WorldWideScience

Sample records for domestic wastewater treatment

  1. Domestic wastewater treatment using electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.

    1995-01-01

    This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  2. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  3. Vertical Subsurface Flow (VSSF) constructed wetland for domestic wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, M. C.; Sutanto, H. B.; Prihatmo, G.

    2018-04-01

    Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (VSSF) is appraised to become an alternative solution for treating domestic wastewater effectively and efficiently. The system which imitates the natural wetland concept is able to reduce organic material and nutrients in wastewater; therefore, it will be more feasible to be discharged to the environment. This study aimed to compare which species is more recommended to be applied for reducing organic material and nutrients in domestic wastewater. This experimental study applied four treatments, i.e 1) control (unplanted), 2) single species Iris pseudacorus, 3) single species Echinodorus palaefolius, and 4) combination (Iris pseudacorus and Echinodorus palaefolius) with three days of retention time. The application of those plants aims for holding the role in increasing wastewater quality and adding aesthetic impression at once. The plants were planted on VSSF media, in relatively same of weight and size to compare their effectiveness in decreasing organic and inorganic load. The parameters measured pervade TDS, pH, BOD5, COD, Nitrate, and Phosphate. The plants’ condition was also observed during and after the system worked. The result showed that the best average value of effectiveness for each of parameters: COD by combination treatment (50.76%), BOD5 by single I. pseudacorus (30.15%), Nitrate by single E. palaefolius (58.06%), Phosphate by single E. palaefolius (99.5%), and TDS by E.palaefolius (3.25%). The result showed that there was a significant difference of Nitrate and Phosphate reduction between control and three other treatments, while pH parameter showed non-significant change among them. In term of performance, I.pseudacorus seemed showed a preferable achievement.

  4. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  5. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employ activated sludge processes to treat domestic wastewater using a consortium of bacteria essentially to degrade organic matter. However, bacteria activity is inhibited by toxic substances; thus, potentially...

  6. Treatment of domestic wastewater using conventional and baffled septic tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Fayza Aly; Mikhaeil, Basem

    2013-01-01

    The main theme of the study was a comparative study of domestic wastewater treatment using conventional and baffled septic tanks. The septic tanks were fed continuously with domestic wastewater at three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The HRTs chosen were 24, 48 and 72 h with corresponding organic loads of 0.321, 0.436 and 0.885 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per m3 per day, respectively. The performance of the septic tanks at the three HRTs gave satisfactory results. For the conventional septic tank, COD removal was 53.4%, 56% and 65.3%, at an HRT of 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, with residual COD of 412, 380 and 334mg/l, respectively. At HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h, the following percentages removals were realized for: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 68.4%, 57, 53.5%; total suspended solid (TSS), 65.3%, 58.3, 55%; phosphorus, 29.3%, 26.9, 25.6%; total Kjeldahl nitrogen 26.8%, 20.8, 17.7%, respectively. On the contrary, ammonia concentrations increased by 7.1%, 5.2 and 4.2% under the same conditions. Consequently, the results showed that the removal of fecal coliform at all HRTs was less than one log. The two baffled septic tanks exhibited superior results at HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h. Comparing the treated domestic wastewater quality produced by the two types of septic tanks in terms of physico-chemical and biological characteristics, better results were obtained using the two baffles type.

  7. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Integrated Constructed Wetland for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Khan, Sumera; Naeem, Sana; Perveen, Irum; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-03-01

    Simple, budget friendly, laboratory-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) was designed to assess domestic wastewater treatment performance at a loading rate of 75 mm/d, planted with native plant species: Veronica-angallis aquatica and compared with non-vegetative control system at various residence times of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 days. Results revealed that the vegetated ICW demonstrated superior performance over non-vegetated control: 69.12 vs 17.12%, 67.77 vs 16.04%, 68 vs 16.48%, 71.19 vs 6.56%, 71.54 vs 14.80%, and 72.04 vs 11.41% for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, phosphates (PO4(-)), sulfate (SO4(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)), respectively, at 20 days residence times. Reduction in bacterial counts (2.79 × 10(4) CFU/mL) and fecal pathogens (345.5 MPN index/100 mL) was observed in V. aquatica at 20 days residence time. Therefore, the present study highlights not only the presence of vegetation but also appropriate residence time in constructed wetlands for better performances.

  9. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  10. Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require reactors with multiple electrodes, but this presents unique challenges under continuous flow conditions due to large changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD

  11. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  12. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  13. Anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in subtropical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the application of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors for the treatment of low-strength domestic sewage was studied for the city ofSalta

  14. Submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feki; Firas; Jraou, Mouna; Loukil, Slim; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami; Arnolt, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin (and particularly North African countries) is one of the poorest regions in the world in terms of water resources. In Tunisia, treated municipal wastewater is becoming one of the main alternative sources of water. Indeed, in 2007, 99 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has treated a quantity of 215 millions of m 3 from which more than 30 pour cent are reused. The treated volume in 2011 is expected to be 266 millions m 3 , whereas the reused wastewaters should reach more than 50 pour cent. However, especially in the eastern and northern Mediterranean regions, wastewaters are inefficiently treated and re-used for irrigation or sanitary purposes, serving as a carrier for diseases or causing water pollution when discharged to water bodies. In the last decade, several water treatment technologies have been used in the region with little success in pathogen removal. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very promising alternative to those conventional water treatments as membranes act as a barrier against bacteria and viruses achieving a high degree of water purification. However, most membrane bioreactors currently in use have very high running costs because of the high pressure drop and high air-flushing rate required for their operation. The objective of this PURATREAT FP 6 EU project was to study a new approach to the operation of membrane bioreactors. This study was included a comparison of three leading membrane technologies. The operating procedure to be studied is expected to yield very low energy consumption and reduced maintenance costs. After the start up period, the MBR3 was operated with a MLSS concentration of 4.5 and 9 g/L, respectively. Different fluxes as 16, 18, 20 and 22 Lh -1 m -2 were tested. When the flux increase from 16 to 22 Lh -1 m -2 , the treatment energy consumption decreased from 7 to 5 kWh/m 3 . However the increases of MLSS concentration from 4.5 and 9 g/L raise the membrane fouling frequency from 1

  15. Performance of slow rate systems for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, V E; Paranychianakis, N V; Angelakis, A N

    2007-01-01

    The performance of slow rate (SR) systems in terms of treatment efficiency, environmental and health risks, and land sustainability was investigated over a three-year period in a rural community close to Iraklio, Greece. Four plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camandulensis, Populus nigra and Arundo donax) were used in order to investigate the role of vegetation in the treatment of wastewater and in biomass production. Wastewater effluent was pre-treated in a septic tank before its application to land. Applied hydraulic loading rates were based on crop water requirements which were determined separately for each plant species. The evaluation of treatment performance was accomplished by measuring COD, TKN, NH3-N, NO3-N, total and reactive P, TC and FC in soil solution samples taken at different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm). SR systems showed great potential for COD, TKN and NH4-N removal which reached 89, 90 and 94%, respectively at a depth of 15 cm. An outstanding removal was also observed for TC and FC which reached 99.99%. The concentration of both P and NO3-N in soil solution increased with the passage of time, but it was lower in winter. Despite the differences in the application rates among the SR systems planted with different plant species, the treatment efficiency was not affected. Moreover, increasing the soil depth from 15 to 60 cm had no effect on the treatment efficiency of the SR systems.

  16. Towards sustainable and robust on-site domestic wastewater treatment for all citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mgana, S.

    2003-01-01

    In most developing countries commonly practiced domestic wastewater treatment systems predominantly constitute anaerobic treatment process. The anaerobic treatment units mostly installed are on-site at residential dwellings.

    However the commonly installed units, viz., traditional pit

  17. Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

    2001-05-01

    Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

  18. A soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhe; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Tong, Shuang; Zhang, Baogang; Hao, Chunbo; Chen, Kun

    2014-05-01

    To enhance the denitrification performance of soil infiltration, a soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment was developed, and the SISSAD performance was evaluated using synthetic domestic wastewater in this study. The aerobic respiration and nitrification were mainly taken place in the upper aerobic stage (AES), removed 88.44% COD and 89.99% NH4(+)-N. Moreover, autotrophic denitrification occurred in the bottom anaerobic stage (ANS), using the CO2 produced from AES as inorganic carbon source. Results demonstrated that the SISSAD showed a remarkable performance on COD removal efficiency of 95.09%, 84.86% for NO3(-)-N, 95.25% for NH4(+)-N and 93.15% for TP. This research revealed the developed system exhibits a promising application prospect for domestic wastewater in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two years of the operation of a domestic MBR wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikorová, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The paper evaluates the results of data obtained from two years of observing an actual domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an immersed membrane module. The domestic MBR (membrane bioreactor) WWTP was linked to a dwelling with four residents. Two different commercial flat sheet membrane modules were investigated. The membrane modules, as well as the whole WWTP, were tested with different fluxes as well as the response of the membrane and activated sludge to different conditions, such as actual peak wastewater flows, extremes temperatures (a winter below 5 °C), and high pH values.

  20. Domestic wastewater treatment and biofuel production by using microalga Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of microalgae for biomass production is a promising way to dispose of wastewater and recover nutrients simultaneously. The properties of nutrient removal and biomass production in domestic wastewater of a newly isolated microalga Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 were investigated in this study. Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1, which was isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, grew well in both the primary and secondary effluents of a wastewater treatment plant during the 21-day cultivation, with a maximal algal density of 3.6 × 10(6) and 1.9 × 10(6) cells · mL(-1), respectively. The total phosphorus concentrations in both effluents could be efficiently removed by over 97% after the cultivation. A high removal rate (over 90%) of total nitrogen (TN) was also observed. After cultivation in primary effluent for 21 days, the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 in dry weight had reached about 32.2%. The lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) production of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 was increased significantly with the extension of cultivation time. The TAG production of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 increased from 32 mg L(-1) at 21 d to 148 mg L(-1) at 45 d in primary effluent. All the experiments were carried out in non-sterilized domestic wastewater and Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 showed good adaptability to the domestic wastewater environment.

  1. Domestic wastewater treatment with purple phototrophic bacteria using a novel continuous photo anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsen, Tim; Barry, Edward M; Lu, Yang; Puyol, Daniel; Keller, Jürg; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    A key future challenge of domestic wastewater treatment is nutrient recovery while still achieving acceptable discharge limits. Nutrient partitioning using purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) has the potential to biologically concentrate nutrients through growth. This study evaluates the use of PPB in a continuous photo-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (PAnMBR) for simultaneous organics and nutrient removal from domestic wastewater. This process could continuously treat domestic wastewater to discharge limits (60% of PPB, though the PPB community was highly variable. The outcomes from the current work demonstrate the potential of PPB for continuous domestic (and possibly industrial) wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. Technical challenges include the in situ COD supply in a continuous reactor system, as well as efficient light delivery. Addition of external (agricultural or fossil) derived organics is not financially nor environmentally justified, and carbon needs to be sourced internally from the biomass itself to enable this technology. Reduced energy consumption for lighting is technically feasible, and needs to be addressed as a key objective in scaleup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective Biological Nitrogen Removal Treatment Processes for Domestic Wastewaters with Low C/N Ratios: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Merkey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    with high efficiency and relative low costs. However, the removal of nitrogen from domestic wastewater with a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio can often be limited in municipal wastewater plants (WWTPs) because organic carbon is a limiting factor for denitrification. The present work reviews innovative....... They can effectively be used for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater without external carbon addition. In addition, conventional and alternative carbon sources for enhanced biological nitrogen removal were also reviewed. We conclude that alternative carbon sources such as wine distillery...... at large scale for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater, (2) further method logic are explored to introduce the Anammox pathway into domestic wastewater treatment, and (3) alternative carbon sources are explored and optimized for supporting the denitrification. With these efforts, cost...

  3. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among several anaerobic treatment processes, high rate anaerobic digesters receive great attention due to its high loading capacity and chemical oxygen demand removal rate. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is getting wide acceptance among several anaerobic processes. However, its application is still ...

  5. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment on tropical conditions: effect of several design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohorquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFWC) design and operation takes into account several variables which affect performance its performance. These aspects had been evaluated and documented among others in countries like USA, Denmark, Austria. In contrast, VFCW had not been studied in tropical...... countries and, specifically in Colombia, design and operation parameters are not defined yet. The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of filter medium, the feeding frequency and Heliconia psittacorum presence, a typical local plant, on the domestic wastewater treatment in tropical conditions....

  6. High-Strength Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse with Onsite Passive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Anda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preliminary monitoring results of an onsite pilot wastewater treatment plant consisting of a septic tank, an anaerobic up-flow filter, and a horizontal subsurface flow wetland system planted with Agapanthus africanus. The system was designed to treat heavily polluted domestic wastewater produced in a research and development (R&D center, reaching additional goals of zero energy consumption and eliminating the use of chemical additives. First water quality data shows that organic load in the treated sewage were removed achieving more than 95% efficiency. Nutrients were removed by almost 50%, and fecal and total coliform counts decreased by 99.96%. The results were compared to official Mexican regulations for wastewater discharged into lakes and reservoirs complied with all of them except for nutrients. In this pilot project, the resulting treated wastewater was directly reused for watering the green areas of the R&D center. The result was that the excess of nutrients improved the quality of the grass, avoiding the use of synthetic fertilizers, and created a wetland habitat for small wildlife species living in the area.

  7. Potential Use of Microbial Electrolysis Cells in Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants for Energy Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escapa, Adrián; San-Martín, María Isabel; Morán, Antonio, E-mail: amorp@unileon.es [Chemical and Environmental Bioprocess Engineering Group, Natural Resources Institute (IRENA), University of León, León (Spain)

    2014-06-06

    Globally, large amounts of electrical energy are spent every year for domestic wastewater (dWW) treatment. In the future, energy prices are expected to rise as the demand for energy resources increases and fossil fuel reserves become depleted. By using appropriate technologies, the potential chemical energy contained in the organic compounds present in dWWs might help to improve the energy and economic balance of dWW treatment plants. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) in general and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) in particular represent an emerging technology capable of harvesting part of this energy. This study offers an overview of the potential of using MEC technology in domestic wastewater treatment plants (dWWTPs) to reduce the energy bill. It begins with a brief account of the basics of BESs, followed by an examination of how MECs can be integrated in dWWTPs, identifying scaling-up bottlenecks and estimating potential energy savings. A simplified analysis showed that the use of MEC technology may help to reduce up to ~20% the energy consumption in a conventional dWWTP. The study concludes with a discussion of the future perspectives of MEC technology for dWW treatment. The growing rates of municipal water and wastewater treatment markets in Europe offer excellent business prospects and it is expected that the first generation of MECs could be ready within 1–4 years. However, before MEC technology may achieve practical implementation in dWWTPs, it need not only to overcome important techno-economic challenges, but also to compete with other energy-producing technologies.

  8. A novel eductor-based MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shibam; Daltrophe, Naphtali Claude; Gilron, Jack

    2016-09-01

    A novel aeration device has been developed that combines the mechanism of a venturi aerator with the flow multiplier effect of an eductor used for pump driven mixing. The performance of this novel eductor was evaluated in a flat-sheet immersed MBR and compared with the same MBR equipped with a conventional diffuser for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The eductor showed a higher rate of oxygen transfer both in clean and wastewater compared to the diffuser. The α value with the eductor (0.91) was also found to be more than that of the diffuser (0.75). Higher recirculation rate through the eductor resulted in a higher mixing/turbulance inside the MBR tank and thus alleviated membrane fouling significantly compared to the diffuser. The performance of the MBR in terms of organics removal was also found to be higher with the eductor than the diffuser. The eductor could have significant potential as a combined aerator and mixer in the field of wastewater treatment by MBR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2012-10-11

    Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require reactors with multiple electrodes, but this presents unique challenges under continuous flow conditions due to large changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration within the reactor. Domestic wastewater treatment was examined using a single-chamber MFC (130 mL) with multiple graphite fiber brush anodes wired together and a single air cathode (cathode specific area of 27 m2/m3). In fed-batch operation, where the COD concentration was spatially uniform in the reactor but changed over time, the maximum current density was 148 ± 8 mA/m2 (1,000 Ω), the maximum power density was 120 mW/m2, and the overall COD removal was >90 %. However, in continuous flow operation (8 h hydraulic retention time, HRT), there was a 57 % change in the COD concentration across the reactor (influent versus effluent) and the current density was only 20 ± 13 mA/m2. Two approaches were used to increase performance under continuous flow conditions. First, the anodes were separately wired to the cathode, which increased the current density to 55 ± 15 mA/m2. Second, two MFCs were hydraulically connected in series (each with half the original HRT) to avoid large changes in COD among the anodes in the same reactor. The second approach improved current density to 73 ± 13 mA/m2. These results show that current generation from wastewaters in MFCs with multiple anodes, under continuous flow conditions, can be improved using multiple reactors in series, as this minimizes changes in COD in each reactor. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Anaerobic up flow fluidized bed reactor performance as a primary treatment unit in domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Moharram

    2016-04-01

    The efficiencies of Total nitrogen removal ranged between 2.23 and 10.83% with an apparent decrease during the low temperature high rate stages. Nitrite removal was in the range of (23.08–77% with up to the 2 mg/L in the effluent water when obtaining high organic loading and warm temperature. These results demonstrated that the domestic wastewater could be anaerobically treated in a fluidized bed UASB reactor with very low HRT reaching 2.5 h.

  11. Combining micelle-clay sorption to solar photo-Fenton processes for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, Monica; Nir, Shlomo; Plantard, Gael; Goetz, Vincent; Chiron, Serge

    2018-06-08

    A tertiary treatment of effluent from a biological domestic wastewater treatment plant was tested by combining filtration and solar photocatalysis. Adsorption was carried out by a sequence of two column filters, the first one filled with granular activated carbon (GAC) and the second one with granulated nano-composite of micelle-montmorillonite mixed with sand (20:100, w/w). The applied solar advanced oxidation process was homogeneous photo-Fenton photocatalysis using peroxymonosulfate (PMS) as oxidant agent. This combination of simple, robust, and low-cost technologies aimed to ensure water disinfection and emerging contaminants (ECs, mainly pharmaceuticals) removal. The filtration step showed good performances in removing dissolved organic matter and practically removing all bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis from the secondary treated water. Solar advanced oxidation processes were efficient in elimination of trace levels of ECs. The final effluent presented an improved sanitary level with acceptable chemical and biological characteristics for irrigation.

  12. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  13. The Distribution of Microalgae in a Stabilization Pond System of a Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Tropical Environment (Case Study: Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herto Dwi Ariesyady

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP serves to treat domestic wastewater originating from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. An abundant amount of nutrients as a result of waste decomposition increases the number of microalgae populations present in the pond of the wastewater treatment plant, thereby causing a population explosion of microalgae, also called algal blooming. In a stabilization pond system, the presence of algal blooming is not desirable because it can decrease wastewater treatment performance. More knowledge about the relationship between the nutrients concentration and algae blooming conditions, such as microalgae diversity, is needed to control and maintain the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Therefore this study was conducted, in order to reveal the diversity of microalgae in the stabilization pond system and its relationship with the water characteristics of the comprising ponds. The results showed that the water quality in the stabilization pond system of Bojongsoang WWTP supported rapid growth of microalgae, where most rapid microbial growth occurred in the anaerobic pond. The microalgae diversity in the stabilization ponds was very high, with various morphologies, probably affiliated with blue-green algae, green algae, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms. This study has successfully produced information on microalgae diversity and abundance profiles in a stabilization pond system.

  14. Application and microbial ecology of psychrotrophs in domestic wastewater treatment at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Ben, Yue; Chen, Zhonglin; Jiang, Anxi; Shen, Jimin; Han, Xiaoyun

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of a bunch of screened psychrotrophs being applied to low-temperature wastewater treatment was investigated. The screened psychrophillic strains are capable of growth at a broad temperature-range from 0 to 40 °C and exhibit a preferable TTC-dehydrogenase activity at low temperature (4-10 °C). Along the sharply fluctuant temperatures (25-4-25 °C), the screened psychrotrophs (compared with the indigenous mesophiles) demonstrate less fluctuations of COD removal and more rapid recovery after temperature shocks. COD removal of approximate 80% was recorded by single psychrotrophs (while only 10% by single mesophiles) at low temperature (4 °C). Soft polyurethane foam showed better performance for psychrotrophs immobilization, with the optimal filling rate of 30% (v/v) in the bioreactor. The observation shows that the immobilized psychrotrophs demonstrated a relatively high performance on both conventional and emerging organic contaminants removals at low temperature. In order to check the feasibility of the screened psychrotrophs in treating actual domestic wastewater, a pilot-scale ICABR bioreactor was operated firstly at low temperature (4 °C) and then at seasonal varying temperatures (0-30 °C) for one year, the influent COD of 150-600 mg L -1 was efficiently reduced to 40 ± 18 mg L -1 under the conditions of an overall hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Furthermore, psychrotrophs performed stably as the predominant bacteria family during the whole operation. This study provides evidence that microbial intensification with psychrotrophs was a feasible strategy to improve the efficiency of conventional wastewater treatment process at low temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: septic tank - upflow anaerobic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrubla, Juan Pablo; Cubillos, Janneth A.; Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés

    2016-01-01

    of use, consumption and presence of PPCPs in wastewater from a treatment plant in a rural area of Pereira (Colombia). Domestic sewage is treated in a septic tank followed by an Up-Flow Anaerobic Filter and its ef uent is discharged into the Otún River, upstream of the water intake of the supply system...

  16. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...

  17. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  18. POTENTIAL USE OF MICROBIAL ELECTROLYSIS CELLS (MECs IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS FOR ENERGY RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eEscapa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, large amounts of electrical energy are spent every year for domestic wastewater (dWW treatment. In the future, energy prices are expected to rise as the demand for energy resources increases and fossil fuel reserves become depleted. By using appropriate technologies, the potential chemical energy contained in the organic compounds present in dWWs might help to improve the energy and economic balance of dWW treatment plants. Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs in general and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs in particular represent an emerging technology capable of harvesting part of this energy. This study offers an overview of the potential of using MEC technology in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs to reduce the energy bill. It begins with a brief account of the basics of BESs, followed by an examination of how MECs can be integrated in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs, identifying scaling-up bottlenecks and estimating potential energy savings. A simplified analysis showed that the use of MEC technology may help to reduce up to ~20% the energy consumption in a conventional dWWTP. The study concludes with a discussion of the future perspectives of MEC technology for dWW treatment. The growing rates of municipal water and wastewater treatment markets in Europe offer excellent business prospects and it is expected that the first generation of MECs could be ready within 1-4 years. However, before MEC technology may achieve practical implementation in dWWTPs, it needs not only to overcome important techno-economic challenges, but also to compete with other energy-producing technologies.

  19. Development of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) for biological nitrogen removal in domestic wastewater treatment (Case study: Surabaya City, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. Made Wahyu; Soedjono, Eddy Setiadi; Fitriani, Nurina

    2017-11-01

    Domestic wastewater effluent is the main contributor to diverse water pollution problems. The contaminants contained in the wastewater lead the low quality of water. The presence of ammonium and nitrate along with phosphorus are potentially cause eutrophication and endanger aquatic life. Excess nutrients, mostly N and P is the main cause of eutrophication which is result in oxygen depletion, biodiversity reduction, fish kills, odor and increased toxicity. Most of the domestic wastewater in Surabaya City still contains nitrogen that exceeded the threshold. The range of ammonium and orthophosphate concentration in the domestic wastewater is between 6.29 mg/L - 38.91 mg/L and 0.44 mg/L - 1.86 mg/L, respectively. An advance biological nitrogen removal process called anammox is a sustainable and cost effective alternative to the basic method of nitrogen removal, such as nitrification and denitrification. Many research have been conducted through anammox and resulted promisingly way to remove nitrogen. In this process, ammonium will be oxidized with nitrite as an electron acceptor to produce nitrogen gas and low nitrate in anoxic condition. Anammox requires less oxygen demand, no needs external carbon source, and low operational cost. Based on its advantages, anammox is possible to apply in domestic wastewater treatment in Surabaya with many further studies.

  20. Treating domestic effluent wastewater treatment by aerobic biofilter with bioballs medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, R.; Rinanti, A.; Ratnaningsih, R.

