potentially afforded by EBOV-specific antibodies as detected in blood donors.

  1. Lung Focused Resuscitation at a Specialized Donor Care Facility Improves Lung Procurement Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephanie H; Kreisel, Daniel; Marklin, Gary F; Cook, Lindsey; Hachem, Ramsey; Kozower, Benjamin D; Balsara, Keki R; Bell, Jennifer M; Frederiksen, Christine; Meyers, Bryan F; Patterson, G Alexander; Puri, Varun

    2018-05-01

    Lung procurement for transplantation occurs in approximately 20% of brain dead donors and is a major impediment to wider application of lung transplantation. We investigated the effect of lung protective management at a specialized donor care facility on lung procurement rates from brain dead donors. Our local organ procurement organization instituted a protocol of lung protective management at a freestanding specialized donor care facility in 2008. Brain dead donors from 2001 to 2007 (early period) were compared with those from 2009 to 2016 (current period) for lung procurement rates and other solid-organ procurement rates using a prospectively maintained database. An overall increase occurred in the number of brain dead donors during the study period (early group, 791; late group, 1,333; p procurement rate (lung donors/all brain dead donors) improved markedly after the introduction of lung protective management (early group, 157 of 791 [19.8%]; current group, 452 of 1,333 [33.9%]; p procurement rate (total number of organs procured/donor) also increased during the study period (early group, 3.5 organs/donor; current group, 3.8 organs/donor; p = 0.006). Lung protective management in brain dead donors at a specialized donor care facility is associated with higher lung utilization rates compared with conventional management. This strategy does not adversely affect the utilization of other organs in a multiorgan donor. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of US Blood Donors: A 20-Year Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidnia, F.; Busch, M. P.; Custer, B.; Hirschler, N. V.; Chinn, A.; Agapova, M.; Busch, M. P.; Custer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Blood donors are considered one of the healthiest populations. This study describes the epidemiology of cancer in a cohort of blood donors up to 20 years after blood donation. Records from donors who participated in the Retroviral Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS, 1991-2002) at Blood Centers of the Pacific (BCP), San Francisco, were linked to the California Cancer Registry (CCR, 1991-2010). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated using standard US 2000 population, and survival analysis used to compare all-cause mortality among donors and a random sample of non donors with cancer from CCR. Of 55,158 eligible allogeneic blood donors followed-up for 863,902 person-years, 4,236 (7.7%) primary malignant cancers were diagnosed. SIR in donors was 1.59 (95% CI = 1.54,1.64). Donors had significantly lower mortality (adjusted HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.66-0.74) compared with non donor cancer patients, except for respiratory system cancers (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.82-1.05). Elevated cancer incidence among blood donors may reflect higher diagnosis rates due to health seeking behavior and cancer screening in donors. A “healthy donor effect” on mortality following cancer diagnosis was demonstrated. This population-based database and sample repository of blood donors with long-term monitoring of cancer incidence provides the opportunity for future analyses of genetic and other bio markers of cancer

  3. [History and psychoanalysis: the stakes of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L; Stengers, I

    1993-01-01

    Freud's definition of the relationship between hypnosis and psychoanalysis is a political one that even then pointed to the paradigmatical sciences as defined by Kuhn. Nevertheless, the historian who applies to psychoanalysis the technique of symetry elaborated for such sciences, runs up against a set of singularities that risk bringing him to a position of denouncer of a "fake science". We emphasize that, if the historian does not limit himself to the positivist position or to the history of ideas, he will inevitably find himself engaged in the history that he is analyzing, but with the responsibility of his mode of engagement. We propose to define hypnosis and psychoanalysis as fields inhabited by the question of science in the modern sense of the term, and raising the issue of pertinence, as far as they are concerned, of the theoretical experimental model that guided them.

  4. Media appeals by pediatric patients for living donors and the impact on a transplant center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Priya S; Garvey, Catherine A; Mauer, Michael S; Matas, Arthur J

    2011-03-27

    Little is published regarding the effect of advertising for kidney donors on transplant centers. At our center, families of nine children used media appeals. Per candidate, there were 8 to 260 potential donor calls, 92 (11.6%) were medically ineligible, 326 (41.1%) voluntarily did not proceed or an alternate donor had been approved, 38 (4.8%) were ABO incompatible, and 327 (41.1%) had positive crossmatch or unsuitable human leukocyte antigens. Media appeals resulted in four living donor transplants and five nondirected donors to other candidates, and we made directed changes in our center. The ethical debate of advertising for organ donors continues.

