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Sample records for domesticated small ruminants

  1. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  2. Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

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    E.P. Candlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.

  3. Suppurative intracranial processes in 15 domestic ruminants

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    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to listeriosis which is relatively common in ruminants, there are three other uncommon suppurative intracranial processes (SIP identifiable in adult ungulates as brain abscess, basilar empyema and suppurative meningitis. The present paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, pathological and microbiological findings of 15 domestic ruminants with SIP. A total of 15 animals were selected (eight sheep, four cattle and three goats; with the definitive diagnoses of basilar empyema (n=3, brain abscess (n=1, listeriosis (n=5 and suppurative meningitis (n=6. Hematology revealed leukocytosis with inversion of the lymphocyte/ neutrophil ratio in 4 cases. In the majority of animals, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF presented light yellow coloration and cloudy aspect due to neutrophilic pleocytosis (15 - 997 leukocytes/µL. Microbiological culture of CSF or central nervous system (CNS fragments resulted on isolation of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli and Stenotrophomonas sp. In a goat with thalamic abscess, microbiological assay was not performed, but Gram positive bacilli type bacteria were observed in histology. The diagnosis of these outbreaks was based on the association of epidemiological, clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings; reiterating that the infectious component remains an important cause of CNS disease in domestic ruminants and also shows the need for dissemination of information about the most effective preventive measures for the ranchers.

  4. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

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    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS. The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for specific requirements of goats, including maintenance, lactation, and pregnancy requirements, and body reserves. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and their ruminal fermentation rates, forage, concentrate and liquid passage rates, and microbial growth. The evaluation of the SRNS for sheep using published papers (19 treatment means indicated no mean bias (MB; 1.1 g/100 g and low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; 3.6 g/100g when predicting dietary organic matter digestibility for diets not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS accurately predicted gains and losses of shrunk body weight (SBW of adult sheep (15 treatment means; MB = 5.8 g/d and RMSPE = 30 g/d when diets were not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS for sheep had MB varying from -34 to 1 g/d and RSME varying from 37 to 56 g/d when predicting average daily gain (ADG of growing lambs (42 treatment means. The evaluation of the SRNS for goats based on literature data showed accurate predictions for ADG of kids (31 treatment means; RMSEP = 32.5 g/d; r2= 0.85; concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, = 0.91, daily ME intake (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.24 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.99; CCC = 0.99, and energy balance (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.20 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.87; CCC = 0.90 of goats. In conclusion, the SRNS for sheep can accurately predict dietary organic matter digestibility, ADG of growing lambs and changes in SBW of mature sheep. The SRNS

  5. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

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    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  6. Oesophagostomosis, moniaziasis and trichuriasis of small ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, the intestines (small and large intestines) were collected from 300 small ruminants (200 goats and 100 sheep) at necropsy and examined by the Hansen and Perry method. Out of the 300 small ruminants examined during the study period, the intestines revealed the presence of Oesophagostomum sp, ...

  7. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

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    Beatriz Amorena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease.

  8. Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia

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    Gede Suparta Budisatria, I.

    2006-01-01

    Small ruminants are an important but neglected resource in developing countries. Small ruminant production systems are complex. The multiple goals related to small ruminants, combined with the complexity of their management, and the resources and social arrangements involved, make small ruminants

  9. Fluid therapy in small ruminants and camelids.

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    Jones, Meredyth; Navarre, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Body water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance are important considerations in the evaluation and treatment of small ruminants and camelids with any disease process, with restoration of these a priority as adjunctive therapy. The goals of fluid therapy should be to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion, and to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are the most life-threatening abnormalities, and require most immediate correction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in Lebanon.

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    Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; Tempesta, Maria; Bayan, Ali; Vesco, Gesualdo; Vesco, Gesualdo; Greco, Grazia; Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; Ezzedine, Mohamad; Mortada, Hussein; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Mortada, Mohamad

    2017-06-30

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014. A total of 272 adult hard ticks were randomly collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) located at 37 Lebanese farms, distributed among 30 villages. Ticks belonged to 4 Ixodidae genera: Rhipicephalus (72.4%), Haemaphysalis (11.4%), Dermacentor (8.1%), and Hyalomma (8.1%). They included the following species: Rhipicephalus annulatus (50.7%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (18.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (8.1%), Haemaphylasis punctata (11.4%), Dermacentor marginatus (8.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.5%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.4%). Rhipicephalus turanicus and H. anatolicum were found on cattle, sheep, and goats, R. annulatus on cattle and sheep, R. sanguineus, D. marginatus and Hea. punctata on sheep and goats, while R. bursa was collected only on sheep. Tick species involved in pathogen transmission were found and some of the identi ed species were recorded in Lebanon for the rst time.

  11. Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania.

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    Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, Kuya; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, Robert; Shilinde, Ligge; Mdaki, Maulid; Keyyu, Julius; Parida, Satya; Kock, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation.

  12. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  13. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

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    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  14. Tomorrow's vector vaccines for small ruminants.

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    Kyriakis, C S

    2015-12-14

    Inactivated and attenuated vaccines have contributed to the control or even the eradication of significant animal pathogens. However, these traditional vaccine technologies have limitations and disadvantages. Inactivated vaccines lack efficacy against certain pathogens, while attenuated vaccines are not always as safe. New technology vaccines, namely DNA and recombinant viral vector vaccines, are being developed and tested against pathogens of small ruminants. These vaccines induce both humoral and cellular immune responses, are safe to manufacture and use and can be utilized in strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Although there are more strict regulatory requirements for the safety standards of these vaccines, once a vaccine platform is evaluated and established, effective vaccines can be rapidly produced and deployed in the field to prevent spread of emerging pathogens. The present article offers an introduction to these next generation technologies and examples of vaccines that have been tested against important diseases of sheep and goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  16. prevalence of fasciolosis in small ruminants slaughtered at yola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    managed under extensive management system by the local farmers. .... prevalent problem of small ruminants in Yola,. Adamawa ... Bailliere Tindal and Company London 800 –. 809. Umar ... Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M..

  17. Retrospctive studies of small ruminant diseases diagnosed at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospctive studies of small ruminant diseases diagnosed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. J.W. Jatfa, A.Y. Adenkola, I Victor, A Kisani, S.S. Adamu, P.A. Onyeyili ...

  18. Absence of circulation of Pestivirus between wild and domestic ruminants in southern Spain.

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    Paniagua, J; García-Bocanegra, I; Arenas-Montes, A; Berriatua, E; Espunyes, J; Carbonero, A; Rosell, R; Marco, I; Cabezón, O

    2016-02-27

    Ruminant pestiviruses (family Flaviviridae) affect both wild and domestic ruminants worldwide, causing reproductive disorders and severe economic losses. Wild (n=1442) and domestic (n=373) ruminants from southern Spain were tested for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses. Seropositivity was detected by both ELISA and virus neutralisation test in 1/892 (0.1 per cent) red deer, 29/125 (23.2 per cent) cattle and 17/157 (10.8 per cent) sheep. Pestivirus-specific antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV) genotypes 1, 4 and 5 were detected. Significantly higher antibody titres to BDV-4 compared with BVDV-NADL were found in one cattle farm. Results indicate that wild ruminants may act as spillover hosts from domestic ruminants, and therefore they do not represent a risk for domestic ruminants in southern Spain. The wide distribution of pestiviruses among sheep and cattle suggests that transmission between these species may occur. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems

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    Atxaerandio Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks, 626 beef cattle (46 herds and 115 goats (11 herds. Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT to detect recent infections. Results ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 ± 2.0% than in goats (8.7 ± 5.9% and beef cattle (6.7 ± 2.0%. Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence ≥ 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Conclusions Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  20. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems.

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    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Astobiza, Ianire; Barandika, Jesús F; Hurtado, Ana; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Juste, Ramón A; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2010-01-20

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks), 626 beef cattle (46 herds) and 115 goats (11 herds). Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT) to detect recent infections. ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 +/- 2.0%) than in goats (8.7 +/- 5.9%) and beef cattle (6.7 +/- 2.0%). Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence >or= 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  1. Innovations adoption levels of small ruminant farmers in Tolon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 small ruminant farmers were selected for the study using simple random sampling, and questionnaires and personal observations employed for the data collection. Twelve communities were randomly selected from four Ministry of Food and Agriculture operational zones. Data were analyzed using SPSS ...

  2. Status of small ruminant production in six selected communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the status of small ruminant production in some selected communities in Delta State vis-à-vis identifying the type of people involved in it; their response to modern livestock practices and determining factors affecting their stock size. Data were obtained from 90 respondents. Results of data analysis ...

  3. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  4. Haemonchosis and haemoparasites of small ruminants reared in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abomasa were examined by Hansen and Perry method for the presence of Haemonchus contortus while blood samples were examined using the thin blood smear and Haematocrit Centrifugation Techniques (HCT). The prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants was 80.3% with goats and sheep having ...

  5. Current prevalence of Fasciolosis in small ruminants in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small ruminants are an important source of animal protein and of special importance in those areas where cattle are of lesser importance. The study was conducted determined current prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of northeast Nigeria. About 300 samples each from sheep and goats ...

  6. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

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    Klaassen, M.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; Hoek, van der W.; Goossens, B.; Secka, A.; Stegeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.

  7. Occurrence of brucellosis in small ruminants slaughtered in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is a disease of economic and public health importance worldwide. Although present in Nigeria, there is a paucity of information regarding the occurrence of the disease in small ruminants in Nasarawa State. A cross-sectional study was therefore carried out to determine the ...

  8. Evidence for Tunisian-Like Pestiviruses Presence in Small Ruminants in Italy Since 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulli, S; Purpari, G; Agnello, S; Di Marco, P; Di Bella, S; Volpe, E; Mira, F; de Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, A C; Vullo, S; Guercio, A

    2017-08-01

    The genus Pestivirus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, includes ssRNA+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in pigs, cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic and wild ruminants. Like most of the RNA viruses, pestivirus has high genome variability with practical consequences on disease epidemiology, diagnosis and control. In addition to the officially recognized species in the genus Pestivirus, such as BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BDV and CSFV, other pestiviruses have been detected. Furthermore, most of the ruminant pestiviruses show low or absent species specificity observed in serological tests and are able to infect multiple species. Particularly, small ruminants are receptive hosts of the most heterogeneous group of pestiviruses. The aim of this study was to carry out the molecular characterization of pestiviruses isolated from sheep and goats in Sicily, Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of two viral genomic regions (a fragment of 5'-UTR and the whole N pro regions) revealed the presence of different pestivirus genotypes in the analysed goat and sheep herds. Two of five viral isolates were clustered with BVDV-1d viruses, a strain widespread in Italy, but never reported in Sicily. The other three isolates formed a distinct cluster with high similarity to Tunisian isolates, recently proposed as a new pestivirus species. This represents the first evidence for Tunisian-like pestivirus presence in small ruminants in Italy. Furthermore, one of the isolates was collected from a goat, representing the first isolation of Tunisian-like pestivirus from this species. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Air and water qualities around small ruminant houses in Central Java - Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Murti, T.W.; Baliarti, E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general concern that livestock can have a profound effect on the environment, also in smallholder production systems. This paper presented the impact of small ruminants on the quality of air and water in and around small ruminant houses. In total, 27 small ruminant houses from the three

  10. The mammary gland in domestic ruminants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M; Bislev, Stine L; Bendixen, Emøke; Almeida, André M

    2013-12-06

    Milk and dairy products are central elements in the human diet. It is estimated that 108kg of milk per year are consumed per person worldwide. Therefore, dairy production represents a relevant fraction of the economies of many countries, being cattle, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and other ruminants the main species used worldwide. An adequate management of dairy farming cannot be achieved without the knowledge on the biological mechanisms behind lactation in ruminants. Thus, understanding the morphology, development and regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production is crucial. Presently, innovative and high-throughput technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on such issues. Additionally, the application of a systems biology approach to animal science is vastly growing, as new advances in one field of specialization or animal species lead to new lines of research in other areas or/and are expanded to other species. This article addresses how modern research approaches may help us understand long-known issues in mammary development, lactation biology and dairy production. Dairy production depends upon the knowledge of the morphology and regulation of the mammary gland and lactation. High-throughput technologies allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on the biology of the mammary gland. This paper reviews the major contributions that genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics approaches have provided to understand the regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production. In the context of mammary gland "omics"-based research, the integration of results using a Systems Biology Approach is of key importance. © 2013.

  11. Role of probiotics in nutrition and health of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Tawab, M M; Youssef, I M I; Bakr, H A; Fthenakis, G C; Giadinis, N D

    2016-12-01

    Small ruminants represent an important economic source in small farm systems and agriculture. Feed is the main component of livestock farming, which has gained special attention to improve animal performance. Many studies have been done to improve feed utilisation through addition of feed additives. For a long period, antibiotics have been widely used as growth promoters in livestock diets. Due to their ban in many countries, search for alternative feed additives has been intensified. Probiotics are one of these alternatives recognised to be safe to the animals. Use of probiotics in small ruminant nutrition has been confirmed to improve animal health, productivity and immunity. Probiotics improved growth performance through enhancing of rumen microbial ecosystem, nutrient digestibility and feed conversion rate. Moreover, probiotics have been reported to stabilise rumen pH, increase volatile fatty acids production and to stimulate lactic acid utilising protozoa, resulting in a highly efficient rumen function. Furthermore, use of probiotics has been found to increase milk production and can reduce incidence of neonatal diarrhea and mortality. However, actual mechanisms through which probiotics exert these functions are not known. Since research on application of probiotics in small ruminants is scarce, the present review attempts to discuss the potential roles of this class of feed additives on productive performance and health status of these animals.

  12. Estimation of economic losses due to Peste de Petits Ruminants in small ruminants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a simple mathematical model to assess the losses due to peste des petits ruminants (PPR in small ruminants in India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on cases and deaths in goats and sheep due to PPR from the average combined data on ovine/caprine as published by Government of India for the last 5 years (2008-2012. All possible direct and indirect losses due to the disease, viz. mortality losses, losses due to direct reduction in milk/wool yield, losses due to reproduction failure, body weight losses, treatment costs and opportunity costs, were considered to provide estimate of annual economic losses due to PPR in sheep and goats in India. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the annual economic loss was also estimated. Results: On the basis of data reported by Government of India, the study has shown average annual economic loss of Rs. 167.83 lacs, of which Rs. 125.67 lacs and Rs. 42.16 lacs respectively are due to the incidence of the disease in goats and sheep. Morbidity losses constituted the greater share of the total loss in both goats and sheep (56.99% and 61.34%, respectively. Among different components of morbidity loss, direct body weight loss was the most significant in both goats and sheep. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the estimated annual economic loss due to PPR in goats and sheep is Rs. 8895.12 crores, of which Rs. 5477.48 and Rs. 3417.64 crores respectively are due to the disease in goats and sheep. Conclusion: The low economic losses as reported based on Government of India data points towards underreporting of cases and deaths due to the disease. The study thus revealed a significant loss due to PPR in small ruminants on a large scale.

  13. Pestiviruses infections at the wild and domestic ruminants interface in the French Southern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Duquesne, Véronique; Adam, Gilbert; Belleau, Eric; Gauthier, Dominique; Champion, Jean-Luc; Saegerman, Claude; Thiéry, Richard; Dubois, Eric

    2015-02-25

    In alpine pasture, interspecies transmission has recently been incriminated in the epidemiology of pestivirus infection. The aim of this study was to investigate pestivirus infections in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in the French Southern Alps. Animal sera were screened for pestivirus antibodies against the pestivirus NS3 protein by a commercial blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 38 domestic herds tested were positive for pestivirus-specific antibodies. Individual sero-prevalence reached 76.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: [74.2-78.8%]) of the 1383 sheep tested. For wild ruminants, 38.7% (95% CI: [33.8-43.9%]) of the 369 chamois tested, 28.7% (95% CI: [17.4-38.1%]) of the 72 roe deer, and 22.2% (95% CI: [6.5-37.9%]) of the 27 mouflons were seropositive. Virus screening was carried out on spleen samples from hunted wild animals (n=160) and from 15 domestic ruminants (clinically suspected to be persistently infected animals), by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three pestivirus strains were isolated from the sheep samples positive by RT-PCR. The viruses were classified in the BDV-3, BDV-Tunisian and BDV-6 genotypes. For the first time, one strain (RUPI-05 strain) was isolated from an alpine chamois and clustered in the BDV-6 genotype, showing in the 5'-UTR region 92% of identity with the ovine isolate from the same area. Thus, an active circulation of pestiviruses was demonstrated in both wild and domestic ungulates from the French Southern Alps. The results suggest that interspecies transmission between sheep and chamois probably occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Core fecal microbiota of domesticated herbivorous ruminant, hindgut fermenters, and monogastric animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donnell, Michelle M; Harris, Hugh M B; Ross, R Paul; O'Toole, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    In this pilot study, we determined the core fecal microbiota composition and overall microbiota diversity of domesticated herbivorous animals of three digestion types: hindgut fermenters, ruminants, and monogastrics. The 42 animals representing 10 animal species were housed on a single farm in Ireland and all the large herbivores consumed similar feed, harmonizing two of the environmental factors that influence the microbiota. Similar to other mammals, the fecal microbiota of all these animals was dominated by the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. The fecal microbiota spanning all digestion types comprised 42% of the genera identified. Host phylogeny and, to a lesser extent, digestion type determined the microbiota diversity in these domesticated herbivores. This pilot study forms a platform for future studies into the microbiota of nonbovine and nonequine domesticated herbivorous animals. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Control strategies for peste des petits ruminants in small ruminants of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P

    2011-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. It is endemic in several African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries, including India. India has recently taken comprehensive steps to deal with PPR through the development and production of potent vaccines and monoclonal-antibody-based diagnostic kits, while also gathering baseline information on the disease situation and human resources. As a result, PPR can now be controlled by focused vaccinations in high-risk populations of sheep and goats, followed by mass vaccination campaigns. Mass vaccination campaigns must achieve high levels of herd immunity (70% to 80%) to block the epidemic cycle of the virus. With the tools currently available, disease control and subsequent eradication programmes for PPR may be a feasible option, following the example of the National Rinderpest Eradication Programme, which has successfully eradicated rinderpest from India. An understanding of the cultural and socio-economic circumstances of goat and sheep owners and a keen watch on the endemic nature of PPR in neighbouring countries will enhance the success of this approach. Coordinated efforts from all stakeholders, combined with proper funding and execution of control programmes, will be needed to achieve the goal of a PPR-free India. In addition, the availability of effective combined vaccines of PPR with goat pox or sheep pox offers a cost-effective way of simultaneously launching control programmes against all three of these diseases.

  17. Reproduction in Domestic Ruminants during the Past 50 Years: Discovery to Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael F; Geisert, Rodney D; Parrish, John J

    2018-04-19

    The study of reproductive physiology in domestic ruminants has progressed from the whole animal to the molecular level in an amazingly short period of time. The volume of information on this subject is enormous; therefore, we have focused on domestic ruminants, with an emphasis on cattle. To date, artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the most powerful technique that reproductive physiologists and geneticists have provided the livestock industry for genetic improvement. Early efforts to establish AI as a tool were initiated in Russia around 1899 and since that time major advances in methods of semen collection, evaluation of male fertility, cryopreservation of sperm, sex-sorted semen, and estrous cycle control have occurred. The preceding advances not only led to the widespread use of AI, but also contributed to our fundamental understanding of ovulation control, timing of insemination, gamete biology and cryopreservation. In regards to anestrus, our understanding of the concept of neuroendocrine control of the pituitary gland and the role of steroid feedback led to the Gonadostat Theory, which proposes that onset of puberty is due to a decrease in the negative feedback of gonadal steroids over time. Subsequent studies in prepuberal and postpartum sheep and cattle established that a short luteal phase frequently precedes the first normal length cycle that is accompanied by estrous expression. This observation led to the common practice of treating prepuberal heifers and anestrous postpartum cows with a short-term progestin treatment (e.g., CIDR) to induce normal estrous cycles. In domestic ruminants, fertilization rate is high (85 to 95%); however significant embryonic mortality before or around the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) reduces the pregnancy rate to a single breeding. Significant effort has been directed at determining the time of MRP, the signal for MRP, as well as elucidating the physiological, cellular, and molecular dialogue between

  18. Encouraging the Domestic Small Turbine Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, T.

    2001-01-01

    The state incentives for home-based renewables in the domestic market continue to grow and change creating opportunities for the small wind turbine market. Tracking the opportunities to get small wind turbines included in incentive policies and developing a proactive industry approach is important because market changes can occur anytime. There are near-term opportunities to work with states in developing their strategies for disbursing system benefit charges, adding tags to existing policies for other small renewables to include small wind, and developing state-wide net metering programs. Other opportunities to improve the domestic market exist but will be quite challenging to implement. Other opportunities include federal tax credits, state wind access laws, equipment verification for specific states, and leasing programs for small wind turbines

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in free-ranging wild ruminants in Switzerland: low prevalence of infection despite regular interactions with domestic livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the frame of an eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Swiss livestock, the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could threaten the success of this sanitary measure. Therefore, we conducted serological and virological investigations on BVD virus (BVDV) infections in the four indigenous wild ruminant species (roe deer, red deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex) from 2009 to 2011, and gathered information on interactions between wild and domestic ruminants in an alpine environment by questionnaire survey. Results Thirty-two sera out of 1’877 (1.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4) were seropositive for BVDV, and a BVDV1 sub genotype h virus was found in a seropositive chamois (0.05%, 95% CI 0.001-0.3). The seropositive animals originated from sub-alpine or alpine regions and significantly more seropositive red deer, chamois and ibex than roe deer were found. There were no statistically significant differences between sampling units, age classes, genders, and sampling years. The obtained prevalences were significantly lower than those documented in livestock, and most positive wild ruminants were found in proximity of domestic outbreaks. Additionally, BVDV seroprevalence in ibex was significantly lower than previously reported from Switzerland. The survey on interspecific interactions revealed that interactions expected to allow BVDV transmission, from physical contacts to non-simultaneous use of the same areas, regularly occur on pastures among all investigated ruminant species. Interactions involving cervids were more often observed with cattle than with small ruminants, chamois were observed with all three domestic species, and ibex interacted mostly with small ruminants. Interactions related to the use of anthropogenic food sources were frequently observed, especially between red deer and cattle in wintertime. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of BVDV RNA isolated from an Alpine chamois

  20. Morphological and Morphometrical Description of Trichostrongylus Species Isolated from Domestic Ruminants in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran

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    B Golestan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Genus Trichostrongylus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae is one of the most impor­tant zoonotic nematodes with wide geographic distribution in the world. The purpose of the present study was to describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of male Trichostrongylus species, currently prevalent in domestic ruminants of Khuzestan Province, south­west Iran.Methods: Gastro-intestinal organs of 1600 sheep, goats, cattle, and buffalos, slaughtered in Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran, were examined for infectivity with Trichostrongylus spe­cies. For examination and measurements of helminthes, Azo-carmine staining was per­formed, followed by camera lucida drawings of morphological characters and measurements of morphometrical criteria with a calibrated microscope. Using valid nematodes systematic keys, almost all the parasites were identified at the level of species.Results: Overall, 114 animals were found infected with at least one species of Trichostrongy­lus. Considering morphological characteristics of male Trichostrongylus, six species were identi­fied including T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, T. probolorus, T. capricola, T. longispicu­laris and Trichostrongylus sp. Conclusion: Although, compared to the previous decades, currently Trichostrongylus is much less prevalent in the domestic ruminants of the study area, but still different species occur in these animals.

  1. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  2. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR, parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses.

  3. Modification of spermatozoa quality in mature small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B; de St Jorre, T Jorre; Al Mohsen, F A; Malecki, I A

    2011-01-01

    This review is based largely, but not entirely, on the assumption that gamete quality is directly linked to sperm output and thus testicular mass, an approach made necessary by the absence of a large body of data on factors that affect gamete quality in ruminants. On the other hand, there is a change in the efficiency of sperm production per gram of testicular tissue when the testis is growing or shrinking, a clear indicator of changes in the rates of cell loss during the process of spermatogenesis, probably through apoptosis. We therefore postulate that the spermatozoa that do survive when the testis is shrinking are of a lower quality than those that are produced when the testis is growing and the rate of sperm survival is increasing. In adult small ruminants in particular, testicular mass and sperm production are highly labile and can be manipulated by management of photoperiod (melatonin), nutrition, genetics and behaviour ('mating pressure'). Importantly, these factors do not act independently of each other - rather, the outcomes in terms of sperm production are dictated by interactions. It therefore seems likely that spermatozoa quality will be affected by these same factors, but definitive answers await detailed studies.

  4. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >10 4 bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Small ruminants (i.e., sheep and goats) are widespread in the tropics and are important to the subsistence, economic and social livelihoods of a large human population in these areas. The aim of this thesis was to identify the breeding objectives for tropical small ruminants, and to develop

  6. Diagnosing constraints to market participation of small ruminant producers in northern Ghana: An innovation systems analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amankwah, K.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Oosting, S.J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses why participation in markets for small ruminants is relatively low in northern Ghana by analysing the technical and institutional constraints to innovation in smallholder small ruminant production and marketing in Lawra and Nadowli Districts. The results show that the limitations

  7. Mannose receptor may be involved in small ruminant lentivirus pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Helena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thirty-one sheep naturally infected with small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV of known genotype (A or B, and clinically affected with neurological disease, pneumonia or arthritis were used to analyse mannose receptor (MR expression (transcript levels and proviral load in virus target tissues (lung, mammary gland, CNS and carpal joints. Control sheep were SRLV-seropositive asymptomatic (n = 3, seronegative (n = 3 or with chronic listeriosis, pseudotuberculosis or parasitic cysts (n = 1 in each case. MR expression and proviral load increased with the severity of lesions in most analyzed organs of the SRLV infected sheep and was detected in the affected tissue involved in the corresponding clinical disease (CNS, lung and carpal joint in neurological disease, pneumonia and arthritis animal groups, respectively. The increased MR expression appeared to be SRLV specific and may have a role in lentiviral pathogenesis.

  8. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in small ruminants in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Klaasen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This survey was carried out from March to May 2012 at two areas in The Gambia. The first area comprised a cluster of seven rural villages situated 5-15 km west of Farafenni as well as the local abattoir. A second sampling was done at the central abattoir in Abuko (30 km from the capital, Banjul in the Western Region. Serum samples were obtained from 490 goats and 398 sheep. In addition, 67 milk samples were obtained from lactating dams. Sera were tested with a Q fever ELISA kit. C. burnetii DNA was extracted from milk samples and then detected using a specific quantitative multiplex PCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element. A multivariable mixed logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between seropositivity and explanatory variables. An overall seroprevalence of 21.6% was found. Goats had a significantly higher seroprevalence than sheep, respectively 24.2% and 18.5%. Seropositive animals were significantly older than seronegative animals. Animals from the villages had a significantly lower seroprevalence than animals from the central abattoir (15.1% versus 29.1%. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 2 out of 67 milk samples, whereas 8 samples gave a doubtful result. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A substantial C. burnetii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in The Gambia was demonstrated. People living in close proximity to small ruminants are exposed to C. burnetii. Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of acute febrile illness in humans in The Gambia. Future studies should include a simultaneous assessment of veterinary and human serology, and include aetiology of febrile illness in local clinics.

  9. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

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    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  10. Daniellia oliveri As A Fodder Tree For Small Ruminant And The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniellia oliveri was examined as a potential fodder for small ruminant, using nine castrated and ruminally fistulated West African Dwarf sheep (29 kg BW) to determine rumen ammonia and nutrient digestibility. Dried leaves of Daniella oliveri were offered at two levels (25% and 50% of DMI) as supplement to a basal hay ...

  11. Fascioliasis risk factors and space-time clusters in domestic ruminants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A K M Anisur; Islam, S K Shaheenur; Talukder, Md Hasanuzzaman; Hassan, Md Kumrul; Dhand, Navneet K; Ward, Michael P

    2017-05-08

    A retrospective observational study was conducted to identify fascioliasis hotspots, clusters, potential risk factors and to map fascioliasis risk in domestic ruminants in Bangladesh. Cases of fascioliasis in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats from all districts in Bangladesh between 2011 and 2013 were identified via secondary surveillance data from the Department of Livestock Services' Epidemiology Unit. From each case report, date of report, species affected and district data were extracted. The total number of domestic ruminants in each district was used to calculate fascioliasis cases per ten thousand animals at risk per district, and this was used for cluster and hotspot analysis. Clustering was assessed with Moran's spatial autocorrelation statistic, hotspots with the local indicator of spatial association (LISA) statistic and space-time clusters with the scan statistic (Poisson model). The association between district fascioliasis prevalence and climate (temperature, precipitation), elevation, land cover and water bodies was investigated using a spatial regression model. A total of 1,723,971 cases of fascioliasis were reported in the three-year study period in cattle (1,164,560), goats (424,314), buffalo (88,924) and sheep (46,173). A total of nine hotspots were identified; one of these persisted in each of the three years. Only two local clusters were found. Five space-time clusters located within 22 districts were also identified. Annual risk maps of fascioliasis cases correlated with the hotspots and clusters detected. Cultivated and managed (P fascioliasis in Bangladesh, respectively. Results indicate that due to land use characteristics some areas of Bangladesh are at greater risk of fascioliasis. The potential risk factors, hot spots and clusters identified in this study can be used to guide science-based treatment and control decisions for fascioliasis in Bangladesh and in other similar geo-climatic zones throughout the world.

  12. Natural methods for increasing reproductive efficiency in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B; Milton, J T B; Davidson, R H; Banchero Hunzicker, G E; Lindsay, D R; Blache, D

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three strategies to improve the reproductive performance of small ruminants in ways that lead to "clean, green and ethical" animal production. The first is aimed at control of the timing of reproductive events for which we turn to the socio-sexual inputs of the "male effect" to induce synchronised ovulation in females that would otherwise be anovulatory. The second strategy, "focussed feeding", is based on our knowledge of the responses to nutrition and aims to develop short programs of nutritional supplements that are precisely timed and specifically designed for individual events in the reproductive process, such as gamete production, embryo survival, fetal programming and colostrum production. The third strategy aims to maximise offspring survival by a combination of management, nutrition and genetic selection for behavior (temperament). All of these approaches involve non-pharmacological manipulation of the endogenous control systems of the animals and complement the detailed information from ultrasound that is now becoming available. The use of such clean, green and ethical tools in the management of our animals can be cost-effective, increase productivity and, at the same time, greatly improve the image of meat and milk industries in society and the marketplace.

  13. Detection in and circulation of Bluetongue virus among domestic ruminants in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Viarouge, Cyril; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Sailleau, Corinne; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Zientara, Stephan; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-17

    So far, no published data was available concerning the circulation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Madagascar. During a survey on Rift Valley Fever, we were able to detect a virus belonging to BTV. Therefore, we conducted a study aiming at characterizing molecularly the BTV isolated and assess the importance of circulation of BTV in Madagascar. A total of 4393 sera from ruminants selected randomly by stratification and sampled in 30 districts of Madagascar were tested for BTV. Moreover, 175 cattle were followed during 11 months. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from virus isolated from unfed pools of mosquitoes. Overall, the estimated mean seroprevalence of infection at the national level was 95.9% (95% CI: [95.2-96.5]) in cattle and 83.7% (95% CI: [81.4-85.9]) in small ruminants. Estimation of incidence rate was 54 per 100 cattle-years assuming that the incidence rate is constant all year along. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BTV detected belong to serotype 2. In conclusion, our results showed that BTV is endemic in Madagascar and highly prevalent among cattle. In our study we did not work on the vector involved in transmission of BTV in cattle. Thus, research should be conducted to better describe epidemiology of BTV in Madagascar including vectors and assess economic impact of the disease associated to BTV infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological and Molecular Discrimination of Fasciola Species Isolated From Domestic Ruminants of Urmia City, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAKHCHALI, Mohammad; MALEKZADEH-VIAYEH, Reza; IMANI-BARAN, Abbas; MARDANI, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: The trematodes of the genus Fasciola (the liver flukes) are among the well-known instances of food-borne parasites worldwide. Differentiation of Fasciola species is important because of their different transmission and epidemiological characteristics. The current study was undertaken to discriminate Fasciola species in the domestic ruminants of Urmia city, Iran. Methods: Adult flukes were isolated from the naturally infected livers of the slaughtered water buffaloes and sheep. The flukes were initially identified based on morphological and morphometric parameters. A 618-bp-long fragment of the 28SrRNA gene of Fasciola was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified fragment was digested by DraII or AvaII enzymes for a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequenced for the phylogenetic tree construction. Results: Based on the morphometric examination, the flukes belonged to F. hepatica, F. gigantica and an intermediate Fasciola form. The PCR-RFLP analysis was able to differentiate F. hepatica from F. gigantica. While the phylogenetic reconstruction justified, to some extent, the morphological diagnosis, it failed to segregate F. hepatica from F. gigantica identified in this and the previous studies. Conclusion: To resolve fully the problem of taxonomy and evolution in Fasciola species, employing a broad range of molecular and morphological approaches is necessary. This is crucial for epidemiological surveys and successful clinical management of their infection. PMID:25904945

  16. Morphological and molecular discrimination of fasciola species isolated from domestic ruminants of urmia city, iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yakhchali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The trematodes of the genus Fasciola (the liver flukes are among the well-known instances of food-borne parasites worldwide. Differentiation of Fasciola species is important because of their different transmission and epidemiological characteristics. The current study was undertaken to discriminate Fasciola species in the domestic ruminants of Urmia city, Iran.Adult flukes were isolated from the naturally infected livers of the slaughtered water buffaloes and sheep. The flukes were initially identified based on morphological and morphometric parameters. A 618-bp-long fragment of the 28SrRNA gene of Fasciola was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The amplified fragment was digested by DraII or AvaII enzymes for a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis and sequenced for the phylogenetic tree construction.Based on the morphometric examination, the flukes belonged to F. hepatica, F. gigantica and an intermediate Fasciola form. The PCR-RFLP analysis was able to differentiate F. hepatica from F. gigantica. While the phylogenetic reconstruction justified, to some extent, the morphological diagnosis, it failed to segregate F. hepatica from F. gigantica identified in this and the previous studies.To resolve fully the problem of taxonomy and evolution in Fasciola species, employing a broad range of molecular and morphological approaches is necessary. This is crucial for epidemiological surveys and successful clinical management of their infection.

  17. Prevalence of Linguatula Serrata Infection in Domestic Ruminants in West Part of Iran: Risk Factors and Public Health Implications

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    Jamal GHAREKHANI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguatulosis is one of the neglected parasitic zoonoses. Domestic ruminants are the important source for human infection. The main goal of the present investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in domestic ruminant in Hamedan province, western Iran. The mesenteric and mediastinal lymph node of 1080 animals were taken randomly from different slaughterhouses of Hamedan province. All lymph nodes were examined for nymphal stage of L. serrata using parasitological methods (digestion technique. The nymph of L. serrata was found in 31.4% (69/220 of goats, 15% (60/400 of sheep, and 7.4% (34/460 of cattle (P=0.457. The infection rate in beef cattle, dairy cattle and native cattle was 1.3%, 6.4% and 12.6%, respectively (P=0.981. No evidence of correlation between gender, age groups, and L. serrata infection rate in sheep and cattle (P>0.05. In goats, the infection rate in >2yr old (48% was higher than .2yr old (8.6% (P<0.0001, OR=5.6; also the infection rate was 23.7% and 35.7% in male and female goats, respectively (P=0.065. This is the first report of linguatulosis in domestic animals from western Iran. The results indicate that linguatulosis may partly be responsible for economic losses in domestic ruminant husbandry in this region. Therefore, designing control strategies for a better management in animals farm to reduce the risk of zoonotic outbreaks is highly recommended

  18. Seroprevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae infection in domestic ruminants in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisawi, Nagwa M; Hassan, Dina A; Hussien, Mohammed O; Musa, Azza B; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim M

    2017-05-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis is caused by obligatory intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that belong to the genus Rickettsia . Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae can act as vectors, reservoirs or amplifiers of SFG rickettsiae. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of SFG rickettsioses in cattle, sheep and goats from Khartoum State, Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 600 animals (sheep, goats and cattle) from 32 different farms distributed in three locations in Khartoum State during the period January to December 2012. Sera were tested for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae using IFAT. The prevalence of seropositivity was 59.3% in sheep, 60.1% in goats and 64.4% in cattle. Season was significantly ( P <  0.05) associated with seroprevalence of SFG rickettsiae in cattle during winter. The SFG rickettsiae antibodies prevalence was significantly higher in female compared with male in sheep, but there were no significant differences between male and female in either cattle or goats. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult animals compared with young in both sheep and goats. With regard to management system, there was a significant difference in the prevalence in cattle raised in closed system compared with those raised in semi-intensive system. In contrast, there was significant difference in the seroprevalence of SFG in sheep where the prevalence was higher in the sheep raised in semi-intensive system compared with those raised in close system. There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence in goats with regard to management systems. The unexpected high prevalence of SFG rickettsia antibodies in domestic ruminants sera suggest that the veterinary and public health impact of these agents in Sudan need further evaluation especially in humans.

  19. Small ruminant feed systems: perceptions and practices in the transitional zone of Ghana

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    van der Zijpp Akke J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate feeding is essential to realizing the potential of small ruminants to alleviate poverty among smallholder farmers. This study was conducted in two villages in the Ejura-Sekyedumase District of Ghana and was motivated by farmers' non-adoption of modern feed technologies, but more importantly by the need to understand the small ruminant feed system considering farmers' different socio-economic backgrounds and how these relate to small ruminant performance. In this study, the feed system was defined as the type, source and seasonality of feeds and how small ruminants access them. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to allow for triangulation. Data were collected in seven stages comprising key informant interviews, a census, a cultural domain study, botanical specimen collection and identification, focus group discussions, a household survey, and a small ruminant performance study. Results Farmers listed 175 items that are used as small ruminant feed and salience indexes were calculated. There was high consensus about the domain of small ruminant feeds, with 15 items comprising the consensus model. Respondent agreement scores correlated positively with age and negatively with list length. Respondents from matrilineal lineages had higher agreement scores than those from patrilineal lineages. Natural pasture and wild browse scored high in pair wise ranking by village and sex groups. Of the 33 feeds that farmers fed to goats, maize grains, cassava peels and Margaritaria discoidea were the most salient. Six major feed system groups based on access were identified at household level, which regrouped into three at village level based on feed type and source. Patrilineal households were more likely to tether their livestock. Significant differences were found between some socio-economic groups for pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG of kids, but not for prolificacy of does. Conclusions The need for nutritive

  20. Interactions between nutritional approaches and defences against microbial diseases in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, M; Giannenas, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Objective of this review is to discuss the role of small ruminant diet in the defence of these animals against microbial diseases, in relation to different experimental approaches and various stressors acting on animals. The effects of various diets in immune reactions and animal defences are presented. Also, effects in relation to the species studied and the type of stressors acting on animals are discussed. Evidence is provided about the significance of the diet in enhancing immune responses of small ruminants during specific conditions, e.g., around parturition, during lactation, as well as in growing lambs or kids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixododae Infesting Domestic Ruminants in Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran

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    F. Fayazkhoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are one of the most important obligate ectoparasites of vertebrates, belonging to class Arachnida, which transmit a wide range of pathological agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites to humans and animals in Iran and around the world. Identifying the distribution of hard ticks in a region is important to monitor their control program, and thereby prevent disease transmission. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, sampling was carried out from different parts of the livestock body during four seasons in four geographical directions and five villages of Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2015-2016. The ticks were initially stimulated by using chloroform solution and then separated from domestic ruminants by forceps. The collected ticks were sent to a laboratory, and then their sex and species were identified by using valid diagnostic keys. Results: We studied 800 domestic ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats, and found 150 (18.7% cases of infestation. A total of 274 ticks were collected, 259 of which were hard ticks including four genera of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Repicephlus, and Haemaphysalis. The greatest diversity of species, including Hyalomma scopens (Hy. deteritum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Hyalomma anatolicum belonged to the genus Hyalomma. The frequency rates of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Hemaphysalis genera were 73.74%, 15.05%, 10.03%, and 1.15 %, respectively. The highest abundance of ticks was observed in spring (152. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the diversity of hard ticks in the region and the highest abundance of ticks in spring. Considering the importance of ticks in disease transmission among humans and domestic ruminants, health authorities and respective organizations should take appropriate health measures to control and combat these external parasites.