    2018-01-01

    This laboratory scale research aimed to treat wastewater effluent with advanced treatment utilizing aerobic biofilter with bio-balls medium to obtain effluent quality in accordance with DKI Jakarta Governor Regulation No. 122 of 2005. The seeding and acclimatization were conducted in 4 weeks. The effluent were accommodated in a 150 L water barrel supported by a submersible pump. The effluent were treated in two boxes shaped reactors made of glasses with 36 L of each capacity. These reactors were equipped with aquarium aerators, sampling tap is 10 cm from the base of reactors, and bio-balls with 3 cm diameter are made of PVC. Reactors operated continuously with variations of retention time of 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, and 24 hours and also variations of Carbon: Nitrogen: Phosphor = C: N: P ratio were, 100:5:1, 100:8:1, 100:10:1, 100:12:1, 100:15:1. The results showed that the optimum variance of retention time was 24 hours and the ratio of C:N:P was 100:10:1 yielded the largest removal efficiency for 83,33% of COD, 87,33% of BOD, 82,5% of Ammonia, 79,1% of Nitrate, 92% of Nitrite, 84,82% of Oil and Grease. The concentration parameter resulted from outlet biofilter has met the domestic wastewater quality standard of DKI Jakarta.

  1. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  2. Sustainability study of domestic communal wastewater treatment plant in Surabaya City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, E.; Sudarno; Zaman, B.

    2017-06-01

    Sanitation is one of the critical infrastructure sectors in order to improve community health status. The Ministry of Public Works of the Republic of Indonesia to define that word sanitation include: domestic waste water management, solid waste management, rain water management (drainage management) as well as the provision of clean water. Surabaya city as the capital of East Java province and Indonesia’s second largest city with a population of 2,853,661 inhabitants in 2014 (the second largest after Jakarta), but the people who have been served by the sanitation infrastructure systems were expected at 176,105 families or about 26.95 % of the population of the city is already using sanitation facilities. In the White Book Sanitation of Surabaya City in 2010, Surabaya City sanitation development mission is to realize the wastewater management of settlements in a sustainable and affordable by the community. This study aims to assess the sustainability of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) domestic communal in the city of Surabaya. The method in this research is quantitative method through observation, structured interviews and laboratory testing of the variables analyzed. Analyses were performed using a technique Multidisciplinary rapid appraisal (Rap-fish) to determine the level of sustainability of the management of communal WWTP based on a number of attributes that easy scored. Attributes of each dimension includes the technical, environmental quality, institutional, economic, and social. The results of this study are sustainability index of environmental quality dimension at 84.32 with highly sustainable status, technical dimension at 62.61 with fairly sustainable status, social dimension at 57.98 with fairly sustainable status, economic dimension at 43.24 with less sustainable status, and institutional dimension at 39.67 with less sustainable status.

  3. Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2 and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains. The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent.

  4. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  5. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Shoener, B. D.; Bradley, I. M.; Cusick, R. D.; Guest, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy

  6. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a submerged aerobic biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F M; Povinelli, J; Pozzi, E; Vieira, E M; Trofino, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study used a pilot-scale submerged aerobic biofilter (SAB) to evaluate the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate that was pre-treated by air stripping. The leachate tested volumetric ratios were 0, 2, and 5%. At a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, the SAB was best operated with a volumetric ratio of 2% and removed 98% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 90% of the total suspended solids (TSS). A proposed method, which we called the "equivalent in humic acid" (Eq.HA) approach, indicated that the hardly biodegradable organic matter in leachate was removed by partial degradation (71% of DOC Eq.HA removal). Adding leachate at a volumetric ratio of 5%, the concentration of the hardly biodegradable organic matter was decreased primarily as a result of dilution rather than biodegradation, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was mostly removed (90%) by nitrification, and the SAB performances at the volumetric ratios of 0 and 2% were equal. For the three tested volumetric ratios of leachate (0, 2, and 5%), the concentrations of heavy metals in the treated samples were below the local limits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: septic tank - upflow anaerobic filter

    OpenAIRE

    Arrubla, Juan Pablo; Cubillos, Janneth A.; Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés; Arredondo, Jhon Alexander; Arias, Carlos A.; Paredes, Diego

    2016-01-01

    In several countries around the world, Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) exist in aquatic environments, a fact that increases the awareness within the scientific community with respect to their possible fate and environment effects. This research presents a preliminary monitoring of use, consumption and presence of PPCPs in wastewater from a treatment plant in a rural area of Pereira (Colombia). Domestic sewage is treated in a septic tank followed by an Up-Flow Anaerobic Filte...

  8. Electrochemical treatment of domestic wastewater using boron-doped diamond and nanostructured amorphous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghrir, Rimeh; Drogui, Patrick; Tshibangu, Joel; Delegan, Nazar; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-05-01

    The performance of the electrochemical oxidation process for efficient treatment of domestic wastewater loaded with organic matter was studied. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of producing an oxidant agent (H2O2) using amorphous carbon (or carbon felt) as cathode, whereas Ti/BDD electrode was used as anode. Relatively high concentrations of H2O2 (0.064 mM) was produced after 90 min of electrolysis time, at 4.0 A of current intensity and using amorphous carbon at the cathode. Factorial design and central composite design methodologies were successively used to define the optimal operating conditions to reach maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Current intensity and electrolysis time were found to influence the removal of COD and color. The contribution of current intensity on the removal of COD and color was around 59.1 and 58.8%, respectively, whereas the contribution of treatment time on the removal of COD and color was around 23.2 and 22.9%, respectively. The electrochemical treatment applied under 3.0 A of current intensity, during 120 min of electrolysis time and using Ti/BDD as anode, was found to be the optimal operating condition in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these optimal conditions, the average removal rates of COD and color were 78.9 ± 2 and 85.5 ± 2 %, whereas 70% of total organic carbon removal was achieved.

  9. Improving domestic wastewater treatment efficiency with constructed wetland microbial fuel cells: Influence of anode material and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Puigagut, Jaume

    2018-08-01

    For the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the operation of constructed wetlands as microbial fuel cells (CW-MFCs) for both the improvement of wastewater treatment efficiency and the production of energy. However, there is still scarce information on design and operation aspects to maximize CW-MFCs efficiency, especially for the treatment of real domestic wastewater. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of treatment efficiency improvement carried out by membrane-less MFCs simulating a core of a shallow un-planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. The influence of the external resistance (50, 220, 402, 604 and 1000Ω) and the anode material (graphite and gravel) on treatment efficiency improvement were addressed. To this purpose, 6 lab-scale membrane-less MFCs were set-up and loaded in batch mode with domestic wastewater for 13weeks. Results showed that 220Ω was the best operation condition for maximising MFCs treatment efficiency, regardless the anode material employed. Gravel-based anode MFCs operated at closed circuit showed ca. 18%, 15%, 31% and 25% lower effluent concentration than unconnected MFCs to the COD, TOC, PO 4 -3 and NH 4 + -N, respectively. Main conclusion of the present work is that constructed wetlands operated as MFCs is a promising strategy to improve domestic wastewater treatment efficiency. However, further studies at pilot scale under more realistic conditions (such as planted systems operated under continuous mode) shall be performed to confirm the findings here reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of oxygen transfer and nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, C; Yamamoto, K

    2005-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor developed for on-site domestic wastewater treatment was investigated. The bioreactor employed hollow fiber membrane modules for solid-liquid separation so that the biomass could be completely retained within the system. Intermittent aeration was supplied with 90 minutes on and off cycle to achieve nitrification and denitrification reaction for nitrogen removal. High COD and nitrogen removal of more than 90% were achieved under a moderate temperature of 25 degrees C. As the temperature was stepwise decreased from 25 to 5 degrees C, COD removal in the system could be constantly maintained while nitrogen removal was deteriorated. Nevertheless, increasing aeration supply could enhance nitrification at low temperature with benefit from complete retention of nitrifying bacteria within the system by membrane separation. At low operating temperature range of 5 degrees C, nitrogen removal could be recovered to more than 85%. A mathematical model considering diffusion resistance of limiting substrate into the bio-particle is applied to describe nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor. The simulation suggested that limitation of the oxygen supply was the major cause of inhibition of nitrification during temperature decrease. Nevertheless, increasing aeration could promote oxygen diffusion into the bio-particle. Sufficient oxygen was supplied to the nitrifying bacteria and the nitrification could proceed. In the membrane separation bioreactor, biomass concentration under low temperature operation was allowed to increase by 2-3 times of that of moderate temperature to compensate for the loss of bacterial activities so that the temperature effect was masked.

  11. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2005-01-01

    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  12. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Shoener, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m-3 of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m-3 of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13000 kJ m-3 (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and phototrophic

  13. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  14. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory. ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2016) > ... Domestic wastewater sludge is however highly variable in its composition, making laboratory experimentation difficult.

  16. [Study on subsurface wastewater infiltration system covered by different turfgrass for domestic sewage treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Cui, Jian-Yu; Lan, Yan; Zhao, Yang-Yang; Hu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Domestic sewage was treated with subsurface wastewater infiltration system covered by two different turfgrass, namely, Festuca arundinacea Schres. and Zoysia japonica Steud.. The result shows that all the different systems have good removal rates to COD. The concentration of COD decreased to less than 48 mg x L(-1) from 97-357 mg x L(-1) which achieve the second class criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard, and there are no prominent difference among different systems. The concentration of NH4(+) -N decreased to less than 0.5 mg x L(-1) from 76.3-125.8 mg x L(-1) which achieve the IV criteria (Groundwater Quality Standard, the effluent concentration of NH4(+) -N in naked system are prominently higher than that in system covered by Festuca arundinacea Schres., and there are no prominent difference compared with system covered by Zoysia japonica Steud.. The concentration of TP in different systems decreased to less than 0.05 mg x L(-1) from 3.70-18.42 mg x L(-1) which achieve the II criteria (rates of TN and nitrate were all not good enough, the probability which achieve the III criteria (Groundwater Quality Standard are less than one third, and the effluent concentration of TN and nitrate in naked system are prominently higher than that in systems covered by Festuca arundinacea Schres. and Zoysia japonica Steud..

  17. Treatment of food waste recycling wastewater using anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for biogas production in mainstream treatment process of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W; Park, Chanhyuk

    2017-10-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet ceramic membranes was operated at mesophilic conditions (30-35 °C) treating domestic wastewater (DWW) supplemented with food wasterecycling wastewater (FRW) to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) for better biogas production. Coupling ceramic membrane filtration with AnMBR treatment provides an alternative strategy for high organic wastewater treatment at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the potential benefits of membrane fouling because they have a high hydrophilicity and more robust at extreme conditions. The anaerobic ceramic MBR (AnCMBR) treating mixture of actual FRW with DWW (with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,115 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the treatment performance in terms of organic matter removal and methane production. COD removal during actual FRW with DWW operation averaged 98.3 ± 1.0% corresponding to an average methane production of 0.21 ± 0.1 L CH 4 /g COD removed . Biogas sparging, relaxation and permeate back-flushing were concurrently employed to manage membrane fouling. A flux greater than 9.2 L m -2  h -1 (LMH) was maintained at 13 h HRT for approximately 200 days without chemical cleaning at an OLR of 2.95 kg COD m -3  d -1 . On day 100, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads were added into the AnCMBR to alleviate the membrane fouling, suggesting that their mechanical scouring effect contributed positively in reducing the fouling index (FI). Although these bio-carriers might accelerate the breaking up of bio-flocs, which released a higher amount of soluble microbial products (SMP), a 95.4% SMP rejection was achieved. Although the retention efficiency of dissolved organic carbons (DOC) was 91.4% across the ceramic membrane, a meaningful interpretation of organic carbon detection (OCD) fingerprints was conducted to better understand the ceramic membrane performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  19. Treatment performance and microorganism community structure of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland plots for domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-qing; Chang, Jun-jun; Dai, Yanran; Wu, Zhen-bin; Liang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the treatment performance and microorganism mechanism of IVCW for domestic wastewater in central of China, two parallel pilot-scale IVCW systems were built to evaluate purification efficiencies, microbial community structure and enzyme activities. The results showed that mean removal efficiencies were 81.03 % for COD, 51.66 % for total nitrogen (TN), 42.50 % for NH4 (+)-N, and 68.01 % for TP. Significant positive correlations between nitrate reductase activities and TN and NH4 (+)-N removal efficiencies, along with a significant correlation between substrate enzyme activity and operation time, were observed. Redundancy analysis demonstrated gram-negative bacteria were mainly responsible for urease and phosphatase activities, and also played a major role in dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase activities. Meanwhile, anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and saturated FA groups, gram-positive bacteria exhibited good correlations with the removal of COD (p=0.388), N (p=0.236), and TP (p=0.074), respectively. The IVCW system can be used to treat domestic wastewater effectively.

  20. Bacteria in non-woven textile filters for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, Marcin; Starzyk, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary identification of heterotrophic and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) cell concentration in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for wastewater treatment. Filters of thicknesses 3.6 and 7.2 mm, made of non-woven textile TS20, were supplied with septic tank effluent and intermittently dosed and filtered under hydrostatic pressure. The cumulative loads of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids were about 1.36 and 1.06 kg/cm2, respectively. The filters under analysis reached a relatively high removal efficiency for organic pollution 70-90% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and 60-85% for COD. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency level proved to be unstable (15-55%). Biomass samples for dry mass identification were taken from two regions: continuously flooded with wastewater and intermittently flooded with wastewater. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria were determined as colony-forming units (CFUs) on microbiological-selective media by means of the plate method. AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were examined using the FISH technique. A relatively wide range of heterotrophic bacteria was observed from 7.4×10(5)/cm2 to 3.8×10(6)/cm2 in geotextile layers. The highest concentration of heterotrophic bacteria (3.8×10(6)/cm2) was observed in the first layer of the textile filter. AOB were identified occasionally--about 8-15% of all bacteria colonizing the last filter layer, but occasionally much higher concentrations and ammonia nitrogen efficiency were achieved. Bacteria oxidizing nitrite to nitrate were not observed. The relation of total and organic fraction of biomass to culturable heterotrophic bacteria was also found.

  1. Treatment of segregated black/grey domestic wastewater using constructed wetlands in the Mediterranean basin: the zer0-m experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, F; El Hamouri, B; Abdel Shafi, H; Baban, A; Ghrabi, A; Regelsberger, M

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about water shortage and pollution have received increased attention over the past few years, especially in developing countries with warm climate. In order to help local water management in these countries, the Euro-Mediterranean Regional Programme (MEDA) has financed the Zer0-m project (E-mail: www.zer0-m.org). As a part of this project, several constructed wetland (CW) pilot systems with different pre-treatments have been implemented in four Technological Demonstration Centres in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The aim of this research was to establish appropriate designs for treatment of segregated domestic black (BW) and grey water (GW). We tested several different multistage CW configurations, consisting of horizontal and vertical subsurface flow CW for secondary treatment and free water systems as tertiary stage. CW removal efficiencies of TSS, COD, BOD(5), N-NH(4)(+), N-NO(3)(-), N(tot), total coliforms (TC) were evaluated for each of the implemented systems. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of CWs as a suitable technology for treating segregated domestic wastewater. A very efficient COD reduction (up to 98%) and nitrification (92-99%) was achieved for BW and GW in all systems. CW effluent concentrations were below 15 mg/L for BOD(5), 1 mg/L for N-NO(3)(-) and 0.5 mg/L for N-NH(4)(+) together with acceptable TC counts. Based on these results, we suggest adopting the design parameters used in this study for the treatment of segregated wastewater in the Mediterranean area.

  2. Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Kolawole

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. Comparative studies using varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/v with alum and ferric chloride showed that the bark extract was effective in the clarification and sedimentation of total solids in the waste water sample. The optimum dose achieved was 2.5 % w/v with a minimum of 24 hours contact time. The total bacteria counts were reduced by 46 % after 24 hours when the extract was used whereas ferric chloride achieved 50 % reduction and alum achieved 55 % reduction under similar conditions. The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed.

  3. Sequential UASB and dual media packed-bed reactors for domestic wastewater treatment - experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Raúl; Renman, Gunno

    2016-01-01

    A wastewater treatment system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with Sorbulite(®) and Polonite(®) filter material was tested in a laboratory bench-scale experiment. The system was operated for 50 weeks and achieved very efficient total phosphorus (P) removal (99%), 7-day biochemical oxygen demand removal (99%) and pathogenic bacteria reduction (99%). However, total nitrogen was only moderately reduced in the system (40%). A model focusing on simulation of organic material, solids and size of granules was then implemented and validated for the UASB reactor. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results demonstrated the capacity of the model to predict the behaviour of solids and chemical oxygen demand, which is critical for successful P removal and recovery in the PBR.

  4. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  5. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses.

  6. Contribution of domestic wastewater to the total pollutant loading influent to a municipal wastewater treatment plant; Contribuciond e las aguas residuales domesticas a la carga total que accede a una EDAr municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Perez de Siles, L. A.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.; Gonzalez Jimenez, M. M.

    2004-07-01

    A study on the purely domestic wastewater from Cordoba city (Abril to july 2003) has found a pollutant loading very high on these domestic wastewaters, by showing mean values of suspended solid, BOD{sub 5} and COD equal to respectively 452 mg/l, 505 mg/1 and 793 mg/l. This pollutants power probably emanates from the products for domestic cleaning used in our homes and must be associated to chemicals as citrates, oxalates, surfactants, polialcohols, organics complexing, ammonium compounds..., which show high value of pollutant loading up to 200 mg/l of BOD{sub 5} per ml of product have been measured on a commercial domestic dishwasher, and 9.000 mg/l of DQO for a domestic smoothing. Furthermore, the increasing use of pre-cooked foods can add to domestic wastewater fats, oils, and flours which can also increase the BOD:5 and COD values of these effluents. On the other hand, the measured pollutant loading or domestic wastewater from monofamily homes has been lower than those from multifamily buildings. Finally, due to the fact that the Golondrina's WWTP (Cordoba, 1991) was designed for treat values of suspended solids, BOD, and COD lower than those actually detected, its treatment processes should be probably modified in a near future. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Cold climate performance analysis of on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Household on-site septic systems with secondary wastewater treatment in Anchorage, Alaska, were sampled and analyzed for performance parameters during the winter to spring months. System types included intermittent dosing sand filters (ISF), three types of recirculating trickling filters (RTF), and suspended-growth aeration tanks. Total nitrogen from the trickling filter and aeration tank effluent was fairly uniform, at approximately 30 mg/L. Total suspended solids (TSS) means were mostly less than 15 mg/L. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) showed considerable variability, with means ranging from 9.2 mg/ L for ISFs up to 39.5 mg/L for one type of RTF, even though this type has shown excellent results in several test programs. The data suggested that effluent temperature within the sample range had almost no effect on effluent concentrations of BOD5 or TSS and only a small effect on the removal of total nitrogen. Non-climatic factors were probably of equal importance to treatment results.

  8. Optimizing the operational conditions of a membrane bioreactor used for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Zuconi Viana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of a sidestream membrane module combined with an aeration system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. To investigate the membrane's behavior and to control fouling, trials in laboratory units were conducted. In these tests, optimal values were established for some operational parameters, such as crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure and air supply to continuously flush the membrane surface. Air supply improved the behavior of the permeate flux over time. After six hours operation, the stabilized flux was 35 L/m².h at a total pressure of 0.40 bar (wastewater pressure of 0.05 bar and air pressure of 0.35 bar and Reynolds Number of 4,600. All permeate samples analyzed indicated absence of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli.Biorreatores com membrana para retenção de sólidos consistem em processos biológicos acoplados a módulos de membranas de microfiltração ou ultrafiltração. O presente estudo avaliou o desempenho de um módulo de membranas, combinado a um sistema de aeração, para o tratamento de esgoto doméstico. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento das membranas e minimizar os efeitos do "fouling", foram realizados testes em unidades em escala de laboratório, nos quais foram estabelecidos valores ótimos para alguns parâmetros operacionais, como velocidade tangencial no módulo, pressão transmembrana e vazão de ar inserida na linha de alimentação do módulo. Com a inserção de ar foi possível controlar melhor o comportamento do fluxo permeado ao longo do tempo. Após seis horas de operação, o fluxo se manteve em torno de 35 L/m².h para uma pressão total de 0,40 bar (pressão gerada pelo esgoto de 0,05bar e pelo ar de 0,35 bar e Reynolds de 4.600. Todas as análises das amostras do permeado indicaram ausência de coliformes termotolerantes e Escherichia coli.

  9. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.-J.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1 ± 43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6 ± 15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD 5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application

  10. The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; Burke, P; Rodgers, M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of intermittently loaded, 150 mm-diameter stratified filter columns of 2 depths (0.65 and 0.375 m) comprising different media--sand, crushed glass and soil--in polishing the effluent from a laboratory horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) treating synthetic domestic-strength wastewater. The HFBR has been successfully used to remove organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from domestic wastewater. In this treatment method, wastewater is allowed to flow over and back along a stack of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. Biofilms on the sheets reduce organic carbon, suspended matter, and nutrients in the wastewater, but to achieve the quality of a septic tank system, additional treatment is required. In all filters, at a hydraulic loading rate of 100 L m(-2) d(-1), 40-65% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and practically 100% of total suspended solids (TSS) were removed, nitrification was complete, and bacterial numbers were reduced by over 80%, with best removals achieved in the soil filters (93%). Soil polishing filters with the depth of 0.65 m performed best in terms of organic carbon, total nitrogen (Tot-N) and bacterial removal. Data from this preliminary study are useful in the design of treatment systems to polish secondary wastewaters with similar water quality characteristics.

  11. Physiochemicals and Heavy Metal Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Phycoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Razak Abdul Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common sources of water pollution in Malaysia are domestic sewage and industrial waste. Therefore, domestic wastewater quality effluent should be improved before discharged through the outlets. The alternative method of treatment uses microalgae for water remediation which is known as phycoremediation was applied. This technique is to remove or reduce nutrients and harmful pollutants in domestic wastewater. Thus, objective of the present study is to bioremediate the physiochemical and heavy metal from domestic wastewater using freshwater green microalgae Botryococcus sp. A photobioreactor is used to treat the wastewater by employing the microalgae Botryococcus sp. as a vital part of the treatment system. The results show that several nutrients have been reduced successfully such as phosphate and total phosphorus of 100% removal, inorganic carbon of 99% removal, total carbon of 42% removal, and nitrate of 10%. The most prominent heavy metal content that has been removed is Aluminium of 41%. At the same time, the growth of microalgae Botryococcus sp. in this wastewater has achieved the maximum value at Day 4 with 2.58 × 105 cell/ml only. These results show the potential of Botryococcus sp. cultivation as an alternative method to treat domestic wastewater and any other biotechnology works in the future.

  12. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value.

  13. THE EFFECT OF INFLUENT CONCENTRATION AND HYDRAULIC LOADING RATE (HLR TO BOD AND COD REMOVAL ON ARTIFICIAL DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT (GREY WATER USING UASB REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor is one of anaerobic biological treatment was develop in late 1970’s. UASB reactor is suitable for the tropic areas because it has a high temperature about 20°-30°C. Domestic wastewater is divided into two types, namely black water and grey water. But in this case used domestic grey water. Grey water is household wastewater from showers, sinks and kitchen. Grey water has a total 75% of the domestic wastewater volume. The research was conducted in laboratory scale. This study performed a variation of Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR and the influent concentration. There were 25 reactors include 5 variations of influent concentration and 5 Hydraulic Loading Rate’s (HLR variation. The research could asses BOD5 and COD removal with treatment in UASB. Efficiency of BOD5 removal by varying the influent concentration and HLR was about 38%-75% and COD was about 40%-77%. The lower concentration could be increase efficiency BOD5 and COD removal. Influent concentration optimum occurred when middle concentration was about 840 mg/L COD and HLR optimum was 0,05 m3/m2/hour.

  14. Domestic wastewater anaerobic treatment I : Performance of one-step UASB and HUSB reactors; Tratamiento anaerobio de aguas residuales urbanas I : Aplicacion de reactores UASB y HUSB de etapa unica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Rodriguez, J. A.; Gomez Lopez, M.; Soto Castineira, M.

    2005-07-01

    Domestic wastewater treatment was carried out on a pilot scale anaerobic digester, with an active volume of 25.5 m''3. The digester operated at different conditions: (a) as an UASB reactor (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket), with the aim of reaching a complete anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater, and (b) as a HUSB (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket) reactor, working in this case as a wastewater pre-treatment that removes suspended solid matter and increase the effluent biodegradability. The advantages of these treatment systems are its economic feasibility, no energy consumption and low excess sludge generation. (Author) 17 refs.