  5. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 21: genetic screening of gamete donors: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W; De Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P; Diedrich, K; Eichenlaub-Ritter, U; Tüttelmann, F; Provoost, V

    2014-07-01

    This Task Force document explores the ethical issues involved in the debate about the scope of genetic screening of gamete donors. Calls for expanded donor screening arise against the background of both occasional findings of serious but rare genetic conditions in donors or donor offspring that were not detected through present screening procedures and the advent of new genomic technologies promising affordable testing of donors for a wide range of conditions. Ethical principles require that all stakeholders' interests are taken into account, including those of candidate donors. The message of the profession should be that avoiding all risks is impossible and that testing should remain proportional.

  6. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  7. Iron Deficiency In Frequent And First Time Female Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and relevant factors in frequent and first time female blood donors at Casablanca blood transfusion centre, Morocco. Methods: Between November 2005 and April 2006, twenty-one female first time and twenty-one frequent female blood ...

  8. Asymptomatic malaria and associated factors among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Mirambo

    use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT). Results: A total of 150 blood donors participated in this study. The median age of ... transfusion, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the blood collected for transfusion to be screened for presence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HBV), Syphilis.

  9. Viral transfusion transmissible infections amongst blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 These safety procedures refer to the small preliminary donation made on site. This is firstly cross-matched for compatibility with the intended recipient, if the donor is suitable the blood sample is then screened for the listed infectious agents. It is only those individuals who are clear of infection and compatible with the.

  10. Effect of different donors and a polymer environment on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of donors and a polymer environment of C450:C540 binary dye mixture, in MPMMA and MMA+EtOH, were recorded with a donor–acceptor concentration of (0.05 : 0.05) mM. Also, the variation in the fluorescence intensity of C450:C540 binary dye mixture for different acceptor concentrations but fixed.

  11. Global trends and challenges in deceased donor kidney allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Diana A; Watson, Christopher J; Bradley, J Andrew; Johnson, Rachel J; Forsythe, John L; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, the number of patients able to benefit from kidney transplantation is greatly restricted by the severe shortage of deceased donor organs. Allocation of this scarce resource is increasingly challenging and complex. Striking an acceptable balance between efficient use of (utility) and fair access to (equity) the limited supply of donated kidneys raises controversial but important debates at ethical, medical, and social levels. There is no international consensus on the recipient and donor factors that should be considered in the kidney allocation process. There is a general trend toward a reduction in the influence of human leukocyte antigen mismatch and an increase in the importance of other factors shown to affect posttransplant outcomes, such as cold ischemia, duration of dialysis, donor and recipient age, and comorbidity. Increased consideration of equity has led to improved access to transplantation for disadvantaged patient groups. There has been an overall improvement in the transparency and accountability of allocation policies. Novel and contentious approaches in kidney allocation include the use of survival prediction scores as a criterion for accessing the waiting list and at the point of organ offering with matching of predicted graft and recipient survival. This review compares the diverse international approaches to deceased donor kidney allocation and their evolution over the last decade. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving Organ Donor Registration Using Kiosks in Primary Care Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Berry, Cherisse; Ley, Eric J.; Schulman, Danielle; Anderson, Jacqueline; Navarro, Sonia; Zheng, Ling; Chan, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the USA, organ donor shortage is especially pronounced among minority ethnic populations such as Hispanics, who are 60% less likely to donate compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Recent evidence suggests that US Hispanics may consent to organ donation via a registry within a doctor's office. The objective of this study was to investigate…

  13. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Vrieze, Anne; Nieuwdorp, Max; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; de Vos, Willem M.; Visser, Caroline E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Bartelsman, Joep F. W. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Speelman, Peter; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Keller, Josbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three therapies: an initial

  14. High-field EPR spectroscopy of thermal donors in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, R.; Rasmussen, F.B.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal donors generated in p-type boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon by a 450 degrees C heat treatment have been studied by high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the experiments conducted at a microwave frequency of 140 GHz and in a magnetic field of approximately 5 T four individual...

  15. [Nursing management of a refractory cardiac death donor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Marion

    2016-09-01

    The nursing management of a refractory circulatory death donor is a new procedure which forms an integral part of patient care. It comprises technical and organisational aspects, and requires a conceptual, ethical and deontological effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Digital questionnaire platform in the Danish Blood Donor Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, K S; Felsted, N; Mikkelsen, S

    2016-01-01

    with the questionnaire data in the DBDS database. RESULTS: The digital platform enables personalized questionnaires, presenting only questions relevant to the specific donor by hiding unneeded follow-up questions on screening question results. New versions of questionnaires are immediately available at all blood...