  2. Monitoring the fibrolytic potential of microbial ecosystems from domestic and wild ruminants browsing tanniferous forages

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    Nokwethemba Nqobile Philile Msimango

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the rumen microbiome has been reported to synthesize a rich source of symbiotic enzymes (exocellulase, endocellulase, hemicellulase and cellobiase, the digestion of tropical C4 grasses and browses by ruminants is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to unveil potential fibrolytic microbial ecosystems from giraffe, kudu, impala and consortia (A1 [giraffe + kudu], A2 [giraffe + impala], A3 [kudu + impala], and A4 [giraffe + kudu + impala] browsing tanniferous plants, which can be used to improve forage utilization in domesticated goat. Crude protein enzyme extracts (CPZ from fresh faecal samples were precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate and assayed for exocellulase, endocellulase and hemicellulase by incubating with crystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan at 38 °C with optimum pH of 5.5 to 6.5 for 1, 2, and 48 h, respectively. Enzyme specific activities were defined as μg of reducing sugar/mg CPZ. In vitro fermentation study was done by transferring 33 mL of fresh faecal inoculum into 67 mL of salivary buffer containing 1 g Acacia sieberiana and incubating for 72 h at 38 °C. Apparent degradability (APDeg, true degradability (TD, neutral detergent fibre degradability (NDFdeg, acid detergent fibre degradability (ADFdeg, microbial yield (MY, metabolizable energy (ME and total gas emitted (Gas were measured. Exocellulase activities were higher (P < 0.05 in all wild animals and consortia than those in goat except for A4. Minimal differences in hemicellulase activities (P < 0.05 were observed among goat and wild animals and consortia, while endocellulase activity was generally higher (P < 0.05 in goat than that in the rest of the systems. Apart from A3, TDeg, NDFdeg and ADFdeg were higher (P < 0.05 in all microbial ecosystems from wild animals and consortia than those in goat. Apparent degradability, MY and ME also varied (P < 0.05 among these systems. Giraffe, Kudu and A3 produced lower (P

  3. Role of Hippoboscidae Flies as Potential Vectors of Bartonella spp. Infecting Wild and Domestic Ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Halos, Lénaïg; Jamal, Taoufik; Maillard, Renaud; Girard, Benjamin; Guillot, Jacques; Chomel, Bruno; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2004-01-01

    The putative role of biting flies in Bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae. Our findings suggest that Hippoboscidae play a role in the transmission of Bartonella among ruminants. The vertical transmission of Bartonella in M. ovinus ...

  4. Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifei Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is tick transmitted and has a wide range of mammalian reservoirs in nature, including both wild and domestic animals. To understand the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants will add value to the risk analysis of Lyme disease. The current study was intended to map the potential endemic regions of Lyme disease by large-scale investigation of sera from sheep and goats. In this study, a total of 2,758 serum samples from sheep and goats in 21 provinces located in 40 different districts of China were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of this survey indicated that the overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection ranges from 5.3 to 63.5 % (mean: 26.3%, and the infection was found in all provinces investigated. Generally, the positive rate declined from the south (34.7% in south and 32.4% in southwest towards the north of China (18.4% in north, 16.5% in northeast and 17.2% in northwest. A significant difference was also observed in the infection rate between south and north (33.2% versus 17.4%, PB. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

  5. Disposition Kinetics and Optimal Dosage of Ciprofloxacin in Healthy Domestic Ruminant Species

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    Ijaz Javed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the disposition kinetics and optimal dosages of ciprofloxacin in healthy domestic ruminant species including adult female buffalo, cow, sheep and goat. The drug was given as a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of the drug were determined with HPLC and pharmacokinetic variables were determined. The biological half-life (t1/2 β was longer in cows (3.25 ± 0.46 h followed by intermediate values in buffaloes (3.05 ± 0.20 h and sheep (2.93 ± 0.45 h and shorter in goats (2.62 ± 0.39 h. The volume of distribution (Vd in buffaloes was 1.09 ± 0.06 l/kg, cows 1.24 ± 0.16 l/kg, sheep 2.89 ± 0.30 l/kg and goats 3.76 ± 0.92 l/kg. Total body clearance (ClB expressed in l/h/kg was minimum in buffaloes 0.25 ± 0.02 followed by values in cows 0.31 ± 0.02 and sheep 0.75 ± 0.04 and maximum in goats 1.09 ± 0.11. An optimal dosage regimen for 12-h interval consisted of 5.17, 5.62, 6.54 and 6.10 mg/kg body weight as priming and 4.84, 5.37, 6.26 and 5.91 mg/kg body weight as maintenance intramuscular dose in buffalo, cow, sheep and goat, respectively. The manufacturers of ciprofloxacin have claimed 5 mg/kg dose to be repeated after 24 h. However, the investigated dosage regimen may be repeated after 12 h to maintain MIC at the end of the dosage interval. Therefore, it is imperative that an optimal dosage regimen be based on the disposition kinetics data determined in the species and environment in which a drug is to be employed clinically.

  6. Successes and failures of small ruminant breeding programmes in the tropics: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Baker, R.L.; Udo, H.M.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the large numbers and importance of adapted indigenous sheep and goats in the tropics, information on sustainable conventional breeding programmes for them is scarce and often unavailable. This paper reviews within-breed selection strategies for indigenous small ruminants in the tropics,

  7. The effect of parasitism on nutrient metabolism and productivity in small ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinbamijo, O.O.

    1994-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in small ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the effects of trypanosomiasis on feed intake,

  8. Household vulnerability and small ruminant benefits in transitional zone of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, S.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated household vulnerability and small ruminant benefits in the transitional zone of Ghana. The dimensions of vulnerability considered were the sex and socio-economic status of the household head, and household morbidity and mortality. Data was collected from 11 key informants,

  9. Q fever in small ruminants in Mali. Results of a serological survey

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    S. S. Sidibé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mali, the loss of reproduction is a major constraint to improving the productivity of small ruminants. The causes of these losses are still poorly known and include infertility, abortions, orchitis and stunting. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Q fever in small ruminant farms where cases of loss of reproduction had been observed, as well as financial losses linked to the recorded abortions. The survey was carried out during the period 2006–2009 in the agropastoral areas of Bougouni (Sikasso Region, Nioro (Kayes Region, Keniebougouwere (Segou Region and Koro (Mopti Region. Out of 718 sera analyzed by indirect ELISA, 155 (21.5 ± 3% tested positive for Coxiella burnetii. The prevalence rate varied according to the site and the birth rank. The highest prevalence rate was observed in Keniebougouwere (35 ± 6%, followed by Nioro (28.5 ± 7.5% and Bougouni (10.8 ± 4.6%, and the lowest in Koro (5.8 ± 3.7%. This study revealed the presence of Q fever in small ruminants in Mali. Complementary investigations that include molecular diagnosis (PCR technique might help understand the etiology of the disease involved in cases of loss of reproduction in small ruminants in Mali. The technical and economical analysis helped to assess the financial value of losses.

  10. Role of Hippoboscidae flies as potential vectors of Bartonella spp. infecting wild and domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Jamal, Taoufik; Maillard, Renaud; Girard, Benjamin; Guillot, Jacques; Chomel, Bruno; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2004-10-01

    The putative role of biting flies in Bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae. Our findings suggest that Hippoboscidae play a role in the transmission of Bartonella among ruminants. The vertical transmission of Bartonella in M. ovinus and the presence of Bartonella DNA in all samples suggest a symbiotic association between Bartonella and M. ovinus.

  11. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Nematodirus oiratianus and Nematodirus spathiger of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang-Hui; Jia, Yan-Qing; Cheng, Wen-Yu; Zhao, Wen; Bian, Qing-Qing; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-07-11

    Nematodirus spp. are among the most common nematodes of ruminants worldwide. N. oiratianus and N. spathiger are distributed worldwide as highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes, which cause emerging health problems and economic losses. Accurate identification of Nematodirus species is essential to develop effective control strategies for Nematodirus infection in ruminants. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could provide powerful genetic markers for identifying these closely related species and resolving phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of N. oiratianus and N. spathiger from small ruminants in China were obtained using Long-range PCR and sequencing. The complete mt genomes of N. oiratianus and N. spathiger were 13,765 bp and 13,519 bp in length, respectively. Both mt genomes were circular and consisted of 36 genes, including 12 genes encoding proteins, 2 genes encoding rRNA, and 22 genes encoding tRNA. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated amino acid sequence data of all 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference (BI), Maximum likelihood (ML) and Maximum parsimony (MP) showed that the two Nematodirus species (Molineidae) were closely related to Dictyocaulidae. The availability of the complete mtDNA sequences of N. oiratianus and N. spathiger not only provides new mtDNA sources for a better understanding of nematode mt genomics and phylogeny, but also provides novel and useful genetic markers for studying diagnosis, population genetics and molecular epidemiology of Nematodirus spp. in small ruminants.

  12. Systematics of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic ruminants: advances between 1992 and 1995 and proposals for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfels, J R; Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    1997-11-01

    The systematics of trichostrongyloid nematodes of ruminants provides a foundation for diagnostics and responds to the need to identify eggs in feces, free-living larvae from pastures or fecal cultures and larval or adult nematodes collected from hosts. These needs are associated with diagnostic problems or research projects. Difficulties in identifying all developmental stages of trichostrongyloid nematodes of domestic ruminants still severely limit the effective diagnosis and control of these parasites. Phylogenetic hypotheses as the basis for predictive classifications have been developed only for the subfamilies of the Trichostrongylidae. This report briefly describes recent progress in the development of improved tools for identification, phylogenetic analyses and predictive classifications. It also describes future research needed on the identification and classification of trichostrongyloid nematode parasites of domestic ruminants. Nematodes included are species of the super-family Trichostrongyloidea known to be important pathogens of domestic ruminants. The information summarized is presented by nematode developmental stage and by taxonomic groups. Eggs: While eggs of some trichostrongyloid nematode parasites of ruminants can be readily identified to their genus (Nematodirus), and some to species (e.g. Nematodirus battus), most of the important pathogens (including the Ostertagiinae and Haemonchinae) cannot be identified morphologically or morphometrically even to family level. However, DNA technology has been developed for determining not only the presence of specific pathogens in eggs from fecal samples, but also for estimating the percentage of the total eggs that each pathogen comprises. This new method will make possible a rapid determination of which individual animals in a herd should be treated. Larvae: The most commonly-used method for identifying infective larvae is time-consuming (several weeks), unreliable for estimating intensities of

  13. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants in Gran Canaria Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N F; Carranza, C; Bolaños, M; Pérez-Arellano, J L; Gutierrez, C

    2010-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonosis with worldwide occurrence. In the Canary Islands, the overall seroprevalence in humans has been estimated to be 21.5%. Gran Canaria island concentrates the highest ruminant population in the archipelago and the prevalence of the human infection is 23.5%. To evaluate the seroprevalence in livestock and the affected areas in Gran Canaria island, a total of 1249 ruminants were randomly selected for this study (733 goats, 369 sheep and 147 cattle). The samples were evaluated using an indirect ELISA Kit. The results showed seroprevalences of 60.4%, 31.7% and 12.2% in goats, sheep and cattle, respectively. Based on these results, Q fever could be considered as endemic in Gran Canaria island. Sanitary measures should be taken at the farm level to minimize the risk of exposure of C. burnetii to humans.

  14. Infectivity, pathogenicity, and genetic characteristics of mammalian gastric Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic ruminants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Ditrich, Oleg; Hofmannová, L.; Modrý, David; Vítovec, J.; Xiao, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 153, 3/4 (2008), s. 363-367 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0992; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium andersoni * Cryptosporidium muris * ruminants Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2008

  15. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed.

  16. Fracture repair with transfixation pins and fiberglass cast in llamas and small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneps, A J; Schmotzer, W B; Huber, M J; Riebold, T W; Watrous, B J; Arnold, J S

    1989-11-01

    Transfixation pinning with fiberglass casting is an effective and adaptable method of longbone fracture fixation in llamas and small ruminants. Treatment of fractures in 7 limbs of 4 llamas and 2 small ruminants with this technique are described. Steinmann pins are placed transcortically proximal, and if necessary, distal to the fracture. The pin ends and limb are encased in fiberglass cast material. The cast is strong enough in animals of this size to eliminate the need for external frames or connecting bars. Severely comminuted fractures and fractures near joints are especially suited to fixation with this technique. Complications encountered in these cases included loosening of pins and one delayed union. All fractures healed to permit full use of the limb.

  17. Load Characterization for small domestic appliances and electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sluis, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the energy consumption of small domestic loads has been analysed. To make the around 100 types of appliances considereda bit manageable, the appliances were categorized into several groups. The possibilities for time-shifting of the energy use of these small appliances was

  18. Seroprevalence and characterization of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danuser, R; Vogt, H-R; Kaufmann, Th; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R

    2009-03-01

    The seroprevalence of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland was determined. In 5'059 sera of sheep from 382 herds, 503 sera of goats from 54 herds and 109 sera of alpacas and lamas from 53 herds, population prevalences of 16.1% (sheep), 25.4% (goats) and 4.6% (new world camelids), respectively, were found. In order to determine the source of infection, the serological reactions were further characterized by cross-neutralization against two pestiviruses representing the genotypes BVDV (Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus)-1 and BDV (Border Disease Virus)-1. Based on the ratio of respective antibody titres, 56.1% of the infections in sheep were induced by a BDV-1, 12.9% by a BVDV-1 and 31.0% by an unresolved pestivirus. In goats, the corresponding proportions were 23.4%, 10.2% and 66.4%, respectively. In Alpacas and Lamas, the source of infection of 1 animal was BDV-1 and that of 4 seropositive animals remained unresolved. In view of the phylogenetic relationship between pestiviruses, the unresolved source of infection is most probably attributable to other pestivirus genotypes circulating in small ruminants and new world camelids. Due to the predominance of pestiviral genotypes other than BVDV-1, the risk of transmission of BVDV from persistently infected small ruminants and new world camelids to cattle appears to be moderate, apart from close direct contact in mixed animal husbandry, communal pasturing and grazing in the Alps.

  19. Nutritional and environmental effects on reproduction in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B; Rodger, J; Blache, D

    2004-01-01

    Animals live in environments that are both complex and continually changing, so they have to respond to short- and long-term variations in a wide range of factors, such as photoperiod, nutrition and sociosexual signals. Before they were domesticated, animals developed reproductive strategies that coped with these changes and often took advantage of them. The physiological processes that implement these strategies have been modified to some extent during several millennia of controlled breeding, but most persist. Thus, many genotypes still exhibit profound responses to external inputs, such as the induction of ovulation by sociosexual signals and the doubling of litter size by a change in nutrition. The complexity in these responses is now becoming clearer. For example, with sociosexual signals, we now need to consider the stimulatory effects of males on females, of females on males and of females on females. Similarly, the impact of nutrition has been extended beyond the control of puberty and the production of gametes to include phenomena such as 'fetal programming', with its potentially profound effects on the life-long performance of the animals. Fortunately, our capacity to research these phenomena has been greatly enhanced by technical improvements in hormone assays, molecular and cellular biology, and real-time ultrasound. This has brought us a better understanding of several of the environmental influences on reproduction, including: the cellular processes within ovarian follicles that mediate the effect of nutrition on ovulation rate; the neuroendocrine pathways through which nutritional inputs affect the brain centres that control appetite and reproduction; and the intracerebral pathways through which sociosexual signals (olfactory and non-olfactory) stimulate the reproductive axis. Importantly, we are now beginning to realise that, as well as considering interactions between environmental inputs and genotype, we need to take into account interactions

  20. Domestication of ruminant livestock and the impact of nematode parasites:possible implications for the reindeer industry

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    Peter J. Waller

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a balanced ecological system, both host and nematode parasite populations are firmly controlled by a complex array of interacting factors. However domestication of livestock has tipped the balance in favour of the parasites. This is due to increasing the proportion of susceptible animals in the herd or flock (lactating females and weaned young animals, increasing stocking rate, increasing productivity demands and decreasing the movement of the animals. In contrast with microbial infections, where multiplication takes place entirely within the host, metazoan parasites have both a parasitic phase and a free-living phase. Every worm present has been separately acquired by the ingestion of free-living stages on pasture. Immunity to nematodes develops slowly, it is labile, and its maintenance is dependent upon a good nutritional state of the animal. Consequently, worm parasites are ubiquitous wherever livestock are kept and they impose a constant and often a high infectious pressure on grazing animals. Nematode infections in grazing livestock are almost always a mixture of species. All have deleterious effects and collectively lead to chronic ill thrift. Economic evaluations repeatedly show that the major losses due to parasites are on animal production, rather than on mortality. This paper focuses on the problems of nematode parasites; problems associated with drug use (anthelmintic resistance, environmental impact and costs of nematode infections for the common ruminant livestock industries (cattle, sheep, goats, with possible analogies for the semi-domesticated reindeer industry.

  1. On the role of feral ruminants in the transmission of bovine herpesvirus 1 to domestic cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, E.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate in The Netherlands between farmer organisations, conservationists and government about whether the health status of feral animals jeopardises the health status of domestic cattle. In this respect, BHV1 is the most prominent acute problem. Although the compulsory

  2. Analysis of Small ruminant market system in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India

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    D Ramesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the marketing system of small ruminants in three different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka in India. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 small ruminant farmers from three viz. Bijapur (Arid zone, Gulbarga (Semi-arid zone and Udupi (Coastal zone district of Karnataka state. A structured questionnaire which had earlier been subject to face validity and has a reliability coefficient of 0.87 was used to collect data from the samples respondents. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS.The results of the study revealed that marketing of small ruminants is haphazard in the study areas. Majority of the respondents (85% sold their animal when they needed cash for home consumption followed by to pay off loan (28.3% was the main reason to sell their animals. Important marketing channels were relatives and friends, local markets and village collectors. Farmers gave different reasons for selling their animals through different channels. Majority of the farmers used relatives and friends as one of the marketing channels. Most of farmers also felt that there was a difference in the price offered by village collectors and the price they were getting in the livestock markets. And a few of them were of the opinion that village collectors were not reliable in marketing. Price of the animals was establishing based on the body confirmation of the animal. Study also revealed that injured animals fetch less value than the healthy animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 288-293

  3. Detection and genotyping of Chlamydia species responsible for reproductive disorders in Algerian small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdja, Salah-Eddine; Khaled, Hamza; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Bertin, Claire; Dahmani, Ali; Bouyoucef, Abdallah; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydiosis in small ruminants is a zoonotic disease mainly related to Chlamydia abortus. This bacterium is responsible for abortions and reproductive disorders in sheep and goats. Stillbirth and infertility, leading to important economic losses, are also associated with this pathology. In Algeria, abortion cases are frequently reported by veterinarians but, except for brucellosis which is a notifiable disease in this country, abortive diseases are in general poorly studied. In order to detect and genotype Chlamydia species in small ruminants in different areas of Algeria, a study was conducted on samples collected from females (164 blood samples and 199 vaginal swabs) between October 2011 and March 2013. Serum samples were tested with a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA test. Fourteen samples (8.5 %), from six farms (6/20, 30 %) were tested positive. Vaginal swabs were analysed with a real-time PCR targeting all Chlamydiaceae spp. Thirty samples (15 %) were diagnosed positive in 16 farms (16/25, 64 %). Positive samples were all re-tested with a C. abortus- and a C. pecorum-specific real-time PCR. Finally, 13/30 (43.3 %) and 6/30 (20 %) were identified as C. abortus and C. pecorum, respectively. Enough concentrated C. abortus samples were genotyped by multi-loci variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), and all were related to the genotype [2] group which mainly includes French C. abortus isolates. C. pecorum-positive samples were genotyped by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Interestingly, two of them were successfully genotyped and showed identical MLST sequences to VB2, AB10, E58 and SBE, a group which includes C. pecorum isolates considered as highly pathogenic. These findings suggest a possible role of C. abortus and C. pecorum strains in the aetiology of abortion in Algerian small ruminants.

  4. Interactions Between Nutrition and Infections With Haemonchus contortus and Related Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Quijada, J; Chan-Perez, I; Dakheel, M M; Kommuru, D S; Mueller-Harvey, I; Terrill, T H

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between host nutrition and feeding behaviour are central to understanding the pathophysiological consequences of infections of the digestive tract with parasitic nematodes. The manipulation of host nutrition provides useful options to control gastrointestinal nematodes as a component of an integrated strategy. Focussed mainly on the Haemonchus contortus infection model in small ruminants, this chapter (1) illustrates the relationship between quantitative (macro- and micro-nutrients) and qualitative (plant secondary metabolites) aspects of host nutrition and nematode infection, and (2) shows how basic studies aimed at addressing some generic questions can help to provide solutions, despite the considerable diversity of epidemiological situations and breeding systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Determination of Fasciola Spp. Isolates from Domestic Ruminants Fecal Samples in the Northwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMANI BARAN, Abbas; CHERAGHI SARAY, Habib; KATIRAEE, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fasciola species are the main causes for fascioliasis with great financial losses and are among the most important food/water-borne parasites worldwide. The basic proceedings such as epidemiology and effective control of fascioliasis rely mainly on precise identification of Fasciola species. The present study was conducted to determine the Fasciola species in ruminant fecal samples from East Azerbaijan Province in Iran. Methods: Overall, 2012 fecal samples were collected and processed initially for microscopic examination of Fasciola eggs in 2014–15. Then, recovered eggs were subjected to molecular identification. A fragment of 618 bp of the 28S rRNA gene pertaining to Fasciola genus was amplified under PCR. The amplified fragment was restricted by fast digest Ava II enzyme in order to a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Results: Based on microscopic examination, 72 samples were infected, from which, 10 and 62 cases pertained to cattle and sheep samples respectively. Based on RFLP, the PCR products restricted by the Ava II restriction enzyme produced 529 bp fragments only. According to the positive controls, all restriction patterns were related to Fasciola hepatica, while no restriction patterns were linked to F. gigantica. Conclusion: Based on PCR-RFLP, F. hepatica was dominant species in animals of the studied areas and no evidence of F. gigantica was observed. Therefore, further field studies to verify these results are suggested. PMID:28761485

  6. Serologic and virologic investigations into pestivirus infection in wild and domestic ruminants in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, I; Rosell, R; Cabezón, O; Beneria, M; Mentaberre, G; Casas, E; Hurtado, A; López-Olvera, J R; Lavín, S

    2009-08-01

    An outbreak of disease associated to a border disease virus was described in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain in 2002. Sera and/or spleen samples from 57 mouflon, 15 red deer, 21 roe deer, 3 fallow deer, 55 sheep, 32 cattle, and 68 goats sharing the chamois habitat were studied. An antibody ELISA test yielded an inconclusive result in 2 mouflon and positive results in 5 goat sera. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on the 2 inconclusive mouflons, 3 of the 5 seropositive goats, 55 sheep and 32 cattle, using 6 pestivirus strains. Positive results were obtained in 1 mouflon, 2 goats, 69% of sheep and 78% of cattle. Virological investigations performed with an antigen ELISA test yielded negative results in 21 goats and 39 mouflons, the result in 1 mouflon being inconclusive. PCR performed on 12 goats and the inconclusive mouflon gave negative results. These results suggested that it is unlikely that chamois BDV is infecting wild and domestic ruminants.

  7. Overview of anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Andrioli Salgado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Frequent and inappropriate use of all classes of antiparasitic drugs in small ruminants has led to failures in their effectiveness, culminating in a global problem of anthelmintic resistance. Brazil stands out as one of the world’s leaders in publications about anthelmintic resistance, and for having the most numerous reports of this resistance in small ruminants in the Americas. These studies have involved mainly the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT and its correlation with field management practices. In vivoeffectiveness testing is conducted in areas where livestock is of greater economic significance, e.g., in the South (sheep and Northeast (goats, or is important for research and economic centers, such as the Southeast (sheep. The most widely studied species is sheep, for which the widest range of drugs is also evaluated. Despite significant advances achieved in molecular research, laboratory analyses should include knowledge about the reality in the field so that they can become feasible for the producer. Moreover, molecular studies can be underpinned by the analysis of field studies, such as the maintenance of antiparasitic effectiveness over time and the mechanisms involved in this process.

  8. Bacteria isolated from abscesses of small ruminants inspected in the semiarid region of Brazil

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    Wellington Erasmo Lima e Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss in the supply chain of small ruminants owing to condemnations of carcasses in the abattoirs and slaughterhouses is common in northeastern Brazil. This study aims to identify bacterial agents, including Mycobacterium spp., in the abscesses found in the postmortem analysis of the carcasses of sheep and goats bred in northeastern Brazil. Our analysis involved 679 goats and 1,838 sheep carcasses. Abscess samples were extracted and inoculated on blood agar and Lowenstein Jensen with pyruvate or glycerol for bacterial isolation. We then performed polymerase chain reaction of the hps 65 gene; samples positive for Mycobacterium spp. were subjected to DNA sequencing. Relative frequencies of abscesses in goats and sheep were 5.44 and 3.26%, respectively. Microbiological analysis revealed 87.7% bacterial growth in the inoculated samples. Among these, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis represented 67.7% of the isolates. We observed 1.9% mycobacteria growth in the abscess samples inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. PCR of DNA extracted from abscesses samples showed amplification of 0.9% of samples. After sequencing, Mycobacterium spp. isolate was identified as M. novocastrense. C. pseudotuberculosis was the main agent responsible for the formation of abscesses in the examined animals, and we did not identify any species of the M. tuberculosis complex in the examined small ruminants.

  9. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  10. Use of medicinal plants to control Haemonchus contortus infection in small ruminants

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    Sawleha Qadir1

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is singly the most important of all the gastrointestinal nematodes that constrain the survival and productivity of sheep and goats owned by rural poor farmers in the developing world. This haematophagus parasite is infamous throughout the humid tropics/subtropics, being responsible for acute disease outbreaks with high levels of mortalities, particularly in young animals. Costs associated with control of this parasite in India, have been estimated to be US$ 103 million. H. contortus is also prominent amongst the reports of anthelmintic resistance that has emerged in all countries of the world that produce small ruminants. This emergence of multiple anthelmintic resistances has provided a spur for research on alternative forms of control. Recent surveys in developing countries have identified many plants that are intended and have the potential to be used as anthelmintics. This paper reviews the use of some medicinal plants as anthelmintics against H. contortus infection in small ruminants. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 515-518

  11. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, R; Rani, N; Ponnudurai, G; Anbarasi, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats) in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats) and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats) were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10), and blood smears were stained using Giemsa's technique and examined under oil immersion (×100). The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (pTamil Nadu is highly endemic for intestinal parasites such as coccidia and strongyles and haemoprotozoans such as Anaplasma and Theileria species in small ruminants.

  13. Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in small ruminants naturally infected with Babesia ovis

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    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ovis plays an important role in causing anemia and kidney dysfunction in affected animals. There are few extensive studies about hematological and biochemical findings of small ruminants' babesiosis caused by B. ovis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on some hematological and biochemical parameters in infected small ruminants with B. ovis. A total of 280 sheep and 122 goats from 40 herds were randomly examined for the presence of B. ovis in blood samples. Of 402 samples, 67 animals (16.7% were positive for B. ovis of which 52 (18.5% were sheep and 15 (12.2% goats, respectively. The infected animals were divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1%, 2%, and 3%. As a control group, 67 uninfected animals were also selected from the same farms. With increase in parasitemia rates, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC significantly decreased (P < 0.05, while, total leukocyte count, number of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil showed a significant increase (P < 0.05. Infected animals presented a significant elevation (P < 0.05 of total proteins and significantly lower level (P < 0.05 of albumin compared to non-infected animals. Significant elevation (P < 0.05 of BUN, creatinine, cholestrol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL level were found with parasitemia progression.

  14. In vitro production of small ruminant embryos: late improvements and further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves; Panneau, Barbara; Duffard, Nicolas; Locatelli, Yann; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Freitas, Vicente José de Figueirêdo; Mermillod, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    Beyond the potential use of in vitro production of embryos (IVP) in breeding schemes, embryos are also required for the establishment of new biotechnologies such as cloning and transgenesis. Additionally, the knowledge of oocyte and embryo physiology acquired through IVP techniques may stimulate the further development of other techniques such as marker assisted and genomic selection of preimplantation embryos, and also benefit assisted procreation in human beings. Efficient in vitro embryo production is currently a major objective for livestock industries, including small ruminants. The heterogeneity of oocytes collected from growing follicles by laparoscopic ovum pick up or in ovaries of slaughtered females, remains an enormous challenge for IVM success, and still limits the rate of embryo development. In addition, the lower quality of the IVP embryos, compared with their in vivo-derived counterparts, translates into poor cryosurvival, which restricts the wider use of this promising technology. Therefore, many studies have been reported in an attempt to determine the most suitable conditions for IVM, IVF, and in vitro development to maximize embryo production rate and quality. This review aims to present the current panorama of IVP production in small ruminants, describing important steps for its success, reporting the recent advances and also the main obstacles identified for its improvement and dissemination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Seyoum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5% were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P0.05. Body condition score was not significantly associated (P>0.05 with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  16. Ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Y; Yacob, Hailu T; Ashenafi, Hagos

    2010-08-01

    A study on ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of Tigray Region, Ethiopia disclosed an overall prevalence of 55.5% and 58% in each examined 750 sheep and goats, respectively. In the sheep population, Melophagus ovinus (19.1%), tick infestations (16%), Damalinia ovis (15.3%), Linognathus africanus (11.5%), and Ctenocephalides felis (9%) were the major ectoparasites. The major ectoparasites identified in goats were tick infestations (29.7%), L. africanus (27.9%), Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae (12.5%), C. felis (11.1%), and Demodex caprae (6.8%). In sheep, there was a statistically significant difference (P ovinus, L. africanus, and ticks between midland and highland. In goats, the risk of Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae infestation in midland (odds ratio (OR) = 17.2, P < 0.001) and lowland (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001) was 17.2 times and 5.2 times, respectively, higher than the highland. Favorable climatic conditions, backward level of management, poor level of consciousness and awareness of farmers, and weak animal health extension services are believed to have contributed for widespread distribution and occurrences of ectoparasites. The growing threat of ectoparasites to small ruminant production and the tanning industry needs well-coordinated and urgent control intervention.

  17. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  18. Mastite em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil Small ruminant mastitis in Brazil

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    Rodolfo de M. Peixoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de fatores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em caprinos varia entre 22 e 75%, sendo que os casos de mastite subclínica são os mais frequentes. Existe uma carência de trabalhos voltados para os aspectos epidemiológicos da enfermidade no nosso país. Contudo, observa-se que a mastite vem assumindo importância cada vez maior nos rebanhos voltados para produção de carne, sendo encontrados resultados de pesquisa, principalmente na espécie ovina. A mastite estafilocócica corresponde à maior fração nas infecções intramamárias em pequenos ruminantes. O caráter zoonótico de alguns patógenos, a exemplo do Staphylococcus aureus ressalta a importância da implantação de programas de controle em propriedades leiteiras. Algumas das ferramentas de diagnóstico ainda necessitam de padronização, principalmente para espécie caprina que apresenta uma série de particularidades. Ainda são discutidas as principais estratégias de controle como o manejo de fêmeas e suas crias, os procedimentos de ordenha e a utilização de vacinas.The present reviews mastitis in small ruminants, focusing important aspects of etiology, epidemiology, diagnose, control, and prophylaxis. There was a special concern in review studies developed in Brazil, since mastitis results from a combination of many factors such as environmental and management conditions that concur for the action of etiological agents and for the epidemiology of this relevant disease. The prevalence mastitis in goats varies from 22 to 75%, with

  19. Culture phenotypes and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimareli-Malli, Z; Mazaraki, K; Stevenson, K; Tsakos, P; Zdragas, A; Giantzi, V; Petridou, E; Heron, I; Vafeas, G

    2013-08-01

    In this study the suitability of different solid media was investigated for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in order to identify the optimum single or combination of media to permit the isolation of all strain types from small ruminants. A subset of these Map strains was then further characterized by molecular typing methods to assess the genetic diversity of Map strains in the study area (Northern Greece). Map strains were isolated from tissues and faeces of infected goats (n=52) and sheep (n=8) and were analysed for polymorphisms in IS1311 to classify the strain type as Type C or S. The study found that M7H11 supplemented with mycobactin j, OADC and new born calf serum (M7H11+Mj) is the best single choice of medium for the primary isolation of Map of both Type C and S from small ruminants. The combination of M7H11+Mj and Herrolds egg yolk medium supplemented with mycobactin j and sodium pyruvate allowed the detection of all Map isolates in this study. Nineteen Map isolates were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the isolates demonstrated significant genetic diversity. Twelve different SnaBI and 16 distinct SpeI profiles were detected of which 25 have not been described previously and are new profiles. The combination of both enzyme profiles gave 13 different multiplex profiles. Ten different multiplex profiles were detected in goats and three in sheep. One ovine isolate gave the same multiplex profile as a caprine isolate and two different profiles were found within a single goat herd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Small wind in Canada's energy future : fostering domestic manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Gluckman, M.; Weis, T.; Moorhouse, J.; Taylor, A.; Maissan, J.; Sherwood, L.; Whittaker, S.

    2008-01-01

    While large-scale wind power projects are sustaining a 30 per cent annual growth rate, residential-scale wind power is increasingly being adopted in Germany, Japan, and the United States. This presentation discussed the benefits associated with fostering strong domestic wind turbine markets in Canada. Small wind turbine markets typically consist of grid-connected, net-metered turbines of less than 1 kW, off-grid micro-turbines used for battery charging, and net-metered, grid-connected, mid-sized turbines larger than 10 kW used in farming and small business applications. Continued energy price hikes are expected to cause the rapid growth of distributed generation, and nearly half of the world's 10 to 300 kW wind turbine generator manufacturers are located in Canada. However, federal support for small-scale distributed wind systems is lacking, and financial incentives are needed to mature the technology in Canada and leverage private investment. The use of decentralized energy will help to prevent line losses and reduce peak demands on the electricity grid. Use of the technology offers farms and small businesses a revenue stream and can reduce energy costs and demands. It is also expected that small wind jobs in Canada will grow from 50 to 640 by 2025. It was concluded that in order to ensure small wind development, capital cost incentive levels must be coupled with good interconnection and permitting policies. In addition, minimum safety and performance standards must be developed, along with rebate policies and siting analysis methods. tabs., figs

  1. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoni Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low.

  3. Reverse transcription PCR-based detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from ticks of domestic ruminants in Kurdistan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Parvaneh; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Davari, Behrooz; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal viral vector-borne zoonosis which has a mortality rate of up to 30% without treatment in humans. CCHF virus is transmitted to humans by ticks, predominantly from the Hyalomma genus. Following the report of two confirmed and one suspected death due to CCHF virus in Kurdistan province of Iran in 2007, this study was undertaken to determine the fauna of hard ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) and their possible infection with CCHF virus using reverse transcription PCR technique. This is the first detection of CCHF virus in ticks from the Kurdistan province of Iran. Overall, 414 ixodid ticks were collected from two districts in this province. They represented four genera from which 10 separate species were identified. The Hyalomma genus was the most abundant tick genus (70%). It was the only genus shown to be infected with the CCHF virus using RT-PCR technique. The number of ticks positive for CCHF virus was 5 out of 90 (5.6%) adult ticks. The three remaining genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, and Dermacentor) were all negative following molecular survey. Four of the five virally-infected ticks were from cattle mainly in the Sanandaj district. We concluded that CCHF virus is present in the Hyalomma ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle) in Kurdistan province of Iran.

  4. Major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Shiferaw, Dessie; Szonyi, Barbara; Krontveit, Randi I; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. The search was both manual and electronic. The databases used in electronic search were PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL. For most of the vector-borne diseases, the summary was limited to narrative synthesis due to lack of sufficient data. Meta-analysis was computed for trypanosomosis and dermatophilosis while meta-regression and sensitivity analysis was done only for trypanososmosis due to lack of sufficient reports on dermatophilosis. Owing emphasis to their vector role, ticks and flies were summarized narratively at genera/species level. In line with inclusion criteria, out of 106 initially identified research reports 43 peer-reviewed articles passed the quality assessment. Data on 7 vector-borne diseases were extracted at species and region level from each source. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of trypanosomosis was 3.7% with 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8, 4.9), while that of dermatophilosis was 3.1% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.0). The in-between study variance noted for trypanosomosis was statistically significant (pparasitic presence in blood was documented for babesiosis (3.7% in goats); and anaplasmosis (3.9% in sheep). Serological evidence was retrieved for bluetongue ranging from 34.1% to 46.67% in sheep, and coxiellosis was 10.4% in goats. There was also molecular evidence on the presence of theileriosis in sheep (93%, n=160) and goats (1.9%, n=265). Regarding vectors of veterinary importance, 14 species of ticks in

  5. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.

    2012-06-04

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  6. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.; Imam, E.; Nassar, K.

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  7. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. "Clean, green and ethical" animal production. Case study: reproductive efficiency in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme B; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2006-02-01

    In response to changes in society and thus the marketplace, we need a vision for the future of our animal industries, including both on-farm and off-farm activities, that is "clean, green and ethical". Using small ruminants as a case study, we describe three "clean, green and ethical" strategies that farmers could use to improve reproductive performance. The first allows control of the timing of reproductive events by using socio-sexual signals (the "male effect") to induce synchronised ovulation in females. The second strategy, "focus feeding", is based on using short periods of nutritional supplements that are precisely timed and specifically designed for each event in the reproductive process (eg, gamete production, embryo survival, fetal programming, colostrum production). The third strategy aims to maximize offspring survival by a combination of management, nutrition and genetic selection for behaviour (temperament). All of these approaches involve non-pharmacological manipulation of the endogenous control systems of the animals and complement the detailed information from ultrasound that is now becoming available. Importantly, these approaches all have a solid foundation in reproductive biology. In several cases, they are currently used in commercial practice, but there is still room for improvement through both basic and applied research. Ultimately, these "clean, green and ethical" tools can be cost-effective, increase productivity and, at the same time, greatly improve the image of meat and milk industries in society and the marketplace.

  9. First molecular isolation of Mycoplasma ovis from small ruminants in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Rjeibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eperythrozoonosis is a small ruminant disease caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma ovis (formerly known as Eperythrozoon ovis. Whilst acute infection in sheep may result in an anaemia and ill thrift syndrome, most animals do not develop clinical signs. Molecular methods were used to compare and evaluate the prevalence of infection with M. ovis in sheep and goats in Tunisia. A total of 739 whole blood samples from 573 sheep and 166 goats were tested for the M. ovis 16S rRNA gene using PCR. The overall prevalence was 6.28% ± 0.019 (36/573. Only sheep were infected with M. ovis (p < 0.001, and the prevalence was significantly higher in central Tunisia (29.2% compared with other regions (p < 0.05. The prevalence revealed significant differences according to breed and bioclimatic zones (p < 0.001. Furthermore, the prevalence in young sheep (35/330; 10.6% was higher than in adults (1/243; 0.41% (p < 0.001. Only sheep of the Barbarine breed were infected, with a prevalence of 11.8% (p < 0.001. This is the first molecular study and genetic characterisation of M. ovis in North African sheep breeds.

