Choi, Mehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.
Purpose: Advancement in academic radiation oncology is largely contingent on research productivity and the perceived external influence of an individual's scholarly work. The purpose of this study was to use the Hirsch index (h-index) to estimate the research productivity of current radiation oncology faculty at U.S. academic institutions between 1996 and 2007. Methods and Materials: We performed bibliometric citation database searches for available radiation oncology faculty at domestic residency-training institutions (n = 826). The outcomes analyzed included the total number of manuscripts, total number of citations, and the h-index between 1996 and 2007. Analysis of overall h-index rankings with stratification by academic ranking, junior vs. senior faculty status, and gender was performed. Results: Of the 826 radiation oncologists, the mean h-index was 8.5. Of the individuals in the top 10% by the h-index, 34% were chairpersons, 88% were senior faculty, and 13% were women. A greater h-index was associated with a higher academic ranking and senior faculty status. Recursive partitioning analysis revealed an h-index threshold of 15 (p <0.0001) as an identified breakpoint between the senior and junior faculty. Overall, women had lower h-indexes compared with men (mean, 6.4 vs. 9.4); however, when stratified by academic ranking, the gender differential all but disappeared. Conclusion: Using the h-index as a partial surrogate for research productivity, it appears that radiation oncologists in academia today comprise a prolific group, however, with a highly skewed distribution. According to the present analysis, the h-index correlated with academic ranking. Thus, it potentially has utility in the process of promotion decisions. Overall, women in radiation oncology were less academically productive than men; the possible reasons for the gender differential are discussed.
Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan; Harasym, Peter H
A crisis in pediatric residency training today has raised serious concerns about the healthcare quality for children in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to document the problems and to propose possible solutions for improvement. The problems include: 1) manpower shortage due to the difficulty of recruiting pediatric residents; 2) heavy workload that hinders learning; 3) lack of assessment and poor program planning; and 4) inadequate institutional and financial support. As a result, physicians' competencies are not guaranteed at the end of residency training, even with the pediatric board certification. Possible solutions may include: 1) conducting research on physician manpower statistics, work hours and environment; 2) establishing a Residency Program Review Committee and provision of standards for accreditation; 3) defining the competencies mandated as a general pediatrician and developing a set of measurable qualitative standards; 4) encouraging new programs with flexibility (e.g., primary care); and 5) pursuing adequate institutional and financial supports.
Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun
Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed.
Background: Mentorship is important in residency training as it is necessary for personal and professional development of the resident trainees. Objectives: This study documents mentorship in orthopaedic residency training programme in Nigeria by assessing the awareness of orthopaedic residents on the role of a mentor, ...
Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian
Introduction Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p = 0.005). This working time, however, is less spent in the operating suite (OR: 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; p = 0.001) and more doing administrative work (OR: 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.96; p = 0.015). Conclusion Some theoretical and practical aspects of neurosurgical training are superior, but a considerable proportion of relevant aspects are inferior in Germany compared with other European countries. The present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical review of the local conditions in German training facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
If health care practitioners and institutions became familiar with legal options available to survivors of domestic violence, they could better facilitate their patients' access to potentially life-saving recourses. Such options include calling the police and obtaining civil protection orders and bringing custody, divorce, and support actions. Provider awareness of legal obligations and other legal considerations that arise when handling domestic violence cases is important for patient care and the practice of good risk management. Examples of such issues include domestic violence protocol requirements, documentation of abuse, and repercussions of mandatory reporting laws. Health care providers should work in collaboration with community domestic violence programs in educating staff on issues pertaining to domestic violence and in crafting policies that promote patient safety and autonomy.
Chapman, Terrence L.
Scholars have devoted considerable attention to the informational role of international institutions. However, several questions about the informational aspects of institutional behavior remain underexplored: What determines how audiences respond to institutional decisions? Through what channels does information provision affect foreign policy? To…
Mahood, S.; Rojas, R.; Andres, D.; Zagozeski, C.; White, G.; Bradel, T.
An educational contract for family medicine residency training and evaluation addresses many of the difficulties and challenges of current postgraduate medical education. This article identifies important principles for developing a contractual approach; describes the contract used in one program and its implementation; and discusses its theory, advantages, and limitations.
FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...
Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Boheng; Yin, Yiqing; Fang, Taolin; Wei, Ning; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng
Residency training is internationally recognized as the only way for the physicians to be qualified to practice independently. China has instituted a new residency training program for the specialty of plastic surgery. Meanwhile, plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States are presently in a transition because of restricted work hours. The purpose of this study is to compare the current characteristics of plastic surgery residency training in 2 countries. Flow path, structure, curriculum, operative experience, research, and evaluation of training in 2 countries were measured. The number of required cases was compared quantitatively whereas other aspects were compared qualitatively. Plastic surgery residency training programs in 2 countries differ regarding specific characteristics. Requirements to become a plastic surgery resident in the United States are more rigorous. Ownership structure of the regulatory agency for residency training in 2 countries is diverse. Training duration in the United States is more flexible. Clinical and research training is more practical and the method of evaluation of residency training is more reasonable in the United States. The job opportunities after residency differ substantially between 2 countries. Not every resident has a chance to be an independent surgeon and would require much more training time in China than it does in the United States. Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States and China have their unique characteristics. The training programs in the United States are more standardized. Both the United States and China may complement each other to create training programs that will ultimately provide high-quality care for all people.
Tolstrup Christensen, Lene
sectorial challenges. In Sweden, this role has a new public governance form as the monopoly over time is fully dismantled. In Denmark, over time marketization is put on hold due to problems with the SOE as a market actor, but the SOE is nevertheless safeguarded in a new Weberian model as a sector......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to make an empirical-based conceptualization of the contemporary domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as domestic institutional market actors (IMAs) in the marketization of public service delivery. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based...... on a qualitative comparative case study of the SOEs in passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden from 1990 to 2015. Findings: The paper shows how marketization results in a layered institutional set-up of public service delivery based on both competition and monopoly where the SOE becomes what we call an IMA bridging...
Walsh, Allyn; Gold, Michelle; Jensen, Phyllis; Jedrzkiewicz, Michelle
To determine what factors enable or impede women in a Canadian family medicine residency program from combining motherhood with residency training. To determine how policies can support these women, given that in recent decades the number of female family medicine residents has increased. Qualitative study using in-person interviews. McMaster University Family Medicine Residency Program. Twenty-one of 27 family medicine residents taking maternity leave between 1994 and 1999. Semistructured interviews. The research team reviewed transcripts of audiotaped interviews for emerging themes; consensus was reached on content and meaning. NVIVO software was used for data analysis. Long hours, unpredictable work demands, guilt because absences from work increase workload for colleagues, and residents' high expectations of themselves cause pregnant residents severe stress. This stress continues upon return to work; finding adequate child care is an added stress. Residents report receiving less support from colleagues and supervisors upon return to work; they associate this with no longer being visibly pregnant. Physically demanding training rotations put additional strain on pregnant residents and those newly returned to work. Flexibility in scheduling rotations can help accommodate needs at home. Providing breaks, privacy, and refrigerators at work can help maintain breastfeeding. Allowing residents to remain involved in academic and clinical work during maternity leave helps maintain clinical skills, build new knowledge, and promote peer support. Pregnancy during residency training is common and becoming more common. Training programs can successfully enhance the experience of motherhood during residency by providing flexibility at work to facilitate a healthy balance among the competing demands of family, work, and student life.
Full Text Available Background and goal: Curriculum development for residency training is increasingly challenging in times of financial restrictions and time limitations. Several countries have adopted the CanMEDS framework for medical education as a model into their curricula of specialty training. The purpose of the present study was to validate the competency goals, as derived from CanMEDS, of the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine of the Berlin Charité University Medical Centre, by conducting a staff survey. These goals for the qualification of specialists stipulate demonstrable competencies in seven areas: expert medical action, efficient collaboration in a team, communications with patients and family, management and organisation, lifelong learning, professional behaviour, and advocacy of good health. We had previously developed a catalogue of curriculum items based on these seven core competencies. In order to evaluate the validity of this catalogue, we surveyed anaesthetists at our department in regard to their perception of the importance of each of these items. In addition to the descriptive acquisition of data, it was intended to assess the results of the survey to ascertain whether there were differences in the evaluation of these objectives by specialists and registrars. Methods: The questionnaire with the seven adapted CanMEDS Roles included items describing each of their underlying competencies. Each anaesthetist (registrars and specialists working at our institution in May of 2007 was asked to participate in the survey. Individual perception of relevance was rated for each item on a scale similar to the Likert system, ranging from 1 (highly relevant to 5 (not at all relevant, from which ratings means were calculated. For determination of reliability, we calculated Cronbach’s alpha. To assess differences between subgroups, we performed analysis of variance.Results: All seven roles were rated as relevant. Three of the seven
Lee, Andrew G.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Boldt, H. Culver; Olson, Richard; Oetting, Thomas A.; Abramoff, Michael; Carter, Keith
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess new competencies including professionalism. This article reviews the literature on medical professionalism, describes good practices gleaned from published works, and
Features of residency training and psychological distress among residents in a Nigerian teaching hospital. O Esan, A Adeoye, P Onakoya, O Opeodu, K Owonikoko, D Olulana, M Bello, A Adeyemo, L Onigbogi, O Idowu, T Akute ...
The global movement to provide domestic relationship status and benefits to same-sex couples has resulted in five different kinds of legal responses: (1) redefining marriage to include same-sex couples; (2) creation of marriage-equivalent civil union domestic relationships, with most or all of the legal incidents of marriage; (3) creation of a carefully customized domestic partner relationship providing access to some particular relational benefits; (4) allowing the private creation ...
This paper show that work on international market regulation has paid insufficient attention to the critical role played by domestic political and regulatory institutions. Existing literature emphasizes the role of market power, determined by market size, in analyzing international regulatory influence. While we do not contest the importance of market power, we introduce the notion of domestic regulatory capacity to capture the domestic institutional side of international market regulation th...
Ronald E. Domen MD
Full Text Available Professionalism issues are common in residency training and can be very difficult to recognize and manage. Almost one-third of the milestones for pathology recently instituted by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education encompass aspects of professionalism. Program directors are often unsure of how and when to remediate residents for unprofessional behavior. We used a case-based educational approach in a workshop setting to assist program directors in the management of unprofessional behavior in residents. Eight case scenarios highlighting various aspects of unprofessional behavior by pathology residents were developed and presented in an open workshop forum at the annual pathology program director’s meeting. Prior to the workshop, 2 surveys were conducted: (1 to collect data on program directors’ experience with identifying, assessing, and managing unprofessional behavior in their residents and (2 to get feedback from workshop registrants on how they would manage each of the 8 case scenarios. A wide range of unprofessional behaviors have been observed by pathology program directors. Although there is occasionally general agreement on how to manage specific behaviors, there remains wide variation in how to manage many of the presented unprofessional behaviors. Remediation for unprofessional behavior in pathology residents remains a difficult and challenging process. Additional education and research in this area are warranted.
Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J
Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.
Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement
Fishbain, Dana; Levi, Baruch; Borow, Malke; Ashkenazi, Shai; Lindner, Arie
Full-time work has long been perceived as a cornerstone of medical residency, the consensus being that a resident must apply the bulk of his time and attention to his professional training. Demographic and cultural changes that have taken place over the last several years, specifically the rise in the number of female doctors and the importance of leisure time to the younger generation, have intensified the need to find new and innovative ways to deal with the plight of the resident population. One idea, already in effect in many Western countries, is the institution of part-time residency programs. The possibility of fulfilling residency requirements on a part-time basis is intended to assist medical residents in integrating their professional development with their personal and family life, without compromising the quality of their training. A number of research studies conducted over the last several years in countries that allow part-time residency, among them the United States, England and Switzerland, aimed to examine the quality of part-time training. The various studies evinced a high level of satisfaction from the program both by the residents themselves and their supervisors, and in many aspects those doing residency part-time received higher appraisals than their full-time colleagues. Some of the residents polled noted that they would have totally foregone the practice of medicine had there not been an option to complete residency part-time. In light of the experience throughout the world and the changing landscape in Israel, the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association decided to examine the issue and its various aspects, and weighed all the considerations in favor and against part-time residency. Recently, the Scientific Council approved the launch of a pilot program to allow part-time residency in several fields that were carefully selected according to specific criteria. Once the Ministry of Health completes the LegisLation process, part
Piotrowski, Madison; Stulberg, Debra; Egan, Mari
Medical residents continue to experience high rates of burnout during residency training even after implementation of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour restrictions. The purpose of this study is to determine medical student interest in flexible residency training options. Researchers developed an 11-question survey for second through fourth-year medical students. The populations surveyed included medical students who were: (1) attending the 2015 American Academy of Family Physicians National Conference, the 2015 Family Medicine Midwest Conference, and (2) enrolled at University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Drexel University College of Medicine, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The survey was completed by 789 medical students. Over half of medical students surveyed indicated that they would be interested in working part-time during some portion of their residency training (51%), and that access to part-time training options would increase their likelihood of applying to a particular residency program (52%). When given the option of three residency training schedules of varying lengths, 41% of male students and 60% of female students chose a 60-hour workweek, even when that meant extending the residency length by 33% and reducing their yearly salary to $39,000. There is considerable interest among medical students in access to part-time residency training options and reduced-hour residency programs. This level of interest indicates that offering flexible training options could be an effective recruitment tool for residency programs and could improve students' perception of their work-life balance during residency.
Fletcher, Sarah; Mullett, Jennifer; Beerman, Steve
Abstract Objective To examine the perceptions of residents, nurses, and physicians about the effect of a regional family practice residency site on the delivery of health services in the community, as well as on the community health care providers. Design Interviews and focus groups were conducted. Setting Nanaimo, BC. Participants A total of 16 residents, 15 nurses, and 20 physicians involved with the family practice residency training program at the Nanaimo site. Methods A series of semistructured interviews and focus groups was conducted. Transcripts of interviews and focus groups were analyzed thematically by the research team. Main findings Overall, participants agreed that having a family practice residency training site in the community contributed to community life and to the delivery of health services in the following ways: increased community capacity and social capital; motivated positive relationships and attitudes in the hospital and community settings; improved communication and teamwork, as well as accessibility and understanding of the health care system; increased the standard of care; and facilitated the recruitment and retention of family physicians. Conclusion This family practice residency training site was beneficial for the community it served. Future planning for distributed medical education sites should take into account the effects of these sites on the health care community and ensure that they continue to be positive influences. Further research in this area could focus on patients’ perceptions of how residency programs affect their care, as well as on the effect of residency programs on wait times and workload for physicians and nurses. PMID:25217693
Sweigart, Joseph R; Tad-Y, Darlene; Kneeland, Patrick; Williams, Mark V; Glasheen, Jeffrey J
Hospital medicine (HM) is rapidly evolving into new clinical and nonclinical roles. Traditional internal medicine (IM) residency training likely does not optimally prepare residents for success in HM. Hospital medicine residency training tracks may offer a preferred method for specialized HM education. Internet searches and professional networks were used to identify HM training tracks. Information was gathered from program websites and discussions with track directors. The 11 HM tracks at academic medical centers across the United States focus mostly on senior residents. Track structure and curricular content are determined largely by the structure and curricula of the IM residency programs in which they exist. Almost all tracks feature experiential quality improvement projects. Content on healthcare economics and value is common, and numerous track leaders report this content is expanding from HM tracks into entire residency programs. Tracks also provide opportunities for scholarship and professional development, such as workshops on abstract creation and job procurement skills. Almost all tracks include HM preceptorships as well as rotations within various disciplines of HM. HM residency training tracks focus largely on quality improvement, health care economics, and professional development. The structures and curricula of these tracks are tightly linked to opportunities within IM residency programs. As HM continues to evolve, these tracks likely will expand to bridge clinical and extra-clinical gaps between traditional IM training and contemporary HM practice. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:173-176. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine
Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen
structures by either ‘substituting’ or ‘mirroring’ national models of capitalism. An alternative set of explanations views company CSR programmes as determined by market pressures. We examine the role of domestic institutions and market pressure as drivers of CSR through an evaluation of the content...... of company CSR initiatives revealed in their external reporting. We conduct case studies of two large British companies (Glaxo Smith Kline and Barclays) as well as two large Danish companies (Novo Nordisk and Danske Bank). We find that market pressures rather than domestic institutions determine the content...
Full Text Available This study examines relationship between Inward FDI and domestic investment in China, using co-integration and Granger causality analysis (Including bivariate and multivariate Granger causality models. We have used auto-regressive distributed lags(ARDL econometric methodology technique to define relationship between inward FDI and domestic investment using time series data for China. Our study examines long run effects of FDI inflows on domestic investment over time span 1990-2014 for China using informal, formal institutions and key macroeconomic variables as control variables in the model. The results suggest that conclusions drawn from bivariate model may not be valid because of omission of important control variables. Our results of multivariate model show that there is positive unidirectional causality running from IFDI to DI in the long run. In the short run, both inward FDI and domestic investment do not allow Granger causality.
Roč. 16, č. 4 (2016), s. 684-709 ISSN 1519-6089 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07898S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Hired domestic care * Recognition * Global interactions Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography
Duran-Nelson, Alisa; Van Camp, Joan; Ling, Louis
On the surface, changing the rules related to the number of hours residents work per day and per week sounds like a good idea. Theoretically, residents who work fewer hours would be less tired and provide better patient care. But even small changes in residency training programs have implications for the quality of the educational experience and the cost of training, as well as patient care. This article highlights the challenges that two Minnesota residency programs are facing as they adapt to the new rules around residents' work hours.
Full Text Available The subject of this paper is an analysis of the social treatment of victims of domestic violence and their institutional treatment in the context of gender stereotypes, prejudices and discriminatory attitudes, which are deeply rooted and widely spread among professionals involved in the prevention and prosecution of domestic violence. The aim of the paper is to point out how, and in what way institutional sexism becomes a barrier to effective prevention, prosecution and sanctioning of domestic violence and the cause of discrimination of victims of this form of violence in the exercise of the right to legal protection. In this context, the current situation in Serbia has been observed in light of the international standard of “due diligence”, which is normatively operationalized in Istanbul Convention (2011. From the perspective of this standard, the authors discuss the standpoints of the CEDAW Committee as well as the latest opinion of the European Court of Human Rights in the verdict of the case Eremia and others v. Moldova (2013, which was the first time that the Court held that institutional sexism was the main reason for the state authorities’ failure to provide adequate legal protection against domestic violence. The authors underscore that the state action on the recognition, demystification and eradication of the deeply rooted institutional sexism is one of the key prerequisites for an effective prevention of domestic violence in compliance with the international “due diligence” standard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179046: Zaštita ljudskih i manjinskih prava u evropskom pravnom prostoru
Bao, Yue; Miao, Qi; Liu, Ying
Over the past two decades, returnee entrepreneurs have emerged as major promoters of business startups and entrepreneurship in China. Recognizing their positive impact in promoting new and innovative companies, Chinese national and local governments have instituted a raft of preferential policies...... their educational levels, overseas work experience, the degree to which they bring back new business models and their perception of domestic economic opportunities affects the likelihood of such individuals becoming entrepreneurs. Our work suggests regulatory transparency discourages returnees from entering...
Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A
Assessment of clinical competence is facing a paradigm shift in more than one sense. The shift relates to test content, which increasingly covers a broader spectrum of competences than mere medical expertise, and to test methods, with an increasing focus on testing performance in realistic settings....... Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher...
Cook, D J; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L E; Guyatt, G H; Walter, S D
To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. Self-administered questionnaire. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed questionnaire, and 50% of the respondents were women. Prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation experienced by residents during medical training, prevalence and residents' perceived frequency of sexual harassment. Psychological abuse was reported by 50% of the residents. Some of the respondents reported physical assault, mostly by patients and their family members (14.7% reported assaults by male patients and family members, 9.8% reported assaults by female patients and family members), 5.4% of the female respondents reported assault by male supervising physicians. Discrimination on the basis of gender was reported to be common and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (p sexual orientation. Most of the respondents experienced sexual harassment, especially in the form of sexist jokes, flirtation and unwanted compliments on their dress or figure. On average, 40% of the respondents, especially women (p sexual harassment to someone (p sexual harassment were embarassment (reported by 24.0%), anger (by 23.4%) and frustration (20.8%). Psychological abuse, discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual harassment are commonly experienced by residents in training programs. A direct, progressive, multidisciplinary approach is needed to label and address these problems.