  15. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  16. Efficacy of a national hydrological risk communication strategy: Domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Paul; Naughton, Owen; O'Neill, Eoin; Mooney, Simon

    2018-03-01

    A significant body of research has focused on the role of domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTSs) as sources of human-specific aquatic contaminants in both developed and developing regions. However, to date few studies have sought to investigate the awareness, attitudes and behaviours of DWWTS owners and the efficacy of associated communication initiatives. The current study provides an examination of a public national engagement campaign undertaken in the Republic of Ireland which seeks to minimise the impact of DWWTSs on human and ecological health via concurrent inspection and information dissemination. Overall, 1634 respondents were surveyed using a "before and after" study design to capture if and how awareness, attitudes and behaviours evolved over time. Findings suggest that whilst the campaign provided a modest baseline to raise general awareness associated with the basic operational and maintenance requirements of DWWTS, there has been little or no behavioural engagement as a result, suggesting a significant awareness-behaviour gap. Accordingly, efforts to minimise potential human and ecological impacts have been unsuccessful. Moreover, results suggest that public attitudes towards water-related regulation and policy became increasingly negative over the study period due to parallel political and economic issues, further complicating future engagement. Future strategies, both in Ireland and further afield, should focus on health-based demographically-focused message framing to achieve significant knowledge and attitudinal shifts amongst specific population cohorts, and thus bring about significant behavioural change. Study findings and recommendations may be used by myriad stakeholders including local, provincial and national authorities to effectively engage with individuals and communities prior to and during implementation of legislative and policy-based instruments within numerous spheres including climate change adaptation, environmental

  17. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  18. Hydrolysis rates of domestic wastewater sludge using biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic wastewater treatment can be improved by reducing energy consumption and increasing carbon recovery, which can be achieved using anaerobic digestion of sludge with methane recovery at ambient temperature. Hydrolysis can be a limiting step in anaerobic digestion, and characterisation of hydrolysis rates ...

  19. Evaluation of the process performance of a down-flow hanging sponge reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuma; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Banjongproo, Pathan; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Onodera, Takashi; Okadera, Tomohiro; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2017-08-24

    This study assesses the performance of an aerobic trickling filter, down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology. Also, the characteristic eukaryotic community structure in DHS reactor was investigated. Long-term operation of a DHS reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater (COD = 150-170 mg/L and BOD = 60-90 mg/L) was performed under the average ambient temperature ranged from 28°C to 31°C in Bangkok, Thailand. Throughout the evaluation period of 550 days, the DHS reactor at a hydraulic retention time of 3 h showed better performance than the existing oxidation ditch process in the removal of organic carbon (COD removal rate = 80-83% and BOD removal rate = 91%), nitrogen compounds (total nitrogen removal rate = 45-51% and NH 4 + -N removal rate = 95-98%), and low excess sludge production (0.04 gTS/gCOD removed). The clone library based on the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence revealed that phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA gene in the DHS reactor was higher than that of the present oxidation ditch process. Furthermore, the DHS reactor also demonstrated sufficient COD and NH 4 + -N removal efficiency under flow rate fluctuation conditions that simulates a small-scale treatment facility. The results show that a DHS reactor could be applied as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology in tropical regions such as Bangkok, Thailand.

  20. Nitrogen Removal in a Full-Scale Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant with Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Nourmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple.

  1. A two-stage microbial fuel cell and anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) system for effective domestic wastewater treatment.

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m(2)/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m(3), which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m(3)). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m(3)). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements.

  2. A two-stage microbial fuel cell and anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) system for effective domestic wastewater treatment.

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2014-03-10

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m(2)/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m(3), which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m(3)). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m(3)). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements.

  3. Electron beam application for studies carried out with real domestic sewage from Sao Paulo wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, S.I.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Duarte, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    The incompatibility between industrial development and clean environment requires intensive search for waste mitigation technology. Since the aquatic resources have been the most impacted from the environments, improvements on wastewater treatment technologies have been considered. The Nuclear Research Institute has dedicated attention to this problem since 1990. According to the Governmental Sewage Company, SABESP, Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, RMSP, is treating 18 cubic meters of sewage per second at five stations. The throughput of each station is: ETE Barueri - 9.5 m 3 /s; ETE ABC - 3.0 m 3 /s; ETE Sao Miguel - 1.5 m 3 /s; ETE Parque Novo Mundo - 2.5 m 3 /s and ETE Suzano - 1.5 m 3 /s. Real effluents from the municipalities have been submitted to electron beam accelerator for different purposes, and using batch system. The samplings were composite and the wastewater were irradiated at Pyrex vessels, 246 mL per sample. The radiation doses were defined by current variation and the energy was fixed in 1.4MeV. The conveyor velocity was 6,72 m/min. A Dynamitron EBA, 37,5kW was the electron source

  4. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  5. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: Septic tank – up flow anaerobic filter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arrubla Vélez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In several countries around the world, Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs exist in aquatic environments, a fact that increases the awareness within the scientific community with respect to their possible fate and environment effects. This research presents a preliminary monitoring of use, consumption and presence of PPCPs in wastewater from a treatment plant in a rural area of Pereira (Colombia. Domestic sewage is treated in a septic tank followed by an Up-Flow Anaerobic Filter and its effluent is discharged into the Otún River, upstream of the water intake of the supply system of the city. The compounds monitored in this research included ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, aspirin, ketoprofen, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide and dihydrojasmonate. An adapted method of multi-residue analysis was used, which is based on solid phase extraction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The removal efficiencies demonstrated that the treatment plant could eliminate less than 50% of dihydrojasmonate, diclofenac and galaxolide existing in wastewater; concentration of aspirin, naproxen and tonalide could only be reduced in 15%; and caffeine, ibuprofen and ketoprofen were not removed. Results provided basic information to decide over the necessity of complementary treatments for effluents from systems with the mentioned units.

  6. Application of subsurface wastewater infiltration system to on-site treatment of domestic sewage under high hydraulic loading rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the hydraulic loading rate (HLR of a subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS used in treating domestic sewage, the intermittent operation mode was employed in the SWIS. The results show that the intermittent operation mode contributes to the improvement of the HLR and the pollutant removal rate. When the wetting-drying ratio (RWD was 1.0, the pollutant removal rate increased by (13.6 ± 0.3% for NH3-N, (20.7 ± 1.1% for TN, (18.6 ± 0.4% for TP, (12.2 ± 0.5% for BOD, (10.1 ± 0.3% for COD, and (36.2 ± 1.2% for SS, compared with pollutant removal rates under the continuous operation mode. The pollutant removal rate declined with the increase of the HLR. The effluent quality met The Reuse of Urban Recycling Water – Water Quality Standard for Scenic Environment Use (GB/T 18921-2002 even when the HLR was as high as 10 cm/d. Hydraulic conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP, the quantity of nitrifying bacteria, and the pollutant removal rate of NH3-N increased with the decrease of the RWD. For the pollutant removal rates of TP, BOD, and COD, there were no significant difference (p < 0.05 under different RWDs. The suggested RWD was 1.0. Relative contribution of the pretreatment and SWIS to the pollutant removal was examined, and more than 80% removal of NH3-N, TN, TP, COD, and BOD occurred in the SWIS.

  7. Domestic wastewater treated for agricultural reuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    Four post-treatment systems of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were ... efficiency in organic matter removal, exception made for polishing ponds (PP) (155 mg.L-1) due ... ption and the domestic sewage discharge into water.

  8. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  9. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulic loading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.; Brix, H.; Kalogerakis, N.; Manios, T.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a free water surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor (RBC), and (d) a packed bed filter (PBF). All units operated in parallel at various hydraulic loading rates (HLR) ranging from 50% to 175% of designed operating HLR. The study was conducted during an 8 month period and showed that COD removal efficiency of HSF was comparable (> 75%) to that of RBC and PBF, whereas that of the FWS system was only 57%. Average nutrient removal efficiencies for FWS, HSF, RBC and PBF were 6%, 21%, 40% and 43%, respectively for total nitrogen and 21%, 39%, 41% and 42%, respectively for total phosphorus. Removals of total coliforms were lowest in FWS and PBF (1.3 log units) and higher in HSF and RBC (2.3 to 2.6 log units). HSF showed slightly lower but comparable effluent quality to that of RBC and PBF systems, but the construction cost and energy requirements for this system are significantly lower. Overall the final decision for the best non-conventional wastewater treatment system depends on the construction and operation cost, the area demand and the required quality of effluent

  10. Coagulation increased the growth potential of various species bacteria of the effluent of a MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Li, Guoqiang; Lin, Wenqi; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Microbial regrowth in reclaimed water is an important issue restricting water reclamation and reuse. Previous studies about the effect of coagulation on microbial growth in reclaimed water were limited and inconsistent. In this study, microbial growth potentials of the effluent of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of domestic wastewater after coagulation was evaluated by using bacteria of various phyla, classes (α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteriaa) or species isolated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test strains. Bacterial growth increased considerably after coagulation with polyaluminum for the samples investigated in this study. The results revealed that the microbial growth potentials in the effluent of the MBR evidently increased after coagulation. The increase ratio of bacterial growth could reach up to 929 %. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) of the samples averagely decreased 16.3 %, but the removal efficiencies of the excitation emission matrices (EEMs) were less than 5 % after coagulation. It is suggested that the organic matter which affected the bacterial growth might be substances having aromaticity (i.e., UV 254 absorbance) but little fluorescence. According to molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis, the coagulation was indeed effective in removing organic matters with large MW. The removal of large MW organic matters might be related to bacterial growth increase. The results indicated that posttreatments are needed after coagulation to maintain the biological stability of reclaimed water.

  11. Comparison of filtration and treatment performance between polymeric and ceramic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Yeongmi

    2018-02-28

    The feasibility of an anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR) was investigated by comparison with a conventional anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). With regard to treatment performance, the AnCMBR achieved higher organic removal rates than the AnMBR because the ceramic membranes retained a high concentration of biomass in the reactor. Despite a high mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration, the AnCMBR exhibited lower membrane fouling. To elucidate effects of sludge properties on membrane fouling in the AnCMBR and AnMBR, soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were analyzed. The SMP and EPS concentrations in the AnCMBR were higher than in the AnMBR. This may be because some suspended solids bio-degraded and likely released protein-like SMPs in the AnCMBR. Hydrophobicity and surface charges were analyzed; the sludge in the AnCMBR was found to be more hydrophobic and less negative than in the AnMBR because protein was abundant in the AnCMBR. Despite the adverse properties of the sludge in the AnCMBR, it showed more stable filtration performance than the AnMBR. This is because the alumina-based ceramic membrane had a superhydrophilic surface and could thus mitigate membrane fouling by hydrophilic-hydrophobic repulsion. The findings from this study have significant implications for extending the application of AnCMBRs to, for example, treatment of high-strength organic waste such as food waste or livestock manure.

  12. Comparison of filtration and treatment performance between polymeric and ceramic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Kim, Youngjin; Jin, Yongxun; Hong, Seungkwan; Park, Chanhyuk

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of an anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR) was investigated by comparison with a conventional anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). With regard to treatment performance, the AnCMBR achieved higher organic removal rates than the AnMBR because the ceramic membranes retained a high concentration of biomass in the reactor. Despite a high mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration, the AnCMBR exhibited lower membrane fouling. To elucidate effects of sludge properties on membrane fouling in the AnCMBR and AnMBR, soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were analyzed. The SMP and EPS concentrations in the AnCMBR were higher than in the AnMBR. This may be because some suspended solids bio-degraded and likely released protein-like SMPs in the AnCMBR. Hydrophobicity and surface charges were analyzed; the sludge in the AnCMBR was found to be more hydrophobic and less negative than in the AnMBR because protein was abundant in the AnCMBR. Despite the adverse properties of the sludge in the AnCMBR, it showed more stable filtration performance than the AnMBR. This is because the alumina-based ceramic membrane had a superhydrophilic surface and could thus mitigate membrane fouling by hydrophilic-hydrophobic repulsion. The findings from this study have significant implications for extending the application of AnCMBRs to, for example, treatment of high-strength organic waste such as food waste or livestock manure.

  13. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  15. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  16. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  17. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  18. Comparing Nutrient Removal from Membrane Filtered and Unfiltered Domestic Wastewater Using Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhead, Elyssia; Llewellyn, Carole A.; Fuentes-Grünewald, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH4-N) and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO4-P) occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C. vulgaris by removing bacteria, protozoa, colloidal particles and suspended solids, thereby improving light availability for photosynthesis. The results of this study suggest that growing C. vulgaris in nutrient rich membrane filtered wastewater provides an option for domestic wastewater treatment to improve the quality of the final effluent. PMID:29351200

  19. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in south China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.; Liu, Y.; Brink, van den P.J.; Price, O.R.; Ying, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs,

  20. Improving the energy efficiency of a pilot-scale UASB-digester for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Shengnan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shengle; Zeeman, Grietje; Rijnaarts, Huub; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    A pilot-scale UASB-Settler-Digester (USD) system was utilized to treat raw municipal wastewater collected from a sewer system at 10 °C. During the reactor operation, UASB sludge was continuously transferred from the UASB to a settler; concentrated sludge in the settler was then transferred to a

  1. Kinetic rates and mass balance of COD, TKN, and TP using SBR treating domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warodomrungsimun, Chaowalit; Fongsatitkul, Prayoon

    2009-12-01

    To assess the performance of SBR to treat three different types of wastewater from domestic, hospital, slaughterhouse and investigate the kinetic rates of active biomass. Mass balance calculation of COD, TKN and TP was further performed to explain the mechanisms of the biological nutrient removals processed in the SBR system. The measured kinetic rates were in turn used to evaluate the process performances under different types of wastewater. Experimental research involving 3 similar SBR lab-scales were installed and operated at the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory. The reactors were seeded with sludge biomass obtained from the Sri-Phraya Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bangkok. The slaughterhouse, hospital and domestic wastewaters were treated by SBR system for biological organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus removals. Biological methods for kinetic rates evaluation were conducted in five replicated batch tests. The removal efficiencies of COD and TKN were greater than 90% for all three types of wastewater while the biological phosphorus removal for domestic and hospital wastewaters were less than 60% and phosphorus removal for slaughterhouse exceeded 95%. The kinetic rates of nitrification and denitrification of hospital wastewater was lower than those the domestic and slaughterhouse wastewaters. Phosphorus release and uptake rates of slaughterhouse wastewater were high but domestic and hospital wastewaters were very low. The result of system removal efficiency and batch test for kinetic rates confirmed that the domestic and hospital wastewaters were in deficiency of organic carbon with respect to its ability to support successful biological phosphorus removal.

  2. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  3. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  4. Domestic wastewater treatment and power generation in continuous flow air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cell: Effect of series and parallel configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson Baltazar; Hernández-Romano, Jesús; García-Sánchez, Liliana; Guillén Garcés, Rosa Angélica; Bahena-Bahena, Erick Obed; Guadarrama-Pérez, Oscar; Moeller Chavez, Gabriela Eleonora

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a continuous flow stack consisting of 40 individual air-cathode MFC units was used to determine the performance of stacked MFC during domestic wastewater treatment operated with unconnected individual MFC and in series and parallel configuration. The voltages obtained from individual MFC units were of 0.08-1.1 V at open circuit voltage, while in series connection, the maximum power and current density were 2500 mW/m 2 and 500 mA/m 2 (4.9 V), respectively. In parallel connection, the maximum power and current density was 5.8 mW/m 2 and 24 mA/m 2 , respectively. When the cells were not connected to each other MFC unit, the main bacterial species found in the anode biofilms were Bacillus and Lysinibacillus. After switching from unconnected to series and parallel connections, the most abundant species in the stacked MFC were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by different Bacilli classes. This study demonstrated that when the stacked MFC was switched from unconnected to series and parallel connections, the pollutants removal, performance electricity and microbial community changed significantly. Voltages drops were observed in the stacked MFC, which was mainly limited by the cathodes. These voltages loss indicated high resistances within the stacked MFC, generating a parasitic cross current. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  6. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  7. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  8. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  9. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  10. Drivers and barriers among householders to managing domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland; implications for risk prevention behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Waldron, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Septic systems that are malfunctioning, improperly sited or designed, present a contamination risk to drinking water sources, and subsequently, to human health. However, the international literature identifies gaps in householder knowledge regarding the function and maintenance requirements of septic systems, and also the potential health and environmental risk implications. Allied with householder fears related to the financial cost of risk management, these factors tend to reduce concern to recognise a malfunctioning system. In the Republic of Ireland, three-quarters of households in rural areas utilise an individual domestic wastewater treatment system (or septic system). Consequently, a significant portion of rural households that rely on groundwater sources via private-well use are at risk. Ireland reports one of the highest crude incidence rates of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in the European Union, and waterborne transmission related to contact with untreated or poorly treated water from private water sources is a factor in its transmission. Following recent Irish legislative change that places a duty of care on individual householders to ensure a proper system functioning, this exploratory study examines perceptions towards the risk management of septic systems among Irish householders. Using qualitative research methods, four focus groups selected on the basis of geographical variation, and two semi-structured interviews were conducted. While most householders agreed that poorly maintained septic systems represented a threat to the environment and to public health, none reported to having a regular maintenance routine in place. Thematic analysis revealed the drivers and barriers to septic system maintenance, and preferences of householders pertaining to communication on septic systems. The Health Belief Model is employed to help understand results. Results suggest that householder capacity to engage in regular risk management is reduced

  11. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water.

  12. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  13. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  14. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas

  15. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  16. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  18. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  19. Heat from domestic and industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasharov, S.

    2006-01-01

    More than 40% of the energy produced in the world is utilized by the building sector - mainly for heating of buildings and water. Different methods are used for the reduction of this energy - new thermo-isolating materials in the new building process, treating of the already existing buildings with thermo-isolating coverings, new aluminium and PVC frames for the windows, application of different solar equipment. At the same time the energy necessary for the heating of water for domestic usage increases permanently. Besides, the need for hot water is constant - every day, all the years. Here the possibilities for saving energy are more limited - limitation of the quantities of consumed hot water (but the statistics show just the opposite tendency), or recycling of the residual heat that is contained in the sewerage hot water, domestic and industrial. This solution is possible and technologically feasible through the usage of thermo-exchanging devices and thermo-pumps, and a process in which only the heat / thermal energy / of the sewerage water is accumulated, and then returned to the equipment for heating water. The heating module could be repaid for a period of 3.5 - 4 years as a result of the savings of thermal energy, which is economically very advantageous. And last but not least, the process has favourable ecological effect, following the world's latest tendencies. (author)

  20. Comparison between a conventional membrane bioreactor (C-MBR and a biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Subtil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of biofilm carriers in a MBR on the performance of organic matter and nitrogen removal and the influence on membrane fouling were evaluated. The configurations studied included a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (C-MBR and a Biofilm Membrane Bioreactor (BF-MBR operated in parallel, both fed with domestic wastewater. Regarding organic matter removal, no statistically significant differences were observed between C-MBR and BF-MBR, producing an effluent with a Soluble COD concentration of 27 ± 9.0 mgO2/L and 26 ±1.0 mgO2/L and BOD concentration of 6.0 ± 2.5 mgO2/L and 6.2 ± 2.1 mgO2/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BF-MBR produced a permeate with lower ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations, which resulted in a removal efficiency of 98% and 73%, respectively. It was also observed that the fouling rate was about 35% higher in the C-MBR than that for the BF-MBR, which also presented a reduction of total membrane resistance, about 29%, and increased operational cycle length around 7 days, compared to C-MBR.

  1. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.

    2012-06-04

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  2. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.; Imam, E.; Nassar, K.

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  3. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirisa, Innocent; Bandauko, Elmond; Matamanda, Abraham; Mandisvika, Gladys

    2017-06-01

    Until recently there has been little, if any, concern over revamping let alone improving wastewater management system in Zimbabwe's urban areas given the dominance and institutionalised water-borne system. Yet, the current constraints in this system and the immensity of urbanisation in the country begs and compels planners, engineers and systems thinkers to rethink what best can work as a sustainable wastewater system. With particular reference to the ever-expanding Harare metropolitan region, this article provides an evaluative analysis on the potentiality, risks and strategies that can be adopted by Harare and its satellites in addressing the problems of the conventional wastewater management system. The suggested framework of operation is a decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system which however has its own multifarious risks. Using systems dynamics conceptualisation of the potentiality, opportunities, risks and strategies, the paper seeks to model the path and outcomes of this decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system and also suggests a number of policy measures and strategies that the city of Harare and its satellites can adopt.

  4. Appropriate technology for domestic wastewater management in under-resourced regions of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladoja, Nurudeen Abiola

    2017-11-01

    Centralized wastewater management system is the modern day waste management practice, but the high cost and stringent requirements for the construction and operation have made it less attractive in the under-resourced regions of the world. Considering these challenges, the use of decentralized wastewater management system, on-site treatment system, as an appropriate technology for domestic wastewater treatment is hereby advocated. Adopting this technology helps save money, protects home owners' investment, promotes better watershed management, offers an appropriate solution for low-density communities, provides suitable alternatives for varying site conditions and furnishes effective solutions for ecologically sensitive areas. In the light of this, an overview of the on-site treatment scheme, at the laboratory scale, pilot study stage, and field trials was conducted to highlight the operational principles' strength and shortcomings of the scheme. The operational requirements for the establishing and operation of the scheme and best management practice to enhance the performance and sustenance were proffered.

  5. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organisms: These are small plants as well as animals and they are some of the most difficult ... It is measured by the oxygen consumption of a pre-inoculated sample at 20-250C in .... Organic wastewater components may be oxidised all the way to CO2.

  6. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively.

  7. Nitrification of industrial and domestic saline wastewaters in moving bed biofilm reactor and sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, Joao P.; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification of saline wastewaters was investigated in bench-scale moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). Wastewater from a chemical industry and domestic sewage, both treated by the activated sludge process, were fed to moving-bed reactors. The industrial wastewater contained 8000 mg Cl - /L and the salinity of the treated sewage was gradually increased until that level. Residual substances present in the treated industrial wastewater had a strong inhibitory effect on the nitrification process. Assays to determine inhibitory effects were performed with the industrial wastewater, which was submitted to ozonation and carbon adsorption pretreatments. The latter treatment was effective for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and improved nitrification efficiency. Nitrification percentage of the treated domestic sewage was higher than 90% for all tested chloride concentrations up to 8000 mg/L. Results obtained in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were consistent with those attained in the MBBR systems, allowing tertiary nitrification and providing adequate conditions for adaptation of nitrifying microorganisms even under stressing and inhibitory conditions.

  8. Experimentation on the anaerobic filter reactor for biogas production using rural domestic wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leju Celestino Ladu, John; Lü, Xi-wu; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The biogas production from anaerobic filter (AF) reactor was experimented in Taihu Lake Environmental Engineering Research Center of Southeast University, Wuxi, China. Two rounds of experimental operations were conducted in a laboratory scale at different Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and wastewater temperature. The biogas production rate during the experimentation was in the range of 4.63 to 11.78 L/d. In the first experimentation, the average gas production rate was 10.08 L/d, and in the second experimentation, the average gas production rate was 4.97 L/d. The experimentation observed the favorable Hydraulic Retention Time and wastewater temperature in AF was three days and 30.95°C which produced the gas concentration of 11.78 L/d. The HRT and wastewater temperature affected the efficiency of the AF process on the organic matter removal and nutrients removal as well. It can be deduced from the obtained results that HRT and wastewater temperature directly affects the efficiency of the AF reactor in biogas production. In conclusion, anaerobic filter treatment of organic matter substrates from the rural domestic wastewater increases the efficiency of the AF reactor on biogas production and gives a number of benefits for the management of organic wastes as well as reduction in water pollution. Hence, the operation of the AF reactor in rural domestic wastewater treatment can play an important element for corporate economy of the biogas plant, socio-economic aspects and in the development of effective and feasible concepts for wastewater management, especially for people in rural low-income areas.

  9. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  10. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  11. Impacts on sewer performance due to changes to inputs in domestic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of changes in domestic wastewater inputs on sewer performance have been debated since the dawn of the great sewer construction movement in the 1850s. Nowadays, typical household wastewater that enters sewers can generally be divided into streams from the WC, shower and/or bathtub, kitchen sink, washing machine and dishwasher. Changes in thecomposition of domestic wastewater entering a sewer will depend on inter alia the properties of the appliances used in the households and house...

  12. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  13. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  14. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Chemical Engineering in UDCT and works ... tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is ... temperature causes the organic molecule to undergo oxidative degradation. ... When ultrasound is applied to effluent, water undergoes ther-.