  17. Hilar control during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: Practice patterns in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgregor, Thomas B; Patel, Premal; Chan, Gabriel; Sener, Alp

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the method of vascular control during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has come under scrutiny due to catastrophic consequences of a device failure. This study sought to examine the surgical preferences of Canadian donor surgeons with regards to vascular control and their perception on the safety of these modalities. We also surveyed the experience with device malfunction and their subsequent management during LDN. An online survey was sent out to donor surgeons registered with the Canadian Society of Transplantation. Surveys were anonymous and voluntary. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the collected responses. Recollection of the sequelae and outcomes from device malfunction were also queried. Twenty-eight of 37 surgeons (76% response rate) responded to the survey. At least one surgeon from every institution in Canada performing LDN responded to the survey. Laparoscopic stapler is the most commonly used device for securing the renal artery (61%) and renal vein (67%). Overall, surgeons felt the stapler was the safest method of securing the renal artery. Stapler misfire and clip slippage were reported by eight (28.5%) and 12 (43%) surgeons, respectively. Most cases were salvageable: laparoscopically (30%), open conversion (30%), and by hand port (5%). Slippage of a plastic locking clip resulted in one emergent laparotomy on POD#1 and one stapler misfire was converted to open resulting in donor death. Although rare, hemorrhagic complications can occur from device malfunction resulting in poor outcomes for healthy volunteers undergoing LDN. Surgeons need to remain vigilant when selecting the appropriate modality for vascular control.

  18. Colleges Leverage Large Endowments to Benefit Some Donors and Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    College endowments have beaten the market so consistently in recent years, it is not surprising that individuals would like to take advantage of that institutional wisdom to invest their own money. Increasingly, many are. A small but growing number of universities are trying to entice donors to invest their trusts alongside college endowments,…

  19. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  20. Digital questionnaire platform in the Danish Blood Donor Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Felsted, N; Mikkelsen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    collection facilities when new projects are initiated. CONCLUSION: The digital platform is a faster, cost-effective and more flexible solution to collect valid data from participating donors compared to paper-based questionnaires. The overall system can be used around the world by the use of Internet...... connection, but the level of security depends on the sensitivity of the data to be collected....

  1. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.

    2015-01-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For

  2. Hydrogenic donor in a quantum well with an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, K.; Balasubramanian, S.; Tomak, M.

    1985-08-01

    Variational calculations of the binding energy of a hydrogenic donor in a quantum well formed by GaAs and Gasub(1-x)A1sub(x)As with a constant electric field are performed for different electric fields and well widths. A critical electric field is defined and its variation with well width is presented. (author)

  3. Hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy – initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No surgical morbidity is reported. We describe one donor mortality. Discussion. Our results compare favourably with those documented in the literature. Aberrant renal vascular anatomy had no adverse effect on operative or warm ischaemic times. HALLDN proved beneficial in patients with a high BMI. Conclusion. Surgical ...

  4. Initial Experience with ABO-incompatible Live Donor Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Kun Tsai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious shortage of cadaveric organs has prompted the development of ABO-incompatible live donor renal transplantation. We report our experience of the initial two live donor ABO incompatible renal transplants at our hospital. The first patient was a 55-year-old type A female who received a kidney from her AB type husband. The second patient was a 27-year-old type O male who received renal transplantation from his type A father. Preconditioning immunosuppressive therapy in the two patients with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone was started 7 days before transplantation. During the period of preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP was employed to remove anti-A and -B antibodies. Laparoscopic splenectomy and renal transplantation were performed after the anti-donor ABO antibodies were reduced to a titer of 1:4. Rituximab, a humanized monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, was administered to the second patient due to a rebound in the anti-A antibody titer during the preconditioning period. Under a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen, both patients recovered very well without any evidence of rejection. Serum creatinine levels were 1.0 and 1.4 mg/dL at 6 and 3 months after transplantation, respectively. These cases illustrate that with new immunosuppressive agents, DFPP and splenectomy, ABO-incompatible renal transplantation can be successfully conducted in end-stage renal disease patients whose only available live donors are blood group incompatible.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Seroprevalence in Blood Donors at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In developing countries, blood transfusion is still a major route of its transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HCV infection among blood donors and to determine some of the risk factors for the ...

  6. Over grafting donor site | Rogers | East and Central African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Over grafting donor site. AD Rogers, AK ...

  7. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more

  8. Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion ...

  9. HAND-ASSISTED LAPAROSCOPIC DONOR NEPHRECTOMY. THE FIRST RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first experience of hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is described in the article. A new technique of the operation and it’s results are discussed in details. Advantages of this type of the operation in comparison with open and full laparoscopic techniques are presented. 