Snyder, Elizabeth; Solnes, Lilja; Horton, Karen M; Johnson, Pamela T
The role of a radiologist has expanded beyond the tripartite mission of patient care, education, and research to include cross-specialty consultation for patient management, innovative solutions to improve health-care quality and safety, device design, and policy advocacy. As such, radiology residency programs should incorporate formalized training to prepare residents for these various professional roles. Since the 2015-2016 academic year, five training tracks focused on noninterpretative skills have been integrated into our residency training program: Clinician Educator, Quality Improvement, Entrepreneurship/Innovation, Health Policy Advocacy, and High-Value Care. Each track is longitudinal, with a set of requirements throughout the residents' training necessary to achieve certification at graduation. To date nine residents have participated in the programs, including two who received distinction in two separate tracks. Residents in each of the tracks have implemented successful initiatives related to the focus area. As such, these tracks enrich training by ensuring that residents make meaningful contributions to the department and institution during their training and disseminate successful initiatives through presentation at national meetings and publications. The duration of a radiology residency and resources available in an academic center provide opportunities for residency program directors to advance residents' skills in important noninterpretative components of radiology practice. Regardless of whether residents pursue academic medicine or private practice, these skills are necessary for graduates to become valuable members of a radiology practice and serve as national leaders in the field of radiology. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henning, Daniel J; McGillicuddy, Daniel C; Sanchez, Leon D
Resident productivity, defined as patients seen per unit time, is one measure that is used to assess the performance and educational progress of residents in the emergency department (ED). One published study suggested that emergency residency training (EM) does not improve productivity compared with that in other specialties, including internal medicine (IM). This study assesses how EM and IM trainees perform in the ED and illustrates how resident productivity changes through the academic year. A retrospective review of attending physicians and residents working 8-h shifts in the higher acuity zone of a large-volume, tertiary, academic health care center was performed for July 2009, October 2009, January 2010, and April 2010. The total number of patients seen primarily and admitted during each shift was recorded. ED volume was approximated by the number of patients seen by the attending physician, and acuity was approximated by admission rate. A mixed model regression assessed the impact of year and type of residency training (e.g., EM1, EM2, IM1, and IM2), ED volume, and acuity on resident productivity (number of patients per shift). The study was granted waiver of informed consent by our institutional review board. We reviewed 936 shifts. After adjusting for acuity and ED volume, the EM1 group had a significant increase in patients per shift over the year, from 6.11 in July to 10.3 in April (p increased productivity significantly. The first EM training year leads to a significant change in productivity that separates EM from IM residents. This contradicts the previous assertion that non-EM residents have the same productivity as EM residents in the ED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haricharan, Ramanath N; Aprahamian, Charles J; Celik, Ahmet; Harmon, Carroll M; Georgeson, Keith E; Barnhart, Douglas C
The purpose of this study was to characterize the safety of laparoscopic pyloromyotomy and examine the effect of resident training on the occurrence of complications. Five hundred consecutive infants who underwent laparoscopic pyloromyotomy between January 1997 and December 2005 were reviewed and analyzed. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was successfully completed in 489 patients (97.8%). Four hundred seventeen patients were boys (83%). Intraoperative complication occurred in 8 (1.6%) patients (mucosal perforation, 7; serosal injury to the duodenum, 1). All were immediately recognized and uneventfully repaired. Six patients (1.2%) required revision pyloromyotomy for persistent or recurrent gastric outlet obstruction. There were 7 wound complications (1.4%) and no deaths. Pediatric surgery residents performed 81% of the operations, whereas 16% were done by general surgery residents (postgraduate years 3-4). There was a 5.4-fold increased risk of mucosal perforation or incomplete pyloromyotomy when a general surgery resident rather than a pediatric surgery resident performed the operation (95% confidence interval, 1.8-15.8; P = .003). These effects persisted even after controlling for weight, age, and attending experience. The laparoscopic pyloromyotomy has an excellent success rate with low morbidity. The occurrence of complications is increased when the operation is performed by a general surgery resident, even when directly supervised by pediatric surgical faculty.
Saunier, C; Raimond, E; Dupont, A; Pelissier, A; Bonneau, S; Gabriel, R; Graesslin, O
To evaluate French residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology's training in instrumental deliveries in 2015. We conducted a national descriptive survey among 758 residents between December 2014 and January 2015. Respondents were invited by email to specify their University Hospital, their current university term, the number of instrumental deliveries performed by vacuum extractor, forceps or spatulas, and whether they made systematic ultrasound exams before performing the extraction. Response rate was 34.7 % (n=263). There were important differences between regions in terms of type of instruments used. Vacuum extractor was the most commonly used instrument for instrumental deliveries by French residents (56.9 %), more than forceps (25.2 %) and spatulas (17.9 %). At the end of the residency, all the residents had been trained in instrumental deliveries with at least two instruments. The training of difficult techniques as well as their perfect control is required for instrumental deliveries. Yet, we are forced to note that there are substantial differences in the French residents' training in instrumental deliveries depending on their region. So, teaching at least two techniques seems essential as well as improving the training capacities and standardizing practices. A greater systematization of the teaching of the mechanics and obstetric techniques might be a solution to be considered too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Meyer, J E; Wollenberg, B; Schmidt, C
A concept for an ORL residency training program is necessary because of personnel bottlenecks, quality assurance and benchmarkings. We have created a 2.5 years' program, which is based on 6 pillars: 1. Acquisition of the necessary specialist knowledge by the resident in self-study. 2. Weekly attendance of training lectures according to a study timetable, a monthly specialist seminar to discuss case examples. 3. Weekly presentation by the resident on an article from the current literature, alternating with a presentation on cases and a morbidity and mortality conference. 4. Annual 60 min learning target test. 5. Definition of a surgical training calendar oriented to the new national ORL training regulations. 6. Internal operation course with preparative exercises in anatomy and visit to an operations course at a renowned otolaryngology clinic each year. After 2.5 years of the training time a revision course is introduced. In this way a basic training will be guaranteed for all residents, which can be assessed by the annual test. Finally, the construction of a further training curriculum should lead to an improved transparent training, a higher standard of quality and improved staff satisfaction.
Damewood, Richard B; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Park, Yoon Soo; Lupi, Linda K; Newman, Rachel Williams; Sachdeva, Ajit K
The American College of Surgeons (ACS) appointed a committee of leaders from the ACS, Association of Program Directors in Surgery, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and American Board of Surgery to define key challenges facing surgery resident training programs and to explore solutions. The committee wanted to solicit the perspectives of surgery resident program directors (PDs) given their pivotal role in residency training. Two surveys were developed, pilot tested, and administered to PDs following Institutional Review Board approval. PDs from 247 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited general surgery programs were randomized to receive 1 of the 2 surveys. Bias analyses were conducted, and adjusted Pearson χ 2 tests were used to test for differences in response patterns by program type and size. All accredited general surgery programs in the United States were included in the sampling frame of the survey; 10 programs with initial or withdrawn accreditation were excluded from the sampling frame. A total of 135 PDs responded, resulting in a 54.7% response rate (Survey A: n = 67 and Survey B: n = 68). The respondent sample was determined to be representative of program type and size. Nearly 52% of PD responses were from university-based programs, and 41% had over 6 residents per graduating cohort. More than 61% of PDs reported that, compared to 10 years ago, both entering and graduating residents are less prepared in technical skills. PDs expressed significant concerns regarding the effect of duty-hour restrictions on the overall preparation of graduating residents (61%) and quality of patient care (57%). The current 5-year training structure was viewed as needing a significant or extensive increase in opportunities for resident autonomy (63%), and the greatest barriers to resident autonomy were viewed to be patient preferences not to be cared for by residents (68%), liability concerns (68%), and Centers for Medicare and
Full Text Available Using a large sample of firms listed on the Korea Stock Exchange over 1998–2007, this study investigates whether and how trading by foreign and domestic institutional investors improves the extent to which firm-specific information is incorporated into stock prices, captured by stock price synchronicity. We find, first, that stock price synchronicity decreases significantly with the intensity of trading by foreign investors and domestic institutional investors. Second, trading by foreign investors facilitates the incorporation of firm-specific information into stock prices to a greater extent than trading by aggregate domestic institutions. Third, among domestic institutions with differing investment horizons, short-term investing institutions, such as securities and investment trust companies, play a more important role in incorporating firm-specific information into stock prices via their trading activities, compared with long-term investing institutions, such as banks and insurance companies. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that trading by foreign and domestic short-term institutions reduces the extent of accrual mispricing. Our results are robust to a variety of sensitivity checks.
Carlos, Diene Monique; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angelica Iossi; Roque, Eliana Mendes de Souza Teixeira; Vendruscolo, Telma Sanchez
To understand and analyze, from the perspective of adolescent victims of domestic violence who were cared for in an institution in Campinas-SP, the protective factors to which they are submitted and / or have access. This was qualitative research, with data collection occurring through focus groups with 17 adolescents, and semistructured interviews with seven of them; the data analysis was based on content analysis, using a thematic modality. Two themes emerged, entitled Four Walls and Trust. We discuss the context of institutional care, that despite the efforts made contemporaneously, still maintains an authoritarian environment; the importance of the bond and trust established with some employees, acting as protective factors for the adolescents and the protective aspect of religiosity. It is understood that these considerations should be valued and reinforced through the healthcare services provided to children and adolescents, as they contribute to the promotion of the physical and mental health of this population.
Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice; Dexter, Eve; Rinaldo, Jason C B; Marino, Miguel; Garvin, Roger; Douglass, Alan B; Phillips, Robert; Green, Larry A; Carney, Patricia A
The In-training Examination (ITE) is a frequently used method to evaluate family medicine residents' clinical knowledge. We compared family medicine ITE scores among residents who trained in the 14 programs that participated in the Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) Project to national averages over time, and according to educational innovations. The ITE scores of 802 consenting P4 residents who trained in 2007 through 2011 were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine. The primary analysis involved comparing scores within each academic year (2007 through 2011), according to program year (PGY) for P4 residents to all residents nationally. A secondary analysis compared ITE scores among residents in programs that experimented with length of training and compared scores among residents in programs that offered individualized education options with those that did not. Release of ITE scores was consented to by 95.5% of residents for this study. Scores of P4 residents were higher compared to national scores in each year. For example, in 2011, the mean P4 score for PGY1 was 401.2, compared to the national average of 386. For PGY2, the mean P4 score was 443.1, compared to the national average of 427, and for PGY3, the mean P4 score was 477.0, compared to the national PGY3 score of 456. Scores of residents in programs that experimented with length of training were similar to those in programs that did not. Scores were also similar between residents in programs with and without individualized education options. Family medicine residency programs undergoing substantial educational changes, including experiments in length of training and individualized education, did not appear to experience a negative effect on resident's clinical knowledge, as measured by ITE scores. Further research is needed to study the effect of a wide range of residency training innovations on ITE scores over time.