  10. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, K. K. [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Parasitology

    2014-03-15

    Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)

  11. INTEGRATED FARMING MODEL OF SMALL RUMINANTS IN DELI SERDANG, NORTH SUMATRA - INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kusumastuti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to measure the added value of goat and sheep with cut and carry systemand influencing factors of goat/sheep productivity and to measure the added value of manure to palmproductivity. The research was done in Deli Serdang Regency by determining two districts as researcharea: Tanjung Morawa District and Bangun Purba District. Location was determined by purposivesampling technique based on population of small ruminants and area of oil palm plantation in bothdistricts. Sample consisted of 50 goat farmers and 50 sheep farmers. Results indicated that farmers have18 to 24 heads of goats or sheep. Performance of goat and sheep reproduction tended to similar togenereral performance. Amount of doe, feed from palm oil and intercropped plant, livestock type andlocation influence significantly at livestock productivity (P<0.01. Goat contributed manure 16.86% and11.26% of total palm trees in Tanjung Morawa and Bangun Purba, respectively, while sheep contributedmanure 21.49% and 22.56% of total palm trees, respectively. Therefore, it was necessary to increasepopulation of livestock, to increase technology and diversification of production. It may be done by establishing partnership with local government, animal of science office and private corporation .

  12. [Painful procedures in small ruminants - castration of rams and bucks. - An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Benjamin; Hannemann, Regina; Lendl, Christine; Strobel, Heinz; Ganter, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The castration of farm animals is practiced routinely throughout the world and the procedure is subject to different levels of regulation in different countries. In Germany, painful procedures in animals are regulated by the animal welfare act. However, the indications for acceptable methods of lamb and kid castration are still under discussion. There are distinct differences between the theoretical requirements of this legislation and experiences in practice. When male lambs are kept for many months with their dams, or with ewe lambs, castration is essential to avoid unwanted pregnancies and the slaughter of pregnant females. In the opinion of the authors, it is essential that castration of small ruminants must remain possible. However, the methods used for these painful procedures need to be reassessed and if necessary new regulations established. When castration is necessary, sufficient anaesthesia and analgesia must be used irrespective of species, age and method. To make this possible potent anaesthetics and analgesics urgently need to be licensed for use in these species. This would provide an evidence base for their use and extricate veterinary practitioners from the need to use the cascade system with its associated liabilities. Current literature has been reviewed here and possible new approaches discussed in order to establish solutions that are suitable for the animals, their keepers and veterinarians. Schattauer GmbH.

  13. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)

  14. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  15. Identification at Biovar Level of Brucella Isolates Causing Abortion in Small Ruminants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that 246 isolates (92.8% were B. melitensis biovar 1, 18 isolates (6.8% were B. melitensis biovar 2, and, interestingly, one isolate (0.4% obtained from Mazandaran province was B. abortus biovar 3. In this study, B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated in none of the selected provinces, and all isolates from 3 provinces (i.e., Chehar-mahal Bakhtiari, Markazi, and Ilam were identified only as B. melitensis biovar 1. In conclusion, we found that B. melitensis biovar 1 remains the most prevalent cause of small ruminant brucellosis in various provinces of Iran.

  16. Ectoparasites are the major causes of various types of skin lesions in small ruminants in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanie, Mersha; Negash, Tamiru; Sirak, Asegedech

    2010-08-01

    Ectoparasites are the major causes of skin lesions in animals. Clinical, skin scraping examination, and histopathological studies were conducted to identify and characterize skin lesions in small ruminants caused by ectoparasites. Mange mites, lice, sheep keds, and ticks were collected from the skin of affected animals for species identification. Skin biopsies were collected from affected part of the skin and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. Of 1,000 sheep and 600 goats examined, 815 (81.50%) sheep and 327 (54.5%) goats were infested with one or more types of ectoparasites. Sarcoptes scabiei var ovis, Demodex ovis, Psoroptes ovis, Bovicola ovis, Melophagus ovinus, and Amblyomma variegatum and other tick species were identified from sheep. S. scabiei var caprae, Demodex caprae, Linognathus stenopsis, and A. variegatum and other tick species were identified from goats. Gross skin lesions or defects observed on the skin include stained and ragged wool, loss of wool/hair, nodules, crusts, lichenification, and fissuring. Microscopic evaluation of H and E stained skin sections revealed lesions in the epidermal layer such as hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and melanin inconsistency on the basal cells of the epidermis. Follicular keratosis, perifolliculitis, frunculosis, perivasculitis, and aggregates of inflammatory cells (of acute and chronic type) with fibrosis were experiential in the dermal layer of the skin. Most of the skin lesions caused by ectoparasites are overlapping. Thus, ectoparasites control program should be executed to reduce skin lesions as skins are the major export commodity of the country.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF NATIVE PLANTS FROM THE CAATINGA BIOME AGAINST Staphylococcus spp. ISOLATES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS WITH MASTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    PEIXOTO, RODOLFO DE MORAES; SILVA, WELLINGTON ERASMO LIMA E; ALMEIDA, JACKSON ROBERTO GUEDES SILVA; BRANCO, ALEXSANDRO; COSTA, MATEUS MATIUZZI DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the antibacterial potential of plants from the Caatinga biome of the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, against Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants, such as goats and ewes. Ethanolic extracts of the following plants from the Caatinga biome were used: Encholirium spectabile Mart., Bromelia laciniosa Mart., Neoglaziovia variegata Mez., Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem.) A. C. Smith, Hymenaea martiana Hay...

  18. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from small ruminants and their meat at slaughter and retail level in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergelidis, D; Papadopoulos, T; Komodromos, D; Sergelidou, E; Lazou, T; Papagianni, M; Zdragas, A; Papa, A

    2015-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) presents major health risk for humans causing serious nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Asymptomatic food-producing animal carriers and their meat may represent potential reservoirs for human infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in small ruminants raised under free-range conditions and their meat at slaughter and retail level in Northern Greece. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 9·6% of the examined samples. All isolates were resistant at least to one antibiotic, whereas 59·3% of them were multidrug resistant (MDR) exhibiting resistance to three or more antibiotic classes. The higher resistance rates were observed against penicillin (100%), tetracycline (74%), clindamycin (59·3%) and erythromycin (51·9%). Resistance to cefoxitin was exhibited by 22·2% of the isolates, but only one isolate was found to carry the mecA gene and belonged to spa type t127. This is the first time this type of Staph. aureus is isolated in Greece from the surface of a small ruminant's carcass. The presence of multidrug resistant Staph. aureus, and especially MRSA, in small ruminants and their meat, represents a potential threat for the spread of this pathogen in the community. This study is the first report on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in small ruminants and their meat at slaughter level in Greece, elucidating a possible vehicle food for transmission to humans. These results suggest that human or animal sources could be involved in meat contamination and thus sources of contamination require investigation to control the dispersion of MRSA in the community. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Nematodirus oiratianus and Nematodirus spathiger of small ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guang-Hui; Jia, Yan-Qing; Cheng, Wen-Yu; Zhao, Wen; Bian, Qing-Qing; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Nematodirus spp. are among the most common nematodes of ruminants worldwide. N. oiratianus and N. spathiger are distributed worldwide as highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes, which cause emerging health problems and economic losses. Accurate identification of Nematodirus species is essential to develop effective control strategies for Nematodirus infection in ruminants. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could provide powerful genetic markers for identifying these closely related spe...

  20. Drug resistance makes new control measures of stomach parasites in small ruminants necessary = Resistentie maakt nieuwe aanpak van de bestrijding van maagdarmwormen bij kleine herkauwers noodzakelijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysker, M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Ploeger, H.W.; Vellema, P.

    2005-01-01

    Control of Parasitic gastroenteritis in small ruminants is threatened by the worldwide growing problem of anthelmintic resistance. Therfore, alternativeapproaches for worm control are imperative. Of utmost importance is to slow down selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance by using alternative

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in small ruminants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Berdenstain, Svetlane; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-03-01

    During the last decade, 27% of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Israel affected small ruminant (SR) farms. FMD outbreaks reoccur in Israel despite vaccination of all livestock and application of control measures. We performed a cross-sectional serological study, aimed at estimating the prevalence of FMD infection in SR in Israel and the possible risk factors for infection. Overall, 2305 samples of adult sheep (n=1948) and goats (n=357) were collected during 2011-14 in two separate surveys. One survey was based on random sampling of intensive management system farms and the other was originally aimed at the detection of Brucella melitensis at extensive and semi-intensive management system farms. Sera were tested by NS blocking ELISA (PrioCHECK(®)). The serological prevalence of antibodies against non structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus was estimated at 3.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%)=3.0% -4.5%). Additionally, a significantly lower infection prevalence (p value=0.049) of 1.0% (CI95%=0.1%-3.6%) was found in a small sample (197 sera) of young SR, collected during 2012. The positive samples from adult SR were scattered all over Israel, though two significant infection clusters were found by the spatial scan statistic. Occurrence of an outbreak on a non-SR farm within 5km distance was associated with a fifteen times increase in the risk of FMD infection of SR in the univariable analysis. Yet, this variable was not included in the multivariable analysis due to collinearities with the other independent variables. Multivariable logistic regression modeling found significantly negative associations (P valueIsrael SR pose only limited role in the transmission and dissemination of FMD. This conclusion may be applicable for other endemic countries in which, similar to Israel, all livestock are vaccinated against FMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Opportunities for Change in Small Ruminant Systems in Central Java-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Suparta Budisatria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study evaluated sheep fattening and goat breeding innovation scenarios for small ruminant systems in Central Java. In sheep fattening scenario 1, farmers were proposed to fatten 5 male sheep two times a year, in sheep fattening scenario 2, farmers were proposed to fatten sheep in one round of 9 months up to the age of one year. In sheep fattening scenario 3, farmers were proposed to fatten male sheep in two periods, one round with 5 animals as in scenario 1, and another round with 5 animals sold at one year of age for Idul Adha. Goat breeding scenarios were based on a breeding unit with 3 does and involved reductions of kidding intervals from 278 (middle zone and 273 (uplands days to 240 and 220 days. The sheep fattening scenarios indicated that if farmers could start specialising in sheep fattening, the technical and economic results could be improved compared to the present sheep production system. Sheep fattening scenario 3 showed the highest net live-weight production in kg and the highest value added. When the opportunity labour costs were included in the calculations, fattening of sheep still produced a positive net return to the farmers. A goat breeding unit with 3 does produced 2.2 and 1.7 times more kids than in the real situation in the middle zone and uplands, respectively. Reducing kidding intervals resulted in an increase of kids sold by 1.2 and 1.3 respectively for kidding intervals 240 and 220 days in the middle zone; while in the uplands this was 1.1 and 1.3 times respectively. The breeding scenario calculations indicated that goat breeding could make a positive contribution to the livelihood of goat farmers, if the management of goats was improved. Keywords:  sheep fattening, goats breeding, value added, Indonesia Animal Production 14(1:37-46, January 2012

  3. Small Ruminant Production System Efficiency under Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Arid Land Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab Fathelrahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat production systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE operate under scarce natural resource constraints. A cross-sectional survey that covered 661 mixed farms, including major sheep and goat production, was conducted in the three regions of Abu Dhabi Emirate (Al-Ain, Western Region and Abu Dhabi city during 2012. A Cobb-Douglas, double-logarithmic stochastic frontier production function and maximum likelihood estimation were applied to estimate important economic derivatives and the associated risk of small ruminant production in this arid area. The highest impact of an input on the output level was found to be labor for raising sheep and alfalfa grass for raising goats. Both labor and alfalfa variables were found to be overutilized for sheep and goat production, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that average technical efficiency is 0.62 for raising sheep and only 0.34 for raising goats in the study area. Technical efficiency analysis included measuring the frequency of farms at each level of estimated technical efficiency in the range between zero and one. Zero for the technical efficiency coefficient indicates a lack of technical efficiency in resource use. The results of this study indicated that only 1% of the sheep farms show a technical efficiency coefficient of 0.25 or less; the same can be said for 41% of goat producers. However, these technical efficiencies were found to be more than 0.75 for 12% and 5% of the sheep and goat farms, respectively. Overall, goat farming in the UAE was found to be less efficient than sheep production. The results also indicated that flock size and type of breed were the most influential factors relative to other factors, and both show a positive relationship with technical efficiency. Other than flock size, factors, such as owners’ years of experience and management practices, were found to be more influential on goat farming system efficiency relative to sheep farming.

  4. Study of compartmentalization in the visna clinical form of small ruminant lentivirus infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central nervous system (CNS disease outbreak caused by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV has triggered interest in Spain due to the rapid onset of clinical signs and relevant production losses. In a previous study on this outbreak, the role of LTR in tropism was unclear and env encoded sequences, likely involved in tropism, were not investigated. This study aimed to analyze heterogeneity of SRLV Env regions - TM amino terminal and SU V4, C4 and V5 segments - in order to assess virus compartmentalization in CNS. Results Eight Visna (neurologically affected sheep of the outbreak were used. Of the 350 clones obtained after PCR amplification, 142 corresponded to CNS samples (spinal cord and choroid plexus and the remaining to mammary gland, blood cells, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and/or lung. The diversity of the env sequences from CNS was 11.1-16.1% between animals and 0.35-11.6% within each animal, except in one animal presenting two sequence types (30% diversity in the CNS (one grouping with those of the outbreak, indicative of CNS virus sequence heterogeneity. Outbreak sequences were of genotype A, clustering per animal and compartmentalizing in the animal tissues. No CNS specific signature patterns were found. Conclusions Bayesian approach inferences suggested that proviruses from broncoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells represented the common ancestors (infecting viruses in the animal and that neuroinvasion in the outbreak involved microevolution after initial infection with an A-type strain. This study demonstrates virus compartmentalization in the CNS and other body tissues in sheep presenting the neurological form of SRLV infection.

  5. PREVALENCE OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN NATURALLY INFECTED SMALL RUMINANTS GRAZING IN THE POTOHAR AREA OF PAKISTAN

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    F. R. CHAUDARY, M. F. U. KHAN1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and seasonal trend of the Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the Potohar areas of northern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2004 to January 2006. Faecal samples collected from 968 sheep and 961 goats of different breeds were examined by the modified McMaster technique using saturated solution of sodium chloride. Results revealed that the infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in sheep compared to goats. The peak infection level was recorded during rainy season (July-October. On the other hand, low infection level was noted from December upto May. In sheep, highest log faecal egg counts (LFECs were recorded in Islamabad, followed by Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal. However, in goats the LFECs trend was highest in Islamabad, followed by Jhelum, Attock and Chakwal districts. A significant (P<0.05 variability in LFECs was noted between sheep and goat breeds from site-site, while no significant difference was observed between breeds at the same site. Hairy (Jattal goats and Salt-Range (Latti sheep breeds exhibited significantly reduced LFECs level along with higher packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb levels compared to other breeds. Moreover, FAMACHA© chart scoring in relation with worm infection (FECs was more valid in sheep than goats. High prevalence of H. contortus in Potohar areas was due to favourable agro-climatic conditions that favour the development and survival of the free-living stages of H. contortus. The findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of haemonchosis in small ruminants.

  6. Small variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains both a theoretical and experimental investigation of some of the fundamental characteristics of a smal variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressor intended for application in domestic refrigeration. The results of a previously published simulation model for variable speed...

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF ANOPLOSEFALYATS (FAUNA, TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS ANIMALS OF AZERBAIJAN AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Ismailov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anoplotsefalyats (Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, M.autumnalia, Avitellina centripunctata, Thyzaniezia giardi are common in farm ruminants of Azerbaijan. There are no strict zoning in their distribution and no specificity for the hosts. It was established that in Azerbaijan there are 27 species of oribatid mites that are involved in the life cycle of monieziozis out of which 20 species recorded to be new to our fauna, as their intermediate hosts. Infection of the final (sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo and intermediate hosts (oribatid mites happens all the year round. Maximum infection occurs in early spring and late autumn.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirles A. França

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and to identify molecular resistance markers in Staphylococcus spp. (n=210 isolated from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were evaluated by the disk diffusion test and by detection of the presence of mecA, blaZ, ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes by PCR. The efflux pump test was performed using ethidium bromide and biofilm production was determined by Congo red agar test along with PCR for detection of the icaD gene. The isolates were most resistant to amoxicillin (50.0%, streptomycin (42.8%, tetracycline (40.4%, lincomycin (39.0% and erythromycin (33.8%. Pan-susceptibility to all tested drugs was observed in 71 (33.8% isolates and 41 Staphylococcus isolates were positive for the efflux pump. Although phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in 12.8% of the isolates, none harbored the mecA gene. However, 45.7% of the isolates harbored blaZ indicating that beta-lactamase production was the main mechanism associated with staphylococci resistance to beta-lactams in the present study. The other determinants of resistance to antimicrobial agents ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA were observed in 1.4%, 10.4%, 16.2%, and 0.9% of the isolates, respectively. In addition, the icaD gen was detected in 32.9% of the isolates. Seventy three isolates (54 from goats and 19 from sheep were negative for all resistance genes tested and 69 isolates presented two or more resistance genes. Association among blaZ, ermA, ermB, ermC and efflux pump were observed in 17 isolates, 14 of which originated from goats and three from sheep. The data obtained in this study show the resistance of the isolates to beta-lactamics, which may be associated with the use of antimicrobial drugs without veterinary control.

  9. Invited review: Improving neonatal survival in small ruminants: science into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C M; Conington, J; Corbiere, F; Holmøy, I H; Muri, K; Nowak, R; Rooke, J; Vipond, J; Gautier, J-M

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal mortality in small ruminant livestock has remained stubbornly unchanging over the past 40 years, and represents a significant loss of farm income, contributes to wastage and affects animal welfare. Scientific knowledge about the biology of neonatal adaptation after birth has been accumulating but does not appear to have had an impact in improving survival. In this paper, we ask what might be the reasons for the lack of impact of the scientific studies of lamb and kid mortality, and suggest strategies to move forward. Biologically, it is clear that achieving a good intake of colostrum, as soon as possible after birth, is crucial for neonatal survival. This provides fuel for thermoregulation, passive immunological protection and is involved in the development of attachment between the ewe and lamb. The behaviour of the lamb in finding the udder and sucking rapidly after birth is a key component in ensuring sufficient colostrum is ingested. In experimental studies, the main risk factors for lamb mortality are low birthweight, particularly owing to poor maternal nutrition during gestation, birth difficulty, litter size and genetics, which can all be partly attributed to their effect on the speed with which the lamb reaches the udder and sucks. Similarly, on commercial farms, low birthweight and issues with sucking were identified as important contributors to mortality. In epidemiological studies, management factors such as providing assistance with difficult births, were found to be more important than risk factors associated with housing. Social science studies suggest that farmers generally have a positive attitude to improving neonatal mortality but may differ in beliefs about how this can be achieved, with some farmers believing they had no control over early lamb mortality. Facilitative approaches, where farmers and advisors work together to develop neonatal survival strategies, have been shown to be effective in achieving management goals, such as

  10. Seroprevalence of Bluetongue Virus in small ruminants in Balochistan province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, T; Yaqub, T; Shafee, M; Abbas, T; Nazir, J; Ullah, N; Rabbani, M; Chaudhary, M H; Mukhtar, N; Habib, M; Ul Rahman, A; Malik, A I; Ghafoor, A; Zahoor, M Y; Shabbir, M Z

    2018-03-31

    Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is a vector-borne disease of small ruminants that has the potential to spread across international borders. Despite large populations of susceptible animals and borders with BTV endemic countries, little is known of the disease burden and prevalent serotypes in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine seroconversion and prevalent serotypes in selected districts of the province using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sera (n = 876) were collected from clinically healthy sheep and goats originating from the districts of Quetta (n = 300), Mastung (n = 201), Killa Saifullah (n = 75) and Kech (n = 300). None of the study herds (n = 97) were seronegative for BTV, and at the individual level, the overall prevalence of BTV seroconversion was 47.26% (n = 414/876, 95% CI = 43.92%-50.63%). A higher percentage of goats (50.87%, 95% CI = 45.99%-55.73%) were seropositive for anti-VP7 immunoglobulins (IgG) than sheep (44.21%, 95% CI = 39.81%-48.70%). Odds ratios of seroconversion for goats were associated with breed type (χ 2  = 16.84, p = .01), parity (χ 2  = 23.66, p = .00) and presence of vector (χ 2  = 2.63, p = .10), whereas for sheep, it was associated with breed type (χ 2  = 13.80, p = .01) and parity (χ 2  = 53.40, p = .00). Serotype 8 was the most prevalent (26.82%, 95% CI = 14.75%-43.21%) followed by an equal prevalence of serotypes 2 and 9 (7.31%, 95% CI = 1.91%-21.01%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in Balochistan province and the results indicate that there is a necessity to initiate intervention strategies to control BT disease burden not only in this region of Pakistan but also in adjacent areas of the neighbouring countries, Iran and Afghanistan. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Use of Bacteriophages to Control Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Domestic Ruminants, Meat Products, and Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Qu, Kunli; Li, Xiaoyu; Cao, Zhenhui; Wang, Xitao; Li, Zhen; Song, Yaxiong; Xu, Yongping

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes. This article reviews the use of phages administered orally or rectally to ruminants and by spraying or immersion of fruits and vegetables as an antimicrobial strategy for controlling E. coli O157:H7. The few reports available demonstrate the potential of phage therapy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 carriage in cattle and sheep, and preparation of commercial phage products was recently launched into commercial markets. However, a better ecological understanding of the phage E. coli O157:H7 will improve antimicrobial effectiveness of phages for elimination of E. coli O157:H7 in vivo.

  12. The nonstructural protein NSs induces a variable antibody response in domestic ruminants naturally infected with Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, José-Carlos; Billecocq, Agnès; Durand, Jean Paul; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Cardinale, Eric; Marianneau, Philippe; Pépin, Michel; Tordo, Noël; Bouloy, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonosis in Africa which has spread to Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar, and Comoros. RVF virus (RVFV) (Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) causes a wide range of symptoms in humans, from benign fever to fatal hemorrhagic fever. Ruminants are severely affected by the disease, which leads to a high rate of mortality in young animals and to abortions and teratogenesis in pregnant females. Diagnostic tests include virus isolation and genome or antibody detection. During RVFV infection, the nucleoprotein encapsidating the tripartite RNA genome is expressed in large amounts and raises a robust antibody response, while the envelope glycoproteins elicit neutralizing antibodies which play a major role in protection. Much less is known about the antigenicity/immunogenicity of the nonstructural protein NSs, which is a major virulence factor. Here we have developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) enabling detection of low levels of NSs-specific antibodies in naturally infected or vaccinated ruminants. Detection of the NSs antibodies was validated by Western blotting. Altogether, our data showed that the NSs antibodies were detected in only 55% of animals naturally infected by RVFV, indicating that NSs does not induce a consistently high immune response. These results are discussed in light of differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) tests distinguishing naturally infected animals and those vaccinated with NSs-defective vaccines.

  13. Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Dier, Jeffery D; Anderson, Kristi L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Franklin, Sharon K; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-08-05

    Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, or two African ruminants (giraffe and bongo). Conjugal transfer was also assessed in these protozoa using Salmonella as the recipient. Virulence gene hyperexpression was only observed following exposure to the rumen protozoa from cattle and sheep while elevated virulence was also observed in these animals. Conjugal transfer events were, however, observed in all protozoa evaluated. It therefore appears that the protozoa-based hypervirulence is not universal to all ruminants while conjugal transfer is more ubiquitous. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using the Small Ruminant Nutrition System to develop and evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake of goats when accounting for ruminal fiber stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-11-01

    The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0

  15. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P blood volume (volume of distribution of blood) is adequate for calculation of transfusion volumes; however, use of the species-specific circulating blood volume can improve calculation of transfusion volume to predict and achieve desired packed cell volume. The incidence of transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Comparison of feed intake, digestion and rumen function among domestic ruminant species grazing in upland vegetation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L M M; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Celaya, R; Rodrigues, M A M; García, U; Frutos, P; Osoro, K

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare feed intake, digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community of 5 beef cows, 12 crossed ewes and 12 goats grazing together in spring-early summer on heather-gorse vegetation communities with an adjacent area of improved pasture. Organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) were estimated using alkane markers. Ruminal fluid samples were collected for measuring fermentation parameters, and studying the bacterial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Spot samples of urine were taken to determine purine derivative (PD) and creatinine concentrations to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Herbaceous species were the main dietary component in all animal species. Cattle had higher (p rumen bacterial structure. Differences among animal species were also observed in the relative frequency of several T-RFs. Certain T-RFs compatible with Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Clostridiales species were not found in goats, while these animals showed high relative frequencies of some fragments compatible with the Ruminococcaceae family that were not detected in sheep and cattle. Results suggest a close relationship between animals' grazing behaviour and rumen bacterial structure and its function. Goats seem to show a greater specialization of their microbial populations to deal with the greater fibrous and tannin content of their diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. 小肽在反刍动物营养中的应用%The Application of Small Peptide in Ruminant Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晴; 王斌星; 郭春华; 付洋洋; 王鼎

    2017-01-01

    Small peptide is the intermediate production of protein degradation;proteins are absorbed after degraded into free amino acids and peptides in the digestive tract of ruminants.Recently,the research of oligopeptide,especially small-peptide has become a hot topic in ruminant protein nutrition research.In order to fully understand the application of small peptides in ruminant nutrition,this paper reviews the effect of small peptides in ruminant diet on the production performance of ruminants,substance metabolism and rumen fermentation;this will provide a reference for the research and application of small peptides in ruminant nutrition.%小肽是动物降解蛋白质过程中产生的中间产物,蛋白质在动物消化道内降解成游离氨基酸和小肽后被吸收.近年来,对寡肽特别是小肽在反刍动物蛋白质营养中的作用有了越来越多的研究.为了全面了解小肽在反刍动物营养中的应用情况.论文综述了小肽应用于反刍动物日粮中对反刍动物的生产性能、物质代谢及瘤胃发酵的作用效果,以期为小肽在反刍动物营养中的研究和应用提供参考.

  18. Anaplasma ovis genetic diversity detected by major surface protein 1a and its prevalence in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi

    2018-04-01

    Anaplasma ovis is a widely distributed tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of sheep, goats, and wild ruminants. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence, associations of Anaplasma ovis in sheep and goats, as well as its genetic diversity based on analysis of the msp1α gene. A total of 416 DNA samples from sheep (n = 236) and goats (n = 180) from four provinces in southeastern Turkey were analyzed by PCR. The overall A. ovis prevalence was 18% (CI 14.4-22.1). The infection rates of A. ovis varied from 15.9% to 21.8% in sampled provinces, and they were not significantly different. There was no difference between Anaplasma ovis infection in sheep (20.3%, CI 15.4-26.0) and goats (15.0%, CI 10.1-21.1) or in infection rate of animals 1 year (16.4%, CI 12.4-21.2). A significant association between A. ovis infection and the presence of Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus turanicus was observed (P diversity of A. ovis were found in small ruminants in Turkey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Living in violence: Neighborhood domestic violence and small for gestational age births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Kantor, Erica; Wallace, Maeve; Theall, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods. Tests for spatial autocorrelation reveled area-level clustering and overlap of SGA and domestic violent rates. Pregnant women living in high domestic violence areas were more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared to women in low-domestic violence areas (OR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.08), net of the effects of individual-level factors and propensity scores. Neighborhood-level attributes including rates of domestic violence may increase women's risk for SGA birth, highlighting a policy-relevant and potentially amenable exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of serum protein electrophoretic pattern in cows and small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nagy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the physiological electrophoretic patterns in animals is very useful for clinicians in diagnosing healthy and sick animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum protein electrophoretic pattern in cows, sheep, and goats in order to evaluate the differences in the size and number of protein fractions between the evaluated ruminant species. Ten adult multiparous high-yielding dairy cows, 10 adult female sheep and 10 adult female goats were included in this study. All the evaluated animals were clinically healthy. Serum was analyzed for total serum protein concentrations, and for the relative and absolute values of protein fractions with calculation of albumin/globulin ratios. Serum protein fractions were separated by zone electrophoresis on buffered agarose gel. Serum protein electrophoresis identified 6 distinct bands, comprising albumin, alpha1- (α1, alpha2- (α2, beta1- (β1, beta2- (β2, and gamma- (γ globulins in cows. In sheep, serum proteins exhibited 6 fractions: albumin, α1-, α2-, β-, γ1- and γ2-globulins. In goats, serum proteins were separated into 5 fractions: albumin, α1-, α2-, β- and γ-globulins. Significant differences in the relative as well as absolute means were found for the albumin/globulin ratio and most of the protein fractions, except γ-globulins. No significant differences were found in the concentration of total proteins. These results describe the marked species differences in most of serum protein fractions between the evaluated groups of animals, and contribute to the current knowledge about the physiological electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins in ruminants, which can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  1. Current Status for Gastrointestinal Nematode Diagnosis in Small Ruminants: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Margaret Preston

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasites pose a significant economic burden particularly in small ruminant production systems. Anthelmintic resistance is a serious concern to the effective control of GIN parasites and has fuelled the focus to design and promote sustainable control of practices of parasite control. Many facets of sustainable GIN parasite control programs rely on the ability to diagnose infection both qualitatively and quantitatively. Diagnostics are required to determine anthelmintic efficacies, for targeted treatment programs and selection of animals for parasite resistant breeding. This review describes much of the research investigated to date to improve the current diagnostic for the above practices which is based on counting the number of parasite eggs in faeces.

  2. Contrast radiography of the lower urinary tract in the management of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants and swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.L.; Dykes, N.L.; Love, K.; Fubini, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    Contrast radiographic visualization of the small ruminant and porcine lower urinary tract is an infrequently used modality for the evaluation and management of obstructive urolithiasis. The administration of contrast medium through a tube cystostomy catheter used to divert urine flow until the resolution of the obstruction may provide an easy method to evaluate the status of the urethral obstruction. Contrast fluoroscopy is utilized to monitor and visualize therapeutic flushing of the urethra. A review of 26 patients seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital suggested that among the radiographic techniques used, positive contrast normograde cystourethrography through the tube cystostomy catheter allowed the best visualization of the lower urinary tract structures and enabled assessment of the resolution of the obstructive lesion

  3. The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany

    2014-01-01

    the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production......, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep...... throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle...

  4. Test of a small domestic boiler using different pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.; Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a 13 kW th commercial domestic boiler using pellets as fuel. Four different types of pellets were used and, for each one, the boiler was tested as a function of its capacity and the fan regulation affecting excess air. Measurements were performed for boiler heat load, pellet consumption rate, flue-gas temperature and composition. Mass balances allowed the calculation of the flue-gas flow rate and associated heat losses. Losses from incomplete combustion have also been quantified. Under boiler steady-state conditions the flue-gas O 2 concentration changes with boiler load and ventilation due to the regulation scheme of the boiler. Flue-gas CO shows a minimum for values of O 2 in the flue-gases of about 13%. NO x emissions are independent of excess air for low values of nitrogen in the fuel whereas, for larger values, NO x emissions increase with the O 2 present in the combustion products. The fractional conversion of the pellet nitrogen into NO x is in line with literature data. The boiler start-up was characterised by the temperature evolution inside and above the bed showing the propagation of combustion in the bed during about 10 min. During boiler start-up, a maximum in CO emissions was observed which is associated with the maximum combustion intensity, as typified by the flue-gas O 2 concentration and temperature, regardless the pellet type. (Author)

  5. Estimates of nutritional requirements and use of Small Ruminant Nutrition System model for hair sheep in semiarid conditions

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    Alessandra Pinto de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy for maintenance (km and weight gain (kf, the dietary requirements of total digestible nutrients (TDN and metabolizable protein (MP, as well as, evaluate the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS model to predict the dry matter intake (DMI and the average daily gain (ADG of Santa Ines lambs, fed diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (ME. Thirty five lambs, non-castrated, with initial body weight (BW of 14.77 ± 1.26 kg at approximate two months old, were used. At the beginning of the experiment, five animals were slaughtered to serve as reference for the estimative of empty body weight (EBW and initial body composition of the 30 remaining animals, which were distributed in randomized block design with five treatments (1.13; 1.40; 1.73; 2.22 and 2.60 Mcal/kg DM, and six repetitions. The requirement of metabolizable energy for maintenance was 78.53 kcal/kg EBW0,75/day, with a utilization efficiency of 66%. The average value of efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for weight gain was 48%. The dietary requirements of TDN and MP increased with the increase in BW and ADG of the animals. The SRNS model underestimated the DMI and ADG of the animals in 6.2% and 24.6%, respectively. Concludes that the values of km and kf are consistent with those observed in several studies with lambs created in the tropics. The dietary requirements of TDN and MP of Santa Ines lambs for different BW and ADG are, approximately, 42% and 24%, respectively, lower than those suggested by the american system of evaluation of food and nutrient requirements of small ruminants. The SRNS model was sensitive to predict the DMI in Santa Ines lambs, however, for variable ADG, more studies are needed, since the model underestimated the response of the animals of this study.

  6. Uses of plants, animal and mineral substances in Mediterranean ethno-veterinary practices for the care of small ruminants.

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    Piluzza, G; Virdis, S; Serralutzu, F; Bullitta, S

    2015-06-20

    The cultural heritage of Sardinian shepherds is rapidly vanishing and survives in the memory of elderly people. The objective of our study was not only to report the usage of plants and their preparation for administration but also the use of other remedies of different origin arising from traditional ethno-veterinary knowledge, as Sardinian shepherds were used to employ plants, animals, minerals and combinations of several substances to prepare remedies for prophylaxis or therapy on their animals. The work was carried out in rural areas of the island of Sardinia (Italy) by interviewing shepherds and filling questionnaires in order to record ethno-veterinary practices traditionally used for animal health care. Ethno-veterinary remedies traditionally utilised for treatments of small ruminants against ecto-and endo-parasites, gastrointestinal diseases, viral and bacterial diseases, wounds, sprains and bruises were identified. Non herbal remedies outnumbered the herbal ones, as usually plant species were mainly used for the care of cattle and equines. A total of 150 ethno-veterinary uses were documented for the treatment of 33 animal conditions, a detailed account of the formulations and their administration to sheep and goats was provided. Herbal remedies involved the use of twenty two spontaneous species and seven cultivated species. This study identifies remedies used in ethno-veterinary practices for small ruminants care in Sardinia, the second major Mediterranean island which has agro-pastoral activities dating back to Neolithic. Moreover, the danger of losing oral traditions, and the increasing attention towards traditional remedies as potential sources of natural products for improving animal health and welfare, support the interest of our survey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A study on the determination of risk factors associated with babesiosis and prevalence of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, in small ruminants from Southern Punjab (Pakistan

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    Iqbal F.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host, which includes a wide variety of vertebrates including small ruminants causing decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. The objective of the present study was to establish a PCR based method for the detection of Babesia sp. in small ruminant population in Southern Punjab and to determine the risk factors involve in the spread of babesiosis. A total of 107 blood samples were collected from 40 sheep and 67 goats in seven districts of Southern Punjab from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals and the herd were collected through questionnaires. 36 blood samples (34% of total produced the DNA fragment specific for 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, of which 20 were sheep and 16 were goats. Samples from all seven district contained Babesia positive samples and prevalence varied between 18 to 68%. It was observed that male animals (P = 0.009 and young animals under one year of age (P = 0.01 were more prone to the parasite. It was observed that herds consist of more than 15 animals (P = 0.007, composed of mixed species of small ruminants (P = 0.022, associated with dogs (P = 0.003 and dogs having ticks on their bodies (P = 0.011 were among the major risk factors for the spread of babesiosis in small ruminants.

  8. A study on the determination of risk factors associated with babesiosis and prevalence of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, in small ruminants from Southern Punjab (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, F; Fatima, M; Shahnawaz, S; Naeem, M; Shaikh, Rs; Ali, M; Shaikh, As; Aktas, M; Ali, M

    2011-08-01

    Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host, which includes a wide variety of vertebrates including small ruminants causing decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. The objective of the present study was to establish a PCR based method for the detection of Babesia sp. in small ruminant population in Southern Punjab and to determine the risk factors involve in the spread of babesiosis. A total of 107 blood samples were collected from 40 sheep and 67 goats in seven districts of Southern Punjab from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals and the herd were collected through questionnaires. 36 blood samples (34% of total) produced the DNA fragment specific for 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, of which 20 were sheep and 16 were goats. Samples from all seven district contained Babesia positive samples and prevalence varied between 18 to 68%. It was observed that male animals (P = 0.009) and young animals under one year of age (P = 0.01) were more prone to the parasite. It was observed that herds consist of more than 15 animals (P = 0.007), composed of mixed species of small ruminants (P = 0.022), associated with dogs (P = 0.003) and dogs having ticks on their bodies (P = 0.011) were among the major risk factors for the spread of babesiosis in small ruminants.

  9. Validation of an IgM antibody capture ELISA based on a recombinant nucleoprotein for identification of domestic ruminants infected with Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roy; Ellis, Charlotte Elizabeth; Smith, Shirley Jacqueline; Potgieter, Christiaan Abraham; Wallace, David; Mareledwane, Vuyokazi Epipodia; Majiwa, Phelix Antipas Ochola

    2011-11-01

    The presence of competent vectors in some countries currently free of Rift Valley fever (RVF) and global changes in climate, travel and trade have increased the risk of RVF spreading to new regions and have emphasised the need for accurate and reliable diagnostic tools for early diagnosis during RVF outbreaks. Highly sensitive viral detection systems like PCR have a limited use during outbreaks because of the short duration of viraemia, whereas antibodies like specific IgM which are serological indicators of acute infection, can be detected for up to 50 days after infection. Using the highly conserved and immunogenic recombinant nucleoprotein of RVF virus in an IgM capture ELISA, the risk of laboratory infection associated with traditional serological methods is avoided. The use of pre-coated/pre-blocked ELISA plates and the conjugation of the recombinant nucleoprotein with horseradish peroxidase simplified and shortened the assay procedure. Results showed the assay to be highly reproducible with a lower detection limit equal to that of a commercial competition ELISA. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis the area under curve (AUC) index was determined as 1.0 and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at a PP cut-off value of 4.1 as 100% and 99.78% respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that the IgM capture ELISA is a safe, reliable and highly accurate diagnostic tool which can be used on its own or in parallel with other methods for the early diagnosis of RVF virus infection and also for monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pesti Des Petits ruminants virus infection in animals

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    Chauhan H.C.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries morbillivirus infections have had a huge impact on both human beings and animals. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals world wide. They include measles virus (MV, canine distemper virus (CDV, rinderpest virus (RPV and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV virus. Furthermore, new emerging infectious diseases of morbilliviruses with significant ecological consequences of marine mammals have been discovered in the past decades. Phocid distemper virus (PDV in seals and the cetacean morbillivirus (CMV have been found in dolphins, whales and porpoises. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious ,infectious , an acute or sub acute viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants characterized by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia. Goats are more severely affected than sheep. It is also known as pseudorinderpest of small ruminants, pest of small ruminants, pest of sheep and goats, kata, stomatitis- pneumoentritis syndrome, contagious pustular stomatitis and pneumoentritis complex. It is one of the major notifiable diseases of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 150-155

  11. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Antigenic evidence of bluetongue virus from small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha, India

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    Shaswati Subhadarsini Pany

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to carry out antigenic detection of bluetongue virus (BTV among the small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha (coastal and central using recombinant VP7 (r-VP-7 based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s-ELISA. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (n=274 were collected from two different geographical pockets of Odisha, which covered mostly the coastal and central regions. Of the total samples under study 185 were from goat and 89 were from sheep. The blood samples were tested for the presence of BTV antigen by r-VP7 based s-ELISA. Results: r-VP-7 s-ELISA detected BTV antigen in 52.43% and 44.94% of the goat and sheep population under study, respectively. This study highlights the antigenic persistence of BTV in the state for the 1st time. Conclusion: This high antigenic presence in both sheep and goat population suggests an alarming BTV infection in field conditions which warrants more systematic study directed toward isolation and characterization studies as well as the implementation of control strategy for BT in Odisha.