  15. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  16. Platforms for energy and nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Hülsen, T; Mehta, C M; Keller, J

    2015-12-01

    Alternative domestic wastewater treatment processes that recover energy and nutrients while achieving acceptable nutrient limits (650mgCODL(-1). PRR offers the possibility for recovery of nitrogen and other nutrients (including potassium) through assimilative recovery. However, the energetic overhead of this is substantial, requiring 5kWhkgN(-1) as electricity, which compares to ammonia fixation costs. The lower energy costs, and near to market status of LEM treatment make it likely as a recovery platform in the shorter term, while ability to recover other elements such as nitrogen and potassium, as well as enhance favourability on concentrated wastewaters may enhance the desirability of partitioning in the longer term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of electron beam to industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Boo, J.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.; Chung, W.; Choi, J.S.; Kang, H.J.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with EB irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an EB pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has been constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  18. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. PMID:27699202

  19. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaider, Laurel A., E-mail: schaider@silentspring.org; Ackerman, Janet M.; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2016-03-15

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study. - Highlights: • We tested 20 domestic drinking water wells for 117 organic wastewater compounds. • PFASs, pharmaceuticals, and an artificial sweetener were most frequently detected. • Nitrate, boron, and well depth were all correlated with PFASs and pharmaceuticals. • Acesulfame

  20. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaider, Laurel A.; Ackerman, Janet M.; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1 mg/L NO_3-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study. - Highlights: • We tested 20 domestic drinking water wells for 117 organic wastewater compounds. • PFASs, pharmaceuticals, and an artificial sweetener were most frequently detected. • Nitrate, boron, and well depth were all correlated with PFASs and pharmaceuticals. • Acesulfame (artificial

  1. Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusa-Idaman-Said

    2000-01-01

    Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

  2. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  3. Alternative Wastewater Treatment: On-Site Bio-treatment Wetlands at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, J.; Glassmeyer, C.; Sauer, N.; Powell, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a constructed on-site bio-treatment wetland at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center. The use of constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewater at the Fernald Preserve contributed to the award of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design platinum certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. (authors)

  4. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A M; Ataullah,; Shaheen, A; Ahmad, I; Malik, F; Shahid, H A [Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, University Road, Karachi-75300 (Pakistan). Research Laboratory of Bioenergy, Department of Chemistry

    2011-04-15

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  5. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Ataullah; Shaheen, A.; Ahmad, I.; Malik, F.; Shahid, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  6. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  7. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  9. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25�1�C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  10. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 251C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  11. Soil and minespoil fill as media for renovation of nitrogen and phosphorus in domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Reneau, R.B. Jr.; Hagedorn, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of US Appalachian coal mining regions has been hampered by lack of domestic waste disposal technologies suited to fills. The suitability of on-site wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSWTDS) in fill material is uncertain due to the effects of surface mining on soil physical properties. This research evaluated the potential for renovation of N and P present in domestic wastewater by fills from mining operations. N and P were chosen because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. Soil-fill (a mixture of Jefferson, fine-loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapludult and Muskingom, fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept soils) and minespoil (spoil)-fill (blasted rock material associated with the Taggart Marker and Low Splint Bench coal seams of the Upper Middle Wise Formation) were used. Septic tank effluent (STE) and sand filter effluent (SFE) were applied to spoil-fill columns at four loading rates and spoil-fill columns at one loading rate for a period of 20 wk. Renovation of wastewater was assessed by determining the concentration of N and P present in column leachate. Reduction of inorganic N(NO 3 - + NH 4 + ), based on N/Cl ratios ranged from 14.9 to 32.1% after the varying application rates of STE and SFE passed through the soil columns. However, leachate NO 3 - -N concentrations were still above the 10 mg -1 drinking water standard. The quantity of P emerging from the spoil-fill columns (3.0 mg PL -1 ) was higher than anticipated and may be related to the indigenous P present in the minespoil. Sorption of P in the spoil-fill column decreased with increased STE and SFE application (reduction ranged from 99.1 to 74.4%). Results from this study indicate that there is potential for renovating wastewater in OSWTDS in selected soil-fill areas in reclaimed minelands. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Constructed wetland: an alternative for wastewater treatment; Humedales construidos: una alternativa a considerar para el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza de los Reyes del Rio, C.; Vidal Saez, G.

    2007-07-01

    Research and trends dealing with sewage and industrial wastewaters treated by constructed wetlands are shown in this paper. Plant and constructed wetlands configurations are also described. Sewage domestic wastewaters from individual houses or villages have used constructed wetlands as wastewater treatment. On the other hand, constructed wetlands as finally treatment working together with conventional technologies could be a good alternative for improving the treated quality wastewater. (Author) 56 refs.

  13. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Coles, C.A.; Asapo, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

  14. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  15. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  16. Utilization of Gamma Radiation for Disinfecting Domestic Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldehmani, K.; Abokhabta, S.; Rahil, E.; Elammari, M.; Aboudeeb, F.

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater treatment by Gamma radiation is an effective, economic and environmentally friendly as the water produced has the specification to be reused for watering trees, gardens, football fields and golf courses instead of using fresh water that can be saved for drinking purposes as we suffer a severe shortage of fresh water. Sewage water samples were brought from Elhadba Elkhadra wastewater treatment plant which is located in the City of Tripoli. Samples were taken from two places: the inlet of the plant and from the stream coming out from the biological treatment, they are taken in sterile plastic bottles to ensure that cross contamination does not take place. Samples were irradiated at Tajura Research Centre with different doses ranged between 0.5 and 2 kGy with a dose rate of 10 Gy/min. These samples were investigated chemically and microbiologically. A study was carried out on the effect of gamma radiation on pathogenic organisms, and the total suspended solids in the raw and treated samples. Results showed that the doses 2.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy were enough to terminate the total microbial count and Enterobacter ease respectively but only a dose of 1.0 kGy was needed to eliminate total coliform, fecal coliform and spore forming bacteria. There were also higher BOD, pH and E.C. values in raw sewage than the sewage that was subjected to biological treatment which gave a good indication for the efficiency of the biological treatment. (authors)

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  18. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  20. Social Innovations in the Field of Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eymontt Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet social needs and create new social relations, the EU Commission classified under the concept of social innovations, development and implementation of new ideas (products, services, models. In rural areas, this kind of social needs is represented among others by the need of solving the issue of domestic wastewater treatment. The paper describes the imple-mentation of sewerage development program in Poland, as well as problems derived from large value variation of factors encoun-tered characterising the domestic sewage contamination. In view of the current state, the environmental risks due to improper use of domestic wastewater treatment technologies were specified.

  1. Decision support for redesigning wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R; Künzle, Rahel; Messmer, Ulrike; Udert, Kai M; Larsen, Tove A

    2014-10-21

    This paper offers a methodology for structuring the design space for innovative process engineering technology development. The methodology is exemplified in the evaluation of a wide variety of treatment technologies for source-separated domestic wastewater within the scope of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge. It offers a methodology for narrowing down the decision-making field based on a strict interpretation of treatment objectives for undiluted urine and dry feces and macroenvironmental factors (STEEPLED analysis) which influence decision criteria. Such an evaluation identifies promising paths for technology development such as focusing on space-saving processes or the need for more innovation in low-cost, energy-efficient urine treatment methods. Critical macroenvironmental factors, such as housing density, transportation infrastructure, and climate conditions were found to affect technology decisions regarding reactor volume, weight of outputs, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions, investment cost, and net revenue. The analysis also identified a number of qualitative factors that should be carefully weighed when pursuing technology development; such as availability of O&M resources, health and safety goals, and other ethical issues. Use of this methodology allows for coevolution of innovative technology within context constraints; however, for full-scale technology choices in the field, only very mature technologies can be evaluated.

  2. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  3. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaider, Laurel A; Ackerman, Janet M; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2016-03-15

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1mg/L NO3-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  5. Status of domestic wastewater management in relation to drinking-water supply in two states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R A; Kaul, S N

    2000-01-01

    In India, supply of drinking water, treatment and disposal of domestic wastewater including faecal matter are managed by local bodies. The existing status of water supply, characteristics of domestic wastewater, modes of collection, treatment and disposal system for sewage and faecal matter in 82 municipalities and 4 municipal corporations were assessed in the States of Bihar and West Bengal in India. Domestic wastewater in the municipal areas is collected and discharged through open kachha (earthen), pucca (cement-concrete) and natural drains and discharged into water courses or disposed on land. Scavenger carriage system for night soil disposal is in-vogue at several places in the surveyed States. Open defecation by the inhabitants in some of the municipalities also occurs. The existing methods of collection, treatment and disposal of sewage impairs the water quality of different water sources. Techno-economically viable remedial measures for providing basic amenities, namely safe drinking-water supply and proper sanitation to the communities of these two States of India are suggested and discussed.

  6. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  7. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tizghadam, Mostafa [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Dagot, Christophe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)], E-mail: dagot@ensil.unilim.fr; Baudu, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 {+-} 2% of the total COD and 98 {+-} 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 {+-} 11 mg COD/L and 43 {+-} 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 {+-} 3 and 6 {+-} 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 {+-} 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 {+-} 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 {+-} 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank.

  8. Study on the Development of Household Wastewater Treatment Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadi Ghawi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Iraq in general and the city of Al Diwaniyah in particular are characterized by the fact that the majority of households use septic tank to dispose of sewage, leading to contamination of ground and surface water and a disturbance to the environment. The objective of this study is to protect the water and soil sources from the risk of pollution, eliminate the process of perfusion and thus, reduce costs, maintain public health, as well as design and implement the proposed purification unit for domestic wastewater treatment. A domestic wastewater treatment unit has been improved to meet the standard specifications for the quality of the effluent wastewater. In this study, a compact non-electric sewage treatment unit was improved and implemented. Treatment is based on an effective modern biological purification process. Experimental verification and analysis of results were performed to demonstrate the improvement of physical and chemical parameters. The performance of the septic tanks-bioreactor gave satisfactory results. The removal efficiencies of Total Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, NH4-N, Total Nitrogen and Total Suspended Solid (TSS were 96.9%, 84.6%, 78.8%, 79.9% and 95.3%, respectively.

  9. Treatment of domestic wastewater by anaerobic denitrification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SALAMA YOUSSEF

    for the denitrification process could be deduced from the. pH variation. The alkalinity and pH increased in heterotrophic and H2-based autotrophic denitrification because nitrite reduction consumed protons (H+). Proton consumption is illustrated in Equations (1 to 4) (Rittmann and McCarty, 2001). Heterotrophic denitrification.

  10. Treatment of domestic wastewater by anaerobic denitrification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen Erlenmeyer flask containing six different support media [pozzolan, polyvinyl chloride1 (PVC1), polyvinyl chloride2 (PVC2), foam, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS)] were subject to identical volumetric organic loadings and hydraulic retention time in treating synthetic protein ± carbohydrate ...

  11. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  12. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  13. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  14. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  15. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) need retrofitting in order to better handle changes in the wastewater flow and composition, reduce operational costs as well as meet newer and stricter regulatory standards on the effluent discharge limits. In this study, we use an optimization based...... technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  16. AN INVESTIGATION ON PATHOGENIC VIBRIOS DISTRIBUTION IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Almasi

    2005-01-01

    Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for controlling and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research was carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios with emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholera in the wastewater of Kermanshah city western Iran in 2002. The method of study was cr...

  17. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  18. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  19. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  20. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  1. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide-arsenate ...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  2. Two-year survey of specific hospital wastewater treatment and its impact on pharmaceutical discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Laure; Chonova, Teofana; Bergé, Alexandre; Baudot, Robert; Bessueille-Barbier, Frédérique; Ayouni-Derouiche, Linda; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that pharmaceuticals are not completely removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Hospital effluents are of major concern, as they present high concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds. Despite this, these specific effluents are usually co-treated with domestic wastewaters. Separate treatment has been recommended. However, there is a lack of information concerning the efficiency of separate hospital wastewater treatment by activated sludge, especially on the removal of pharmaceuticals. In this context, this article presents the results of a 2-year monitoring of conventional parameters, surfactants, gadolinium, and 13 pharmaceuticals on the specific study site SIPIBEL. This site allows the characterization of urban and hospital wastewaters and their separate treatment using the same process. Flow proportional sampling, solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used in order to obtain accurate data and limits of quantification consistent with ultra-trace detection. Thanks to these consolidated data, an in-depth characterization of urban and hospital wastewaters was realized, as well as a comparison of treatment efficiency between both effluents. Higher concentrations of organic carbon, AOX, phosphates, gadolinium, paracetamol, ketoprofen, and antibiotics were observed in hospital wastewaters compared to urban wastewaters. Globally higher removals were observed in the hospital wastewater treatment plant, and some parameters were shown to be of high importance regarding removal efficiencies: hydraulic retention time, redox conditions, and ambient temperature. Eleven pharmaceuticals were still quantified at relevant concentrations in hospital and urban wastewaters after treatment (e.g., up to 1 μg/L for sulfamethoxazole). However, as the urban flow was about 37 times higher than the hospital flow, the hospital contribution appeared relatively low compared to

  3. Matching agricultural freshwater supply and demand: using industrial and domestic treated wastewater for sub-irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Worm, Bas; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van Loon, Arnaut; Raat, Klaasjan

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Climate change leads to more prolonged drought periods that alternate with more intensive rainfall events. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to drought stress will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities search for opportunities to manage risks of decreasing crop yields. Available groundwater sources for irrigation purposes are increasingly under pressure due to the regional coexistence of land use functions that are critical to groundwater levels or compete for available water. At the same time, treated wastewater from industries and domestic wastewater treatment plants are quickly discharged via surface waters towards sea. Exploitation of these freshwater sources may be an effective strategy to balance regional water supply and agricultural water demand. We present results of two pilot studies in drought sensitive regions in the Netherlands, concerning agricultural water supply through reuse of industrial and domestic treated wastewater. In these pilots, excess wastewater is delivered to the plant root zone through sub-irrigation by drainage systems. Sub-irrigation is a subsurface irrigation method that can be more efficient than classical, aboveground irrigation methods using sprinkler installations. Domestic wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands produce annually 40-50mm freshwater. A pilot project has been setup in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in which treated wastewater is applied to a corn field by sub-irrigation during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, using a climate adaptive drainage system. The chemical composition of treated domestic wastewater is different from infiltrating excess rainfall water and natural groundwater. In the pilot project, the bromide-chloride ratio and traces of pharmaceuticals in the treated wastewater are used as a tracer to describe water and solute transport in the

  4. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  5. Chemical procedures to detect carcinogenic compound in domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Manan T S; Malakahmad A

    2013-01-01

    This review presents chemical methods to detect carcinogenic compound in wastewater. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) and their alternative attached equipments were discussed. The application of each method is elaborated using related studies in the field.

  6. Fertigation with domestic wastewater: Uses and implications | Silva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertigation with wastewater will be a nutritive support for the cultivation of Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu in cerrado soil that is considered as low fertility soil. Soil microorganisms are fertility indicators. For example, nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has great potential to assist in the ...

  7. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1,

  8. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  9. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  10. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  11. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    Since the era of industrialization, concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have tremendously increased in the atmosphere, as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, improper waste management, transport, and other economic activities (Boer, 2008).This has led to a great accumulation of greenhouse gases, forming a blanket around the Earth which contributes in the so-called "Global Warming". Over the last decades, wastewater treatment has developed strongly and has become a very important asset in mitigating the impact of domestic and industrial effluents on the environment. There are many different forms of wastewater treatment, and one of the most effective treatment technology in terms COD, N and P removal, activated sludge is often criticized for its high energy use. Some other treatment concepts have a more "green" image, but it is not clear whether this image is justified based on their greenhouse gas emission. This study focuses on the estimation of GHG emissions of four different wastewater treatment configurations, both conventional and innovative systems namely: (1) Harnaschpolder, (2) Sneek, (3) EIER-Ouaga and (4) Siddhipur. This analysis is based on COD mass balance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for estimating CO2 and CH4, and literature review. Furthermore, the energy requirements for each of the systems were estimated based on energy survey. The study showed that an estimated daily average of 87 g of CO2 equivalent, ranging between 38 to 192 g, was derived to be the per capita CO2 emission for the four different wastewater treatment scenarios. Despite the fact that no electrical energy is used in the treatment process, the GHG emission from EIER Ouaga anaerobic pond systems is found to be the highest compared to the three other scenarios analysed. It was estimated 80% higher than the most favourable scenario (Sneek). Moreover, the results indicate that the GHGs emitted from these WWTPs are

  12. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs.

  13. Adsorption, sedimentation, and inactivation of E. coli within wastewater treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, L; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Lake, C; Hart, W

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria fate and transport within constructed wetlands must be understood if engineered wetlands are to become a reliable form of wastewater treatment. This study investigated the relative importance of microbial treatment mechanisms in constructed wetlands treating both domestic and agricultural wastewater. Escherichia coli (E. coli) inactivation, adsorption, and settling rates were measured in the lab within two types of wastewater (dairy wastewater lagoon effluent and domestic septic tank effluent). In situ E. coli inactivation was also measured within a domestic wastewater treatment wetland and the adsorption of E. coli was also measured within the wetland effluent. Inactivation of E. coli appears to be the most significant contributor to E. coli removal within the wastewaters and wetland environments examined in this study. E. coli survived longer within the dairy wastewater (DW) compared to the domestic wastewater treatment wetland water (WW). First order rate constants for E. coli inactivation within the WW in the lab ranged from 0.09 day(-1) (d(-1)) at 7.6 degrees C to 0.18d(-1) at 22.8 degrees C. The average in situ rate constant observed within the domestic wetland ranged from 0.02 d(-1) to 0.03 d(-1) at an average water temperature of 17 degrees C. First order rate constants for E. coli inactivation within the DW ranged from 0.01 d(-1) at 7.7 degrees C to 0.04 d(-1) at 24.6 degrees C. Calculated distribution coefficients (K(d)) were 19,000 mL g(-1), 324,000 mL g(-1), and 293 mL g(-1) for E. coli with domestic septic tank effluent (STE), treated wetland effluent (WLE), and DW, respectively. Approximately 50%, 20%, and 90% of E. coli were "free floating" or associated with particles 5 microm within both the STE and DW, settling did not appear to contribute to E. coli removal within sedimentation experiments, indicating that the particles the bacteria were associated with had very small settling velocities. The results of this study highlight the

  14. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  15. Electrocatalysis in wastewater treatment: recent mechanism advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years, several scientists and industries have developed new alternatives for wastewater treatment and remediation. Recently, electrochemical technology has been largely developed mainly because of its versatility and environmental compatibility. Scientific contributions about role of the electrode material have allowed determining that the influence of material in the selectivity is an important parameter. However, to interpret this behavior, comprehensive physical chemistry models for organics destruction, related to electrochemical phenomena and material surfaces, were proposed in the last decades. So, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review about the principles and recent mechanism advances in electrocatalysis for wastewater treatment.

  16. Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells for generating power or treating domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-03-01

    Scaling-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for practical applications requires compact, multiple-electrode designs. Two possible configurations are a separator electrode assembly (SEA) or closely spaced electrodes (SPA) that lack a separator. It is shown here that the optimal configuration depends on whether the goal is power production or rate of wastewater treatment. SEA MFCs produced a 16% higher maximum power density (328 ± 11 mW m-2) than SPA MFCs (282 ± 29 mW m-2), and higher coulombic efficiencies (SEAs, 9-31%; SPAs, 2-23%) with domestic wastewater. However, treatment was accomplished in only 12 h with the SPA MFC, compared to 36 h with the SEA configuration. Ohmic resistance was not a main factor in performance as this component contributed only 4-7% of the total internal resistance. Transport simulations indicated that hindered oxygen diffusion into the SEA reactor was the primary reason for the increased treatment time. However, a reduction in the overall rate of substrate diffusion also may contribute to the long treatment time with the SEA reactor. These results suggest that SEA designs can more effectively capture energy from wastewater, but SPA configurations will be superior in terms of treatment efficiency due to a greatly reduced time needed for treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells for generating power or treating domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae; Hatzell, Marta C.; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Scaling-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for practical applications requires compact, multiple-electrode designs. Two possible configurations are a separator electrode assembly (SEA) or closely spaced electrodes (SPA) that lack a separator. It is shown here that the optimal configuration depends on whether the goal is power production or rate of wastewater treatment. SEA MFCs produced a 16% higher maximum power density (328 ± 11 mW m-2) than SPA MFCs (282 ± 29 mW m-2), and higher coulombic efficiencies (SEAs, 9-31%; SPAs, 2-23%) with domestic wastewater. However, treatment was accomplished in only 12 h with the SPA MFC, compared to 36 h with the SEA configuration. Ohmic resistance was not a main factor in performance as this component contributed only 4-7% of the total internal resistance. Transport simulations indicated that hindered oxygen diffusion into the SEA reactor was the primary reason for the increased treatment time. However, a reduction in the overall rate of substrate diffusion also may contribute to the long treatment time with the SEA reactor. These results suggest that SEA designs can more effectively capture energy from wastewater, but SPA configurations will be superior in terms of treatment efficiency due to a greatly reduced time needed for treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  19. Integrated Application of the UASB Reactor and Ponds for Domestic Sewage Treatment in Tropical Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, P.F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are widely applied for domestic sewage treatment in Brazil. The main objective of conventional waste stabilisation ponds (WSP's) is, nomen est omen , to remove the organic material from wastewater. To achieve this objective, a quite long liquid retention time (

  20. Evaluation of on-site wastewater treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a program designed to conduct a third-party group evaluation of wastewater denitrification technologies appropriate for low-flow systems, partially funded by a grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). The objective of this program is to verify the performance of products that provide nutrient reduction in wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater, agricultural runoff, or other waste streams. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the potential energy savings of using nutrient reducing technologies scaled to treat low flows - larger than an individual septic tank but smaller than that of a conventional wastewater treatment plant - will be assessed. The energy savings realized by reduced construction and equipment transport costs alone could make low-flow nutrient reduction technologies viable options for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow settings. The evaluation is being funded in part by PADEP, which is sponsoring this evaluation due to its interest in developing low-cost wastewater treatment technologies for Pennsylvania's rural communities. However, the evaluation is national in scope, and participants will come from all areas of the country. The presentation will include a description of the process for establishing the testing protocol, testing results from various nutrient reducing technologies, and obstacles encountered and lessons learned during the process. (author)

  1. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizghadam, Mostafa; Dagot, Christophe; Baudu, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 ± 2% of the total COD and 98 ± 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 ± 11 mg COD/L and 43 ± 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 ± 3 and 6 ± 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 ± 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 ± 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m -3 day -1 . The result for the CAS reactor was 60 ± 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank

  2. THE EFFECT OF WASTEWATER OF DOMESTIC AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANT ON THE RIVER OF KARASU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewaters of the slaughterhouse and meat processing plant in Erzurum city, which don't have any wastewater treatment plant is discharged to the Karasu river. The wastewater, especially occured during slaughtering and processing of meat, contained high level of COD, BOD5, total suspended solid, fat and grease and total solid. Therefore these wastewaters cause some environmental problems in the city. This paper presents the effect of wastewaters from resident area slaughterhouse, and meat processing plants on the river of Karasu. For this purpose some samples taken from eight different points around the river were analysed in order to obtain values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrojen, total suspended solid, total solid, total volatile suspended solid, fat and grease, chlorides and coliform. From the results obtained, it is found out that the wastewaters from the slaughterhouse has the biggest pollutant effect in the river.

  3. Enhancing anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing oleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater

  4. Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control | Nzabuheraheza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of a Dynamic Roughing Filter (DRF) coupled with a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) in the treatment of a wastewater was studied in tropical conditions. The results show that in HSSFCW planted with Cyperus papyrus and Phragmites mauritianus in series, the removal rates of TDS, ...

  5. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  6. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...

  7. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  8. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  9. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  10. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  11. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  12. Wastewater treatment and pollution control in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2006-01-01

    Present status of radiation facilities for Co-60 gamma ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation in Indonesia is first presented. Wastewater treatment is explained: kinds of waste, industrial, agricultural, municipal and nuclear. Each liquid wastewater containing various kinds of contaminants, radioactive or non-radioactive is differently treated by waste treatment industries. On-going project is use of electron beams in which combination with ozone to reduce chlorinated solvent, disinfected sludge from sewage treatment containing organic and inorganic components for soil fertilizer, and high color river water for water supplying. The cost factor and the effect of combined treatment are being examined. Other on-going projects are applications of electron beams for vulcanization of natural rubber latex and flue gas treatment by BATAN. (S. Ohno)

  13. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  14. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  15. Superstructure development and optimization under uncertainty for design and retrofit of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    n this contribution, an optimization - based approach is presented for optimal process selec tion and design for domestic wastewater treatment plant s (WWTP s ). In particular, we address the issue of uncertainties by formulating the WWTP design problem as a Stochastic Mixed Integer (Non) Linear ...