Skelton, Jann B; Owen, James A
The Community Pharmacy Residency Program (CPRP) Planning Committee convened to develop a vision and a strategic action plan for the advancement of community pharmacy residency training. Aligned with the profession's efforts to achieve provider status and expand access to care, the Future Vision and Action Plan for Community-based Residency Training will provide guidance, direction, and a strategic action plan for community-based residency training to ensure that the future needs of community-based pharmacist practitioners are met. National thought leaders, selected because of their leadership in pharmacy practice, academia, and residency training, served on the planning committee. The committee conducted a series of conference calls and an in-person strategic planning meeting held on January 13-14, 2015. Outcomes from the discussions were supplemented with related information from the literature. Results of a survey of CPRP directors and preceptors also informed the planning process. The vision and strategic action plan for community-based residency training is intended to advance training to meet the emerging needs of patients in communities that are served by the pharmacy profession. The group anticipated the advanced skills required of pharmacists serving as community-based pharmacist practitioners and the likely education, training and competencies required by future residency graduates in order to deliver these services. The vision reflects a transformation of community residency training, from CPRPs to community-based residency training, and embodies the concept that residency training should be primarily focused on training the individual pharmacist practitioner based on the needs of patients served within the community, and not on the physical location where pharmacy services are provided. The development of a vision statement, core values statements, and strategic action plan will provide support, guidance, and direction to the profession of pharmacy to
Ajao, Oluwole Gbolagunte; Alao, Adekola
In 1904, William Halsted introduced the present model of surgical residency program which has been adopted worldwide. In some developing countries, where surgical residency training programs are new, some colleges have introduced innovations to the Halsted's original concept of surgical residency training. These include 1) primary examination, 2) rural surgical posting, and 3) submission of dissertation for final certification. Our information was gathered from the publications on West African College of Surgeons' (WACS) curriculum of the medical schools, faculty papers of medical schools, and findings from committees of medical schools. Verbal information was also gathered via interviews from members of the WACS. Additionally, our personal experience as members and examiners of the college are included herein. We then noted the differences between surgical residency training programs in the developed countries and that of developing countries. The innovations introduced into the residency training programs in the developing countries are mainly due to the emphasis placed on paper qualifications and degrees instead of performance. We conclude that the innovations introduced into surgical residency training programs in developing countries are the result of the misconception of what surgical residency training programs entail. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lea C. George
Full Text Available Objective. Robotic surgery continues to expand in minimally invasive surgery; however, the literature is insufficient to understand the current training process for general surgery residents. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify the current approach to and perspectives on robotic surgery training. Methods. An electronic survey was distributed to general surgery program directors identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education website. Multiple choice and open-ended questions regarding current practices and opinions on robotic surgery training in general surgery residency programs were used. Results. 20 program directors were surveyed, a majority being from medium-sized programs (4–7 graduating residents per year. Most respondents (73.68% had a formal robotic surgery curriculum at their institution, with 63.16% incorporating simulation training. Approximately half of the respondents believe that more time should be dedicated to robotic surgery training (52.63%, with simulation training prior to console use (84.21%. About two-thirds of the respondents (63.16% believe that a formal robotic surgery curriculum should be established as a part of general surgery residency, with more than half believing that exposure should occur in postgraduate year one (55%. Conclusion. A formal robotics curriculum with simulation training and early surgical exposure for general surgery residents should be given consideration in surgical residency training.
George, Lea C; O'Neill, Rebecca; Merchant, Aziz M
Robotic surgery continues to expand in minimally invasive surgery; however, the literature is insufficient to understand the current training process for general surgery residents. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify the current approach to and perspectives on robotic surgery training. An electronic survey was distributed to general surgery program directors identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education website. Multiple choice and open-ended questions regarding current practices and opinions on robotic surgery training in general surgery residency programs were used. 20 program directors were surveyed, a majority being from medium-sized programs (4-7 graduating residents per year). Most respondents (73.68%) had a formal robotic surgery curriculum at their institution, with 63.16% incorporating simulation training. Approximately half of the respondents believe that more time should be dedicated to robotic surgery training (52.63%), with simulation training prior to console use (84.21%). About two-thirds of the respondents (63.16%) believe that a formal robotic surgery curriculum should be established as a part of general surgery residency, with more than half believing that exposure should occur in postgraduate year one (55%). A formal robotics curriculum with simulation training and early surgical exposure for general surgery residents should be given consideration in surgical residency training.
Slootweg, Irene; Lombarts, Kiki; van der Vleuten, Cees; Mann, Karen; Jacobs, Johanna; Scherpbier, Albert
Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. We conducted a qualitative study to explore clinical
Slootweg, I.; Lombarts, K.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Mann, K.; Jacobs, J.; Scherpbier, A.
Background: Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. Aim: We conducted a qualitative study to
Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.
Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…
Norcini, John J.; And Others
A study assessed the effectiveness of medical resident training programs during 1983-88 by evaluating students' certification scores and comparing them to the program's evaluation of students' clinical competence. Results are reported and analyzed for top-rated, university-affiliated, and non-university-affiliated programs, focusing on trends over…
Conclusions: Resident evaluations of clinical teachers are influenced by teachers’ age, gender, year of residency training, type of teachers’ academic position and whether or not a clinical teacher performed self-evaluation. Development of CBME should be focused on the continuous evaluation of quality, clinical teachers educational support and the implementation of e-portfolio.
Arbuckle, Melissa R.; DeGolia, Sallie G.; Esposito, Karin; Miller, Deborah A.; Weinberg, Michael; Brenner, Adam M.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize associate training director (ATD) positions in psychiatry. Method: An on-line survey was e-mailed in 2009 to all ATDs identified through the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT). Survey questions elicited information regarding demographics,…
Kaplan, Sebastian; Elliott, Harold
Objective: The authors propose that motivational interviewing (MI), a brief intervention designed to manage ambivalence regarding complex behavior change, is well suited for integration into psychiatric residency training programs. Methods: The authors provide a brief description of MI. In addition, based on a review of the literature the authors…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. Methods A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. Results In total 415 (51 % residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p Residents highly valued their colleagues (67%, program directors (60% and external psychiatrist/psychologist (49% as well-being resources. Over one third of residents wished to have a career counselor (39% and financial counselor (38%. Conclusion Many Albertan residents experience significant stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training.
Farla, K.; de Crombrugghe, D.P.I.; Verspagen, B.
Studies of the relationship between FDI and domestic investment levels reach contradictory findings. We revisit this empirical relationship and argue that some of the conflicting evidence may be explained by the use of poor proxies for the true underlying variables and by questionable methodological
Arbuckle, Melissa R; Degolia, Sallie G; Esposito, Karin; Miller, Deborah A; Weinberg, Michael; Brenner, Adam M
The purpose of this study was to characterize associate training director (ATD) positions in psychiatry. An on-line survey was e-mailed in 2009 to all ATDs identified through the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT). Survey questions elicited information regarding demographics, professional activities, job satisfaction, and goals. Of 170 ATDs surveyed, 73 (42.9%) completed the survey. Most respondents (71.3%) had been in their positions for 3 years or less. Many ATDs indicated that they were involved in virtually all aspects of residency training; 75% of respondents agreed that they were happy with their experience. However, specific concerns included inadequate time and compensation for the ATD role in addition to a lack of mentorship and unclear job expectations. Thoughtful attention to the construction of the ATD role may improve job satisfaction.
Iravani, Kamyar; Amini, Mitra; Doostkam, Aida; Dehbozorgian, Mahnaz
The script concordance test (SCT) is one the best tools used to evaluate clinical reasoning in ill-defined clinical situations. The aim of this study was to demonstrate SCT application in otolaryngology residency training. A 20 item otolaryngology SCT containing 60 questions was administered to 26 otolaryngology residents. The test was prepared by two otolaryngologists familiar to medical education. These questions have been validated by otolaryngology experts. The panel consisted of 9 academic staff in the field of otolaryngology. Pearson correlation test was used to assess the reliability of the test. The obtained mean scores were 68.4±5.8 (out of 100) for residents and 78.2±6.4(out of 100) for experts. There was a significant difference between the two scores (preliable tool to evaluate clinical reasoning in otolaryngology residents. It should be included in otolaryngology residency training.
Frader, Laura Levine
Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.
Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah
Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only
Zieman, Glynnis; Bridwell, Ashley; Cárdenas, Javier F
Domestic violence is a national health crisis, which affects people of all ages, races, and socioeconomic classes. Traumatic brain injury is common in victims because of the high frequency of head and neck injuries inflicted through abuse. These recurrent injuries can lead to chronic symptoms with high morbidity. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 115 patients with a history of head trauma as a result of domestic violence. All patients were seen in a subspecialty traumatic brain injury clinic, at which time information regarding their histories and self-reported symptoms were recorded. In total, 109 females and 6 males were included in our study, with an age range of 4-68 years. Overall, 88% reported more than one injury and 81% reported a history of loss of consciousness associated with their injuries. Only 21% sought medical help at the time of injury. Whereas 85% had a history of abuse in adulthood, 22% had experienced abuse in both childhood and adulthood, and 60% of the patients abused as children went on to be abused as adults. Headache was the most common chief complaint, but on a self-reported symptom severity scale, behavioral symptoms were the most severe. Psychiatric disease was present in 84% of patients. Traumatic brain injury is a frequent sequela of domestic violence, from which many victims sustain multiple injuries without seeking medical care. Brain injuries are often sustained over many years and lead to lasting physical, behavioral, and cognitive consequences. Better understanding of these injuries will lead to improved care for this population.
Sun, Chenjing; Qi, Xiaokun
Lumbar puncture (LP) is an essential part of adult neurology residency training. Technologic as well as nontechnologic training is needed. However, current assessment tools mostly focus on the technologic aspects of LP. We propose a training method-problem- and simulator-based learning (PSBL)-in LP residency training to develop overall skills of neurology residents. We enrolled 60 neurology postgraduate-year-1 residents from our standardized residents training center and randomly divided them into 2 groups: traditional teaching group and PSBL group. After training, we assessed the extent that the residents were ready to perform LP and tracked successful LPs performed by the residents. We then asked residents to complete questionnaires about the training models. Performance scores and the results of questionnaires were compared between the 2 groups. Students and faculty concluded that PSBL provided a more effective learning experience than the traditional teaching model. Although no statistical difference was found in the pretest, posttest, and improvement rate scores between the 2 groups, based on questionnaire scores and number of successful LPs after training, the PSBL group showed a statistically significant improvement compared with the traditional group. Findings indicated that nontechnical elements, such as planning before the procedure and controlling uncertainties during the procedure, are more crucial than technical elements. Compared with traditional teaching model, PSBL for LP training can develop overall surgical skills, including technical and nontechnical elements, improving performance. Residents in the PSBL group were more confident and effective in performing LP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Unhealthy substance use is the spectrum from use that risks harm, to use associated with problems, to the diagnosable conditions of substance abuse and dependence, often referred to as substance abuse disorders. Despite the prevalence and impact of unhealthy substance use, medical education in this area remains lacking, not providing physicians with the necessary expertise to effectively address one of the most common and costly health conditions. Medical educators have begun to address the need for physician training in unhealthy substance use, and formal curricula have been developed and evaluated, though broad integration into busy residency curricula remains a challenge. Discussion We review the development of unhealthy substance use related competencies, and describe a curriculum in unhealthy substance use that integrates these competencies into internal medicine resident physician training. We outline strategies to facilitate adoption of such curricula by the residency programs. This paper provides an outline for the actual implementation of the curriculum within the structure of a training program, with examples using common teaching venues. We describe and link the content to the core competencies mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the formal accrediting body for residency training programs in the United States. Specific topics are recommended, with suggestions on how to integrate such teaching into existing internal medicine residency training program curricula. Summary Given the burden of disease and effective interventions available that can be delivered by internal medicine physicians, teaching about unhealthy substance use must be incorporated into internal medicine residency training, and can be done within existing teaching venues. PMID:20230607
Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed R; Pierce, Jonathan L; Scherer, Lynette A; Galante, Joseph M
The scope of general surgery practice has evolved tremendously in the last 20 years. However, clinical experience in general surgery residency training has undergone relatively little change. To evaluate the current scope of academic general surgery and its implications on surgical residency. The University HealthSystem Consortium and Association of American Medical Colleges established the Faculty Practice Solution Center (FPSC) to characterize physician productivity. The FPSC is a benchmarking tool for academic medical centers created from revenue data collected from more than 90,000 physicians who practice at 95 institutions across the United States. The FPSC database was queried to evaluate the annual mean procedure frequency per surgeon (PFS) in each calendar year from 2006 through 2011. The associated work relative value units (wRVUs) were also examined to measure physician effort and skill. During the 6-year period, 146 distinct Current Procedural Terminology codes were among the top 100 procedures, and 16 of these procedures ranked in the top 10 procedures in at least 1 year. The top 10 procedures accounted for more than half (range, 52.5%-57.2%) of the total 100 PFS evaluated for each year. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was consistently among the top 10 procedures in each year (PFS, 18.2-24.6). The other most frequently performed procedures included laparoscopic cholecystectomy (PFS, 30.3-43.5), upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy (PFS, 26.5-34.3), mastectomy (PFS, 16.5-35.0), inguinal hernia repair (PFS, 15.5-22.1), and abdominal wall hernia repair (PFS, 21.6-26.1). In all years, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass generated the highest number of wRVUs (wRVUs, 491.0-618.2), and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was regularly the next highest (wRVUs, 335.8-498.7). A significant proportion of academic general surgery is composed of bariatric surgery, yet surgical training does not sufficiently emphasize the necessary exposure to technical expertise
Hindle, Ada; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana; Wong, Anne
Introduction. Web-based learning (WBL) is increasingly used in medical education; however, residency training programs often lack guidance on its implementation. We describe how the use of feasibility studies can guide the use of WBL in anesthesia residency training. Methods. Two case-based WBL emergency airway management modules were developed for self-directed use by anesthesia residents. The feasibility of using this educational modality was assessed using a single cohort pretest/posttest design. Outcome measures included user recruitment and retention rate, perceptions of educational value, and knowledge improvement. The differences between pre- and postmodule test scores and survey Likert scores were analysed using the paired t test. Results. Recruitment and retention rates were 90% and 65%, respectively. User-friendliness of the modules was rated highly. There was a significant improvement in perceptions of the value of WBL in the postsurvey. There was a significant knowledge improvement of 29% in the postmodule test. Conclusions. Feasibility studies can help guide appropriate use of WBL in curricula. While our study supported the potential feasibility of emergency airway management modules for training, collaboration with other anesthesia residency programs may enable more efficient development, implementation, and evaluation of this resource-intensive modality in anesthesia education and practice.
Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Bonilla-Vargas, Luis; Hernandez, Adrian V; Silveira-Chau, Manuela
In Peru there are different hospitals and university programs for training of specialists in nephrology. To assess the perception of physicians who attend such programs. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional national-level study in physicians who were in the last two years of nephrology training during February 2012 and who had graduated from it in 2010 and 2011. A self-applied questionnaire was developed along with the Peruvian Society of Nephrology based on international standards. The questionnaire evaluated: mentoring, clinical training, procedures, external rotations, research and global perception. Forty doctors were surveyed nationwide. 82.5% had tutors, 22.5% of them said their support was poor. A 27.5% described their theoretical formation as deficient. The practical training was perceived as acceptable globally; however, improvements in training on peritoneal dialysis and reading kidney transplant biopsies are necessary. A 90% have national external rotations and 65% reported to have an international rotation. In the assessment of research, 77.5% thought this is deficient. In addition, 82.5% believed that residency should last four years. However, 60% reported that their residency training was good. There is a decrease in the positive perception of the aspects studied among residents regarding graduates. The overall perception of nephrology residency training was considered good; however, areas of tutoring, and academic and research activities on average were deficient.
Full Text Available Introduction. Web-based learning (WBL is increasingly used in medical education; however, residency training programs often lack guidance on its implementation. We describe how the use of feasibility studies can guide the use of WBL in anesthesia residency training. Methods. Two case-based WBL emergency airway management modules were developed for self-directed use by anesthesia residents. The feasibility of using this educational modality was assessed using a single cohort pretest/posttest design. Outcome measures included user recruitment and retention rate, perceptions of educational value, and knowledge improvement. The differences between pre- and postmodule test scores and survey Likert scores were analysed using the paired t test. Results. Recruitment and retention rates were 90% and 65%, respectively. User-friendliness of the modules was rated highly. There was a significant improvement in perceptions of the value of WBL in the postsurvey. There was a significant knowledge improvement of 29% in the postmodule test. Conclusions. Feasibility studies can help guide appropriate use of WBL in curricula. While our study supported the potential feasibility of emergency airway management modules for training, collaboration with other anesthesia residency programs may enable more efficient development, implementation, and evaluation of this resource-intensive modality in anesthesia education and practice.
Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Nasca, Thomas J; Gonnella, Joseph S; Magee, Mike
The authors designed the present study to examine the association between individuals' scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, & M. Magee, 2003; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, T. J. Nasca, S. Mangione, M. Vergare, & M. Magee, 2002; M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, M. J. M. Cohen, J. S. Gonnella, J. B. Erdmann, J. J. Veloski, & M. Magee, 2001), a self-report empathy scale, during medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs 3 years later. Participants were 106 physicians. The authors examined the relationships between scores on the JSPE (with 20 Likert-type items) at the beginning of the students' 3rd year of medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs. Top scorers on the JSPE in medical school, compared to Bottom scorers, obtained a significantly higher average rating of empathic behavior in residency 3 years later (p prosocial and helping behavior, it is important for investigators to further enhance our understanding of its correlates and outcomes among health professionals.
McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J
Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.
Green, Michael L.; Aagaard, Eva M.; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Chick, Davoren A.; Holmboe, Eric; Kane, Gregory; Smith, Cynthia D.; Iobst, William
Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project requires that residency program directors objectively document that their residents achieve competence in 6 general dimensions of practice. Intervention In November 2007, the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the ACGME initiated the development of milestones for internal medicine residency training. ABIM and ACGME convened a 33-member milestones task force made up of program directors, experts in evaluation and quality, and representatives of internal medicine stakeholder organizations. This article reports on the development process and the resulting list of proposed milestones for each ACGME competency. Outcomes The task force adopted the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition as a framework the internal medicine milestones, and calibrated the milestones with the expectation that residents achieve, at a minimum, the “competency” level in the 5-step progression by the completion of residency. The task force also developed general recommendations for strategies to evaluate the milestones. Discussion The milestones resulting from this effort will promote competency-based resident education in internal medicine, and will allow program directors to track the progress of residents and inform decisions regarding promotion and readiness for independent practice. In addition, the milestones may guide curriculum development, suggest specific assessment strategies, provide benchmarks for resident self-directed assessment-seeking, and assist remediation by facilitating identification of specific deficits. Finally, by making explicit the profession's expectations for graduates and providing a degree of national standardization in evaluation, the milestones may improve public accountability for residency training. PMID:21975701
Carney, Patricia A; Conry, Colleen M; Mitchell, Karen B; Ericson, Annie; Dickinson, W Perry; Martin, James C; Carek, Peter J; Douglass, Alan B; Eiff, M Patrice
Evolutions in care delivery toward the patient-centered medical home have influenced important aspects of care continuity. Primary responsibility for a panel of continuity patients is a foundational requirement in family medicine residencies. In this paper we characterize challenges in measuring continuity of care in residency training in this new era of primary care. We synthesized the literature and analyzed information from key informant interviews and group discussions with residency faculty and staff to identify the challenges and possible solutions for measuring continuity of care during family medicine training. We specifically focused on measuring interpersonal continuity at the patient level, resident level, and health care team level. Challenges identified in accurately measuring interpersonal continuity of care during residency training include: (1) variability in empanelment approaches for all patients, (2) scheduling complexity in different types of visits, (3) variability in ability to attain continuity counts at the level of the resident, and (4) shifting make-up of health care teams, especially in residency training. Possible solutions for each challenge are presented. Philosophical issues related to continuity are discussed, including whether true continuity can be achieved during residency training and whether qualitative rather than quantitative measures of continuity are better suited to residencies. Measuring continuity of care in residency training is challenging but possible, though improvements in precision and assessment of the comprehensive nature of the relationships are needed. Definitions of continuity during training and the role continuity measurement plays in residency need further study.
Abuhamad, Alfred; Minton, Katherine K; Benson, Carol B
in Medicine assembled a multisociety task force to develop a consensus-based, standardized curriculum and competency assessment tools for obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound training in residency programs. The curriculum and competency assessment tools were developed based on existing national...... and international guidelines for the performance of obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound examinations and thus are intended to represent the minimum requirement for such training. By expert consensus, the curriculum was developed for each year of training, criteria for each competency assessment image were...... that the criteria set forth in this document will evolve with time. The task force also encourages use of ultrasound simulation in residency training and expects that simulation will play a significant part in the curriculum and the competency assessment process. Incorporating this training curriculum...
Abuhamad, Alfred; Minton, Katherine K; Benson, Carol B
in Medicine assembled a multisociety task force to develop a consensus-based, standardized curriculum and competency assessment tools for obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound training in residency programs. The curriculum and competency assessment tools were developed based on existing national...... and international guidelines for the performance of obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound examinations and thus are intended to represent the minimum requirement for such training. By expert consensus, the curriculum was developed for each year of training, criteria for each competency assessment image were...... that the criteria set forth in this document will evolve with time. The task force also encourages use of ultrasound simulation in residency training and expects that simulation will play a significant part in the curriculum and the competency assessment process. Incorporating this training curriculum...
Pascual, T.N.; San Luis, T.O.L.; Leus, M.
Full text: The comprehensive evaluation of medical residents in a residency-training program includes the use of educational tools to measure the attainment of competencies in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains as prescribed in the training curriculum. Attention is almost always focused on the testing of cognitive domain of the learners with limited attention given on the psychomotor and affective parameters, which are in fact, together with the cognitive domain, integral to the students' learning behaviour. This paper aims to review the principles of test construction, including the perspectives on the roles, types and purpose of tests in the domains of learning (cognitive, psychomotor and affective) as well as the use of Non-Test materials for measuring affective learning outcomes and the construction of Performance Tests and Portfolio Assessment tools which are all essential for the effective and efficient evaluation of residents in a Nuclear Medicine Training Program. (author)
Capasso, Rebecca; Adler, Laura
The teaching hospitals of the New York University psychiatry residency program were evacuated and then closed for a minimum of 3 months in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. Faculty and residents were deployed to alternate clinical sites. The authors examine the consequences of Superstorm Sandy and its implications for the New York University psychiatry residency training program. A survey was administered to faculty and residents. The authors tabulated 98 surveys, for which 24 % of faculty and 84 % of residents responded. Among respondents, 61 % believed that being involved in the evacuation of the hospitals was a positive experience. During deployment, most (85 %) found being placed with peers and supervisors to be beneficial, but there were significant disruptions. Despite facing multiple challenges including closed facilities, deployment to nonaffiliated hospitals, and exhausted personal resources, the training program continued to provide accredited clinical experiences, a core curriculum, and supervision for psychiatry residents during and after Superstorm Sandy.