  13. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Impaired Expression of Cytokines as a Result of Viral Infections with an Emphasis on Small Ruminant Lentivirus Infection in Goats

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    Justyna Jarczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing about the genes involved in immunity, and being able to identify the factors influencing their expressions, helps in gaining awareness of the immune processes. The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV, causes economic losses in goat breeding, and there is no therapy against SRLV. The results of studies on vaccines against other viruses are promising. Moreover, the Marker-Assisted Selection strategy against SRLV is possible, as has been shown in sheep breeding. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity, and SRLV infection influences the expression of many cytokines in different types of cells. This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an emphasis on the expression of cytokine genes. This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection.

  15. Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.

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    Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in response to abomasal versus ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S F; Harmon, D L; Vanzant, E S; McLeod, K R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the absorption of monosaccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In contrast, GLUT2 (gene SLC2A2) transports all of these sugars across basolateral and apical membranes. To compare the distribution patterns and sensitivity with nutritional regulation of these 3 SugT mRNA in beef cattle small intestinal tissue, 18 ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (BW approximately 260 kg) were assigned to water (control), ruminal cornstarch (partially hydrolyzed by alpha-amylase; SH), or abomasal SH infusion treatments (n = 6) and fed an alfalfa-cube-based diet at 1.3 x NE(m) requirement. The SH infusions amounted to 20% of ME intake. After 14- or 16-d of infusion, steers were killed; duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia harvested; and total RNA extracted. The relative amount of SugT mRNA in epithelia was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification methods. Basal expression of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA in small intestinal epithelia was not affected (P > or = 0.16) by either SH infusion treatment. In contrast, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA content in the ileal epithelium was increased (P content also was increased (P = 0.07) by 64% after ruminal SH infusion. These results demonstrate that the ileum of beef cattle small intestine adapts to an increased luminal supply of glucose by increasing SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA content, whereas increased ruminal SH supply results in duodenal upregulation of SGLT1 mRNA content. These adaptive responses of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA to abomasal or ruminal SH infusion suggest that beef cattle can adapt to increase their carbohydrate assimilation through small intestinal epithelia, assuming

  17. Mutations in Ovis aries TMEM154 are associated with lower small ruminant lentivirus proviral concentration in one sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshanbari, F A; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Highland, M A; Lewis, G S; White, S N

    2014-08-01

    Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), also called ovine progressive pneumonia virus or maedi-visna, is present in 24% of US sheep. Like human immunodeficiency virus, SRLV is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that causes lifelong infection. The production impacts from SRLV are due to a range of disease symptoms, including pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis, body condition wasting and encephalitis. There is no cure and no effective vaccine for preventing SRLV infection. However, breed differences in prevalence and proviral concentration indicate a genetic basis for susceptibility to SRLV. Animals with high blood proviral concentration show increased tissue lesion severity, so proviral concentration represents a live animal test for control post-infection in terms of proviral replication and disease severity. Recently, it was found that sheep with two copies of TMEM154 haplotype 1 (encoding lysine at position 35) had lower odds of SRLV infection. In this study, we examined the relationship between SRLV control post-infection and variants in two genes, TMEM154 and CCR5, in four flocks containing 1403 SRLV-positive sheep. We found two copies of TMEM154 haplotype 1 were associated with lower SRLV proviral concentration in one flock (P < 0.02). This identified the same favorable diplotype for SRLV control post-infection as for odds of infection. However, frequencies of haplotypes 2 and 3 were too low in the other three flocks to test. The CCR5 promoter deletion did not have consistent association with SRLV proviral concentration. Future work in flocks with more balanced allele frequencies is needed to confirm or refute TMEM154 association with control of SRLV post-infection. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Characterization and typification of small ruminant farms providing fuelbreak grazing services for wildfire prevention in Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Y; Ruiz-Mirazo, J; Ruiz, F A; Castel, J M

    2016-02-15

    Several wildfire prevention programs in Spain are using grazing livestock to maintain fuelbreaks with low levels of biomass. Even though shepherds are remunerated for these services, many of their farms are hardly viable in the current socio-economic context. By analyzing 54 small ruminant farms participating in the Grazed Fuelbreak Network in Andalusia (southern Spain), this research aimed to identify the main types and characteristics of such farms and, considering the challenges they are facing, propose strategies to improve both their economic viability and their effectiveness in fuelbreak grazing. Based on data collected through a survey on key farm management aspects, a multivariate analysis was performed and four main types of farm were identified: two clusters of dairy goat farms and two composed mostly of meat-purpose sheep farms. Farms in all clusters could benefit from improvements in the feeding and reproductive management of livestock, either to enhance their productivity or to make better use of the pasture resources available. Dairy goat farms remain more dependent on external animal feed to ensure a better lactation, therefore they should either diminish their workforce costs per animal or sell transformed products directly to consumers to improve their economic viability. Best fuelbreak grazing results were related to larger flocks combining sheep and goats, lower ratios of fuelbreak surface area per animal, and longer (year-long) grazing periods on fuelbreaks. Therefore, such farm features and adjusted fuelbreak assignments should be favored in wildfire prevention programs using grazing services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsson, Emeli; Kgotlele, Tebogo; Berg, Mikael; Mtui-Malamsha, Niwael; Swai, Emanuel S; Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Misinzo, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome. PPR was officially confirmed in domestic animals in the Ngorongoro district of Tanzania in 2008. It is now considered to be endemic in the domestic sheep and goat populations throughout Tanzania, but restricted to one or more areas in the small ruminant wildlife population. In this article, we review the history and the current status of PPR in Tanzania and neighboring countries. To control and eradicate PPR in the region, a joint effort between these countries needs to be undertaken. The effort must also secure genuine engagement from the animal holders to succeed.

  20. History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania

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    Emeli Torsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80–100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome. PPR was officially confirmed in domestic animals in the Ngorongoro district of Tanzania in 2008. It is now considered to be endemic in the domestic sheep and goat populations throughout Tanzania, but restricted to one or more areas in the small ruminant wildlife population. In this article, we review the history and the current status of PPR in Tanzania and neighboring countries. To control and eradicate PPR in the region, a joint effort between these countries needs to be undertaken. The effort must also secure genuine engagement from the animal holders to succeed.

  1. ARE SMES MORE CONFORTABLE WITH SMALL DOMESTIC LENDERS? (I – THE LITERATURE

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    Petria Nicolae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are recognized having an important role in economic development, but this recognition doesn’t resolve the essential problems of the SME sector. We found that one of these are the problems of insufficient or inadequate funding, the lack of availability of financial institutions or private equity investors to meet the SMEs financing requirements. The need for financing of SMEs is predominantly covered by bank loans, but it is difficult to say if this demand finds an appropriate offer, in amount and structure. Thus, it is important to understand if the role of lending techniques and organizational structures of the banks, types and origin of the owners (state, private, domestic or foreign or the size and the market power (large, small, local, or niche banks individualizes the banks offer and if the banks know the best way to mitigate the demand and supply constraint. Even though the traditional view explains the strategic predisposition of large banks to finance their clients(by default large clients, corporations through transactional lending and, and local/domestic banks use the relationship lending- suitable to small customers (SMEs, however, the more recent opinions show that the large international banks use a combination of methods and techniques to gain favorable position on SMEs segments.

  2. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, A; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, A; Malla, B A; Farooq, J

    2015-01-01

    olive cake is available to animal in contrary to that of European olive cake. We concluded from in vitro studies that Indian olive cake can be included in complete feed at 30% level (w/w; 40% ADF replacement) for feeding in small ruminants without compromising in vitro degradability of the feed.

  3. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ishfaq

    2015-01-01

    important finding was that about 78% of nitrogen present in Indian olive cake is available to animal in contrary to that of European olive cake. We concluded from in vitro studies that Indian olive cake can be included in complete feed at 30% level (w/w; 40% ADF replacement for feeding in small ruminants without compromising in vitro degradability of the feed.

  4. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Babesia motasi-like in small ruminants and ixodid ticks from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Yu, Peifa; Pan, Yuping; Zhai, Bintao; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Ovine babesioses, an important tick-borne disease of sheep and goats in China, is caused by the reproduction of intraerythrocytic protozoa of the Babesia genus. Babesia motasi-like is a Babesia parasite that infects small ruminant in China, and two sub-groups of B. motasi-like can be subdivided based on differences in the rhoptry-associated-protein-1 gene. This study aimed to characterize the distribution, epidemiology and genetics of B. motasi-like in animals and ticks. A molecular investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2015 in 16 provinces in China. In total, 1081 blood samples were collected from sheep and goats originating from 27 different regions, and 778 ixodid tick samples were collected from 8 regions; the samples were tested for the presence of B. motasi-like using a specific nested PCR assay based on the rap-1b gene. The results indicated that 139 (12.9%), 91 (8.4%), 48 (4.4%) and 6 (0.7%) of the blood samples were positive for general B. motasi-like, Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan and Ningxian), Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei sub-groups, mixed infections, respectively. Among the collected 778 ixodid ticks (including Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, Dermacentor silvarum, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus), the most frequently infected with Babesia were D. silvarum and I. persulcatus (35.7%), followed by H. longicornis (26.8%), H. qinghaiensis (24.8%) and R. sanguineus (9.3%). The PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The positive rates of B. motasi-like infection in ticks were found to be higher in China, compared with previous studies in other countries. B. motasi-like infections have not previously been reported in D. silvarum, I. persulcatus or R. sanguineus. The findings obtained in this study could be used for planning effective control strategies against babesiosis in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water and small ruminant production A água e a produção de pequenos ruminantes

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    Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is a nutrient of extreme importance for animals and must be considered vital in any rearing phase. The increasing scarcity of this precious natural resource has concerned different segments of society in order to find solutions for rational and sustainable use of this nutrient. Small ruminants, especially sheep and goats, have social and economic importance due to their great ability in adapting to adverse environmental conditions and using water efficiently. Thus, they might be a good alternative to mitigate the climate change effects and to generate foreign exchange and improving life condition in many places of the world. The concept of water productivity for livestock production is relatively new and there are few studies in the world, especially in Brazil. More researches and new technologies for water use in livestock production are indispensable.A água é um nutriente extremamente importante na vida dos animais e deve ser considerada como vital em qualquer fase da criação. A escassez crescente deste precioso recurso natural tem provocado reações de diferentes segmentos da sociedade na busca de soluções de uso racional e sustentável deste nutriente. Os pequenos ruminantes, especialmente os ovinos e caprinos, são partes importantes da vida econômica e social de muitas nações pela sua ampla capacidade de adaptação às condições adversas do ambiente e boa eficiência no uso da água, podendo ser uma das boas alternativas de mitigação dos efeitos das mudanças climáticas, gerando divisas e melhoria das condições de vida em muitas regiões do mundo. O conceito de produtividade de água para a produção animal é relativamente novo e ainda são recentes e escassos os estudos existentes no mundo e em particular no Brasil. A realização de mais pesquisas e a geração de novas tecnologias de uso da água na produção animal, hoje mais do que nunca tornam-se imprescindíveis.

  6. [Local anaesthesia in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Karl; Schwarz, Andrea; Ringer, Simone

    2017-06-20

    The use of local anaesthesia in ruminants allows many surgical procedures to be conducted free of pain, efficiently and inexpensively in the field. Local anaesthesia combined with sedation and immobilisation of the animal can replace general anaesthesia for many procedures (e. g. castration, claw amputation). The level of difficulty differs among various local anaesthetic techniques: local infiltration of tissue or anaesthesia of the cornual nerve are easily performed, whereas local anaesthesia of the eye, regional anaesthesia in limbs or anaesthesia for umbilical surgery are more difficult to carry out. This article presents an illustrated overview of the most common local anaesthetic procedures in cattle as well as in small ruminants and serves as a practical guide for veterinarians in the field. In principle, these techniques can likewise be applied in other ruminants or artiodactyls.

  7. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006–2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Luethy, D.; Stefanovski, D.; Salber, R.; Sweeney, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. Objective To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion...

  8. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR: A Serious Threat for Wild Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is the most contagious and extremely infectious respiratory diseases in goats and sheep and is most common in West and Central Africa, Middle East and Southern Asia; it spreads rapidly regardless of country borders (1. A serological and virological outbreak of PPR was identified in Ilam province, Iran near the Iraqi border in 1995. Since then, despite all control measures, numerous incidents of the disease have been reported throughout the country (2. Between 1995 and 2004, vaccination of sheep and goats was performed by cell cultured rinderpest (RP vaccine; the small ruminants started to be vaccinated from early 2005 (2. In spite of vaccination of susceptible animals and application of some containment measures, PPR spread through the whole country, infecting every province with fluctuating prevalence and continuity. The cause of this failure might be related to the fact that well-designed control program in the country was not carried out appropriately and vaccination schedule was not covered abundantly. For instance in 2011, just over 3.5 million small ruminants received vaccine from an estimated National population of just fewer than 80 million animals (3. Some species of animal , e.g. such as gazelles, goats and sheep, that are relatively prevalent in Middle Eastern countries especially in Iran are believed to be immune to PPR infection (4. The wildlife in Iran consists of several animal species that include bears, gazelles, foxes, and also domestic animals including sheep, goats, cattle, and camels. It is believed that PPR virus circulates in domestic ruminants and acts as a potential source of virus for wild animal species in wildlife and the role of domestic small ruminants in the spread of the disease to wild ruminants is clear. It is quite possible that in cases of pastures exchange between domestic and wild animals, the spread of PPR is facilitated between the two populations (5. In Iran

  9. Green offal inspection of cattle, small ruminants and pigs in the United Kingdom: Impact assessment of changes in the inspection protocol on likelihood of detection of selected hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Dadios, Nikolaos; Reinmann, Karin; Guitian, Javier; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2015-06-01

    The changes in detection of selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards due to the change in current inspection of green offal in cattle, small ruminants and pigs were assessed. With respect to public health and animal health, the conditional likelihood of detection with the current green offal inspection was found to be low for eleven out of the twenty-four selected hazard-species pairings and very low for the remaining thirteen pairings. This strongly suggests that the contribution of current green offal inspection to risk mitigation is very limited for public and animal health hazards. The removal of green offal inspection would reduce the detection of some selected animal welfare conditions. For all selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards, the reduced detection could be compensated with other pre-harvest, harvest and/or post-harvest control measures including existing meat inspection tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspects of the epidemiology, research, and control of lentiviral infections of small ruminants and their relevance to Dutch sheep and goat farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, C; Brinkhof, J M A; Moll, L; Colenbrander, B; Houwers, D J

    2010-08-15

    In 1862, the veterinarian Loman reported the first sheep in The Netherlands with symptoms associated with lentiviral infection, although at the time the symptoms were ascribed to ovine progressive pneumonia. In the following century, similar cases were reported by South African, French, American, and Icelandic researchers. Extensive research into the pathology, aetiology, and epidemiology of this slowly progressive and ultimately fatal disease was initiated in several countries, including the Netherlands. Studies of the causative agents--maedi visna virus (MVV) in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats, comprising the heterogeneous group of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV)--prompted the development of diagnostic methods and the initiation of disease control programmes in many European countries including the Netherlands, as a pioneer in 1982, and in the U.S.A. and Canada.

  11. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing mastitis in small ruminants and their susceptibility to antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Mostafa Abdalhamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work aims to isolate and identify bacteria that cause mastitis in small ruminants and evaluates the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts. Materials and Methods: A total of 289 milk samples were collected from udder secretions of sheep (n=189 and goat (n=100 from El-Fayoum, Beni-Suef, and Giza governorates. Screening subclinical mastitis (SCM was done using California Mastitis Test (CMT; identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram's staining, hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, and biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index. Results: On clinical examination, the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM was found to be 5.88% and 7% in sheep and goat, respectively. On CMT, SCM was found to be 25 (13.23% and 11 (10% in sheep and goat, respectively. Bacteriological examination of all milk samples found the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA (31.1%, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (19.5%, Escherichia coli (EC (8.3%, Streptococcus spp. (5.6%, Klebsiella spp. (3.77%, and Pseudomonas spp. (1.89%, while no bacteria were cultured from 81.66% of the samples. Identification of 9 isolates of CNS was achieved by using API staph test to Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The highest bacterial resistance was found in EC (67.14% followed by Kp (45.28% and SA (26.57%. Conclusion: Onion and black cumin essential oils followed by Egyptian honey showed strong antibacterial effects against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Finally, our study proved that Egyptian honey, onion, and black cumin essential oils have a marked strong antibacterial effect against bacteria isolated from small ruminant mastitis, but still further extensive studies are needed to discover the therapeutic properties of these plant extracts and honey.

  12. Increased expressions of ADAMTS-13, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and neurofilament correlate with severity of neuropathology in Border disease virus-infected small ruminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gungor Cagdas Dincel

    Full Text Available Border Disease (BD, caused by Pestivirus from the family Flaviviridae, leads to serious reproductive losses and brain anomalies such as hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia in aborted fetuses and neonatal lambs. In this report it is aimed to investigate the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (ADAMTS-13, and neurofilament (NF in the brain tissue in small ruminants infected with Border Disease Virus (BDV and to identify any correlation between hypomyelinogenesis and BD neuropathology. Results of the study revealed that the levels of ADAMTS-13 (p<0.05, nNOS (p<0.05, and NF (p<0.05 were remarkably higher in BDV-infected brain tissue than in the uninfected control. It was suggested that L-arginine-NO synthase pathway is activated after infection by BDV and that the expression of NF and nNOS is associated with the severity of BD. A few studies have focused on ADAMTS-13 expression in the central nervous system, and its function continues to remain unclear. The most prominent finding from our study was that ADAMTS-13, which contain two CUB domains, has two CUB domains and its high expression levels are probably associated with the development of the central nervous system (CNS. The results also clearly indicate that the interaction of ADAMTS-13 and NO may play an important role in the regulation and protection of the CNS microenvironment in neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, NF expression might indicate the progress of the disease. To the best of the authors'knowledge, this is the first report on ADAMTS-13 expression in the CNS of BDV-infected small ruminants.

  13. Thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems in theory, in the laboratory and in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    for poor thermal performances of systems tested in practice are given. Based on theoretical calculations the negative impact on the thermal performance, due to a large number of different parameter variations are given. Recommendations for future developments of small solar domestic hot water systems...

  14. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  15. Diagnosis of small capacity reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillali, Z.; Hamed, A.; Elfil, Hamza; Ferjani, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tunisian norm of drinking water tolerates a maximum TDS of 1.5 g/L, and the domestic water presents usually a salinity grater than 500 mg/L. In the last years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. This RO unit, tested with tap waters during four years, was diagnosed. The RO unit produces 10-15 L/Hour with a recovery rate between 25 and 40 pour cent and salt rejection in order of 90 pour cent. The salinity of the tested domestic water is located between 0.4 and 1.4 g/L. Water pretreatment is composed of three filtration operations (cartridge filter, granulate active carbon filter and 5 =m cartridge filter). Pretreated water is pumped through RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. At the 4th year, the RO unit performances were substantial decreased. Recovery rate and salt rejection fall down more than 50 and 100% respectively and the pressure drop increase from 1 to 2.1 bar The membrane regeneration allowed only the rate recovery restoration. The membrane selectivity was not improved. The membrane seems irreversibly damaged by the tap water chlorine none retained by the deficient pretreatment. An autopsy of the used RO membrane was done by different analysis techniques as SEM/EDX, AFM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of membrane (proper and used) surfaces show a deposit film on the used membrane witch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicates a fooling phenomenon. The SEM photos show deterioration on the active layer material of the membrane witch seems attacked by the tap water chlorine. The X Rays Diffraction and FTIR show that the deposit collected on the used membrane contains organic and mineral (Gypsum, SiO 2 and clays) materials. Silicates and clays can exist in tap waters and reach the RO membrane when the pretreatment micro-filter became deficient. The Gypsum presence is due only to germination on the membrane.

  16. A proteomics study of colostrum and milk from the two major small ruminant dairy breeds from the Canary Islands: a bovine milk comparison perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M.; Renaut, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Colostrum and milk feeding are key factors for the newborn ruminant survival, affecting the future performance of the animal. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the potential of feeding newborn ruminants (mainly goat kids and lambs) with colostrum and milk from other more productive...... and milk proteomics and metabolomics....

  17. Design, development and testing of small downdraft gasifiers for domestic cookstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutar, Kailasnath B.; Kohli, Sangeeta; Ravi, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The design methodology available in the literature for downdraft gasifiers of large capacity (∼40–600 kW_t_h) is not directly applicable to very small sized gasifiers. In the present work, design and development of small downdraft gasifiers of 4 kW_t_h and 2.5 kW_t_h nominal capacities, for domestic cookstove application, have been carried out by non-linear extrapolation of data in literature for large gasifiers. The prototypes thus developed were found to give maximum gasification efficiency close to 80%. Extensive experimentation was conducted in the laboratory to study the effect of two operating parameters, viz., gasification air flow rate and the fuel particle size, on the performance of these gasifiers. The performance parameters studied included calorific value of the gas, gasification efficiency, air-biomass ratio and the hearth load. Through detailed analysis of the results, it has been shown that the two operating parameters affect the gasifier performance primarily through their impact on reactor temperature and the total particle surface area available for the reactions. This explains the observation of an optimal gasification air flow rate for best gasification efficiency. It is also shown that the producer gas flow rate varies linearly with gasification air flow rate for a wide range of operating conditions on different sizes of gasifiers. It is also seen that different sizes of the gasifiers can have a different hearth load corresponding to best efficiency. - Highlights: • Developed a design methodology for small downdraft gasifiers by adapting guidelines meant for larger gasifiers. • Developed two prototypes of gasifiers: 4 kW_t_h and 2.5 kW_t_h with gasification efficiency ∼80%. • Reactor temperature and total particle surface area available for reactions affect the gasifier performance. • The optimal gasification air flow rate and particle size for best gasification efficiency are explained using the above. • Producer gas versus

  18. Unidade de estudos de mastites em pequenos ruminantes: estudos em ovinos de regime extensivo Small ruminant mastitis unity: studies on grazing ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Queiroga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A “Unidade de Estudo de Mastites em Pequenos Ruminantes”, formalmente constituída no âmbito do Programa Nacional de Re-equipamento Científico, da Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, vem dar corpo ao trabalho de colaboração de diversas equipas de investigação que se têm debruçado sobre a problemática das infecções intramamárias em pequenos ruminantes, nos seus aspectos de saúde animal, saúde pública veterinária e qualidade e segurança alimentar. Tem como principal objectivo criar condições para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos de investigação e divulgação científica que contribuam para reduzir a prevalência de mastites em pequenos ruminantes e assim melhorar a produção e a qualidade do leite, favorecendo produtores de leite, produtores de queijo e consumidores. Entre os trabalhos já realizados pela equipa científica, destacam-se o isolamento e identificação de agentes etiológicos de mastite em ovelhas, o estudo de factores de virulência nas bactérias mais relevantes, o estudo dos mecanismos de infecção e a resposta imunológica local e sistémica do hospedeiro e outros estudos na área da epidemiologia. O estudo da etiologia e da fisiopatologia da mastite ovina, com o objectivo de compreender a modulação da resposta imunitária da glândula mamária, poderá contribuir para o desenvolvimento de métodos de controlo com base na estimulação da resposta imunitária, alternativos ao uso de antibióticos.The “Small Ruminant Mastitis Unit”, formally constituted in the scope of the Programa Nacional de Re-equipamento Científico, Science and Technology Foundation, gathers the collaborative work of several research groups that have been addressing the issue of small ruminants intramammary infections, related to animal health, veterinary public health and food safety and quality. Its main purpose is to generate an adequate environment for research and scientific communication that may contribute to

  19. Differences of some indicators of raw milk properties and especially mineral composition between small ruminants as compared to cows in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is returning back into the Czech Republic (CR because of positive effects of alternative milk consumption on human health. Especially the elements Ca and Mg are important for nutrition. Paper presents the comparison of mineral milk composition of goats (White short–haired–W, n = 60, sheep (Tsigai–C, n = 60 and cows (Holstein–H, n = 36; Czech Fleckvieh–B, n = 93. Cow milk results were considered as reference. The herds were kept at altitude 260 m (H, 360 m (B, and 572 m above sea level (W, C with total precipitation 449, 700 and 1200 mm per year and mean air temperatures 9.6, 7.0 and 3.7 °C. Bulk milk samples (4–8 animals in sample from the first two thirds of the lactation and the winter and summer season were investigated. Goat milk freezing point differed from other species (P < 0.001, −0.6048 for C < −0.5544 W < −0.5320 H < −0.5221 °C for B. Cow milk Ca values were comparable to former results although milk yield (MY was higher. Along lower MY the Ca was higher (1299.6 > 1172.0 mg . kg−1; P < 0.001 in B than H, similar trend was in Mg (122.0 > 107.4 mg . kg−1; P<0.001. Differences (P > 0.05 between species were in Ni and also mostly in Cu. Iodine results differed between species but not between cow breeds (P < 0.001; 462.8 H and 434.9 B > 126.0 W and 164.2 μg . l−1 C. It could be explainable by using of I disinfection at teat treatment in cows and absence of treatment in small ruminants. Macroelements were mostly highest (Ca, P, Na, Mg in sheep milk, with exception of K. Phosphorus values (950.1 H, 1016.9 B, 1042.6 W and 1596.7 mg . kg−1 C in species were linked with crude or true protein and casein values. Small ruminant milk could be good source of minerals for human nutrition, especially in the case of Ca and Mg of sheep and goat milk.

  20. Pestivirus in alpine wild ruminants and sympatric livestock from the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguilar, X; López-Olvera, J R; Marco, I; Rosell, R; Colom-Cadena, A; Soto-Heras, S; Lavín, S; Cabezón, O

    2016-06-04

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and Border disease virus (BDV) were investigated at the wildlife-livestock interface in the distribution area of chamois in the Cantabrian Mountains, North-Western Spain. From 2010 to 2014, sera from sympatric wild (n=167) and domestic (n=272) ruminants were analysed for pestivirus antibodies by cELISA, virus neutralisation test (VNT) and for the presence of pestiviral RNA using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Results showed a higher seroprevalence in cattle (59.4 per cent, 13/13 of herds) than in domestic small ruminants (5.9 per cent sheep, 2/8 of flocks; 0 per cent goats of 4 flocks) and wildlife (10.8 per cent in red deer, 0 per cent in roe deer and 0 per cent in Cantabrian chamois). High VNT titres were detected in two cattle herds, suggesting the circulation of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. BVDV-1 RNA was detected in one cattle calf by RT-PCR and sequencing. Conversely to other similar grazing systems, sheep flocks did not play a relevant role in the pestivirus epidemiology in this region. Pestivirus infections in wild ruminants were sporadic and most probably dependent on a domestic source. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Etude comparative de la charge parasitaire des petits ruminants et du guib harnaché dans quatre campements riverains à la forêt classée de Wari-Maro au Nord-Est du Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihun, AML.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Study of the Parasitic Load of Small Ruminants and Bushbuck in Four Camps Bordering the Wari-Maro Reserve in the North East of Benin. A comparative survey of the gastro-intestinal parasitical burden of small ruminants (sheep, goat and one species of wild ruminants (bushbuck has been conducted in four camps around the classified forest of Wari-Maro located in the North-East of Benin. The flotation and sedimentation methods, and a semi-quantitative method associated to the flotation method were used to analyze the different samples. Feces samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons with 100 samples for sheep, 75 for goat and 25 for bushbuck. The small domestic ruminants presented six types of parasites (strongyles, Strongyloides, coccidia, tapeworm, Capillaria, trematodes. The bushbuck presented strongyles and Strongyloides only during the rainy season. The burden of different types of parasites was low in the majority of cases. The wild or domestic nature of the animal influenced its parasitical state (p<0.05. For this study it appeared that no relation exists between the infestation intensity of small ruminants and bushbuck.

  2. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  3. Assessment of the implementation issues for fuel cells in domestic and small scale stationary power generation and CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.; Cruden, A.; Hart, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses implementation issues associated with the use of fuel cells in <10 kW domestic, small-scale power generation and combined heat and power (CHP) operations in the UK. The report examines the key issues (fuel cell system standards and certification, fuel infrastructure, commercial issues and competing CHP technologies), before discussing non-technical issues including finance, ownership, import and export configuration, pricing structure, customer acceptability, installation, operation and training of servicing and commissioning personnel. The report goes on to discuss market and technical drivers, grid connection issues and solutions, operations and maintenance. Recommendations for the future are made.

  4. Efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance and gain and evaluation of Small Ruminant Nutrition System model in Santa Ines sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Louzada Regadas Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to estimate efficiencies of the utilization of metabolizable energy for maintenance (k m and weight gain (k g and to evaluate the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS model in predicting dry matter intake and average daily gain of growing Santa Ines sheep. Twenty-four non-castrated Santa Ines sheep, at 50 days of age and with average body weight of 13.00 ± 0.56 kg, respectively, were used. After a 10-day adaptation period, four animals were slaughtered to be used as reference for estimating initial empty body weight and body composition of the other animals. The remaining animals were distributed in a random block design, with the treatments consisting of diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08, 2.28, 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal/kg of DM, with five replicates. The metabolizable energy use efficiencies for maintenance and for weight gain were calculated from the relationship between the dietary net energy for maintenance and gain and ME concentration in the diets. Evaluation of the SRNS model was performed by adjustment of simple linear regression model between the predicted (independent variable and observed (dependent variable values. The estimated energy use efficiency for maintenance (k m was 0.70; and for gain weight (kg it showed to be inversely proportional to the increase of metabolizable energy concentration in the diet. The dry matter intake predicted by the SRNS model did not statistically differ from that observed, but the model overestimated the average daily gain by 5.18%. Those results can contribute to the construction of a database, which could be condensed into several others in a predictive model of performance and feed planning for sheep reared in Brazil.

  5. Primary transmission of chronic wasting disease versus scrapie prions from small ruminants to transgenic mice expressing ovine or cervid prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Schneider, David A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Balachandran, Aru; Mitchell, Gordon B; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2016-09-01

    Development of mice expressing either ovine (Tg338) or cervid (TgElk) prion protein (PrP) have aided in characterization of scrapie and chronic wasting disease (CWD), respectively. Experimental inoculation of sheep with CWD prions has demonstrated the potential for interspecies transmission but, infection with CWD versus classical scrapie prions may be difficult to differentiate using validated diagnostic platforms. In this study, mouse bioassay in Tg338 and TgElk was utilized to evaluate transmission of CWD versus scrapie prions from small ruminants. Mice (≥5 per homogenate) were inoculated with brain homogenates from clinically affected sheep or goats with naturally acquired classical scrapie, white-tailed deer with naturally acquired CWD (WTD-CWD) or sheep with experimentally acquired CWD derived from elk (sheep-passaged-CWD). Survival time (time to clinical disease) and attack rates (brain accumulation of protease resistant PrP, PrPres) were determined. Inoculation with classical scrapie prions resulted in clinical disease and 100 % attack rates in Tg338, but no clinical disease at endpoint (>300 days post-inoculation, p.i.) and low attack rates (6.8 %) in TgElk. Inoculation with WTD-CWD prions yielded no clinical disease or brain PrPres accumulation in Tg338 at endpoint (>500 days p.i.), but rapid onset of clinical disease (~121 days p.i.) and 100 % attack rate in TgElk. Sheep-passaged-CWD resulted in transmission to both mouse lines with 100 % attack rates at endpoint in Tg338 and an attack rate of ~73 % in TgElk with some culled due to clinical disease. These primary transmission observations demonstrate the potential of bioassay in Tg338 and TgElk to help differentiate possible infection with CWD versus classical scrapie prions in sheep and goats.

  6. 77 FR 19750 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...The Department of Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF) within the Department of Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Small Business Lending Survey it proposes to administer to participants in the SBLF.

  7. 77 FR 42831 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...The Department of Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF) within the Department of Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Small Business Lending Survey it proposes to administer to participants in the SBLF.

  8. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  9. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  10. Buyer's participation and well developed domestic infrastructure. Keys to successful introduction of nuclear power in a small country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numminen, K.; Laine, P.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power is advantageous for a small country such as Finland which does not possess indigenous fossil fuel. For instance, the cost of imports required by nuclear fuel is essentially smaller than the cost of production of electric energy based on coal or fuel oil. In Finland the advantageousness of nuclear power was already proved in the 1950s but before starting the first power plant project it took 15 years to develop step by step the required infrastructure: building the research institutes and training their staff, creating connections to the international organizations and elsewhere abroad, training Finnish design staff, developing the domestic industry to the high quality required by nuclear power, and establishing the necessary authorities and public administration. Thanks to thorough preparation the implementation of the plant projects progressed at a good pace in the 1970s. The lesson learned from operation of the plants is that in a small country - located far from its main supplier - the staff at the plant and the supporting staff in the power company have to be able to analyse the problems occurring, usually in the conventional equipment, and carry out quick repairs without aid from the main supplier. This requires a high level of educational attainment from the staff and the best way to achieve this is for the staff to participate in the design and construction as much as possible already in the implementation phase. In order to maintain high availability, the capability of the domestic industry must also be good - especially in the fields of mechanical industry and electronics. In Finland over 30% of electric energy was produced in 1981 by four nuclear units. Two of these were built as manifold east-west adjustment work with the Soviet supplier and the other two are of Swedish origin

  11. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The result of a CRP completed in 1989 and entitled ''Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Milk, Meat and Fibre Producing Livestock with the Use of Radioimmunoassay Techniques'' clearly indicated that nutritional inadequacies and livestock management deficiencies were the major factors affecting livestock productivity in Latin America. Based on these conclusions a CRP entitled ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques'' was initiated late in the same year. The primary aim of the Programme was to improve the productivity of indigenous ruminant livestock species maintained on typical small-holder farms in the region. Central to the approach was to first identify the nutritional and management constraints which affect reproductive and productive efficiency, and subsequently to devise and test corrective measures which would be practical, sustainable and economically viable. Important related goals of the Programme were to enhance the level of expertise and the educational quality within animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact between scientists and institutions in developing and developed countries and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The result of a CRP completed in 1989 and entitled ``Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Milk, Meat and Fibre Producing Livestock with the Use of Radioimmunoassay Techniques`` clearly indicated that nutritional inadequacies and livestock management deficiencies were the major factors affecting livestock productivity in Latin America. Based on these conclusions a CRP entitled ``Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques`` was initiated late in the same year. The primary aim of the Programme was to improve the productivity of indigenous ruminant livestock species maintained on typical small-holder farms in the region. Central to the approach was to first identify the nutritional and management constraints which affect reproductive and productive efficiency, and subsequently to devise and test corrective measures which would be practical, sustainable and economically viable. Important related goals of the Programme were to enhance the level of expertise and the educational quality within animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact between scientists and institutions in developing and developed countries and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Refs, figs, tabs.

  13. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  14. Update on the use of blood and blood products in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcomb, Christie; Foster, Derek

    2014-07-01

    The use of whole blood and/or blood products is indicated in ruminant medicine. The goal of this article is to summarize previous literature on blood groups in ruminants and camelids, list indications for transfusion, and describe collection and transfusion techniques applicable to small ruminants and cattle that can be used in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Domestic saving mobilisation and small business creation: The case of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Forje

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting savings and providing a basis for lending to the poor is a growing concern in many developing countries. Cameroon has a culture of savings mobilisation known as njangi/tontine. The njangi is contributions given to members in a rotating form at the end of every sitting, and tontine is voluntary savings held by the group. This study reveals that njangi/tontine groups only lend money to group members and suggests that a micro village bank known as MC2 could be used as guarantor to ensure that group monies lent to non-group members are repaid. Encouragement and improvement in the function of such voluntary savings could promote the creation of small businesses in the country.  The Cameroonian government needs to improve fighting corruption and a functional justice system to ensure security.

  16. Change in genetic size of small-closed populations: lessons from a domestic mammal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghafouri-Kesbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor changes in genetic size of a small-closed population of Iranian Zandi sheep, by using pedigree information from animals born between 1991 and 2005. The genetic size was assessed by using measures based on the probability of identity-by-descend of genes (coancestry, f, and effective population size, Ne, as well as measures based on probability of gene origin (effective number of founders, f e, effective number of founder genomes, f g, and effective number of non-founder genomes, f ne. Average coancestry, or the degree of genetic similarity of individuals, increased from 0.81% to 1.44% during the period 1993 to 2005, at the same time that Ne decreased from 263 to 93. The observed trend for f e was irregular throughout the experiment in a way that f e was 68, 87, 77, 92, and 80 in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005, respectively. Simultaneously, f g, the most informative effective number, decreased from 61 to 35. The index of genetic diversity (GD which was obtained from estimates of f g,decreased about 2% throughout the period studied. In addition, a noticeable reduction was observed in the estimates of f ne from 595 in 1993 to 61 in 2005. The higher than 1 ratio of f e to f g indicated the presence of bottlenecks and genetic drift in the development of this population of Zandi sheep. From 1993 to 1999, f ne was much higher than f e, thereby indicating that with respect to loss of genetic diversity, the unequal contribution of founders was more important than the random genetic drift in non-founder generations. Subsequently, random genetic drift in non-founder generations was the major reason for f e> f ne. The minimization of average coancestry in new reproductive individuals was recommended as a means of preserving the population against a further loss in genetic diversity.

  17. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence – A case study in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Antony R.; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S.; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. - Highlights: • We use a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence in small areas in Northamptonshire, UK. • We map the estimated smoking prevalence and average domestic radon levels in these small areas. • We estimate annual average lung cancer incidence in these small areas. • The methodology is useful to evaluate and plan localised public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  18. Change in genetic size of small-closed populations: Lessons from a domestic mammal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri-Kesbi, Farhad

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor changes in genetic size of a small-closed population of Iranian Zandi sheep, by using pedigree information from animals born between 1991 and 2005. The genetic size was assessed by using measures based on the probability of identity-by-descend of genes (coancestry, f, and effective population size, N(e) ), as well as measures based on probability of gene origin (effective number of founders, f(e) , effective number of founder genomes, f(g) , and effective number of non-founder genomes, f(ne) ). Average coancestry, or the degree of genetic similarity of individuals, increased from 0.81% to 1.44% during the period 1993 to 2005, at the same time that N(e) decreased from 263 to 93. The observed trend for f(e) was irregular throughout the experiment in a way that f(e) was 68, 87, 77, 92, and 80 in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005, respectively. Simultaneously, f(g) , the most informative effective number, decreased from 61 to 35. The index of genetic diversity (GD) which was obtained from estimates of f(g) , decreased about 2% throughout the period studied. In addition, a noticeable reduction was observed in the estimates of f(ne) from 595 in 1993 to 61 in 2005. The higher than 1 ratio of f(e) to f(g) indicated the presence of bottlenecks and genetic drift in the development of this population of Zandi sheep. From 1993 to 1999, f(ne) was much higher than f(e) , thereby indicating that with respect to loss of genetic diversity, the unequal contribution of founders was more important than the random genetic drift in non-founder generations. Subsequently, random genetic drift in non-founder generations was the major reason for f(e) > f(ne) . The minimization of average coancestry in new reproductive individuals was recommended as a means of preserving the population against a further loss in genetic diversity.

  19. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b0,+AT, EAAT3, y+LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b0,+AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y+LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  20. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, y(+)LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y(+)LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  1. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  2. 泌乳反刍动物乳腺中小肽的摄取、利用及影响因素%Small Peptides in the Mammary Gland of Lactating Ruminants: Factors Influencing the Efficiency of Uptake and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周苗苗; 刘红云; 赵珂; 吴跃明; 刘建新

    2011-01-01

    乳蛋白是人类饮食中重要的动物蛋白质来源.乳腺是合成乳蛋白的主要场所.然而,反刍动物乳腺由血液摄取的游离氨基酸并不能满足乳腺合成蛋白质的需要,动物对完整蛋白质本身或小肽有着特殊需要.近年来,由于小肽优于氨基酸的跨膜转运机制和特殊的生理功能,小肽营养受到越来越多的关注.本文主要从泌乳反刍动物乳腺对小肽的摄取、利用以及影响乳腺小肽摄取利用的因素3个方面进行简要综述.%Milk protein is an important animal protein source for human, and mammary gland is the major organ for milk protein synthesis. However, some free amino acids took up by mammary gland of lactating ruminants are less than their output in the milk. Animals have special needs for proteins or small peptides. Because of their advantageous transmembrane transport system and special physiological function, small peptide nutrition is greatly concerned. Uptake and utilization of small peptides in mammary gland of lactating ruminants and influence factors are briefly reviewed in this paper. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition ,2011,23 (3) :376-380

  3. Premenstrual disorders and rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craner, Julia R; Sigmon, Sandra T; Martinson, Amber A; McGillicuddy, Morgan L

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) involve emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms; however, there is little understanding of psychological factors that contribute to these disorders. It was hypothesized that rumination, a form of depressive self-focused attention, is related to premenstrual distress. Study 1 involved women (N = 735) meeting criteria for No/Mild PMS, Moderate/Severe PMS, and PMDD using retrospective self-report. Study 2 involved women (N = 85) meeting diagnostic criteria for PMS or PMDD (i.e., PMD group) and healthy controls (i.e., No PMD group) following 60-day symptom monitoring. Participants in both studies completed questionnaires of rumination, anxiety sensitivity, and coping styles. Rumination was strongly related to premenstrual disorders using both retrospective and prospective reports, as well as both categorical and continuous approaches to classification of premenstrual distress. Rumination, a transdiagnostic factor in psychopathology, may contribute to the onset and maintenance of premenstrual distress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Epidemiology and economic importance of fascio- losis of domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among districts, animal agro-ecology, age, and Fasciola species (p<0.05); while no significant ... Domestic ruminants like cat- tle, sheep and goats ..... of grazing and grazing behavior as well as susceptibility (Torgerson and Clax- ton, 1999).

  5. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  6. Decentralised schemes for integrated management of wastewater and domestic organic waste: the case of a small community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijó, Lucía; Malamis, Simos; González-García, Sara; Moreira, María Teresa; Fatone, Francesco; Katsou, Evina

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses from an environmental perspective two different configurations for the combined treatment of wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) in a small and decentralised community having a population of 2000. The applied schemes consist of an upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) as core treatment process. Scheme A integrates membranes with the anaerobic treatment; while in Scheme B biological removal of nutrients in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is applied as a post treatment to UASB effluent. In energy-related categories, the main contributor is electricity consumption (producing 18-50% of the impacts); whereas in terms of eutrophication-related categories, the discharge of the treated effluent arises as a major hotspot (with 57-99% of the impacts). Scheme B consumes 25% more electricity and produces 40% extra sludge than Scheme A, resulting in worse environmental results for those energy categories. However, the environmental impact due to the discharge of the treated effluent is 75% lower in eutrophication categories due to the removal of nutrients. In addition, the quality of the final effluent in Scheme B would allow its use for irrigation (9.6 mg N/L and 2 mg P/L) if proper tertiary treatment and disinfection are provided, expanding its potential adoption at a wider scale. Direct emissions due to the dissolved methane in the UASB effluent have a significant environmental impact in climate change (23-26%). Additionally, the study shows the environmental feasibility of the use of food waste disposers for DOW collection in different integration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Mycoses in domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M E; Blanco, J L

    2000-03-01

    In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.

  8. Use of n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols as faecal markers to estimate diet composition on small ruminants grazing/browsing mountain grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Rui José Ribeiro Ferreira de

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge on the grazing/browsing behaviour, especially diet selection, of the different domestic herbivorous species under diverse vegetation communities is of particular importance for the development and application of appropriate grazing management strategies that increase the efficiency of the utilization of the existing vegetation and, consequently, the sustainability of the animal production system. Plant-wax components, namely alkanes and long-chain alcohols (LCOH), have been suggeste...

  9. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.

  10. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  11. Serological survey of Neospora caninum in small ruminants from Pernambuco State, Brazil Inquérito sorológico de Neospora caninum em pequenos ruminantes do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amélia Santos Mucalane Tembue

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion as well as neonatal mortality in goats and sheep. A serological survey for antibodies against N. caninum in goats and sheep was carried out in the municipality of Ibimirim, PE, Northeastern Brazil. The imunnofluoresce antibody test showed that 26.6% (85/319 of the goats and 64.2% (52/81 of the sheep were positive. Serologic reactivity was associated with age in goats (p 0.05, with increasing rates in older animals. These results indicate exposure to N. caninum among small ruminants in the study area.A infecção por Neospora caninum é uma importante causa de abortos em bovinos, assim como mortalidade neonatal em caprinos e ovinos. Uma pesquisa sorológica de anticorpos anti-N. caninum foi realizada no município de Ibimirim (PE, Brasil. Os resultados ao teste de imunofluorescência revelaram que 26,6% (85/319 dos caprinos e 64,2% (52/81 dos ovinos foram positivos. A reatividade à sorologia foi associada com a idade nos caprinos (p 0,05, com maior ocorrência nos animais mais velhos. Estes resultados indicam exposição a N. caninum entre pequenos ruminantes na área estudada.

  12. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%, women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%, and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate. Results Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination. Conclusions The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.

  13. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  14. Giardia survey in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals in four regions in the southwest region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a survey on Giardia in the live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals was perfomed in four regions of state of the São Paulo, Brazil, with special attention to the parasitism of Rattus rattus rattus by Giardia. This species was found infected in all studied sites: Botucatu (15.4%, Conchas (28.5%, Itaporanga (38.7% and São Roque (100 %. Two new hosts and their frequency of infection were described for Giardia in Nectomys squamipes, an aquatic rodent and in Bolomys lasiurus, a forest rodent (100 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Both G. muris and G. duodenalis groups were found in scrapings of intestinal mucosa of those rodents. Mixed infection was observed in some animals. It is important to emphasize the infection by G. duodenalis in the black rat as this species lives as a comensal with man and in N. squamipes as it may contaminate small streams used for domestic consumption. Therefore, further investigation will be necessary to elucidate the potential of these rodents to act as reservoirs of Giardia for man.

  15. Molecular Evolution and Characterization of Hemagglutinin (H in Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiang Liang

    Full Text Available Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, highly contagious, and febrile viral disease that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease has become a major obstacle to the development of sustainable Agriculture. Hemagglutinin (H, the envelope glycoprotein of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV, plays a crucial role in regulating viral adsorption and entry, thus determining pathogenicity, and release of newly produced viral particles. In order to accurately understand the epidemic of the disease and the interactions between the virus and host, we launch the work. Here, we examined H gene from all four lineages of the PPRV to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV by the Bayesian method. In addition, we predicted positive selection sites due to selective pressures. Finally, we studied the interaction between H protein and SLAM receptor based on homology model of the complex. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that H gene can also be used to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. Positive selection analysis identified four positive selection sites in H gene, in which only one common site (aa246 was detected by two methods, suggesting strong operation structural and/or functional constraint of changes on the H protein. This target site may be of interest for future mutagenesis studies. The results of homology modeling showed PPRVHv-shSLAM binding interface and MVH-maSLAM binding interface were consistent, wherein the groove in the B4 blade and B5 of the head domain of PPRVHv bound to the AGFCC' β-sheets of the membrane-distal ectodomain of shSLAM. The binding regions could provide insight on the nature of the protein for epitope vaccine design, novel drug discovery, and rational drug design against PPRV.

  16. Pond systems for the purification and disposal of domestic wastewater from small communities: use, design, operation and maintenance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Drews, RJLC

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Pond systems are ideally suited for small communities, and for schools, hospitals and other institutions since they are simple and economical to construct, operate and maintain. Numerous pons systems have been designed and commissioned in South...

  17. Progresso científico em pequenos ruminantes na primeira década do século XXI Scientific progress in small ruminants in the first decade of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kléber Tomás de Resende

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelos pequenos ruminantes aumentou nos últimos anos sob os aspectos produtivo e científico. No Brasil, caprinos e ovinos são os que despertam maior interesse econômico. Assim, este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de discutir o progresso científico com caprinos e ovinos nos últimos dez anos. Foram pesquisadas várias bases de dados, entre elas as do Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, da Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO, da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE e da Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - FAO. Na última década, os pequenos ruminantes têm merecido especial atenção dos pesquisadores, o que pode ser comprovado pelo aumento de 41% nas publicações mundiais envolvendo estas espécies, o que foi acompanhado por aumento ainda mais expressivo, 219%, em âmbito nacional. A evolução também foi observada sob os aspectos metodológicos dos projetos, ressaltando a abordagem multidisciplinar nas pesquisas mais atuais. Nos últimos dez anos, houve crescimento do aporte de recursos para editais temáticos demandados pela sociedade e pela cadeia da carne e do leite, além da preocupação com qualidade, competitividade e sustentabilidade.Worldwide interest in small ruminants has increased in recent years in both, the productive and scientific aspects. In Brazil, the same trend has been observed, however, among all small ruminants, goats and sheep can be highlighted. Thus, this review aimed to discuss scientific progress in goat and sheep in the last decade. Data were collected in different databases, such as Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  18. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  19. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tačík, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...

  20. Determination of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with Babesia ovis in Small Ruminants from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4% were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7% yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5% were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01 and farm dogs (P< 0.01 for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.

  1. Sex-Age Related Rumination Behavior of Père David's Deer under Constraints of Feeding Habitat and Rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Li

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have been conducted on the rumination behavior of domestic herbivores. However, studies on wild animals are limited, particularly wild animals with specific ruminating parameters. In this study, Père David's deer, a previously extirpated species, was observed to analyze the effects of sex-age, feeding habitat, and rainfall on rumination behavior in the Dafeng Nature Reserve, China. Rumination behavior was investigated based on four parameters: proportion of bedding time spent chewing, bolus processing time (s/bolus, chewing frequency (chews/bolus, and chewing rate (chews/s. Results showed that all three factors affect rumination behavior. The extent of their effects varied based on the four rumination parameters. Chewing rate and frequency decreased based on sex-age levels, i.e., from fawns to juvenile female, juvenile male, adult female, stag, and harem holder. Therefore, body size played a major role in shaping rumination behavior. Deer found in grasslands could chew faster compared with deer found in woodlands. This result might be caused by the effects of dietary composition and sunlight intensity. A deer spends a longer time ruminating while bedding during rainy days compared with rainless days to maximize energy and nutrition intake and compensate for the loss of feeding time during rainy days. Therefore, rumination behavior is plastic and is shaped by intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  2. Domestic Resources Cost Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farming at Upstream Area of Benain-Noelmina Watershed, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalle Agus Arnold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.

  3. Rapid small-scale column testing of granular activated carbon for organic micro-pollutant removal in treated domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, F; Müller, J; Sperlich, A; Ruhl, A S; Meinel, F; Altmann, J; Jekel, M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) concept for testing of granular activated carbon (GAC) for organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) removal from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The chosen experimental setup was checked using pure water, WWTP effluent, different GAC products, and variable hydrodynamic conditions with different flow velocities and differently sized GAC, as well as different empty bed contact times (EBCTs). The setup results in satisfying reproducibility and robustness. RSSCTs in combination with WWTP effluent are effective when comparing the OMP removal potentials of different GAC products and are a useful tool for the estimation of larger filters. Due to the potentially high competition between OMPs and bulk organics, breakthrough curves are likely to have unfavorable shapes when treating WWTP effluent. This effect can be counteracted by extending the EBCT. With respect to the strong competition observed in GAC treatment of WWTP effluent, the small organic acid and neutral substances are retained longer in the RSSCT filters and are likely to cause the majority of the observed adsorption competition with OMPs.

  4. Plant Secondary Compounds in Small Ruminant Feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravador, Rufielyn Sungcaya

    to the utilization of cheaper resources as alternatives to reduce the production cost. Here, locally available materials and agro-industrial by-products commonly found in the Mediterranean countries (citrus pulp, carob pulp, and olive cake) were used in feeding trials with lambs and the effects on meat quality were...... evaluated. These plant-derived materials contain considerable amounts of secondary bioactive metabolites, which affect the fatty acid composition and/or act as antioxidants. Hence, it was hypothesized that at appropriate levels of inclusion in to the lamb diets, these feedstuffs would not negatively affect...... animal health and productivity, and would represent a strategy to naturally produce a healthy and oxidatively stable meat. In the first study (Experiment 1), Comisana male lambs were fed for 60 days: a conventional cereal-based concentrate diet, or concentrates in which 24% or 35% dried citrus pulp...

  5. [Biomorphology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, S

    2006-09-01

    Under the term gastrointestinal nematodes are included numerous parasites species of livestock belonging to the families Strongyloididae (Strongyloides), Strongylidae (Chabertia, Oesophagostomum) Trichostrongylidae (Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Marshallagia), Molineidae (Nematodirus), Ancylostomatidae (Bunostomum) and Trichuridae (Trichuris). This paper reviews the biomorphology aspects of these parasites as well as the controversy by the taxonomists in the classifications.

  6. Cycle performance of alternative refrigerants for domestic air-conditioning system based on a small finned tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Song; Wang, Shuangfeng; Liu, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    In order to find alternative refrigerants which exhibit both favorable cycle performance and environmental friendliness, R32 and R290 were utilized to contrast to R22 and R410A as substitutes in the present study. The experiments were conducted with a 5 mm finned tube heat exchanger based on the enthalpy method in a small split household air conditioner. The results showed that in nominal cooling conditions, the COP R of R32 and R290 were 26.8% and 20.4% higher than R22, 7.3% and 2.1% higher than R410A. And in nominal heating conditions, the COP HR of R32 and R290 were both 11.0% higher than R22, 5.3% higher than R410A. The systems with R290 and R32 have similar capacities to that with R22 and R410A in heating mode, but a relatively huge difference of capacities in cooling mode. In consideration of charge amount, R290 could be considered as the most superior alternative refrigerant in air conditioners with the small finned tube heat exchanger. - Highlights: •Comparisons are made in the air conditioner system based on 5 mm tube fin heat exchanger. •The R22 system has a similar performance to others in heating mode while a huge difference in cooling mode. •The optimal charge of R290 is reduced with nearly no decline in the capacity and COP. •SLHX is attached to the system of R290 and successfully promote safety and capacity. •Heat loads are taken into account to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of R290 and R32

  7. Sero-Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Infection in Domestic Livestock in North India Using Indigenous Absorbed Elisa Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Singh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 829 serum samples belonging to domestic livestock (Cattle, buffaloes, goat and sheep and driven from different parts of North India between 2005 to 2008, were screened to estimate the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection using 'indigenous absorbed ELISA kit'. Seroprevalence of MAP in the domestic livestock was 23.1%. Prevalence was higher in large ruminants (24.1% as compared to small ruminants (22.5%. Highest seropositivity was in cattle (26.9%, followed by goats (23.9%, buffaloes (20.2%, and sheep (19.0%. In cattle region-wise, 25.8, 29.1 and 30.7% animals were positive from Mathura (UP, Rohtak (Haryana, and Bareilly (UP regions, respectively. In buffaloes, the highest prevalence was found at Bareilly (26.6% followed by Rohtak (20.0% and Bhaghpat (18.4% regions. In goats, 19.6, 37.5, 40.0 and 21.9% animals were positive from Mathura (farm herd, Etawah, Agra and Ajmer (farmers herd regions, respectively. In sheep, prevalence of MAP was 25.5 and 16.3% in Mathura and Mannavanur regions, respectively. In sheep, prevalence was higher in Northern region as compared to the Southern region of the country. The present study showed that the prevalence of MAP in domestic livestock was moderately higher; therefore there is an urgent need to control the disease at National level in order to improve per animal productivity in the country.

  8. THE RUMINANT EFFECT OF VEGETAL LECITHIN AT SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 200 g per day. The food supplementation in sheep and goats with dregs up to 7% fat in the dry substance of the ration has favourable and proportional effects with the dose of fat on the digestibility of the nutritive substances from the food. The growth of ruminant bacteria is favoured at the 100 g dose of dregs but is depressed at the 200 g dose of dregs. On the ruminant protozoa the supplementation with fat from dregs leads to the reducing of the number of protozoa and even at defaunation. It is possible that the fat from the dregs to be a source of YATP and to protect the alimentary proteins of the degrading with proteolytic enzymes and therefore to make the protein ruminant by-pass.

  9. The economic impact of peste des petits ruminants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, D; Kumar, S; Anandsekaran, G; Chaudhury, J K; Meraj, M; Singh, R K; Verma, M R; Kumar, D; Kumar P T, N; Ahmed Lone, S; Mishra, V; Mohanty, B S; Korade, N; De, U K

    2017-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important livestock disease which affects a vast section of the small ruminant population in India. However, data on the incidence of PPR are limited and scant literature is available on the economic losses caused by the disease. In the present study, a structured sampling design was adopted, which covered the major agro-climatic regions of the country, to ascertain the morbidity and mortality rates of PPR. Available estimates of the economic losses in India due to various livestock diseases are based on single values of various epidemiological and economic parameters. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the economic impact of PPR. Overall annual morbidity and mortality rates of PPR for small ruminants in India have been estimated from the sample as being 8%and 3.45%, respectively. The authors have analysed variations in these rates across species, age group, sex, season and region. The expected annual economic loss due to PPR in India ranges from as little as US $2 million to $18 million and may go up to US $1.5 billion; the most likely range of expected economic losses is between US $653 million and $669 million. This study thus reveals significant losses due to the incidence of PPR in small ruminants in India.

  10. Urea recycling in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiaki; Niibayashi, Tsunekazu

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of blood urea into the alimentary tract of goats, as ruminants, was studied by the use of 15 N-urea, 15 N-ammonium chloride and physiological experimental techniques. Blood urea after an intravenous injection of 15 N-urea appeared in the first rumen via two routes, the saliva (approximately 60% of the serum urea concentration) and idrect diffusion from the wall of the first rumen, both as the ammonium-form N. The serum urea levels from diets containing different protein levels were paralleled with the protein levels, the ammonium level in the first rumen being similar to that of the serum urea. The transfer of low protein into the NH 3 pool of the first rumen was 56% of the total NH 3 in the entire alimentary tract, and the quantitative ratio of salivary secretion of diffusion in the first rumen was 1:9. The transfer of high protein was 14% in the entire alimentary tract, and the ratio of saliva to diffusion in the first rumen was 6:1. Thus, when protein uptake was large, salivary secretion was the primary route to the first rumen. Approximately 50% of the entire quantity of blood urea in the alimentary tract appeared in the first rumen, and 35%, in the lower alimentary tract, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. (Chiba, N.)

  11. Time patterns of feeding and rumination in domestic cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, J.H.M.

    1975-01-01

    For the maintenance of its caloric and nutritional balance, an animal must consume food. The level of intake ultimately depends upon the factors that govern onset and cessation of the successive feeding spells. These factors may be studied either at the purely behavioural level, or at the

  12. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-06

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rusitec the cow[Food for rumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Full text: The rumen is an important part of the digestive tract of ruminant animals such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It contains large numbers of micro-organisms whose function is to break down fibrous feed materials such as grass and straw and convert them to products that can be used by the animal to produce meat, milk, wool or draught power. To study the microbial population of the rumen under controlled laboratory conditions, Dr. J.W. Czerkawski of the Hannah Research Institute, Scotland, U.K., developed an 'artificial cow'. The 'cow', named RUSITEC (from the acronym of 'Rumen Simulation Technique') is today being used as part of a project to analyse different feedstuffs being carried out by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at their joint Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf near Vienna, Austria. In the artificial rumen micro-organisms can be indefinitely maintained by feeding a normal ruminant diet each day and providing the correct physiological conditions in terms of temperature, pH and flow of saliva. As RUSITEC chews its way through different feeds, scientists use radioactive tracing techniques to compare their digestibility. (The higher the digestibility of a foodstuff, the higher the nutritive value that can be derived from it.) By analysing the quality of different feeding materials in this way, scientists are seeking to propose improved diets for domestic animals in the developing world. Photos on this page show RUSITEC at work. Below, the vessels representing the rumen, where microbial fermentation of diets takes place; right, the rumen simulation technique in operation; below right, analysis of the end products of fermentative digestion.

  14. Ruminal acidosis: strategies for its control

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo-López, Esaúl; Itza-Ortiz, Mateo F.; Peraza-Mercado, Gwendolyne; Carrera-Chávez, José M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ruminal acidosis in ruminants is a metabolic disorder of gastrointestinal origin that occurs in animals with a high feed intake of cereal grains diets, which affect the performance. According to clinical manifestations it can be classified as: a) acute lactic acidosis with prolonged exposure to ruminal pH ≤ 5.0, triggering a systemic acidosis, with clinical manifestations and changes in biochemical patterns, starting the first twelve hours of ruminal acidosis and it takes 48 to 120 ...

  15. The Colostrum Proteome, Ruminant Nutrition and Immunity: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    In this review authors address colostrum proteins implications in different domestic ruminant species. The colostrogenesis process and how different factors, such as litter size or nutrition during gestation can alter the different components concentrations in colostrum are also reviewed....... The different colostrum fractions will be described, focusing on high and low abundant proteins. This review describes the major function of such proteins and their role on the passive immune transfer and nutrition in the newborn animal. It will be also performed a comprehensive review on different techniques...

  16. Prevalence of Fasciola species in ruminants under extensive management system in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adediran, O A; Adebiyi, A I; Uwalaka, E C

    2014-12-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonotic trematode of ruminants and a common parasite in cattle in Nigeria. With the increasing numbers of small household cattle herds kept under extensive management system as well as the more usual small ruminants, there is a possibility therefore that parasites common to these ruminants but better adapted to cattle such as Fasciola may also be on the increase within the small ruminant population as they graze freely over the same wide area and sometimes freely mix. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of Fasciola spp in sheep, goats and cattle in Ibadan during the short wet season, (August-October 2011). Faecal samples were collected per rectum from 440 each of goats and sheep and 291 cattle. Helminth ova were recovered using sedimentation technique for faecal examination. A total of 40 goats (9.1%), 53 sheep (12.0%) and 158 cattle (54.3%) were positive for Fasciola ova which reflects an increase in prevalence in small ruminants. This implies that the entire Ibadan is endemic for Fasciola spp and small ruminants may serve as an important link in the epidemiology of Fasciola spp infection. More so, this has implications for the scavenging household animals which receive little or no medical attention and man that may acquire this trematode by inadvertently eating vegetables with encysted Fasciola metacercariae.

  17. Nitrogen metabolism in the ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.; Lewis, D.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of nitrogen metabolism in the ruminant are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the effect of rumen ammonia concentration on protein synthesis in the rumen. In order to judge the suitability of microbial protein as a source of protein for the ruminant, it is necessary to be able to assess the amino-acid requirements of the ruminant accurately. Several methods of doing this are discussed. Available data would indicate that under many conditions methionine is the first limiting amino acid. Possible ways of increasing the supply of methionine at the duodenum are discussed. When the amino-acid requirements are fully met, it is to be expected that protein synthesis in the tissues will proceed at its maximal rate. Ways of determining the extent of tissue protein synthesis in vivo are briefly discussed. (author)

  18. The antibody loci of the domestic goat (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic goat (Capra hircus) is an important ruminant species, both as a source of antibody-based reagents for research and biomedical applications, and as an economically important animal for agriculture, particularly for developing nations that maintain most of the global goat population. Char...

  19. The Effect of Tannins on Mediterranean Ruminant Ingestive Behavior: The Role of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Lamy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheep, cattle and goat are domestic ruminants of significant economic interest in the Mediterranean region. Although sharing the same pasture ranges, they ingest different plants and plant parts and, consequently different levels of tannins. This suggests an ability to detect and adapt ingestion according to animal physiological limits of tolerance for plant secondary metabolites. This review will detail the effects of dietary tannins on feeding behavior, and the role of the oral cavity in this process, with focus on such ruminant species. The role of salivary protein profile in tannin perception in the oral cavity, and as a defense mechanism, will be discussed.

  20. The effect of tannins on Mediterranean ruminant ingestive behavior: the role of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Elsa; Rawel, Harshadrai; Schweigert, Florian J; Capela E Silva, Fernando; Ferreira, Ana; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Antunes, Célia; Almeida, André Martinho; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sales-Baptista, Elvira

    2011-03-25

    Sheep, cattle and goat are domestic ruminants of significant economic interest in the Mediterranean region. Although sharing the same pasture ranges, they ingest different plants and plant parts and, consequently different levels of tannins. This suggests an ability to detect and adapt ingestion according to animal physiological limits of tolerance for plant secondary metabolites. This review will detail the effects of dietary tannins on feeding behavior, and the role of the oral cavity in this process, with focus on such ruminant species. The role of salivary protein profile in tannin perception in the oral cavity, and as a defense mechanism, will be discussed.

  1. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...

  2. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination are good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination.

  3. Optimising conventional treatment of domestic waste water: quality, required surface area, solid waste minimisation and biogas production for medium and small-scale applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal waste water, or sewage, is a combination of domestic and industrial effluent. The increasing volume of sewage due to urbanisation and economic growth places pressure on the treatment performance of existing waste treatment systems...

  4. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA

    OpenAIRE

    Siarkou, Victoria I.; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94 ruminant C. abortus strains, field isolates and samples collected from 1950 to 2011 in diverse geographic locations, with the aim of delineating C. abortus lineages and clones. MLST revealed the previo...

  6. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  7. The clinicopathology and pathology of selective toxicoses and storage diseases of the nervous system of ruminants in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Jacob Jan van der

    2002-01-01

    In this study the clinical signs and pathology of five plant poisonings and a mycotoxicosis affecting the nervous system of domestic ruminants in southern Africa are described. For comparative purposes, an inherited storage disease (bèta-mannosidosis) and a drug-induced neurotoxicosis (closantel

  8. Development of field-deployable instrumentation based on “antigen–antibody” reactions for detection of hemorrhagic disease in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of field-deployable methodology utilizing antigen–antibody reactions and the surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) effect to provide a rapid diagnostic test for recognition of the blue tongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhage disease virus (EHDV) in wild and domestic ruminants is reported. ...

  9. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  10. Review on Ruminant Nutrition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research works in ruminant nutrition have been widely published, especially those related to the energy and protein utilization. The energy and protein requirements for maintenance and production in tropical regions may be different from those in the subtropical areas. Responses of different species of ruminants to energy and protein supplements were also observed. The synchronization of energy and protein availability has been considered as an important strategy in affecting the microbial fermentative process in the rumen and in affecting the animal performance. The inclusion of long-chained unsaturated fatty acids in the diets has been successfully affecting milk production with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Feedstuffs characteristics in terms of their degradability and fermentation by rumen microbial enzymes have been intensively studied; however, further experimentations are still needed to elucidate the specific fate of its nutritive components in the rumen and tissue levels.

  11. Ribotyping to compare Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from bovine liver abscesses, ruminal walls, and ruminal contents.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, S; Nagaraja, T G; Okwumabua, O; Staats, J; Chengappa, M M; Oberst, R D

    1997-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of rRNA genes was employed to genetically compare Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates from multiple abscesses of the same liver and isolates from liver abscesses, the ruminal wall, and ruminal contents from the same animal. Four livers with multiple abscesses and samples of ruminal contents, ruminal walls, and liver abscesses were collected from 11 cattle at slaughter. F. necrophorum was...

  12. Leucaena leucocephala IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros-Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a common situation in extensive ruminant production systems in tropical countries to have low production indicators due to nutrient deficiencies in the diet. An economic alternative to increase animal production is the incorporation of legumes (fodder and fruits in the diet. This review, presents an analysis of the positive and negative effects of Leucaena leucocephala consumption by ruminants, with particular emphasis on the secondary compound mimosine. Leucaena due to its high nutrient content, rumen by-pass protein supply and its possible effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas (attributed to tannins has become one of the legumes most commonly used in ruminant feeding practices. However, in countries where leucaena has been introduced, its use is still limited to levels below 30% inclusion in the diet, due to the secondary compound mimosine and its isomers (3,4 and 2,3 DHP, which can induce toxicity, even when animals are inoculated with rumen fluid containing the bacteria Synergistes jonesii reported as responsible for degrading these compounds in the rumen. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, ruminants consuming leucaena can tolerate more than 50% inclusion in the diet, without having a negative impact on production, attributed intake to mimosine and its isomers. We conclude that in animals not adapted, the intake would be limited to low inclusion levels (less than 30% inclusion in the diet, mainly because of mimosine and its derivatives. The decrease in intake or diet digestibility seem to better explain the reduction in methane production, however, in vivo studies are required to clearly establish the mechanism of action. It has been reported the presence of different bacteria to S. jonessi that would have the ability to degrade mimosine and its derivatives, however, the activity of these bacteria and its effectiveness must be confirmed in vivo.

  13. The Ruminant and the Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Lajarin-Encina, Aitor

    2015-01-01

    The Ruminant and the Pond presents a group of paintings and a film that explore contemporary psycho-social conditions through fictional narratives. Paintings and film explore territories of thinking and emotion engaging the audience in subjective digressions related to ideas of artificiality, relativeness, absurdity, futility or alienation in relation to intersubjective reality perception, production and representation. At the same time the project delves in the specific relationship existin...

  14. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Talavera

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn. A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding

  15. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. What Drives Bank Lending in Domestic and Foreign Currency Loans in a Small Open Transition Economy with Fixed Exchange Rate? The Case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Bogoev

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates two different bank loan supply functions and their determinants according to the currency of bank loans in the Republic of Macedonia. There is robust statistical evidence in favour of the existence of a bank lending channel through foreign currency loans and the foreign reference interest rate. This suggests that the impact of domestic monetary policy over the bank lending channel is limited. The most significant bank-specific characteristic for the foreign currency lo...

  17. Clicking away at co-rumination: co-rumination correlates across different modalities of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Ani C; Watkins, Melanie A; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Co-rumination is associated with positive friendship quality (thought to buffer against anxiety and depression) but paradoxically higher levels of anxiety and depression. With the increasing use of technology for communication among adults, there is little known about co-rumination effects across different modalities of communication. In the current study, we examined co-rumination through four methods (i.e. in person, phone calls, text messaging, and social media) in two separate samples - college students and participants from the community. Classic co-rumination effects were found for in-person communications, and we found that co-rumination by telephone as well as by texting, for a college student sample only, mirrors some of these findings for in-person co-rumination. In studies of co-rumination, evaluation of multiple modes of communication is warranted.

  18. Meta-analysis of the association between rumination and reduced autobiographical memory specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Connie P Y; Griffith, James W; Lenaert, Bert; Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Barry, Tom J

    2018-05-16

    The CaRFAX model, proposed by Williams J. M. G. (2006. Capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and executive control (CaRFAX): Three processes that underlie overgeneral memory. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 548-568. doi: 10.1080/02699930500450465 ; Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Herman, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., & Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ) posits that reduced autobiographical memory specificity, a key factor associated with the emergence and maintenance of emotional disorders, may result from heightened rumination. We provide the first meta-analysis of the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and trait rumination. PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and MEDLINE databases were searched and the following were extracted: the correlation between the number of specific memories recalled in the Autobiographical Memory Test and self-reported trait rumination scores, and its sub-factors - brooding and reflection. The pooled effect size for the correlation between memory specificity and trait rumination was small (d = -.05) and did not differ significantly from zero (p = .09). The effect sizes for the correlation with brooding and reflection were not significantly different from zero. There is limited support for the association between trait rumination and memory specificity suggested in CaRFAX.

  19. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giubert, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated...

  20. Rumination and Age: Some Things Get Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sütterlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumination has been defined as a mode of responding to distress that involves passively focusing one's attention on symptoms of distress without taking action. This dysfunctional response style intensifies depressed mood, impairs interpersonal problem solving, and leads to more pessimistic future perspectives and less social support. As most of these results were obtained from younger people, it remains unclear how age affects ruminative thinking. Three hundred members of the general public ranging in age from 15 to 87 years were asked about their ruminative styles using the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ, depression and satisfaction with life. A Mokken Scale analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of the RSQ with brooding and reflective pondering as subcomponents of rumination. Older participants (63 years and older reported less ruminative thinking than other age groups. Life satisfaction was associated with brooding and highest for the earlier and latest life stages investigated in this study.

  1. Rumination Syndrome and Dental Erosions in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monagas, Javier; Ritwik, Priyanshi; Kolomensky, Andrew; Acosta, Julio; Kay, Danielle; Clendaniel, Lindsey; Hyman, Paul E

    2017-06-01

    Rumination syndrome is the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food with subsequent reswallowing or spitting out. Dental erosion (DE) affects 2% to 5% of the population. DE is defined as loss of tooth structure by a chemical process that does not involve bacteria. Our objective was to compare the frequency of DE among children with rumination syndrome with healthy controls. We enrolled 30 patients 4 to 21 years of age diagnosed with rumination syndrome, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Patients were evaluated by pediatric dentists for presence of DE with Taji et al a validated grading system. Patients with rumination were more likely to have DE (P syndrome, 23 (77%) had DE, compared with 4 (13%) control subjects. DEs are more frequent in patients with rumination syndrome.

  2. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  3. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  4. Rumination and behavioural factors in Parkinson's disease depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Camille L; Rimes, Katharine A; Brown, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with high rates of depression. There is growing interest in non-pharmacological management including psychological approaches such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. To date, little research has investigated whether processes that underpin cognitive models of depression, on which such treatment is based, apply in patients with Parkinson's disease. The study aimed to investigate the contribution of core psychological factors to the presence and degree of depressive symptoms. 104 participants completed questionnaires measuring mood, motor disability and core psychological variables, including maladaptive assumptions, rumination, cognitive-behavioural avoidance, illness representations and cognitive-behavioural responses to symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that a small number of psychological factors accounted for the majority of depression variance, over and above that explained by overall disability. Participants reporting high levels of rumination, avoidance and symptom focusing experienced more severe depressive symptoms. In contrast, pervasive negative dysfunctional beliefs did not independently contribute to depression variance. Specific cognitive (rumination and symptom focusing) and behavioural (avoidance) processes may be key psychological markers of depression in Parkinson's disease and therefore offer important targets for tailored psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunological unresponsiveness of the neonatal ruminant to gastrointestinal helminths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulsby, E.J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parasitic gastro-enteritis of domestic ruminants is a disease syndrome which is most usually seen in young animals in their first grazing season. Although this may be due, in part, to greater susceptibility of young animals to the pathogenic effects of parasitic infection, there is also good evidence that young animals are less able to mount a satisfactory protective immune response or a response which will reject an existing infection. This phenomenon is exemplified by Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. infection in sheep, but the phenomenon is recognized in other species including neonatal rodents (e.g. rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis) and has been demonstrated in neonatal cattle infected with Taenia saginata. The present consideration will deal mainly with the failure of lambs to mount an effective immune response to gastrointestinal nematodes during the neonatal period. (author)

  6. The colostrum proteome, ruminant nutrition and immunity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, Andrè M; Castro, Noemi; Argüello, Anastasio

    2014-02-01

    In this review authors address colostrum proteins implications in different domestic ruminant species. The colostrogenesis process and how different factors, such as litter size or nutrition during gestation can alter the different components concentrations in colostrum are also reviewed. The different colostrum fractions will be described, focusing on high and low abundant proteins. This review describes the major function of such proteins and their role on the passive immune transfer and nutrition in the newborn animal. It will be also performed a comprehensive review on different techniques and commercial kits available for high abundant protein depletion in colostrum. We will finally focus on how proteomics has been used to address this issue and how it can contribute to the major questions about colostrum associated immunology.

  7. Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Small Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein of Six Feed Ingredients%6种饲料原料瘤胃降解特性和瘤胃非降解蛋白质的小肠消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连生; 牛俊丽; 徐元君; 王芳; 郑琛; 李发第; 郭江鹏; 卜登攀

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the ruminal degradation characteristics and small intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) of six feed ingredients for dairy cows from Xinjiang, including corn silage, cottonseed hulls, alfalfa meal, alfalfa hay, grape seed meal and tomato sauce residue.Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with permanent rumen fistulas were selected to estimate the ruminal degradation characteristics of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) and small intestinal digestibility and intestinal digestible crude protein (IDCP) content of RUP by nylon-bag technique and modified three-step in vitro method.The results showed as follows:1) DM effective degradability of alfalfa meal and corn silage was higher, which was significantly higher than that of alfalfa hay and tomato sauce residue (P alfalfa meal > corn silage > alfalfa hay > cottonseed hulls > grape seed meal with significant differences among feed ingredients (P alfalfa meal > cottonseed hulls > alfalfa hay > tomato sauce residue > grape seed meal, and the differences among feed ingredients were significant (P cottonseed hulls > alfalfa hay > tomato sauce residue > alfalfa meal > grape seed meal with significant differences among feed ingredients (P苜蓿草粉>玉米青贮>苜蓿干草>棉籽壳>葡萄籽粕,各原料间差异显著(P苜蓿草粉>棉籽壳>苜蓿干草>番茄酱渣>葡萄籽粕,各组饲料原料间差异显著(P棉籽壳>苜蓿干草>番茄酱渣>苜蓿草粉>葡萄籽粕,各组饲料原料间差异显著(P0.05),显著高于依次降低的玉米青贮、番茄酱渣、葡萄籽粕、棉籽壳(P<0.05).综上所述,不同饲料原料具有不同的瘤胃降解特性,进入小肠IDCP的含量也不同.玉米青贮的DM、NDF和ADF在瘤胃的有效降解率较高,苜蓿草粉RUP的Idg较高,苜蓿草粉和苜蓿干草的IDCP含量较高.

  8. Molecular identification of parasitic nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida) in feces of wild ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Yousra; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Dhibi, Moktar; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-11-08

    In Tunisia and other North African countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. Thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of Tunisian wild ruminants. A total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (Addax, Barbary sheep, Barbary red deer, Dorcas gazelle, Slender-horned gazelle and Scimitar-horned Oryx) living in protected areas. Samples were examined with floatation (saturated sodium chloride solution), polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of only Nematodirus genus or molecular tools allowed a first identification of five gastrointestinal nematode species in North African wild ruminants: Chabertia ovina (1.6%), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (1.6%), Marshallagia marshalli (4.7%), Nematodirus helvetianus (62.5%) and Nematodirus spathiger (29.7%). This study reported the first records of C. mentulatus and M. marshalli in Addax and of M. marshalli in Dorcas gazelle and it was the first reported record of N. helvetianus and M. marshalli in Tunisia.