  16. Biological risk associated to bio-treatments: monitoring and modeling bacterial dispersion into the atmosphere in a soil bioremediation plant and in a wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasiuk, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater is a mixture of domestic, municipal and industrial waste dissolved in water. The biggest fraction of wastewater is sanitary sewer water. Before its release in rivers or sea, water must be cleaned and all harmful bacteria must be killed. Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic waste obtained following wastewater treatment and used beneficially as fertilizer. Routinely, biosolids are deposited in agricultural areas or incinerated. For this reason the level of microbial pathogens in the b...

  17. Non linear relationship between change in awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management - A case of the Jodipan and Ksatrian village, Malang, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyya, Nida Maisa; Sarli, Prasanti Widyasih; Soewondo, Prayatni

    2017-11-01

    In developing countries the awareness on the importance of sanitation facilities, whether it is for municipal solid waste or domestic wastewater treatment, is still very low. Jodipan and Ksatrian Village, in Malang, East Java, are two slum areas that have recently been improved visually by using simple colorful paints. The visual improvement was expected to increase the resident's awareness on the importance of keeping the area clean; adjacent to the project, a new municipal waste management system was also put in place, changing the president's behaviour towards municipal solid waste. This study focuses on the relationship between community awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management. The result is expected to be an input for the government to enhance wastewater infrastructure program and its sustainability, related to its awareness on municipal solid waste. A descriptive model through questionnaire to 48 households of Jodipan sub district in Kampung Warna-warni and 69 households of Ksatrian sub district in Kampung 3D by random sampling, with an error of 0.1, was used to conduct this research. A nonlinear relationship between the change in awareness in municipal solid waste management (MSW) and domestic wastewater management was observed, with only 0.1312 of determination coefficient. Weak Spearman correlation coefficient number was found, ranging from 0.284 to 0.39, indicating another parameter turned into a role on affecting the awareness of wastewater. Further study about another parameter (eg. social and economic parameter) intervension on sanitation awareness could be investigated.

  18. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  19. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  20. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  1. Kinetics of aerobically activated sludge on terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bao-hong; Wu, Zhong-biao; Xu, Gen-liang

    2004-04-01

    Aerobically activated sludge processing was carried out to treat terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater (TPD wastewater) in a lab-scale experiment, focusing on the kinetics of the COD removal. The kinetics parameters determined from experiment were applied to evaluate the biological treatability of wastewater. Experiments showed that COD removal could be divided into two stages, in which the ratio BOD/COD (B/C) was the key factor for stage division. At the rapid-removal stage with B/C>0.1, COD removal could be described by a zero order reaction. At the moderate-removal stage with B/Ckinetic parameters, the biological treatability of TPD wastewater was superior to that of traditional textile wastewater. But COD removal from TPD-wastewater was much more difficult than that from domestic and industrial wastewater, such as papermaking, beer, phenol wastewater, etc. The expected effluent quality strongly related to un-biodegradable COD and kinetics rather than total COD. The results provide useful basis for further scaling up and efficient operation of TPD wastewater treatment.

  2. Treatment of wastewater by lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, S.; Zahra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the performance of bio-treatment ponds after one year of functioning at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. The physical parameters (colour, pH, EC, TDS, turbidity) and chemical parameters (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe and Pb) are with in the limits which are not sub-lethal for fish rearing. Lemna accumulates higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to wastewater and best for phyto remediation purpose. The treated wastewater is currently used for rearing of fish and irrigation of crops and plants. The plants around the bio-treatment ponds are healthy, green and showing enough production. The present investigation indicates that in future it would be possible to construct bio-treatment ponds in polluted areas of Pakistan. (author)

  3. Effect of HRT on SBR Performance for Treatability of Combined Domestic and Textile Wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, M.S.; Khan, S.J.; Khan, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Textile wastewater contains organics and color dyes which need to be treated before discharging into receiving water bodies. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is proved promising against textile wastewater due to its high organic and nutrient removal efficiencies. In this study the influence of variable hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of SBR in treating combined textile and domestic wastewater was evaluated. Six SBRs were operated in parallel at 12 and 8 hrs HRTs respectively, three for synthetic and three for real textile plus domestic wastewater. SBRs were operated at constant temperature 25 +- 1 degree C and pH 7 +- 1 to avoid seasonal effects. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiency was consistent at 73% while, total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency increased from 52 to 63% in SBRs with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.45 to 0.68 Kg/m3/d, SVI decreased from 94 to 84 mL/g and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increased in real waste water (RWW) SBRs from 59 to 63% with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. Low COD removal at 12 hr HRT can be attributed to poor settling characteristics of sludge due to possible filamentous growth at low F/M (0.03) and greater SRT (28 days) as compared to 8 hr HRT condition, where F/M was 0.05 and SRT of 20 days. (author)

  4. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  5. Earthworm-microorganism interactions: a strategy to stabilize domestic wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limin; Wang, Yayi; Yang, Jian; Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yi, Danghao; Deng, Dehan

    2010-04-01

    The performance of a conventional biofilter (BF) and a vermifilter containing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, (VF) for the treatment of domestic wastewater sludge were compared with the earthworm-microorganism interaction mechanisms involved in sludge stabilization. The results revealed that the presence of earthworms in the VF led to significant stabilization of the sludge by enhancing the reduction in volatile suspended solids (VSS) by 25.1%. Digestion by earthworms and the earthworm-microorganism interactions were responsible for 54% and 46% of this increase, respectively. Specifically, earthworms in the VF were capable of transforming insoluble organic materials to a soluble form and then selectively digesting the sludge particles of 10-200 microm to finer particles of 0-2 microm, which led to the further degradation of organic materials by the microorganisms in the reactor. Additionally, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed that there was an intensified bacterial diversity in the vermifilter due to the presence of earthworms, especially in response to the nutrients in their casts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater: Performances, fouling, and bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntawang, Chaipon; Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-11-01

    A laboratory scale study on treatment performances and fouling of entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (E-AnMBR) in comparison with suspended cells-based-bioreactor (S-AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was conducted. The difference between E-AnMBR and S-AnMBR was the uses of cells entrapped in phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol versus planktonic cells. Bulk organic removal efficiencies by the two AnMBRs were comparable. Lower concentrations of suspended biomass, bound extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in E-AnMBR resulted in less fouling compared to S-AnMBR. S-AnMBR provided 7 days of operation time versus 11 days for E-AnMBR before chemical cleaning was required. The less frequent chemical cleaning potentially leads to a longer membrane life-span for E-AnMBR compared to S-AnMBR. Phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant in cake sludge from both AnMBRs but their abundances were different between the two AnMBRs, suggesting influence of cell entrapment on the bacteria community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory ... when exposed to dissolved oxygen, water and micro-organisms. (Nordstrom and ..... HUGHES TA and GREY NF (2013) Co-treatment of acid mine drainage.

  8. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  9. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  10. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  11. Addressing the role of earthworms in treating domestic wastewater by analyzing biofilm modification through chemical and spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Xing, Mei-Yan; Yang, Jian; Lu, Biao

    2016-03-01

    Vermifiltration eco-friendly system is an alternative and low-cost artificial ecosystem for decentralized wastewater treatment and excess sludge reduction. The biofilm characteristics of a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms, Eisenia fetida, for domestic wastewater treatment were studied. A conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms served as the control. Pore number in VF biofilm was significantly more than BF biofilm, and VF biofilm showed a better level-administrative structure through scanning electron microscope. VF biofilms had lower levels of protein and polysaccharide, but phosphoric acids and humic acid showed the opposite results. Furthermore, in the presence of earthworms, VF biofilms contained higher total organic carbon (TOC) percentage composition in the condition of less volatile suspended substances (VSS) contents. Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents along VF showed better results than BF by increment of 12.84 ∼ 16.46 %. Overall findings indicated that the earthworms' presence remarkably decreases biofilm contests but increases enzyme activity and improves the community structure of VF biofilms, which is beneficial for the wastewater disposal.

  12. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinic, Irena

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication.

  13. Wastewater treatment and reuse. Indian power plant turns sewage into process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S.; Schroedter, F.; Demmerle, C. [ERM Lahmeyer International, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Lahmeyer International provided consulting services for a private Indian investor of a 200 MW diesel engine power plant, in reviewing and controlling the EPC Contractor from Korea with regard to the treatment plant for dosmestic wastewater and the reverse osmosis plant for desalination. The wastewater treatment and subsequent water treatment for cooling water production comprised: mechanical treatment, biological treatment of domestic wastewater, lime softening, sand filtration, disinfection, micro-filtration, reverse osmosis. The services as Owner's Engineer included: (1) the review of the EPC Contractor's treatment concept, (2) the selection of internationally renowned manufacturer, (3) the review of the detailed design (including civil, mechanical, electrical and I and C work), and (4) onsite technical assistance to the Client during construction and commissioning phase. (orig.)

  14. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  15. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  16. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  17. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  18. Domestic wastewater treated for agricultural reuse | de Sousa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four post-treatment systems of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were evaluated regarding chemical and sanitary qualities. At an experimental station for biological treatment of sewage (EXTRABES) located in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil, the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the effluents ...

  19. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  20. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  1. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  2. Performance of two different types of anodes in membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cells for power generation from domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Graphite fiber brush electrodes provide high surface areas for exoelectrogenic bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but the cylindrical brush format limits more compact reactor designs. To enable MFC designs with closer electrode spacing, brush anodes were pressed up against a separator (placed between the electrodes) to reduce the volume occupied by the brush. Higher maximum voltages were produced using domestic wastewater (COD = 390 ± 89 mg L-1) with brush anodes (360 ± 63 mV, 1000 Ω) than woven carbon mesh anodes (200 ± 81 mV) with one or two separators. Maximum power densities were similar for brush anode reactors with one or two separators after 30 days (220 ± 1.2 and 240 ± 22 mW m-2), but with one separator the brush anode MFC power decreased to 130 ± 55 mW m-2 after 114 days. Power densities in MFCs with mesh anodes were very low (<45 mW m-2). Brush anodes MFCs had higher COD removals (80 ± 3%) than carbon mesh MFCs (58 ± 7%), but similar Coulombic efficiencies (8.6 ± 2.9% brush; 7.8 ± 7.1% mesh). These results show that compact (hemispherical) brush anodes can produce higher power and more effective domestic wastewater treatment than flat mesh anodes in MFCs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron beam treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Hosono, M.; Shimizu, K.; Sugiyama, M.

    1991-01-01

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics so that it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge. By electron beam (EB) irradiation, any kinds of organics in water can be oxidized to biodegradable organic acids. We studied the treatment of supernatant by application of this effect. The direct irradiation of the original supernatant was found not to be so effective to decrease COD. In order to increase the irradiation effect, supernatant was pretreated biologically to decrease the biodegradable organics in it. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were decreased from 800 and 910 mg/L to 78 and 5 mg/L by this pretreatment, respectively. This pretreated supernatant was irradiated by EB of 2 MeV using a batch type reactor. The COD was gradually decreased with dose. In contrast, BOD was increased markedly, indicating increase in biodegradability. The irradiated sample water was treated biologically again. After the final biological treatment, COD was decreased below 30 mg/L in the case of 10 - 12 kGy irradiation. Finally, the initial COD of 800 mg/L was decreased below 30 mg/L by the combination of EB irradiation and biological treatment. The cost of irradiation for this process was evaluated preliminarily. (author)

  4. A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2002-08-01

    Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and of the related construction cost structures of those facilities becomes essential for dealing with an effective regional water pollution control program. But deviations between the observed values and the estimated values are supposed to be due to measurement errors only in the conventional regression models. The inherent uncertainties of the underlying cost structure, where the human estimation is influential, are rarely explored. This paper is designed to recast a well-known problem of construction cost estimation for both domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants via a comparative framework. Comparisons were made for three technologies of regression analyses, including the conventional least squares regression method, the fuzzy linear regression method, and the newly derived fuzzy goal regression method. The case study, incorporating a complete database with 48 domestic wastewater treatment plants and 29 industrial wastewater treatment plants being collected in Taiwan, implements such a cost estimation procedure in an uncertain environment. Given that the fuzzy structure in regression estimation may account for the inherent human complexity in cost estimation, the fuzzy goal regression method does exhibit more robust results in terms of some criteria. Moderate economy of scale exists in constructing both the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Findings indicate that the optimal size of a domestic wastewater treatment plant is approximately equivalent to 15,000 m3/day (CMD) and higher in Taiwan

  5. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  6. Brackish Water Desalination Coupled With Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new bio-electrochemical system was proposed for simultaneous removal of organic matters and salinity from actual domestic wastewater and synthetically prepared saline water, respectively. The performance of a three-chambered microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC provided with forward osmosis (FO membrane and cation exchange membrane (CEM was evaluated with respect to the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from wastewater, electricity generation, and desalination of saline water. The MOFC wasinoculated with activated sludge and fueled with actual domestic wastewater. Results revealed that maximum removal efficiency of COD from wastewater, TDS removal efficiency from saline water, power density, and current density were 96%, 90%, 30.02 mW/m2, and 107.20 mA/m2, respectively.

  7. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  8. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  9. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. Electron beam processing programme: Wastewater and sludge treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Vieira, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research, working on environmental applications, has an extensive research programme using high energy electron beam in treating industrial wastewater and sludge. The experiments are being conducted in a pilot plant using an industrial electron beam 1.5MeV, 25mA, where the streams are presented to the scanned electron beam in counter flow. This pilot plant is designed to process approximately 3.0m 3 /h with an average dose 5kGy and the absorbed dose measurement is performed continuously by calorimetric system in real time. Combined biological and radiation treatment of domestic sewage and sludge were carried out to investigate disinfestation and removal of organic matter. The experiments showed that total and fecal coliforms were decreased by about 5 logs cycles with a 3.0kGy radiation dose in raw sewage and biological effluents, respectively. Concerning the industrial wastewater in the first stage of the programme, the irradiation was conducted using batch systems with samples originating from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant. The data showed a significant color reduction effect when delivered dose was increased, and the opposite was noted for turbidity and total suspended solids. Other experiments were focused to process real industrial effluents from one of the most important chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Brazil. A special transport truck was used to transfer the liquid waste from the Industry to the Electron Beam Pilot Plant. Large quantities of liquid waste were irradiated with and without air addition with the doses from 2kGy to 20kGy. Such experiences performed in association with the Industry demonstrated that this technology has a great potential to be transferred and to contribute with a permanent cleanup alternative for hazardous wastes

  11. Evaluación de la mineralización de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Evaluation of mineralization rates of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los biosólidos procedentes del tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales tienen alto potencial de aplicación agrícola por sus contenidos de materia orgánica y nutrientes. En esta investigación se evaluó la mineralización de los biosólidos provenientes de la Planta de tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo, Cali- Colombia, mediante el ajuste de modelos de regresión; se realizó el seguimiento del contenido de NH4+, NO3- y NO2- durante 126 días para tres tipos de biosólidos: deshidratado, secado térmicamente y alcalinizado, los cuales fueron aplicados a un suelo Vertic Endoaquepts en dosis de 35.4, 36.4 y 54.5 t ha-1 respectivamente. Para el ajuste de las curvas de regresión, se consideraron los modelos simple exponencial, doble exponencial, hiperbólico, parabólico y algunos modelos estadísticos regulares. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo parabólico propuesto por Broadbent presentó el mejor ajuste para describir el proceso de mineralización del suelo evaluado; el modelo exponencial de Stanford & Smith, se mostró como una segunda opción de modelación, permitiendo corroborar el incremento del nitrógeno orgánico N0 cuando se realiza la aplicación de los biosólidos y el incremento de la mineralización con relación al tratamiento testigo.The biosolids from wastewater Treatment plants have high potential of agricultural application due to the contents of organic matter and nutrients. The mineralization of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo Wastewater Treatment Plant, Cali-Colombia, was evaluated by fitting regression models. The content of NH4+, NO3- and NO2- were monitored during 126 days for three types of biosolids: dehydrated, thermally dried and alkalinized, which were applied to a Vertic Endoaquepts soil using doses of 35.4, 36.4 and 54.5 t ha-1 respectively. To adjust the regression curves, the models used were: simple exponential, double exponential, hyperbolic, parabolic and some regular statistical

  12. Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment; Teknologi Biofilter Anaerob-Aerob Tercelup untuk Pengolahan Air Limbah Domestik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusa-Idaman-Said, [The Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2000-02-15

    Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

  13. [Health risk induced by estrogens during unplanned indirect potable reuse of reclaimed water from domestic wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian-Yuan; Shao, Yi-Ru; Wang, Chao; Sun, Yan; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-03-01

    The estrogenic endocrine disruptors in reclaimed water from domestic wastewater may induce health risks to human being, when reclaimed water is used for augmentation of drinking water unplannedly and indirectly. This study investigated changes in concentrations of estrone, estradiol, 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol in reclaimed water during the reuse of reclaimed water for augmentation to water source such as lakes and reservoir via river. Thereafter, health risk induced by estrogens during the resue of reclaimed water was evaluated. The concentration of estrogen in secondary effluent ranged 0.1-100 ng x L(-1). The highest concentrations of bisphenol A and nonylphenol reached up to 1-10 microg x L(-1). During the indirect reuse of reclaimed water as potable water, the dilution and degradation in river and lake, and the removal by drinking water treatment process could change the concentrations of estrogen. The non-carcinogenic risks of estrone, estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol were lower than 1. When the hydraulic retention time of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in lakes and reservoir was higher than 30 days, the non-carcinogenic risk of EE2 was lower than 1 in most cases. When the hydraulic retention time of EE2 in lakes and reservoir was less than 30 days and the percentages of reclaimed water in drinking water were higher than 50%, the non-carcinogenic risk induced by EE2 was higher than 1 in 20%-50% samples. This indicated that the risks of EE2 should be concerned.

  14. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  15. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    , which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  16. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  17. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  18. Treatment of variable and intermittently flowing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1993-11-01

    The biological treatment of wastewaters originating from hotels and residential areas of seasonal use, flowing intermittently, is difficult due to the fact that bacteria cannot survive during periods of no-flow. An investigation has been conducted in order to develop a system which will be able to overcome the difficulties encountered. After a long investigation the following system has given satisfactory results. The wastewater was taken initially into an aeration tank operating as a sequential batch reactor. Waste was taken after the sedimentation phase of the reactor into a coagulation-flocculation tank where it was treated by chemical means, and then settled in order to separate the floes. When the population of bacteria in the aeration tank reached the required level, the physico-chemical treatment was terminated and the tank used for chemical treatment has been started to be used as an equalization tank while the aeration and sedimentation tanks have been used as an activated sludge unit. This system has been proved to be a satisfactory method for the above mentioned wastes.

  19. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs

  20. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  1. Vegetable coagulants as alternative for treatment of wastewater in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando López-León

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the various properties of natural coagulants, water, the chemical substance essential for life and the ideal solvent for a large number of compounds, it is commonly used with domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. After its use, it presents sewage to be retired before use it once again. To remove pollutant, water is subject to different physical, chemical and biological processes. Here, the clarification process uses aluminum and iron materials to remove the solids present; these materials are reported as health hazardous and toxic. In Mexico, regulatory frame work stablish that treated wastewater should do not exceed 0.2 mg/L of aluminum even though has been reported an increased risk of Alzheimer's in populations when water exceeds 0.1 mg/L. Natural coagulants have showed coagulation properties when are used in the clarification process, proven its advantages over traditional ones; such as low cost, good coagulant properties and safe health and non-toxic properties. Here, we enlist some vegetable species as alternatives to the traditional based on aluminum and iron. Additionally, these species are known to have origins on Mexico or being present extensively in the territory, making possible to think about them as alternative coagulants in the clarification process of the wastewater treatment process.

  2. Costs and benefits of biogas recovery from communal anaerobic digesters treating domestic wastewater: Evidence from peri-urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramee, Jeannette; Tilmans, Sebastien; Davis, Jennifer

    2018-03-15

    Communal anaerobic digesters (ADs) have been promoted as a waste-to-energy strategy that can provide sanitation and clean energy co-benefits. However, little empirical evidence is available regarding the performance of such systems in field conditions. This study assesses the wastewater treatment efficiency, energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and financial costs and benefits of communal ADs used for domestic wastewater treatment in Zambia. Primary data on the technical performance of 15 ADs were collected over a 6-month period and in-person interviews were conducted with heads of 120 households. Findings from this study suggest that ADs offer comparable wastewater treatment efficiencies and greater GHG emission reduction benefits relative to conventional septic tanks (STs), with the greatest benefits in settings with reliable access to water, use of low efficiency solid fuels and with sufficient demand for biogas in proximity to supply. However, absent a mechanism to monetize additional benefits from biogas recovery, ADs in this context will not be a financially attractive investment relative to STs. Our financial analysis suggests that, under the conditions in this study, a carbon price of US$9 to $28 per tCO 2 e is necessary for positive investment in ADs relative to STs. Findings from this study contribute empirical evidence on ADs as a sanitation and clean energy strategy, identify conditions under which the greatest benefits are likely to accrue and inform international climate efforts on the carbon price required to attract investment in emissions reduction projects such as ADs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A summary of studies on mine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yao; Hu Baoqun; Sun Zhanxue

    2006-01-01

    The composition of mine wastewater is complicated and is harmful to the environment. The mine wastewater treatment methods include mainly neutralization, constructed wetland and microorganism methods. The three methods are summarized, with focus on the microorganism method. The mechanisms, characteristics and influencing factors of the sulfate reducing bacteria and the iron oxidizing bacteria are described in detail. The treatment methods of uranium mine wastewater are presented. (authors)

  4. Electron beam wastewater treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Oikawa, H.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Costa, F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed at laboratory scale and at pilot plant scale to study the efficiency on using EB to remove and degrade toxic and refractory pollutants mainly from industrial origins. An upflow stream hydraulic system that governs the efficiency of the EB energy transferred to the stream was developed. Two different sources of samples were used to treat industrial effluents from a pharmaceutical chemical industry located in Sao Paulo and from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Sao Paulo State, which receives the major quantity of industrial wastewater. Using samples from this WWTP, studies to combine EB irradiation process with conventional treatment were carried out with experimentation doses of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy and the irradiation effects were evaluated in the following parameters: COD, BOD, solids, TOC, THMs. PCE, TCE, BTX and concentration of organic acids by-products. Toxicity studies were also carried out for different sites and industrial activities showing significant removal of acute toxicity by increasing values of the EC-50 for most of the experiments. The economic aspects of this technology were evaluated and the estimated processing costs for some values of delivered doses and operation are reported here. (author)

  5. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2007-01-01

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  6. Purification and treatment of industrial wastewater by electron beam process: it's potential and effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ting Teo Ming; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2002-01-01

    Demand for water has grown dramatically globally. We have seen how acute is the demand for treated water in Malaysia during dry spell of late. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, globally, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industries, and the increasing use for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Electron beam treatment (E-Beam treatment) is a comparatively new method of wastewater purification. E-beam treatment is also an environment-friendly approach for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. E-beam treatment treats multi-components waste streams and does not require any hazardous chemical additives nor does it create any secondary wastes. It uses fast formation of short-lived reactive particles, which are capable of efficient decomposition of pollutants inside wastewater. This paper highlights the practical treatment of wastewater using E-Beam method that gives essential conveniences and advantages of the followings: - strongest reducing and oxidizing agents; - universality and interchangeability of redox agents; - variety of paths for pollutant conversion; - process controllability; - wide choice of equipment and technological regimes; - compatibility with conventional methods. (Author)

  7. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  8. Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters in free water surface constructed wetlands using Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbile, Christopher O; Ogunrinde, Temitope A; Che Bt Man, Hasfalina; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Two constructed wetlands, one with Azolla pinnata plant (CW1) and the other without (CW2) for treating domestic wastewaters were developed. Fifteen water parameters which include: Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3N), Turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), and heavy metals such as Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The experiments were conducted in two (dry and wet) seasons simultaneously. Results showed considerable reductions in all parameters and metals including Zn in CW1 compared with CW2 in the two seasons considered while Pb and Mn were not detected throughout the study. Zn concentration levels reduced significantly in both seasons just as removal efficiencies of 70.03% and 64.51% were recorded for CW1 while 35.17% and 33.45% were recorded for CW2 in both seasons. There were no significant differences in the removal efficiencies of Fe in both seasons as 99.55%, 59.09%, 88.89%, and 53.56% were recorded in CW1 and CW2 respectively. Azolla pinnata has proved effective in domestic wastewater phytoremediation studies.