Regenbogen, Alexandra; Recupero, Patricia R
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is rarely invoked by medical residents in training. Dr. Martin Jakubowski, a family medicine resident with Asperger's disorder, was dismissed for communicating poorly with patients, peers, and supervisors and for issuing dangerous medical orders. In an attempt to become reinstated, he sued under the ADA (Jakubowski v. The Christ Hospital), arguing that the program had failed to make reasonable accommodation for his disability. The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the hospital, finding that although the doctor was disabled under the ADA, he had failed to demonstrate that he was otherwise qualified for the position. This article comments on the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines from 2011 and their application to medical residency training, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies as essential job functions.
Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C
The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Clements, Matthew B; Morrison, Kasey Y; Schenkman, Noah S
Medical simulation offers the advantage of improving resident skill and comfort without impacting patient care. Five years ago, we identified trends in the use of robotic and laparoscopic simulation in 2008 and 2009 at American urology residency training programs. We seek to identify the changes in the use of simulators and the presence of formal curricula in the wake of technological advances and changes in graduate medical education. Attendees of the American Urological Association (AUA) Basic Sciences Course, mostly in their second or third year of residency, were surveyed on the availability and use of laparoscopic/robotic simulators at their program, the presence of a formal curriculum, and a Likert scale questionnaire regarding face and content validity. Over a 5-year period, the availability of virtual reality robotic simulators substantially increased from 14% to nearly 60% availability in 2013. Despite this increase, the frequency of simulator use remained unchanged (p = 0.40) and the reported presence of formal curricula decreased from 41% to 34.8%. There was no significant difference in simulator use between residents in programs with or without laparoscopic/robotic curricula (p = 0.95). There was also a decrease in the percentage of residents who felt official laparoscopic curricula (93%-81%) and simulators (82%-74%) should be involved in resident education. In the past 5 years, despite evidence supporting benefits from simulator use and increasing availability, self-reported resident use has remained unchanged and the reporting of presence of laparoscopic/robotic curricula has decreased. With more dedicated investment in formal curricula, residency training programs may receive greater returns on their simulator investments, improve resident skills and comfort, and ultimately improve the quality of patient care.
Vaižgėlienė, Eglė; Padaiga, Žilvinas; Rastenytė, Daiva; Tamelis, Algimantas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Fluit, Cornelia
In 2013, all residency programs at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences were renewed into the competency-based medical education curriculum (CBME). In 2015, we implemented the validated EFFECT questionnaire together with the EFFECT-System for quality assessment of clinical teaching in residency training. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of characteristics of the resident (year of training) and clinical teacher (gender, age, and type of academic position) on teaching quality, as well as to assess areas for teaching quality improvement. Residents from 7 different residency study programs filled out 333 EFFECT questionnaires evaluating 146 clinical teachers. We received 143 self-evaluations of clinical teachers using the same questionnaire. Items were scored on a 6-point Likert scale. Main outcome measures were residents' mean overall (MOS), mean subdomain (MSS) and clinical teachers' self-evaluation scores. The overall comparisons of MOS and MSS across study groups and subgroups were done using Student's t test and ANOVA for trend. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated in order to see how residents' evaluations match with self-evaluations for every particular teacher. To indicate areas for quality improvement items were analyzed subtracting their mean score from the respective (sub)domain score. MOS for domains of "role modeling", "task allocation", "feedback", "teaching methodology" and "assessment" valued by residents were significantly higher than those valued by teachers (Pevaluation questionnaires were rated significantly higher by residents in role modeling subdomains (Phigher than the female teachers (Phigher (Pevaluations of clinical teachers are influenced by teachers' age, gender, year of residency training, type of teachers' academic position and whether or not a clinical teacher performed self-evaluation. Development of CBME should be focused on the continuous evaluation of quality, clinical teachers
Shin, Jennifer J; Cunningham, Michael J; Emerick, Kevin G; Gray, Stacey T
Surgical competency requires sound clinical judgment, a systematic diagnostic approach, and integration of a wide variety of nontechnical skills. This more complex aspect of clinician development has traditionally been difficult to measure through standard assessment methods. This study was conducted to use the Clinical Practice Instrument (CPI) to measure nontechnical diagnostic and management skills during otolaryngology residency training; to determine whether there is demonstrable change in these skills between residents who are in postgraduate years (PGYs) 2, 4, and 5; and to evaluate whether results vary according to subspecialty topic or method of administration. Prospective study using the CPI, an instrument with previously established internal consistency, reproducibility, interrater reliability, discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change, in an otolaryngology residency training program. The CPI was used to evaluate progression in residents' ability to evaluate, diagnose, and manage case-based clinical scenarios. A total of 248 evaluations were performed in 45 otolaryngology resident trainees at regular intervals. Analysis of variance with nesting and postestimation pairwise comparisons were used to evaluate total and domain scores according to training level, subspecialty topic, and method of administration. Longitudinal residency educational initiative. Assessment with the CPI during PGYs 2, 4, and 5 of residency. Among the 45 otolaryngology residents (248 CPI administrations), there were a mean (SD) of 5 (3) administrations (range, 1-4) during their training. Total scores were significantly different among PGY levels of training, with lower scores seen in the PGY-2 level (44 ) compared with the PGY-4 (64 ) or PGY-5 level (69 ) (P otolaryngology (mean [SD], 72 ) than in subspecialties (range, 55 , P = .003, to 56 , P < .001). Neither administering the examination with an electronic scoring system, rather than a
Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Leek, Desiree; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.
Objective Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access to tobacco cessation services among smokers with mental illness. The current study evaluated the Rx for Change in Psychiatry curriculum, developed for psychiatry residency programs and focused on identifying and treating tobacco dependence among individuals with mental illness. Methods The 4-hour curriculum emphasized evidence-based, patient-oriented cessation treatments relevant for all tobacco users, including those not yet ready to quit. The curriculum was informed by comprehensive literature review, consultation with an expert advisory group, faculty interviews, and a focus group with psychiatry residents. This study reports on evaluation of the curriculum in 2005–2006, using a quasi-experimental design, with 55 residents in three psychiatry residency training programs in Northern California. Results The curriculum was associated with improvements in psychiatry residents’ knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and counseling behaviors for treating tobacco use among their patients, with initial changes from pre- to posttraining sustained at 3-months’ follow-up. Residents’ self-reported changes in treating patients’ tobacco use were substantiated through systematic chart review. Conclusion The evidence-based Rx for Change in Psychiatry curriculum is offered as a model tobacco treatment curriculum that can be implemented in psychiatry residency training programs and disseminated widely, thereby effectively reaching a vulnerable and costly population of smokers. PMID:19190293
Full Text Available Abstract Background IMGs constitute about a third of the United States (US internal medicine graduates. US residency training programs face challenges in selection of IMGs with varied background features. However data on this topic is limited. We analyzed whether any pre-selection characteristics of IMG residents in our internal medicine program are associated with selected outcomes, namely competency based evaluation, examination performance and success in acquiring fellowship positions after graduation. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 51 IMGs at our ACGME accredited teaching institution between 2004 and 2007. Background resident features namely age, gender, self-reported ethnicity, time between medical school graduation to residency (pre-hire time, USMLE step I & II clinical skills scores, pre-GME clinical experience, US externship and interest in pursuing fellowship after graduation expressed in their personal statements were noted. Data on competency-based evaluations, in-service exam scores, research presentation and publications, fellowship pursuance were collected. There were no fellowships offered in our hospital in this study period. Background features were compared between resident groups according to following outcomes: (a annual aggregate graduate PGY-level specific competency-based evaluation (CBE score above versus below the median score within our program (scoring scale of 1 – 10, (b US graduate PGY-level specific resident in-training exam (ITE score higher versus lower than the median score, and (c those who succeeded to secure a fellowship within the study period. Using appropriate statistical tests & adjusted regression analysis, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 94% of the study sample were IMGs; median age was 35 years (Inter-Quartile range 25th – 75th percentile (IQR: 33–37 years; 43% women and 59% were Asian physicians. The median pre-hire time was 5 years (IQR: 4–7
Thureau, S; Challand, T; Bibault, J-E; Biau, J; Cervellera, M; Diaz, O; Faivre, J-C; Fumagalli, I; Leroy, T; Lescut, N; Martin, V; Pichon, B; Riou, O; Dubray, B; Giraud, P; Hennequin, C
A national survey was conducted among the radiation oncology residents about their clinical activities and responsibilities. The aim was to evaluate the clinical workload and to assess how medical tasks are delegated and supervised. A first questionnaire was administered to radiation oncology residents during a national course. A second questionnaire was mailed to 59 heads of departments. The response rate was 62% for radiation oncology residents (99 questionnaires) and 51% for heads of department (30). Eighteen heads of department (64%) declared having written specifications describing the residents' clinical tasks and roles, while only 31 radiation oncology residents (34%) knew about such a document (P=0.009). A majority of residents were satisfied with the amount of medical tasks that were delegated to them. Older residents complained about insufficient exposure to new patient's consultation, treatment planning and portal images validation. The variations observed between departments may induce heterogeneous trainings and should be addressed specifically. National specifications are necessary to reduce heterogeneities in training, and to insure that the residents' training covers all the professional skills required to practice radiation oncology. A frame endorsed by academic and professional societies would also clarify the responsibilities of both residents and seniors. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Keck, Douglas B; Rutkauskas, John S; Clothey, Rebecca A
The need for an alternative means of delivery of a didactic curriculum to pediatric dental residents is described. It is our hope with this project to encourage a much-needed didactic curriculum for programs lacking faculty and to endorse other programs in which academicians exist but cannot cover all the material with which a resident needs to become familiar in the two years of postgraduate residency training. A decrease in faculty number due to retirement, debt burden, or marginal recruitment techniques along with an increase in positions in pediatric dentistry residency programs poses a unique educational dilemma. Using a mixed-method research methodology, we sent a twelve-question survey to 105 pediatric dentistry residency program directors and department chairs, followed by eight telephone interviews. Results from a 55 percent return rate show that the debt burden of most pediatric dental residents is well over $100,000 and that this affects a resident's decision to enter academia, as does the relative lack of positive recruitment techniques and poor faculty remuneration. The survey results affirm the need for improvement in the didactic curriculum of pediatric dentistry residents and show that program directors and department chairs also feel that an alternative delivery method using DVD or online/web-based programs would be welcomed. Despite their extremely heavy workloads, educators are willing to contribute by providing lectures or reading lists in their area of expertise.
Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim
Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.