  9. Standardization of Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Features and Measurements in Two Small Mammal Pet-Species: Domestic Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and Mixed Breed Dwarf Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Balıkçı Dorotea, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Exotic animal practice is one of the fastest growing disciplines in veterinary medicine. The importance of small exotic mammals as veterinary patients has continued to grow and in some practices these animals form a significant percentage of the clientele. At the same time, knowledge regarding the anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological characteristics of these species has rapidly increased. In addition, the demands by many small exotic mammal owners for quality medical care for the...

  10. Relationship between liver lipid and liver dry matter in slaughtered ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Eftekhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55% and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p < 0.01. Gender, except for goats, did not affect the animals' liver parameters. In overall 15.00% of buffaloes and 3.50% of cows showed over 10.00% lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00% lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the animals were not. Liver lipidosis in buffaloes seems greater than in cows, and in small ruminants it was negligible. No correlation was expected between liver parameters. Finally, on the basis of liver dry matter, the liver in ruminants ranked from cows to buffaloes, goats and sheep.

  11. Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Rottinghaus, G W; Ju, H J; Dawe, D L; Hiatt, E E

    2001-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal

  12. 6种肉牛常用粗饲料瘤胃降解特性和瘤胃非降解蛋白质的小肠消化率%Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Small Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein of Six Kinds of Commonly Used Roughages for Steers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 张晓明; 王之盛; 彭全辉; 邹华围

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究黑麦草、牛鞭草、甘薯蔓、玉米秸青贮、玉米秸秆和稻草共6种肉牛常用粗饲料的瘤胃降解特性和瘤胃非降解蛋白质( RUP)的小肠消化率。选用3头装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的宣汉阉公牛为试验动物,采用尼龙袋技术评定6种粗饲料的干物质( DM)、粗蛋白质( CP)、中性洗涤纤维( NDF)和酸性洗涤纤维( ADF)瘤胃降解率,并用改进三步法评价RUP的小肠消化率。结果表明:1)黑麦草和甘薯蔓DM有效降解率较高,并与依次降低的牛鞭草、玉米秸青贮、玉米秸秆和稻草差异显著( P<0.05)。CP有效降解率和 ADF有效降解率以黑麦草最高,且与依次降低的甘薯蔓、牛鞭草、玉米秸青贮、玉米秸秆和稻草差异显著( P<0.05)。NDF有效降解率为黑麦草>甘薯蔓>玉米秸青贮>牛鞭草>稻草>玉米秸秆,各粗饲料间差异显著(P<0.05)。2)牛鞭草、玉米秸秆和稻草RUP的小肠消化率差异不显著( P>0.05),并显著高于依次降低的玉米秸青贮、黑麦草和甘薯蔓( P<0.05)。小肠可消化粗蛋白质含量为黑麦草>甘薯蔓>牛鞭草>玉米秸青贮>玉米秸秆>稻草,各粗饲料间差异显著( P<0.05)。由此可见,不同粗饲料瘤胃降解特性不同,为小肠提供可消化粗蛋白质的潜力也不同。黑麦草的 DM、CP、NDF 和ADF在瘤胃的有效降解率最高,牛鞭草、玉米秸秆和稻草RUP的小肠消化率较高,黑麦草和甘薯蔓小肠可消化粗蛋白质含量较高。%This experiment was conducted to determine the ruminal degradation characteristics and small intesti-nal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein( RUP)of 6 kinds of commonly used roughages:ryegrass,hem-arthria compressa,sweet potato stem,corn stover silage,corn stover and rice straw. Three Xuanhan steers fit-ted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used. Nylon

  13. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  14. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siarkou, Victoria I.; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94

  15. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb

    Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component.

  16. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  17. Nitrogen recycling through the gut and the nitrogen economy of ruminants: An asynchronous symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, C K; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2007-01-01

    The extensive development of the ruminant forestomach sets apart their nitrogen (N) economy from that of nonruminants in a number of respects. Extensive pre-gastric fermentation alters the profile of protein reaching the small intestine, largely through the transformation of nitrogenous compounds...

  18. Domestic Temporalities: Sensual Patterning in Persian Migratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we argue that these intimate practices have references beyond their domestic dimensions, for they point to a worldly movement of life writ domestically small. It is via a sensory network that the spatially and temporally disparate worlds of homeland and new homes are remembered and forgotten, and where ...

  19. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  20. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Boshra

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  1. The role of experiential avoidance, rumination and mindfulness in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A; Park, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa has been associated with high levels of ruminative thoughts about eating, shape and weight as well as avoidance of emotion and experience. This study examined the associations between disorder-specific rumination, mindfulness, experiential avoidance and eating disorder symptoms. A sample of healthy females (n=228) completed a battery of on-line self-report measures. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that ruminative brooding on eating, weight and shape concerns was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms, above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. In a small group (n=42) of individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa, only reflection on eating weight and shape was able to predict eating disorder symptoms when controlling for depression and anxiety. The results suggest that rumination (both brooding and reflection) on eating, weight and shape concerns may be a process which exacerbates eating disorder symptoms. Examining rumination may improve understanding of the cognitive processes which underpin anorexia nervosa and this may in turn aid the development of novel strategies to augment existing interventions. Replication in a larger clinical sample is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary regulation of developmental programming in ruminants: epigenetic modifications in the germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K D; Karamitri, A; Gardner, D S

    2010-01-01

    Ruminants have been utilised extensively to investigate the developmental origins of health and disease, with the sheep serving as the model species of choice to complement dietary studies in the rat and mouse. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated delayed effects of maternal undernutrition during pregnancy on adult offspring health and a consistent phenotype, together with underlying mechanistic pathways, has not emerged. Nevertheless, when broad consideration is given to all studies with ruminants it is apparent that interventions that are initiated very early in gestation, and/or prior to conception, lead to greater effects on adult physiology than those that are specifically targeted to late gestation. Effects induced following dietary interventions at the earliest stages of mammalian development have been shown to arise as a consequence of alterations to key epigenetic processes that occur in germ cells and pluripotent embryonic cells. Currently, our understanding of epigenetic programming in the germline is greatest for the mouse, and is considered in detail in this article together with what is known in ruminants. This species imbalance, however, looks set to change as fully annotated genomic maps are developed for domesticated large animal species, and with the advent of 'next-generation' DNA sequencing technologies that have the power to globally map the epigenome at single-base-pair resolution. These developments would help to address such issues as sexually dimorphic epigenetic alterations to DNA methylation that have been found to arise following dietary restrictions during the peri-conceptional period, the effects of paternal nutritional status on epigenetic programming through the germline, and transgenerational studies where, in future, greater emphasis in domesticated ruminants should be placed on traits of agricultural importance.

  3. Canadian small-scale hydroelectric plant manual: Quebec region, feasibility study for domestic installations. Manuel canadien de centrale hydroelectrique a faible puissance: Region du Quebec, etude de faisabilite pour installations domestiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proulx, S; Tung, T

    1989-11-01

    A manual is presented for evaluating the feasibility of domestic-scale hydropower plants, with reference to Quebec conditions. Procedures are given for determining energy needs, and the flow conditions and electricity generating potential of a site. The laws which regulate small hydro plants in Quebec are outlined. The types of turbines and associated electrical equipment are discussed, along with criteria for their selection according to application. The economic analysis of a proposed project is then described, and a list of documents which need to be prepared is included, as well as a glossary. A case study of a 50-kW plant installed at a Quebec restaurant is illustrated. 6 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  5. Recent Advances in Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rüştü Kutlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most industrialized animal production branches of ruminant production successfully requires a blending of theoretical knowledge of nutritional principles with practical stockmanship, maintaining health and dealing with numbers. It is well known that high yielding, dairy cows, require balanced diet with adequate nutrients for yielding. This is not provided with only a few feedstuffs. Milk production in dairy cows is related to the improvements in genetic merit of farm animals and also developments in feed science, feed technology and animal nutrition. In particular, feeds and feed technology studies associated with sustainability, economical perspectives and product quality in the last decade have been in advance. In the present work, recent advances in feed sources and feed technology, minerals (macro and trace minerals , vitamins and amino acids, feed additives (antibiotics alternative growth stimulants, rumen modulator, organic acids, antioxidants, enzymes, plant extracts, nutrition-products (meat-milk-progeny quality and functional food production (milk, meat nutrition-reproduction, nutrition-animal health, nutrition-environmental temperature, nutrition-global warming were evaluated.

  6. A RUMINATE EMBRYO IN BLEPHARIS REPENS (VAHL. ROTH. (ACANTHACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. LABHANE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphology of embryo is very significant considering the fact that the embryo represents the important step in the determination of the viability of the seed. Ruminate endosperm has been reported in about 58 families of angiosperms. The rumination caused by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself is quite recurrent in angiosperm. Ruminate endosperm due to seed coat is reported from the family Acanthaceae in Andrographis paniculata. The rumination of endosperm is also considered as phylogenetically important. Rumination of endosperm is very common, however very little is known about rumination in embryo. The present papers reports the de novo development of ruminate embryo in Blepharis repens. The development of ruminate embryo is seen as an adaptation to ensure proper aeration and optimum germination for survival of the species.

  7. Worry and anger rumination in fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ricci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to investigate the psychological profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS as compared to patients with other chronic pain syndromes (CP and healthy subjects (HS; 2 to examine the associations between anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination in FS patients. FS patients (N=30, CP patients (N=30 and HS (N=30 completed measurements of anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination. FS patients showed higher levels of state and trait anxiety, worry and angry rumination than CP patients and HS, and higher levels of depression than HS. Worry and angry rumination were strongly associated in the FS group. FS patients may use worry and rumination as coping strategies to deal with their negative emotional experience, which might impair their emotional wellbeing. Findings from the present study add to our understanding of the psychological profile of FS patients, and have important implications for developing a tailored CBT protocol for pain management in FS patients.

  8. Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Zijderveld, van, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminant products form an important part of the human diet. The demand for ruminant products is expected to increase due to the increase in the size of the human population and its increasing wealth. The production of ruminant meat and milk is associated with a relatively large environmental impact when compared to other animal products. This is, for a large part, caused by the fact that ruminants produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas, during the digestion of their feed. Many dietary str...

  9. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richard F. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  10. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants...

  11. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to the...

  12. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  13. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  14. Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminant products form an important part of the human diet. The demand for ruminant products is expected to increase due to the increase in the size of the human population and its increasing wealth. The production of ruminant meat and milk is associated with a relatively large environmental

  15. The Role of Parenting in the Development of Rumination

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Research suggests that rumination predicts depression in adult and adolescent populations and there is increasing evidence that rumination is a transdiagnostic factor across psychological disorders. Whilst researchers have stressed the importance of understanding the developmental antecedents of rumination and a number of hypotheses have been posited, this area has received little research attention. Additionally, the majority of existing research has ...

  16. Training working memory to reduce rumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Onraedt

    Full Text Available Cognitive symptoms of depression, such as rumination, have shown to be associated with deficits in working memory functioning. More precisely, the capacity to expel irrelevant negative information from working memory seems to be affected. Even though these associations have repeatedly been demonstrated, the nature and causal direction of this association is still unclear. Therefore, within an experimental design, we tried to manipulate working memory functioning of participants with heightened rumination scores in two similar experiments (n = 72 and n = 45 using a six day working memory training compared to active and passive control groups. Subsequently the effects on the processing of non-emotional and emotional information in working memory were monitored. In both experiments, performance during the training task significantly increased, but this performance gain did not transfer to the outcome working memory tasks or rumination and depression measures. Possible explanations for the failure to find transfer effects are discussed.

  17. Transmission of Helminths between Species of Ruminants in Austria Appears More Likely to Occur than Generally Assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jakob; Rehbein, Steffen; Joachim, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer) and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex), and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely. A complete and updated overview on the occurrence of helminths of domestic and wild ruminants in Austria is presented. Based on these data, intersections of the host spectrum of the determined parasites were depicted. The “liability index” was applied to identify the ruminant species, which most likely transmit parasites between each other. A degree for host specificity was calculated for each parasite species based on the average taxonomic distance of their host species. Of the 73 identified helminth species 42 were identified as generalists, and 14 transmission experiments supported the assumed broad host specificity for 14 generalists and 1 specialist helminth species. Overall, 61 helminths were found to infect more than one host species, and 4 were found in all 10 ruminant species investigated. From these analyses, it can be concluded that a number of helminth parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs are potentially transmitted between domestic and wild ruminants in Austria. For some parasites and host species, experimental evidence is in support for possible transmission, while for other such studies are lacking. Host preference of different genotypes of the same parasite species may have a confounding effect on the evaluation of cross-transmission, but so far this has not been evaluated systematically in helminths in Austria. Further studies focusing on experimental cross

  18. Transmission of Helminths between Species of Ruminants in Austria Appears More Likely to Occur than Generally Assumed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Winter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex, and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely. A complete and updated overview on the occurrence of helminths of domestic and wild ruminants in Austria is presented. Based on these data, intersections of the host spectrum of the determined parasites were depicted. The “liability index” was applied to identify the ruminant species, which most likely transmit parasites between each other. A degree for host specificity was calculated for each parasite species based on the average taxonomic distance of their host species. Of the 73 identified helminth species 42 were identified as generalists, and 14 transmission experiments supported the assumed broad host specificity for 14 generalists and 1 specialist helminth species. Overall, 61 helminths were found to infect more than one host species, and 4 were found in all 10 ruminant species investigated. From these analyses, it can be concluded that a number of helminth parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs are potentially transmitted between domestic and wild ruminants in Austria. For some parasites and host species, experimental evidence is in support for possible transmission, while for other such studies are lacking. Host preference of different genotypes of the same parasite species may have a confounding effect on the evaluation of cross-transmission, but so far this has not been evaluated systematically in helminths in Austria. Further studies focusing on

  19. Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação in vitro de alimentos incubados com inóculo microbiano de diferentes espécies de ruminantes Kinetic parameters of the ruminal in vitro degradation of feedstuffs given to different ruminant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.G.F. Bezerra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alguns alimentos utilizados para ruminantes de zoológicos foram estimados mediante incubação in vitro com líquido ruminal de audade (Ammotragus lervia, cervo sambar (Cervus unicolor, elande (Taurotragus oryx, bovino (Bos taurus, bubalino (Bubalus bubalis, caprino (Capra hircus e ovino (Ovis aries. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram estimados pela técnica da produção de gás, cujos dados foram ajustados pelos modelos de um e de duplo compartimento. Não foram detectadas diferenças nos parâmetros cinéticos que permitissem agrupar os alimentos (fibrosos × não fibrosos e os animais (domésticos × silvestres. O modelo de duplo compartimento foi o mais adequado para a estimação dos parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal. Inóculo microbiano oriundo de ruminantes domésticos não é recomendado para estimar parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alimentos utilizados para ruminantes silvestres de zoológicos.The estimation of the ruminal kinetic parameters of pumpkin, potato-sweet, beet, broccoli, carrot, alfalfa hay, alfalfa pellet and bean, currently used for feeding wild and domestic ruminants raised in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo, was made through in vitro incubation of the feedstuffs together with ruminal fluid obtained from aoudad (Ammotragus lervia, sambar deer (Cervus unicolor, eland (Taurotragus oryx, cattle (Bos taurus, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, goat (Capra hircus and sheep (Ovis aries. The gas production technique was used to obtain gas profiles, and the data were fitted by the mono or double compartmental model. The kinetic parameters were discrepant among both, animals and feedstuffs, and the double compartmental model gave the best estimation. Ruminal inocula from domestic ruminants can not be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of ruminal degradation of feedstuffs for wild ruminants.

  20. Strategies for optimizing nitrogen use by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of N utilization in ruminants is typically low (around 25%) and highly variable (10% to 40%) compared with the higher efficiency of other production animals. The low efficiency has implications for the production performance and environment. Many efforts have been devoted to improv......The efficiency of N utilization in ruminants is typically low (around 25%) and highly variable (10% to 40%) compared with the higher efficiency of other production animals. The low efficiency has implications for the production performance and environment. Many efforts have been devoted...

  1. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    % of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has......Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60...

  2. Host specificity of the ruminal bacterial community in the dairy cow followng near-total exchange of ruminal contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability and host specificity of a cow’s ruminal bacterial community following massive challenge with the ruminal microflora from another cow. In each of two experiments, one pair of cows was selected on the basis of differences in ruminal bacterial comm...

  3. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  5. 小肽对奶牛瘤胃微生物蛋白产量、产奶性能和氮排泄的影响%Effects of Small Peptides on Ruminal Microbial Protein Production, Milk Performance and Nitrogen Excretion of Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹丹; 滕乐邦; 栾正庆; 孙国强

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of small peptides ( SP) on ruminal microbial protein production, milk performance and nitrogen excretion of dairy cows. Forty Holstein cows with similar age, body weight, milk yield and lactation stage [(45±15) days in milk] were divided into 4 groups with 10 cows per group. The supplement level of SP in control and test groups 1, 2 and 3 was 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/( d·head) , respectively. The pretest lasted for 15 days, and the test lasted for 60 days. The results showed as follows: 1) ruminal microbial protein production in test groups 1, 2 and 3 was significantly in-creased by 17.38%, 22.94% and 12.22% compared with that in control group ( P<0.05) . 2) Test groups 1, 2 and 3 had 9.93%, 12.64% and 7.53% greater milk yield than control group ( P<0.05); SP could signifi-cantly increase milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage (P<0.05), and significantly reduce milk so-matic cell count ( P<0.05) , especially test group 2. 3) Compared with control group, total nitrogen excretion in test groups was significantly reduced ( P<0.05) , and was reduced by 13.31%, 15.01% and 9.43% in test groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Based on the data of ruminal microbial protein production, milk yield, milk composition content and nitrogen excretion indices, it can be concluded that the suitable supplement level of SP is 100 g/(d·head) in dairy cows under the condition in the present study.%本试验旨在研究小肽( small peptides,SP)对奶牛瘤胃微生物蛋白产量、产奶性能及氮排泄的影响。选取年龄、体重、产奶量、乳成分及泌乳期[(45±15) d]相近的荷斯坦奶牛40头,分为4组,每组10头,对照组和试验1组、2组、3组分别补饲0、50、100和150 g/( d·头) SP。预试期15 d,正试期60 d。结果表明:1)试验组的瘤胃微生物蛋白产量显著高于对照组( P<0.05),试验1组、2组、3组分别比对照组提高17.38%、22.94%、12.22%。2)试验组产

  6. Alternatives for forage evaluation in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate and to compare in situ and in vitro techniques with in vivo data. These techniques were also evaluated for future and practical use in feed evaluation for ruminants. The techniques were compared using the digestion data of 98 forages and the energy

  7. [EHEC carriage in ruminants and probiotic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forano, Evelyne; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bertin, Yolande; Martin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga-Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that cause human outbreaks which can lead to a severe illness such as haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), particularly in young children. The gastrointestinal tract of cattle and other ruminants is the principal reservoir of EHEC strains and outbreaks have been associated with direct contact with the farm environment, and with the consumption of meat, dairy products, water and fruit or vegetable contaminated with ruminant manure. Several outbreaks occurred these last years in France. In Brazil, although STEC carriage in ruminants is important, human cases due to EHEC are fairly rare. In order to reduce EHEC survival in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and thus limit contamination of food products, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms underlying EHEC persistence in this ecosystem with the aim of developing nutritional or ecological strategies. The effect of probiotics has been tested in vitro on the growth and survival of EHEC strains and in vivo on the animal carriage of these strains. Various studies have then shown that lactic bacteria or non-pathogenic E. coli strains were able to limit EHEC fecal shedding. In addition, understanding EHEC physiology in the ruminant gut is also critical for limiting EHEC shedding. We found that EHEC O157:H7 is able to use ethanolamine and mucus-derived sugars as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Thus, these substrates represent an ecological niche for EHEC and their utilization confers a competitive growth advantage to these pathogens as they use them more rapidly than the bacteria belonging to the resident intestinal microbiota. Understanding EHEC metabolism and ecology in the bovine intestinal tract will allow proposing probiotic strains to compete with EHEC for nutrients and thus decrease the sanitary risk. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  8. Testing the cognitive catalyst model of rumination with explicit and implicit cognitive content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Christopher C; Roberts, John E

    2018-06-01

    The cognitive catalyst model posits that rumination and negative cognitive content, such as negative schema, interact to predict depressive affect. Past research has found support for this model using explicit measures of negative cognitive content such as self-report measures of trait self-esteem and dysfunctional attitudes. The present study tested whether these findings would extend to implicit measures of negative cognitive content such as implicit self-esteem, and whether effects would depend on initial mood state and history of depression. Sixty-one undergraduate students selected on the basis of depression history (27 previously depressed; 34 never depressed) completed explicit and implicit measures of negative cognitive content prior to random assignment to a rumination induction followed by a distraction induction or vice versa. Dysphoric affect was measured both before and after these inductions. Analyses revealed that explicit measures, but not implicit measures, interacted with rumination to predict change in dysphoric affect, and these interactions were further moderated by baseline levels of dysphoria. Limitations include the small nonclinical sample and use of a self-report measure of depression history. These findings suggest that rumination amplifies the association between explicit negative cognitive content and depressive affect primarily among people who are already experiencing sad mood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallographic studies of galectin-11 from domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Dhanasekaran; Littler, Dene; Shahine, Adam; Troy, Sally; Johnson, Matthew; Rossjohn, Jamie; Piedrafita, David; Beddoe, Travis

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that translate glycan recognition into cellular effects. Galectin-11 is a unique member of the galectin family that is only expressed in ruminants such as sheep, goat and cattle and that plays a critical role in several important biological processes, such as reproduction and parasite-mediated innate immune responses. Currently, these two areas are of major importance for the sustainability of ruminant livestock production. Despite the emerging biological significance of galectin-11, no structural information is available. It is expected that structural studies will unravel the functional mechanisms of galectin-11 activity. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ruminant-specific galectin-11 from domestic sheep and the collection of X-ray data to 2.0 Å resolution are reported.

  10. The four faces of rumination to stressful events: A psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Felipe E; Duque, Almudena; Cova, Félix

    2017-11-01

    To increase the knowledge of rumination and its associations with stressful events, we explored the relationships between 4 types of rumination (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination) in a sample of 750 adult participants who experienced a highly stressful event. We also explored the predictive value of the different types of rumination on posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth 6 months after the highly stressful event occurred. Participants completed the Ruminative Response Scale and the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Brooding and reflection rumination were obtained from the Ruminative Response Scale, whereas deliberate and intrusive rumination were obtained from the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Confirmatory factorial analyses were conducted using the 4 types of rumination to test 3 different models: (a) 4-factor model (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination), (b) 2-factor model: adaptive rumination (reflection and deliberate) and maladaptive rumination (brooding and intrusive), and (c) 2-factor model: depressive rumination (brooding and reflection) and posttraumatic rumination (intrusive and deliberate). It was observed that the 4-factor model showed the best fit to the data. Moreover, 6 months later it was observed that the most significant predictor of posttraumatic symptoms was intrusive rumination, whereas deliberate rumination was the most significant predictor of posttraumatic growth. Results indicate that the 4 types of rumination are differentiated constructs. Ruminative thoughts experienced after a stressful event predicted posttraumatic consequences 6 months later. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. RUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: Use of genomics and transcriptomics to identify strategies to lower ruminal methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T A; Meale, S J; Valle, E; Guan, L L; Zhou, M; Kelly, W J; Henderson, G; Attwood, G T; Janssen, P H

    2015-04-01

    Globally, methane (CH4) emissions account for 40% to 45% of greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant livestock, with over 90% of these emissions arising from enteric fermentation. Reduction of carbon dioxide to CH4 is critical for efficient ruminal fermentation because it prevents the accumulation of reducing equivalents in the rumen. Methanogens exist in a symbiotic relationship with rumen protozoa and fungi and within biofilms associated with feed and the rumen wall. Genomics and transcriptomics are playing an increasingly important role in defining the ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and identifying avenues for its mitigation. Metagenomic approaches have provided information on changes in abundances as well as the species composition of the methanogen community among ruminants that vary naturally in their CH4 emissions, their feed efficiency, and their response to CH4 mitigators. Sequencing the genomes of rumen methanogens has provided insight into surface proteins that may prove useful in the development of vaccines and has allowed assembly of biochemical pathways for use in chemogenomic approaches to lowering ruminal CH4 emissions. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomic analysis of entire rumen microbial communities are providing new perspectives on how methanogens interact with other members of this ecosystem and how these relationships may be altered to reduce methanogenesis. Identification of community members that produce antimethanogen agents that either inhibit or kill methanogens could lead to the identification of new mitigation approaches. Discovery of a lytic archaeophage that specifically lyses methanogens is 1 such example. Efforts in using genomic data to alter methanogenesis have been hampered by a lack of sequence information that is specific to the microbial community of the rumen. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census are increasing the breadth and depth of our understanding of global ruminal microbial communities, steps that

  12. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  13. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    blood. The blood samples were kept cool by placing them in cold boxes containing ice packs after collection. Parasitological examination was done in the Laboratory using the haematocrit centrifugation technique, HCT (Woo, 1971), buffy coat method (BCM) (Murry et. al; 1977) and. Giemsa stained thin films made after BCM.

  14. Study on the seroprevalence of small ruminant brucellosis in and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from extensive management system with no history of vaccination. All serum samples ... central highlands of Ethiopia, where mixed crop- livestock production system is practiced, ..... Sheep and Goat Production Handbook for Ethiopia. Ethiopia ...

  15. Epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites in three agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Parasitology 2nd ed. Blackwell science Ltd. Osneymend, oxford, London, UK, Pp. 180-210. Wolaita Zone Finance and Economic Development Department, WZFEDD, 2003.Socio- economic profiles of Wolaita Zone. pp. 1- 97. Woldemeskel ...

  16. prevalence of fasciolosis in small ruminants slaughtered at yola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Umar, A.G., Nwosu, C.O. and Philip, H.R. (2009). Seasonal Prevalence and economic importance of bovine Fasciolosis in Jalingo Abattoir, Taraba. State, Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal. 30(3): 44 – 50. Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.W. (1996): Veterinary. Parasitology 2nd Edition.

  17. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of small ruminants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serious threat to the livestock economy worldwide (Vercruysse and Claerebout,. 2001). ..... epidemiologic and economic aspects of a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis. Bull Pan. Am Hlth .... trichostrongyles in a dry area of central Spain. J Vet Med.

  18. Utilization of by-products in ruminant diets in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.; Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out with the objective of studying the nutritive value of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products, either alone or in combination with non-protein nitrogen, and the use of these by-products in ruminant diets. The intake and nutritive value of poor quality roughages and other by-products (cereal straw, peanut hulls and waste paper) were improved considerably by supplements that provide nitrogen (soybean meal or urea) and energy (barley grain). Partial replacement of soybean meal in diets of fattening lambs by urea was possible and dry mature sheep could be maintained on cereal straw diets supplemented with small quantities of barley grain, urea, minerals and vitamins. Silage was made from citrus peels or grape marc and poultry litter. It replaced successfully part of the concentrate mixture in the diets of lactating cows and growing heifers. (author)

  19. Precious small domestic animals; Wertvolles Kleinvieh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristau, Oliver

    2013-03-15

    Due to the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law, especially larger biomass conversion plants have become less profitable. For this, compact power stations with a performance up to 75 kW move to the fore. Compact power stations with biogas still are a rarity in Germany. Compact power stations utilize resources efficiently and discharge the power distribution systems.

  20. Application of fatty acids as rumen-resistant coating on veterinary medical products for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalsrud, N.-I.; Ore, S.; Velle, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention consists of the coating of veterinary medical products with a fatty acid insoluble in the gastric juices of the rumen. This will allow administration to ruminants of medical preparations whose contents should first be absorbed in the small intestine, and which are decomposed in, or are hostile to, the stomach. An example is quoted in which steroids labelled with tritium were administered to two ox calves. The distribution in blood plasma, urine and gastric juice was measured. (JIW)

  1. Criminal aspects domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  2. Domestic violence : evidence review.

    OpenAIRE

    Westmarland, Nicole; Thorlby, Katie; Wistow, Jane; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    While domestic violence is high on the public policy agenda in the UK, successive reviews have highlighted policing problems. A recent HMIC report found domestic violence is not policed at the same level as other offences and identified a catalogue of policing failures that have a long history of recurrence. With domestic violence accounting for around a large proportion of violent crime incidents reported to the police, and the majority of all female homicides (Office for National Statistics...

  3. Physicians and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Joslin, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Domestic violence, spouse abuse, and battering all refer to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate relationship. Domestic violence may take the form of physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is generally repeated, and often escalates within relationships. Most evidence indicates that domestic violence is predominantly perpetrated by men against women. Some evidence suggests that women are just as likely to use violence against male partners as men are...

  4. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  5. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou

    2010-01-01

    as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...... to animals in process of de-domestication. Secondly, the paper explores the implications of de-domestication for nature management, focusing on notions of naturalness and wildness. Finally, because the current division of ethical topics, with its dependence upon whether animals and nature are domesticated...

  6. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for ef...... no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves.......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...

  7. Review: Optimizing ruminant conversion of feed protein to human food protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A

    2017-11-20

    Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets. Greenhouse gas emission intensity is reduced by increased productivity per animal; recent research has developed at least one effective inhibitor of methane production in the rumen. There is widespread over-feeding of protein to dairy cattle; milk and component yields can be maintained, and sometimes even increased, at lower protein intake. Group feeding dairy cows according to production and feeding diets higher in rumen-undegraded protein can improve milk and protein yield. Supplementing rumen-protected essential amino acids will also improve N efficiency in some cases. Better N utilization reduces urinary N, which is the most environmentally unstable form of excretory N. Employing nutritional models to more accurately meet animal requirements improves nutrient efficiency. Although smallholder enterprises, which are concentrated in tropical and semi-tropical regions of developing countries, are subject to different economic pressures, nutritional biology is similar at all production levels. Rather than milk volume, nutritional strategies should maximize milk component yield, which is proportional to market value as well as food value when milk nutrients are consumed directly by farmers and their families. Moving away from Holsteins toward smaller breeds such as Jerseys, Holstein-Jersey crosses or

  8. Alkanes as markers in nutritional studies with wild ruminant and non-ruminant animals Alcanos como indicadores em estudos nutricionais com ruminantes selvagens e animais não-ruminantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Estrasulas de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of information relative to the digestibility, intake and botanical and morphological composition of the diet is important in nutritional studies, since it provides the basis for understanding aspects related to the ingestive behavior and selectivity of animals. N-alkanes have been used successfully as markers in studies with many species of animals, particularly domesticated ruminants, most of the times as replacements for conventional markers as chromium oxide for example. However, for wild ruminants and non-ruminant animals information on this technique is still scarce and, as a consequence, its potential for use unknown. This review reports the use of this technique in studies of feed digestibility, intake and diet composition with wild ruminants and non-ruminant animals, summarizing results and inferring on the feasibility and applicability of the technique.O conhecimento de informações relativas à digestibilidade, consumo, composição botânica e morfológica da dieta é importante em estudos de nutrição, pois fornece a base para a compreensão de aspectos relativos ao comportamento ingestivo e a seletividade dos animais. N-alcanos têm sido usados com sucesso como indicadores em estudos com várias espécies de animais, particularmente ruminantes domésticos, muitas vezes como substitutos a marcadores convencionais como o cromo por exemplo. No entanto, no caso de ruminantes selvagens e animais não-ruminantes as informações sobre essa técnica são ainda escassas e, consequentemente, seu potencial de uso desconhecido. Esta revisão borda o uso dessa metodologia em estudos de digestibilidade, consumo e estimativa da composição da dieta em ruminantes selvagens e animais não-ruminantes, sumarizando resultados e inferindo sobre a viabilidade e aplicabilidade da técnica.

  9. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretionin ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo , David; Sauvant , Daniel; Bogaert , Catherine; Meschy , François

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus...

  10. Assessing gene function in the ruminant placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R V; Cantlon, J D; Gates, K C; Purcell, S H; Clay, C M

    2010-01-01

    The placenta provides the means for nutrient transfer from the mother to the fetus, waste transfer from the fetus to the mother, protection of the fetus from the maternal immune system, and is an active endocrine organ. While many placental functions have been defined and investigated, assessing the function of specific genes expressed by the placenta has been problematic, since classical ablation-replacement methods are not feasible with the placenta. The pregnant sheep has been a long-standing animal model for assessing in vivo physiology during pregnancy, since surgical placement of indwelling catheters into both maternal and fetal vasculature has allowed the assessment of placental nutrient transfer and utilization, as well as placental hormone secretion, under unanesthetized-unstressed steady state sampling conditions. However, in ruminants the lack of well-characterized trophoblast cell lines and the inefficiency of creating transgenic pregnancies in ruminants have inhibited our ability to assess specific gene function. Recently, sheep and cattle primary trophoblast cell lines have been reported, and may further our ability to investigate trophoblast function and transcriptional regulation of genes expressed by the placenta. Furthermore, viral infection of the trophoectoderm layer of hatched blastocysts, as a means for placenta-specific transgenesis, holds considerable potential to assess gene function in the ruminant placenta. This approach has been used successfully to "knockdown" gene expression in the developing sheep conceptus, and has the potential for gain-of-function experiments as well. While this technology is still being developed, it may provide an efficient approach to assess specific gene function in the ruminant placenta.

  11. Detection and genome analysis of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus in Kenya in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundon, W.G.; Kihu, S.M.; Gitao, G.C.; Bebora, L.C.; John, N.M.; Ogugi, J.O.; Loitsch, A.; Diallo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In May 2011 in Turkana County, north-western Kenya, tissue samples were collected from goats suspected of having died of peste des petits ruminant (PPR) disease, an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The samples were processed and tested by reverse transcriptase PCR for the presence of PPR viral RNA. The positive samples were sequenced and identified as belonging to peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) lineage III. Full-genome analysis of one of the positive samples revealed that the virus causing disease in Kenya in 2011 was 95.7% identical to the full genome of a virus isolated in Uganda in 2012 and that a segment of the viral fusion gene was 100% identical to that of a virus circulating in Tanzania in 2013. These data strongly indicate transboundary movement of lineage III viruses between Eastern Africa countries and have significant implications for surveillance and control of this important disease as it moves southwards in Africa. (author)

  12. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Sharmin; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  13. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the ...

  14. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR construct in current empirical psychiatric research.Method: We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE, SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology.Results: Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models.Conclusion: Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  15. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; da Costa, Fábio Antônio; Soares, Ana Luiza Alfaya Galego; Mecler, Kátia; Valença, Alexandre Martins

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR) construct in current empirical psychiatric research. We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE), SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models. Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  16. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  17. [Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A

    1994-01-01

    Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies.

  18. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  19. The Effect of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory Retrieval on Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From distinct research traditions rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval (OGM have emerged as two vulnerability markers for depression and depressive relapse (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004; Williams, 2004. Recent research further suggests a causal relation between rumination and OGM (e.g., Watkins & Teasdale, 2001. The present study investigated the inverse relationship, that is, OGM causally influencing ruminative thinking. A scrambled sentences procedure was used to assess the extent to which 112 student participants were engaged in a mental mode consistent with ruminative thinking following either a specific or overgeneral memory retrieval style manipulation. Trait rumination was also assessed prior to the experimental retrieval manipulation, using a self-report scale. It was found that high ruminators, following an overgeneral (as compared to a specific retrieval style, unscrambled sentences relatively more into sentences with a ruminative meaning. In non or low ruminators this retrieval style manipulation had no such effect. Alongside the findings of Watkins and colleagues (e.g., Watkins & Teasdale, 2001, the present results are consistent with the view of rumination and OGM as two mutually reinforcing vulnerability factors for depression (Williams, 1996, 2004.

  20. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Wagner, Clara A; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12-13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  2. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  3. Rapid spread and association of Schmallenberg virus with ruminant abortions and foetal death in Austria in 2012/2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinrigl, Adolf; Schiefer, Peter; Schleicher, Corina; Peinhopf, Walter; Wodak, Eveline; Bagó, Zoltán; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2014-10-15

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has emerged in summer-autumn 2011 in north-western Europe. Since then, SBV has been continuously spreading over Europe, including Austria, where antibodies to SBV, as well as SBV genome, were first detected in autumn 2012. This study was performed to demonstrate the dynamics of SBV spread within Austria, after its probable first introduction in summer 2012. True seroprevalence estimates for cattle and small ruminates were calculated to demonstrate temporal and regional differences of infection. Furthermore, the probability of SBV genome detection in foetal tissues of aborted or stillborn cattle and small ruminants as well as in allantoic fluid samples from cows with early foetal losses was retrospectively assessed. SBV first reached Austria most likely in July-August 2012, as indicated by retrospective detection of SBV antibodies and SBV genome in archived samples. From August to October 2012, a rapid increase in seroprevalence to over 98% in cattle and a contemporaneous peak in the detection of SBV genome in foetal tissues and allantoic fluid samples was noted, indicating widespread acute infections. Notably, foetal malformations were absent in RT-qPCR positive foetuses at this time of the epidemic. SBV spread within Austrian cattle reached a plateau phase as early as October 2012, without significant regional differences in SBV seroprevalence (98.4-100%). Estimated true seroprevalences among small ruminates were comparatively lower than in cattle and regionally different (58.3-95.6% in October 2012), potentially indicating an eastward spread of the infection, as well as different infection dynamics between cattle and small ruminants. Additionally, the probability of SBV genome detection over time differed significantly between small ruminant and cattle samples subjected to RT-qPCR testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, J R; Penner, G B; Stumpff, F; Gäbel, G

    2011-04-01

    Highly fermentable diets are rapidly converted to organic acids [i.e., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid] within the rumen. The resulting release of protons can constitute a challenge to the ruminal ecosystem and animal health. Health disturbances, resulting from acidogenic diets, are classified as subacute and acute acidosis based on the degree of ruminal pH depression. Although increased acid production is a nutritionally desired effect of increased concentrate feeding, the accumulation of protons in the rumen is not. Consequently, mechanisms of proton removal and their quantitative importance are of major interest. Saliva buffers (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate) have long been identified as important mechanisms for ruminal proton removal. An even larger proportion of protons appears to be removed from the rumen by SCFA absorption across the ruminal epithelium, making efficiency of SCFA absorption a key determinant for the individual susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis. Proceeding initially from a model of exclusively diffusional absorption of fermentation acids, several protein-dependent mechanisms have been discovered over the last 2 decades. Although the molecular identity of these proteins is mostly uncertain, apical acetate absorption is mediated, to a major degree, via acetate-bicarbonate exchange in addition to another nitrate-sensitive, bicarbonate-independent transport mechanism and lipophilic diffusion. Propionate and butyrate also show partially bicarbonate-dependent transport modes. Basolateral efflux of SCFA and their metabolites has to be mediated primarily by proteins and probably involves the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) and anion channels. Although the ruminal epithelium removes a large fraction of protons from the rumen, it also recycles protons to the rumen via apical sodium-proton exchanger, NHE. The latter is stimulated by ruminal SCFA absorption and salivary Na(+) secretion and protects epithelial integrity. Finally

  5. VAT on domestic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Ian; Smith, Stephen; Webb, Steven.

    1993-01-01

    This publication traces the background to the imposition of VAT on domestic energy, and considers the current patterns of spending. Results of a simulation of the effects of imposition of 17.5% VAT on domestic fuels are presented, and policy measures to offset the impact on poorer households are considered. (UK)

  6. Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Croom Jim; Hook Sarah E; AlZahal Ousama; Steele Michael A; McBride Brian W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage) to a high-grain (79% grain) diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Rumin...