  9. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  10. Development of an irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    When domestic or industrial effluents with synthetic compounds are disposed without an adequate treatment, they impact negatively the environment with damages to aquatic life and for the human being. Both population and use of goods and services that contribute for the hazardous waste are growing. Hazardous regulations are becoming more restrictive and technologies, which do not destroy these products, are becoming less acceptable. The electron beam radiation process is an advanced oxidation process, that produces highly reactive radicals resulting in mineralization of the contaminant. In this work was developed an irradiation system in order to optimize the interaction of electron beam delivered from the accelerator with the processed effluent. It is composed by an irradiation device where the effluent presents to the electron beam in an up flow stream and a process control unit that uses the calorimetric principle. The developed irradiation device has a different configuration from the devices used by others researchers that are working with this technology. It was studied the technical and economic feasibility, comparing with the literature the results of the irradiation device demonstrated that it has a superior performance, becoming an process for use in disinfection and degradation of hazardous organic compounds of wastewater from domestic and industrial origin, contributing as an alternative technology for Sanitary Engineering. (author)

  11. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  12. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  13. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  14. Ozone treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  16. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  17. A monetary comparison of energy recovered from microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells fed winery or domestic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusick, Roland D.; Kiely, Patrick D.; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, H2E Center, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Microbial fuel (MFCs) and electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to recover energy directly as electricity or hydrogen from organic matter. Organic removal efficiencies and values of the different energy products were compared for MFCs and MECs fed winery or domestic wastewater. TCOD removal (%) and energy recoveries (kWh/kg-COD) were higher for MFCs than MECs with both wastewaters. At a cost of 4.51/kg-H{sub 2} for winery wastewater and 3.01/kg-H{sub 2} for domestic wastewater, the hydrogen produced using MECs cost less than the estimated merchant value of hydrogen (6/kg-H{sub 2}). 16S rRNA clone libraries indicated the predominance of Geobacter species in anodic microbial communities in MECs for both wastewaters, suggesting low current densities were the result of substrate limitations. The results of this study show that energy recovery and organic removal from wastewater are more effective with MFCs than MECs, but that hydrogen production from wastewater fed MECs can be cost effective. (author)

  18. Effect of Seasonal Temperature on the Performance and on the Microbial Community of a Novel AWFR for Decentralized Domestic Wastewater Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanhong Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental burden and human health risks in developing countries, the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater has been a matter of great concern in recent years. A novel pilot-scale three-stage anaerobic wool-felt filter reactor (AWFR was designed to treat real decentralized domestic wastewater at seasonal temperature variations of 8 to 35 °C for 364 days. The results showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiencies of AWFR in summer and winter were 76 ± 7.2% and 52 ± 5.9% at one day and three days Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT, respectively. COD mass balance analysis demonstrated that even though COD removal was lower in winter, approximately 43.5% of influent COD was still converted to methane. High-throughput MiSeq sequencing analyses indicated that Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanolinea were the predominant methanogens, whereas the genus Bacillus probably played important roles in fermentation processes throughout the whole operation period. The performance and microbial community composition study suggested the application potential of the AWFR system for the pretreatment of decentralized domestic wastewater.

  19. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  20. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL's Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  2. Environmental life cycle assessment of different domestic wastewater streams: policy effectiveness in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bernard J H; Zhou, Jin; Giannis, Apostolos; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To enhance local water security, the Singapore government promotes two water conservation policies: the use of eco-friendly toilets to reduce yellow water (YW) disposal and the installation of water efficient devices to minimize gray water (GW) discharge. The proposed water conservation policies have different impacts on the environmental performance of local wastewater management. The main purpose of this study is to examine and compare the impacts of different domestic wastewater streams and the effectiveness of two water conservation policies by means of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA is used to compare three scenarios, including a baseline scenario (BL), YW-reduced scenario (YWR) and GW-reduced scenario (GWR). The BL is designed based on the current wastewater management system, whereas the latter two scenarios are constructed according to the two water conservation policies that are proposed by the Singapore government. The software SIMPARO 7.3 with local data and an eco-invent database is used to build up the model, and the functional unit is defined as the daily wastewater disposal of a Singapore resident. Due to local water supply characteristics, the system boundary is extended to include the sewage sludge management and tap water production processes. The characterization results indicate that the GWR has a significant impact reduction (22-25%) while the YWR has only a 2-4% impact reduction compared with the BL. The contribution analysis reveals that the GW dominates many impact categories except eutrophication potential. The tap water production is identified as the most influential process due to its high embodied energy demand in a local context. Life cycle costing analysis shows that both YWR and GWR are financially favorable. It is also revealed that the current water conservation policies could only achieve Singapore's short-term targets. Therefore, two additional strategies are recommended for achieving long-term goals. This study provides a

  3. Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

    2009-12-19

    The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

  4. A novel image processing-based system for turbidity measurement in domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Darragh; Coburn, Derek; Hannon, Louise; Jones, Edward; Clifford, Eoghan; Glavin, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are continually challenged to meet both environmental regulations and reduce running costs (particularly energy and staffing costs). Improving the efficiency of operational monitoring at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires the development and implementation of appropriate performance metrics; particularly those that are easily measured, strongly correlate to WWTP performance, and can be easily automated, with a minimal amount of maintenance or intervention by human operators. Turbidity is the measure of the relative clarity of a fluid. It is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed by fine particles in suspension (rather than transmitted with no change in direction or flux level through a fluid sample). In wastewater treatment, turbidity is often used as an indicator of effluent quality, rather than an absolute performance metric, although correlations have been found between turbidity and suspended solids. Existing laboratory-based methods to measure turbidity for WWTPs, while relatively simple, require human intervention and are labour intensive. Automated systems for on-site measuring of wastewater effluent turbidity are not commonly used, while those present are largely based on submerged sensors that require regular cleaning and calibration due to fouling from particulate matter in fluids. This paper presents a novel, automated system for estimating fluid turbidity. Effluent samples are imaged such that the light absorption characteristic is highlighted as a function of fluid depth, and computer vision processing techniques are used to quantify this characteristic. Results from the proposed system were compared with results from established laboratory-based methods and were found to be comparable. Tests were conducted using both synthetic dairy wastewater and effluent from multiple WWTPs, both municipal and industrial. This system has an advantage over current methods as it

  5. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Gheethi AA; Mohamed RMSR; Wurochekke AA; Nurulainee NR; Mas Rahayu J; Amir Hashim MK

    2017-01-01

    Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compou...

  6. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  7. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  8. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  9. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  10. Simultaneous methane production and wastewater reuse by a membrane-based process: Evaluation with raw domestic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Dawen, E-mail: dawengao@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); An Rui; Tao Yu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li Jin [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Li Xinxin; Ren Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, a membrane-based process was applied to simultaneously reclaim methane and generate reused water from raw domestic wastewater. The system was comprised of up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed bed (UAFB), anoxic sink (AS) and aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The hydraulic retention time of UAFB (HRT{sub U}) was gradually shortened from 8 h to 6 h, 3 h and to 1 h, while the HRT of AS and MBR kept at 8 h. It is found that HRT{sub U} of 3 h was more suitable for the balancing production of biogas and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and the VFAs served as carbon source for denitrification. The trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of the MBR kept lower than 0.04 MPa without wash or change of membrane sheet, however, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that microbes attached to the inner-surface of membrane, causing irreversible fouling after 133-day operation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments proved that more functional bacteria and higher microbial diversity emerged at HRT{sub U} of 3 h and 1 h. Most bacteria belonged to Betaproteobacteria and were responsible for carbon and nitrogen removal.

  11. Simultaneous methane production and wastewater reuse by a membrane-based process: Evaluation with raw domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dawen; An Rui; Tao Yu; Li Jin; Li Xinxin; Ren Nanqi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a membrane-based process was applied to simultaneously reclaim methane and generate reused water from raw domestic wastewater. The system was comprised of up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed bed (UAFB), anoxic sink (AS) and aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The hydraulic retention time of UAFB (HRT U ) was gradually shortened from 8 h to 6 h, 3 h and to 1 h, while the HRT of AS and MBR kept at 8 h. It is found that HRT U of 3 h was more suitable for the balancing production of biogas and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and the VFAs served as carbon source for denitrification. The trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of the MBR kept lower than 0.04 MPa without wash or change of membrane sheet, however, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that microbes attached to the inner-surface of membrane, causing irreversible fouling after 133-day operation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments proved that more functional bacteria and higher microbial diversity emerged at HRT U of 3 h and 1 h. Most bacteria belonged to Betaproteobacteria and were responsible for carbon and nitrogen removal.

  12. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with flocculent biomass. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of using flocculent sludge in UASB reactors applied to the treatment of dairy ...

  13. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  14. Selection criteria for wastewater treatment technologies to protect drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water bodies used as sources for drinking water is intimately linked to the adoption of adequate technologies for the treatment of the wastewater generated in the catchment area. The paper presents a general overview of the main technologies used for the treatment of domestic sewage, with a special emphasis on developing countries, and focussing on the main parameters of interest, such as BOD, coliforms and nutrients. A series of tables, figures and charts that can be used for the preliminary selection of treatment technologies is presented. The systems analysed are: stabilisation ponds, activated sludge, trickling filters, anaerobic systems and land disposal. Within each system, the main process variants are covered. Two summary tables are presented, one for quantitative analysis, including easily usable information based on per capita values (US$/cap, Watts/cap, m2 area/cap, m3 sludge/cap), and another for a qualitative comparison among the technologies, based on a one-to-five-star scoring system. The recent trend in tropical countries in the use of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors is also discussed.

  15. Treatment and reuse for irrigation of wastewater in Cagliari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragadin, G.L.; Franco, D.; Mancini, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    D.M. 12 June 2003 n. 185 gives national rules about wastewater recycling and reuse. Increasing in water consumption for new agricultural practise and uncertainty about availability of water resource in summer due to climatic instability make necessary to search new available fonts. In most part of Italian territory surface water volumes are taken into civil water distribution system for domestic use and, in summer, rivers are often in dry condition before arriving in urban tracts and in quality condition typical of domestic wastewater more or less treated in downstream. This work explains an experience in reclamation and irrigation reuse of a large flowrate of domestic wastewater carried out in Cagliari and discuss results in order to test reliability and efficiency with reference to existent Italian laws about discharge (D.Lgs n. 152/99) and reuse (D.M. n. 185/2003). Simbrizzi artificial basin make possible agricultural recycling and reuse realizing adequate retention basins for storage and final finishing of wastewater, at the same time permits to avoid every discharge in seawater during summer [it

  16. Decision support systems in water and wastewater treatment process selection and design: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, M A; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    2009-01-01

    The continuously changing drivers of the water treatment industry, embodied by rigorous environmental and health regulations and the challenge of emerging contaminants, necessitates the development of decision support systems for the selection of appropriate treatment trains. This paper explores a systematic approach to developing decision support systems, which includes the analysis of the treatment problem(s), knowledge acquisition and representation, and the identification and evaluation of criteria controlling the selection of optimal treatment systems. The objective of this article is to review approaches and methods used in decision support systems developed to aid in the selection, sequencing of unit processes and design of drinking water, domestic wastewater, and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Not surprisingly, technical considerations were found to dominate the logic of the developed systems. Most of the existing decision-support tools employ heuristic knowledge. It has been determined that there is a need to develop integrated decision support systems that are generic, usable and consider a system analysis approach.

  17. The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery

  18. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  19. The use of constructed wetlands for the treatment of industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypiecbcef Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands are characterized by specific conditions enabling simultaneous various physical and biochemical processes. This is the result of specific environment for the growth of microorganisms and hydrophytes (aquatic and semiaquatic plants which are capable of living in aerobic, anaerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions. Their interaction contributes to the intensification of oxidation and reduction responsible for the removal and retention of pollutants. These processes are supported by sorption, sedimentation and assimilation. Thanks to these advantages, treatment wetland systems have been used in communal management for over 50 years. In recent years, thanks to its advantages, low operational costs and high removal efficiency, there is growing interest in the use of constructed wetlands for the treatment or pre-treatment of various types of industrial wastewater. The study analyzes current use of these facilities for the treatment of industrial wastewater in the world. The conditions of use and efficiency of pollutants removal from readily and slowly biodegradable wastewater, with special emphasis on specific and characteristic pollutants of particular industries were presented. The use of subsurface horizontal flow beds for the treatment of industrial wastewater, among others from crude oil processing, paper production, food industry including wineries and distillery, olive oil production and coffee processing was described. In Poland constructed wetlands are used for the treatment of sewage and sludge from milk processing in pilot scale or for dewatering of sewage sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plant treating domestic sewage with approximately 40% share of wastewater from dairy and fish industry. In all cases, constructed wetlands provided an appropriate level of treatment and in addition the so-called ecosystem service.

  20. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  1. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  2. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  3. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  4. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  5. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  6. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  7. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  8. PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DE SISTEMAS DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS EN EL SITIO DE ORIGEN PROPOSTA METODOLÓGICA PARA A AVALIAÇÃO DE SISTEMAS DE TRATAMENTO DE ESGOTOS DOMÉSTICOS NO LUGAR DE ORIGEM METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR EVALUATION OF ON-SITE DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amparo Wills

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un método para la evaluación de sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas en el sitio de origen, el cual permite establecer de manera representativa su desempeño, asegurando, por medio de la instalación de dos unidades de homogeneización, que todas las cargas contaminantes generadas en la vivienda estarán presentes en la muestra compuesta por analizar en el laboratorio.Propõe-se um método para a avaliação de sistemas de tratamento de esgotos domésticos no lugar de origem, o qual permite estabelecer de maneira representativa seu desempenho, assegurando, por meio da instalação de duas unidades de homogeneização, que todas as cargas contaminantes geradas na moradia estarão presentes na amostra composta por analisar no laboratório.A method for the evaluation of domestic onsite wastewater treatment systems is proposed. It allows establishing, in a representative way, the performance of these systems ensuring, by the use of two homogenization units, that all pollutant loads generated in the house will be present in the composed sample to be analyzed in the laboratory.

  9. Nutrient content in maize fertilized with tannery sludge vermicompost and irrigated with domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the macro and micronutrient content of maize leaves (Zea mays L. grown in soil containing tannery sludge vermicomposting and irrigated with wastewater. The arrangement of the treatments consisted of a factorial 2x6 (two types of irrigation and six kinds of fertilizer in a completely randomized design, with five repetitions, totaling sixty experimental units. The following experimental units, irrigated with supply water (A and household wastewater (R, were established: (T1 Control Soil, with no chemical fertilization and no vermicomposting; (T2 Soil + NPK; (T3 Soil + primary sludge vermicompost; (T4 Soil + P + primary sludge vermicompost; (T5 Soil + P + liming sludge vermicompost; and (T6 Soil + liming sludge vermicompost. For the leaf-tissue analysis, the opposite whole leaf below the first (upper ear was collected from each plant, excluding the midrib at the onset of the female inflorescence. The results showed that both wastewater and the tannery sludge vermicomposts can be a good source of nutrients for maize plants, since the macro and micronutrients in the leaves of plants were satisfactory and no signs or symptoms of toxicity were observed. While leaf analysis alone is insufficient to assess the nutritional status of plants, this study innovatively suggests the potential beneficial use of a combination of wastewater and tannery sludge vermicompost in the cultivation of corn, motivating new research.

  10. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  11. Development of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-ZIF-8 Membrane for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N. A.; Wirzal, M. D. H.; Nordin, N. A. H.; Halim, N. S. Abd

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the water shortage problem following the urbanization and increasing pollution of natural water source have increased the awareness to treat wastewater. Membrane filtration is often used in wastewater treatment plants to filter out more residual activated sludge from aeration process in the secondary stage. However, fouling is the main concern due to the fact it can happen to any membrane application. Antifouling properties in membrane can be improved by blending membranes with fillers or additives to make them more hydrophilic. This study aims to improve the antifouling properties in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes while optimizing the loading of Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) fillers; at different loading (2.0 wt. %, 4.0 wt. %, 6.0 wt. %, 8.0 wt. % and 10.0 wt. %). Manual hand-casting of flat sheet membrane was done and the fabricated membranes were tested for their filterability against pure water and domestic wastewater. Both permeability tests showed that PVDF with 8% ZIF-8 membrane was the most permeable with a pure water and wastewater permeability of 150 L/m2.h.bar and 94 L/m2.h.bar, respectively. The pure water permeability of PVDF with 8% ZIF-8 membrane increases for about 130% compared to the pure PVDF membrane. The turbidity test of the initial feed and final permeate of wastewater, PVDF with 8% ZIF-8 membrane also gave out the highest reduction rate at 87%, which is 36% higher than that of pure PVDF membrane. It can be deduced that 8% of ZIF-8 is the ideal loading to PVDF in improving its antifouling properties to be used in domestic wastewater treatment.

  12. Extraction of hydrocarbons from freshwater green microalgae (Botryococcus sp.) biomass after phycoremediation of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Paran; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed; Matias-Peralta, Hazel; Mohamed, Radin Maya Saphira Radin; Latiff, Ab Aziz Abdul; Parjo, Umi Kalthsom

    2017-07-03

    This study was undertaken to analyze the efficiency of Botryococcus sp. in the phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and to determine the variety of hydrocarbons derived from microalgal oil after phycoremediation. The study showed a significant (p chemical oxygen demand, 69.1% biochemical oxygen demand, 59.9% total nitrogen, 54.5% total organic carbon, and 36.8% phosphate. The average dry weight biomass produce was 0.1 g/L of wastewater. In addition, the dry weight biomass of Botryococcus sp. was found to contain 72.5% of crude oil. The composition analysis using Gas Chromatogram - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) found that phthalic acid, 2-ethylhexyltridecyl ester (C 29 H 48 O 4 ), contributed the highest percentage (71.6%) of the total hydrocarbon compounds to the extracted algae oil. The result of the study suggests that Botryococcus sp. can be used for effective phycoremediation, as well as to provide a sustainable hydrocarbon source as a value-added chemical for the bio-based plastic industry.

  13. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  14. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  15. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  16. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  17. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  19. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  20. The radioactive organic wastewater treatment of INER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chinchang; Chen Chaorui; Chung Jenchren

    2014-01-01

    The treatment strategy of radioactive organic wastewater was to separate it at first, then to treat it step by step by the characteristics of liquid layer. The waste liquid has separated into three layers, the organic layer, aqueous layer and the bottom gel mastic by natural sedimentation. The organic layer has occupied 23% of the total volume, the intermediate aqueous layer occupied 75% of the total volume, the bottom mastic was about 2% of the total. The aqueous layer of organic waste was with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 20,000ppm. The combustion test shows good treatment performance and all samples can be decomposed completely by incineration. The experiment of incineration has passed the test more than 200 batches and 3000L low-level radioactive organic aqueous solution. The process goes smoothly and gas emission values far below the regulatory limit. Each kilogram of polymer absorber can absorb 45 kg aqueous solution to form a solid combustible material and can be decomposed by incineration. Organic waste solvents were diesel miscible and similar calorific value and small viscosity. It can be used as an incinerator auxiliary fuel of radioactive incinerator. The method testing has begun in this year. It has expected to save diesel fuel consumption of incineration, and well solved such kind waste liquid. (author)

  1. Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Tonetti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE (2000, 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde pública e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios.According to IBGE (2000 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and environmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

  2. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian; Katuri, Krishna; Logan, Bruce E.; Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Saikaly, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m2 (6.8 W/m3) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m2 (14.5 W/m3) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-15

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m2 (6.8 W/m3) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m2 (14.5 W/m3) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Material selection for a constructed wetroof receiving pre-treated high strength domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; van Dien, F; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2013-01-01

    A constructed wetroof (CWR) is defined in this study as the combination of a green roof and a constructed wetland: a shallow wastewater treatment system placed on the roof of a building. The foremost challenge of such CWRs, and the main aim of this investigation, is the selection of an appropriate matrix capable of assuring the required hydraulic retention time, the long-term stability and the roof load-bearing capacity. Six substrata were subjected to water dynamics and destructive tests in two testing-tables. Among all the materials tested, the substratum configuration composed of sand, light expanded clay aggregates, biodegradable polylactic acid beads together with stabilization plates and a turf mat is capable of retaining the water for approximately 3.8 days and of providing stability (stabilization plates) and an immediate protection (turf mat) to the system. Based on those results, a full-scale CWR was built, which did not show any physical deterioration after 1 year of operation. Preliminary wastewater treatment results on the full-scale CWR suggest that it can highly remove main wastewater pollutants (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, PO4(3-)-P and NH4(+)-N). The results of these tests and practical design considerations of the CWR are discussed in this paper.

  5. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  7. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  8. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  9. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... while the available sources of water are limited and de-. *Corresponding author. ... 186223 m3/d inflow to Asamra wastewater treatment plant. (ASTP) (Bataineh et al., ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar M, ...

  11. Wastewater Treatment Plants, North America, 2010, Dun and Bradstreet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — D&B 20101220 Wastewater Treatment Plants Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico, Released Quarterly...

  12. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  13. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  14. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  16. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  17. Improved Electrocoagulation Reactor for Rapid Removal of Phosphate from Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yushi; He, Weihua; Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Ren, Nanqi; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    by electrocoagulation. The performance of this process, called a reverse-electric field, air cathode electrocoagulation (REAEC) reactor, was tested using domestic wastewater as a function of charging time and electrocoagulation time. REAEC wastewater treatment removed

  18. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....

  19. Challege and Opportunities of Membrane Bioelctrochemical Reactors for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are potentially advantageous as an energy-efficient approach for wastewater treatment. Integrating membrane filtration with MFCs could be a viable option for advanced wastewater treatment with a low energy input. Such an integration is termed as membrane bioelectrochemical reactors (MBERs). Comparing to the conventional membrane bioreactors or anaerobic membrane bioreactors, MBER could be a competitive technology, due to the its advantages on energy consumption and...

  20. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the...

  1. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  2. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  3. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  4. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  5. A study on the treatment process of industrial wastewater related to heavy metal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Son, J. S.; Park, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    The supernatant from metal wastewater by using magnesium hydroxide and dolomite was used to treat dyeing wastewater. In the case of magnesium hydroxide. In the case of magnesium hydroxide, the optimum dosage was 10 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3 % (v/v) for separation B. Color turbidity and COD removal was 99 to 100 % , 85 to 97 % and 43 to 53 %, respectively. In the case of dolomite, the optimum dosage was 30 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3% for supernatant B. Color, turbidity and COD removal was 96 to 99 %, 62 to 91 % and 52 to 53 %, respectively. In dyeing wastewater treatment by using supernatant from metal wastewater, the cost of chemicals was reduced by about 80 %

  6. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  8. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  9. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  10. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  11. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  12. New Conceptual Model for Soil Treatment Units: Formation of Multiple Hydraulic Zones during Unsaturated Wastewater Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geza, Mengistu; Lowe, Kathryn S; Huntzinger, Deborah N; McCray, John E

    2013-07-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems are commonly used in the United States to reclaim domestic wastewater. A distinct biomat forms at the infiltrative surface, causing resistance to flow and decreasing soil moisture below the biomat. To simulate these conditions, previous modeling studies have used a two-layer approach: a thin biomat layer (1-5 cm thick) and the native soil layer below the biomat. However, the effect of wastewater application extends below the biomat layer. We used numerical modeling supported by experimental data to justify a new conceptual model that includes an intermediate zone (IZ) below the biomat. The conceptual model was set up using Hydrus 2D and calibrated against soil moisture and water flux measurements. The estimated hydraulic conductivity value for the IZ was between biomat and the native soil. The IZ has important implications for wastewater treatment. When the IZ was not considered, a loading rate of 5 cm d resulted in an 8.5-cm ponding. With the IZ, the same loading rate resulted in a 9.5-cm ponding. Without the IZ, up to 3.1 cm d of wastewater could be applied without ponding; with the IZ, only up to 2.8 cm d could be applied without ponding. The IZ also plays a significant role in soil moisture distribution. Without the IZ, near-saturation conditions were observed only within the biomat, whereas near-saturation conditions extended below the biomat with the IZ. Accurate prediction of ponding is important to prevent surfacing of wastewater. The degree of water and air saturation influences pollutant treatment efficiency through residence time, volatility, and biochemical reactions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Use of G3-DHS Bioreactor for Secondary Treatment of Septic Tank Desludging Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarul Machdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study was done for the use of the third-generation of downflow hanging sponge (G3-DHS bioreactor for secondary treatment of septic tank desludging wastewater. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prospective system of G3-DHS bioreactor to be applied in Indonesia. During experiment, the G3-DHS bioreactor kept a relatively high dissolved oxygen concentration under natural aeration. At a relatively short hydraulic retention (HRT of 3 h, the G3-DHS bioreactor could remove up to 21% (SD 15% of total COD, 21% (SD = 7% of filtered-COD, 58% (SD = 24% of unfiltered-BOD, and 33% (SD = 24% of ammonium removal. The final effluent had an unfiltered-BOD of only 46 mg.L-1 (SD = 20 mg.L-1 that it was below the Indonesian standard (unfiltered-BOD = 100 mg.L-1 for thresholds of domestic wastewater treatment plants effluent.