Sethi, Rosh K V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Lee, Daniel J; Gliklich, Richard E; Shrime, Mark G; Gray, Stacey T
There is a paucity of data on junior resident training in common otolaryngology procedures such as ear debridement, nasal and laryngeal endoscopy, epistaxis management, and peritonsillar abscess drainage. These common procedures represent a critical aspect of training and are necessary skills in general otolaryngology practice. We sought to determine how a dedicated otolaryngology emergency room (ER) staffed by junior residents and a supervising attending provides exposure to common otolaryngologic procedures. Retrospective review. Diagnostic and procedural data for all patients examined in the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ER between January 2011 and September 2013 were evaluated. A total of 12,234 patients were evaluated. A total of 5,673 patients (46.4%) underwent a procedure. Each second-year resident performed over 450 procedures, with the majority seen Monday through Friday (75%). The most common procedures in our study included diagnostic nasolaryngoscopy (52.0%), ear debridement (34.4%), and epistaxis control (7.0%) An otolaryngology-specific ER provides junior residents with significant diagnostic and procedural volume in a concentrated period of time. This study demonstrates utility of a unique surgical education model and provides insight into new avenues of investigation for otolaryngology training. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
García Sanz, Miguel; Rodríguez Socarrás, Moises; Tortolero Blanco, Leonardo; Pesquera-Ortega, Laura; Colombo, Juan; Gómez Rivas, Juan
Since the establishment of specialization of medicine through the residency system, Spanish health care has sought to maintain a balance between established needs and trained professionals, with the aim of avoiding the deficit or excess of health specialists with its consequences. The objective of the present review is to know the working conditions of urologist specialists at the end of the residency training period. The results of a survey for urologist who completed their residency contract from 2012 to 2016 are presented, assessing working status, academic and working data during the first months after the completion of specialized training. A total of 42 surveys were collected. All respondents had a working contract within 6 months of completing their training. 71% had a temporary contract, most with duration of less than one year. There are more contract numbers in the public health system, although they increase progressively in the private sector. More than half of the respondents were satisfied with their work situation. The work insertion of the recently specialized urologists is high, reaching 100% within 6 months of finishing their specialization. Labor quality issues are not so positive, observing great working instability associated to a high proportion of temporary contracts lower than 6 months.
Osborne, Lauren M; MacLean, Joanna V; Barzilay, Erin Murphy; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Miller, Laura; Yang, Sarah Nagle
The reproductive life cycle has unique influences on the phenotypic expression of mental illness in women. Didactic and clinical training focused on these sex-specific influences should be a vital component of the education of future psychiatrists. The authors sought to determine the current state of and attitudes toward reproductive psychiatry in resident education. The authors administered a web-based survey to psychiatry residency training directors. They assessed the availability of both mandated and optional didactic and clinical training experiences in reproductive psychiatry. Fifty residency program directors answered the survey, for a response rate of 28%. More than half of residency program directors (59%) reported requiring some training in reproductive psychiatry. Both the breadth and depth of topics covered varied greatly among programs. Lack of time (48%) and lack of qualified faculty (26%) were the most frequently cited barriers to more training. Only 40% of residency directors surveyed agreed that all residents should be competent in reproductive psychiatry. These findings suggest that specific training in reproductive psychiatry is inconsistent in US residency programs, and that training that does exist varies considerably in clinical time and content. Given that women comprise more than 50% of all psychiatric patients and most women will menstruate, give birth, and undergo menopause, future psychiatrists would benefit from more systematic instruction in this area. The authors propose the development of a national, standardized reproductive psychiatry curriculum to address this gap and aid in producing psychiatrists competent to treat women at all stages of life.
Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.
Objective Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their program’s curriculum related to tobacco treatment, attitudes related to treating tobacco in psychiatry, and perceptions of residents’ skills for addressing nicotine dependence in psychiatric patients. Results Respondents were representative of the national pool. Half of the programs provided training in tobacco treatments for a median duration of 1 hour. Content areas covered varied greatly. Programs with tobacco-related training expressed more favorable attitudes toward addressing tobacco in psychiatry and were more likely to report confidence in their residents’ skills for treating nicotine dependence. Programs without tobacco training reported a lack of faculty expertise on tobacco treatments. Most training directors reported moderate to high interest in evaluating a model tobacco curriculum for psychiatry and stated they would dedicate an average of 4 hours of curriculum time. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the need for and interest in a model tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training. Training psychiatrists offers the potential of delivering treatment to one of the largest remaining groups of smokers: patients with mental disorders. PMID:17021144
Dhami, Gurleen; Gao, Wendy; Gensheimer, Michael F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Trister, Andrew D. [Sage Bionetworks, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kane, Gabrielle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Zeng, Jing, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)
Purpose: To conduct a nationwide survey to evaluate the current status of resident mentorship in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: An anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to all residents and recent graduates at US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–accredited radiation oncology residency programs, identified in the member directory of the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology. Factors predictive of having a mentor and satisfaction with the mentorship experience were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The survey response rate was 25%, with 85% of respondents reporting that mentorship plays a critical role in residency training, whereas only 53% had a current mentor. Larger programs (≥10 faculty, P=.004; and ≥10 residents, P<.001) were more likely to offer a formal mentorship program, which makes it more likely for residents to have an active mentor (88% vs 44%). Residents in a formal mentoring program reported being more satisfied with the overall mentorship experience (univariate odds ratio 8.77, P<.001; multivariate odds ratio 5, P<.001). On multivariate analysis, women were less likely to be satisfied with the mentorship experience. Conclusions: This is the first survey focusing on the status of residency mentorship in radiation oncology. Our survey highlights the unmet need for mentorship in residency programs.
Lang, Michael; Schröder, Michael
This paper examines the treatment of sovereign debt exposure within the Basel framework and measures the impact of bank regulation on the demand of Monetary Financial Institutions (MFI) for marketable sovereign debt. Our results suggest that bank regulation has a significant positive impact on MFI demand for domestic government securities. The results are representative for the MFI in the euro zone. They remain highly robust and significant after controlling for other influential factors and ...
Papadakis, Maxine A; Arnold, Gerald K; Blank, Linda L; Holmboe, Eric S; Lipner, Rebecca S
Physicians who are disciplined by state licensing boards are more likely to have demonstrated unprofessional behavior in medical school. Information is limited on whether similar performance measures taken during residency can predict performance as practicing physicians. To determine whether performance measures during residency predict the likelihood of future disciplinary actions against practicing internists. Retrospective cohort study. State licensing board disciplinary actions against physicians from 1990 to 2006. 66,171 physicians who entered internal medicine residency training in the United States from 1990 to 2000 and became diplomates. Predictor variables included components of the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary ratings and American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores. 2 performance measures independently predicted disciplinary action. A low professionalism rating on the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary predicted increased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.2]), and high performance on the ABIM certification examination predicted decreased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 0.7 [CI, 0.60 to 0.70] for American or Canadian medical school graduates and 0.9 [CI, 0.80 to 1.0] for international medical school graduates). Progressively better professionalism ratings and ABIM certification examination scores were associated with less risk for subsequent disciplinary actions; the risk ranged from 4.0% for the lowest professionalism rating to 0.5% for the highest and from 2.5% for the lowest examination scores to 0.0% for the highest. The study was retrospective. Some diplomates may have practiced outside of the United States. Nondiplomates were excluded. Poor performance on behavioral and cognitive measures during residency are associated with greater risk for state licensing board actions against practicing physicians at every point on a performance continuum. These findings support
Fraser, Amy B; Stodel, Emma J; Chaput, Alan J
Certain pressures stemming from within the medical community and from society in general, such as the need for increased accountability in resident training and restricted resident duty hours, have prompted a re-examination of methods for training physicians. Leaders in medical education in North America and around the world champion competency-based medical education (CBME) as a solution. The Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Ottawa launched Canada's first CBME program for anesthesiology residents on July 1, 2015. In this paper, we discuss the opportunities and challenges associated with CBME and delineate the elements of the new CBME program at the University of Ottawa. Review of the current literature. Competency-based medical education addresses some of the challenges associated with physician training, such as ensuring that specialists are competent in all key areas and reducing training costs. In principle, competency-based medical education can better meet the needs of patients, providers, and other stakeholders in the healthcare system, but its success will depend on support from all involved. As CBME is implemented, anesthesiologists have the opportunity to become leaders in innovation and medical education. The University of Ottawa has implemented a CBME program with a twofold purpose, namely, to focus learning opportunities on the development of the specific competencies required of practicing anesthesiologists and to test the effectiveness of a reduction in the length of training. Canadian anesthesia residency programs will soon transition to CBME in order to promote better transparency, accountability, fairness, fiscal responsibility, and patient safety. Competency-based medical education offers significant potential advantages for healthcare stakeholders.
Hadjipavlou, George; Halli, Priyanka; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S
The authors collected nationally representative data on Canadian residents' experiences with and perspectives on personal psychotherapy in their psychiatric training. A 43-item questionnaire was distributed electronically to all current psychiatry residents in Canada (N = 839). Four hundred residents from every program across Canada returned the survey (response rate 47.7%). The prevalence of personal therapy at any time was 55.3%, with 42.8% receiving personal therapy during residency. Of residents who undertook personal psychotherapy, 59.3% engaged in weekly therapy, 74.1% received psychodynamic psychotherapy, and 81.5% participated in long-term therapy (>1 year). Personal growth, self-understanding, and professional development were the most common reasons for engaging in personal therapy; however, one-third of residents did so to alleviate symptoms of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns. Time was the most important factor impeding residents from personal therapy; only 8.8% found stigma to act as a barrier. The vast majority of residents rated their experience with personal therapy as having a positive or very positive impact on their personal life (84.8%) and overall development as psychiatrists (81.8%). For 64% of respondents, personal therapy had an important or very important role in psychiatry residency training. Residents who received personal therapy rated themselves as better able to understand what happens moment by moment during therapy sessions, detect and deal with patients' emotional reactions, and constructively use their personal reactions to patients. Interest in personal therapy remains strong among psychiatry trainees in Canada. Residents who engaged in psychotherapy endorsed greater confidence in psychotherapy and rated their psychotherapy skills more favorably than those who had never been in the patient role, supporting the view of personal therapy as an important adjunct to psychotherapy training during residency.
Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Gu, Ying; Akhuetie, Jane; Dimitrov, Vihren
Background IMGs constitute about a third of the United States (US) internal medicine graduates. US residency training programs face challenges in selection of IMGs with varied background features. However data on this topic is limited. We analyzed whether any pre-selection characteristics of IMG residents in our internal medicine program are associated with selected outcomes, namely competency based evaluation, examination performance and success in acquiring fellowship positions after graduation. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 51 IMGs at our ACGME accredited teaching institution between 2004 and 2007. Background resident features namely age, gender, self-reported ethnicity, time between medical school graduation to residency (pre-hire time), USMLE step I & II clinical skills scores, pre-GME clinical experience, US externship and interest in pursuing fellowship after graduation expressed in their personal statements were noted. Data on competency-based evaluations, in-service exam scores, research presentation and publications, fellowship pursuance were collected. There were no fellowships offered in our hospital in this study period. Background features were compared between resident groups according to following outcomes: (a) annual aggregate graduate PGY-level specific competency-based evaluation (CBE) score above versus below the median score within our program (scoring scale of 1 – 10), (b) US graduate PGY-level specific resident in-training exam (ITE) score higher versus lower than the median score, and (c) those who succeeded to secure a fellowship within the study period. Using appropriate statistical tests & adjusted regression analysis, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 94% of the study sample were IMGs; median age was 35 years (Inter-Quartile range 25th – 75th percentile (IQR): 33–37 years); 43% women and 59% were Asian physicians. The median pre-hire time was 5 years (IQR: 4–7 years) and USMLE step
... SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS.... (b) Section 19 of the Federal Reserve Act which establishes reserve requirements does not apply to... in 1918 that the requirements of section 19 as to reserves to be carried by member banks do not apply...