  7. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1: namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1, cervid herpesviruses 1 (CvHV-1 and 2 (CvHV-2 and elk herpesvirus 1 (ElkHV-1. Considering the serological relationship between these ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. In this way, a recent investigation has indicated, in Belgium, a high increase in the serological prevalence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in free-ranging red deer population. In this context, it has been decided to investigate the presence of an alphaherpesvirus spreading in the Belgian free-ranging red deer population. Results The current study reports the first isolation in a free-ranging red deer of a BoHV-1 closely related virus. The isolate was antigenically, genomically and genetically characterised by comparison with several ruminant alphaherpesvirus. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the isolate was antigenically distinct from bovine and caprine alphaherpesviruses. Similarly, BamHI and BstEII restriction analyses demonstrated the genomic difference between the isolate and the other ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Next, the sequencing of selected parts of UL27 and US8 genes showed a high degree of homologies between each BoHV-1 related ruminant alphaherpesvirus and the isolate. Besides the close relationship between all ruminant alphaherpesviruses, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with CvHV-1. Conclusion The first isolation of a virus closely related to BoHV-1 in a free-ranging red deer is reported. Data demonstrate that a CvHV-1 strain, named Anlier, circulates in wild red deer in continental Europe. Anlier strain show consistent differences

  8. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressley, T F; Hall, M B; Armentano, L E

    2011-04-01

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the hindgut of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total-tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates from the small intestine, hindgut acidosis can occur. Hindgut acidosis is characterized by increased rates of production of short-chain fatty acids including lactic acid, decreased digesta pH, and damage to gut epithelium as evidenced by the appearance of mucin casts in feces. Hindgut acidosis is more likely to occur in high-producing animals fed diets with relatively greater proportions of grains and lesser proportions of forage. In these animals, ruminal acidosis and poor selective retention of fermentable carbohydrates by the rumen will increase carbohydrate flow to the hindgut. In more severe situations, hindgut acidosis is characterized by an inflammatory response; the resulting breach of the barrier between animal and digesta may contribute to laminitis and other disorders. In a research setting, effects of increased hindgut fermentation have been evaluated using pulse-dose or continuous abomasal infusions of varying amounts of fermentable carbohydrates. Continuous small-dose abomasal infusions of 1 kg/d of pectin or fructans into lactating cows resulted in decreased diet digestibility and decreased milk fat percentage without affecting fecal pH or VFA concentrations. The decreased diet digestibility likely resulted from increased bulk in the digestive tract or from increased digesta passage rate, reducing exposure of the digesta to intestinal enzymes and epithelial absorptive surfaces. The same mechanism is proposed to explain the decreased milk fat percentage because only milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids were decreased. Pulse-dose abomasal fructan infusions (1 g/kg of BW) into steers resulted in watery feces, decreased fecal pH, and increased fecal VFA concentrations, without causing an

  9. Comparative evaluation of three capripoxvirus-vectored peste des petits ruminants vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakri, F; Bamouh, Z; Ghzal, F; Baha, W; Tadlaoui, K; Fihri, O Fassi; Chen, W; Bu, Z; Elharrak, M

    2018-01-15

    Sheep and goat pox (SGP) with peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants that cause huge economic losses. Recombinant vaccines that can protect from both infections have been reported as a promising solution for the future. SGP was used as a vector to express two structural proteins hemagglutinin or the fusion protein of PPRV. We compared immunity conferred by recombinant capripoxvirus vaccines expressing H or F or both HF. Safety and efficacy were evaluated in goats and sheep. Two vaccine doses were tested in sheep, 10 4.5 TCDI50 in 1ml dose was retained for the further experiment. Results showed that the recombinant HF confers an earlier and stronger immunity against both SGP and PPR. This recombinant vaccine protect also against the disease in exposed and unexposed sheep. The potential Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals of recombinant vaccines is of great advantage in any eradication program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Narratives of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...

  11. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  12. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  13. Isolation and characterisation of Listeria species from ruminants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Listeria species in ruminants in Maiduguri. Three hundred faecal samples were randomly collected from ruminants at the Maiduguri central abattoir from January – March, 2011. One hundred faecal samples each were collected from cattle, sheep and ...

  14. [Rumination and cognitive fusion in dementia family caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Márquez-González, María; Losada, Andrés; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Rumination has been described as a dysfunctional coping strategy related to emotional distress. Recently, it has been highlighted from the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy therapeutic approach, the negative role that cognitive fusion (the extent to which we are psychologically tangled with and dominated by the form or content of our thoughts) has on the explanation of distress. The aim of this study is to simultaneously analyze the role of rumination and cognitive fusion in the caregiving stress process. The sample of 176 dementia caregivers was divided in four groups, taking into account their levels of rumination and cognitive fusion: HRHF=high rumination+high cognitive fusion; HRLF=high rumination+low cognitive fusion; LRHF= low rumination+high cognitive fusion; and LRLC=low rumination and low cognitive fusion. Caregiver stress factors, frequency of pleasant events, experiential avoidance, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life, were measured. The HRHF group showed higher levels of depression, anxiety, experiential avoidance and lower levels of satisfaction with life, frequency of pleasant events, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, than the other three groups. Considering simultaneously rumination and cognitive fusion may contribute to a better understanding of caregiver coping and distress. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.

  16. Troubled Ruminations about Parents: Conceptualization and Validation with Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to introduce the construct of troubled ruminations about parents and to develop a brief screening instrument. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,376 university students completed the instrument and other measures of psychosocial functioning. Troubled ruminations about mothers and fathers were related to self-esteem, life…

  17. College Students' Beliefs About Domestic Violence: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.

  18. Modelling digestive constraints in non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J; Streich, W Jürgen; Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines with increasing contents of plant fibre (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; measured as neutral-detergent fibre, NDF), the tubiform foregut of kangaroos may allow these animals to maintain food intakes more so than ruminants like sheep, which appear to be limited by fibrous bulk filling the foregut and truncating further ingestion. Using available data on dry matter intake (DMI, g kg(-0.75) d(-1)), ingesta mean retention time (MRT, h), and apparent digestibility, we modelled digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible energy intake (DEI) by ruminant sheep (Ovis aries) and by the largest marsupial herbivore, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). Sheep achieved higher MRTs on similar DMIs, and hence sheep achieved higher DDMIs for any given level of DMI as compared with kangaroos. Interestingly, MRT declined in response to increasing DMI in a similar pattern for both species, and the association between DMI and plant NDF contents did not support the hypothesis that kangaroos are less affected by increasing fibre relative to sheep. However, when DEI was modelled according to DDMIs and dietary energy contents, we show that the kangaroos could meet their daily maintenance energy requirements (MER) at lower levels of DMI and on diets with higher fibre contents compared with sheep, due largely to the kangaroos' lower absolute maintenance and basal energy metabolisms compared with eutherians. These results suggest that differences in the metabolic set-point of different species can have profound effects on their nutritional niche, even when their digestive constraints are similar, as was the case for these ruminant and non-ruminant

  19. ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE TO BENZIMIDAZOLE IN GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS OF SEMI-ARID BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST RESISTÊNCIA AOS ANTI-HELMÍNTICOS BENZIMIDAZÓIS EM NEMATÓIDES GASTRINTESTINAIS DE PEQUENOS RUMINANTES DO SEMIÁRIDO NORDESTINO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics is reported as an old and persistent problem in many parts of the world. Resistance development depends on the presence of resistance promoters and there are operational, genetic and bioecological factors. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of benzimidazole resistance and to study some variables associated with resistance development in small ruminant farms in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid area. The work was accomplished in 25 sheep and goat farms in Limoeiro do Norte, Palhano, Jaguaruana, Itaiçaba, Aracati, Alto Santo, Morada Nova and Jaguaribe municipalities, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The procedure used to detect anthelmintic resistant nematodes was the fecal egg count reduction test. In addition, a questionnaire about management practices, infrastructure, anthelmintic usage, flocks sanitary state and veterinary assistance was applied. Data were analyzed using RESO statistical program. The questionnaires were analyzed using Spearman correlation and the simple GLM. In sheep farms, the prevalence of benzimidazole resistance was 88% and in goat farms, it was 87.5%. In sheep and goats farms, Haemonchus spp was the most prevalent genus, followed by Trichostrongylus spp and Oesophagostomum spp. Among variables studied, treatment in the dry season was statistically significant (P = 0.03, pasture rotation was not significant (P = 0.17 but has a predictable value in resistance development.

    KEY WORDS: Associated factors, benzimidazole, Ceará, resistance development.
    A resistência a anti-helmínticos benzimidazóis é relatada como um antigo e persistente problema em diversas partes do mundo. O desenvolvimento da resistência depende da presença de promotores, os quais podem ser fatores operacionais, genéticos e bioecológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a prevalência da resistência a anti-helmínticos benzimidazóis e estudar algumas

  20. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana dos isolados bacterianos da mastite em pequenos ruminantes e concordância de técnicas empregadas no diagnóstico Etiology and profile of antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria from small ruminant mastitis and relationship of diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de M. Peixoto

    2010-09-01

    well as antimicrobial drug-resistance patterns and the agreement between two different diagnostic tools. We visit 25 goat, sheep, and goat and sheep farms in Pernambuco and Bahia State, and a total of 439 goats and 76 sheep milk samples were collected. To diagnose of small ruminant mastitis were compared two tests: Milk culture and California Mastitis Test (CMT. The bacterial drug-resistance pattern was determined by Kirby Bauer test. Staphylococcus spp. was the most frequent bacteria isolated from goat and sheep mastitis cases. Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and gram-negative bacilli were isolated. It was possible to observe the high sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs in all tested bacteria, being the lower sensitivity percentage determined to nalidixic acid. Considering caprine mastitis diagnostic the comparative analysis between microbiologic culture and shown a concordance degree of K=0,17, although to ovine species these value was K=0,22. The use of CMT to subclinical mastitis diagnostic in goat and ewes must be associated to milk bacterial culture.

  1. Protection of protein from ruminal degradation by alkali-induced oxidation of chlorogenic acid in sunflower meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongartz, V; Böttger, C; Wilhelmy, N; Schulze-Kaysers, N; Südekum, K-H; Schieber, A

    2018-02-01

    Lactating ruminants require an adequate supply of absorbable amino acids for the synthesis of milk protein from two sources, that is crude protein (CP) synthesized microbially in the rumen and ruminally undegraded CP (RUP) from feed which can both be digested in the small intestine. Several chemical and physical methods have been identified as being effective in increasing the proportion of RUP of total CP of a feedstuff, yet there is a continuing need for developing and establishing methods which protect feed protein from ruminal degradation with acceptable expenditure of labour and other costs. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify effects of and interactions between chlorogenic acid and protein in solvent-extracted sunflower meal (SFM) as induced by alkali treatment. Response surface methodology was employed to investigate the influence of pH, reaction time and drying temperature on the resulting SFM and, subsequently, its protein value for ruminants estimated from laboratory values. For this purpose, alkali-treated SFM was subjected to a fractionation of feed CP according to the Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system as a basis for estimating RUP at different assumed ruminal passage rates (K p ). To estimate the intestinal digestibility of the treated SFM and its RUP, a three-step enzymatic in vitro procedure was applied. Alkaline treatment of SFM increased RUP values with factors ranging from approximately 3 (K p =.08/hr) to 12 (K p =.02/hr). Furthermore, the intestinal digestibility of the alkali-treated SFM was enhanced by approximately 10% compared to untreated SFM. Increasing pH and reaction time led to both increasing RUP values and intestinal digestibility. In conclusion, a targeted alkaline treatment of naturally occurring compounds in feedstuffs might be a promising approach to provide high-RUP feeds for ruminants which, at the same time, have improved intestinal digestibility values. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  3. Self-rumination, self-reflection, and depression: self-rumination counteracts the adaptive effect of self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Self-focused attention has adaptive and maladaptive aspects: self-reflection and self-rumination [Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284-304]. Although reflection is thought to be associated with problem solving and the promotion of mental health, previous researches have shown that reflection does not always have an adaptive effect on depression. Authors have examined the causes behind this inconsistency by modeling the relationships among self-reflection, self-rumination, and depression. One hundred and eleven undergraduates (91 men and 20 women) participated in a two-time point assessment with a 3-week interval. Statistical analysis with structural equation modeling showed that self-reflection significantly predicted self-rumination, whereas self-rumination did not predict self-reflection. With regard to depression, self-reflection was associated with a lower level of depression; self-rumination, with a higher level of depression. The total effect of self-reflection on depression was almost zero. This result indicates that self-reflection per se has an adaptive effect, which is canceled out by the maladaptive effect of self-rumination, because reflectors are likely to ruminate and reflect simultaneously.

  4. Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seoyoung; Sohn, Keun-Nam; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    By-products of pickled radish (BPR) are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient. BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg) and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM) and chloride (142 g/kg DM). On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM) was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %). The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at 20 °C (room temperature) might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production. The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.

  5. Evaluating Domestic Violence Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Alpa; Sampson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This paper critiques the approach of identifying ‘best practice’ projects and discusses the problem with simply transferring projects into different contexts. The argument is illustrated by explaining the evaluation process of three domestic violence projects which all had the same aim, which was to reduce domestic violence. The evaluated projects all delivered advocacy programmes and were located in disadvantaged areas in the United Kingdom. A more suitable evaluation approach is proposed wh...

  6. The Nationalisation of the Domestic Sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Banal forms of nationalism permeate our everyday life. However, it is not very clear when all kinds of banal objects and practices became nationalised. In this article, I focus on the domestic sphere by analysing how around 1900 a small group of activists began to propagate the nationalisation of

  7. Fermentation in the small intestine contributes substantially to intestinal starch disappearance in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Berends, H.; Pluschke, A.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  8. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  9. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  10. INFLUENCE OF TIME BETWEEN RUMINAL GLUCOSE CHALLENGES ON RUMEN FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín F. Montaño-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal lactic acidosis is one of the most important metabolic problems in feedlot cattle. Gradually transitioning cattle to finishing-feedlot diets may reduce the risk for ruminal acidosis by providing sufficient time for adaptation. This adaptation of feedlot cattle to high-concentrate diets may causes marked changes in the ruminal environment, and time is required to establish stable ruminal conditions.   However, few studies have evaluated the ruminal adaptation in steers. A metabolism trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two consecutive glucose challenges on rumen function in steers fed a high-energy finishing diet. Four Holstein steers (320 kg LW with cannula in the rumen were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were used and consisted of the time elapsed between both challenges of glucose (2, 4, 6 or 8 d. Ruminal fluid samples were taken at 0700 h (just prior the first glucose challenge, and from the second challenge (d 2, 4, 6, or 8 at 1 h before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 28, 52, 124, 196 and 268 h. As the time between fluctuation of energy intake increased, ruminal fluid pH (P 0.10. During the first 6 h following the second glucose challenge ruminal fluid pH decreased. No effects of treatments on ruminal pH were observed (P >0.10 among treatments from 3 days after the second challenge. Ruminal fluid osmotic pressure increased (P <0.10 after dosed glucose with all treatments. Ruminal osmolality increased (P <0.10 as the time between challenges were 2 or 4 days. After dosed glucose, total volatile fatty acids increased, except by treatment 1 after second challenge. Total volatile fatty acid and pH were related positively (R2 =0.69. As the time increased, a tendency on increment of concentrations of protozoa was observed. Ruminal glucose concentration decreased linearly (P <0.10 2 h after the second fluctuation of energy intake. We conclude that ruminal alterations are magnified as the time between glucose challenge

  11. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3224 TTD You CAN do something about domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of many behaviors directed ... violence. Look in the Yellow Pages under “domestic violence help,” “domestic violence shelters,” “human services organizations,” or “crisis intervention” ...

  12. Molecular and Serological Survey of Selected Viruses in Free-Ranging Wild Ruminants in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhid Hemmatzadeh

    Full Text Available A molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in Iran. Samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 Mouflon (Ovis orientalis, 22 wild goat (Capra aegagrus, nine Indian gazelle (Gazella bennettii and eight Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa during the national survey for wildlife diseases in Iran. Serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody tests for Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pestiviruses [Border Disease virus (BVD and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV], Bluetongue virus (BTV, Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1, and Parainfluenza type 3 (PI3. Sera were also ELISA tested for Pestivirus antigen. Tissue samples including spleen, liver, lung, tonsils, mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and white blood cells (WBCs were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PPRV, Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV, Pestivirus, BTV, Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2 and BHV-1. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against PPRV (17%, Pestiviruses (2% and BTV (2%. No antibodies were detected for BHV-1 or PI3, and no Pestivirus antigen was detected. PCR results were positive for PPRV (7.8%, FMDV (11%, BTV (3%, OvHV-2 (31% and BHV-1 (1.5%. None of the samples were positive for Pestiviruses.

  13. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

  14. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  15. Sadness and ruminative thinking independently depress people's moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanitabesh, Azra; Cardwell, Brittany A; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2017-11-02

    Depression and rumination often co-occur in clinical populations, but it is not clear which causes which, or if both are manifestations of an underlying pathology. Does rumination simply exacerbate whatever affect a person is experiencing, or is it a negative experience in and of itself? In two experiments we answer this question by independently manipulating emotion and rumination. Participants were allocated to sad or neutral (in Experiment 1), or sad, neutral or happy (Experiment 2) mood conditions, via a combination of emotionally evocative music and autobiographical recall. Afterwards, in both studies, participants either ruminated by thinking about self-relevant statements or, in a control group, thought about self-irrelevant statements. Taken together, our data show that, independent of participants' mood, ruminators reported more negative affect relative to controls. The findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focus is itself unpleasant, and illustrate that depressive rumination comprises both affective and ruminative components, which could be targeted independently in clinical samples. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Do sex differences in rumination explain sex differences in depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M; Chang, Han Yan M; Olson, Ryan L; Alderman, Brandon L

    2017-01-02

    It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al., ). After eight weeks of training, both men and women reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and fewer ruminative thoughts (Alderman et al., ). Statistical correlations between depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts were strong and significant (rho > 0.50; p depressive symptoms relate to "reflective" ruminations, which involve analyses of past events, feelings, and behaviors. This is also the only relationship that dissipated after the intervention. In general, these analyses suggest that the strength of the relationship between depressive symptoms and rumination does not necessarily explain sex differences in depression; but because the relationship is strong, targeting rumination through intervention can reduce the incidence of MDD, which is more prevalent among women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Negative emotional experiences arouse rumination and affect working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Rimé, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Following an emotional experience, individuals are confronted with the persistence of ruminative thoughts that disturb the undertaking of other activities. In the present study, we experimentally tested the idea that experiencing a negative emotion triggers a ruminative process that drains working memory (WM) resources normally devoted to other tasks. Undergraduate participants of high versus low WM capacity were administered the operation-word memory span test (OSPAN) as a measure of availability of WM resources preceding and following the presentation of negative emotional versus neutral material. Rumination was assessed immediately after the second OSPAN session and at a 24-hr delay. Results showed that both the individual's WM capacity and the emotional valence of the material influenced WM performance and the persistence of ruminative thoughts. Following the experimental induction, rumination mediated the relationship between the negative emotional state and the concomitant WM performance. Based on these results, we argue that ruminative processes deplete WM resources, making them less available for concurrent tasks; in addition, rumination tends to persist over time. These findings have implications for the theoretical modeling of the long-term effects of emotions in both daily life and clinical contexts.

  18. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  19. The relationship between rumination, PTSD, and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Contractor, Ateka A; Dranger, Paula; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2015-07-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid (Elhai et al., 2008. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 69, (4), 597-602). Rumination is a cognitive mechanism found to exacerbate and maintain both PTSD and MDD (Elwood et al., 2009. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, (1), 87-100; Olatunji et al., 2013. Clin. Psychol.: Sci. Pract. 20, (3), 225-257). Assess whether four rumination subtypes moderate the relationship between comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms. We consecutively sampled patients (N=45) presenting to a mental health clinic using self-report measures of PTSD and MDD symptoms, and rumination in a cross-sectional design. Repetitive rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at one standard deviation above the mean (β=.044, p=.016), while anticipatory rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at mean levels and higher levels of anticipatory rumination (mean β=.030, p=.042; higher β=.060, p=.008). Repetitive and anticipatory rumination should be assessed in the context of comorbid PTSD and MDD and interventions should focus on reducing these rumination subtypes. Results should be replicated with other trauma populations because the number and complexity of traumatic events may impact the assessed symptoms. Constructs should also be assessed longitudinally, in order to establish causality. We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and problem-focused thinking did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between ruminal ammonia and non-protein nitrogen utilization by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, L.D.; Roffler, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) may be utilized as well as plant protein when ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration is low ( 3 -N at 5 mg/100 ml will provide considerably less metabolizable protein, and the amount of metabolizable protein will be directly proportional to the amount of protein that escapes degradation. A simplified scheme for estimating metabolizable protein is presented. It has the flexibility needed for accommodating different feedstuffs, yet is easy to apply. The proposed scheme is based upon ruminal ammonia concentration, which in turn reflects protein intake, ration fermentability and protein degradation, the major determinants of protein supply to the lower intestine. It has the potential of more accurately describing the nutritional value of dietary crude protein, particularly if both protein and NPN are in the diet. (author)

  1. Redundancy, resilience, and host specificity of the ruminal microbiota: implications for engineering improved ruminal fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The ruminal microbial community is remarkably diverse, containing 100s of different bacterial and archaeal species, plus many species of fungi and protozoa. Molecular studies have identified a “core microbiome” dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but also containing many other taxa. The rumen provides an ideal laboratory for studies on microbial ecology and the demonstration of ecological principles. In particular, the microbial community demonstrates both redundancy (overlap of function among multiple species) and resilience (resistance to, and capacity to recover from, perturbation). These twin properties provide remarkable stability that maintains digestive function for the host across a range of feeding and management conditions, but they also provide a challenge to engineering the rumen for improved function (e.g., improved fiber utilization or decreased methane production). Direct ruminal dosing or feeding of probiotic strains often fails to establish the added strains, due to intensive competition and amensalism from the indigenous residents that are well-adapted to the historical conditions within each rumen. Known exceptions include introduced strains that can fill otherwise unoccupied niches, as in the case of specialist bacteria that degrade phytotoxins such as mimosine or fluoroacetate. An additional complicating factor in manipulating the ruminal fermentation is the individuality or host specificity of the microbiota, in which individual animals contain a particular community whose species composition is capable of reconstituting itself, even following a near-total exchange of ruminal contents from another herd mate maintained on the same diet. Elucidation of the interactions between the microbial community and the individual host that establish and maintain this specificity may provide insights into why individual hosts vary in production metrics (e.g., feed efficiency or milk fat synthesis), and how to improve herd performance. PMID

  2. Estimation of indigestible NDF in feedstuffs for ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    to be a suitable parameter in prediction models of energy and protein values in feedstuffs for ruminants, as the NorFor system. Therefore, there is a need to develop laboratory methods, applicable in practice, that determine the INDF content in feedstuffs. The present paper aims at presenting correlations......Intrinsic properties of plant cell walls determine the digestibility of ruminant diets, as they establish the maximum degree of the rate and extent of cell wall digestion in ruminants. The determination of INDF is important for the estimation of potentially digestible NDF (DNDF), and has been shown...

  3. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    an experimental group (EXP) or a control group (CON) immediately after calving. In addition, all cows in the EXP and CON were assigned to either a high, medial or low rumination group according to their individual RT. Cows in the EXP assigned to the high (EH), medial (EM) or low (EL) rumination group were stepped...... up to 6, 4 or 3 kg concentrate during the experimental period. Concentrate was stepped up to 4 kg during the experimental period for all cows in the CON, regardless of whether the cows were assigned to the high (CH), medial (CM) or low (CL) rumination group. In total, 40 and 41 primiparous cows...

  4. Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Stevens

    Full Text Available An unusually large number of cases of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD were observed in United States cattle and white-tailed deer in the summer and fall of 2012. USDA APHIS Veterinary Services area offices were asked to report on foreign animal disease investigations and state diagnostic laboratory submissions which resulted in a diagnosis of EHD based on positive PCR results. EHD was reported in the following species: cattle (129 herds, captive white-tailed deer (65 herds, bison (8 herds, yak (6 herds, elk (1 herd, and sheep (1 flock. A majority of the cases in cattle and bison were found in Nebraska, South Dakota, and Iowa. The majority of cases in captive white-tailed deer were found in Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, and Missouri. The most common clinical sign observed in the cattle and bison herds was oral lesions. The major observation in captive white-tailed deer herds was death. Average within-herd morbidity was 7% in cattle and bison herds, and 46% in captive white-tailed deer herds. The average within-herd mortality in captive white-tailed deer herds was 42%.

  5. Construction and insertion of oesophageal cannulae for use in domestic ruminants : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Booyse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of an oesophageal cannula for goats, sheep and cattle is described. The cannula consists of a base, threaded bar and stopper made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC or wood. The surgical procedure in goats for inserting the cannula is described as well as how to keep the wound around the cannula clean.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Hypoderma SPP. in Domestic Ruminants from Turkey and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Haroon; Simsek, Sami; Saki, Cem Ecmel; Kesik, Harun Kaya; Kilinc, Seyma Gunyakti

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphological and molecular characterization of Hypoderma spp. in cattle and yak from provinces in Turkey and Pakistan. In total, 78 Hypoderma larvae were collected from slaughtered animals in Turkey and Pakistan from October 2015 to January 2016. Thirty-eight of these 78 Hypoderma larvae were morphologically classified as third instar larvae (L3s) of Hypoderma bovis, 37 were classified as Hypoderma lineatum, and 3 were classified as suspected or unidentified. The restriction enzyme TaqI was used to differentiate the Hypoderma spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). According to the sequences and the PCR-RFLP results, all larval samples from cattle from Turkey were classified as H. bovis, except for 1 sample classified as H. lineatum. All Hypoderma larvae from Pakistan were classified as H. lineatum from cattle and as Hypoderma sinense from yak. This study provides the first molecular characterization of H. lineatum (cattle) and H. sinense (yak) in Pakistan based on PCR-RFLP and sequencing results.

  7. Nutrient and energy content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methanogenic potential of alpine forage plant species during early summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Marquardt, Svenja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2011-08-15

    Plants growing on alpine meadows are reported to be rich in phenols. Such compounds may affect ruminal fermentation and reduce the plants' methanogenic potential, making alpine grazing advantageous in this respect. The objective of this study was to quantify nutrients and phenols in Alpine forage grasses, herbs and trees collected over 2 years and, in a 24 h in vitro incubation, their effects on ruminal fermentation parameters. The highest in vitro gas production, resulting in metabolisable energy values around 10 MJ kg⁻¹, were found with Alchemilla xanthochlora and Crepis aurea (herbaceous species) and with Sambucus nigra leaves and flowers (tree species). Related to the amount of total gas production, methane formation was highest with Nardus stricta, and lowest with S. nigra and A. xanthochlora. In addition, Castanea sativa leaves led to an exceptional low methane production, but this was accompanied by severely impaired ruminal fermentation. When the data were analysed by principal component analysis, phenol concentrations were negatively related with methane proportion in total gas. Variation in methane production potential across the investigated forages was small. The two goals of limited methane production potential and high nutritive value for ruminants were met best by A. xanthochlora and S. nigra. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The burden of domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Nørspang, Annika Patursson; Forkman, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The way in which domestic cats are kept and bred has changed dramatically over the last two centuries. Notably, a significant number of cats are kept indoors, most of them are neutered and many are selectively bred. This likely has consequences for their welfare. A few studies link housing, neuter......; that a smaller proportion of the free-roaming cats suffered from the behavioural problems investigated; and that entire cats had significantly more behavioural problems than neutered cats. Finally, significantly more purebred cats than domestic shorthair cats were found to have diseases. Being confined, being...

  9. Methods in gut microbial ecology for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive up-to-date account of the methodologies and protocols for conventional and modern molecular techniques that are currently in use for studying the gut microbial ecology of ruminants. Each chapter has been contributed by experts in the field and methods have been presented in a recipe-like format designed for direct practical use in the laboratory and also to provide insight into the most appropriate techniques, their applications and the type of information that could be expected. The techniques and procedures described are also relevant and adaptable to other gastrointestinal ecosystems and the microbiology of anaerobic environments in general. This manual will 'demystify' the methods in molecular microbial ecology for readers who are novice in the field but are excited by the prospects of this technology. It would also be invaluable for the experienced workers striving for giving new dimension to their research - expanding the work in other fields and initiating cross-cutting activities

  10. Diseases and impaired reproductive performance in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindahl, H.; Fredriksson, G.; Aiumlamai, S.; Odensvik, K.; Edqvist, L.E.; Stabenfeldt, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the recent findings on prostaglandin release after parturition and the interrelationship between endotoxins/infections and reproductive endocrinology. A massive release of prostaglandins is recorded after parturition in ruminants. In cows with uncomplicated puerperia this release is negatively correlated with the time required for completion of uterine involution. In cows with persistent uterine infections the relationship between prostaglandins and uterine involution is the opposite, indicating that prostaglandins are formed by the pathological process and are superimposed on the physiological one. Endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria are potent stimulators of prostaglandin production and release. If injected into cycling animals they cause the corpus luteum to regress prematurely. In most cases pregnant animals abort after exposure to endotoxins. These abortions can be prevented by using a potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor such as flunixin meglumine. (author) 28 refs, 6 figs

  11. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  12. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical pharmacology of tiamulin in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G; Levisohn, S L; Bar-Moshe, B; Bor, A; Soback, S

    1983-03-01

    Median values for the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tiamulin for Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma isolated from ruminants were 0.05 micrograms/ml and 0.025 micrograms/ml, respectively. These values were close to the MIC values of tylosin and considerably lower than the respective values for spectinomycin, Spiramycin and oxytetracycline. The serum concentration--time profile of tiamulin after intramuscular (i.m.) injection to goats, ewes, cows and calves, and after oral administration to preruminant calves was characterized by a rapid absorption phase (absorption t1/2 of less than 30 min.), a short plateau phase, an elimination t1/2 ranging between 3 and 6 h, and low peak serum drug levels. The serum elimination t1/2 of the drug after intravenous (i.v.) injection was 25 min. It appears that tiamulin is extensively metabolized in ruminants and is well distributed throughout the body. Drug concentrations in the lungs, liver, and the kidneys 1 h after i.v. injection were four to seven times higher than in blood. The drug penetrated very rapidly into the milk after i.m. administration; mean peak drug concentrations in normal milk and in milk secreted from inflamed glands of cows were 7.5 times and 1.2 times higher respectively, than the mean peak serum drug concentrations. Concentrations of tiamulin of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections can be maintained in the lungs for at least 12 h after i.m. injection at 10 mg/kg, and in preruminant calves after an oral dose of 20 mg/kg. However, tiamulin possesses several very serious side-effects and the i.v. route of administration is definitely contraindicated.

  14. High-resolution Esophageal Manometry Patterns in Children and Adolescents With Rumination Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini Grunder, Franziska; Aspirot, Ann; Faure, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Rumination is defined by effortless regurgitation within seconds or minutes of ingested food. The aim of this study was to determine the high-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) pattern in children with rumination syndrome. HREM was evaluated in 15 pediatric patients with rumination syndrome according to the Rome criteria and compared with 15 controls. Primary rumination was defined as a clinical rumination episode associated with a rise of gastric pressure above 30 mmHg. Secondary rumination was defined as a clinical rumination episode associated with a rise of gastric pressure above 30 mmHg during a transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). Ninety-two episodes of rumination were demonstrated during HREM study in 12 of the 15 patients (80%; 1-29 episodes per patient; median intragastric pressure 49.6 mmHg). Primary rumination occurred in 3 patients and secondary rumination in 5 patients. One patient had primary and secondary rumination episodes. In 3 patients, classification of rumination episodes was not possible due to repetitive swallowing leading to lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. In the control group, no episodes of rumination occurred. The sensitivity and the specificity of the HREM study (association of a clinical rumination episode with a rise in gastric pressure >30 mmHg) to confirm the diagnosis of rumination were 80% and 100%, respectively. HREM allows confirming diagnosis of rumination syndrome and to differentiate between primary and secondary rumination in the presence of objective rumination episodes. Further research is needed to study whether HREM results may influence treatment and outcome of children with rumination syndrome.

  15. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  16. DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE LABYRINTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Oscar, Delgado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its installation in our country, domestic development theory and practice have been object of diverse assimilation that, at times, contributed to dilute an essential feature of those clusters of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs that founded the domestic interest in 1970’s: the continuous innovation of products and production processes, possible only by the imprint of cultural factors in the establishment of a socio-institutional environment self-regulated to benefit it. The stage begun in 2003 seems to be at a similar risk: in order to reverse the terrible consequences of the previous decade and achieving a growth with an inclusion, now it assimilates into the social economy trying to go beyond mere social welfares and form a socio/productive mesh based on solidarity and cooperation ties. Beyond the legitimacy of the pose, the precariousness of the underlying setting demonstrates a gap that still separates us from the ideal model, requiring from us to agree seriously with the medium and long term state policy to promote the territorial development according to the contemporary society requirements.

  17. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the host. .... BE, Drewes LR (2003). Molecular features, regulation and ... Dynamics of ruminal volatile fatty acids in black and white bulls before and after feeding ...

  18. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  19. Effects of molasses and corn grain at 2 levels of ruminally degradable protein on lactating cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactating dairy cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass with diets containing molasses (M) or finely ground dry corn grain at 3 levels of M (0, 5.25, 10.5% DM) and with differing levels of ruminally degradable protein (+RDP or –RDP). Twelve ruminal...

  20. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  1. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  2. Signs of domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  3. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  4. Phenotypic Covariation And Morphological Diversification In The Ruminant Skull

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Annat

    2015-01-01

    Differences among clades in their diversification patterns result from a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In this study I examined the role of intrinsic factors in the morphological diversification of ruminants in general, and in the differences between bovids and cervids in particular. Using skull morphology, which embodies many of the adaptations that distinguish bovids and cervids, I examined 132 of the 200 extant ruminant species. As a proxy for intrinsic constraints I quan...

  5. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities...

  6. Rumination, depressive symptoms and awareness of illness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ribaux, Darryl; Phillips, Lisa J

    2014-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia. Previous studies have observed that depressive symptoms are associated with both insight and negative appraisals of illness, suggesting that the way in which the person thinks about their illness may influence the occurrence of depressive responses. In affective disorders, one of the most well-established cognitive processes associated with depressive symptoms is rumination, a pattern of perseverative, self-focused negative thinking. This study examined whether rumination focused on mental illness was predictive of depressive symptoms during the subacute phase of schizophrenia. Forty participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and in a stable phase of illness completed measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, awareness of illness, and positive and negative symptoms. Depressive symptoms were correlated with rumination, including when controlling for positive and negative symptoms. The content of rumination frequently focused on mental illness and its causes and consequences, in particular social disability and disadvantage. Depressive symptoms were predicted by awareness of the social consequences of mental illness, an effect that was mediated by rumination. Results suggest that a process of perseveratively dwelling upon mental illness and its social consequences may be a factor contributing to depressive symptoms in people with chronic schizophrenia.

  7. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  8. Quantifying ruminal nitrogen metabolism using the omasal sampling technique in cattle--a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A; Huhtanen, P; Ahvenjärvi, S; Reynal, S M; Shingfield, K J

    2010-07-01

    Mixed model analysis of data from 32 studies (122 diets) was used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the omasal sampling technique for quantifying ruminal-N metabolism and to assess the relationships between nonammonia-N flow at the omasal canal and milk protein yield. Data were derived from experiments in cattle fed North American diets (n=36) based on alfalfa silage, corn silage, and corn grain and Northern European diets (n=86) composed of grass silage and barley-based concentrates. In all studies, digesta flow was quantified using a triple-marker approach. Linear regressions were used to predict microbial-N flow to the omasum from intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), or total digestible nutrients. Efficiency of microbial-N synthesis increased with DM intake and there were trends for increased efficiency with elevated dietary concentrations of crude protein (CP) and rumen-degraded protein (RDP) but these effects were small. Regression of omasal rumen-undegraded protein (RUP) flow on CP intake indicated that an average 32% of dietary CP escaped and 68% was degraded in the rumen. The slope from regression of observed omasal flows of RUP on flows predicted by the National Research Council (2001) model indicated that NRC predicted greater RUP supply. Measured microbial-N flow was, on average, 26% greater than that predicted by the NRC model. Zero ruminal N-balance (omasal CP flow=CP intake) was obtained at dietary CP and RDP concentrations of 147 and 106 g/kg of DM, corresponding to ruminal ammonia-N and milk urea N concentrations of 7.1 and 8.3mg/100mL, respectively. Milk protein yield was positively related to the efficiency of microbial-N synthesis and measured RUP concentration. Improved efficiency of microbial-N synthesis and reduced ruminal CP degradability were positively associated with efficiency of capture of dietary N as milk N. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the omasal sampling technique yields valuable estimates

  9. Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases net amino acid utilization by the portal-drained viscera of ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in ruminant calves, but its impact on nutrient metabolism across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with catheters in the carotid artery, mesenteric vein, portal vein and hepat...

  11. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  12. The potential of solidified molasses-based blocks for the correction of multinutritional deficiencies in buffaloes and other ruminants fed low-quality agro-industrial byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The main principles for formulating diets for ruminant animals in developing countries are outlined and examples provided of the successful application of these principles for feeding buffaloes and cattle in India, Philippines and Australia. It is concluded that the provision of a continuous supply of urea in the form of solidified feed blocks to increase the intake and digestibility of roughage-based diets is a management tool that could be used by small farmers in developing countries to improve weight gains and milk yields. Since such blocks can be easily supplemented with macro- and micro-elements needed by ruminants, they could also be useful for correcting multi-nutritional deficiencies. (author)

  13. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  14. Criminal aspects of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...

  15. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  16. Rumination and depression in Chinese university students: The mediating role of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tianzhu; He, Yini; Auerbach, Randy P; McWhinnie, Chad M; Xiao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined the mediator effects of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) on the relationship between rumination and depression in 323 Chinese university students. 323 undergraduates completed the questionnaires measuring OGM (Autobiographical Memory Test), rumination (Ruminative Response Scale) and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Results using structural equation modeling showed that OGM partially-mediated the relationship between rumination and depression (χ 2 = 88.61, p OGM on the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms were significant. The results indicated that rumination and depression were partially mediated by OGM.

  17. Seroprevalence, distribution and risk factor for peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa; Kouidri, Brahim; Metref, Djamil; Luka, Pam Dachung; Ben-Mahdi, Meriem Hind

    2015-11-01

    Peste des petit ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and infectious viral disease of small ruminants with severe socio-economic implications. The disease was first reported in the Southern part of Algeria in 2011 and by February 2012 it has reached the central part of the country. Estimating national prevalence, distribution and identification of risk factors remains a key component in understanding the epidemiology and control of the disease. The present study was carried out between January and June 2014, to include a detailed description of flock and within-flock seroprevalence and risk association between PPR seropositivity and various flock management factors in Algeria. A total of 150 flocks randomly sampled across the country were investigated and 4552 serum samples were collected from 3336 sheep and 1216 goats, respectively. C-ELISA was used to detect the presence of antibodies in small ruminant animals as an indicator of PPRV exposure. The results showed an overall true flock seroprevalence of 30.45% [95% CI 23.76-37.14] with a mean of the true within-flock prevalence as 29.87%±2.11. The mean of the true within-flock prevalence in mixed flocks (12.93%±1.85) was however found to be significantly higher than sheep flocks (5.74%±1.06). Also the mean of the true within-flock prevalence was found to be significantly higher in adult (35.36%±3.13) compared to young animals (21.83%±2.47) and in females (33.11%±2.87) compared to males (22.14%±2.31). The univariate analysis revealed that PPR overall flock seroprevalence was significantly higher (Prisk factor analysis, univariate analysis of variables followed by a multiple logistic regression identified mixed flocks [OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.30-5.38; P=0.007] and contact with other flocks [OR=2.27, 95% CI 0.99-5.21; P=0.053] as risk factors in the spread of the disease. In conclusion, this study revealed a high seroprevalence of PPR in Algerian small ruminants, therefore the establishment of early warning systems

  18. "Domestic Violence" and Different Forms of Conciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Debert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative conflict resolution based on conciliation have been identified as a possible response to problems of access to courts deriving from the numbers, costs and length of proceedings in the Brazilian's judicial system. This paper focuses on these alternative forms of justice, regarding domestic violence. Using ethnographic studies of Women's Police Stations and at Small Claim Courts, we argue that conciliation can be very different in these two institutions of the judicial system. The contrasts between moral values and the symbols used in different forms by these two institutions offer elements that can further be our understanding of the context in which Maria da Penha Law was created on August 17th of 2006. With the promulgation of this law, cases of domestic violence against women were excluded from Small Claim Courts in Brazil.