  10. Donor Financing of Basic Education: Opportunities and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Liesbet; Wathne, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been made in improving access to basic education in recent years, but international support has been less than promised and the "funding gap" to achieve universal primary education remains stubbornly present. This article identifies six interrelated factors that constrain such donor financing. Prioritization of basic education,…

  11. Multidetector CT evaluation of potential right lobe living donors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad

    Multidetector CT evaluation of potential right lobe living donors for liver transplantation. Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad *, Osama L. El-Abd. National Liver Institute, El-Menoufiya University, Shebein El-Koom, Alexandria, Egypt. Received 4 June 2011; accepted 18 June 2011. KEYWORDS. Liver transplantation;. Multidetector ...

  12. What Drives Donor Funding in Population Assistance Programs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); M. Reuser

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) established goals for the expansion of population assistance. This global effort has so far not sufficiently been supported by donor funds. Dynamic panel estimation methods are used to see what lies behind the sharing

  13. Health Education about AIDS among Seropositive Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Paul D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work that resulted in the New York Blood Center health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibody positive. Also describes how the program is being implemented. (Author/CT)

  14. Benefits of donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Occhi, Luciana; Coscia, Alessandra; Tonetto, Paola; Marchino, Federica; Fabris, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    It's undoubted that optimum nutrition for term infants is breastfeeding, exclusive for the first six months, then followed by a complementary diet and carried on, if possible, for the first year of life or even more. During the last decades several data confirmed the great advantages of fresh mother's milk use also for feeding very low and extremely low birthweight preterm infants. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk is widely used in neonatal intensive care units. Pasteurization partially affects nutritional and immunological properties of breast milk, however it is known that pasteurized milk maintains some biological properties and clinical benefits. The substantial benefits of mother's own milk feeding of preterm infants are supported by strong evidence. However, there is increasing evidence also on specific benefits of donor breast milk. Future research is needed to compare formula vs. nutrient fortified donor breast milk, to compare formula and DM as supplements to maternal milk rather than as sole diet and to compare effects of different methods of heat treatments on donor human milk quality.

  15. seroprevalence of parvovirus bi9 antibody in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    immunological and infectious complications. Accurate epidemiologic data on the frequency of. Parvovirus ... chronic illness e.g. Hypertension, Diabetes, Asthma; commercial sex workers and Intravenous drug users. Inclusion ..... reported 0% in Spanish blood donors (20). The seroprevalence of PVB 19 may vary with the.

  16. serum immunoglobulin levels in white, asiatic and bantu blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all assays were calculated as a percentage of the mean of. TABLE I. RESULTS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ASSAYS OF tOO WHITE, tOO ASIATIC AND 100 BANTU DONORS, EXPRESSED AS A. PERCENTAGE OF A CONTROL SERUM. Parameter. Range. Mean. Variance. Standard deviation. CoefI. of variation.

  17. Asymptomatic malaria and associated factors among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood transfusion saves life of patients with severe anaemia. However, blood transfusion can transmit blood-borne parasites. Despite malaria being endemic in Tanzania, there is limited information on asymptomatic malaria among blood donors. This study determined the prevalence and associated factors of ...

  18. Cytomegalovirus antibodies among healthy blood donors at Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is found worldwide in all geographical locations and socio-economic groups and is the virus most frequently transmitted to a developing child before birth. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for CMV antibodies among healthy blood donors at Lagos University ...

  19. The prevalence of malarial parasitaemia among blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens and transfusion-associated malaria is a major concern in malaria endemic countries. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite among blood donors in Zaria, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 160 venous ...

  20. Family, friends, and faith: how organ donor families heal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouder, Donald B; Schmid, Adam; Ross, Sharon S; Ross, Larry G; Stocks, Lisa

    2009-12-01

    Understanding how organ donors' families recover from their grief can help organ procurement organizations improve consent rates and increase the number of deceased donor organs available for transplant. To determine what helps the loved ones of deceased organ donors heal from their grief and loss, and to better understand families' needs during the consent process as a way of improving overall consent rates for organ donation. Written survey of all organ and tissue donors' families in the San Diego and Imperial County (California) service area during 2006 and 2007. Responses to the 20-question survey addressing factors that help healing from grief, as well as contextual information about the families' experience at the hospital and the consent process. Most respondents (84%) indicated that family support was the most helpful thing in dealing with their grief, followed by the support of friends (74%) and religious and cultural beliefs (37%). Most (75%) indicated that they agreed to donation so that something positive could result from their loss. Most respondents (93%) felt that they were given enough information to make an informed decision about donation, and 6% indicated that the donation process interfered with funeral or memorial arrangements. More than 95% understood that their loved one had died before they were approached for consent. Consistent with previous studies, 12% said they still had unanswered questions about aspects of donation, and 15% of respondents indicated that the discussion about organ donation added more emotional stress to their overall experience.