Full Text Available Background and Design: There are many problems in dermatology residency training. The purpose of this study was to describe dermatology residents’ opinions about problems and proposals of their solutions of dermatology residency training programs in Turkey. In addition, by means of these estimations to propose efficient and standard curriculum components are aimed. Material and Method: A descriptive pilot study was designed and a questionnaire was prepared to describe the problems and suggestions for the solution in dermatology residency education. The survey was conducted between 20 June 2006 and 09 August 2006. The questions were prepared in accordance with a 1 to 5 Likert-type scale to evaluate the level of importance and sufficiency of the residents’ opinions. Results: Sixty seven (52 female, 15 male residents responded to the survey. Based on the importance evaluation, although clinical-pathological meetings were the most important educational component, all other educational components were also indicated as important. Based on the sufficiency evaluation, the least sufficient educational components were photodermatology/laser therapy training (score, 1,82 of 5,0 and cosmetic dermatology (1,83. Sufficiency levels of educational components such as textbook review, translation and discussion (3,86 journal club (4,04, preparation of seminar (4,03 and allergy training (2,95 were evaluated as sufficient. All other educational components were determined as insufficient. Overall, the greatest discrepancies between the importance and sufficiency for all educational components were observed in cosmetic dermatology education (2,50.Conclusion: This is the first study to assess dermatology residency education based on the residents’ perspectives, in Turkey. These results show the necessity for review and revise of some of the elements and the necessity to prepare a standard curriculum of dermatology residency education. It is appropriate to
... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.
PATRICK J. W. EGAN
Full Text Available Brazil attracted relatively little innovation-intensive and export-oriented foreign investment during the liberalization period of 1990 to 2010, especially compared with competitors such as China and India. Adopting an institutionalist perspective, I argue that multinational firm investment profiles can be partly explained by the characteristics of investment promotion policies and bureaucracies charged with their implementation. Brazil's FDI policies were passive and non-discriminating in the second half of the 1990s, but became more selective under Lula. Investment promotion efforts have often been undercut by weakly coordinated and inconsistent institutions. The paper highlights the need for active, discriminating investment promotion policies if benefits from non-traditional FDI are to be realized.
Kassardjian, Charles D; Williamson, Michelle L; van Buskirk, Dorothy J; Ernste, Floranne C; Hunderfund, Andrea N Leep
Teaching quality improvement (QI) is a priority for residency and fellowship training programs. However, many medical trainees have had little exposure to QI methods. The purpose of this study is to review a rigorous and simple QI methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control [DMAIC]) and demonstrate its use in a fellow-driven QI project aimed at reducing the number of delayed and canceled muscle biopsies at our institution. DMAIC was utilized. The project aim was to reduce the number of delayed muscle biopsies to 10% or less within 24 months. Baseline data were collected for 12 months. These data were analyzed to identify root causes for muscle biopsy delays and cancellations. Interventions were developed to address the most common root causes. Performance was then remeasured for 9 months. Baseline data were collected on 97 of 120 muscle biopsies during 2013. Twenty biopsies (20.6%) were delayed. The most common causes were scheduling too many tests on the same day and lack of fasting. Interventions aimed at patient education and biopsy scheduling were implemented. The effect was to reduce the number of delayed biopsies to 6.6% (6/91) over the next 9 months. Familiarity with QI methodologies such as DMAIC is helpful to ensure valid results and conclusions. Utilizing DMAIC, we were able to implement simple changes and significantly reduce the number of delayed muscle biopsies at our institution. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Santhosh, Lekshmi; Babik, Jennifer; Looney, Mark R; Hollander, Harry
Twenty years ago, the term "hospitalist" was coined at the University of California-San Francisco (San Francisco, CA), heralding a new specialty focused on the care of inpatients. There are now more than 50,000 hospitalists practicing in the United States. At many academic medical centers, hospitalists are largely replacing subspecialists as attendings on the inpatient medicine wards. At University of California-San Francisco, this has been accompanied by declining percentages of residency graduates who enter subspecialty training in internal medicine. The decline in subspecialty medicine interest can be attributed to many factors, including differences in compensation, decreased subspecialist exposure, and a changing research funding landscape. Although there has not been systematic documentation of this trend in pulmonary and critical care medicine, we have noted previously pulmonary and critical care-bound trainees switching to hospital medicine instead. With our broad, multiorgan system perspective, pulmonary and critical care faculty should embrace teaching general medicine. Residency programs have instituted creative solutions to encourage more internal medicine residents to pursue careers in subspecialty medicine. Some solutions include creating rotations that promote more contact with subspecialists and physician-scientists, creating clinician-educator tracks within fellowship programs, and appointing subspecialists to internal medicine residency leadership positions. We need more rigorous research to track the trends and implications of the generalist-specialist balance of inpatient ward teams on resident career choices, and learn what interventions affect those choices.
Zender, Chad A; Clancy, Kate; Melki, Sami; Li, Shawn; Fowler, Nicole
To assess the impact of a microvascular head and neck (H&N) fellowship on senior residents' surgical experience. Retrospective review of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-generated operative case log reports, retrospective chart review, and electronic survey. A retrospective review of one institution's residents' H&N operative case logs and free flap operative reports was performed to determine changes in key indicator cases (KICs) after the addition of a H&N fellowship. An electronic survey was distributed to senior residents at all U.S. otolaryngology residency programs to determine residents' perceptions of a H&N fellow's impact on their surgical experience. An electronic survey was distributed to senior medical students applying to surgical residencies to explore the perceived impact that a fellowship has on the desirability of a residency program. The average number of each postgraduate year (PGY)5's H&N KIC before and after the addition of the fellowship were: parotidectomy, 19 versus 17.8; neck dissection, 33.2 versus 40.6; oral cavity resection, 15.3 versus 12.6; thyroid/parathyroid, 45.5 versus 45.6; and flaps/grafts, 56.7 versus 42. PGY5 participation as first assistant in free flaps dropped from 78% to 17%; however, residents still participated in some aspect of 45% of the cases. Seventy percent of senior residents reported a positive perception of the H&N fellow on their H&N operative experience. Eighty-nine percent of senior medical student respondents reported a nonnegative perception of a fellowship in their applied field. The addition of a H&N fellowship did not decrease senior residents' H&N KIC, and most senior residents at programs with fellowships report that the fellow has a positive impact on their H&N operative experience. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:52-56, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.
Warrington, Steven J; Beeson, Michael S; Fire, Frank L
Emergency medicine residents use simulation training for many reasons, such as gaining experience with critically ill patients and becoming familiar with disease processes. Residents frequently criticize simulation training using current high-fidelity mannequins due to the poor quality of physical exam findings present, such as auscultatory findings, as it may lead them down an alternate diagnostic or therapeutic pathway. Recently wireless remote programmed stethoscopes (simulation stethoscopes) have been developed that allow wireless transmission of any sound to a stethoscope receiver, which improves the fidelity of a physical examination and the simulation case. Following institutional review committee approval, 14 PGY1-3 emergency medicine residents were assessed during 2 simulation-based cases using pre-defined scoring anchors on multiple actions, such as communication skills and treatment decisions (Appendix 1). Each case involved a patient presenting with dyspnea requiring management based off physical examination findings. One case was a patient with exacerbation of heart failure, while the other was a patient with a tension pneumothorax. Each resident was randomized into a case associated with the simulation stethoscope. Following the cases residents were asked to fill out an evaluation questionnaire. Residents perceived the most realistic physical exam findings on those associated with the case using the simulation stethoscope (13/14, 93%). Residents also preferred the simulation stethoscope as an adjunct to the case (13/14, 93%), and they rated the simulation stethoscope case to have significantly more realistic auscultatory findings (4.4/5 vs. 3.0/5 difference of means 1.4, p=0.0007). Average scores of residents were significantly better in the simulation stethoscope-associated case (2.5/3 vs. 2.3/3 difference of means 0.2, p=0.04). There was no considerable difference in the total time taken per case. A simulation stethoscope may be a useful adjunct to
Steven J Warrington
Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medicine residents use simulation training for many reasons, such as gaining experience with critically ill patients and becoming familiar with disease processes. Residents frequently criticize simulation training using current high-fidelity mannequins due to the poor quality of physical exam findings present, such as auscultatory findings, as it may lead them down an alternate diagnostic or therapeutic pathway. Recently wireless remote programmed stethoscopes (simulation stethoscopes have been developed that allow wireless transmission of any sound to a stethoscope receiver, which improves the fidelity of a physical examination and the simulation case. Methods: Following institutional review committee approval, 14 PGY1-3 emergency medicine residents were assessed during 2 simulation-based cases using pre-defined scoring anchors on multiple actions, such as communication skills and treatment decisions (Appendix 1. Each case involved a patient presenting with dyspnea requiring management based off physical examination findings. One case was a patient with exacerbation of heart failure, while the other was a patient with a tension pneumothorax. Each resident was randomized into a case associated with the simulation stethoscope. Following the cases residents were asked to fill out an evaluation questionnaire. Results: Residents perceived the most realistic physical exam findings on those associated with the case using the simulation stethoscope (13/14, 93%. Residents also preferred the simulation stethoscope as an adjunct to the case (13/14, 93%, and they rated the simulation stethoscope case to have significantly more realistic auscultatory findings (4.4/5 vs. 3.0/5 difference of means 1.4, P = 0.0007. Average scores of residents were significantly better in the simulation stethoscope-associated case (2.5/3 vs. 2.3/3 difference of means 0.2, P = 0.04. There was no considerable difference in the total time taken per case
Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Ailani, Jessica; Levin, Morris; Friedman, Deborah I; Dodick, David W
To survey neurology residency program directors (PDs) on trainee exposure, supervision, and credentialing in procedures widely utilized in headache medicine. Clinic-based procedures have assumed a prominent role in headache therapy. Headache fellows obtain procedural competence, but reliance on fellowship-trained neurologists cannot match the population eligible for treatments. The inclusion of educational modules and mechanisms for credentialing trainees pursuing procedural competence in residency curricula at individual programs is not known. A web-based survey of US neurology residency PDs was designed by the American Headache Society (AHS) procedural special interest section in collaboration with AHS and American Academy of Neurology's Headache and Facial Pain section leadership. The survey addressed exposure, training, and credentialing in: (1) onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) injections, (2) extracranial peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs), and (3) trigger point injections (TPIs). Fifty-five PDs (42.6%) completed the survey. Compared to noncompleters, survey completers were more likely to feature headache fellowships at their institutions (38.2% vs 10.8%, P=0.0002). High exposure (onabotA=90.9%, PNBs=80.0%, TPIs=70.9%) usually featured hands-on patient instruction (66.2%) and lectures (55.7%). