WorldWideScience

Sample records for domestic supplies

  1. Requirements for a commercial-scale domestic Mo-99 supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, R.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes the requirements for commercial-scale domestic Molybdenum-99 supply for the United States. It outlines the USA demand for Molybdenum-99 and the supply situation in the USA. Domestic supply ceased in the late 80s. The basic supply issues for USA are quantity, product quality, process control and logistics. It is proposed that the most viable solution to the chronic radionuclide supply problem faced by the USA medical community is the development of a domestic and dedicated single-purpose LEU- based reactor, collocated with a separation processing facility, and capable supplying 100-200% of U.S. demand for the principle clinical radionuclide, Molybdenum-99.

  2. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement

  3. 14 CFR 121.639 - Fuel supply: All domestic operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964, to fly for 30 minutes at normal... § 121.639 Fuel supply: All domestic operations. No person may dispatch or take off an airplane unless it has enough fuel— (a) To fly to the airport to which it is dispatched; (b) Thereafter, to fly to and...

  4. Domestic nuclear fuels supply: possibility of an independent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    After considering the different energy sources, their consumption and their respective periods of exploitation, technological considerations in the nuclear fuel field are made. The main subject is the Domestic Supply Project of Embalse Fuel (CANDU type). The different aspects which had to be developed during the realization of this project still under progress, and which are fundamental for the command of the technology, are described: 1) Qualification of the produced fuel elements: fuel elements' characteristics; the reactors' operating parameters, and the prototype fuel elements' characteristics; 2) Development of materials and/or suppliers: the obtainment of UO 2 and its physical properties are considered, as well as those of Zircaloy-4, the development of suppliers and the respective developments for the obtainment of materials such as beryllium, helium and colloidal graphite; 3) Processes development; the following processes are studied and defined: UO 2 pellets fabrication with UO 2 granulated powder; beryllium coating under vaccum; and induction brazing of bearing pads and spacers, end cap and end plate resistance welding and stamping of Zircaloy components, graphite-coating of cladding's internal face; 4) Development of special production equipments; automatic equipment for end cap-to-cladding resistance welding among others. The need for a specific program of quality assurance for nuclear fuels supply is emphasized and the basic criteria are established. The IAEA's quality asssurance requirements are also analyzed. (M.E.L.) [es

  5. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is

  6. A case study on the status of water supply for domestic purposes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water supply is a daily necessity and key factor in human health and well being. Without water, life cannot be sustained and lack of access to adequate water supplies leads to wide spread of diseases with children bearing the greatest health burden associated with poor water quality and sanitation. The WHO ...

  7. Analysis of soybean supply to price changes in the domestic market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that farmers' responses were not encouraging in the production and supply of soybean in the domestic markets with respect to the dictate of prices, price expectations and price of groundnut as a chosen competitive enterprise. Keywords: Response, soybean supply, price changes, soybean market, ...

  8. Simulation modeling of domestic and international intermodal supply paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    supply of material to a manufacturing facility obviously has a major impact on enterprise : performance, whether measured in terms of cost, timeliness, quality, etc. Most material that is : input to a manufacturing process is transported to the manuf...

  9. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is needed by man for the sustenance of life and it is the second most important natural resource used by man after the air were breathe. Man survives longer without food than without water. The socio-economic development of man is determined partly by the availability of water. The supply of safe pipe-borne water in ...

  10. China’s inter-regional spillover of carbon emissions and domestic supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Bo; Xue, Jinjun; Feng, Kuishuang; Guan, Dabo; Fu, Xue

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we apply the inter-regional input–output model to explain the relationship between China’s inter-regional spillover of CO 2 emissions and domestic supply chains for 2002 and 2007. Based on this model, we propose alternative indicators such as the trade in CO 2 emissions, CO 2 emissions in trade and the regional trade balances of CO 2 emissions. Our results do not only reveal the nature and significance of inter-regional environmental spillover within China’s domestic regions but also demonstrate how CO 2 emissions are created and distributed across regions via domestic and global production networks. Results show that a region’s CO 2 emissions depend on its intra-regional production technology, energy use efficiency, as well as its position and participation degree in domestic and global supply chains. - Highlights: • An IO model is used to measure China’s inter-regional spillover of CO 2 emissions. • We focus on the relationship between CO 2 emissions and domestic supply chains. • New indexes for identifying the consumer–producer responsibility are proposed. • A region’s emission depends on its position and participation level in supply chains

  11. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

  12. Public supply and domestic water use in the United States, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Science Project (NWUSP), part of the USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP), has estimated water use in the United States every 5 years since 1950. This report provides an overview of total population, public-supply use, including the population that is served by public-supply systems and the domestic deliveries to those users, and self-supplied domestic water use in the United States for 2015, continuing the task of estimating water use in the United States every 5 years. In this report, estimates for the United States include the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (hereafter referred to as “states” for brevity).County-level data for total population, public-supply withdrawals and the population served by public-supply systems, and domestic withdrawals for 2015 were published in a data release in an effort to provide data to the public in a timely manner. Data in the current version (1.0) of Dieter and others (2017) contains county-level total withdrawals from groundwater and surface-water sources (both fresh and saline) for public-water supply, the deliveries from those suppliers to domestic users, and the quantities of water from groundwater and surface-water sources for self-supplied domestic users, and total population. Methods used to estimate the various data elements for the public-supply and domestic use categories at the county level are described by Bradley (2017).This Open-File Report is an interim report summarizing the data published in Dieter and others (2017) at the state and national level. This report includes discussions on the total population, totals for public-supply withdrawals and population served, total domestic withdrawals, and provides comparisons of the 2015 estimates to 2010 estimates (Maupin and others, 2014). Total domestic water use, as described in this report, represents the summation of deliveries from

  13. Estimate of self-supplied domestic water use in Nebraska during 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    No data base of actual measurements exists for self-supplied, domestic water use in Nebraska, because Nebraska laws do not require drilling permits, well registration, or reporting of volumes withdrawn from domestic wells. Self-supplied, domestic water use of 31,280 acre-ft in Nebraska during 1980 was computed from estimates of gal/day/capita use for each county. This represents an average of 95 gal/day/capita. During 1980, county use volumes ranged from 30 acre-ft in Hooker and Pawnee Counties to 1,380 acre-ft in Douglas County, and Hydrologic Unit use volumes ranged from < 5 acre-ft to 2,270 acre-ft. Natural Resources Districts ' (NRD) use volumes ranged from 360 acre-ft in Middle Niobrara NRD to 3,530 acre-feet in the Lower Elkhorn NRD for the same period. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Revenue management for foodstuff production to secure domestic supply in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisyam, Ibnu

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the application of revenue management in government services to ensure sufficient domestic supply of food in Indonesia. The use of this approach means that the government runs a specific effort to radically be able to solve the core problem. The resources for domestic food production are owned by more than 26 million families of farmers and more than 4 thousands agricultural companies. To achieve the expected quantity of foodstuff supplies, a special effort needs to take into account the profit for producers in allocating the resources at an appropriate level. With revenue management, the price of foodstuff to ensure adequate domestic supply to a certain level of productivity can be known. In this context, the price may be reduced if there is an increase in productivity. For this purpose, the supply curve and the demand-supply equilibrium of foodstuff have been modeled and specific government programs to increase productivity were formulated. One important finding here is that the macroeconomic policy of the government can be integrated to a microeconomic policy of foodstuff producers for one or more certain objectives.

  15. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  16. Robust Economic Control Decision Method of Uncertain System on Urban Domestic Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kebai; Ma, Tianyi; Wei, Guo

    2018-03-31

    As China quickly urbanizes, urban domestic water generally presents the circumstances of both rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. A robust economic control decision method for dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. It is developed based on the internal model principle and pole allocation method, and it is applied to an urban domestic water supply system with rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. To achieve this goal, first a multiplicative model is used to describe the urban domestic water demand. Then, a capital stock and a labor stock are selected as the state vector, and the investment and labor are designed as the control vector. Next, the compensator subsystem is devised in light of the internal model principle. Finally, by using the state feedback control strategy and pole allocation method, the multivariable robust economic control decision method is implemented. The implementation with this model can accomplish the urban domestic water supply control goal, with the robustness for the variation of parameters. The methodology presented in this study may be applied to the water management system in other parts of the world, provided all data used in this study are available. The robust control decision method in this paper is also applicable to deal with tracking control problems as well as stabilization control problems of other general dynamic uncertain systems.

  17. Multiple energy supply risks, optimal reserves, and optimal domestic production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.; Ferrari, M.

    1992-01-01

    This study starts from the observation that today's Western trading nations are exposed to multiple risks of energy supplies, e.g. simultaneous shortage of oil and electricity supplies. To cope with these risks, oil can be stockpiled as well as domestic capacity for power production built up. Adopting the viewpoint of a policy maker who aims at minimizing the expected cost of security of supply, optimal simultaneous adjustments of oil stocks and electric production capacities to exogenous changes such as economic growth are derived. Against this benchmark, one-dimensional rules such as 'oil reserves for 90 days' turn out to be not only suboptimal but also to foster adjustments that exacerbate suboptimality. 9 refs., 1 tabs

  18. Intermittent Domestic Water Supply: A Critical Review and Analysis of Causal-Consequential Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Galaitsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Communities in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries, face obstacles in supplying continuous water to household consumers. Authorities often cite water scarcity as the cause, but we demonstrate that environmental constraints constitute only one aspect of a multi-dimensional problem. By asking what causes intermittent domestic water supply, this literature review (129 articles identifies 47 conditions of intermittent systems and the causal-consequential pathways between them that can reinforce intermittency. These pathways span several disciplines including engineering, government administration and anthropology, and when viewed together they (1 emphasize the human drivers of intermittency; (2 suggest generalized interventions; and (3 reveal a gap in the literature in terms of meaningful categorizations of the reliability of intermittent supplies. Based on the reliability of consumers’ water access, we propose three categories of intermittency—predictable, irregular, and unreliable—to facilitate comparisons between case studies and transfers of solutions.

  19. Problems in clinical practice of domestic supply of 99Mo/99mTc. Considerations on the domestic production of 99Mo/99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    2012-01-01

    At present, a bulky import product, 99 Mo supplied in Japan is produced by a nuclear fission method which enables to produce a generator system with no need of commercially preparing 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals due to its high specific activity. However its usage of enriched uranium target leads to avoiding the fission method from the option of domestic production. In order to secure the domestic supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, the neutron activation method, aiming to meet about 20% of domestic demand, is under development along with the re-start program of JMTR. Development of various production methods using accelerators are also in progress. In those non-fission methods with reactors or accelerators, rapid and effective procedures for concentration and refinement of 99m Tc solution eluted from 99 Mo of low specific activity are the subjects to be considered for attaining the stable labeling performances. (author)

  20. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  1. Comparison of initial capital investment requirements for new domestic energy supplies: 1980 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.; Hay, N.E.; Wilkinson, P.

    1980-01-01

    A.G.A.'s update of its 1978 analysis comparing the initial capital investments required for several domestic sources of alternative energy (coal conversion, oil shale, unconventional natural gas, Alaskan gas, nuclear power, and solar energy) concludes that US energy-supply and utilization systems based on gaseous fuels need substantially less initial capital investment than do equivalent nuclear, coal, and solar electric systems or synthetic-liquids systems. The capital estimates include the costs of resource extraction, processing and conversion, transmission and distribution, and end-use equipment. The cost advantages shown for the three end-use applications compared - residential and small-commercial space heating, premium industrial usage, and large industrial boilers - reflect both the lower capital requirements and higher energy efficiencies of the gaseous systems

  2. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  3. Investigation of a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Sol&Træ A.m.b.a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility.......A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility....

  4. Investigation of a low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Aidt Miljø A/S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1997-01-01

    A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility.......A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility....

  5. Modeling nitrate at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Belitz, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer vulnerability models were developed to map groundwater nitrate concentration at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California. We compared three modeling methods for ability to predict nitrate concentration >4 mg/L: logistic regression (LR), random forest classification (RFC), and random forest regression (RFR). All three models indicated processes of nitrogen fertilizer input at the land surface, transmission through coarse-textured, well-drained soils, and transport in the aquifer to the well screen. The total percent correct predictions were similar among the three models (69–82%), but RFR had greater sensitivity (84% for shallow wells and 51% for deep wells). The results suggest that RFR can better identify areas with high nitrate concentration but that LR and RFC may better describe bulk conditions in the aquifer. A unique aspect of the modeling approach was inclusion of outputs from previous, physically based hydrologic and textural models as predictor variables, which were important to the models. Vertical water fluxes in the aquifer and percent coarse material above the well screen were ranked moderately high-to-high in the RFR models, and the average vertical water flux during the irrigation season was highly significant (p < 0.0001) in logistic regression.

  6. Modeling nitrate at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Belitz, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer vulnerability models were developed to map groundwater nitrate concentration at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California. We compared three modeling methods for ability to predict nitrate concentration >4 mg/L: logistic regression (LR), random forest classification (RFC), and random forest regression (RFR). All three models indicated processes of nitrogen fertilizer input at the land surface, transmission through coarse-textured, well-drained soils, and transport in the aquifer to the well screen. The total percent correct predictions were similar among the three models (69–82%), but RFR had greater sensitivity (84% for shallow wells and 51% for deep wells). The results suggest that RFR can better identify areas with high nitrate concentration but that LR and RFC may better describe bulk conditions in the aquifer. A unique aspect of the modeling approach was inclusion of outputs from previous, physically based hydrologic and textural models as predictor variables, which were important to the models. Vertical water fluxes in the aquifer and percent coarse material above the well screen were ranked moderately high-to-high in the RFR models, and the average vertical water flux during the irrigation season was highly significant (p in logistic regression.

  7. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...... on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C...

  8. Status of domestic wastewater management in relation to drinking-water supply in two states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R A; Kaul, S N

    2000-01-01

    In India, supply of drinking water, treatment and disposal of domestic wastewater including faecal matter are managed by local bodies. The existing status of water supply, characteristics of domestic wastewater, modes of collection, treatment and disposal system for sewage and faecal matter in 82 municipalities and 4 municipal corporations were assessed in the States of Bihar and West Bengal in India. Domestic wastewater in the municipal areas is collected and discharged through open kachha (earthen), pucca (cement-concrete) and natural drains and discharged into water courses or disposed on land. Scavenger carriage system for night soil disposal is in-vogue at several places in the surveyed States. Open defecation by the inhabitants in some of the municipalities also occurs. The existing methods of collection, treatment and disposal of sewage impairs the water quality of different water sources. Techno-economically viable remedial measures for providing basic amenities, namely safe drinking-water supply and proper sanitation to the communities of these two States of India are suggested and discussed.

  9. Geogenic As and Mo groundwater contamination caused by an abundance of domestic supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, Thomas; Renshaw, Carl E.; Sültenfuß, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Lacking a connection to a municipal water supply, each household in the municipality of Lithia, approximately 30 km southeast of Tampa, Florida (USA), is responsible for its own supply of drinking water, causing a high-density of private domestic supply wells (DSW) in this area. There, a multilayered aquifer system exists, which can be subdivided into three distinct hydro stratigraphic units, which are, from the top down: the Surficial Aquifer System (SAS), the Intermediate Aquifer System (IAS), and the Upper Floridan Aquifer System (UFA). Despite the relatively small area, the geochemical and hydrogeological setting in Lithia is complex, consisting of: i) extensive cyclical pumping in a municipal well field to the west, ii) large seasonal changes in hydraulic head, ii) multiple aquifers with different hydraulic heads, and iv) a large density of domestic supply wells (DSW). Within the zone of highest As concentrations, there are approximately 100 wells in an area of 2.5 km × 1.5 km. Most of these wells have large open screened intervals, often open to all three aquifers, allowing the downward flow of oxygenated and upward flow of anoxic groundwater. A survey of groundwater quality found that As and Mo concentrations in the DSW were up to 371 μg/L and 4740 μg/L, respectively. To obtain information about the individual aquifers, 5 well clusters with 4 monitoring intervals (approximately 50 m, 65 m, 80 m and 95 m below surface) and 8 push core wells (approximately 9 m below surface) were installed and sampled. In those wells, As and Mo were only elevated in a permeable layer within the IAS at a depth of 50 m. Values were up to 195 μg/L for As and up to 5050 μg/L for Mo. Using the tritium-helium ("3H–"3He) method, the ages of those samples high in As and Mo were determined to be 40, 30 and 30 years, respectively, while all other samples had ages older than 50 years. This indicated that mixing between young and old groundwater could be responsible

  10. Adapting Chinese Forest Operations to Socio-Economic Developments: What is the Potential of Plantations for Strengthening Domestic Wood Supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, China’s forestry sector went through a transition phase characterized by a management and institutional reform process, with a constant rethinking of the ecological and societal role of forests within a unique political system. Nevertheless, despite impressive achievements in forest restoration and conservation efforts, the enhancement of ecosystem services and forest area expansion through plantation development, China was not able to improve its domestic timber supply capacities according to its demands. Consequently, the continually growing wood processing industry is facing a severe demand-and-supply gap, causing high dependencies on timber imports. Outdated forest operations practices, dominated by manual labour, are not able to meet supply demands or to implement new silvicultural strategies for enhancing forest quality and productivity and are a widely unnoted disruption of a sustainable development. Therefore, this review presents the status quo of China’s forest operations sector, how it is shaped by forest policy reforms and recent socio-economic developments. In addition, suggestions are developed how the sector can progress through policy adaptations in order to develop sustainable timber supply capacities based on a domestic plantation sector.

  11. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

  12. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  13. Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, J D; Nyaphisi, M; Mandel, R; Petersen, E

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of total coliforms, which is a nonspecific bacterial indicator of water quality, all unimproved and semi-improved water sources would be considered as not potable. Escherichia coli, a more precise indicator of faecal pollution, was absent (P water sources. Among 588 queried households, only 38% had access to an "improved" water supply. Sanitation was a serious problem, e.g. fewer than 5% of villagers used latrines and 18% of under-5-year-olds had suffered a recent diarrhoeal illness. The study demonstrates that protection of water sources can improve the hygienic quality of rural water supplies, where disinfection is not feasible. Our findings support the WHO recommendation that E. coli should be the principal microbial indicator for portability of untreated water. Strategies for developing safe water and sanitation systems must include public health education in hygiene and water source protection, practical methods and standards for water quality monitoring, and a resource centre for project information to facilitate programme evaluation and planning.

  14. Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek

    solutions simply redirect the bypassed water back to the DH network without additional cooling, but bypassed water can instead be redirected to floor heating in the bathroom to be further cooled and thus reduce heat loss from the DH network while improving comfort for occupants and still ensure fast DHW...... increased risk of Legionella if the DH substation and DHW system are designed for the low-temperature supply conditions. To ensure the fast provision of DHW during non-heating periods, the supply service pipe should be kept warm, preferably with the bypass solution redirecting the bypass flow to bathroom...... temperature. To accord with the literature, the modelling of internal heat gains reflected the improved efficiency of equipment by reduction of value from 5W/m2 to 4.2W/m2, also modelled as intermittent heat gains based on a realistic week schedule. Furthermore, the indoor set-point temperature was increased...

  15. Assessment of the contamination with domestic wastewater in supply wells over sandbank area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Rocha Cordeiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination of septic tanks in the supply wells of a population settled over a sandbank area, the Lagomar neighborhood, in the city of Macaé (RJ. The neighborhood is located in the macro areas of the northern border, adjacent and buffer zone of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, with great ecological relevance and scenic beauty, and shelter for numerous coastal lagoons and endemic species. The studied area has low-income population, and no systems of wastewater treatment and public water supply, thus increasing the risk of diseases related to poor environmental sanitation. The presence of fecal coliforms in all samples, including a sample of treated water, indicates health risks to the local population, as well as risks of ecosystem change in the National Park and its surroundings.

  16. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Arid countries, such as the Sultanate of Oman, are facing challenges of water shortages threatening economic development and social stability. Most of those countries are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise, and desertification. The combined effect of existing adverse conditions and likely impacts of future climate change will make water management even more difficult than what it is today. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to augment the water resources. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is practiced widely to store water during periods of surpluses and withdraw during deficits from an aquifer. In Muscat, there will be a surplus of >100,000 m3/day of TWW during winter months in the coming few years. The aquifer along the northern coast of Oman (Al-Khawd Aquifer) is conducive for MAR. Data show that TWW volumes will increase from 7.6 Mm3 in 2003 to 70.9 Mm3 in 2035 in Muscat city only. This study assesses, using MODFLOW 2005 numerical code, the impact of MAR using TWW on better management of the Al-Khawd unconfined coastal aquifer for better urban water supply. Specifically, aiming to maximize withdrawals from the domestic wells with minimize adverse effect of seawater intrusion. The model operates under a number of constrains that minimize the loss to the sea and the injected TWW must not migrates upstream (due to developed mound) and reach the wellfields used for domestic supply. The hypothetical injection wells are located downstream the domestic wellfield zone. The results of different managerial scenarios show that MAR produces a hydraulic barrier that decelerates the seawater intrusion which allows higher abstraction of pristine water from the upstream part of the aquifer. MAR along with redistribution/relocation of public wells allows abstraction of 2 times the current abstraction rate (around 6 Mm3/year to 12 Mm3

  17. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  18. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous-monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply

  19. Preliminary design of the ITER AC/DC converters supplied by the Korean Domestic Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, J.S.; Choi, J.; Suh, J.H.; Liu, H.; Hwang, K.; Chung, I.; Lee, S.; Kang, J.; Park, H.; Jung, W.; Jo, S.; Gweon, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W.; Kim, J.B.; Han, S.H.; Hong, G.D.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, B.W.; Yeo, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly are devised to assure a strong and reliable ITER converter. ► Converters are designed to be installable in a compact space with three times higher power density than normal industrial installations. ► Heating of the building structure due to high magnetic field by converters are identified and certain solutions are addressed in the building design. ► A cooperative fast control scheme is adopted to compensate fast reactive power change of up to the level of 900 Mvar. -- Abstract: The preliminary design for ITER AC/DC converters under the responsibility of the Korean Domestic Agency is performed on the basis of the engineering experience of previous R and D for a full-scale 6-pulse CS (Central Solenoid) converter unit. This paper describes key features of the preliminary design for the respective sub-systems; integrated self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly for strong and reliable converters, optimised impedance of the converter transformer to limit short circuit current, coaxial-type AC bus bars to shield high magnetic field around wall penetrations, compact components to fit into given building space. The insulation and the minimisation of electrical loops of concrete rebar below the converter installations are essential to prevent floor heating. Required output voltage or current of converters is provided by a conventional controller. A master controller is designed to collect predicted reactive powers from each converter and deliver processed data to the reactive power compensation (RPC) system to improve the regulation speed of the RPC controller with fast feed-forward compensation under fast reactive power transients

  20. Preliminary design of the ITER AC/DC converters supplied by the Korean Domestic Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.S., E-mail: jsoh@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J.; Suh, J.H. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, H.; Hwang, K.; Chung, I.; Lee, S.; Kang, J.; Park, H.; Jung, W.; Jo, S.; Gweon, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W. [Dawonsys Corp., Siheung 429-450 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.B.; Han, S.H.; Hong, G.D.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, B.W.; Yeo, C.H. [Hyosung Corp., 450, Gongdeok-Dong, Seoul 121-720 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly are devised to assure a strong and reliable ITER converter. ► Converters are designed to be installable in a compact space with three times higher power density than normal industrial installations. ► Heating of the building structure due to high magnetic field by converters are identified and certain solutions are addressed in the building design. ► A cooperative fast control scheme is adopted to compensate fast reactive power change of up to the level of 900 Mvar. -- Abstract: The preliminary design for ITER AC/DC converters under the responsibility of the Korean Domestic Agency is performed on the basis of the engineering experience of previous R and D for a full-scale 6-pulse CS (Central Solenoid) converter unit. This paper describes key features of the preliminary design for the respective sub-systems; integrated self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly for strong and reliable converters, optimised impedance of the converter transformer to limit short circuit current, coaxial-type AC bus bars to shield high magnetic field around wall penetrations, compact components to fit into given building space. The insulation and the minimisation of electrical loops of concrete rebar below the converter installations are essential to prevent floor heating. Required output voltage or current of converters is provided by a conventional controller. A master controller is designed to collect predicted reactive powers from each converter and deliver processed data to the reactive power compensation (RPC) system to improve the regulation speed of the RPC controller with fast feed-forward compensation under fast reactive power transients.

  1. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...

  2. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxin Fan

    Full Text Available Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use and cultural backgrounds (age, education.

  3. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    District heating in Denmark is going through the transition from 3rd generation (80/40 °C) to 4th generation (50-55 °C/25 °C) systems in,preparation for district heating based completely on renewable fuels by 2035. However, concern about Legionella growth and reduced comfort with low......-temperature domestic hot water supply may be discouraging the implementation of low-temperature district heating. Aimed at providing possible solutions, this study modelled various proposals for district heating systems with supply temperatures of 65 °C, 50 °C and 35 °C and for two different building topologies....... Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating...

  4. Matching agricultural freshwater supply and demand: using industrial and domestic treated wastewater for sub-irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Worm, Bas; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van Loon, Arnaut; Raat, Klaasjan

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Climate change leads to more prolonged drought periods that alternate with more intensive rainfall events. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to drought stress will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities search for opportunities to manage risks of decreasing crop yields. Available groundwater sources for irrigation purposes are increasingly under pressure due to the regional coexistence of land use functions that are critical to groundwater levels or compete for available water. At the same time, treated wastewater from industries and domestic wastewater treatment plants are quickly discharged via surface waters towards sea. Exploitation of these freshwater sources may be an effective strategy to balance regional water supply and agricultural water demand. We present results of two pilot studies in drought sensitive regions in the Netherlands, concerning agricultural water supply through reuse of industrial and domestic treated wastewater. In these pilots, excess wastewater is delivered to the plant root zone through sub-irrigation by drainage systems. Sub-irrigation is a subsurface irrigation method that can be more efficient than classical, aboveground irrigation methods using sprinkler installations. Domestic wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands produce annually 40-50mm freshwater. A pilot project has been setup in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in which treated wastewater is applied to a corn field by sub-irrigation during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, using a climate adaptive drainage system. The chemical composition of treated domestic wastewater is different from infiltrating excess rainfall water and natural groundwater. In the pilot project, the bromide-chloride ratio and traces of pharmaceuticals in the treated wastewater are used as a tracer to describe water and solute transport in the

  5. A survey of domestic wells and pit latrines in rural settlements of Mali: Implications of on-site sanitation on the quality of water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Santos, P; Martín-Loeches, M; García-Castro, N; Solera, D; Díaz-Alcaide, S; Montero, E; García-Rincón, J

    2017-10-01

    On-site sanitation is generally advocated as a means to eradicate the health hazards associated with open defecation. While this has provided a welcome upgrade to the livelihoods of millions of people in low-income countries, improved sanitation facilities are increasingly becoming a threat to domestic groundwater-based supplies. Within this context, a survey of pit latrines, domestic wells and improved water sources was carried out in a large rural village of southern Mali. All households were surveyed for water, sanitation and hygiene habits. Domestic wells and improved water sources were georeferenced and sampled for water quality (pH, electric conductivity, temperature, turbidity, total dissolved solids, thermotolerant coliforms, chloride and nitrate) and groundwater level, while all latrines were inspected and georeferenced. A GIS database was then used to evaluate the proportion of water points within the influence area of latrines, as well as to underpin multiple regression models to establish the determinants for fecal contamination in drinking supplies. Moreover, an appraisal of domestic water treatment practices was carried out. This revealed that nearly two-thirds of the population uses bleach to purify drinking supplies, but also that domestic-scale treatment as currently implemented by the population is far from effective. It is thus concluded that existing habits could be enhanced as a means to make water supplies safer. Furthermore, population, well and latrine density were all identified as statistically significant predictors for fecal pollution at different spatial scales. These findings are policy-relevant in the context of groundwater-dependent human settlements, since many countries in the developing world currently pursue the objective of eliminating open defecation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling and multi-scenario analysis for electric heat tracing system combined with low temperature district heating for domestic hot water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature district heating (LTDH) is a cost-efficient way of supplying space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for buildings in urban areas. However, there is concern that the potential hygiene problems (Legionella) might occur if LTDH is implemented, especially for large buildings...... performance on heat loss saving, and it also gave benefits to district heating network by sharing part of the heating load....

  7. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Provided domestic hot water configurations for low-temperature district heating. • Various building typologies and district heating supply temperatures were included. • Different scenarios were evaluated from the energy, economy and exergy aspects. • The benefits of lower return temperature to district heating were investigated. - Abstract: District heating in Denmark is going through the transition from 3rd generation (80/40 °C) to 4th generation (50–55 °C/25 °C) systems in preparation for district heating based completely on renewable fuels by 2035. However, concern about Legionella growth and reduced comfort with low-temperature domestic hot water supply may be discouraging the implementation of low-temperature district heating. Aimed at providing possible solutions, this study modelled various proposals for district heating systems with supply temperatures of 65 °C, 50 °C and 35 °C and for two different building topologies. Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating and to reduce the return temperature to district heating. The benefits of lower return temperatures were also analysed compared with the current district heating situation. The evaluation results show that the decentralized substation system with instantaneous heat exchanger unit performed better under the 65 °C and 50 °C district heating scenarios, while the individual micro tank solution consumed less energy and cost less in the 35 °C district heating scenario.

  8. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  9. Problems in clinical practice of domestic supply of 99Mo/99mTc. The direction and problem of stable supply chain of 99Mo in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of supply of 99 Mo caused by trouble of old nuclear reactors in Canada and Europe caused international problem in the field of nuclear medicine, which has not been completely resolved yet. Because all of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator in Japan has been imported, Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) suggested the necessity of establishment of stable supply chain of 99 Mo ( 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator). According this suggestion, an ad hoc committee appointed to consider the stable supply chain, which consisted of persons concerned with industry, academic society, Japan Isotope Association, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology-Japan (MEXT), Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) et al., evaluated and compared several ways of production and purification of 99 Mo from the view point of technological maturity, regulation compatibility, economic suitability, and stability for supply. In this review, the summary of the committee report is introduced. For short term strategy, we need to keep the variable import routes for 99 Mo. As a mid-term goal, we need to establish the supply chain inside Japan as a conclusion of the committee report but it seems to be not easy for utility of nuclear reactor after nuclear accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The development of the method for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc production using accelerator is also expected for the establishment of stable supply chain. (author)

  10. The economic value of transportation energy contingency planning: An objective model for analyzing the economics of domestic renewable energy for supply augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaten, Richard Jay

    1998-12-01

    Petroleum provides 90% of transportation energy needs. Domestic production is decreasing and global demand is increasing. Risk of escalating prices and supply interruptions are compounded by environmental and military externalities and lost opportunities from the failure to develop alternative domestic resources. Within the context of "energy contingency planning" municipalities should evaluate crisis mitigation strategies. Supply augmentation using domestic renewable fuels is proposed to avert future financial liabilities. A method for calculating the economic value of this strategy is demonstrated. An objective function and associated constraints represent the cost of preparing for each of three possible scenarios: status quo, inflationary and crisis. Constraints ensure that municipal fuel needs are met. Environmental costs may be included. Optimal solutions determine the fuel supply mix for each scenario. A 3 x 3 matrix presents the range of actual costs resulting from preparing for each scenario and subsequent three possible outcomes. The distribution of probabilities of the outcomes is applied to the cost matrix and an "expected value" of preparing for each scenario is calculated. An unanticipated crisis outcome results in. The expected value of the cost of preparing for a crisis is cast as an insurance premium against potential economic liability. Policy makers accept the crisis preparation fuel mix if: (a) they agree with the calculated penalty cost, or (b) they accept the burden of the insurance premium. Green Bay Wisconsin was chosen as a sample municipality. Results show that a perceived 10% chance of crisis requires an annual tax of 4.00 per household to avert economic impacts of 50 million. At a perceived 50% chance of crisis preparing for the crisis would begin to save the municipality money.

  11. Supply of domestic hot Water at comfortable temperatures by low-temperature district heating without risk of Legionella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen

    disinfection efficacy for Legionella if supplied by LTDH, and inject no additives into the water. Thus, they can be considered as feasible sterilization solutions. In terms of the DHW system design methods, in addition to ensure the safe and hygiene DHW supply, the potential DHW systems should also...... temperature for space heating but lower than LTDH. Therefore, to meet the comfort and hygiene requirements for DHW supply, supplementary heating methods should be combined. However, one obstacle to realize the LTDH/ULTDH is the concern of the violation of the comfort and hygiene requirements of DHW supply....... According to the Danish standard, the supply for DHW should be able to reach 45 °C for the kitchen use and 40 °C for other uses for comfort. Regarding to the hygiene requirements, large DHW system with DHW storage tank and circulation has to use high temperature regime to get rid of Legionella. The storage...

  12. Problems in clinical practice of domestic supply of 99Mo/99mTc. Current status and action plans on domestic production of 99Mo raw materials for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    NRU in Canada and HFR in the Netherlands which had been producing the most important medical isotope, 99 Mo, were shut down in 2009-2010. As the production of more than 95% of global 99 Mo supply were performed in only five research reactors in the world including the two reactors mentioned above, these shutdowns resulted in global supply shortage of 99 Mo. Although the medical isotope crisis were alleviated after the two reactors returning to service, all of these five 99 Mo producing reactors are approximately 50 years old. Because the remaining life time of these reactors is not so long, the construction of new reactors or the development of new technologies to produce bulk 99 Mo, such as the neutron activation of 98 Mo in a reactor or charged particle reaction by accelerator, are proposed for the long-term security of supply of 99 Mo. The methods using the molybdenum target lead to much lower specific activity of 99 Mo compared to the production with fission method. The new chemical processing technologies, such as manufacturing 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals from such low specific activity 99 Mo, are required for the development of domestic practical production of 99 Mo. (author)

  13. The effect of vegetation and soil texture on the nature of organics in runoff from a catchment supplying water for domestic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, John; van Leeuwen, John; Abate, Dawit; Pichler, Markus; Bestland, Erick; Chittleborough, David J; Fleming, Nigel; Cohen, Jonathan; Liffner, Joel; Drikas, Mary

    2015-10-01

    The influence of vegetation and soil texture on the concentration and character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in runoff from the surface and sub-surface of zero order catchments of the Myponga Reservoir-catchment (South Australia) was investigated to determine the impacts of catchment characteristics and land management practices on the quality of waters used for domestic supply. Catchments selected have distinct vegetative cover (grass, native vegetation or pine) and contrasting texture of the surface soil horizon (sand or clay loam/clay). Water samples were collected from three slope positions (upper, middle, and lower) at soil depths of ~30 cm and ~60 cm in addition to overland flows. Filtered (0.45 μm) water samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV-visible absorbance and by F-EEM and HPSEC with UV and fluorescence detection to characterize the DOM. Surface and sub-surface runoff from catchments with clay soils and native vegetation or grass had lower DOC concentrations and lower relative abundances of aromatic, humic-like and high molecular weight organics than runoff from sandy soils with these vegetative types. Sub-surface flows from two catchments with Pinus radiata had similar DOC concentrations and DOM character, regardless of marked variation in surface soil texture. Runoff from catchments under native vegetation and grass on clay soils resulted in lower DOC concentrations and hence would be expected to have lower coagulant demand in conventional treatment for potable water supply than runoff from corresponding sandy soil catchments. However, organics in runoff from clay catchments would be more difficult to remove by coagulation. Surface waters from the native vegetation and grass catchments were generally found to have higher relative abundance of organic compounds amenable to removal by coagulation compared with sub-surface waters. Biophysical and land management practices combine to have a marked influence on the

  14. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  15. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  16. Quantifying Postharvest Loss and the Implication of Market-Based Decisions: A Case Study of Two Commercial Domestic Tomato Supply Chains in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. McKenzie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Using a multi-disciplinary approach, this study quantifies horticultural postharvest losses of two medium-sized (annual pack volume 4500 t commercial, domestic, tomato supply chains. Quantification of loss was based on weight or volume, consistent with direct measurement methods of the Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard 2016 and qualitative techniques were used to identify the drivers of the loss and contextualise the findings. Postharvest loss was found to be between 40.3% (55.34 t and 55.9% (29.61 t of the total harvestable product. It was determined that between 68.6% and 86.7% of undamaged, edible, harvested tomatoes were rejected as outgrades and consequently discarded due to product specifications. Between 71.2% and 84.1% of produced tomatoes were left in the field and not harvested. This study highlights significant factors contributing to high levels of food loss and waste. Edible products are being removed from the commercial food supply chain, rejected as outgrades deemed cosmetically defective due to market-based decisions. With only 44.1% and 59.7% of the harvestable crop reaching the consumers of the two supply chains, respectively, it is perhaps more appropriate to describe a food “waste” chain as opposed to a food “supply” chain.

  17. PENGARUH GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, INFLASI, SUKU BUNGA, MONEY SUPPLY, CURRENT ACCOUNT DAN CAPITAL ACCOUNT TERHADAP NILAI KURS RUPIAH INDONESIA – DOLLAR AMERIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunika Murdayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since free-floating exchange rate system has been applied in Indonesia on August 1998, the accumulation of depreciation of rupiah against the US dollar has been about 48,7% until December 2001. This condition brings many argumentation about the reasons behind the exchange rate instability faced by Indonesia among many experts whether it is caused by economic factors or by non-economic factors. By recognizing the causes, it will be easier for the experts and government of Indonesia to formulate the solution. This research is intended to analyze the influence of economic variables, i.e. Gross Domestic Product, money supply, interest rate, inflation rate, Current Account & Capital Account in both Indonesia and The United State of America, as well as the position of the balance of international payment of Indonesia to the exchange rate movement in order to give contributions to solve the problem. Based on the result money supply becomes the only variable which has a multicollinearity and excluded from the regression linear. Also only current account is not significant influence on the exchange rate movement, instead of the other variables. Coefficient of determination of the research model is 84.4 %, means that other factors, not accommodated in this research, give 15.6 % influence to the exchange rate movement. These other factors can be categorized as other economic factors or non-economic factors.

  18. The effect of vegetation and soil texture on the nature of organics in runoff from a catchment supplying water for domestic consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, John [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Leeuwen, John van, E-mail: John.VanLeeuwen@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); State Key Laboratory for Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, CAS, Beijing (China); Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Abate, Dawit [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Pichler, Markus; Bestland, Erick [School of the Environment, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Chittleborough, David J. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Fleming, Nigel [South Australian Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 397, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Cohen, Jonathan; Liffner, Joel [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Drikas, Mary [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia); State Key Laboratory for Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    The influence of vegetation and soil texture on the concentration and character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in runoff from the surface and sub-surface of zero order catchments of the Myponga Reservoir-catchment (South Australia) was investigated to determine the impacts of catchment characteristics and land management practices on the quality of waters used for domestic supply. Catchments selected have distinct vegetative cover (grass, native vegetation or pine) and contrasting texture of the surface soil horizon (sand or clay loam/clay). Water samples were collected from three slope positions (upper, middle, and lower) at soil depths of ~ 30 cm and ~ 60 cm in addition to overland flows. Filtered (0.45 μm) water samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV–visible absorbance and by F-EEM and HPSEC with UV and fluorescence detection to characterize the DOM. Surface and sub-surface runoff from catchments with clay soils and native vegetation or grass had lower DOC concentrations and lower relative abundances of aromatic, humic-like and high molecular weight organics than runoff from sandy soils with these vegetative types. Sub-surface flows from two catchments with Pinus radiata had similar DOC concentrations and DOM character, regardless of marked variation in surface soil texture. Runoff from catchments under native vegetation and grass on clay soils resulted in lower DOC concentrations and hence would be expected to have lower coagulant demand in conventional treatment for potable water supply than runoff from corresponding sandy soil catchments. However, organics in runoff from clay catchments would be more difficult to remove by coagulation. Surface waters from the native vegetation and grass catchments were generally found to have higher relative abundance of organic compounds amenable to removal by coagulation compared with sub-surface waters. Biophysical and land management practices combine to have a marked influence on

  19. The effect of vegetation and soil texture on the nature of organics in runoff from a catchment supplying water for domestic consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, John; Leeuwen, John van; Abate, Dawit; Pichler, Markus; Bestland, Erick; Chittleborough, David J.; Fleming, Nigel; Cohen, Jonathan; Liffner, Joel; Drikas, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The influence of vegetation and soil texture on the concentration and character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in runoff from the surface and sub-surface of zero order catchments of the Myponga Reservoir-catchment (South Australia) was investigated to determine the impacts of catchment characteristics and land management practices on the quality of waters used for domestic supply. Catchments selected have distinct vegetative cover (grass, native vegetation or pine) and contrasting texture of the surface soil horizon (sand or clay loam/clay). Water samples were collected from three slope positions (upper, middle, and lower) at soil depths of ~ 30 cm and ~ 60 cm in addition to overland flows. Filtered (0.45 μm) water samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV–visible absorbance and by F-EEM and HPSEC with UV and fluorescence detection to characterize the DOM. Surface and sub-surface runoff from catchments with clay soils and native vegetation or grass had lower DOC concentrations and lower relative abundances of aromatic, humic-like and high molecular weight organics than runoff from sandy soils with these vegetative types. Sub-surface flows from two catchments with Pinus radiata had similar DOC concentrations and DOM character, regardless of marked variation in surface soil texture. Runoff from catchments under native vegetation and grass on clay soils resulted in lower DOC concentrations and hence would be expected to have lower coagulant demand in conventional treatment for potable water supply than runoff from corresponding sandy soil catchments. However, organics in runoff from clay catchments would be more difficult to remove by coagulation. Surface waters from the native vegetation and grass catchments were generally found to have higher relative abundance of organic compounds amenable to removal by coagulation compared with sub-surface waters. Biophysical and land management practices combine to have a marked influence on

  20. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently

  1. Sustentabilidade e cadeia de suprimentos: uma perspectiva comparada de publicações nacionais e internacionais Sustainability in supply chains: a comparative perspective in domestic and international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylmara Lopes Francelino Gonçalves Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é apresentar um quadro de referência de conceitos da Gestão da Sustentabilidade na Cadeia de Suprimentos (GSCS para auxiliar pesquisas futuras na tentativa de integração intra e interorganizacional fundamentada em aspectos da sustentabilidade. Trata-se de um artigo teórico, cujo procedimento metodológico adotado foi o desk research em periódicos da área de gestão e operações, realizado em duas etapas. Na primeira, buscou-se visualizar os estudos da temática em seis importantes periódicos internacionais da área, totalizando 53 artigos entre 1954 e 2009. Esta etapa gerou uma evolução da temática, contribuindo para apontar tendências. Na segunda, foram revisados seis periódicos nacionais da área de administração. Selecionaram-se 11 artigos, publicados entre 1961 e 2009, resultando em um panorama da temática no contexto acadêmico brasileiro. O conceito de GSCS apareceu apenas em 2007, o que mostra a atualidade do tema, embora este seja a junção de temáticas anteriormente estudadas.This article provides a reference frame of concepts in Supply Chain Sustainability Management (SCSM, helping future research in the attempt to integrate intra and interorganizational choices based on the aspects of sustainability in supply chains. It is a theoretical study and the methodological procedure adopted was the desk research, organized in two steps. Firstly, the theme study was analyzed in six international journals, totaling 53 articles between 1954 and 2009. This step generated an evolution of the area, helping to pinpoint trends. Secondly, six domestic journals were reviewed and 11 articles were selected between 1961 and 2009, resulting in an overview of the theme in the Brazilian academic context. The concept of GSCS appeared only in 2007, which shows the relevance of the topic; although this is a gathering of topics previously studied separately.

  2. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Ibor, Oju R.; Adeduntan, Sherifat D.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  3. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Ibor, Oju R.; Adeduntan, Sherifat D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  4. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    . Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating...... °C and 50 °C district heating scenarios, while the individual micro tank solution consumed less energy and cost less in the 35 °C district heating scenario....

  5. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft adopted by the National Assembly; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-03-02

    This document presents the draft of the law regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply, adopted by the French National Assembly. The first Title devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply contains 5 articles. The second Title deals with the production of electricity in the articles 6 through 12. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four concerns with the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 to 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 to 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transient Provisions. The law draft was debated in public session in Paris on 2 March and signed by the President Laurent Fabius.

  6. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.

  7. Herbaceous biomass supply chains : assessing the greenhouse gas balance, economics and ILUC effects of Ukrainian biomass for domestic and Dutch energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Galytska, M.; Jamblinne, de P.; Kraisvitnii, P.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the supply chain performance for three types of biomass feedstock (reed, straw and switchgrass) and for three sustainability aspects, i.e. the greenhouse gas balance, economics and Indirect Land Use change effects (ILUC). Calculations are based on a fictional supply chain

  8. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  9. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  10. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tačík, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...

  11. Tracing melioidosis back to the source: using whole-genome sequencing to investigate an outbreak originating from a contaminated domestic water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobb, Evan; Sarovich, Derek S; Price, Erin P; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Keim, Paul; Currie, Bart J

    2015-04-01

    Melioidosis, a disease of public health importance in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, is caused by the Gram-negative soil bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is typically acquired through environmental exposure, and case clusters are rare, even in regions where the disease is endemic. B. pseudomallei is classed as a tier 1 select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; from a biodefense perspective, source attribution is vital in an outbreak scenario to rule out a deliberate release. Two cases of melioidosis within a 3-month period at a residence in rural northern Australia prompted an investigation to determine the source of exposure. B. pseudomallei isolates from the property's groundwater supply matched the multilocus sequence type of the clinical isolates. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed the water supply as the probable source of infection in both cases, with the clinical isolates differing from the likely infecting environmental strain by just one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) each. For the first time, we report a phylogenetic analysis of genomewide insertion/deletion (indel) data, an approach conventionally viewed as problematic due to high mutation rates and homoplasy. Our whole-genome indel analysis was concordant with the SNP phylogeny, and these two combined data sets provided greater resolution and a better fit with our epidemiological chronology of events. Collectively, this investigation represents a highly accurate account of source attribution in a melioidosis outbreak and gives further insight into a frequently overlooked reservoir of B. pseudomallei. Our methods and findings have important implications for outbreak source tracing of this bacterium and other highly recombinogenic pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. PENGELOLAAN MATA AIR UNTUK PENYEDIAAN AIR RUMAHTANGGA BERKELANJUTAN DI LERENG SELATAN GUNUNGAPI MERAPI (Springs Management for Sustainability Domestic Water Supply in the South West of Merapi Volcano Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mata air merupakan pemunculan air tanah ke permukaan tanah. Pemanfaatan mata air sangat beragam, antara lain penggunaan untuk keperluan air minum, irigasi, perikanan, untuk obyek wisata. Mata air mempunyai debit terbatas, namun kualitasnya baik, penggunaannya beragam, hal tersebut sering terjadi konflik pemanfaatan. Di saat musim kemarau, beberapa mata air merupakan sumber air satu-satunya di suatu tempat, sehingga pengelolaannya harus dilakukan secara baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengelolaan mata air berbasis teknologi tepat guna dalam penyediaan air rumahtangga di lereng selatan Gunungapi Merapi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survei dan observasi di lapangan terhadap mata air yang digunakan untuk penyediaan air rumahtangga. Sejumlah responden pengguna mata air dan tokoh masyarakat setempat diwawancarai secara bebas dan terstruktur untuk memperoleh data pengelolaan mata air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi lingkungan dan karakteristik mata air, pengetahuan masyarakat dan budaya lokal yang beragam akan berpengaruh terhadap pengelolaanmata air. Perkembangan teknologi tidak dapat diabaikan dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. Hal ini dapat dipadukan dengan budaya masyarakat setempat dalam pengelolaan mata air, sehingga dapat diperoleh manfaat yang optimal dan kesinambungan fungsi dan manfaat mata air tersebut.   ABSTRACT Spring is the groundwater which comes out on ground surface. The use of water from springs is very diverse, varying from water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries, even for tourism. The springs usually have a limited discharge but the water quality from springs is good, therefore they are often facing some conflicts in utilization. In the dry season, in fact the springs are the only source of water supply; therefore the management of the spring should be done properly. This research aims to study the spring management based on appropriate technology in relation to household water supply in the

  13. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...

  14. Maps showing predicted probabilities for selected dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese threshold events in depth zones used by the domestic and public drinking water supply wells, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2018-01-31

    The purpose of the prediction grids for selected redox constituents—dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese—are intended to provide an understanding of groundwater-quality conditions at the domestic and public-supply drinking water depths. The chemical quality of groundwater and the fate of many contaminants is influenced by redox processes in all aquifers, and understanding the redox conditions horizontally and vertically is critical in evaluating groundwater quality. The redox condition of groundwater—whether oxic (oxygen present) or anoxic (oxygen absent)—strongly influences the oxidation state of a chemical in groundwater. The anoxic dissolved oxygen thresholds of water, making drinking water undesirable with respect to taste, staining, or scaling. Three dissolved manganese thresholds, supply water wells. The 50 µg/L event threshold represents the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) benchmark for manganese (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2017; California Division of Drinking Water, 2014), whereas the 300 µg/L event threshold represents the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) health-based screening level (HBSL) benchmark, used to put measured concentrations of drinking-water contaminants into a human-health context (Toccalino and others, 2014). The 150 µg/L event threshold represents one-half the USGS HBSL. The resultant dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese prediction grids may be of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to anoxic conditions. Prediction grids for selected redox constituents and thresholds were created by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) modeling and mapping team.

  15. 棕榈油供给冲击与国内植物油价格波动的动态关系分析%Dynamic relationship analysis between palm oil supply shocks and domestic vegetable oil prices volatility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锐金; 王成丽

    2017-01-01

    [Objective]In this paper, the interaction between palm oil supply and prices of major domestic vegetable oils was analyzed, and supply reaction of palm oil under positive and negative shocks of prices was studied, as as to provide theoretical references for palm oil import management. [Method]The interaction between supply and price was assessed un-der the framework of co-integration-GARCH and error correction-GARCH models using monthly palm oil imports , spot prices of palm oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil, and spot price of Malaysian palm oil. Linear and nonlinear Granger test was conducted for robustness check. [Result]Chinese palm oil processing manufacturers and traders preferred to rely on variance information accumulated in the past long period (ARCH effect), rather than a prediction variance (GARCH ef-fect). Compared to rapeseed oil, soybean oil had much stronger adjusting force on palm oil. The shock of palm oil supply weakly affected the prices. The signal of price changes with two lags had asymmetric impact on supply of palm oil. There existed no Granger causal relation between supply and price of palm oil. [Suggestion]Palm oil import management, marketing building and inventory monitor should be enhance, and researches on international pricing mechanism of palm oil need to be deepened.%[目的]分析棕榈油供给量与国内主要植物油价格的互动关系,以及对于来自价格正、负向冲击下棕榈油的供给反应,为棕榈油进口管理提供理论依据.[方法]利用我国棕榈油月度进口量、棕榈油、豆油、菜籽油现货价格及马来西亚毛棕榈油现货价格数据,在协整-GARCH、误差修正-GARCH框架下进行估计分析,研究供给量与价格间的互动关系,并用线性和非线性Granger因果检验进行稳健性检验.[结果]我国棕榈油的加工厂商和贸易商重视过去较长一段时间积累的方差信息(ARCH效应),而不是上一期的预测方差(GARCH效应);相比于菜籽油,

  16. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume I. General discussion and Examination of the articles; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome I. Discussion generale et Examen des articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    This report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply is composed of three parts. The first part contains the following three sections: I. The electricity, a commodity as others?; II. The stride towards liberalization; III. France and the opening of electricity market. In turn, the first section addresses the following two subjects: A. The 'classic' approach or recognizing the peculiarity of electricity; B. The European approach or the trend of trivializing the electricity. The second section addresses the subjects titled: A. A long and severe bargaining; B. Directive 96/92/CE of 19 December 1996, a new step in achieving a domestic market of electricity; C. The stage of implementation throughout the member states. The third section presents the current juridical framework and the main problems stipulated in the draft of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. The second part of this report is devoted to the debates in the Commission of Production and Exchanges and contains the following three sections: I. Auditions; II. General discussion; III. The examination of the articles of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply.

  17. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume I. General discussion and Examination of the articles; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome I. Discussion generale et Examen des articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    This report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply is composed of three parts. The first part contains the following three sections: I. The electricity, a commodity as others?; II. The stride towards liberalization; III. France and the opening of electricity market. In turn, the first section addresses the following two subjects: A. The 'classic' approach or recognizing the peculiarity of electricity; B. The European approach or the trend of trivializing the electricity. The second section addresses the subjects titled: A. A long and severe bargaining; B. Directive 96/92/CE of 19 December 1996, a new step in achieving a domestic market of electricity; C. The stage of implementation throughout the member states. The third section presents the current juridical framework and the main problems stipulated in the draft of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. The second part of this report is devoted to the debates in the Commission of Production and Exchanges and contains the following three sections: I. Auditions; II. General discussion; III. The examination of the articles of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply.

  18. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...

  19. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  20. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  1. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  3. U.S. uranium supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogerton, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is analysed in the light of figures and forecasts contained in the following diagrams: forecasts of U.S. uranium production, 1977 to 1990; indicated relationship between annual U.S. uranium supply and demand, 1977 to 1986; presently indicated cumulative U.S. uranium supply/demand balance, 1977 to 1990; indicated cumulative U.S. supply/demand balance (shortage or surpluses) 1976 to 1990; presently indicated balance between outstanding U.S. utility procurement needs and uncommitted domestic supply capability 1977 to 1986; projected U.S. uranium requirements in relation to existing supply base and presently indicated additional domestic resource potential, 1977 to 2000. (U.K.)

  4. Environmental impact on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies in Lagos, Nigeria Impacto ambiental sobre a qualidade bacteriológica do abastecimento domiciliar de água em Lagos, Nigéria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Egwari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of town planning, infrastructure, sanitation and rainfall on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. METHODS: Water samples obtained from deep and shallow wells, boreholes and public taps were cultured to determine the most probable number of Escherichia coli and total coliform using the multiple tube technique. Presence of enteric pathogens was detected using selective and differential media. Samples were collected during both periods of heavy and low rainfall and from municipalities that are unique with respect to infrastructure planning, town planning and sanitation. RESULTS: Contamination of treated and pipe distributed water was related with distance of the collection point from a utility station. Faults in pipelines increased the rate of contamination (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do planejamento urbano, da infra-estrutura, do saneamento e dos índices pluviométricos sobre a qualidade bacteriológica do abastecimento domiciliar de água. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada cultura de amostras de água obtida de poços superficiais e profundos, fossos e água corrente de bicas públicas para determinar o número mais provável de Escherichia coli e coliformes totais por meio da técnica de múltiplos tubos. Patógenos entéricos foram detectados pelo uso de meios diferenciais e seletivos. Amostras foram coletadas durante os períodos de seca e de chuvas intensas em municípios com características singulares de infra-estrutura, planejamento urbano e saneamento. RESULTADOS: A contaminação de água tratada ou encanada esteve relacionada à distância do ponto de coleta com relação à estação de tratamento. Defeitos na canalização aumentaram o índice de contaminação (p<0,5, principalmente em áreas densamente povoadas com infra-estrutura arruinada. Os despejos de bueiros representaram a principal fonte de contaminação da água encanada. Houve maior contaminação em poços superficiais do que

  5. Major gene mutations and domestication of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    1989-01-01

    From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs

  6. Analisis Kurs dan Money Supply di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Oktavia, Adek Laksmi; Sentosa, Sri Ulfa; Aimon, Hasdi

    2013-01-01

    This article focused on analyze (1) Effect of the money supply, income, domestic interest rates, inflation and the trade balance to the exchange rate in Indonesia. (2) The influence of domestic interest rates, output and the exchange rate on the money supply in Indonesia. Data used time series of (I year kuartal 2000 – IV year kuartal 2010). This article use analyzer model equation of simultaneous with method of Two Stage Least Squared (TSLS). The result of research concludes that (1) the ...

  7. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  8. Water Quality Assessment of Selected Domestic Water Sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    @yahoo.com ... were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... centers often depend on the water vendors for domestic water supply ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... water balance problems for individual aquatic organisms.

  9. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Coal supply and transportation model (CSTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Coal Supply and Transportation Model (CSTM) forecasts annual coal supply and distribution to domestic and foreign markets. The model describes US coal production, national and international coal transportation industries. The objective of this work is to provide a technical description of the current version of the model

  11. Markets, Government Policy, and China’s Timber Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    China’s domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that China’s timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and...

  12. Energy-efficient and cost-effective in-house substations bypass for improving thermal and DHW (domestic hot water) comfort in bathrooms in low-energy buildings supplied by low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    temperature and additional cooling of bypass water by 3.9 °C, reducing the heat loss from the DH network by 13% and covering 40% of the heat used in the bathroom FH. The use of the bypass flow in bathroom FH is a cost-effective solution exploiting the heat that would otherwise be lost in the DH network......Using a bypass to redirect a small flow through the in-house DH (district heating) substation directly to the return pipe is a commonly used but energy-inefficient solution to keep the DH network “warm” during non-heating seasons. Instead, this water can be redirected to the bathroom FH (floor...... heating) to cool down further and thus reduce the heat lost from bypass operation while tempering the bathroom floor and guaranteeing fast provision of DHW (domestic hot water). We used the commercial software IDA-ICE to model a reference building where we implemented various solutions for controlling...

  13. General consideration of domestic participation in nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    No nuclear power plant can be supplied entirely by outside sources. Some degree of domestic participation is always required and this can be increased if desired. There is no general rule as to what can and should be supplied locally; different countries have different characteristics, conditions and possibilities, and these define the scope of what is to be done. (orig./FW) [de

  14. Criminal aspects domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  15. Domestic violence : evidence review.

    OpenAIRE

    Westmarland, Nicole; Thorlby, Katie; Wistow, Jane; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    While domestic violence is high on the public policy agenda in the UK, successive reviews have highlighted policing problems. A recent HMIC report found domestic violence is not policed at the same level as other offences and identified a catalogue of policing failures that have a long history of recurrence. With domestic violence accounting for around a large proportion of violent crime incidents reported to the police, and the majority of all female homicides (Office for National Statistics...

  16. Physicians and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Joslin, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Domestic violence, spouse abuse, and battering all refer to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate relationship. Domestic violence may take the form of physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is generally repeated, and often escalates within relationships. Most evidence indicates that domestic violence is predominantly perpetrated by men against women. Some evidence suggests that women are just as likely to use violence against male partners as men are...

  17. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  18. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... imports. The OAQ was increased due to an increase in estimated sugar demand since the FY 2011 OAQ was... sugar imports, as required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations relative to their FY 2011 expected raw sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane...

  19. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou

    2010-01-01

    as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...... to animals in process of de-domestication. Secondly, the paper explores the implications of de-domestication for nature management, focusing on notions of naturalness and wildness. Finally, because the current division of ethical topics, with its dependence upon whether animals and nature are domesticated...

  20. Report of the Subcommittee on Domestic Uranium Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A report by the Subcommittee on Domestic Uranium Enrichment to the Atomic Energy Commission is described; which covers the procedure of the domestic uranium enrichment by centrifugal process up to the commercial production, reviewing the current situation in this field. Domestic uranium enrichment is important in the aspects of securing stable enrichment service, establishing sound fuel cycle, and others. As the future target, the production around the year 2000 is set at 3,000 tons SWU per year at least. The business of uranium enrichment, which is now developed in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, is to be carried out by private enterprise. The contents are as follows: demand and supply balance of uranium enrichment service, significance of domestic uranium enrichment, evaluation of centrifugal uranium enrichment technology, the target of domestic uranium enrichment, the policy of domestic uranium enrichment promotion. (J.P.N.)

  1. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  2. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  3. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  4. VAT on domestic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Ian; Smith, Stephen; Webb, Steven.

    1993-01-01

    This publication traces the background to the imposition of VAT on domestic energy, and considers the current patterns of spending. Results of a simulation of the effects of imposition of 17.5% VAT on domestic fuels are presented, and policy measures to offset the impact on poorer households are considered. (UK)

  5. Highly resistant Salmonella Newport-MDRAmpC transmitted through the domestic US food supply: a FoodNet case-control study of sporadic Salmonella Newport infections, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Jay K; Marcus, Ruthanne; Stenzel, Sara A; Hanna, Samir S; Gettner, Sharmeen; Anderson, Bridget J; Hayes, Tameka; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Crume, Tessa L; Joyce, Kevin; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Voetsch, Andrew C; Angulo, Frederick J

    2006-07-15

    A new multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain of Salmonella serotype Newport, Newport-MDRAmpC, has recently emerged. We sought to identify the medical, behavioral, and dietary risk factors for laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Newport infection, including that with Newport-MDRAmpC. A 12-month population-based case-control study was conducted during 2002-2003 in 8 sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), with 215 case patients with Salmonella Newport infection and 1154 healthy community control subjects. Case patients with Newport-MDRAmpC infection were more likely than control subjects to have taken an antimicrobial agent to which Newport-MDRAmpC is resistant during the 28 days before the onset of diarrheal illness (odds ratio [OR], 5.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.6-16]). Case patients with Newport-MDRAmpC infection were also more likely to have eaten uncooked ground beef (OR, 7.8 [95% CI, 1.4-44]) or runny scrambled eggs or omelets prepared in the home (OR, 4.9 [95% CI, 1.3-19]) during the 5 days before the onset of illness. International travel was not a risk factor for Newport-MDRAmpC infection but was a strong risk factor for pansusceptible Salmonella Newport infection (OR, 7.1 [95% CI, 2.0-24]). Case patients with pansusceptible infection were also more likely to have a frog or lizard in their household (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.1-7.7]). Newport-MDRAmpC infection is acquired through the US food supply, most likely from bovine and, perhaps, poultry sources, particularly among persons already taking antimicrobial agents.

  6. Supply of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    the total of all supplies by other Members of the Agency before 1 July 1960. Further supplies from time to time are also envisaged. The agreements do not specify the prices at which the nuclear materials will be supplied to the Agency, but they lay down the principles on the basis of which the prices will be determined. The USSR has agreed that its prices will be based on a scale of charges corresponding to the lowest international prices in force at the time of delivery. The prices of materials supplied by the UK will not be less favourable than those offered by the UK Atomic Energy Authority to other external customers. The US prices will correspond to the US Atomic Energy Commission's published charges for the domestic distribution of these materials. The agreements do not open up any new sources of supply; as already stated, these supplies had been offered as early as 1957. But what they do provide is a broad framework for specific supply arrangements, a framework which may, furthermore, help in the establishment of international market prices for nuclear materials. Besides, they provide a stable and long term basis for the availability of materials. The agreement with the USA will remain in force for a period of twenty years. The UK Government has stated that its offer will remain open until the end of any calendar year after 1960 in which notice of withdrawal of the offer is given. The agreement with the USSR will remain in force for one year after the day of its denunciation by the USSR Government or the Agency

  7. Narratives of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...

  8. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  9. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume III. Appendices and Table of abbreviations; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome III. Annexes et Table des sigles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    The third volume of the Report on behalf of the Production and Exchange Commission on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply contains Appendices. The appendix number 1 presents the directive 96/92 CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 December 1996, concerning common rules referring to the electricity internal market. It contains the chapters titled: 1. Field of application and definitions; 2. General rules for sector organization; 3. Production; 4. Exploitation of the transport grid; 5. Exploitation of the distribution grid; 6. Accounting dissociation and transparency; 7. Organization of the grid access; 8. Final dispositions. The appendix number 2 gives the law no. 46 - 628 of 8 April, modified, on the nationalization of the electricity and gas. The third appendix reproduces Decree no. 55 - 662 of 20 May 1955 concerning relationships between the establishments aimed by the articles 2 and 23 of the law of 8 April 1946 and the autonomous producers of electric energy. The appendix number 4 contains the notification of State Council of 7 July 1994 regarding the diversification of EDF and GDF activities. The fifth appendix is a chronological list of the European negotiations concerning the opening of the electricity market (1987 -1997). Finally, a list of following abbreviations is given: ART, ATR, CNES, CRE, CTE, DNN, FACE, FPE, GRT, IEG, INB, PPI, RAG and SICAE.

  10. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ...% of the current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power fuels and products is considerable including decreased demand for imported oil revenue...

  11. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry: 1986 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the fourth annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1982. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions, as well as projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports. 13 refs., 26 figs., 37 tabs

  12. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry. 1984 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the second annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to requirements set forth in Section 23(b) of Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act, which was enacted on January 4, 1983. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions and projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports

  13. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  14. Evaluating Domestic Violence Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Alpa; Sampson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This paper critiques the approach of identifying ‘best practice’ projects and discusses the problem with simply transferring projects into different contexts. The argument is illustrated by explaining the evaluation process of three domestic violence projects which all had the same aim, which was to reduce domestic violence. The evaluated projects all delivered advocacy programmes and were located in disadvantaged areas in the United Kingdom. A more suitable evaluation approach is proposed wh...

  15. Perspectives of energy supply in unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieske, F.

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with the role of the various energy carriers within a future energy concept. The energy supply industry aims at a well-balanced energy mixture which is to include nuclear energy as well as domestic and imported coal. The supply industry will not turn a deaf ear to opening up the competitive scene, the author thinks, however, there well have to be special economic and technical preconditions. (orig.) [de

  16. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3224 TTD You CAN do something about domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of many behaviors directed ... violence. Look in the Yellow Pages under “domestic violence help,” “domestic violence shelters,” “human services organizations,” or “crisis intervention” ...

  17. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  18. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  19. Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health in Rural Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research notes that adequate provision of potable water and safe ... quality of water that is consumed is well-recognised as an important transmission route ... diarrhoeal disease due to unsafe water. sanitation and hygiene the 6th highest burden or .... and 'hygiene', have direct consequences for health in relation to both.

  20. The burden of domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Nørspang, Annika Patursson; Forkman, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The way in which domestic cats are kept and bred has changed dramatically over the last two centuries. Notably, a significant number of cats are kept indoors, most of them are neutered and many are selectively bred. This likely has consequences for their welfare. A few studies link housing, neuter......; that a smaller proportion of the free-roaming cats suffered from the behavioural problems investigated; and that entire cats had significantly more behavioural problems than neutered cats. Finally, significantly more purebred cats than domestic shorthair cats were found to have diseases. Being confined, being...

  1. Domestic fuel question and the charcoal solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Rao, E G

    1981-06-01

    Domestic fuel for cooking forms one of the basic needs of human society. In India, the pressure of this need has exceeded the regeneration potential of the growing forests which supply a large proportion of this basic need. The pressure can be greatly relieved by converting wood to charcoal before it reaches the consumer. The present paper examines this aspect and reviews the modern methods of charcoal production on fuelwood resources. Besides being a choice domestic fuel, charcoal is a valuable raw material in various industries. Charcoal making industry can be established as a rural based industry (as part of community forestry projects) and would generate much needed cash income at grassroot level. The strategy would be important in dealing with the problem of chronic poverty at this level. (Refs. 5).

  2. Supply chain management problems at South African automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    competition in global markets, the introduction of products with shorter life cycles, ... employees in the domestic automotive industry has declined, with 16 000 job .... integrates supply and demand management across companies” (Council for .... across the supply chain so that the enterprise can improve performance by ...

  3. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  4. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  5. Signs of domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  6. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  7. Gas supply and Yorkshire Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Yorkshire Electricity, among other independent suppliers of gas, now competes for a share of the United Kingdom gas market, previously monopolised by British Gas. The experience of this successful electric utility company, expanding into the industrial and domestic gas supply market is described in the article. The company`s involvement stems partly from the fact that significant volumes of gas are landed at three terminals within its franchise area. The company will also seek to use subsidaries to generate electric power from gas turbine power plants and explore the possibilities of developing combined heat and power (CHP) plants where appropriate. (UK)

  8. Domestic energy management methodology for optimizing efficiency in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2009-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of domestic technologies have been developed to improve this efficiency. These technologies on their own already improve the efficiency, but more can be

  9. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    the operation on fault analysis and control. A significant improvement of the MFM methodology has been recently proposed, where the “role” concept was introduced to enable the representation of structural entities and the conveyance of important information for building up knowledge bases, with the purpose...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...

  10. Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C L

    1983-04-01

    In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.

  11. Criminal aspects of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...

  12. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  13. Information Technology in Supply Chain Management at apparel industry

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, YANQING

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy, the Chinese market is the largest consumption market in the world. Chinese domestic enterprises as well as global apparel enterprises target at the Chinese market. Enterprises informatization becomes a competition weapon to earn Chinese market shares. Supply chain management (SCM) could play an important role in the supply chain competition at the apparel industry. IT is like a nerve system for supply chain management (SCM). SCM clearly depend...

  14. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  15. Domestic wastes: assault course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, C.; Bergey, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the management of domestic waste, some incoherencies persist. The tax on waste is always 20.6% instead of 5.5% for water or transport. The price of buying back electric power by Electricite de France is too low according to the appreciation of the cogeneration club. Regarding to the sell of stream to industrial, stream buyers are not always reliable, no enough guarantee are given by them to allow to cogeneration club to invest. (N.C.)

  16. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    OpenAIRE

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  17. Domestic energy fact file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorrock, L D; Henderson, G [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom); Bown, J H.F. [NBA Tectonics, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this publication to gather together in one volume some of the more important United Kingdom data on domestic energy and the measures that have been taken to improve the efficiency with which it is used. The introductory section discusses the main underlying trends affecting domestic energy use. It is followed by six main sections: Section 1 deals with fuel prices and household expenditure on energy. Section 2 is concerned with basic statistics on population, households and the housing stock (age, tenure, dwelling type and regional distribution). Section 3 presents information on the uptake of insulation measures in the housing stock. Section 4 presents information on changes to the housing stock heat loss, heating systems, temperatures and energy use. This section looks at what would have happened to the energy use of the housing stock if energy efficiency improvements had not been introduced. Section 4 contains the main conclusions on the effectiveness of insulation, improvements in efficiency and the rising standards of service achieved within the housing stock. Section 5 draws together the topics discussed in section 4 to illustrate the individual effects of rising levels of service, external temperature variations, improved insulation and improved heating efficiency, and how these combine to determine domestic section energy consumption. Section 6 considers the fuels used to meet the energy demand of the housing stock and the carbon dioxide emissions which result from this fuel use. The primary energy consumption associated with the energy delivered to the housing stock is also addressed in this section. A final energy balance diagram draws together the various topics discussed in the report by showing the main energy flows related to the housing stock. (author)

  18. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  19. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  20. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Pawłowska-Muc, Agnieszka Konstancja; Pilewska-Kozak, Anna Bogusława; Stadnicka, Grażyna; Pałucka, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Łepecka-Klusek Celina, Pawłowska-Muc Agnieszka Konstancja, Pilewska‑Kozak Anna Bogusława, Stadnicka Grażyna, Pałucka Klaudia. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):169-182. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18420 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A169-182 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/564476 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18420 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. A...

  1. Rhetoric versus reality: Russian threats to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthau, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    European gas demand will rise from presently 540 billion cubic meters (bcm) to around 800 bcm in 2030. As more than 50 percent of overall European imports originate from Russia, fears have been expressed that the Kremlin could use energy resources as a foreign policy tool. A thorough assessment of domestic consumption, production and investment volumes however reveals that Russian supply will have difficulties in matching growing domestic and European demand. Hence, as the author argues, the threat to European gas supply does not lie in geopolitics, but rather in a lack of investment in the Russian upstream sector. Higher domestic Russian gas prices, enhanced energy efficiency and increases in non-Gazprom production would however make it possible for Russia to meet domestic demand and its export commitments for natural gas

  2. A look at the European domestic and foreign energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    After having defined the main characteristics of energy considered as a good (a private good, a product of first necessity, a redistributed product, a strategic good), the author presents the actors of the European energy policy: European authorities, member state governments, firms (operators and big consumers), and households. He presents the European domestic energy policy which comprises three main themes: the creation of a domestic market, the taking of government commitments for 2020 into account, and the emission trading scheme. He identifies and comments the three main objectives of the European foreign energy policy: supply security, struggle against climate change, and support to the less developed countries

  3. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  4. Information Sharing in the Hardwood Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Stiess, Timothy Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The Hardwood Industry in United States has been challenged by low-cost competition from overseas. Although cost reduction strategies have had minimal success, the proximity of industry to the domestic market has large implications on a more customer-focused strategy. The problem arises that individual companies and supply chains evolved based on the principles of economies of size and not on the flexibility to adapt to customer needs and changing resource constraints. An increased rate at ...

  5. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...

  6. Transnational Journeys and Domestic Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    This essay considers the potential of histories of transnational movements of people, and the erosion of boundaries between British domestic and imperial history, to expand and revise the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century British domestic life and work. Literatures on migration demonstrate how far the history of home involves transnational themes, including the recruitment of migrants and refugees who crossed national borders to do domestic work—in Britain and empire—and their deve...

  7. Plant domestication and gene banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrino, P.

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the dawn of agriculture, plant domestication was very slow. As agriculture progressed, however, domestication began to evolve faster and reached its highest point with the advent of plant breeders who played a very important role in solving the world food problem. One of the fastest moving strategies was a better exploitation of genetic diversity, both natural and induced. However, intensive plant breeding activity caused a heavy fall in genetic variability. Gene banks then provided a further tool for modern agriculture, specifically to preserve genetic resources and to help breeders to further domesticate important crops and to introduce and domesticate new species. (author). 3 refs

  8. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  9. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  10. Foreign uranium supply. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, N.B.; Steyn, J.J.

    1978-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the extent to which foreign uranium may be available to United States utilities in the short term (through 1980), the intermediate term (1981--1985), and the long term (1986--95). All free world foreign uranium producers and prospects are included, with particular emphasis on Australia, Canada, southern Africa, France, and French-speaking Africa. The assessment includes reserves, resources, exploration and prospects; firm and potential production capacity and prospects; national policies and relevant political and economic conditions; foreign uranium demand; etc. Conclusions are: Foreign supply capability is greater than foreign demand in the near term. The current availability of uncommitted future Australian production presents an unusual opportunity for establishing commercial relations with very substantial producers. Foreign uranium contracts represent an increase in diversity of supply and access to resources but have less assurance of supply than do domestic contracts. However, uncertainties can frequently be accommodated within an overall procurement program, thereby retaining the diversity and price advantages of foreign procurement. The practice of market pricing of contracts reduces the incentives for foreign contracting

  11. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  12. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  13. U.S. NGL supply in the changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the outlook for domestic NGL supply, demand for natural gas liquids in the US, and review a couple of key drivers of natural gas liquids demand; ethylene production and capacity and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The author reviews historical US NGL production in key supply areas over the past five years, as well as look forward through the year 2000. Then briefly touch on the recent activity, specifically the types of consolidations, changing the environment in the gas gathering, gas processing and natural gas liquids industry and its impact on future NGL markets

  14. The uranium supply strategy of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are 28 units of nuclear power plants (NPPs) under construction in China. Most of these plants will be put into operation sequentially in a couple years. The paper will present the operational and construction status of NPPs in China. As the reactor fleet increases, the requirement for uranium will also substantially increase. Due to declining air quality, as atmospheric pollution spreads rapidly from northern parts to southern parts of China, the option to develop nuclear power has become the highest priority. Uranium demand will be the key to support the expanded nuclear power in the future. Current and future requirements of uranium and the envisaged supply strategy will be discussed. Domestic production is seen as one of the channels to meet the increased requirement. As the uranium price remain low, there will be limited the expansion of domestic production in the short term. The exploration of economic resources is being promoted. Decreasing production costs is mandated in operations due to low uranium prices at present. Development of overseas uranium resources is another channel to supply for the NPPs. Through acquisition of uranium mining projects, advanced uranium projects and exploration projects, China can meet the requirement of NPPs in the long-term. Joint venture partnership is also flexible option for developing uranium resources overseas. Purchasing uranium in the market is the third option. Complementing the supply by domestic production and overseas development, purchase of uranium product in the market is a simple and easy option. Advantages and disadvantages of these three channels and how these can be combined into an integrated strategy of supply and the proprotionate weightage of each channel for the potential future supply of uranium to the NNP fleet will be discussed. (author)

  15. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-03-08

    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.

  16. Domestic violence screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Mikiko Yazawa; Higa, Nicole A; Parker, Willie J; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2009-11-01

    Domestic violence is an important health concern that has been shown to have adverse effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of prenatal screening for domestic violence in a hospital-based resident clinic setting with screening practices in private obstetric offices in Honolulu, Hawai'i and to explore physician attitudes towards domestic violence screening during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was conducted at Queen's Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawai'i in women who delivered between 2003 and 2004. A 6 item written survey was also given to all attending and resident physicians with obstetric privileges. Descriptive statistics including frequency measures were generated and chi square tests were used to compare categorical variables. A total of 270 charts were reviewed. There was a statistically significant difference (p obstetric practices (39.3 percent) that were screened for domestic violence. While the majority of respondents (77.6%) to the domestic violence survey were aware that the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends domestic violence screening in pregnancy most respondents (69.0 percent) indicated that they "never or rarely" screened their patients for domestic violence. Despite professional recommendations and an awareness of these recommendations, between 2003 and 2004, routine prenatal screening for domestic violence was markedly lacking for patients in this study population.

  17. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  18. Domestic Politics and Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung

    2016-01-01

    The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables

  19. Domestic Politics and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables.

  20. International performance indicators: gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance of Australian's natural gas utilities against world best practice. In particular, it examines whether Australia's traded goods sector is disadvantaged by the performance of domestic infrastructure service industries. It reports on the operating efficiency of the natural gas industry using Data Envelopment Analysis. It concludes that the Australian gas industry as a whole is performing relatively well in term of operating efficiency and that its prices are comparable with prices in North America, once differences in consumption per customer are taken into consideration. Appendixes 1 and 2 provide a summary of the structure and regulation of the gas supply industry in Australia and selected overseas countries, while the Appendix 3 gives an econometric analysis of the relationships between consumption per customer and residential price-cost margins. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  2. ECOS: values of parameters to be used for domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1984-03-01

    This report constitutes the database description for the domestic animals section of the biosphere code ECOS. Two categories of data are supplied, element-independent and element-dependent. The element-independent data comprise rates of food, water and soil consumption, inhalation rates and masses of animal tissues. The element-dependent data consist of f 1 (fractional gastrointestinal absorption), fsub(D) (fractional systematic deposition after inhalation) and NRF (weighted integrated retention function) values. All parameter values given are justified. (author)

  3. New U. S. domestic nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Welck, S

    1981-12-01

    On October 8, 1981, almost exactly four and a half years after President Carter's consequential Nuclear Power Policy Statement, the U.S. Secretary of Energy announced the statement on U.S. domestic nuclear policy of President Reagan, which had been expected for some time already. That statement supplements the July 16, 1981 statement on U.S. nuclear nonproliferation and export policies and the National Energy Policy Plan of the Department of Energy of July 1981. President Reagan's October 8, 1981 statement is aimed at reviving U.S. nuclear industry and achieving increasing contributions of nuclear power towards ensuring the continuity of energy supply in the USA. This includes improvements in the financial situation of the utilities, deregulation to curb unnecessary government interference, resumption of the breeder program and commercial reprocessing, and the demand to find solutions for the disposial of radioactive waste.

  4. Domestic uranium exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium exploration in the United States reached its alltime high in 1978 when the chief exploration indicator, surface drilling, totaled 47 million feet. In 1979, however, total drilling declined to 41 million feet, and during the first 8 months of 1980 the trend continued, as surface drilling was 27% less than for the same period in 1979. The total drilling for 1980 now is expected to be below 30 million feet, far less than the 39.4 million feet planned by industry at the beginning of the year. Falling uranium prices, the uncertainties of future uranium demand, rising costs, and the possibility of stiff foreign competition are the prime causes for the current reduction in domestic uranium exploration. Uranium exploration in the United States continues to be concentrated in the vicinity of major producing areas such as the San Juan Basin, Wyoming Basins, Texas Coastal Plain, Paradox Basin, and northeastern Washington, and in areas of recent discoveries including the Henry Mountains, Utah, the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon, and central Colorado. The distributions, by location, of total surface drilling for 1979 and the first half of 1980 are presented

  5. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  6. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  7. In Lands of Foreign Currency Credit, Bank Lending Channels Run Through? The Effects of Monetary Policy at Home and Abroad on the Currency Denomination of the Supply of Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ongena; Ibolya Schindele; Dzsamila Vonnak

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the differential impact of domestic and foreign monetary policy on the local supply of bank credit in domestic and foreign currencies. We analyze a novel, supervisory dataset from Hungary that records all bank lending to firms including its currency denomination. Accounting for time-varying firm-specific heterogeneity in loan demand, we find that a lower domestic interest rate expands the supply of credit in the domestic but not in the foreign currency. A lower foreign interest rat...

  8. [Mycoses in domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M E; Blanco, J L

    2000-03-01

    In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.

  9. Domestic Violence and Social Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Black

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A violência doméstica é o uso da força entre parceiros que vivem juntos como um casal. A maioria é uma forma de gestão de conflitos conhecida como autoajuda: o tratamento de uma queixa com agressão. Em Violência doméstica e tempo social eu introduzo dois princípios de violência doméstica que explicam 1 quais casais têm mais violência e 2 o que causa sua violência. O primeiro princípio - a violência doméstica é uma função direta da distância doméstica – explica por que algumas estruturas domésticas (como “patriarquias frias” têm mais violência do que outras (como “democracias estreitas”. O segundo princípio – a violência doméstica é uma função direta do movimento do tempo doméstico – explica casos particulares de violência doméstica com mudanças (como diminuição da intimidade ou aumento da desigualdade nas relações domésticas onde elas ocorrem. Esses princípios explicam a violência doméstica nas sociedades tradicionais e modernas, entre homens e mulheres, e em casais heterossexuais e do mesmo sexo. Domestic violence is the use of force between partners who live together as a couple. Most is a form of conflict management known as self-help: the handling of a grievance with aggression. Here I introduce two principles of domestic violence that explain 1 which couples have more violence and 2 what causes their violence. The first principle – domestic violence is a direct function of domestic distance – explains why some domestic structures (such as “cold patriarchies” have more violence than others (such as “close democracies”. The second principle – domestic violence is a direct function of the movement of domestic time – explains particular cases of domestic violence with changes (such as decreases of intimacy or increases of inequality in the domestic relationships where they occur. These principles explain domestic violence in traditional and modern societies, by men and

  10. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic

  11. Demand, supply, and trade analysis for the fifth ECE/FAO European timber trends study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, A.

    1996-01-01

    For this study, supply is explained using prices and costs; separate supply models are estimated for export supply, and supply to domestic markets. Using this approach, elasticities can vary by market (for supply equations) and by source of supply (for demand equations). In addition, substitution behaviour in both consumption and production can be examined. For the 9 countries that are smaller markets for forest products in Europe, a model of total demand (apparent consumption) was estimated using gross domestic product and price as explanatory factors. For these countries, a time-series, cross-section approach was used to estimate elasticities; countries were grouped by per capita income. For all countries, estimated elasticities are generally consistent with those reported in previous TTS, and those reported in the scientific literature. Because trade is modeled, additional information is available regarding the outlook for European forest products consumption, and demand on European forests. Where complete data sets were available, results generally indicate that there is substitution in consumption between imports and domestic production, for most products, in most countries. In addition, import elasticities often are higher than elasticities estimated for consumption from domestic sources. Substitution between exports and domestic markets is also evident in export supply equations. 10 refs, 21 tabs

  12. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  13. Supply Cain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  14. Flexible demand in the GB domestic electricity sector in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drysdale, Brian; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual domestic demand by category and daily flexible load profiles are shown to 2030. • Valuable flexible demand requires loads to be identifiable, accessible, and useful. • The extent of flexible demand varies significantly on a diurnal and seasonal basis. • Barriers to accessing domestic demand include multiple low value loads and apathy. • Existing market structure a barrier to fully rewarding individual load flexibility. - Abstract: In order to meet greenhouse gas emissions targets the Great Britain (GB) future electricity supply will include a higher fraction of non-dispatchable generation, increasing opportunities for demand side management to maintain a supply/demand balance. This paper examines the extent of flexible domestic demand (FDD) in GB, its usefulness in system balancing and appropriate incentives to encourage consumers to participate. FDD, classified as electric space and water heating (ESWH), and cold and wet appliances, amounts to 59 TW h in 2012 (113 TW h total domestic demand) and is calculated to increase to 67 TW h in 2030. Summer and winter daily load profiles for flexible loads show significant seasonal and diurnal variations in the total flexible load and between load categories. Low levels of reflective consumer engagement with electricity consumption and a resistance to automation present barriers to effective access to FDD. A value of £1.97/household/year has been calculated for cold appliance loads used for frequency response in 2030, using 2013 market rates. The introduction of smart meters in GB by 2020 will allow access to FDD for system balancing. The low commercial value of individual domestic loads increases the attractiveness of non-financial incentives to fully exploit FDD. It was shown that appliance loads have different characteristics which can contribute to an efficient power system in different ways

  15. RODOS - The domestic counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, Dan V.

    1999-01-01

    One term of reference for validly teaming up with Project RODOS (Real-Time-On-Line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies in Europe) is to institutionally - contribute research initiatives geared towards emulating the RODOS functions on novel conceptual pathways, expand system's coverage of issues that are relevant in a nuclear crisis management and bring in a domestic perspective on how the system may best perform in each and every national - i.e. legal, managerial, logistic and cultural environment. On this line, one reviews the approach taken in the IFIN-HH RODOS Group to address the challenge, as well a number of representative outputs. These include: i) A phase-one, pre-RODOS, period (1990 - 1994), involving topical field orientation, feasibility demonstrations and expertise acquisition by hands-on training in environmental radiology modeling and DSS code development, the resulting products - codes in the 'APUD' and 'ACA-IFA' family, including custom versions developed by appointment of the IAEA Safety Section and AECL-Research, Ontario, Canada - being favourably reviewed by the NEA/OECD Data Bank; ii) A phase-two, upgrading and consolidation period (1994 -1996), assisted by the IAEA fellowship system and the US Government via the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Washington, D.C, having on record an effective participation in the development of the US NRC, EPA, and DOE's 'FRMAC Assessment Manual - The Federal manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency', and the 'RTM-95 International Technical Response Manual', and the research initiative of developing a software support for the manuals' implementation - the codes 'ROBOT' (Rule-Oriented Basic Operational Tool); iii) A phase-three period (1996 - ), evolving within the RODOS framework and featuring, inter alia: (a) the application of the ROBOT concept in the development of a standalone software platform, code-named NOTEPAD for DSS support in field operations, nuclear accident

  16. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Section 170B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended by Public Law 97-415, requires that the Secretary of Energy submit to Congress an annual assessment of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility to develop the criteria for use in estimating the viability of the industry. These criteria include four major attributes of industry viability - resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. Having established these criteria, the Secretary of Energy is required to monitor the industry and make an annual assessment of its viability for 1983 through 1992. The first six assessments were issued in the years 1984 through 1989 based on information available for 1983 through 1988, respectively. The current report provides the data and analyses, based on the information available through the end of the calendar year 1989, supporting the seventh annual assessment of the uranium industry's viability. It presents information on the four major attributes. Data on past and present industry behavior, as well as projections of the future status of the industry (assuming current market conditions), were used to examine the industry's ability to respond, over a 10-year period, to two hypothetical supply disruption scenarios. 20 figs., 23 tabs

  17. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  18. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  19. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations

  20. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-06-27

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations.

  1. How To Respond to Catastrophic Events in Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sooyeon

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2011, a massive earthquake and tsunami struck into Japan. Soon after this event, Toyota in the UK announced that their production had to been halted caused by disruption on supply chain relationship with Japan. Like this, a catastrophic event disturbs not only domestic situation but also international business. Supply chain is one of the most affected areas and also capable to control on business at the same time when a disaster occurs. In this work, how to respond supply chain sy...

  2. Changing landscape for North American supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, J.

    2005-01-01

    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs

  3. Changing landscape for North American supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. [Natural Gas Supply Association, Washington DC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs.

  4. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  5. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  6. Domestic connectivity: media, gender and the domestic sphere in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media i...... their traditional gender roles.......This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media...... into their daily lives and routines and that increased media access has opened up the home, turned the domestic space from a secluded place to a connected space, where women can get input from, connect and interact with the world beyond their immediate surrounding, while remaining at home concurrently fulfilling...

  7. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  8. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  9. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  10. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Uranium: the market and adequacy of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, B.H.

    1976-01-01

    The expansion of the nuclear industry to meet anticipated electrical growth requirements is in part dependent on the ability of the domestic uranium industry to expand anticipated uranium demand. This expansion is potentially constrained by many factors, including resource availability, the mounting of an adequate drilling program, availability of competent people, industry financing capability, and the dynamics of expanding an industry from a relatively small base. In the absence of industry success in mounting adequate expansion efforts, customer involvement in risk taking will be required to develop uranium supplies in a timely manner

  12. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  13. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  14. Vietnamese Domestic Tourism: An Investigation of Travel Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jolliffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches domestic tourism in Vietnam from a native Asian perspective aiming to examine Vietnamese domestic travel motivations. This quantitative study is based on a self-administered questionnaire to survey 230 Vietnamese domestic travellers. Results highlight the significant roles of the employer sponsoring the trip, family, travel promotion, and favourable weather in determining travel, in addition to their motivations to seek time for leisure and recreation. Moreover, the study detected a perception gap between the tourist’s demand and the travel agent’s supply. The behaviour of Vietnamese domestic travellers reflects the characteristics of a transition economy and reveals certain aspects which are also peculiar to other Asian countries. --- Die hier präsentierte quantitative Studie untersucht Reisemotive vietnamesischer InlandstouristInnen mittels eines an 230 ProbandInnen gerichteten Fragebogens. Die Ergebnisse heben neben dem Motiv der Freizeitgestaltung und Erholung die signifikante Rolle der Reisefinanzierung durch Arbeit- geberInnen, der Familie, der Tourismuswerbung sowie der Wetterbedingungen für die Reiseentscheidung hervor. Außerdem ergab die Studie, dass sich die touristischen Motivationen vom Angebot der Reiseagenturen unterscheiden. Die Autorinnen argumentieren, dass das Urlaubsverhalten vietnamesischer InlandstouristInnen Charakteristika eines im wirtschaftlichen Umbruch befindenden Landes widerspiegelt sowie Aspekte aufzeigt, die auch in anderen asiatischen Ländern eine wichtige Rolle spielen.

  15. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  16. Study of China green supply chain management policies and standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Huang, Jin; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    With the highlight of the environment issues, manufacturing industry needs to be environmentally managed with integrated methods in system aspect. Green supply chain management, integrating the environment aspect into each step of the implement of supply chain management, is the key measure to improve the efficiency of environmental management and to remit the pollution. It also helps to make best use and configuration of the resources and has been attracting much attention from our government, enterprises and academia in recent years. This paper introduced the definition and content of green supply chain management, concluded the research progress of green supply chain management by domestic scholars, stated the characteristic and achievement of the implement of green supply chain management in China as well as analyzed the current existing problems and suggestions in the future.

  17. Description of 2005-10 domestic water use for selected U.S. cities and guidance for estimating domestic water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joan F.; Juracek, Kyle E.

    2012-01-01

    selected cities. National average public supply per capita water use declined from 185 gpcd in 1990 to 171 gpcd in 2005. National average domestic delivery per capita water use declined from 105 gpcd in 1990 to 99 gpcd in 2005. Average State domestic delivery per capita water use ranged from 51 to 189 gpcd in 2005. The average annual total per capita water use in 19 selected cities that provided data for each year declined from 167 gpcd in 2006 to 145 gpcd in 2010. During this time period, average per capita water use measured during the low-3 period each year declined from 115 to 102 gpcd, and average per capita use measured during the high-3 period declined from 250 to 211 gpcd. Continued collection of data on water deliveries to domestic populations, as well as updated estimates of the population served by these deliveries, is recommended for determination of regional and temporal trends in domestic per capita water use. Declines in various measures of per capita water use have been observed in recent years for several States with municipal water use data-collection programs. Domestic self-supplied water use historically has not been metered. Estimates of self-supplied domestic water use are made using estimates of the population that is not served by public water suppliers and per capita coefficients. For 2005, the average State domestic self-supplied per capita use in the United States ranged from 50 to 206 gpcd. The median domestic self-supplied per capita use was 76 gpcd for States in which standard coefficients were used, and 98 gpcd for States in which coefficients were based on domestic deliveries from public supply. In specific areas with scarce resources or increasing numbers of households with private wells, an assessment of domestic water use may require metering of households or development of more specific per capita coefficients to estimate water demand.

  18. Securitization of energy supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Guy C.K.; Cherp, Aleh; Jewell, Jessica; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three sources of energy security risks, namely sovereignty, robustness and resilience, affect China’s energy chains. • Energy security issues in China both have shaped and at the same time were shaped by ideas and institutions. • China remains rigid with equating ‘security’ with ‘national security’ and the notion of “national” is socially constructed. • Powerful actors, such as Chinese NOCs, inclined to interpret the problem so that it fits their preferred solution. • Securitization of any energy supply chains results from their historical roots, system properties and institutional agents. - Abstract: Energy policies in China, the world’s largest energy consumer, are an important factor in shaping the global energy system. While scholars agree that energy security is a major driver of China’s energy policies, there is insufficient understanding of what exactly constitutes China’s energy security from the policy perspective. We apply recent insights from the Global Energy Assessment, particularly the idea of vital energy systems, and the securitization theory to propose a framework for explaining China’s energy security policies in their historic evolution. We pay specific attention to explaining how particular energy supply chains are constructed and securitized. We draw data from over 300 Chinese and over 100 English publications and 30 interviews with energy officials and experts in China. We demonstrate that China’s focus on vulnerabilities of its oil supply chain at the expense of improving the reliability of domestic electricity supply is not accidental. It has its roots in historic events, properties of energy systems, as well as the presence of powerful institutional agents interested in securitizing the oil supply chain but not other vital energy systems. We suggest that this focus on the oil supply chain is likely to be maintained in the future, possibly accompanied by increasing concerns over natural gas

  19. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  20. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  1. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  2. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  3. Perspectives of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  4. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  5. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  6. D. C. power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M

    1978-04-01

    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  7. Thermal results of the Japanese LCT coil's domestic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Hiyama, Tadao; Kato, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu; Shimamoto, Susumu

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes thermal results obtained in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil which was constructed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in order to develop large superconducting coils for fusion in international collaboration proposed by the IEA. The domestic test was carried out from May 13 to June 17 in 1982 by using the test facility named as SETF (Superconducting Engineering Test Facility) which was composed of a 350-l/h helium cryogenic system, a vacuum system, a 30 KA-DC power supply and protection system, and a PDP-11/70 computer system. The cool-down characteristics, heat load, fast discharge characteristics, stability, and warm-up characteristics of the LCT coil were successfully measured in the test. The details of thermal test results acquired in the cool-down, heat load measurement, fast discharge, and warm-up, and the comparison between measurements and calculations are described in this paper. (author)

  8. Development of an innovative low temperature heat supply concept for a new housing area

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Dietrich; Kallert, Anna; Orozaliev, Janybek; Best, Isabelle; Vajen, Klaus; Reul, Oliver; Bennewitz, Jochen; Gerhold, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The domestic energy demand of buildings is responsible for one third of the world's final energy consumption. To increase the sustainability of new housing areas, the identification of innovative heat supply concepts based on renewable energy sources (RES) is required. For the new housing area “Zum Feldlager” (Kassel, Germany), various supply concepts are studied. Main objective is the development of an innovative and efficient supply concept based on RES and low temperature district heating ...

  9. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  10. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2005-01-01

    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  11. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  12. How People Domesticated Amazonian Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, C.; Flores, Bernardo; Moreira, Priscilla; Luize, Bruno G.; Alves, Rubana; Franco-Moraes, Juliano; Lins, Juliana; Konings, Evelien; Pena Claros, M.; Bongers, F.; Costa, Flavia; Clement, Charles

    2018-01-01

    For millennia, Amazonian peoples have managed forest resources, modifying the natural environment in subtle and persistent ways. Legacies of past human occupation are striking near archaeological sites, yet we still lack a clear picture of how human management practices resulted in the domestication

  13. Energy optimisation of domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the main results of a research project with the objective of reducing the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators by increasing the efficiency of the refrigeration system. The improvement of the system efficiency was to be obtained by:1) Introducing continuous operation ...

  14. 76 FR 45851 - Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia-Institution of Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... availability of major inputs into production); and factors related to the ability to shift supply among... output of the Domestic Like Product constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of... comparable products which the Commission conducts under Title VII of the Act, or in internal audits and...

  15. Modelling aggregate domestic electricity demand in Ghana: An autoregressive distributed lag bounds cointegration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi; Bekoe, William; Akoena, Sesi Kutri Komla

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the varying supply boosting efforts made by various governments to deal with the existing demand–supply gap in the electricity sector, the incessant growth in aggregate domestic electricity demand has made these efforts futile. As an objective, this paper attempts to identify the factors responsible for the historical growth trends in aggregate domestic electricity demand quantifying their effects both in the short-run and long-run periods using the ARDL Bounds cointegration approach and the sample period 1975 to 2005. In the long-run, real per capita GDP, industry efficiency, structural changes in the economy, and degree of urbanisation are identified as the main driving force behind the historical growth trend in aggregate domestic electricity demand. However, in the short-run, real per capita GDP, industry efficiency, and degree of urbanisation are the main drivers of aggregate domestic electricity demand. Industry efficiency is the only factor that drives aggregate domestic electricity demand downwards. However, the negative efficiency effect is insufficient to have outweighed the positive income, output, and demographic effects, hence the continual growth in aggregate domestic electricity demand. As a policy option, we recommend that appropriate electricity efficiency standards be implemented at the industry level. - Highlights: ► Real per capita GDP is the primary determinant of electricity demand both in the short and long-run. ► Industrial efficiency, structural changes and urbanisation rate play secondary role. ► The positive income, output, and demographic effects outweigh the negative efficiency effects.

  16. Effect of domestic violence training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of domestic violence education in improving physicians’ knowledge, recognition, and management of abused women. Data sources The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and November 1, 2012. This search was supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles using a combined text-word and MeSH-heading search strategy. Study selection Randomized controlled trials were selected that used educational interventions among physicians and provided data on the effects of the interventions. Synthesis Nine randomized controlled trials were included that described different educational approaches with various outcome measures. Three studies examined the effects of educational interventions among postgraduate trainee physicians and found an increase in knowledge but no change in behaviour with regard to identifying victims of domestic violence. Six studies examined educational interventions for practising physicians. Three of these studies used multifaceted physician training that combined education with system support interventions to change physician behaviour, such as increasing general awareness of domestic violence with brochures and posters, providing aids to remind physicians how to identify victims, facilitating physician access to victim support services, and providing audits and feedback. Multifaceted educational interventions included interactive workshops, Web-based learning, and experiential training. Another study used focus-group discussions and training, and showed improved domestic violence reporting among physicians. The remaining 2 studies showed improved perceptions of practising physicians’ self-efficacy using problem-based online learning. Conclusion It was difficult to determine the most effective educational strategy, as the educational interventions and the outcome measures varied

  17. The Atomic Views of Flat Supply Chains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar Chattopadhyay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available China's domestic supply chain networks are getting flat and unbalanced despite its spectacular growth and rise to the enviable position in the global supply chain arena in recent times. The aftermath of continued investment explosion, especially in the coastal areas of the mainland, calls for an interwoven relationship of Chinese companies with the rest of the global supply chains. However, with new information and communication technologies, the real-time problems arising from this flattened supply chains are much more complex, multifaceted and multidimensional. China needs to re-think and re-focus on better alignment to the western values and cultures while managing its global business activities. This paper discusses four recently developed enterprise models in the light of several case studies conducted recently in Australia, China and India to characterise these new flat supply chains: People-Centric, Molecular Organization, Globally Dispersed and Disaggregated Value Chain. These, apparently different but inherently similar models have a vibrant architecture and system behaviour in their core and propose an alternative approach to address challenges of unbalanced domestic flat supply chains in China and helps the Chinese manufacturers to explore an approach to embrace Western values and cultures by enlarging their sphere of influence.

  18. NORTH PORTAL - DOMESTIC COLD WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Mastilovic

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for domestic cold water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  19. A predictive model for smart control of a domestic heat pump and thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Gebhardt, I.; de Wit, J.B.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a predictive model of a thermal storage which is charged by a heat pump and used for domestic hot water supply. The model is used for smart grid control purposes and requires measurement signals of flow and temperature at the inlet and outlet of

  20. 77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... 2011, natural gas provided 25 percent of the energy consumed in the United States. Its production creates jobs and provides economic benefits to the entire domestic production supply chain, as well as to... appropriate safeguards, natural gas can provide a cleaner source of energy than other fossil fuels. For these...

  1. Optimization of China's centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having...

  2. Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhana Shrestha; Yoko Aihara; Arun Prasad Bhattarai; Niranjan Bista; Sudarshan Rajbhandari; Naoki Kondo; Futaba Kazama; Kei Nishida; Junko Shindo

    2017-01-01

    Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the Melamchi Water Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ) is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water consumption pre- and post-GEQ. The piped water supply was short, and consumption varied widely across the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) branches and altitude. The reduction in piped...

  3. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  4. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  5. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  6. Energy supply and use in a rural West African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Nathan G.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Over three billion people live in the rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Often rural households have many unmet energy needs, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and telecommunication. Designing solutions to meet these needs requires an understanding of the human, natural, and engineered systems that drive village energy dynamics. This paper presents the results of a novel study of energy supply and use over a one year period in an isolated rural village of 770 people in Mali. Quantitative data and narrative descriptions from this study portray village energy supply and use. Annual village energy use is 6000 MJ cap −1 yr −1 . Domestic energy needs account for 93% of village energy use. Wood is the primary energy source and provides 94% of the village energy supply. Approximately 98% of the wood is used for domestic consumption. The uses of wood in the home are cooking (52.2%), heating water (22.2%), space heating (19.1%), and other activities (6.5%). This paper also reports variations in energy usage over the period of a year for a broad range of domestic, artisan, transport, and public energy uses. -- Highlights: ► Village energy supply and use is driven by human, natural, and engineered systems. ► Village energy use varies by 250% between the hot and cold seasons. ► Domestic wood consumption accounts for 92% of village energy. ► Solar PV cells and batteries supply power to pumps, lights, and personal electronics. ► Every household uses multiple energy sources to meet basic needs.

  7. Exporting Australia's remote area power supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnell, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian renewable energy industry has two faces: Remote Area Power Supply systems (RAPS), where the trade-off is between the traditional diesel generator and diesel hybrid or the stand alone renewable energy system. The competency of the Australian RAPS industry is recognised internationally. Grid connected renewable energy technologies, where industry activity is expanding rapidly, but where Australian competencies carry relatively little weight internationally (other than for research and development of related components such as big performance, crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells). Individual industry development strategies are required in each instance. The focus of this paper is on strategies that enhance the export potential of the Australian RAPS industry. Involvement of the electricity supply utilities is promoted as a means of quickly instituting a substantial industry presence. The term RAPS can be confusing. It is used to describe any supply system serving a remote user, be they a single property owner with a simple, stand alone DC photovoltaic supply, or several communities with complex, inter-connected, diesel/hybrid power stations, sometimes termed a 'remote-grid'. Utility interest tends to emerge as market fragmentation decreases, system complexity increases and economies of scale become evident. A review of the domestic situation is a necessary adjunct to development of export strategies for Australian RAPS products. The two are inexorably linked, as is reflected in the format of this paper. (author)

  8. Storytelling and story testing in domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary...

  9. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As ... each year. This kind of violence is called domestic violence or intimate partner violence. The US Department of ...

  10. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  11. Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Margrethe; Godbolt, Åsne Lund; Sørensen, Knut H.; Ryghaug, Marianne; Karlstrøm, Henrik; Næss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses possible effects of the growing focus on global warming on households’ domestication of energy and the dynamics of energy consumption by comparing data pertaining to the domestication of energy within Norwegian households from two time periods: first, 1991–1995, when climate change was given little public attention, and, second, 2006–2009, after climate change became a major public concern. In the first period, we observed that the domestication of energy resulted in an energy culture emphasizing comfort and convenience with respect to everyday life and the abundant supply of clean hydropower. In the second period, this culture seemed to have changed, making households more concerned about their energy consumption. Consumption of energy was linked to climate change, and many interviewees claimed to save energy. However, the dominant expectation was still to be able to manage everyday life in a convenient and comfortable way. Thus, climate change concerns produced some but not very radical changes in the practical domestication of energy, including energy saving. A main effect was feelings of guilt, tempered by arguments regarding why change is difficult and complaints about political inaction. Thus, public engagement with climate change issues may facilitate energy efficiency policy but to succeed, wider climate policy measures seem to be needed. - Highlights: • Increased climate change focus has affected household domestication of energy. • The changes produced concerns about energy consumption. • Some energy saving activities were reported. • Household energy cultures are less stable than anticipated. • Suggests wider climate policy measures to motivate for energy efficiency.

  12. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2009-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  13. Domestic competitiveness in secondary wood industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson

    2004-01-01

    As imports capture a substantial portion of the domestic wood furniture market, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain an industry perspective of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that might enhance domestic competitiveness. A mail survey was conducted...

  14. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  15. Domestic Violence against Men: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence against men isn't always easy to identify, but it can be a serious threat. Know how to recognize if ... Staff Women aren't the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, ...

  16. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust company...

  17. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  18. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of any designated foreign country: Any bank or trust...

  19. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  20. NEMP effects on domestic installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.; Clemens, P.; Graf, W.; Guidi, P.; Schmidt, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The measurements have been made in a building of a psychiatric clinic at Alzey/West Germany. The building has been chosen for the measuring campaign because it has its own electrical installation for mains current supply and emergency power supply, apart from systems of the other buildings. The two supply systems DONNERSBERG could be cut off completely from the other mains systems, so that coupling and feed experiments could be made without mains voltage. Current supply to the measuring systems was done by means of extension cables, or by batteries. The wiring for connection to the room circuits is parallel to the exterior wall, so that measurements could be done by using a frame antenna placed outside of the building parallel to the exterior wall. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

  2. Complex evolutionary patterns revealed by mitochondrial genomes of the domestic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, T; Li, J; Lin, K; Xiao, H; Wylie, S; Hua, S; Li, H; Zhang, Y-P

    2014-01-01

    The domestic horse is the most widely used and important stock and recreational animal, valued for its strength and endurance. The energy required by the domestic horse is mainly supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, selection may have played an essential role in the evolution of the horse mitochondria. Besides, demographic events also affect the DNA polymorphic pattern on mitochondria. To understand the evolutionary patterns of the mitochondria of the domestic horse, we used a deep sequencing approach to obtain the complete sequences of 15 mitochondrial genomes, and four mitochondrial gene sequences, ND6, ATP8, ATP6 and CYTB, collected from 509, 363, 363 and 409 domestic horses, respectively. Evidence of strong substitution rate heterogeneity was found at nonsynonymous sites across the genomes. Signatures of recent positive selection on mtDNA of domestic horse were detected. Specifically, five amino acids in the four mitochondrial genes were identified as the targets of positive selection. Coalescentbased simulations imply that recent population expansion is the most probable explanation for the matrilineal population history for domestic horse. Our findings reveal a complex pattern of non-neutral evolution of the mitochondrial genome in the domestic horses.

  3. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  4. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  5. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  6. Domestic kraudfandinh: problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mihalchuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The description kraudfandinh as an innovative tool to attract private investment in promising business projects as a special type of financing over the Internet. Powered its classification and kraud lists of successful projects, clearly illustrated by comparison of the normal business process to create a product and a similar process using kraudfandinh, given the differences between them and the main advantages. Based on the summaries of the literature and current practices of foreign companies and kraud platforms, defined the prospects of its application by domestic enterprises in various industries, proved its positive impact on the economy of Ukraine. The main problem of the use of this instrument in the domestic business, according to national circumstances, given their explanations. Described the prospects for its implementation at Ukrainian enterprises in terms of economic instability. The characteristic of the first Ukrainian kraudfandinh platforms by their future prospects in this direction

  7. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  8. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  9. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  10. Abused domestic workers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    This study analyses au pair arrangements in six EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain) through descriptions of national and international legal frameworks and practices of au pairing. The findings show different patterns of au pair migration and different ...... situations of au pairing as well as different strategies to protect the au pairs. The overall recommendation is to separate current au pair immigration into two programmes: one of cultural exchange and one of domestic and care work....

  11. Domestic heating - the biomass challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakos, C.

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights currently available efficient, low emission technical concepts for the combustion of wood, log-burning boilers, woodchip boilers, and the use of wood pellets. The economics of domestic heating with wood, the higher costs incurred with modern efficient wood burners as compared with fuelwood costs, and the proposed European Commission's campaign to implement more wood heated dwellings are discussed, and the transition from traditional to modern wood heating, and options for stimulating growth in renewable energy are considered

  12. Children's experiences of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...

  13. Reconsidering Our Domestic Violence System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starsoneck, Leslie; Ake, George

    2018-01-01

    Children's exposure to domestic violence is well established as an adverse childhood experience (ACE). Much is known about the impact of this exposure, but efforts to ameliorate its effects are too often unsuccessful. Reconsidering our response requires a candid assessment of whether convening large and disparate systems leads to the best outcome. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  14. Domestic hot water and solar energy in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, F; Asare, B; Haslett, J

    1977-01-01

    Two systems are discussed which involve the use of solar energy to supply domestic hot-water requirements and their usefulness in Ireland is examined. The systems are evaluated for thermal performance and cost-effectiveness by the use of a computer simulation model of a system involving a typical commercially available solar panel. It is shown that such systems may be economically justified when compared with electricity, but only if the water supply is directly heated by solar panels and only if the installed cost of such panels is low. Further, it appears that the system performance is relatively insensitive to the panel orientation and consequently that retro-fit installations on existing houses are unlikely to cause difficulties.

  15. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  16. State Support of Domestic Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  17. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  18. Diversification of gas supplies to Romania: options and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of diversifying natural gas supply to Romania gained importance after 1989. Currently, there are several factors which reinforce the need for the diversification: energy consumption structure; ratio of domestic production to import and traditionally strong natural gas industry. The mentioned points lead to the conclusion that ROMGAZ has to integrate further into the European gas market, to diversify sources of supply and to attract foreign investments. It is clear that the supply diversification depends on three crucial factors: economic recovery (partially achieved after 1992); general price stability (ending permanent depreciation of lev against US dollar); and raising natural gas prices to economic levels. Once those factors are in place, the possibility of gas supply diversification would become more tangible

  19. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  20. The security of supply and the international political problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of security of supply of electronuclear programs, especially under their political aspects. After a brief summary of the main historical events related to the subject: post-war position, Non Proliferation Treaty signature, London guidelines etc., the author underlines the fact that up to now, four countries only have been completely independent for their supplies. The elements of such independence are recalled as well as the special viewpoints of developing countries on the one hand, industrialized countries on the other hand. The final part analyses the means of reestablishing or reinforcing this security of supply. The classical commercial aspects such as preference for domestic producers, diversification of supplies and stockpiling are dealt with as well as with aspects more specific to nuclear energy, a technical one such as the possibility of developing breeders, and political ones, such as freedom to reexport, freedom to use imported materials in the frame of peaceful uses. (AF)

  1. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  2. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  3. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  4. Tuning magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  5. North American natural gas pipeline and supply update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which presented an update of North American natural gas supply. Some of the graphs depicted the following: (1) natural gas consumption in the United States, (2) U.S. imports of Canadian natural gas, (3) natural gas prices differential: Henry Hub versus Empress, (4) natural gas production in the U.S., and (5) Baker Hughes active rig count, U.S. gas rigs. First Energy's view of U.S. natural gas supply is that the estimate of 50.0 Bcf/d for U.S. domestic production is looking too high. The first quarter 1999 exit production rates are behind expectations. U.S. domestic natural gas expenditure budgets are still down by more than 40 per cent compared to 1998 levels. The impact that this will have on prices was discussed. 21 figs

  6. Improving non-communicable disease remediation outcomes in Tonga: the importance of domestic fruit production systems: an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. R. Underhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of mortality in the Pacific Island nation of Tonga. Current remedial strategies have focused on promoting healthy food choices based on increased intake of fruits and vegetables. While researchers seek to overcome complex social, gender and cultural practices that impede dietary transition, discontinuous domestic fruit supply chains undermine this effort. With the view to supporting a more holistic approach to NCD remediation in Tonga, this paper provides a preliminary assessment of domestic horticultural supply chains constraints, in support of diversification and expansion of local fruit production. Current impediments and constraints to enhanced local fruit production are presented and possible strategies to increased domestic fruit supply discussed. We present a case for a more consumer-centric approach to industry development, with an emphasis on production systems that are compatible with existing social structures, customary land ownership constraints, and local nutritional needs.

  7. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  8. Strategic gas reserves and EU security-of-supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The author attempts to distinguish a country's ''normal'' dependence on imports of a commodity from sensitivity and vulnerability dependence. We will then discuss how the risk for disruptions in supplies may be viewed as an externality in imports and, thus, consumption of gas. The model presented demonstrates how environmental externalities as a result of increased domestic production can be evaluated together with the security-of-supply problem. Finally, it is discussed how gas reserves can be used as a means in an emergency situation

  9. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich; Komarov Anatoliy Sergeevich; Mel’nikov Fedor Alekseevich; Serov Aleksandr Evgen’evich

    2015-01-01

    Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold) as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of ...

  10. Supply and distribution for γ-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    Japan Atomic energy Research Institute (JAERI) is the only facility to supply and distribute radioisotopes (RI) in Japan. The γ-ray sources for medical use are 192 Ir and 169 Yb for non-destructive examination and 192 Ir, 198 Au and 153 Gd for clinical use. All of these demands in Japan are supplied with domestic products at present. Meanwhile, γ-ray sources imported are 60 Co sources for medical and industrial uses including sterilization of medical instruments, 137 Cs for irradiation to blood and 241 Am for industrial measurements. The major overseas suppliers are Nordion International Inc. and Amersham International plc. RI products on the market are divided into two groups; one is the primary products which are supplied in liquid or solid after chemical or physical treatments of radioactive materials obtained from reactor and the other is the secondary product which is a final product after various processing. Generally these secondary products are used in practice. In Japan, both of the domestic and imported products are supplied to the users via JRIA (Japan Radioisotope Association). The association participates in the sales and the distributions of the secondary products and also in the processings of the primary ones to their sealed sources. Furthermore, stable supplying systems for these products are almost established according to the half life of each nuclide only if there is no accident in the reactor. (M.N.)

  11. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  12. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  13. Public-supply water use and self-supplied industrial water use in Tennessee, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John A.

    2018-04-26

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Water Resources, prepared this report and displayed and analyzed water use by self-supplied industrial and public-supply water systems in Tennessee for 2010. Public-supply water systems in Tennessee provide water for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses and for municipal services. In 2010, 474 public-supply water systems distributed 917 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of surface water (67 percent, 617 Mgal/d) and groundwater (33 percent, 300 Mgal/d) to a population of 5.7 million in Tennessee. Gross per capita water use in Tennessee during 2010 was 162 gallons per day.Since 1950, water withdrawals by public-supply water systems in Tennessee have increased from 160 Mgal/d to 917 Mgal/d in 2010. Each of the 95 counties in Tennessee was served by at least 1 public-supply water system in 2010. Tennessee public-supply water systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. Since 2005, surface-water withdrawals have increased by 26 Mgal/d, and groundwater withdrawals have decreased by 29 Mgal/d, which is the first decrease in groundwater withdrawals since 1950; however, 29 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2010, and 12 of these 29 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. Davidson County had the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (136 Mgal/d) in 2010. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (151 Mgal/d) by a single public-supply water system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served more than 669,000 people in Shelby County in 2010.Self-supplied industrial water use includes water for such purposes as fabrication, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs in facilities that manufacture various products. Water withdrawals for self-supplied

  14. The Steam Coal Market in 2016: the Supply Shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    Surprising coal markets: while the world coal demand is diminishing, the steam coal price doubled in 2016. After five years of uninterrupted price decline and a sluggish world demand, this strong price hike might appear as paradoxical. This paper explains the principal reasons for this situation. After five consecutive years of decline, international steam coal prices doubled in 2016. The main reason is not an increase in global coal consumption, which has been declining since 2014, including in 2016, but the tightening of supplies in the narrow international coal market. Policy changes in China have played a key role. To limit production over-capacity and halt the decline in domestic coal prices, the Chinese government has mandated a reduction in the number of working days in Chinese mines from 330 to 276. This decision has led to a fall in domestic production. Faced with rising coal demand in summer 2016, and surging domestic coal prices from end of June, China once again turned to the international market to cover its supply needs. It thus became again the world's largest coal importer, outpacing India. The increase in Chinese imports did not prevent Chinese demand from falling for the third consecutive year. On the supply side, after five years of declining prices, the export capacities of the main coal supplying countries have been reduced by mine closures, corporate bankruptcies and investment reductions in the sector. This led to the scissor effect observed in 2016, characterized by a sudden and unexpected increase in Chinese imports combined with a supply squeeze. Coal prices surged in the third quarter of 2016, before starting to decline. They have stabilized since December 2016, albeit at high levels. The decline could continue after winter 2016-17. The Chinese government intends to control the level of domestic coal prices to limit their impact on electricity prices and inflation. It has, therefore, relaxed its control on coal production, which has had

  15. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  16. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  17. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, P.J.; Strzepek, K.; Pauw, W.P.; Brander, L.M.; Hughes, G.; Aerts, J.C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a

  18. Monetary Policy Rules, Supply Shocks, and the Price-Level Elasticity of Aggregate Demand: A Graphical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyer, Ben L.; Maggs, Gary E.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizes two-dimensional price and output graphs to demonstrate the way that the price-level elasticity of aggregate demand affects alternative monetary policy rules designed to cope with random aggregate supply shocks. Includes graphs illustrating price-level, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), nominal GDP, and nominal money supply targeting.…

  19. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  20. Endothermic technology for domestic houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces the endothermic energy systems being developed for buildings. These use the concept of solar assisted heat pumps where thermal energy is harvested using large integrated solar collectors connected to energy stores. The low grade energy is upgraded using heat pumps to provide thermal energy effectively to a wide variety of applications for space heating and cooling and hot water. The domestic housing sector is focused upon here and a current EC funded project aimed at assessing the potential of the endothermic technology for providing the thermal energy for space heating and cooling and hot water is presented. (author)

  1. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  2. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M

    2000-09-01

    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  6. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  7. Contribution of domestic industry to the spanish nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, L.

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of nuclear energy to the spanish electricity supply system dates back to the 1960's, when the industrial infrastructure of the country was being modernized. The first round of Nuclear Power Plants was ordered on a turnkey basis from foreign established vendors and the participation of domestic suppliers of mechanical and electrical equipment was smaller than that of engineering, construction and erection companies. The 1960's and early 1970's witnessed a high rate of growth in electricity consumption. This fact plus the scarcity of domestic energy resources prompted an ambitious energy plan with a strong nuclear component. A second round of non-turnkey orders was placed by the Spanish utilities. Spanish industry, on the basis of a reliable market and the government guidelines to increase substantially the domestic participation, launched a determined effort to reorganize its activities to produce high quality, competitive components. The main thrust of this effort was directed to creating quality asurance systems, assimilating construction codes such as ASME Section III and realizing some investment in equipment and acquisition of manufacturing knowhow. Existing plants were largely used. A third round of plants was ordered during the 1970's for which full participation was targeted. During this phase this industrial infrastructure was completed with some new plants (for primary components and fuel fabrication) and a host of smaller, specialized firms for parts and services. The present situation is one of maturity in the design and manufacturing capacity for most components, with the exception of some raw materials and specialized items for which the economic threshold far exceeds the domestic needs... (author)

  8. The Operation of a Domestic Interface Device for the HANARO Control Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young San; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyoo

    2010-01-01

    The interface device for the HANARO control rod which was supplied by a foreign company put difficulties on reactor operation due to the obsolescence of the products and lukewarm technical support from the manufacturer. The development of the interface device based on domestic technology has been completed in order to solve the problems in this issue and to ensure safe and reliable reactor operation. This paper describes the development process of the domestic interface device conducted which was over 5 years, the field test results, and the reactor operation application results

  9. What caused the recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Heroin availability and purity decreased and prices increased in Australia suddenly in early 2001. The heroin market in Australia has still not returned to the status quo ante after more than six years. Benefits of the heroin shortage, including a substantial reduction in drug overdose deaths and property crime, are generally considered to have outweighed adverse effects which included increased use of other drugs, especially stimulants, with a subsequent increase in aggression, violence and mental illness. Some commentators attributed the heroin shortage to a combination of factors, while an influential study highlighted the importance of supply control asserting that increased funding and improved effectiveness of domestic drug law enforcement produced critical heroin seizures which disrupted major syndicates, thereby producing the heroin shortage. Evidence to support a critical role for drug law enforcement in the heroin shortage is weak with some recent evidence contradicting key assertions used to support the supply control hypothesis. Although the most likely interpretation is still a combination of multiple factors, the most important factors appear to have been a substantial recent reduction in source opium cultivation and heroin production in Burma, but probably also increased heroin consumption en route through China and a switch from heroin to amphetamine production in Burma. This interpretation is consistent with the international experience of several recent decades in numerous countries where national heroin shortages have occurred rarely and generally only briefly, notwithstanding vigorous and very well resourced supply control efforts. The recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia, the most severe, longest lasting and best-documented heroin shortage in the world, cannot be confidently attributed, solely or largely, to improved domestic drug law enforcement. At best, domestic law enforcement may have made a small contribution compared to several

  10. China’s Rare Earths Supply Forecast in 2025: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Ge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply of rare earths in China has been the focus of significant attention in recent years. Due to changes in regulatory policies and the development of strategic emerging industries, it is critical to investigate the scenario of rare earth supplies in 2025. To address this question, this paper constructed a dynamic computable equilibrium (DCGE model to forecast the production, domestic supply, and export of China’s rare earths in 2025. Based on our analysis, production will increase by 10.8%–12.6% and achieve 116,335–118,260 tons of rare-earth oxide (REO in 2025, based on recent extraction control during 2011–2016. Moreover, domestic supply and export will be 75,081–76,800 tons REO and 38,797–39,400 tons REO, respectively. The technological improvements on substitution and recycling will significantly decrease the supply and mining activities of rare earths. From a policy perspective, we found that the elimination of export regulations, including export quotas and export taxes, does have a negative impact on China’s future domestic supply of rare earths. The policy conflicts between the increase in investment in strategic emerging industries, and the increase in resource and environmental taxes on rare earths will also affect China’s rare earths supply in the future.

  11. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  13. Intelligent power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  14. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  15. Fuel supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    Stable fuel supply is a prerequisite for any nuclear power program including ISER-PIUS. It encompasses procurement of uranium ore, enriched uranium and fuel elements. Uranium is different from oil in that it can be stockpiled for more than a decade besides the fact that the core residence time is as long as six years, for example in the case of ISER-PIUS. These basic fuel characteristics are favoring nuclear fuel over others in terms of supply security. The central concern will be a gradual increase in prices of uranium and enrichment. Under the present glut situation with the worldwide prevalence of LWRs, fuel supply security seems ensured for the time being till the middle of 21st century. It is estimated that by the turn of the century, the free world will have roughly 450 GWe capacity of nuclear power. If 10 % is supplied for ISER-PIUS, more than 200 modules of 200 MWe ISER-PIUS may be deployed all over the world probably starting around 2000. As part of the fuel supply security consideration, heavy water reactor (HWR) may seem interesting to such a country as Indonesia where there is uranium resources but no enrichment capability. But it needs heavy water instead and the operation is not so easy as of LWR, because of the positive void coefficient as was seen at the Chernobyl-4. Safeguarding of the fuel is also difficult, because it lends itself to on line refueling. The current and future situation of the fuel supply security for LWR seem well founded and established long into the future. (Nogami, K.)

  16. DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE LABYRINTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Oscar, Delgado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its installation in our country, domestic development theory and practice have been object of diverse assimilation that, at times, contributed to dilute an essential feature of those clusters of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs that founded the domestic interest in 1970’s: the continuous innovation of products and production processes, possible only by the imprint of cultural factors in the establishment of a socio-institutional environment self-regulated to benefit it. The stage begun in 2003 seems to be at a similar risk: in order to reverse the terrible consequences of the previous decade and achieving a growth with an inclusion, now it assimilates into the social economy trying to go beyond mere social welfares and form a socio/productive mesh based on solidarity and cooperation ties. Beyond the legitimacy of the pose, the precariousness of the underlying setting demonstrates a gap that still separates us from the ideal model, requiring from us to agree seriously with the medium and long term state policy to promote the territorial development according to the contemporary society requirements.

  17. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  18. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  19. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger.......Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger....

  20. Power supply and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 'Power Supply and Ethics' workshop was designed on the basis of a recommendation by the Nuclear Technology Committee (FA-KT) of VDI-GET. The topic is part of a series of events and publications by VDI in an area where engineering and the humanities converge. The Workshop comprised presentations and thorough discussions of seven papers on 'Power Supply and Ethics', reflecting a variety of contents and points of view of the different disciplines participating. The Workshop offered another opportunity to take the initiative and influence the public, especially politics. Other activities are planned which also the participants increasingly consider an obligation to the public. (orig.) [de

  1. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  2. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  3. Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiang-Bo; Ji, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    China's energy supply security has faced many challenges such as the drastic change of the international energy environment and the domestic energy situation and so on. This paper constructs a multi-dimensional indicator system for the main risks deriving from four aspects to evaluate the situation of China's energy supply security and analyze its evolution characteristics from 1994 to 2011. The results indicate that the situation of China's energy supply security generally presented a downtrend during 1994–2008, as a result of increasing international energy market monopoly and high volatility of international crude oil prices. After 2008, the overall level of China's energy supply security has improved to the level of 2003, which is attributed to the relatively stable international energy environment as well as the effective implementation of energy policies. - Highlights: • A multi-dimensional index system for energy supply security is constructed. • The dynamic influences of external and internal risks are analyzed. • China's energy supply security presents a downward trend during 1994–2008. • The level of China's energy supply security has improved since 2009

  4. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  5. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  6. Analysis of Pending Problems for a Technology Demand of Domestic Operational Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Park, Won Seok; Wi, Myung Hwan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2008-01-15

    Eleven technology fields were chosen, which have a relation with the solution of the pending problems of domestic operational nuclear power plants to manage an efficient operation and safe regulation for domestic nuclear power plants. The progressive background, requirements, and performance on the pending problems, 34, of an operation and regulation for domestic nuclear power plants were analyzed with regard to a risk information application, severe accident, PSR of structural materials, underwater monitoring, operation inspection and a fire protection, an instrument aging, metal integrity and steam generator, human technology and a digital I and C, quality assurance, secondary system and a user reliance and mass communications. KAERI's role is to provide a solution to these pending problems of domestic nuclear power plants. KAERI's technology is to be applicable to the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants to raise an operational efficiency and an application frequency of nuclear power plants. In the future, a technology treaty between KAERI and KHNP is to be established to solve the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants. Operation rate of nuclear power plants will also be raised and contribute to the supply of national energy due to this technology treaty.

  7. Designating Domestic Terrorist Individuals or Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    These individuals and groups include the Black Panther Party, Weather Underground, Covenant Sword and the Arm of the Lord, Ku Klux Klan, Earth...based and left wing and right wing groups such as the Covenant Sword and the Arm of the Lord, Ku Klux Klan, Black Panther Party, and the Weather...TERMS Watch list, domestic terrorism, validation, designation, domestic terrorism organization, material support, domestic surveillance, SHAC, animal

  8. Fuel for domestic and metallurgical uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, D.; Chakrabarti, R.K.

    1981-02-01

    To meet the energy requirements in the domestic and metallurgical sectors CMPDI have taken in hand some developmental projects using coal as a feedback. 4 projects are described - mechanized conversion of coal to domestic coke, formed coke making by Didier-Keihan-Sumitomo process, domestic briquette making based on non-copking coal resources, and smokeless coal blocks utilising inferior grade raw coal and washery by-products.

  9. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by inflicting physical harm, bodily injury, or sexua...

  10. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiers, Adam [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.j.faiers.so2@cranfield.ac.uk; Neame, Charles [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.neame@cranfield.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified.

  11. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  12. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade issues within the USSR. Topics include: production, distribution, economics, housing and personal services, policies, personal income and savings.

  13. Domestic demand for petroleum in OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravorty, U.; Fesharaki, F.; Zhou, S.

    2000-01-01

    The literature on OPEC energy policy has focused primarily on its production and export potential. The rapidly increasing domestic demand for petroleum products in OPEC countries has often been ignored. This study estimates domestic demand for petroleum products by the major OPEC economies and forecasts consumption trends under alternative assumptions regarding economic growth and price deregulation. It concludes that product demand is generally price and income inelastic and thus domestic consumption in OPEC will continue to grow rapidly, even if domestic prices are raised closer to world levels in the near future

  14. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  15. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  16. France liberalizes its power supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The French market of power supply to companies is now free. This means that Electricite de France (EdF), the first world electric utility now has competitors in its domestic market. This is an important challenge for EdF because 3 millions of clients (70% of the French power consumption) are now concerned by the opening of the power market. According to A. Merlin, head of the energy transportation network (RTE), the opening of the market does not increase the risk of black-out, it just makes the operation of power networks more complex. The implementation of a single power transportation company (RTE) simplifies the mastery of networks safety but the development of investments is necessary to ensure the maintenance of 400 kV power lines. A comparison of the situation of power market liberalization is made for 6 countries (Germany, UK, Spain, US, Netherlands and Italy). Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  18. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  19. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  20. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  1. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  2. Ethics of Information Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  3. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  4. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  5. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  6. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  7. Maintaining a balanced electricity supply favours increased nuclear capacity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahti, Toivola

    2001-01-01

    Finland's electricity supply is based on a balanced mix of energy sources to maximize the security of supply and to keep the volatility of electricity price at a minimum. One third of electricity is obtained from domestic sources hydro, wood and peat. Nuclear power provides one quarter and fossil fuels slightly over one fifth. Electricity imports from neighbour countries cover the rest of the consumption. It is important to maintain this balanced structure also when electricity supply is being increased. Domestic renewable sources are not enough to cover the predicted future needs, and increasing imports would risk the security of supply. Increasing the proportion of fossil fuels is not a generally desired option. Therefore, balanced increase of nuclear capacity has to be included among the choices of future electricity generation. (author)

  8. Production capability and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemenic, J.

    1977-01-01

    The strong market for uranium of recent years is about to usher in a new era in domestic uranium production. The spot market price of uranium has remained relatively stable at a little over $40/lb for more than 18 months. Many of the recent contracts for delivery in the early 1980s are calling for prices in the range of $40 to $65 per lb in year-of-delivery dollars. Low-grade, high-cost projects, such as uranium recovery from mill tailings and the reopening of ''mined-out'' ore bodies, have already been initiated. New underground mines to produce at greater depths, and new surface mines to recover lower grade ores, are being developed or seriously planned. In keeping with this movement to recover uranium from low-grade ore and other high cost materials, the Grand Junction Office has examined, for the first time, the production capability of the domestic industry assuming a $30/lb (or less) ''forward cost'' resource base. As in the past, keep in mind that the market price needed to stimulate full production of a given resource base may be significantly higher than the estimated forward cost of producing that resource. Results of the $30/lb study are presented

  9. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...

  10. The design of supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature study Abstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, lead time and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design, identifies methods, theories and objectives in the existing literature. Describes the concept external specificity and how it’s used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream, archetypes of risk minimal and maximal desi...

  11. Cash transfers and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Small Farmers and Big Retail: trade-offs of supplying supermarkets in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Michelson, Hope; Reardon, Thomas; Perez, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In Nicaragua and elsewhere in Central America, small-scale farmers are weighing the risks of entering into contracts with supermarket chains. We use unique data on negotiated prices from Nicaraguan farm cooperatives supplying supermarkets to study the impact of supply agreements on producers’ mean output prices and price stability. We find that prices paid by the domestic retail chain approximate the traditional market in mean and variance. In contrast, we find that mean prices paid by Wal-ma...

  13. IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY OF THE MEAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bukreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of the process of improving the system raw materials supply of meat industry and presents the main factors, criteria, principles and algorithm rational distribution of the meat industry. The relevance of the research topic, in a globalized economy and Russia's accession to the WTO, caused by necessity to improve the system of raw material supply domestic enterprises and enhancing food security.

  14. Perspectives of energy supply in unified Germany. Perspektiven der Energieversorgung im vereinigten Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieske, F. (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, Essen (Germany))

    1991-10-21

    This article deals with the role of the various energy carriers within a future energy concept. The energy supply industry aims at a well-balanced energy mixture which is to include nuclear energy as well as domestic and imported coal. The supply industry will not turn a deaf ear to opening up the competitive scene, the author thinks, however, there well have to be special economic and technical preconditions. (orig.).

  15. Long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An interim report on the long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies in Japan as prepared by an ad hoc committee, Advisory Committee for Energy was given for the period up to the year 2000. As the energy demands in terms of crude oil, the following figures are set: 460 million kl for 1990, 530 million kl for 1995, and 600 million kl for 2000. In Japan, without domestic energy resources, over 80% of the primary energy has been imported; the reliance on Middle East where political situation is unstable, for petroleum is very large. The following things are described. Background and policy; energy demands in industries, transports, and people's livelihood; energy supplies by coal, nuclear energy, petroleum, etc.; energy demand/supply outlook for 2000. (Mori, K.)

  16. Biomass energy consumption in Nigeria: integrating demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoh, S.; Soaga, J.

    1999-01-01

    The study examined the present and future consumption of biomass energy in Nigeria. Direct consumption of fire wood for domestic purposes is the predominant form of biomass energy consumption. Charcoal plays minot roles in biomass energy supply. The current and expected demand for fuelwood is projected to increase by 399% whereas supply is expected to decrease by 17.2% between 1995 and year 2010. Resource adequacy in terms of planned supply is on the decline. Forest estates which is the only planned strategy for fuelwood and wood production is projected to decline from 6.37 million ha. in 1990 to 2.4 million ha, in year 2010. The possibilities of meeting the fuelwood demand in the future is precarious. Policy measures aimed at increasing forest estates. reduction of loss of forest lands to other uses and encouragement of private forestry are recommended

  17. GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN: PROTAGONISTA OU COADJUVANTE NO BRASIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues began to be introduced more frequently in corporate business. As for the supply chain, Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM emerges as a new approach to corporate responsibility towards the environment. This article aims to analyze the diffusion of the GSCM concept and practices in the Brazilian scenario. To do that, we conducted interviews with experts on the subject of the supply chain in the area of Management in Brazil. The results show that the reasons for the slow development of the concept may relate to characteristics of the domestic market, corporate focus on internal aspects, lack of strict legislation, and low consumer pressure. Experts notice, however, good prospects for the future of discussions on the subject in the Country, due to the National Solid Waste Policy, pressure from the international market, and the search for environmental certification. This study sought to foster further discussions on GSCM in Brazil.

  18. Benchmarking set for domestic smart grid management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used

  19. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  20. Processing Food for the Domestic Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; McCormick, Dorothy; Kamau, Paul

    This paper addresses the domestically owned food-processing industry in Kenya and explores thesale of processed food products to the domestic ‘modern’ retail sector. Food processing represents astep up in the value chain compared to fresh food production and may thus, at least potentially, leadto...

  1. Mozambican Aggregate Consumption and Domestic Saving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was an unprecedented decade for its break with the previous trend; but so far, the new trend does not correspond to a substantial change in growth strategy to ensure that foreign savings become complementary rather than a substitute for domestic savings. Keywords: consumption, economic growth strategy, domestic ...

  2. Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.; Hegazi, N.

    1999-01-01

    Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

  3. Domestic violence: recognition, intervention, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Martin, F

    1995-02-01

    Domestic violence is a significant social and health problem that has received intensive recent publicity in the lay media. Nurses should play a major role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions. Intensified health promotion and public policy initiatives can reduce the incidence of domestic violence in the future.

  4. Domestic Temporalities: Sensual Patterning in Persian Migratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we argue that these intimate practices have references beyond their domestic dimensions, for they point to a worldly movement of life writ domestically small. It is via a sensory network that the spatially and temporally disparate worlds of homeland and new homes are remembered and forgotten, and where ...

  5. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  6. Children's Witnessing of Adult Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence through a review of 31 research articles. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be associated with exposure to domestic violence. Factors that appear to moderate the impact of witnessing violence (child abuse,…

  7. Teaching about Domestic Violence: Strategies for Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Saundra

    1993-01-01

    Offers the author's experiences in teaching a college-level domestic violence sociology course, presenting specific strategies and a description of the syllabus. The course presents a feminist analysis of domestic violence and examines how the patriarchal structure and ideology of society create and perpetuate violence. (SLD)

  8. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  9. Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R. N.; Gupta, Vinay; Kundu, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence can result in many negative health consequences for women's health and well-being. Studies on domestic violence illustrate that abused women in various settings had increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and…

  10. Empowering Women with Domestic Violence Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw

    2012-01-01

    It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…

  11. Domestic Violence and Poverty: Some Women's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Ilze

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…

  12. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  13. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  14. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA: EXPERIENCES FROM. NORTHERN ... affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. .... Serengeti Plains are shared by NCA and the SNP. Normally, in .... communication network) and social services .... motivation to conserve nature.

  15. Experimental study on the performance of a multi-functional domestic air conditioner with integrated water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jiankai; Li, Hui; Yao, Yang; Jiang, Yiqiang; Zhang, Xinran

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel MDACWH was presented and experimentally studied. • MDACWH has high performance on making domestic hot water and air conditioning. • The time for heating water reduced to 22.0 min after modification. • Average COP reached 4.32, which was 1.58 times higher than the unmodified unit. - Abstract: The recovery of condenser heat is concerned one of the most effective methods to curb energy consumption in residential dwellings. Aiming at recovering the condenser heat of domestic air conditioner, this paper experimentally studied a multi-functional domestic air conditioner with integrated water heater (MDACWH) which can effectively provide space – cooling and domestic hot water simultaneously. The dynamic operation characteristics, such as hot water supply and energy efficiency were tested to verify the availability of the MDACWH. The results showed that the MDACWH can effectively heat the domestic hot water without losing its cooling capacity. It was also found that with the use of MDACWH, the coefficient of comprehensive energy performance of the MDACWH was about 1.58 times higher than that of the unmodified experimental unit. Furthermore, the water-heating time was shorten remarkably from 128.5 min to 22.0 min. The novel domestic air conditioner, compared with the unmodified initial prototype, can be more practical and provide significant energy savings in space-cooling and hot water supply.

  16. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  17. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  18. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  19. Electricity supply in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  20. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  1. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  2. Trends in uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  3. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  4. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  5. Switched mode power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The power supply comprises an oscillator arranged to drive the primary winding of a transformer. A nuclear impulse detector is arranged to discontinue drive to the primary winding in response to detection of a nuclear impulse. The detector comprises a monostable circuit which has its state changed for a predetermined time by photocurrents induced in response to gamma radiation. In this changed state the detector disables the oscillator. (author)

  6. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  7. Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop management. Despite its importance, a dearth of information exists regarding the status of wild populations of papaya, as compared to the extent of knowledge, and interest, on domesticated varieties. We review the evidence on the extant wild populations of papaya, as well as its origin and distribution. Also, we synthetize what is known on the domestication history of the species, including the domestication syndrome that distinguishes wild and domesticated papayas. Moreover, we make an account of the use of genetic markers to assess genetic diversity of wild and domesticated papaya, and discuss the importance of papaya as the first species with a transgenic cultivar to be released for human consumption, and one that has its complete genome sequenced. Evidence from different disciplines strongly suggest that papaya originated and was domesticated in Mesoamerica, and that wild populations in the region possess, still, high genetic diversity compared to the domesticated papaya. Finally, we outline papaya as an excellent model species for genomic studies that will help gain insight into the domestication process and improvement of papaya and other tropical crops.