  19. Evaluation of feed resources for ruminants and ruminants for feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orskov, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    Methods are discussed of describing roughages so that potential consumption by animals is predicted. Evidence is presented showing that a high precision of predicting straw intake and animal performance is possible from information on solubility, potential degradation of insoluble materials and the degradation rate. Description of the capacity of different types of ruminants to consume and efficiently digest roughages is more difficult. Recent data from cattle experiments suggest that measurement of outflow rate of fibrous particles can provide information on this question. The data have also revealed large and consistent variation even within herds of the same breed. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  20. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  1. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotojaona, Loic

    2013-07-01

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  2. Domestic wastes: assault course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, C.; Bergey, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the management of domestic waste, some incoherencies persist. The tax on waste is always 20.6% instead of 5.5% for water or transport. The price of buying back electric power by Electricite de France is too low according to the appreciation of the cogeneration club. Regarding to the sell of stream to industrial, stream buyers are not always reliable, no enough guarantee are given by them to allow to cogeneration club to invest. (N.C.)

  3. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    OpenAIRE

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  4. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  5. Sustainability of ruminant agriculture in the new context: feeding strategies and features of animal adaptability into the necessary holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, F; González-García, E

    2010-07-01

    There are numerous recent studies highlighting sustainability problems for the development of ruminant production systems (RPS) while facing increasing human food necessities and global climate change. Despite the complexity of the context, in our view the main objectives of the ruminants' physiologist should be convergent for both industrialized (IC) and developing countries (DC) in a common and global strategy of advancing knowledge. In DC, this means improving the efficiency of RPS, taking into account the unique possibility of using rangelands. For IC settings, RPS should be revisited in terms of autonomy and environment- friendly feeding and managing practices. Assuming that competition for feed/food use is still a crucial criterion, future ruminant feeding systems (FeSyst) should preferably focus on lignocellulosic sources. According to biome distributions, and the recent increases in volumes of crop residues and their by-products, the annually renewed volumes of these biomasses are considerable. Therefore, we need to redesign our strategies for their efficient utilization at the local level. For this purpose, digestion processes and rumen functioning need to be better understood. The renewed vision of ruminal digestion through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is also a key aspect as it is an environmental demand that cannot be ignored. With regard to other ruminants' physiological functions, accumulated knowledge could be mobilized into an integrative approach that puts forward the adaptive capacities of animals to face variability in quantity and quality of supplied feeds. Basically, the reduction of inputs that were traditionally used to ensure FeSyst will need more flexible animals. In that sense, the concepts of homeostasis and teleophorhesis need to be updated and adapted to domestic species and breeds that were until now largely excluded from the dominant productive systems. In conclusion, a more holistic approach of research targets is

  6. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  7. Parameterization of a ruminant model of phosphorus digestion and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the current work was to parameterize the digestive elements of the model of Hill et al. (2008) using data collected from animals that were ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated, thereby providing a better understanding of the digestion and metabolism of P fractions in growing and lactating cattle. The model of Hill et al. (2008) was fitted and evaluated for adequacy using the data from 6 animal studies. We hypothesized that sufficient data would be available to estimate P digestion and metabolism parameters and that these parameters would be sufficient to derive P bioavailabilities of a range of feed ingredients. Inputs to the model were dry matter intake; total feed P concentration (fPtFd); phytate (Pp), organic (Po), and inorganic (Pi) P as fractions of total P (fPpPt, fPoPt, fPiPt); microbial growth; amount of Pi and Pp infused into the omasum or ileum; milk yield; and BW. The available data were sufficient to derive all model parameters of interest. The final model predicted that given 75 g/d of total P input, the total-tract digestibility of P was 40.8%, Pp digestibility in the rumen was 92.4%, and in the total-tract was 94.7%. Blood P recycling to the rumen was a major source of Pi flow into the small intestine, and the primary route of excretion. A large proportion of Pi flowing to the small intestine was absorbed; however, additional Pi was absorbed from the large intestine (3.15%). Absorption of Pi from the small intestine was regulated, and given the large flux of salivary P recycling, the effective fractional small intestine absorption of available P derived from the diet was 41.6% at requirements. Milk synthesis used 16% of total absorbed P, and less than 1% was excreted in urine. The resulting model could be used to derive P bioavailabilities of commonly used feedstuffs in cattle production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Feedstock for ruminant, non-ruminant and aquatic fish in Malaysia-A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Muzarpar, Syafiq; Baba, I.; Sunar, N. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul

    2017-09-01

    Large demand of feedstock in Malaysia initiated the farmers to accelerate animal growth by improving quality of livestock's. However, quality increase will effect to the cost increment as well. Therefore, main objective of this study is to review various material and methods which acceptable in Malaysia in order to teach the farmer in selecting appropriate material for animal feed. Animal feed for ruminant, non-ruminant and aquatic fish has big issues in Halal animal feed. It caused by sources of existing animal feed from non-halal material such as blood meal and pig bone. There are various sources of halal animal feed sources such as from plant such as napier, PKC, banana tree and corn leaf as well as from waste material such as waste toufu, waste coconut, soy meal, coconut meal and sagoo. Therefore, the farmer able to select the appropriate material for own animal feed to reduce cost and fulfill the animal feed requirement regarding to protein and nutrient need.

  10. Evaluation of procedures for estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility in ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures used in estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility were evaluated in a series of independent experiments. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated the influence of sampling site, mathematical model and intraruminal mixing on estimates of ruminal particle turnover in beef steers grazing crested wheatgrass or offered ad libitum levels of prairie hay once daily, respectively. Particle turnover rate constants were estimated by intraruminal administration (via rumen cannula) of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage, followed by serial collection of rumen digesta or fecal samples. Rumen Yb concentrations were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed on time. Influence of sampling site (rectum versus rumen) on turnover estimates was modified by the model used to fit fecal marker excretion curves in the grazing study. In contrast, estimated turnover rate constants from rumen sampling were smaller (P < 0.05) than rectally derived rate constants, regardless of fecal model used, when steers were fed once daily. In Experiment 3, in vitro residues subjected to acid or neutral detergent fiber extraction (IVADF and IVNDF), acid detergent fiber incubated in cellulase (ADFIC) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers for predicting diet digestibility. Both IVADF and IVNDF displayed variable accuracy for prediction of in vivo digestibility whereas ADL and ADFIC inaccurately predicted digestibility of all diets

  11. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  12. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using in vitro gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ... could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  13. Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid ... WGP could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  14. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  16. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  17. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

  18. Ruminal acidosis in feedlot: from aetiology to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

  19. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  20. Domestic energy fact file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorrock, L D; Henderson, G [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom); Bown, J H.F. [NBA Tectonics, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this publication to gather together in one volume some of the more important United Kingdom data on domestic energy and the measures that have been taken to improve the efficiency with which it is used. The introductory section discusses the main underlying trends affecting domestic energy use. It is followed by six main sections: Section 1 deals with fuel prices and household expenditure on energy. Section 2 is concerned with basic statistics on population, households and the housing stock (age, tenure, dwelling type and regional distribution). Section 3 presents information on the uptake of insulation measures in the housing stock. Section 4 presents information on changes to the housing stock heat loss, heating systems, temperatures and energy use. This section looks at what would have happened to the energy use of the housing stock if energy efficiency improvements had not been introduced. Section 4 contains the main conclusions on the effectiveness of insulation, improvements in efficiency and the rising standards of service achieved within the housing stock. Section 5 draws together the topics discussed in section 4 to illustrate the individual effects of rising levels of service, external temperature variations, improved insulation and improved heating efficiency, and how these combine to determine domestic section energy consumption. Section 6 considers the fuels used to meet the energy demand of the housing stock and the carbon dioxide emissions which result from this fuel use. The primary energy consumption associated with the energy delivered to the housing stock is also addressed in this section. A final energy balance diagram draws together the various topics discussed in the report by showing the main energy flows related to the housing stock. (author)

  1. A postmortem study on indigestible foreign bodies in the rumen and reticulum of ruminants, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifu Negash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered at Haramaya University and Haramaya municipal abattoirs from November 2013 to April 2014 in Haramaya, eastern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify types and estimate the prevalence of foreign bodies in the rumen and reticulum of domestic ruminants in the area. From 810 randomly selected study animals, 422 (52.1% were found to have foreign bodies. Of the 332 cattle, 193 sheep and 285 goats examined, 144 (43.4%, 109 (56.5% and 169 (59.3% respectively were found with various types of foreign bodies. The prevalence of foreign bodies was significantly (χ2 = 17.53, p < 0.05 higher in sheep (59.3% and goats (56.7% than in cattle (43.4%. Overall the prevalence of foreign bodies in study animals with poor body condition was significantly higher (χ2 = 38.57, p < 0.05 than in those with medium and good body condition. A higher percentage of foreign bodies occurred in the rumen alone (87.9% than in the reticulum alone (5.0%, with the rest present in both. Significantly higher proportions of foreign bodies were observed in the rumen of cattle (χ2 = 332, p < 0.05, sheep (χ2 = 193, p < 0.05 and goats (χ2 = 285.0, p = 0.000 than in the reticulum. Plastic was the most commonly encountered (79.2% foreign body, followed by cloth (15.3% and rope (12.3%. In addition, metal (0.9% and calcified material and/or stone (1.0% were found in the reticulum of cattle. Lack of a plastic waste disposal system in the area as well as communal/free grazing of livestock in highly waste-polluted areas seemed to be major factors in the high occurrence of foreign bodies in ruminants. To change this, collaborative intervention schemes involving professionals, policy makers, livestock keepers and environmental activists are needed.

  2. Prevalence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in various districts of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kapaga, A; Kivaria, F; Tinuga, D; Joshua, G; Sanka, P

    2009-12-01

    Despite the widespread prevalence of infection with Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in goats and sheep industry in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, there have been few, if any, structured population-based studies examining the epidemiology of this infection in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of Peste des petitis ruminants(PPR) in sheep and goat flocks from seven different geographical administration authorities (Ngorongoro, Monduli, Longido, Karatu, Mbulu, Siha and Simanjiro) located in Northern Tanzania. Serum samples from 657 and 892 sheep and goats, respectively, corresponding to 91 sheep/goat flocks and 43 villages were collected. Competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for PPRV seropositivity. Findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in goats than in sheep (49.5% versus 39.8%; P=0.002). The overall seroprevalence of PPRV infection in small ruminants was 45.8%. Highest seroprevalence (42.6-88.02%) was observed in Mbulu, Siha, Longido, Ngorongoro districts, while antibodies less than 40% to none were found in serum from Monduli, Karatu and Simanjiro, respectively. These findings confirm natural transmission of PPRV under field condition for the first time in Tanzania. Results may be correlated with variations in the sheep and goat husbandry practices within different geographic localities, the uncontrolled movement of animals, the levels of natural immunity and the sharing of grazing field amongst agro and pastoralists.

  3. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Pawłowska-Muc, Agnieszka Konstancja; Pilewska-Kozak, Anna Bogusława; Stadnicka, Grażyna; Pałucka, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Łepecka-Klusek Celina, Pawłowska-Muc Agnieszka Konstancja, Pilewska‑Kozak Anna Bogusława, Stadnicka Grażyna, Pałucka Klaudia. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):169-182. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18420 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A169-182 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/564476 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18420 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. A...

  4. Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croom Jim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage to a high-grain (79% grain diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Ruminal pH was under 5.0 for 130 minutes (2.17 hours which is characterized as the acute form of ruminal acidosis in cattle. The grain challenge increased blood beta-hydroxybutyrate by 1.8 times and rumen papillae mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase by 1.6 times. Ultrastructural and histological adaptations of the rumen epithelium were imaged by scanning electron and light microscopy. Rumen papillae from the high grain diet displayed extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum and compromised cell adhesion as large gaps were apparent between cells throughout the strata. This case report represents a rare documentation of how the rumen epithelium alters its function and structure during the initial stage of acute acidosis.

  5. Impedance measurements and high-resolution manometry help to better define rumination episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Govaert, Frank; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Conchillo, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Rumination syndrome is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by regurgitation of recently ingested food. We aimed to improve the diagnosis of rumination syndrome by classification of separate rumination symptoms using (1) an ambulatory manometry/impedance (AMIM) measurement and (2) a

  6. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? : Evidence from eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.; Schut, Henk A.W.; Stroebe, Margaret; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Boelen, Paul A.

    Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on

  7. Nonlinear Associations Between Co-Rumination and Both Social Support and Depression Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames-Sikora, Alyssa M; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Tully, Erin C

    2017-08-18

    Co-ruminating about one's problems appears to involve both beneficial self-disclosure and harmful rumination, suggesting that moderate levels may be the most adaptive. This study used nonlinear regression to determine whether moderate levels of self-reported co-rumination in relationships with a sibling, parent, friend, and romantic partner are linked to the highest levels of self-perceived social support and lowest levels of self-reported depression symptoms in 175 emerging adults (77% female; M = 19.66 years). As expected, moderate co-rumination was associated with high social support across all four relationship types, but, somewhat unexpectedly, high levels of co-rumination were also associated with high social support. As predicted, moderate levels of co-rumination with friends and siblings were associated with low levels of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, high levels of co-rumination were associated with high depression within romantic relationships. Co-rumination with a parent did not have a linear or quadratic association with depression. These findings suggest that high co-ruminating in supportive relationships and to a lesser extent low co-ruminating in unsupportive relationships are maladaptive interpersonal processes but that co-rumination's relation to depression depends on the co-ruminating partner. Psychotherapies for depression may target these maladaptive processes by supporting clients' development of balanced self-focused negative talk.

  8. Nitrogen fixation in the tissues of ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Protein metabolism in animals is in a constant state of flux, the processes of protein synthesis and protein breakdown acting against each other, and the balance between the two processes causing changes in the mass of protein in a tissue. Reduction in the diet reduces both protein synthesis and protein degradation unless the dietary depletion is severe and prolonged, when there is a marked increase in protein catabolism. The synthesis and degradation of protein can be manipulated by anabolic agents, thus increasing the efficiency of animals. While the use of these agents has met with success in many countries, it remains to be seen whether they will be useful in harsh environments. Lactation and pregnancy put an extra demand on the nitrogen economy of animals. Evidence indicates that the extra amino acids needed for milk production do not come from muscle protein breakdown. Many animals in harsh environments are infected with parasites; intestinal parasites reduce food intake and cause blood loss into the intestines. Associated with this is a general disruption of protein metabolism. In all these studies, isotopic techniques have played a vital role. Few studies have been conducted on nitrogen metabolism in the tissue of ruminants exposed to harsh environments (with one notable exception: rumen function studies, some of which are described elsewhere in the Proceedings of this Seminar). This lack of work on nitrogen metabolism of animals from the harsher environments has often made it necessary to extrapolate data obtained from animals found and maintained in the temperate zones to quite different environments and to animals maintained on quite different dietary regimens. Several examples of the use of isotopes in metabolic studies with animals to yield information of direct or potential relevance to the harsh environments are presented. (author). 23 refs. 1 fig. 6 tabs

  9. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  10. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  11. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  12. Trophoblast cells of ruminant placentas - A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igwebuike, U.M.

    2004-09-01

    Understanding of ruminant placental structure and function is essential for veterinarians and researchers. The ruminant placenta is classified as cotyledonary and synepitheliochorial on the bases of its gross anatomical features and histological characteristics respectively. The richly vascularized embryonic chorioallantois is lined on its outer surface by cells of the trophectodermal epithelium. These cells which assume specialized functions are referred to as trophoblast cells. Two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types have been recognized in the trophectoderm of the placenta of ruminant animals. These are the mononucleate trophoblast cells and the binucleate trophoblast cells. The occurrence, morphological characteristics, and specialized functions of these trophoblast cells, in relation to conceptus nutrition and survival in utero are discussed in this review. (author)

  13. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  14. Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slavov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements, biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

  15. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  16. Production and emission of methane and carbon dioxide by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Animal digestion is responsible for the production of both carbon dioxide and methane, while breathing produces only carbon dioxide. The author described the digestion mechanism of ruminants, explaining that they produce higher levels of methane and carbon dioxide than other animals. Fermentation stoichiometry of ruminants was also discussed along with the influence that diet has on methane production. It was noted that methane production can be decreased by increasing animal productivity, or by using ionophore antibiotics and long chain fatty acids. Test results from each of these methods have revealed side effects and none appears to be applicable for the time being. 10 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  17. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...

  18. Transnational Journeys and Domestic Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    This essay considers the potential of histories of transnational movements of people, and the erosion of boundaries between British domestic and imperial history, to expand and revise the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century British domestic life and work. Literatures on migration demonstrate how far the history of home involves transnational themes, including the recruitment of migrants and refugees who crossed national borders to do domestic work—in Britain and empire—and their deve...

  19. Plant domestication and gene banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrino, P.

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the dawn of agriculture, plant domestication was very slow. As agriculture progressed, however, domestication began to evolve faster and reached its highest point with the advent of plant breeders who played a very important role in solving the world food problem. One of the fastest moving strategies was a better exploitation of genetic diversity, both natural and induced. However, intensive plant breeding activity caused a heavy fall in genetic variability. Gene banks then provided a further tool for modern agriculture, specifically to preserve genetic resources and to help breeders to further domesticate important crops and to introduce and domesticate new species. (author). 3 refs

  20. Application of meta-omics techniques to understand greenhouse gas emissions originating from ruminal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert J; Snelling, Timothy J; McCartney, Christine A; Tapio, Ilma; Strozzi, Francesco

    2017-01-16

    Methane emissions from ruminal fermentation contribute significantly to total anthropological greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. New meta-omics technologies are beginning to revolutionise our understanding of the rumen microbial community structure, metabolic potential and metabolic activity. Here we explore these developments in relation to GHG emissions. Microbial rumen community analyses based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence analysis are not yet predictive of methane emissions from individual animals or treatments. Few metagenomics studies have been directly related to GHG emissions. In these studies, the main genes that differed in abundance between high and low methane emitters included archaeal genes involved in methanogenesis, with others that were not apparently related to methane metabolism. Unlike the taxonomic analysis up to now, the gene sets from metagenomes may have predictive value. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis predicts metabolic function better than only a taxonomic description, because different taxa share genes with the same function. Metatranscriptomics, the study of mRNA transcript abundance, should help to understand the dynamic of microbial activity rather than the gene abundance; to date, only one study has related the expression levels of methanogenic genes to methane emissions, where gene abundance failed to do so. Metaproteomics describes the proteins present in the ecosystem, and is therefore arguably a better indication of microbial metabolism. Both two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and shotgun peptide sequencing methods have been used for ruminal analysis. In our unpublished studies, both methods showed an abundance of archaeal methanogenic enzymes, but neither was able to discriminate high and low emitters. Metabolomics can take several forms that appear to have predictive value for methane emissions; ruminal metabolites, milk fatty acid profiles, faecal long-chain alcohols and urinary metabolites have all

  1. Nitrogen recycling through the gut and the nitrogen economy of ruminants: an asynchronous symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C K; Kristensen, N B

    2008-04-01

    The extensive development of the ruminant forestomach sets apart their N economy from that of nonruminants in a number of respects. Extensive pregastric fermentation alters the profile of protein reaching the small intestine, largely through the transformation of nitrogenous compounds into microbial protein. This process is fueled primarily by carbohydrate fermentation and includes extensive recycling of N between the body and gut lumen pools. Nitrogen recycling occurs via blood and gut lumen exchanges of urea and NH(3), as well as endogenous gut and secretory N entry into the gut lumen, and the subsequent digestion and absorption of microbial and endogenous protein. Factors controlling urea transfer to the gut from blood, including the contributions of urea transporters, remain equivocal. Ammonia produced by microbial degradation of urea and dietary and endogenous AA is utilized by microbial fermentation or absorbed and primarily converted to urea. Therefore, microbial growth and carbohydrate fermentation affect the extent of NH(3) absorption and urea N recycling and excretion. The extensive recycling of N to the rumen represents an evolutionary advantage of the ruminant in terms of absorbable protein supply during periods of dietary protein deficiency, or asynchronous carbohydrate and protein supply, but incurs a cost of greater N intakes, especially in terms of excess N excretion. Efforts to improve the efficiency of N utilization in ruminants by synchronizing fermentable energy and N availability have generally met with limited success with regards to production responses. In contrast, imposing asynchrony through oscillating dietary protein concentration, or infrequent supplementation, surprisingly has not negatively affected production responses unless the frequency of supplementation is less than once every 3 d. In some cases, oscillation of dietary protein concentration has improved N retention compared with animals fed an equal amount of dietary protein on

  2. Prediction of CP and starch concentrations in ruminal in situ studies and ruminal degradation of cereal grains using NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J; Koenzen, E; Seifried, N; Steingass, H; Schenkel, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2018-03-01

    Ruminal in situ incubations are widely used to assess the nutritional value of feedstuffs for ruminants. In in situ methods, feed samples are ruminally incubated in indigestible bags over a predefined timespan and the disappearance of nutrients from the bags is recorded. To describe the degradation of specific nutrients, information on the concentration of feed samples and undegraded feed after in situ incubation ('bag residues') is needed. For cereal and pea grains, CP and starch (ST) analyses are of interest. The numerous analyses of residues following ruminal incubation contribute greatly to the substantial investments in labour and money, and faster methods would be beneficial. Therefore, calibrations were developed to estimate CP and ST concentrations in grains and bag residues following in situ incubations by using their near-infrared spectra recorded from 680 to 2500 nm. The samples comprised rye, triticale, barley, wheat, and maize grains (20 genotypes each), and 15 durum wheat and 13 pea grains. In addition, residues after ruminal incubation were included (at least from four samples per species for various incubation times). To establish CP and ST calibrations, 620 and 610 samples (grains and bag residues after incubation, respectively) were chemically analysed for their CP and ST concentration. Calibrations using wavelengths from 1250 to 2450 nm and the first derivative of the spectra produced the best results (R 2 Validation=0.99 for CP and ST; standard error of prediction=0.47 and 2.10% DM for CP and ST, respectively). Hence, CP and ST concentration in cereal grains and peas and their bag residues could be predicted with high precision by NIRS for use in in situ studies. No differences were found between the effective ruminal degradation calculated from NIRS estimations and those calculated from chemical analyses (P>0.70). Calibrations were also calculated to predict ruminal degradation kinetics of cereal grains from the spectra of ground grains

  3. Development and testing of a dedusting filter system for exhaust gases of domestic small firing systems for the combustion of biomass and waste materials; Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Abreinigungsfilters fuer das Abgas haeuslicher Kleinfeuerungsanlagen fuer die Verbrennung von Biomasse und Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleysa, Mohammadshayesh

    2012-07-01

    The author describes the development of a dedusting filter system which should be suitable for the dedusting of exhaust gases in domestic small firing installations with a power output of 40 kW. This filter system should undoubtedly enable the necessary capture efficiency. It should be implemented with little technical complexity as well as low maintenance and cost-effectivity. The dedusting filter system is tested in connection with a wood gasification boiler as well as a pellet incinerator. The quantities and parameters of smoke gas, the pressure losses, the precipitation capacity, the economic efficiency and the practical suitability of the dedusting filter system are investigated. Furthermore, the author determines the necessary factors for the design and dimensioning of dedusting filter systems.

  4. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  5. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    1999-04-01

    New methodology for measuring forage condensed tannin (CT) content is described and the effects of CT upon forage feeding and nutritive value for ruminant animals are reviewed. CT react with forage proteins in a pH-reversible manner, with reactivity determined by the concentration, structure and molecular mass of the CT. Increasing concentrations of CT in Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus reduce the rates of solubilization and degradation of fraction 1 leaf protein in the rumen and increase duodenal non-NH3 N flow. Action of medium concentrations of total CT in Lotus corniculatus (30-40 g/kg DM) increased the absorption of essential amino acids from the small intestine and increased wool growth, milk secretion and reproductive rate in grazing sheep without affecting voluntary feed intake, thus improving the efficiency of food conversion. High concentrations of CT in Lotus pedunculatus (75-100 g/kg DM) depressed voluntary feed intake and rumen carbohydrate digestion and depressed rates of body and wool growth in grazing sheep. The minimum concentration of CT to prevent rumen frothy bloat in cattle is defined as 5 g/kg DM and sheep grazing CT-containing legumes were shown to better tolerate internal parasite infections than sheep grazing non CT-containing forages. It was concluded that defined concentrations of forage CT can be used to increase the efficiencies of protein digestion and animal productivity in forage-fed ruminants and to develop more ecologically sustainable systems of controlling some diseases under grazing.

  6. Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Constraints to improving reproductive efficiency of ruminant livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvanendran, V.

    1989-01-01

    Reproductive performance in ruminants is closely linked to efficiency of production measured either directly as the number of surplus animals available for sale, or indirectly as amount of produce harvested per animal. In developing countries, the major limiting factors to reproductive rate are biological, of which the most important is nutrition. Undernutrition has detrimental effects on age at first calving owing to delay in attaining the target weight at puberty. Reconception is also adversely affected in animals that suffer high loss of weight after parturition owing to undernutrition in early lactation. Genetic variation in mature body weight among breeds is important. Under conditions of feed stress in cattle, there is a negative relationship between mature weight and fertility owing to the high maintenance requirements of larger animals. The most important socioeconomic factor contributing to reproductive inefficiency is the fostering of large herds containing disproportionate sex groups, thus reducing feed availability. In small ruminants, although multiple births increase reproductive rate, the high mortality associated with twinning makes it undesirable in some situations. Opportunities for increasing reproductive rate in these species seem to be greater through decreasing parturition interval than through increasing litter size. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (ρ, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ρ: a group with very low ρ (ρ 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ρ may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.

  9. Specific detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in sheep and goat sera by the luciferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berguido, F.J.; Bodjo, S.C.; Loitsch, A.; Diallo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious and often fatal transboundary animal disease affecting mostly sheep, goats and wild small ruminants. This disease is endemic in most of Africa, the Middle, Near East, and large parts of Asia. The casual agent is peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), which belongs to the genus Morbilivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. This genus also includes measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and rinderpest virus (RPV). All are closely related viruses with serological cross reactivity. In this study, we have developed a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) for the rapid detection of antibodies against PPRV in serum samples and for specific differentiation from antibodies against RPV. PPR and rinderpest (RP) serum samples were assayed by PPR-LIPS and two commercially available PPR cELISA tests. The PPR-LIPS showed high sensitivity and specificity for the samples tested and showed no cross reactivity with RPV unlike the commercial PPR cELISA tests which did not cross react with RPV. Based on the results shown in this study, PPR-LIPS is presented as a good candidate for the specific serosurveillance of PPR. (author)

  10. Rumination mediates the relationship between structural variations in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and sensitivity to negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L; Wei, D T; Li, W F; Chen, Q L; Che, X W; Li, B B; Li, Y D; Qiu, J; Zhang, Q L; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    Individuals have different levels of stress sensitivity. An individual's predisposition to experience negative life events (NLEs) may make him/her more vulnerable to a series of psychopathological and physical diseases. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs remain unknown. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was used to identify the gray matter (GM) associations of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs measured by adolescent self-rating life events checklist. Results showed that there was a positive association between individual NLEs sensitivity and regional GM volume (rGMV) in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). GM was mostly evident in the left frontal operculum and a small part of the left middle frontal gyrus. This region was thought to play an important role in introception. Importantly, our study revealed that rumination served as a mediator between the rGMV of the VLPFC and individual NLEs sensitivity. These findings suggest that people with greater VLPFC might be more inclined to ruminate and the ruminative response style might make them more sensitive to NLEs. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  12. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  13. The Use of Plant Bioactive Compounds to Mitigate Enteric Methane in Ruminants and its Application in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2012-03-01

    extract as a feed additive for livestock raised by small farmers. It is recommended to develop a feeding system for ruminant using tannin containing plants/ legumes, saponin containing plants or other plants.

  14. Simultaneous differential detection of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum and Coxiella burnetii from aborted ruminant's clinical samples using multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolakis Annie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiosis and Q fever, two zoonosis, are important causes of ruminants' abortion around the world. They are caused respectively by strictly intracellular and Gram negative bacterium Chlamydophila abortus (Cp. abortus and Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Chlamydophila pecorum (Cp. pecorum is commonly isolated from the digestive tract of clinically inconspicuous ruminants but the abortive and zoonotic impact of this bacterium is still unknown because Cp. pecorum is rarely suspected in abortion cases of small ruminants. We have developed a multiplex PCR (m-PCR for rapid simultaneous differential detection of Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii in clinical samples taken from infected animals. Results Specific PCR primers were designed and a sensitive and specific m-PCR was developed to detect simultaneously, in one tube reaction, three specific fragments of 821, 526 and 687-bp long for Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii respectively. This m-PCR assay was performed on 253 clinical samples taken from infected ruminant's flocks that have showed problems of abortion diseases. Thus, 67 samples were infected by either one of the three pathogens: 16 (13 vaginal swabs and 3 placentas were positive for Cp. abortus, 2 were positive for Cp. pecorum (1 vaginal swab and 1 placenta and 49 samples (33 vaginal swabs, 11 raw milks, 4 faeces and 1 placenta were positive for C. burnetii. Two vaginal swabs were m-PCR positive of both Cp. abortus and C. burnetii and none of the tested samples was shown to be infected simultaneously with the three pathogens. Conclusion We have successfully developed a rapid multiplex PCR that can detect and differentiate Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii; with a good sensitivity and specificity. The diagnosis of chlamydiosis and Q fever may be greatly simplified and performed at low cost. In addition, the improvement in diagnostic techniques will enhance our knowledge regarding the prevalence and

  15. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides in domestic animals: pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Bettencourt P S; Virkel, Guillermo L; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2009-09-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are methylcarbamate benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used to control gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals. These parent compounds are metabolised to albendazole sulfoxide and fenbendazole sulfoxide (oxfendazole), respectively. Both sulfoxide derivatives are anthelmintically active and are manufactured for use in animals. They metabolites have an asymmetric centre on their chemical structures and two enantiomeric forms of each sulfoxide have been identified in plasma, tissues of parasite location and within target helminths. Both the flavin-monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems are involved in the enantioselective biotransformation of these anthelmintic compounds in ruminant species. A relevant progress on the understanding of the relationship among enantioselective metabolism and systemic availability of each enantiomeric form has been achieved. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pharmacological implications of the enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole sulfoxide and oxfendazole in domestic animals.

  17. The dynamics of nematode infections of farmed ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and control of nematode parasites of farmed ruminants are discussed via a qualitative analysis of a differential equation model. To achieve this a quantity, 'the basic reproduction quotient' (Q0), whose definition coincides with previous definitions of R0 for

  18. BOARD-invited review : Quantifying water use in ruminant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legesse, G.; Ominski, K. H.; Beauchemin, K. A.; Pfister, S.; Martel, M.; McGeough, E. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Kroebel, R.; Cordeiro, M. R.C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of

  19. Parasitic Diseases of Ruminants Brought to Two Zonal Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...

  20. ruminants by amino acid analysis of the products of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reveals that in all cases histidine is the limiting amino acid for milk production. Comparison of the milk production potential predicted from the duodenal amino acid supply with that predicted from ... also recognized, in ruminants, as'a critical point in the chain .... be used to model the in vivo situation and measurement of.

  1. Implementation of triticale in nutrition of non-ruminant animals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... application in non-ruminant animal nutrition were pointed out in this paper. There is a high level of ... a result of environment protection. Triticale is an ...... Review Res. Work Faculty Agriculture, Zemun-Belgrade, 38(2): 71-. 82.

  2. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presence of plastic bags in the rumen of the goats was clinically characterized by anorexia, severe depression, discomfort (grunting sounds), dehydration, firmness and asymmetrical distention of the abdomen, reduced ruminal movements, diarrhoea with intermittent constipation, recumbency and death. Severity of the ...

  3. Recent advances in modeling nutrient utilization in ruminants1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modeling techniques have been applied to study various aspects of the ruminant, such as rumen function, post-absorptive metabolism and product composition. This review focuses on advances made in modeling rumen fermentation and its associated rumen disorders, and energy and nutrient

  4. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted crude protein degradation was calculated at rate constants for outflow of 0.04 and 0.06/h respect- ively. ... as buffers, an ionophore and an antibiotic according to general .... the non-bird resistant ('sweet') varieties. Ruminal .... have been affected by both the particle type and the math- ematical model we used.

  5. Comparison of analyses to predict ruminal fibre degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and indigestible NDF (INDF) between silages (n = 24) that originated from three different temperate grass species, i.e. Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea L. and hybrid, Felina – Lolium multiflorum L. × Festuca ...

  6. Conventional and serological detection of Fasciolosis in ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determined seasonal prevalence of fasciolosis and compare between its conventional diagnosis and serological identification in ruminants slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, northeastern Nigeria. Nine hundred samples each of faeces and blood; that is 300 each from cattle, sheep and goats was ...

  7. Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of large intestinal or hindgut fermentation in ruminant nutrition has received little research attention in recent decades. Though the contribution of the hindgut to total tract nutrient digestion is substantially less than the contribution from the rumen, hindgut fermentation impacts anima...

  8. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Acidosis: new insights into the persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Wertz-Lutz, A E

    2011-04-01

    The Ruminant Nutrition Symposium titled "Acidosis: New insights into the persistent problem" was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Western Section-ASAS, and the Canadian Society of Animal Science in Denver, Colorado, July 11 to 15, 2010. The objective of the symposium was to provide the ruminant nutrition community with new insights and perspectives from recent research findings on acidosis. Under modern production systems, ruminants are fed high-grain diets to maximize their energy intake and productivity. However, feeding highly fermentable diets often causes excess fermentation and results in accumulation of fermentation acids in the rumen, leading to a decrease in feed intake, poor feed efficiency, liver abscesses, and lameness in feedlot cattle or lactating dairy cows. Although our understanding of nutritional factors (i.e., effects of type and processing method of grains and importance of physically effective fiber) affecting rumen pH have increased substantially over the past few decades, rumen acidosis has continued to be a common problem in the ruminant livestock industry. The symposium program was organized to review recent research findings in acidosis with more emphasis on physiological aspects, and provide novel insights into the persistent problem.

  9. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... performed.Heifers receiving oligofructose developed a profound ruminal and systemic acidosis (in Trial 1 and 2 lowest ruminal pH was 4.3±0.2 and 3.8±0.02, respectively, and minimum SBE was −9.3±4.1 and −8.9±2.8, respectively). In Trial 1, SAA concentrations were higher than baseline concentrations on all...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...

  10. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    herds with Holstein cows, where daily RT was recorded by rumination sensors (Qwes HRTM). Cows were fed a partially mixed ration and concentrate at the milking robot. Concentrate was stepped up over the first 28 and 17 days in milk for primiparous and multiparous cows. Cows were assigned to either...

  11. Balancing the duodenal amino acid supply in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meat production are bloodmeal, carcass meal, poultry by-product meal, fishmeal and groundnut oilcake. ... The amino acid requirements for milk or meat production in ruminants are not accurately known and in the absence ...... Some adaptation of the in vitro technique of Dennison &. Phillips (1983) might prove useful in this ...

  12. Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Tolkamp, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part I of this thesis contains a critical appraisal of the commonly accepted theory with regard to feed intake regulation in ruminants and the presentation of a new theory. This new theory assumes that feed consumption creates both benefits to the animal (in a non-reproducing animal the

  13. Sero-epidemiology of bluetongue in Algerian ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BMH Labo SPA

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... the herds and lack of Culicoides controls strategies were the major risk factors for bluetongue sero- positivity in Algerian ruminant ... coastline at the Mediterranean Sea; most of the coastal area. (northern region) is hilly, .... Culicoides control measures in disease prevention strategy may play a key role in ...

  14. Rumination syndrome: when the lower oesophageal sphincter rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, Guillaume; Dechelotte, Pierre; Ducrotte, Philippe; Leroi, Anne Marie

    2011-07-01

    Rumination syndrome is an uncommon condition characterised by the self-induced regurgitation from the stomach to the mouth of recently ingested meal that is chewed and reswallowed. Rumination is caused by a voluntary rise in intra-abdominal and intra-gastric pressure leading to the reflux of the gastric content into the oesophagus. However, the precise mechanisms preventing reflux at the gastro-oesophageal junction during the rise in intra-gastric pressure remains unknown. In 5 patients, rumination episodes were monitored using combined multiple intra-luminal impedance monitoring, high resolution manometry, and video-fluoroscopic recording. We showed that the gastro-oesophageal junction moved from the abdominal cavity into the thorax creating a "pseudo-hernia". This occurred at a range of 1.4 ± 0.3 s before the rise in intra-oesophageal pressure and the gastro-oesophageal reflux. This displacement of the gastro-oesophageal junction into thorax, rather than a lower oesophageal sphincter opening, explains the mechanism of voluntary regurgitations occurring during rumination syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspects of protein nutrition and metabolism in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Krebs, G.L.; Hennessy, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial fermentation in the rumen, ruminal ammonia kinetics and urea synthesis and recycling to the rumen of sheep and cattle consuming fibrous diets have been studied in three experiments using isotopic tracers. A technique based on 35 S-labelling of microorganisms has been developed and used for estimating the pool size and turnover rate of 'fluid phase' and 'particle associated' bacteria in ruminants fitted with simple rumen cannulas. When used in sheep given a diet of oaten chaff, this technique gave estimates of microbial synthesis that were consistent with other estimates based on marker corrected digesta flows through the abomasum in similar sheep with single abomasal cannulas. Aspects of ammonia kinetics in the rumen (conversion of dietary nitrogen to ammonia, assimilation of ammonia by ruminal microflora, ammonia absorption, ammonia passage in digesta and endogenous urea transfer to the rumen) have been estimated by means of 15 N-ammonia, and 14 C- and 15 N-urea in cattle and sheep given fibrous diets with and without supplements. The results indicate that the net gain of ammonia-N in the rumen from recycled urea can augment the supply of N for ruminal microflora, but the net gain is reduced by the concomitant losses of ammonia by absorption and passage out of the rumen in digesta. (author)

  16. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 2. Energy sources. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 3. Roughages. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Feeding standards for ruminants: A progress report of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled (indoor) nutrition research in the Republic, and for me to then give my views on how to proceed ... intricacies of aspects of ruminant nutrition in which I am a complete layman. I would suggest that the ...... Metode om dierlike proteiene te beskerm teen de-aminering deur mikro-organismes in die rumen. Hqnd. S. Afr.

  19. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of eight plant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    made more effective if the properties of the feed are known and can be ... Three ruminally fistulated Jersey cows were fed Coast cross 2 hay (K11) ad libitum. .... absence of properly prepared animals for the implementation of the mobile bag.

  20. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-03-08

    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.