  16. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration...... for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment....... permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO...

  17. Determination of the efficiency of sawdust and coco fiber used as Biofilter for pollutant removal for the treatment of wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Vicente Reyes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is a resource used by mankind for industrial and domestic needs, which once used, is discharged into the public sewer system or septic tanks. This project proposes an ecological alternative for the treatment of wastewater from domestic use named Biofilter, which is built of living material (worms and inert material (chip and gravel, which filters the wastewater; the biological filter has shown high efficiency in the removal of organic matter and pathogens. The field work was carried out with experimental biological filters, to ascertain the best composition of inert material, different variants were used. Two experimental Biofilters, one using sawdust and the other coco fiber were used in the treatment of domestic wastewater; treated samples from each reactor were subjected to laboratory analysis. The analysis and interpretation of results showed that the Biofilter using sawdust removed 53.53 % of pollutants and is outside the required norm for wastewater treatment and the Biofilter using coco fiber removed 82.37 % of contaminants and is within the Environmental Quality Norm and Effluent Discharge: Water Resource.

  18. Effect of time on dyeing wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingjin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Chen, Xiaogang; Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent using high temperature activated fly ash and sodium carboxymethyl chitosan (CWF), as with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis process simulation and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The effects of mixing time and static time on decolorization ratio, COD removing rate and turbidness removing rate were investigated. The experimental results show that the wastewater stirring times on the decolorization rate and COD removal rate and turbidity removal rate influence, with increasing of the stirring time, three showed a downward trend, and reached the peak at 10 min time; wastewater time on the decolorization ratio and COD removing efficiency and turbidness removing rate influence, along with standing time increase, three who declined and reached the maximum in 30min time.

  19. Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in five municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Monastir Governorate, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafraf, Ikbel Denden; Lekunberri, Itziar; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Borrego, Carles M; Balcázar, José Luis

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing and significant threat to global public health, requiring better understanding of the sources and mechanisms involved in its emergence and spread. We investigated the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) before and after treatment in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different areas of the Monastir Governorate (Tunisia). Three of these WWTPs (Frina, Sahline and Zaouiet) use a conventional activated sludge process as secondary treatment, whereas the WWTP located in Beni Hassen applies an ultraviolet disinfection step after the activated sludge process and the WWTP located in Moknine treats wastewater using naturally aerated lagoons as a secondary treatment process. The abundance of six ARGs (bla CTX-M , bla TEM , qnrA, qnrS, sul I and ermB) and the class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) were determined by quantitative PCR. All ARGs and the intI1 gene were detected in the wastewater samples, except the bla CTX-M gene, which was not detected in both influent and effluent samples from Sahline and Beni Hassen WWTPs, and the qnrS gene, which was not detected neither in the WWTP influent in Moknine nor in the WWTP effluent in Beni Hassen. Although the relative concentration of ARGs was generally found to be similar between samples collected before and after the wastewater treatment, the abundance of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , and qnrS genes was higher in the effluent of the Frina WWTP which, unlike other WWTPs, not only receives domestic or industrial sewage but also untreated hospital waste. To the best of our knowledge, this study quantified for the first time the abundance of ARGs in different Tunisian WWTPs, and the results agree with previous studies suggesting that conventional wastewater treatment does not efficiently reduce ARGs. Therefore, these findings could be useful to improve the design or operation of WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  1. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  2. Peat leachmound treatment of on-site domestic septic effluent in cold region environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riznyk, Z; Rockwell, J [Alaska Pacific University, Anchorage (Alaska); Reid, L C; Reid, S L [Alaska Pacific University, Anchorage (Alaska). Environmental Control Services

    1990-01-01

    A two-year study of two pilot peat leachmounds has demonstrated that under cold region conditions of subzero temperatures, severe periodic storm events and break-up of winter ice and snow, that domestic septic tank effluent can be treated for subsurface or suface discharge. The quality of the peat leachate is similar to wastewater which has undergone tertiary treatment. It is our contention that peat leachmounds can be designed to treat the wastewater of Alaskan bush communities which to date still rely on privies and honey buckets. Not only could peat leachmounds be used in rural Alaska, but this technology could be extended to other northern tier counties such as the Soviet Union and Canada to improve the living conditions of the area's rural residents.

  3. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chlorid...

  4. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin...

  6. Pulsed reactor modelling for catalytic micropollutant treatment in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Juarros Bertolín, Helena Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This study stems from the problem of the presence of micropollutants (including phenolic compounds such as Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Triclosan) in urban and industrial wastewaters. Systems used in the wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing these micropollutants that are harmful for the environment. In an ongoing project, laccases, a group of enzymes, are used to efficiently catalyse the degradation of phenolic micropollutants. In this master thesis, it is proposed...

  7. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Minato, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    A method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants is characterized by the fact that concentration and volume reduction are performed after Ca and Mg as components for the formation of an adhering scale is converted to an 8-oxyquinoline complex, which is hardly soluble in water, and does not precipitate out as an adhering scale, by the addition of 8-oxyquinoline into nuclear power plant wastewater

  9. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Decentralised schemes for integrated management of wastewater and domestic organic waste: the case of a small community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijó, Lucía; Malamis, Simos; González-García, Sara; Moreira, María Teresa; Fatone, Francesco; Katsou, Evina

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses from an environmental perspective two different configurations for the combined treatment of wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) in a small and decentralised community having a population of 2000. The applied schemes consist of an upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) as core treatment process. Scheme A integrates membranes with the anaerobic treatment; while in Scheme B biological removal of nutrients in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is applied as a post treatment to UASB effluent. In energy-related categories, the main contributor is electricity consumption (producing 18-50% of the impacts); whereas in terms of eutrophication-related categories, the discharge of the treated effluent arises as a major hotspot (with 57-99% of the impacts). Scheme B consumes 25% more electricity and produces 40% extra sludge than Scheme A, resulting in worse environmental results for those energy categories. However, the environmental impact due to the discharge of the treated effluent is 75% lower in eutrophication categories due to the removal of nutrients. In addition, the quality of the final effluent in Scheme B would allow its use for irrigation (9.6 mg N/L and 2 mg P/L) if proper tertiary treatment and disinfection are provided, expanding its potential adoption at a wider scale. Direct emissions due to the dissolved methane in the UASB effluent have a significant environmental impact in climate change (23-26%). Additionally, the study shows the environmental feasibility of the use of food waste disposers for DOW collection in different integration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  12. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  13. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the right concept and a prototype for a particular processing plant, plastic processing plant. It is possible to determine the parameters that will increase the efficiency of sewage treatment while minimizing the financial effort on the part of the Company. Selection methods of wastewater treatment is also associated with the environmental strategy of the country at the enterprise level specified in the Environmental Policy. This is an additional argument for the use of biological methods in the treatment of industrial waste water.

  14. Contribution of different effluent organic matter fractions to membrane fouling in ultrafiltration of treated domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, effluent organic matter (EfOM) in treated domestic wastewater was separated into hydrophobic neutrals, colloids, hydrophobic acids, transphilic acids and neutrals and hydrophilic compounds. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was identified. Further characterization was conducted with respect to molecular size and hydrophobicity. Each isolated fraction was dosed into salt solution to identify its fouling potential in ultrafiltration (UF) using a hydrophilized polyethersulfone membrane. The results show that each kind of EfOM leads to irreversible fouling. At similar delivered DOC load to the membrane, colloids present the highest fouling effect in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The hydrophobic organics show much lower reversibility than the biopolymers present. However, as they are of much smaller size than the membrane pore opening, they cannot lead to such severe fouling as biopolymers do. In all of the isolated fractions, hydrophilics show the lowest fouling potential. For either colloids or hydrophobic substances, increasing their content in feedwater leads to worse fouling. The co-effect between biopolymers and other EfOM fractions has also been identified as one of the mechanisms contributing to UF fouling in filtering EfOM-containing waters. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  15. Biodegradation of di-n-Butyl Phthalate by Achromobacter sp. Isolated from Rural Domestic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Jin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for DBP degradation were pH 7.0, 35 °C, and an agitation rate of 175 rpm. Under these conditions, 500 mg/L of DBP was completely degraded within 30 h. The effects of heavy metals (50 mg/L Cu2+ and 500 mg/L Pb2+ and surfactants (100 mg/L SDS and 500 mg/L Tween 20 on DBP degradation were investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu2+ and SDS severely inhibited DBP degradation and Pb2+ weakly inhibited DBP degradation, while Tween 20 greatly enhanced DBP degradation. Furthermore, phthalate degradation genes were found to be located on a plasmid present in Achromobacter sp. W-1.

  16. Contribution of different effluent organic matter fractions to membrane fouling in ultrafiltration of treated domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, effluent organic matter (EfOM) in treated domestic wastewater was separated into hydrophobic neutrals, colloids, hydrophobic acids, transphilic acids and neutrals and hydrophilic compounds. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was identified. Further characterization was conducted with respect to molecular size and hydrophobicity. Each isolated fraction was dosed into salt solution to identify its fouling potential in ultrafiltration (UF) using a hydrophilized polyethersulfone membrane. The results show that each kind of EfOM leads to irreversible fouling. At similar delivered DOC load to the membrane, colloids present the highest fouling effect in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The hydrophobic organics show much lower reversibility than the biopolymers present. However, as they are of much smaller size than the membrane pore opening, they cannot lead to such severe fouling as biopolymers do. In all of the isolated fractions, hydrophilics show the lowest fouling potential. For either colloids or hydrophobic substances, increasing their content in feedwater leads to worse fouling. The co-effect between biopolymers and other EfOM fractions has also been identified as one of the mechanisms contributing to UF fouling in filtering EfOM-containing waters. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  17. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  18. Wastewater Treatment with Ammonia Recovery System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Örvös; T. Balázs; K. F. Both

    2008-01-01

    From environmental aspect purification of ammonia containing wastewater is expected. High efficiency ammonia desorption can be done from the water by air on proper temperature. After the desorption process, ammonia can be recovered and used in another technology. The calculation method described below give some methods to find either the minimum column height or ammonia rich solution of the effluent.

  19. Presence of helminth eggs in domestic wastewater and its removal at low temperature UASB reactors in Peruvian highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya-Beas, Rosa-Elena; Cadillo-La-Torre, Erika-Alejandra; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; van Lier, Jules B; Zeeman, Grietje

    2016-03-01

    This work studied the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity for pathogens reduction in a 29 L and 1.65 m height lab-scale UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater at low temperatures in the city of Puno (Peru). The anaerobic sludge filtration capacity was performed applying upflow velocities of 0.12, 0.14, 0.16, 0.20, 0.27 and 0.41 m/h. Results show that the HE removal varied between 89 and 95% and the most common specie was Ascaris lumbricoides. Faecal coliform and Escherichia coli removal varied in the range of 0.9-2.1 and 0.8-1.6 log10 respectively. Likely related to the low operational temperatures, the total COD removal varied between 37 and 62%. The best performance in terms of removal of HE, total COD and turbidity was obtained at the lowest upflow velocity of 0.12 m/h. In order to meet WHO standards for water reuse a post-treatment unit will be required to polish the effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing urban wastewater for maximising water resource utilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available into components of distinctly different quality, and the separate treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater for different end-uses. The groundwater exploitation strategy is largely controlled by water quality requirements. Reuse of domestic and industrial...

  1. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  2. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  3. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le-Clech, Pierre [New South Wales Univ., Sydney (Australia). UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology

    2010-12-15

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field. (orig.)

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  5. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without...... that plants with return sludge Side-Stream Hydrolysis (SSH) instead of the normal anaerobic process tank tended to have significantly fewer unwanted GAOs in contrast to many plants with traditional mainstream anaerobic tank and thus it was proposed that this system might be an effective strategy of control...

  6. Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Wongwattana, Thana; Shivakoti, Binaya Raj

    2011-04-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs. Surveys were conducted in central wastewater treatment plant in two industrial zones in Thailand. Samples were collected from influent, aeration tank, secondary clarifier effluent, effluent and sludge. The major purpose of this field study was to identify PFCs occurrences and mass flow during industrial WWTP. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis. Total 10 PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA), perfluordecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) were measured to identify their occurrences. PFCs were detected in both liquid and solid phase in most samples. The exceptionally high level of PFCs was detected in the treatment plant of IZ1 and IZ2 ranging between 662-847ngL(-1) and 674-1383ngL(-1), respectively, which greater than PFCs found in most domestic wastewater. Due to PFCs non-biodegradable property, both WWTPs were found ineffective in removing PFCs using activated sludge processes. Bio-accumulation in sludge could be the major removal mechanism of PFCs in the process. The increasing amount of PFCs after activated sludge processes were identified which could be due to the degradation of PFCs precursors. PFCs concentration found in the effluent were very high comparing to those in river water of the area. Industrial activity could be the one of major sources of PFCs

  7. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  8. Design of future municipal wastewater treatment plants: A mathematical approach to manage complexity and identify optimal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies and stricter effluent requirements imposed by regulations make the early stage decision making for WWTP layout design, which is currently based on expert decisions and previous experiences, much harder. This paper...... therefore proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem and generate/identify novel and optimal WWTP layouts for municipal/domestic wastewater treatment. Towards this end, after developing a database consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary WWT...... solved to obtain the optimal WWT network and the optimal wastewater and sludge flow through the network. The tool is evaluated on a case study, which was chosen as the Benchmark Simulation Model no.1 (BSM1) and many retrofitting options for obtaining a cost-effective treatment were investigated...

  9. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  10. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  11. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    Residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals find their way into the environment mainly through incomplete removal in the conventional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and appear as micro-pollutants at pg L-1 to μg L-1 concentrations. WWTPs were designed...

  12. Antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment systems and receiving waters in Arctic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neudorf, Kara D.; Huang, Yan Nan; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote...... communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems...... (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada. Measurement of water quality parameters (carbonaceous oxygen demand, ammonia, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliforms) showed...

  13. Improvement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.G.; Jung, J.; Choi, J.S.; Park, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents. (author)

  14. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m 2 /h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from high rate algal ponds treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Cynthia; Muñoz, Raúl; Norvill, Zane; Plouviez, Maxence; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the generation of N2O by microcosms withdrawn from 7-L high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) inoculated with Chlorella vulgaris and treating synthetic wastewater. Although HRAPs microcosms demonstrated the ability to generate algal-mediated N2O when nitrite was externally supplied under darkness in batch assays, negligible N2O emissions rates were consistently recorded in the absence of nitrite during 3.5-month monitoring under 'normal' operation. Thereafter, HRAP A and HRAP B were overloaded with nitrate and ammonium, respectively, in an attempt to stimulate N2O emissions via nitrite in situ accumulation. Significant N2O production (up to 5685±363 nmol N2O/g TSS h) was only recorded from HRAP B microcosms externally supplied with nitrite in darkness. Although confirmation under full-scale outdoors conditions is needed, this study provides the first evidence that the ability of microalgae to synthesize N2O does not affect the environmental performance of wastewater treatment in HRAPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of SBR technology for domestic waste water treatment; Aplicacion de la tecnologia SBR para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domesticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, S.; Mata-Alvarez, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the present study is to give an overall vision of SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactors) technology as an alternative way for treating domestic and municipal wastewaters. This technology has been gaining popularity through years, mainly due to its single-tank design and the ease of its automation. There are a lot of cases in literature dealing with the treatment of this kind of effluents with this technology, whether a lab-scale, pilot scale or industrial scale. Thus, this paper includes relevant experiments found in literature concerning domestic wastewater treatment. There is also a special attention given to an application that has been studied recently: the use of this technology in wastewater treatment plants, concretely for the treatment of the reject water found after anaerobic digesters, which contains high concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen. (Author)

  17. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  18. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Carla Regina; Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G.; Olivi, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity

  19. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  20. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carla Regina [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G. [Nucleo de Estudos em Ecossistemas Aquaticos, Centro de Recursos Hidricos e Ecologia Aplicada, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 292, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, Paulo [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: olivip@ffclrp.usp.br

    2008-05-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity.

  1. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  2. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  3. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  4. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  5. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  6. Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60 Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD

  7. Optimizing the selection of small-town wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Siqi

    2018-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment is energy-intensive. This high energy consumption causes high sewage treatment plant operating costs and increases the energy burden. To mitigate the adverse impacts of China’s development, sewage treatment plants should adopt effective energy-saving technologies. Artificial fortified natural water treatment and use of activated sludge and biofilm are all suitable technologies for small-town sewage treatment. This study features an analysis of the characteristics of small and medium-sized township sewage, an overview of current technologies, and a discussion of recent progress in sewage treatment. Based on this, an analysis of existing problems in municipal wastewater treatment is presented, and countermeasures to improve sewage treatment in small and medium-sized towns are proposed.

  8. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  9. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  10. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Maruyama, A. [Gunma Prefectural Sewerage Manegement General Office (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D{sub 1ng}, were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg{sup -1}), respectively. Since the D{sub 1ng} of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m{sup -3}. (author)

  11. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  12. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  13. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  14. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  15. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia, E-mail: lguerecah@iingen.unam.mx

    2016-02-15

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  16. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  17. Treatment of wastewater from service areas at motorways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with wastewater treatment systems placed in motorway service areas (MSAs. In the years 2008-2009 eight of such facilities installed on the stretch of the A2 motorway between Poznań and Nowy Tomyśl were examined and analyzed. The system consists of a septic tank, a submerged aerated biofilter and an outflow filter. The volume of traffic on the highway was analyzed, the amount of water use was measured and peak factors were calculated. On this basis it was concluded that the inflows to the wastewater treatment systems in many cases exceeded the nominal design values.

  18. Thermoeconomic analysis applied to an alternative wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Silveira, Jose Luz; Mattos dos Reis, Luiz Octavio [Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Oscare Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work develops a methodology for the determination of costs associated to products generated in a small wastewater treatment station. The methodology begins with plant units identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics features to each point indicated in its process diagram. Following, a functional diagram and a formulation are developed in exergetic basis, describing all equations for these points, which are the constraints for optimisation and are used to determine costs associated to products generated in a Small Wastewater Treatment Station - SWTS. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical system based on SWTS plants and presents consistent results when compared to values based on previous experiments and evaluations. (author)

  19. Wastewater treatment processes for the removal of emerging organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Rubio Clemente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic pollutants form a very heterogeneous group of substances that have negative effects on aquatic organisms, so they should be removed from the environment. Unfortunately, conventional processes in wastewater treatment plants, especially biological ones, are inefficient in the degradation of these substances. It is therefore necessary to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of the treatments, including advanced oxidation and membrane filtration processes. However, both techniques have drawbacks that may limit their stand-alone application, so it is proposed that the best solution may be to combine these technologies with biological processes to treat wastewater contaminated with emerging organic pollutants.

  20. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  1. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  2. MEJORAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD MICROBIOLÓGICA DE BIOSÓLIDOS GENERADOS EN PLANTAS DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS MELHORAMENTO DA QULIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DE BIOSÓLIDOS GERADOS EM PLANTAS DE TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUAIS MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF BIOSOLIDS FROM DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA TORRES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales problemas de calidad que presentan los biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas –PTAR– es el contenido de microorganismos patógenos que los clasifica en muchos casos como Clase B con restricción para uso agrícola. Este estudio evaluó la estabilización alcalina de los biosólidos de la PTAR Cañaveralejo (Cali, Colombia para mejorar su calidad microbiológica, empleando dos tipos de cal (hidratada y viva en dosis entre 8 y 25 % y dos tipos de ceniza con dosis entre 8 y 40 % en unidades experimentales de 0,2 m2 con un tiempo de contacto de 13 días. Los resultados mostraron que con cal se logró reducción total de las variables de respuesta evaluadas (coliformes fecales, Salmonella sp y huevos de helmintos, mientras que el poder alcalinizante de las cenizas evaluadas fue insuficiente. El biosólido higienizado con cal presenta alto potencial de uso agrícola por su calidad microbiológica y por el contenido final de materia orgánica y nutrientes (N, P que pueden beneficiar los suelos, pero es recomendable evaluar la optimización a escala piloto de la dosificación de cal y la aplicación del biosólido en diferentes tipos de suelos y cultivos para precisar los beneficios o medidas preventivas antes de la aplicación.One of the main quality problems of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants –WWTP– is the high concentration of pathogens, often classified as a class B, with restriction for use in agriculture. This study evaluated the alkali stabilization of biosolids from Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C, located in Cali, Colombia, in order to improve their microbiological quality using two types of lime (quick and hydrated with doses between 8 to 25 % and two types of ash with 8 to 40 % as doses, in experimental units 0,2 m2 with 13 days of contact time. The results showed that both type of lime reached the total reduction of evaluated monitoring

  3. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  4. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe 2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H 2 O 2 /COD molar ratio 2, H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  5. Assessment of the contamination with domestic wastewater in supply wells over sandbank area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Rocha Cordeiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination of septic tanks in the supply wells of a population settled over a sandbank area, the Lagomar neighborhood, in the city of Macaé (RJ. The neighborhood is located in the macro areas of the northern border, adjacent and buffer zone of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, with great ecological relevance and scenic beauty, and shelter for numerous coastal lagoons and endemic species. The studied area has low-income population, and no systems of wastewater treatment and public water supply, thus increasing the risk of diseases related to poor environmental sanitation. The presence of fecal coliforms in all samples, including a sample of treated water, indicates health risks to the local population, as well as risks of ecosystem change in the National Park and its surroundings.

  6. Electron beam treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 of textile dyeing wastewater per day with electron beam has constructed and operated continuously in Daegu, Korea since 1998. This plant is combined with biological treatment system and it shows the reduction of chemical reagent consumption, and also the reduction in retention time with the increase in removal efficiencies of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30∼40%. Increase in biodegradability after radiation treatment of aqueous-organic systems is due to radiolytical conversions of non-biodegradable compounds. On the basis of data obtained from pilot plant operation, construction of actual industrial scale plant has started in 2003, and will be finished by 2005. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility (Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex) and to have treatment capacity 10,000 m 3 of wastewater per day using one 1 MeV, 400 kW accelerator, and combined with existing bio- treatment facility. The overall construction cost and the operation cost in the radiation processing, when compared to other conventional and advanced oxidation techniques, are more cost-effective and convenient for wastewater treatment. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. (author)

  7. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  8. Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two beds planted with yang A. hybridus plants (high density: 40 plants/m²; low density: 10 plants/m²) and one control (unplanted bed) were used to perform the experiment. The pH of the overall filtrates decreased from 7 to around 8. Planted beds gave best COD removal (high density = 70%, low density = 66%) than the ...

  9. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction potential is about 2460 .... series of baffles in which the water is forced to rise upward and .... cm internal diameter). Above 50% .... pilot and full scale plants in operation in Japan, India,. Brazil and ...

  10. evaluation of the performance of the domestic wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. 35, No. ... True destruction of organics, versus mere phase ... been threatened due to exposure of the residents and ..... 3, 2011, pp: 125-128. [4] Sangodoyin, A. Y. and Essien, O.E.. Effect of.

  11. Assessment of yeast biofilter in the treatment of domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia spp, Pseudomanas spp, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, Bacillus cereus and the fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum spp, Aspergillus flavus were completely eliminated after the biofiltration process. This shows the health ...

  12. Incentives in the water chain: wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The proper management of wastewater and its reuse is crucial in order to reduce hazards and maintain a variety of benefits. The merits of improvements in wastewater management are particularly high where effective wastewater treatment is not in place and completely untreated wastewater is reused.

  13. Treatment of wastewaters and methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J P; Bourlet, P

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scale experiments were conducted on the anaerobic fermentation of spent sugar beet pulps and wastewater from wineries. The product of the fermentation was a gas typically containing CH/sub 4/ 65, CO/sub 2/ 15, H/sub 2/S 2.4, 0.3, N 0.8, and nonidentified substances 16.1 volume %. A 500 L pilot plant could process 10 kg/day of the spent beet pulp containing 20% solids and produce 500-600 L/day gas. The conversion of organic C was 66-91%.

  14. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  15. Progress report: Use of water hyacinth in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof, Abdullah bin

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that water hyacinth shows remarkable ability to remove, besides heavy metals, BOD and COD load from wastewaters which contain mainly organic pollutants. A survey was conducted to select suitable industrial effluents for pilot field studies, in particular wastewaters which were organic in nature such as those from food industries. A proposal to set up a pilot treatment system for field studies m addition to laboratory investigations was consistent with the recommendation put forward at the First Interim Project Review Meeting held in 1980 . It has been reported that introduction of water hyacinth into digested sugar waste would significantly enhance the efficiency of purification of the waste. Brief trials with a sugar refinery effluent in the laboratory showed the possibility of subjecting the wastewater to the water hyacinth treatment system in a pilot field study and arrangements were then made for the study to be carried out at site

  16. The influence of al-madinah al-munawwara treated and untreated domestic wastewater on growth and physiology of three tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhkha, A.; Boutraa, T.; Shoaibi, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of irrigation with Al-Madinah Al-Munawwara domestic wastewater on three tomato genotypes (AL, P and VF) was investigated. Five treatments including Tap water, untreated (TN), primary (T1), secondary (T2) and tertiary (T3) treated wastewaters were used for irrigation. The physico-chemical characteristics of wastewater were determined. Leaves were analysed for N, P, K and heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Nickel). The growth parameters assessed were % germination, plant height, shoot and root dry weights, and total leaf dry weight. Some physiological parameters such as photosynthetic light response curve, maximum gross photosynthesis (Amax), dark respiration (DR), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm and Fv / Fm), chlorophyll content index and stomatal conductance were detected. % germination was decreased in both A1 and P genotype, with no effect on VF genotype. Most growth parameters were increased in genotype A1, followed by VF then P genotype which had a sensitive leaf dry weight to T2 and T3. Photosynthesis was mainly increased in A1 genotype with a decrease in VF genotype. DR was negatively affected in VF genotype with no response of A1 genotype. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed an increase in Fo in VF genotype but a decrease in Fv / Fm in both A1 and VF genotypes. Chlorophyll content index was decreased but only in A1 and VF genotypes under TN. Treatment with TN and / or T1 decreased stomatal conductance in all genotypes. The levels of heavy metals in wastewaters used were lower than the standard limits; however, plant chemical analysis showed that the leaves of the three tomato genotypes accumulated heavy metals but differently with higher levels at TN and lower levels at T3. (author)

  17. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  18. Urban wastewater treatment by using Ag/ZnO and Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia Mesa, Julie J; Arias Bolivar, Lizeth G; Sarmiento, Hugo Alfonso Rojas; Martínez, Elsa Giovanna Ávila; Páez, César Jaramillo; Lara, Mayra Anabel; Santos, José Antonio Navío; Del Carmen Hidalgo López, María

    2018-03-02

    In this study, the treatment of wastewater coming from a river highly polluted with domestic and industrial effluents was evaluated. For this purpose, series of photocatalysts obtained by ZnO and TiO 2 modification were evaluated. The effect of metal addition and Ti precursor (in the case of the titania series) over the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of the materials obtained was also analyzed. The evaluation of the photocatalytic activity showed that semiconductor modification and precursor used in the materials synthesis are important factors influencing the physicochemical and therefore the photocatalytic properties of the materials obtained. The water samples analyzed in the present work were taken from a highly polluted river, and it was found that the effectiveness of the photocatalytic treatment increases when the reaction time increases and for both, wastewater samples and isolated Escherichia coli strain follow the next order Pt/TiO 2 < ZnO. It was also observed that biochemical and chemical demand oxygen and turbidity significantly decrease after treatment, thus indicating that photocatalysis is a non-selective technology, which can lead to recover wastewater containing different pollutants.

  19. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  20. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  1. Industrial detergent wastewater treatment via fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zairie Mohd Yusuff; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Izirwan Izhab

    2010-01-01

    Production of detergent can generates wastewater containing an organic matter with will consume an oxidation demand, surfactants, suspended solids, fat and oil. Besides, sulfate concentration is high in the most detergent plant effluent because of the sulphonation process that has physiological and toxic effects on marine organisms. Therefore, a research must be conducted to find the solution for this problem. The feasibility of Fentons reagent to treat detergent waste was investigated in this study. The sample of detergent wastewater was taken from FPG Oleo chemicals Sdn. Bhd. This experiment studied the effect of temperature towards the feasibility of Fentons reagent process besides the dosage between hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) in the reagent. While, evaluated efficiency of Fentons reagent in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and the turbidity reduction within the experimental design. The result found that overall removal was achieved until 96.2 % in term of COD, 98.1 % in term of TSS and 99.6 % in term of turbidity using Fentons reagent process. Besides, also found that this process is optimum at temperature 35 degree Celsius are able to achieve the Standard A of Parameter Limit of Effluent of Standard A and Standard B were outlined by Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) based on Environment Quality Act 1974. (author)

  2. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  3. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  4. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  5. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  6. PERSPECTIVAS DEL TRATAMIENTO ANAEROBIO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS EN PAÍSES EN DESARROLLO PERSPECTIVAS DO TRATAMENTO ANAERÓBIO DE ESGOTOS DOMÉSTICOS EM PAÍSES EM DESENVOLVIMENTO PERSPECTIVES OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2012-12-01

    demonstra que é uma tecnologia consolidada, com eficiências de redução entre 65 % e 80 % de DQO e TRH entre 6 e 10 horas. No entanto, é necessário continuar avançando na melhoria e aperfeiçoamento dos atuais métodos de tratamento que permitam soluções tecnológicas respeitosas com o ambiente e adequadas às condições socioeconômicas e culturais próprias de cada região. Este documento propõe uma análise e reflexão sobre o tratamento anaeróbio de esgotos domésticos em países em desenvolvimento e sobre as perspectivas de aplicação em pequena e grande escala.Appropriate and sustainable municipal wastewater treatments plants -WWTP- are strongly required in developing countries which face both sanitation problems and poverty. Anaerobic digestion, as a leading technology that generates value added products (i.e. bio-energy, nutrients and water for reuse has proved to be suitable in those countries, which are mostly placed in tropical and subtropical regions with temperatures higher than 20 °C. Latin America is the region with the highest number of anaerobic WWTP, being the UASB reactor the most common technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Onça WWTP (Belo Horizonte, Brazil is an example of a large scale implementation, showing that UASB is a stabilized technology with COD removal efficiencies ranging from 65 % to 80 % and HRT between 6-10 hours. However, further research is highly needed in order to improve and upgrade the existing treatment methods; so as to achieve technological solutions that prove to be environmentally harmless and suitable to each particular socio-economic and cultural condition. This work is aimed at analyzing and discussing the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater issues and its application perspectives at both small and large scale in developing countries.

  7. Foraging at wastewater treatment works increases the potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) are known to provide profitable foraging areas for insectivorous bats in Europe and the New World because of their association with high abundance of pollution-tolerant midges (Diptera). However, bats that feed on these insects may also accumulate metal pollutants such as cadmium ...

  8. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able t...

  9. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  10. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  11. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fungal biomass as a lipase biocatalyst represents an attractive approach for the treatments of oil wastewater as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. In this work, 20 filamentous fungi were isolated from the grease trap ...

  12. Assessment of dairy wastewater treatment and its potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution of dairy wastewater treated in a septic tank and its potential for biogas production was investigated. Performance of the existing treatment system was assessed through characterization of both raw and treated effluents. From the analysis parameters likeChemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical ...

  13. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  14. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  16. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  17. Treatment of grain distillation wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In operation of the full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system at the Stellenbosch Farmers' Winery (SFW) Wellington distillery, a problem encountered in the treatment of grain distillation wastewater was the accumulation of a floating scum layer. On occasion this was so severe that it forced shutdown of the UASB ...

  18. Advanced oxidation-based treatment of furniture industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichonovas, Martynas; Krugly, Edvinas; Grybauskas, Arturas; Jankūnaitė, Dalia; Račys, Viktoras; Martuzevičius, Dainius

    2017-07-16

    The paper presents a study on the treatment of the furniture industry wastewater in a bench scale advanced oxidation reactor. The researched technology utilized a simultaneous application of ozone, ultraviolet radiation and surface-immobilized TiO 2 nanoparticle catalyst. Various combinations of processes were tested, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photolytic ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation were tested against the efficiency of degradation. The efficiency of the processes was primarily characterized by the total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, indicating the remaining organic material in the wastewater after the treatment, while the toxicity changes in wastewater were researched by Daphnia magna toxicity tests. Photocatalytic ozonation was confirmed as the most effective combination of processes (99.3% of TOC reduction during 180 min of treatment), also being the most energy efficient (4.49-7.83 MJ/g). Photocatalytic ozonation and photolytic ozonation remained efficient across a wide range of pH (3-9), but the pH was an important factor in photocatalysis. The toxicity of wastewater depended on the duration of the treatment: half treated water was highly toxic, while fully treated water did not possess any toxicity. Our results indicate that photocatalytic ozonation has a high potential for the upscaling and application in industrial settings.

  19. Behavior of natural radionuclides in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, A.; Montaña, M.; Vallés, I.; Devesa, R.; Céspedes-Sánchez, R.; Serrano, I.; Blázquez, S.; Barjola, V.

    2012-01-01

    56 samples, including influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent and final effluent wastewater from two Spanish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess both the occurrence and behavior of natural radioactivity during 12 sampling campaigns carried out over the period 2007–2010. Influent and final effluent wastewaters were sampled by taking into account the hydraulic residence time within the WWTP. A wide range of gross alpha activities (15–129 mBq/L) and gross beta activities (477–983 mBq/L) in liquid samples were obtained. A correlation analysis between radioactivity in liquid samples and the performance characteristics of the WWTPs was performed. The results in liquid samples showed that gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. However, gross alpha activities behave differently and an increase was detected in the effluent values compared with influent wastewater. This behavior was due to the increase in the total dissolved uranium produced during secondary treatment. The results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the effluents do not present a significant radiological risk and make them suitable for future applications. - Highlights: ► Liquids from WWTPs were analyzed to know the behavior of natural radionuclides. ► Gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. ► Increase in gross alpha activity was observed due to uranium desorption/solubilisation. ► Correlation between gross alpha activity and the chemical oxygen demand was found

  20. Operation and effluent quality of a small rural wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of effluent and sludge discharges of an abattoir wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the operation of a municipal aerated pond WWTP. Experiments were carried out in Cervera WWTP, located in northeastern Spain, which comprises four ponds operating in series.

  1. Methodology for Plantwide Design and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Dragan, Johanna; Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Design of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a complex engineering task which requires integration of knowledge and experience from environmental biotechnology, process engineering, process synthesis and design as well as mathematical programming. A methodology has been formulated and applied...... for the systematic analysis and development of plantwide design of WWTPs using mathematical optimization and statistical methods such as sensitivity and uncertainty analyses....

  2. Public and Private Management of Wastewater Treatment: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The costs and performance of contract management of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered, using information from a nationwide empirical examination of evidence from individual plants, municipalities, and regulatory agencies. The broad issues arising in the evaluation are outlined as the specifics are discussed. (SLD)

  3. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-01-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  5. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  6. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  7. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  8. Vertical and horizontal assemblage patterns of bacterial communities in a eutrophic river receiving domestic wastewater in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Wang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Weiguo; Di, Panpan; Yi, Neng; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial communities in rivers receiving untreated domestic wastewater may show specific spatial assemblage patterns due to a wide range of physicochemical conditions created by periodic algal bloom. However, there are significant gaps in understanding environmental forces that drive changes in microbial assemblages in polluted rivers. In this study, we applied high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to perform comprehensive spatio-temporal profiling of bacterial community structure in a local river segment receiving domestic wastewater discharge in southeast China. Multivariate statistics were then used to analyse links between bacterial community structure and environmental factors. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plots showed that the bacterial community structure was different between upstream and downstream sections of the river. While the upstream water contained a high proportion of bacteria degrading xenobiotic aromatic compounds, the downstream water experiencing stronger algal bloom had a more diverse bacterial community which included the genus Aeromonas comprising 14 species, most of which are human pathogens. Least discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size revealed that the surface water was mainly inhabited by aerobic microorganisms capable of degrading aromatic compounds, and also contained bacterial genera including pathogenic species. In contrast, in the bottom water we found, along with aromatic compound-degrading species, anaerobic denitrifiers and Fe 3+ -reducing and fermentative bacteria. Variance partitioning canonical correspondence analysis (VPA) showed that nutrient ratios had a stronger contribution to bacterial dissimilarities than other major physicochemical factors (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, and chlorophyll a). These results show that microbial communities in rivers continuously receiving domestic wastewater have specific longitudinal and vertical assemblage patterns and may contain

  9. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  10. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  11. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

    2012-05-15

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Data Management Manual for the Wastewater Treatment Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); De Fontaine, Andre [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Energy efficiency has become a higher priority within the wastewater treatment sector, with facility operators and state and local governments ramping up efforts to reduce energy costs and improve environmental performance. Across the country, municipal wastewater treatment plants are estimated to consume more than 30 terawatt hours per year of electricity, which equates to about $2 billion in annual electric costs. Electricity alone can constitute 25% to 40% of a wastewater treatment plant’s annual operating budget and make up a significant portion of a given municipality’s total energy bill. These energy needs are expected to grow over time, driven by population growth and increasingly stringent water quality requirements. The purpose of this document is to describe the benefits of energy data management, explain how it can help drive savings when linked to a strong energy management program, and provide clear, step-by-step guidance to wastewater treatment plants on how to appropriately track energy performance. It covers the basics of energy data management and related concepts and describes different options for key steps, recognizing that a single approach may not work for all agencies. Wherever possible, the document calls out simpler, less time-intensive approaches to help smaller plants with more limited resources measure and track energy performance. Reviews of key, publicly available energy-tracking tools are provided to help organizations select a tool that makes the most sense for them. Finally, this document describes additional steps wastewater treatment plant operators can take to build on their energy data management systems and further accelerate energy savings.

  14. Supported graphene oxide hollow fibre membrane for oily wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nur Hidayati; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Shahruddin, Munawar Zaman; Hussein, Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed; Dollah, Aqilah

    2017-12-01

    Oil and gas industry deals with a large amount of undesirable discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes and the amounts can considerably change during the production phases. Oilfield wastewater or produced water is known to constitute various organic and inorganic components. Discharging the produced water can pollute surface and underground water and therefore the necessity to treat this oily wastewater is an inevitable challenge. The current technologies for the treatment of this metastable oil-in-water are not really effective and very pricey. As a result, there is a great interest from many parties around the world in finding cost-effective technologies. In recent years, membrane processes have been utilized for oily wastewater treatment. In these work, a graphene oxide membrane supported on a highly porous Al2O3 hollow fibre was prepared using vacuum assisted technique and its performance in treating oily wastewater was investigated. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared using a modified Hummer's method and further characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. The results showed that the GO was successfully synthesized. The GO membrane was deposited on alumina hollow fibre substrates. The membrane performance was then investigated using dead-end filtration setup with synthetic oily wastewater as a feed. The effects of operating times on rejection rate and permeate flux were investigated. The experimental results showed that the oil rejections were over 90%. It was concluded that the supported GO membrane developed in this study may be considered feasible in treating oily wastewater. Detail study on the effects of transmembrane pressure, oil concentration, pH and fouling should be carried out in the future

  15. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  16. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform.

  17. Wastewater Sludge Stabilization Using Lime A Case Study of West Ahwaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Farzadkia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization is a chemical method used for wastewater sludge stabilization. It is capable of decreasing large quantities of pathogens and of preventing microbial degradation of sludge organic materials. The main objective of the present experimental research was to investigate stabilization of the sludge from west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant by lime addition and to control if the microbial quality of this sludge conforms to the USEPA standards for sludge reuse and safe disposal. The study was carried out on a pilot scale in 5 stages over a period of 12 months (July 2005 to June 2006 at west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant laboratory using raw sludge. For the purposes of this study, a 30-liter reactor was commissioned and loaded with sludge and appropriate quantities of hydrated lime were added based on the solid waste percent. The parameters used to determine stabilization efficiency were pH, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and parasite eggs. The results showed that lime addition at a ratio of 265g Ca(OH2/kg. ds was the optimum level for sludge stabilization in westAhwazwastewater treatment plant, which is acceptable from both economic and technical viewpoints. The method is capable of achieving class B but never satisfied class A of USEPA standards.

  18. PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR TREATMENT WETLAND APPLICATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN DISPERSED DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the conducted analyses of pre-feasibility study of different approaches for wastewater management in a settlement of 180 persons. In the assessment both technical and economic aspects were analyzed. The costs were calculated for three different and, at the same time, most popular as well as possible technical solutions like: (i construction of local wastewater treatment plant with gravitational and pressurized networks, (ii construction of single family wastewater treatment plants, (iii construction of sealed septic tanks. Carried out analyses of investment and maintenance costs revealed that at the stage of construction the most expensive is local sewer network with treatment plant, while the construction of a single family treatment plant has similar cost regardless of the technology used. When the long term operation and investment cost are accounted the most economical reasonable solution is the application of wetland treatment for household wastewater treatment.

  19. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  20. Occurrence and fate of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Ruepert, C.; Ibáñez, M.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central

  1. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  2. Post treatment of antibiotic wastewater by adsorption on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullai, P.; Rajesh, V.

    2018-02-01

    The most common method of treating industrial wastewater involves biomethanation in anaerobic digesters. This biological treatment process is ineffective in color removal and it requires post-treatment methods. The color is the first contaminant in wastewater which affects the water bodies in several ways. As the anaerobically digested antibiotic wastewater was found with color, an attempt was made to remove color using granulated activated carbon as an adsorbent. Experiments were carried out in batch reactors to find out the color removal efficiency of the wastewater at four different dosages such as 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of adsorbent material at each of the four different initial concentrations of effluent like 1956, 1450, 1251 and 1040 mg COD/L. The steady state values of color removal efficiencies were 96.6, 97.64, 98.64 and 99.63%, respectively, using 100 mg of activated carbon under shaking condition at the end of the 120th min. The effect of contact time on the percentage of color removal was also studied. It was observed that the adsorption of effluent obtained equilibrium at 120 minutes. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms.

  3. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside TM FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.

  4. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetic coefficients for the biological treatment of tannery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of kinetic coefficients for a particular wastewater is imperative for the rational design of biological treatment-facilities. The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out kinetic coefficients for tannery wastewater. A bench-scale model of aerated lagoon, consisting of an aeration tank and final clarifier, was use to conduct the studies. The model was operated continuously for 96 days, by varying the detention times from 3 to 9 days. Influent for the aerated lagoon was settled tannery wastewater. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the influent and effluent and the mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of aeration tank were determined at various detention-times so as to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The kinetic coefficients k, Ks, Y and Ed were found to be 3.125 day/sup -1/, 488 mg/L, 0.64 and 0.035 day/sup -1/ respectively. Overall rate-constant of BOD, removal 'K' was also determined and was found to be 1.43 day/sup -1/. Kinetic coefficients were determined, at mean reactor-temperature of 30.2 degree C. These coefficients may be utilized for the design of biological-treatment facilities for tannery wastewater. (author)

  6. Nutrient recovery from airplane wastewater: composition, treatment and ecotoxicological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Jorge Luiz da Paixão; Tonetti, Adriano Luiz; Guimarães, Martha Tavanielli; Silva, Dailto

    2017-04-01

    For the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, Brazil has expanded its airport infrastructure. This will lead to an increase in wastewater generation from aircrafts. This wastewater is traditionally taken from the aircrafts and disposed in the public sewage collection system. However, this residual water may have a different composition than the usual sanitary sewage. Therefore, it is important to study an alternative to treat this kind of wastewater. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and analyze the treatment of wastewater from airplane toilets through chemical precipitation for the removal of ammonia in the form of struvite. The airplanes' effluent showed a composition similar to human urine with pH 8.9, ammonia nitrogen 4,215 mg L -1 , phosphorus 430 mg L -1 and a very high acute toxicity (Vibrio fischeri). The best treatment for struvite formation was with pH 9.0 and molar ratio Mg:NH 4 :PO 4 equal to 1.5:1.0:1.0. In this case, the removal of ammonia and phosphorus achieved 97.0% and 95.3%, respectively. After this procedure, the toxicity by Vibrio fischeri decreased.

  7. Fluidized bed bio reactor sewage treatment system and wastewater quality at Kudankulam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; George, Thomas; Rajan, P.S.; Kumar, M.; Rajan, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    With the availability of fresh water becoming exiguous in certain coastal belts, it has become imperative to manage water resources in a resourceful and judicious manner. The focus has also shifted to minimum or zero tolerance from existing waste treatment plants so as not to contaminate or pollute the already shrinking drinking water resources. Many of the modern waste treatment approaches are already aiming at zero discharge with a view to conserving the ecological balance and to protect the rich bio diversity, flora and fauna. This paper describes one such domestic sewage treatment system called fluidized bed bio reactor operating in the residential colony and plant site area of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project. Wastewater quality of the resulting effluent water is also discussed. (author)

  8. 78 FR 18235 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses CFR Correction 0 In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to...)-1 Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign loss account., listings for paragraphs (d)(4)(i) and...

  9. 75 FR 13679 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as of April 1, 2009, on page 808, in Sec. 1.904(f)-2, in paragraph (c)(5) Example 4...

  10. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  11. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  12. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P. M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J. P.; Botelho, M. L. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Sacavém (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  13. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P.M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J.P.; Botelho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  14. Domestic Violence Offender Treatment and Multidisciplinary Treatment Teams: The Role of "Treatment" Victim Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Gover, Angela R

    2018-03-01

    In Colorado, "treatment victim advocates" (TVAs) serve alongside providers and probation/parole officers on "multidisciplinary treatment teams" (MTTs) to oversee domestic violence offender's treatment. Although this model provides an opportunity for victim safety concerns to be heard, the utility of using victim advocates as advisors regarding interventions for domestic violence offenders has yet to be studied. Using survey data and narrative responses from TVAs ( N = 37), the current study examines the challenges and opportunities TVAs face while serving on MTTs. Results suggest that, overall, TVAs are successful in communicating with other members of the MTT, are confident that their perspectives are valued in the offender decision-making process, and are able to provide a wide variety of services and referrals to the victims with whom they are engaged. Implications and recommendations for the Colorado model as well as correctional professionals managing domestic violence offenders internationally are presented and discussed.

  15. Chemical treatment of wastewaters produced during separation of iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Marcaillou, J.; Amavis, R.

    1959-01-01

    The authors report the development and assessment of a chemical treatment of radioactive wastewaters by co-precipitation. This treatment is aimed at replacing a treatment based on the use of calcium phosphate which proved to be insufficient for wastewaters resulting from the production of iodine 131. After a presentation of the characteristics of the effluents to be processed, the authors report co-precipitation tests performed on effluents before release in the storage vessel (by using barium hydroxide, lead acetate or lead sulfate) and on effluents diluted on the storage vessel. They show that a co-precipitation method based on the use of lead sulfate in alkaline medium gives the best results

  16. Wastewater Treatment Optimization for Fish Migration Using Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain types of fish migrate between the sea and fresh water to spawn. In order for them to swim without any breathing problem, river should contain enough oxygen. If fish is passing along the river in municipal area, it needs sufficient dissolved oxygen level which is influenced by dumped amount of wastewater into the river. If existing treatment methods such as settling and biological oxidation are not enough, we have to consider additional treatment methods such as microscreening filtration and nitrification. This study constructed a wastewater treatment optimization model for migratory fish, which considers three costs (filtration cost, nitrification cost, and irrigation cost and two environmental constraints (minimal dissolved oxygen level and maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration. Results show that the metaheuristic technique such as harmony search could find good solutions robustly while calculus-based technique such as generalized reduced gradient method was trapped in local optima or even divergent.

  17. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  18. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  19. New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, L.; Rieger, L.; Takacs, I.

    2010-01-01

    Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new...... is a framework that can be used in whole plant modelling, which consists of different fields such as activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, sidestream treatment, membrane bioreactors, metabolic approaches, fate of micropollutants and biofilm processes. The main objective of this consensus building paper...... notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide...

  20. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.