  8. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... supply domestic demand for a century, even with significant exports of LNG. Gulf Coast contends that the... is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. Gulf Coast seeks to export this LNG on its own behalf and...-going carrier, and with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the alternative, Gulf...

  9. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: septic tank - upflow anaerobic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrubla, Juan Pablo; Cubillos, Janneth A.; Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés

    2016-01-01

    of use, consumption and presence of PPCPs in wastewater from a treatment plant in a rural area of Pereira (Colombia). Domestic sewage is treated in a septic tank followed by an Up-Flow Anaerobic Filter and its ef uent is discharged into the Otún River, upstream of the water intake of the supply system...

  10. The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States-A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Keith R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.; Cordier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are fifteen elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium ('lanthanides'), plus yttrium (39), which is chemically similar to the lanthanide elements and thus typically included with the rare earth elements. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-technology applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and light-weight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems and other advanced materials. Section 843 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, Public Law 111-84, directs the Comptroller General to complete a report on REE materials in the defense supply chain. The Office of Industrial Policy, in collaboration with other U.S. Government agencies, has initiated (in addition to this report) a detailed study of REE. This latter study will assess the Department of Defense's use of REE, as well as the status and security of domestic and global supply chains. That study will also address vulnerabilities in the supply chain and recommend ways to mitigate any potential risks of supply disruption. To help conduct this study, the Office of Industrial Policy asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to report on domestic REE reserves and resources in a global context. To this end, the enclosed report is the initial USGS contribution to assessing and summarizing the domestic REE resources in a global perspective. In 2009, the Mineral Resources Program of the USGS organized a new project under the title Minerals at Risk and For Emerging Technologies in order to evaluate mineral resource and supply issues of rare metals that are of increasing importance to the national economy. Leaders and members of

  11. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  12. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  13. An interim report on the outlook of long-term energy supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An interim report was presented by the supply/demand committee in Over-all Energy Council concerning the energy demand and supply outlook for fiscal 1990 as compared with fiscal 1980. The background for deciding the outlook of energy supply and demand and basic ideas for energy policy, and the outlook for energy supply and demand are outlined. The outlook was prepared, assuming yearly economic growth of about 5 % in 1980s and the utmost efforts by people in energy situation. The energy situation both domestic and abroad is largely changing, including energy saving efforts and petroleum price. The aggregate energy demand for fiscal 1990 was put at about 590 million kl in terms of crude oil. Then, concerning nuclear power generation, the power supply by nuclear energy in fiscal 1990 was estimated at 46 million kw accounting for 11.3 % of the total power supply. (Mori, K.)

  14. Domestic uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A field hearing was held in Riverton, Wyoming on the erosion of the state's uranium industry as production and capital investment have declined and inventories have continued to rise because of a shift to foreign suppliers. The result has been serious unemployment in Wyoming and a decline in uranium mines from 5400 in 1980 to the present 1200. The seven witnesses spoke for the mining industry and state and federal government. Among the issues raised were mining regulations and the cancellation of nuclear rejects which have impacted the health of the industry. Additional statements and a report supplied for the record follow their testimony

  15. The future of US LNG imports: A look at changing North American supply trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, the majority of United States gas consumption has been supplied by Gulf Coast and Midcontinent oil and gas fields. Increasingly, producers are discovering smaller, less economic fields as these areas mature. Expectations are for this trend to continue which will cause finding costs to rise. As gas prices rise, large supplies of remote western U.S. gas will become economic, shifting the locus of supply westward. Simultaneously, gas markets are opening up in the eastern United States driven by the demand for new electric generating capacity and Clean Air Act legislation. Natural gas markets will increasingly be supplied by western gas that is more expensive to find, develop and transport. LNG will become more competitive in the U.S. because (1) future gas demand will outpace domestic supply, and (2) a large portion of the incremental domestic supply in the future will be more expensive due to higher finding and transportation costs. Using the supply economics of modified Arps-Roberts find-rate equations, this paper will share our understanding of the location, timing and economic sensitivities of potential supply and markets and the role LNG can play in them

  16. Some Causative Factors in Bank Deposit Supply Model in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we examined some of the factors that influence the commercial bank deposit supply behaviour in Nigeria. Specifically, we examined the impact of deposit interest rate, foreign exchange rate, Treasury bill rate and Growth rate of Gross Domestic Product on the deposit output behaviour of commercial banks.

  17. Labor Supply Heterogeneity and Demand for Child Care of Mothers with Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apps, Patricia F.; Kabátek, J.; Rees, Ray; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a static structural model of hours of market labor supply, time spent on child care and other domestic work, and bought in child care for married or cohabiting mothers with pre-school age children. The father's behavior is taken as given. The main goal is to analyze the

  18. Nitrogen surplus: An environmental performance indicator for sustainable food supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen pollution and negative impacts on human and environmental health are embodied in crop commodities traded domestically and internationally. Food supply chain companies can play a catalytic role in reducing that burden by helping to decrease the environmental nitrogen load from agriculture. T...

  19. The effect of air supply on nitrogen removal using a biological filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-02

    Oct 2, 2009 ... 0.04 m3∙m−2∙d−1) (Fig. 2). Air was supplied by means of a compressor (Model: Fini, ... effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant (COD was approx. .... The resultant ammonium was determined as men- tioned before ...

  20. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role,

  1. The China National Tobacco Corporation: From domestic to global dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley; Sejpal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world’s cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to ‘go global’. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets. The paper concludes that the company has undergone substantial change over the past two decades and is consequently poised to become a new global player in the tobacco industry. This article is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. PMID:27737622

  2. The China National Tobacco Corporation: From domestic to global dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley; Sejpal, Nidhi

    2017-03-01

    The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world's cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to 'go global'. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets. The paper concludes that the company has undergone substantial change over the past two decades and is consequently poised to become a new global player in the tobacco industry. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  3. Contribution of domestic heating systems to smart grid control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2011-01-01

    How and to what extent, domestic heating systems can be helpful in regaining power balance in a smart grid, is the question to be answered in this paper. Our case study is an under-floor heating system supplied with a geothermal heat pump which is driven by electrical power from the grid. The idea...... is to deviate power consumption of the heat pump from its optimal value, in order to compensate power imbalances in the grid. Heating systems could be forced to consume energy, i.e. storing it in heat buffers when there is a power surplus in the grid; and be prevented from using power, in case of power shortage....... We have investigated how much power imbalance could be compensated, provided that a certain, yet user adjustable, level of residents' thermal comfort is satisfied. It is shown that the large heat capacity of the concrete floor alleviates undesired temperature fluctuations. Therefore, incorporating...

  4. Status of domestic uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry continues to operate at a reduced level, due to low prices and increased foreign competition. For four years (1984-1987) the Secretary of Energy declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected for 1988. Exploration and development drilling, at the rate of 2 million ft/year, continue in areas of producing mines and recent discoveries, especially in northwestern Arizona, northwestern Nebraska, south Texas, Wyoming, and the Paradox basin of Colorado and Utah. Production of uranium concentrate continues at a rate of 13 to 15 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) per year. Conventional mining in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas accounts for approximately 55% of the production. The remaining 45% comes from solution (in situ) mining, from mine water recovery, and as by-products from copper production and the manufacture of phosphoric acid. Solution mining is an important technique in Wyoming, Nebraska, and Texas. By-product production comes from phosphate plants in Florida and Louisiana and a copper mine in Utah. Unmined deposits in areas such as the Grants, New Mexico, district are being investigated for their application to solution mining technology. The discovered uranium resources in the US are quite large, and the potential to discover additional resources is excellent. However, higher prices and a strong market will be necessary for their exploitation

  5. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  6. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  7. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  8. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  9. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  10. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  11. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  12. Domestic demand for petroleum products in MENA countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, Dundee University, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the domestic demand for petroleum products in the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries employing a recent data series (1982-2005). Understanding the domestic demand of oil producing countries is important due to the existence of subsidised supply, loss of foreign exchange income and the environmental effects of oil use. The paper analyses the evolution of petroleum product demand in MENA and presents an econometric analysis of demand using a simple log-linear specification for four petroleum products, namely gasoline, diesel, kerosene and fuel oil. The study covers seven MENA countries, namely Algeria, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Qatar. The results show that demand has grown quite fast in these countries probably because the fuel price has been kept very low while income has risen fast and thus demand has grown fast. The gasoline demand model has performed better than other models in terms of producing expected signs for the parameters. The results for the kerosene model was the least satisfactory as most of the coefficients were found to be statistically insignificant. However, in terms of numerical results, this study compares well with other similar studies of the past. (author)

  13. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  14. The domestic natural gas industry in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khan, R.A.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    The domestic natural gas industry has generally exhibited slow growth in most developing countries that are fortunate enough to have sufficient proved gas reserves to meet energy needs. But supportive government policies that promote the use of indigenous reserves are now beginning to have a positive impact in many parts of the world. Supply and distribution infrastructures are being built or modernized. And natural gas is now or will be available at prices that encourage the displacement of competitive fuels in the larger, energy-intensive industrial and power-generation markets of these countries. It is expected that the domestic gas industry in many developing countries will expand at higher rates than in the past. In the next few decades, the resulting benefits will include reductions in oil consumption per capita, improvements in the balance of payments for oil-importing and exporting developing countries, greater efficiency of energy usage and lower energy consumption per output unit, and improved environmental quality. The national economies and living standards will also undergo significant advancement

  15. Domestic demand for petroleum products in MENA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the domestic demand for petroleum products in the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries employing a recent data series (1982-2005). Understanding the domestic demand of oil producing countries is important due to the existence of subsidised supply, loss of foreign exchange income and the environmental effects of oil use. The paper analyses the evolution of petroleum product demand in MENA and presents an econometric analysis of demand using a simple log-linear specification for four petroleum products, namely gasoline, diesel, kerosene and fuel oil. The study covers seven MENA countries, namely Algeria, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Qatar. The results show that demand has grown quite fast in these countries probably because the fuel price has been kept very low while income has risen fast and thus demand has grown fast. The gasoline demand model has performed better than other models in terms of producing expected signs for the parameters. The results for the kerosene model was the least satisfactory as most of the coefficients were found to be statistically insignificant. However, in terms of numerical results, this study compares well with other similar studies of the past. (author)

  16. Detox fashion supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This first volume on detox fashion discusses various interesting topics including a Toxic-Free Supply Chain for Textiles and Clothing; Environmental Issues in Textiles; Global Regulations, Restrictions & Research; Making the Change: Consumer Adoption of Sustainable Fashion; and Strategies for Detoxing Your Wardrobe. It provides an overview of the chemical-related issues confronting the fashion sector, summarizes global regulations, and discusses how to make the change by changing consumers’ attitude towards adopting sustainable fashion, as well as the best strategies for detoxing our wardrobes.

  17. EEC's: natural uramium supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The demand for nuclear fuel to supply the nuclear plants within the ECC (31,200 MW at the end of last year) totalled nearly 9,600 tons of natural uranium and 4,900 of separation work units (SWU). Once reactors currently under construction come into service, the demand for natural uranium will reach 13,200 tons by 1985 and that for SWUs to 8,600. If one takes the years 1981 to 1985, total natural uranium needs during this period will be 56,300 tons and those for SWUs 35.100 [fr

  18. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  19. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  20. Nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    When the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up nearly three years ago, it was widely believed that it would soon become a world bank or broker for the supply of nuclear fuel. Some observers now seem to feel that this promise has been rather slow to come to fruition. A little closer analysis would, however, show that the promise can be fulfilled only in a certain objective context, and to the extent that this context exists, the development of the Agency's role has been commensurate with the actual needs of the situation

  1. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....

  2. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics and consequences of psychopathic domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.

  4. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  5. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  6. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Kaufmann, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways

  7. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.; Kaufmann, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways. (author)

  8. Reserves and Trade Jointly Determine Exposure to Food Supply Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Philippe; Carr, Joel A.; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael J.; Zak, Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    While a growing proportion of global food consumption is obtained through international trade, there is an ongoing debate on whether this increased reliance on trade benefits or hinders food security, and specifically, the ability of global food systems to absorb shocks due to local or regional losses of production. This paper introduces a model that simulates the short-term response to a food supply shock originating in a single country, which is partly absorbed through decreases in domestic reserves and consumption, and partly transmitted through the adjustment of trade flows. By applying the model to publicly-available data for the cereals commodity group over a 17 year period, we find that differential outcomes of supply shocks simulated through this time period are driven not only by the intensification of trade, but as importantly by changes in the distribution of reserves. Our analysis also identifies countries where trade dependency may accentuate the risk of food shortages from foreign production shocks; such risk could be reduced by increasing domestic reserves or importing food from a diversity of suppliers that possess their own reserves. This simulation-based model provides a framework to study the short-term, nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium response of trade networks to supply shocks, and could be applied to specific scenarios of environmental or economic perturbations.

  9. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  10. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  11. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung...... von Nicht-Kernprozessen auf vorgelagerte Stufen der Supply Chain oder auf Supply-Chain-Dienstleister sowie die Internationalisierung der Beschaffung. Dieser Paradigmenwechsel hat traditionelles Denken in den Schranken des Systems „Unternehmen“ abgelöst und zum Supply- Chain-Denken geführt, das vor......- und nachgelagerte Stufen des Systems „End-to-End-Supply-Chain“ einbezieht, etwa auch die Lieferanten von Lieferanten....

  12. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade within the USSR. Topics include: consumer goods production and distribution, housing and personal services, and consumer sector policy and economics.

  13. Molecular mechanisms involved in convergent crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reframing domestic violence as torture or terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the phenomenon of domestic violence and the distinctive features for which is it may be recognized as a specific form of torture and/or terrorism at home. The author provides an overview of the scientific debate among feminist authors on this conception which has given rise to an innovative approach to understanding the concept of domestic violence. Underscoring the substantive similarity of domestic violence with the acts of torture and/or terrorism, the author urges for state action arguing that domestic violence as a form of gender-based violence should be approached by applying the same logic and strategies which are employed in response to traditional torture and terrorism.

  15. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  16. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    industry in Tanzania economy, it has been shown repeatedly ... What factors restrain faster growth of domestic .... needs (i.e. food, clothing and shelter) is no longer ... communication network) and social services ..... Advertising, Promotion and.

  17. presence of cryptococcus species in domestic chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-25

    May 25, 2009 ... POSSIBLE RISK IT POSED TO HUMANS IN KABIGERIET VILLAGE, NAKURU COUNTY, KENYA. E.K. Kemoi, BSc, MSc, ... tree in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest (7). ... Sample collection: Environmental collection of domestic ...

  18. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  19. Domestic wastewater treated for agricultural reuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    Four post-treatment systems of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were ... efficiency in organic matter removal, exception made for polishing ponds (PP) (155 mg.L-1) due ... ption and the domestic sewage discharge into water.

  20. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  1. Ending domestic violence against women: assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ending domestic violence against women: assessment of knowledge and ... Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized for this study. ... study documented poor knowledge and perception of DV among the studied population.

  2. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellites for domestic pigeon Columba ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    certain parasites which cause health problems in humans and domestic animals ... The genomic DNA was isolated using standard protocol as described by ..... panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Himalayan monal. Lophophorus ...

  3. Congenital and Genetic Disease in Domestic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, John J.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)

  4. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    Traditionally created to deal with the unfriendly domestic environment, business groups (BGs) are increasingly internationalizing. However, how BGs can reconcile their strictly domestic orientation with an international dimension still remains an open question. Drawing on arguments from...... organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...

  5. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  6. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  7. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    it is a structural premise. We also know that logistics costs generally are estimated 15-20% of total product costs. Accordingly, it stands to reason that a company can reduce costs, and thereby gain an edge on its competitors, by tailoring the supply chain in question to an individual product or product family; i.......e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...... and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  8. Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira; Juan Núñez-Farfán

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya) is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop ...

  9. Domestic Hypermedia: Mixed Media in the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2004-01-01

    , domestic materials, such as photos, music, messages. become digitized. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ambient presentation of materials in homes.......This paper analyses the potentials for use of hypermedia in homes based on empirical studies. The use of physical materials is characterized by collaborative spatial organization and persistent visual awareness. Qualities that are currently not well supported for digital materials. However...

  10. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: WHO’S PROBLEM?

    OpenAIRE

    Krizsan, Andrea; Paantjens, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    This article juxtaposes shifts in prevailing frames on domestic violence in the Netherlands, Hungary and the EU. Domestic violence, first brought on the political agenda by women’s rights proponents as a problem related to gender inequalities, has been framed and re-framed under the influence of mainstream policy makers. The analysis of these frames shows how shifts in the gender of governance, particularly the marginalization of feminist NGO voices, have led to shifts in the governance of ge...

  11. DEFINITION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: CONTENT AND INTERPRETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kaļiņina, Jeļena

    2017-01-01

    Domestic violence continues to be a global problem that kills and maims – physically, psychologically, sexually and economically. This problem is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. Domestic Violence occurs in all kinds of intimate relationships, including married couples, people who are dating, couples who live together, parents, same-sex partners, people who were formerly in a relationship and teen dating relationships...

  12. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippold Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the

  13. The Spanish reforms on domestic work regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Desdentado Daroca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the latest Spanish reforms regarding domestic work. The Spanish legislator, doubtlessly influenced by the ILO Domestic Work Convention nº 189 – which, however, was not later ratified in Spain- made a deep reform on domestic work in 2011. This legal reform implied a striking change that affected both working conditions and social security of employees in the family home. The aim of this reform has been to bring the regulation in domestic work closer to the general regulation for other workers, although maintaining certain specialties. Regarding working conditions, their setting as “particular employment relationship” has been held. However, the differences between this relationship and the common ones have been reduced. As for social security, domestic employees have been incorporated into the General Social Security System, but with important specialties, thus erasing the Special Domestic Employees System. The paper also examines the legal changes that have taken place in this field after the new Government arose.

  14. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Uranium resources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.

    1973-01-01

    The future supply of uranium has to be considered against a background of forecasts of uranium demand over the next decades which show increases of a spectacular nature. It is not necessary to detail these forecasts, they are well known. A world survey by the Joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand', completed this summer, indicates that from a present production level of just over 19,000 tonnes uranium per year, the demand will rise to the equivalent of an annual production requirement of 50,000 tonnes uranium by 1980, 100,000 by 1985 and 180,000 by 1990. Few, if any, mineral production industries have been called upon to plan for a near tenfold increase in production in a space of about 15 years as these forecasts imply. This might possibly mean that, perhaps, ten times the present number of uranium mines will have to be planned and engineered by 1990

  16. Supply chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2000-01-01

    'Logic' (Leading Oil and Gas Industry Competitiveness) is a government-industry supply chain management initiative which aims to improve the competitiveness of the UK's North Sea business by 1 billion UK pounds by 2002 and its export performance by 50% inside 5 years. Much of the article is devoted to the background and views of Logic's chief executive Chris. Freeman. Freeman makes clear that 'unlike Crine, we are not a cost-reduction initiative: that may be one of the outcomes, but we are really focusing on the co-operation side of things'. Logic aims to change the culture of the UK offshore industry through example. Freeman believes that the creation of collaborative success will flag up industry and give credence to Logics objectives

  17. Multi-criteria evaluation of sources for self-help domestic water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, C. C.; Banigo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Two multi-criteria decision analysis methods were employed to evaluate six water sources. The analytical hierarchical process (AHP) ranked borehole highest with a rank of 0.321 followed by water board with a rank of 0.284. The other sources ranked far below these two as follows: water tanker (0.139), rainwater harvesting (0.117), shallow well (0.114) and stream (0.130). The Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) ranked water board highest with a rank of 0.865, followed by borehole with a value of 0.778. Quality and risk of contamination were found to be the most influential criteria while seasonality was the least.

  18. 35 Domestic Water Supply and Health of Households in the Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    respondents in the high residential density have access to public tap and private well in their houses. Also, ... al (1998), in Sao Paulo, Brazil, it was reported that, 94.4% of the .... the general level of education, income and car ownership ... formed the basis for the analysis in this paper. ... Teaching Hospital (LAUTECH), State.

  19. Foreign ownership of, influence on, and control of domestic energy sources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    The report is divided into six sections: (1) Introduction; (2) The petroleum and natural gas industries; (3) The coal industry; (4) The nuclear fuel cycle; (5) Alternate energy sources; (6) U.S. policies regarding foreign investment. Appendix A lists parent companies, U.S. subsidiaries, percentage of ownership or type of investment in petroleum, natural gas, coal, uranium, and alternative fuels and types of activity. Appendix B contains a summary of 1974 and 1975 U.S. energy statistics

  20. Environmental performance evaluation of hot water supplying systems for domestic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Kulay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption profile of Brazilian citizens is changing as alternatives are sought to reduce costs. A major focus of this change of attitude involves expenditures for electricity, particularly in relation to water heating systems. The manufacturers of these devices add value to their products beyond price. A usual strategy is the enhancement of the environmental performance of the product. This study compared four water heating systems: electric, gas, solar and hybrid, using an environmental perspective. The systems were operated under similar conditions. The analysis was conducted by using the Life Cycle Assessment technique, for the impact categories of Climate Change, Acidification Eutrophication and Water, Metal and Fossil Resource depletion. The results indicated that the electric and hybrid systems are less harmful to the environment for all the impact categories under analysis. On the other hand, the gas system provided the worst performance of the group. The solar heating system was penalized due to its dependence on electricity to operate under the conditions in which the study was conducted.

  1. Environmental performance evaluation of hot water supplying systems for domestic use

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Alexandre Kulay; Rafael Selvaggio Viñas; Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2015-01-01

    The consumption profile of Brazilian citizens is changing as alternatives are sought to reduce costs. A major focus of this change of attitude involves expenditures for electricity, particularly in relation to water heating systems. The manufacturers of these devices add value to their products beyond price. A usual strategy is the enhancement of the environmental performance of the product. This study compared four water heating systems: electric, gas, solar and hybrid, using an environmenta...

  2. Domestic supply, job-specialisation and sex-differences in pay

    OpenAIRE

    Polavieja, Javier G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of sex-differences in job-allocation and pay. Job allocation calculations are considered to be related to 1) the distribution of housework and 2) the skill-specialization requirements of jobs. Both elements combined generate a particular incentive structure for each sex. Welfare policies and services can, however, lower the risks of skill-depreciation for women as well as increase their intra-household bargaining power, hence reducing the economic pay-offs o...

  3. Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria K. Graves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

  4. Contribution of coal to the transformation of the German electricity supply; Beitrag der Kohle zur Transformation der deutschen Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milojcic, George [Bundesverband Braunkohle (DEBRIV), Koeln (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The use of coal, hard coal and lignite, is compatible with the targets of the German ''Energiewende''. This fact is often ignored. Due to the uncertain geopolitical situation, the domestic lignite is an important element for a reliable energy supply of Germany. In addition to the known factors secure availability, competitiveness and local economic importance, flexibility has become a characteristics of lignite. The change of the German energy supply is only possible with domestic lignite. This article points out the importance of lignite for this process.

  5. Domestication of fynbos Proteaceae as a floricultural crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Brits

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestication of a South African group of Proteaceae, the proteas, began with their cultivation as exotics in Europe. A growing local interest in their cultivation climaxed in the publication of a popular handbook in 1958. Commercial interest in cultivation and seed sources was stimulated and led to a botanical and horticultural survey of useful species throughout their distribution range in the fynbos. Information pamphlets on cultivation requirements and seed were eventually supplied to the public as an official service. Up to 1970 cut-flowers were harvested in limited quantities, mainly from the western Cape folded mountains, and sold on the European markets. During the last decade, the export trade in fresh Proteaceae flowers has become a significant factor in the national economy. However, the original system of harvesting from the natural habitat has caused serious marketing problems, for instance, poor cut-flower quality and an erratic supply of many species. Increased exploitation has also led to unprecedented disruptive pressure on the fynbos biome system, particularly on the Proteaceae-component. It is clear that the scientific cultivation of the protea family as a floricultural crop is necessary' for its sustained growth as an economic factor, as well as for its natural conservation. The present paper gives an overview of the developments that led to the rise of the fynbos Proteaceae as a commercially cultivated crop in South Africa.

  6. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years. Content: Foreword; Executive Summary; 1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy - Concepts and Issues: - Energy supply security: An introduction, - Why security of energy supply remains a policy issue in OECD countries, - The external dimension: import dependence, resource exhaustion and carbon policy, - The internal dimension: economic, financial and technical considerations for energy supply security - Orientations for government policies to enhance the security of energy supply, - Conclusions; 2. Indicators and Models for Measuring Security of Energy Supply Risks: - Introduction, - Different approaches towards designing the Supply/Demand Index, - A detailed review of selected security of supply indicators, - Comprehensive models for assessing the security of energy supply, - The Supply/Demand Index, - Concluding observations; 3. Evolution of the Security of Energy Supply in OECD Countries: - Time-dependent quantification of the security of energy supply, - Changes in security of supply in selected OECD countries, - Electricity generation and the security of energy supply, - The contribution of nuclear energy and energy intensity to the security of energy supply, - The geographical distribution of SSDI values, - Conclusions; 4. Public

  7. Hopeful Thinking: Conceptualizing a Future beyond Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zombil, Henri

    2017-01-01

    Domestic violence is a continuing public health problem. Immigrant women facing domestic violence have additional challenges in dealing with domestic violence and accessing services. Hopeful thinking has been identified as a strategy for intervening and surviving beyond domestic violence. The purpose of this multiple descriptive case study was to…

  8. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  9. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  10. Achieving low return temperature for domestic hot water preparation by ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH) is a cost-effective method of heat supply, especially to area with high heat density. Ultra-low-temperature district heating (ULTDH) is defined with supply temperature at 35-45 degrees C. It aims at making utmost use of the available low-temperature energy sources. In order...... to achieve high efficiency of the ULTDH system, the return temperature should be as low as possible. For the energy-efficient buildings in the future, it is feasible to use ULTDH to cover the space heating demand. However, considering the comfort and hygiene requirements of domestic hot water (DHW...... lower return temperature and higher efficiency for DHW supply, an innovative substation was devised, which replaced the bypass with an instantaneous heat exchanger and a micro electric storage tank. The energy performance of the proposed substation and the resulting benefits for the DH system...

  11. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing

  12. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Velasco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L. Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill. D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago, coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species.

  13. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2016-12-07

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide [Formula: see text] values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. Copyright © 2016 Velasco et al.

  14. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. PMID:27707802

  15. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  16. Magnet power supply for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Frankel, R.F.; Thomas, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The power supply system which will energize the superconducting magnets in the ISABELLE machine consists of some 520 computer-programmable power supplies with outputs ranging from 50 A to 4500 A. Most of the power supplies will be used for the correction of field harmonics, orbit correction and adjustment of the machine working line. During acceleration, currents in various magnet correction coils will be controlled in real time to track the main field; all power supplies must be highly stable during the stacking and storage of the beam (in some cases current regulation must be in the order of 0.001%). PS reference programs will be stored in microprocessor based function generators embedded in each power supply. Due to the large amount of stored energy in the system, the magnets must be protected during quenches. Details of the power supply and of the magnet quench protection system are described

  17. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  18. Cholangiocytes and blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-06-14

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  19. Gas prices in the UK: markets and insecurity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Professor P. Wright argues that the high and volatile gas price experienced by UK consumers over the last 3 years are the result of the extend of liberalization in the UK - which has made UK prices much more sensitive to insecurities of supply. Businesses pay the cost of this, straightaway, while the strategies which gas companies have used to respond to heightened price risks means domestic consumers also bear the cost of higher supply-markups. The prospect of high levels of demand in bad winters then just adds to price risk and its associated costs. The implication of this analysis is that it is illogical for the UK's regulator and government to blame the UK's high prices on the slow progress of liberalization in the rest of Europe - greater liberalization in Europe might simply replicate the UK's price difficulties throughout Europe

  20. Gas prices in the UK: markets and insecurity of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article Professor Philip Wright argues that the high and volatile gas prices experienced by UK consumers over the last 3 years are the result of the extent of liberalization in the UK which has made UK prices much more sensitive to insecurities of supply. Businesses pay the cost of this, straightaway, while the strategies which gas companies have used to respond to heightened price risks means domestic consumers also bear the cost of higher supply-markups. The prospect of high levels of demand in bad winters then just adds to price risk and its associated costs. The implication of this analysis is that it is illogical for the UK's regulator and government to blame the UK's high prices on the slow progress of liberalization in the rest of Europe - greater liberalization in Europe might simply replicate the UK's price difficulties throughout Europe. (author)

  1. Aggregate Supply and Potential Output

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    The New-Keynesian aggregate supply derives from micro-foundations an inflation-dynamics model very much like the tradition in the monetary literature. Inflation is primarily affected by: (i) economic slack; (ii) expectations; (iii) supply shocks; and (iv) inflation persistence. This paper extends the New Keynesian aggregate supply relationship to include also fluctuations in potential output, as an additional determinant of the relationship. Implications for monetary rules and to the estimati...

  2. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Schraiber, J.G.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Cagan, A.; Bosse, M.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Larson, G.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional

  3. Dynamic Relationship between Gross Domestic Product and Domestic Investment in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, Bruno; Ruranga, Charles; Kaberuka, William

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a VAR model to analyse the dynamic relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and domestic investment (DI) in Rwanda for the period 1970 to 2011. Several selection lag criteria chose a maximum lag of one, and a bivariate VAR(1) model specification in levels was adopted. Unit root tests show that both GDP and DI series are…

  4. Helminthiasis of the domestic-fowl ( Gallus gallus domestics ) and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminthiasis of the domestic-fowl ( Gallus gallus domestics ) and its adverse effects on sustainable poultry-meat production in Nigeria. ... This study is a reflection of the case across Nigeria and perhaps the tropical world, where the losses maybe higher because helminthiasis has been reported to be ubitiquous by earlier ...

  5. Nuclear fusion power supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To use a hybrid power supply device, which comprises a thyristor power supply and a diode power supply, to decrease cost of a nuclear fusion power supply device. Structure: The device comprises a thyristor power supply connected through a closing unit and a diode power supply connected in parallel through a breaker, input of each power supply being applied with an output voltage of a flywheel AC generator. When a current transformer is excited, a disconnecting switch is turned on to close the diode power supply and a current of the current transformer is increased by an automatic voltage regulator to a set value within a predetermined period of time. Next, the current is cut off by a breaker, and when the breaker is in on position, the disconnecting switch is opened to turn on the closing unit. Thus, when a plasma electric current reaches a predetermined value, the breaker is turned on, and the current of the current transformer is controlled by the thyristor power supply. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  7. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  8. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  9. Storytelling and story testing in domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole; Rudzinski, Anna; Grimaldi, Ilaria M; Pires, J Chris; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Dobney, Keith; Gremillion, Kristen J; Barton, Loukas; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Purugganan, Michael D; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Bollongino, Ruth; Burger, Joachim; Fuller, Dorian Q; Bradley, Daniel G; Balding, David J; Richerson, Peter J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Larson, Greger; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-29

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary enterprise that has come to involve the skills of evolutionary biologists and geneticists. Although the application of new information sources and methodologies has dramatically transformed our ability to study and understand domestication, it has also generated increasingly large and complex datasets, the interpretation of which is not straightforward. In particular, challenges of equifinality, evolutionary variance, and emergence of unexpected or counter-intuitive patterns all face researchers attempting to infer past processes directly from patterns in data. We argue that explicit modeling approaches, drawing upon emerging methodologies in statistics and population genetics, provide a powerful means of addressing these limitations. Modeling also offers an approach to analyzing datasets that avoids conclusions steered by implicit biases, and makes possible the formal integration of different data types. Here we outline some of the modeling approaches most relevant to current problems in domestication research, and demonstrate the ways in which simulation modeling is beginning to reshape our understanding of the domestication process.

  10. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Country profiles: Lithuania [Analysis of energy supply options and security of energy supply in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Lithuania is a very dependent country in terms of energy resources. In 2000 only about 13.8% of the primary energy requirement was covered by domestic resources. The remaining primary fuel requirement is imported from neighbouring countries, mainly from Russia - all crude oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel are imported from this country. There is a concern about the political and economic consequences of this dependence. There is a good interconnection with neighbouring countries for both electrical grid and gas pipelines. The supply of crude oil is also available via pipeline from Russia and two existing oil terminals from other countries, including orimulsion from Venezuela. Coal can be supplied by railway from both Russia and Poland

  12. A Study on the efficient alleviation of domestic oil price at international oil crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ku [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    For alleviating domestic oil price when the international oil crisis happens, the government has been reacted directly such as using stored oil or alleviation fund. Although the release of stored oil works for short-term depending on the type of crisis, concerning that most of oil crisis had been resulted in temporary supply reduction rather than long-term supply suspension, utilizing the domestic alleviation fund is regarded more economical than storing oil. However, it has been suggested to compare efficiencies of alleviation fund and a futures market regarding the perspectives that using alleviation fund is more inefficient than utilizing a futures market. Moreover, the direct management by government is less efficient than indirect management. As an efficient way to alleviate domestic oil price at international oil crisis, this study presents an effective utilization of trading in futures of crude oil. There is a high probability of occurrence of this kind of oil crisis by judging from the world political situation and the trend of oil market. In such a case, the government as a crude oil importer should minimize the stored oil and utilize a futures market effectively. The subject of alleviating oil price by trading in futures is an oil supplier, such as oil refining companies or oil importers not the government as a prerequisite. Furthermore, the government should approve to include appropriate cost for preparing oil price alleviation in the oil price and it is required that such a government policy should be consistent. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 15 Tabs.

  13. Hot water supply in ''Smart Home''. Decentralized supply, decentralized control; Warmwasserversorgung im 'Smart Home'. Dezentral versorgen, dezentral steuern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechers, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    The separation of the heating system and domestic hot water is already established in commercial and residential construction. The decentralized hot water supply offers environmental and economic benefits. In this paper it is shown that one can also do this in a detached house. [German] Die Trennung von Heizsystem und Warmwasserbereitung ist im Gewerbe- und Wohnungsbau bereits etabliert. Die dezentrale Warmwasserversorgung bietet oekologische und oekonomische Vorteile. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass man dies auch bei einem Einfamilienhaus durchfuehren kann.

  14. Domestication of Mahseer (Tor soro) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustiano, R; Kontara, E K; Wahyuningsih, H; Subagja, J; Asih, S; Saputr, A

    2013-01-01

    Mahseer is an economically important fish in the world with a distribution from the Himalayan Mountains up to Southeast Asia. One species of Masheer is Tor soro in the Indonesian Archipelago. For a long time, T. soro has been collected from the wild and now is becoming rare. In addition, the degradation of its habitat is another problem. Hence, it is urgent that this species is saved from extinction. Domestication of T. soro from North Sumatra has been conducted since 1996. This paper reports the results of domestication of T. soro starting from collecting live specimens, genetic and morphometric characterizations, evaluation to breeding, and growing out. In 2010, domestication was successful to produce a second generation of young broodstocks and now the breeding technology is being shared with several provinces where T. soro exist.

  15. First Mass Measurement of a 'Domestic' Microlens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Carey, Sean; Gould, Andrew; Zhu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    We propose to combine Spitzer, Gaia, and ground-based measurements to determine the mass, distance, and transverse velocity of the 'domestic' microlensing event J0507+2447. This is only the second 'domestic' event (microlensed source distance less than about 1 kpc) ever discovered, but this number is already 10 times higher than the number that are expected. Hence, determining the nature of these lenses would resolve a major puzzle. The low expected rate is what caused Einstein to delay publication of his microlensing idea by 24 years. By very good fortune, Spitzer's narrow 38 day window of observations overlaps magnified portions of the event. To determine the mass requires to measure both the 'microlens parallax' (courtesy of Spitzer) and the 'angular Einstein radius' (which can be derived from Gaia astrometry). Thus, this is a truly rare opportunity to probe the nature of 'domestic' microlenses.

  16. JOB CENTRE FOR DOMESTIC STAFF IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; http://www.cern.ch/relations/

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.

  17. Prevalence of Domestic Violence Among Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W

    2015-12-01

    Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per

  18. Nuclear reactor power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector is interposed between the protection system and the control system. This selector prevents a parameter signal of a set of signals, which differs from the other parameters signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation of the sensors which produce the set, from passing to the control system. The selectors include a pair of signal selection units, one unit sending selected process signals to primary control channels and the other sending selected process signals to back-up control channels. Test signals are periodically impressed by a test unit on a selected pair of a selected unit and control channels. When test signals are so impressed the selected control channel is disabled from transmitting control signals to the reactor and/or its associated components. This arrangement eliminates the possibility that a single component failure which may be spurious will cause an inadvertent trip of the reactor during test

  19. Latest status of the Japanese LCT coil and the domestic test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, S.; Ando, T.; Hiyama, T.

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), representing Japan, is now making one of six test coils for the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Large Coil Task(LCT). The Japanese LCT coil, which has a stored energy of 120 MJ, is based on a NgTi conductor, is pool-cooled, has a maximum field of 8T, and is edgewise, double-pancake wound, was completed in October, 1981. The LCT coil will be tested in the newly constructed domestic test facility up to its rated current in November, 1981, before transportation ORNL. The domestic test facility, which is composed of a cryogenic system a vacuum system, a power supply with protection system, and a data acqusition and control system, was completed and its performance measured at a new building for the LCT test at JSAERI in June, 1981. This paper describes the latest construction status of the Japanese LCT coil and the domestic test facility. The performance of the domestic test facility is described in this paper

  20. Some problems on domestic technology development from a point of fabricator of nuclear power plant. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watamori, T [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-06-01

    During past 20 years, the nuclear power industry in Japan has introduced foreign technology, digested it in a short period, and continued to research and develop domestic technology. Now, 95% of the machinery and equipments for nuclear power generation with light water reactors can be produced domestically, and some technologies are going to be exported. However, the nuclear power industry is still in a severe environment. The progress of the development of nuclear power plants passed the periods of organizational preparation, the construction of research reactors, the import of foreign technologies and reactors for practical use, and the construction of domestically produced reactors for practical use. The supplying capacity of the nuclear power industry in Japan reached 6 units of 1,000 MW yearly, but in order to meet the long term plan of nuclear power generation, this capacity must be further enhanced. The problems in the promotion of domestic production are the establishment of independent technologies, the promotion of standardization, the strengthening of business basis, the upbringing of relating enterprises, and the acceleration of national projects. Since the energy crisis, the trend of filling up energy demand with nuclear power generation became conspicuous, but for the expansion of export, the problems of safety guarantee, nuclear fuel cycle, and financial measures must be solved with government aid.

  1. Some problems on domestic technology development from a point of fabricator of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watamori, Tsutomu

    1976-01-01

    During past 20 years, the nuclear power industry in Japan has introduced foreign technology, digested them in short period, and continued to research and develop domestic technology. Now, 95% of the machinery and equipments for nuclear power generation with light water reactors can be produced domestically, and some technologies are going to be exported. However, the nuclear power industry is still in severe environment. The progress of the development of nuclear power plants passed the periods of organizational preparation, the construction of research reactors, the import of foreign technologies and reactors for practical use, and the construction of domestically produced reactors for practical use. The supplying capacity of the nuclear power industry in Japan reached 6 units of 1,000 MW yearly, but in order to meet the long term plan of nuclear power generation, this capacity must be further enhanced. The problems in the promotion of domestic production are the establishment of independent technologies, the promotion of standardization, the strengthening of business basis, the upbringing of relating enterprises, and the acceleration of national projects. Since the energy crisis, the trend of filling up energy demand with nuclear power generation became conspicuous, but for the expansion of export, the problems of safety guarantee, nuclear fuel cycle, and financial measures must be solved with government aid. (Kako, I.)

  2. Domestic wastewater treatment with purple phototrophic bacteria using a novel continuous photo anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsen, Tim; Barry, Edward M; Lu, Yang; Puyol, Daniel; Keller, Jürg; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    A key future challenge of domestic wastewater treatment is nutrient recovery while still achieving acceptable discharge limits. Nutrient partitioning using purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) has the potential to biologically concentrate nutrients through growth. This study evaluates the use of PPB in a continuous photo-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (PAnMBR) for simultaneous organics and nutrient removal from domestic wastewater. This process could continuously treat domestic wastewater to discharge limits (60% of PPB, though the PPB community was highly variable. The outcomes from the current work demonstrate the potential of PPB for continuous domestic (and possibly industrial) wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. Technical challenges include the in situ COD supply in a continuous reactor system, as well as efficient light delivery. Addition of external (agricultural or fossil) derived organics is not financially nor environmentally justified, and carbon needs to be sourced internally from the biomass itself to enable this technology. Reduced energy consumption for lighting is technically feasible, and needs to be addressed as a key objective in scaleup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotojaona, Loic

    2013-07-01

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  4. Security of gas supply in open markets. LNG and power at a turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since the 'IEA Study on Security of Gas Supply' was published in 1995, many member countries have started to open their gas and electricity markets to competition. Governments progressively withdrew from directly managing the gas sector; they concentrate now on setting objectives and the framework for competition. With the continued growth of gas demand and the decline of domestic reserves, most IEA countries have to import more gas, mainly for power generation. This requires access to gas reserves at competitive conditions, as well as timely investment in new infrastructure to ensure a reliable gas supply. Reform has led to open markets, where supply and demand are balanced by the market. In the gas sector, supply is capacity-bound and large parts of the demand side are inelastic. The study looks at how governments and other stakeholders in IEA countries respond to the need to create a framework that enables the players to deliver secure and reliable gas supply at the border and all the way down to the final customer. This book analyses the most recent developments in security of gas supply and reliability in all IEA regions in the context of open markets and in view of the new demand and supply trends. A CD-Rom featuring the positions of the main stakeholders (governments, regulators, industry, customers and other organisations) is included with the publication. 'Security of Gas Supply in Open Markets' is a follow-up of 'Flexibility in Natural Gas Supply and Demand' in the IEA series on energy market reforms

  5. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  6. 600W uninterruptible power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizell, C

    1988-01-01

    Although the mains power supply in western Europe is normally reliable, power failures, transients and noise can cause loss or corruption of data held on personal computers. The design of an uninterruptible power supply system (UPS) based on well proven technology, is described.

  7. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2003 for consumption, prices of electric power, power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  8. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2000 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  9. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2002 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  10. Realities of Supply Chain Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampstra, R.P.; Ashayeri, J.; Gattorna, J.

    2006-01-01

    Successful supply chain collaboration (SCC) practices are rather exceptional, yet collaboration is believed to be the single most pressing need in supply chain management.In this paper we discuss the realities of SCC, present prerequisites for the collaboration process, indicate where the process

  11. Supply/Demand in Radiology: A Historical Perspective and Comparison to other Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh

    2016-02-01

    There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality Assessment of Domesticated Animal Genome Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Stefan E; Anthon, Christian; Palasca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    affected by the lack of genomic sequence. Herein, we quantify the quality of the genome assemblies of 20 domesticated animals and related species by assessing a range of measurable parameters, and we show that there is a positive correlation between the fraction of mappable reads from RNAseq data...... domesticated animal genomes still need to be sequenced deeper in order to produce high-quality assemblies. In the meanwhile, ironically, the extent to which RNAseq and other next-generation data is produced frequently far exceeds that of the genomic sequence. Furthermore, basic comparative analysis is often...

  13. Domestic tourism in Uruguay: a matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Domínguez Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper domestic tourism in Uruguay is analyzed by introducing an Origin-Destination matrix approach, and an attraction coefficient is calculated. We show that Montevideo is an attractive destination to every department except itself (even if it emits more trips than it receives, and the Southeast region is the main destination. Another important outcome is the importance of intra-regional patterns, associated to trips to bordering departments. Findings provide destination managers with practical knowledge, useful for reducing seasonality and attracting more domestic tourists throughout the year, as well as to deliver a better service offer, that attracts both usual visitors and new ones from competitive destinations.

  14. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  15. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  16. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  17. Differences in activity concentrations and doses between domestic and commercial food production in England and Wales. Implications for nuclear emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, S.; Brown, J.; Smith, J.

    1999-10-01

    In the event of an accidental release of radionuclides into the environment, MAFF has a statutory responsibility to ensure that a wholesome and safe food supply is maintained to the population of England. MAFF also provides scientific advice on contamination of food by radioactivity to the Welsh Assembly and the Scottish Executive. This responsibility will apply whatever the source of radioactive contamination. Where foods are produced domestically by individuals, i.e. in private gardens and allotments, MAFF has no statutory powers to prevent their harvest or consumption. MAFF must therefore rely solely upon the provision of appropriate advice to protect those domestic producers potentially at risk. Advice which has been issued to such individuals and households during past nuclear emergency exercises has been based on assessments carried out for commercially produced foods. Under contract to MAFF, NRPB has undertaken a desk-top study to review the adequacy of the current MAFF emergency procedures for protecting consumers of foods produced domestically. In particular, the study has examined the validity of basing advice for domestic consumers on commercial food production and consumption, rather than by explicitly considering the domestic situation. As part of the study, reviews have been carried out of the level and types of domestic food production and consumption in the UK. In addition, comparisons have been made between agricultural practices in commercial and domestic situations. The data from these reviews have subsequently been used to compare the doses received by individuals from consuming contaminated foods from commercial and domestic sources. The study has concluded that, in general, the current MAFF emergency procedures for protecting the domestic consumer are adequate. In the event of an accident occurring some factors may need more consideration, however. These include differences in growing periods and harvesting dates between commercial and

  18. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  19. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  20. Islamic Banking Existence and Domestic Credit: Study at Seven Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Yuafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the determinants of domestic credit across a wide range of 7 countries; these are United Kingdom, Malaysia, Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Indonesia. We use dynamic panel estimation to examine effects of exchange rate, inflation, lending interest rate, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking on domestic credit. We obtain several notable empirical results. First, the lending interest rate, banking crisis negatively and insignificantly contribute to domestic credit. The existence of Islamic bank has positive and insignificant contribution to domestic credit, while exchange rate positively and significantly contributes to domestic credit.  Inflation negatively and significantly contributes to domestic credit. Second, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking show insignificant effect on domestic credit. Third, we find that today’s domestic credit is depended on domestic credit in the previous year.DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4906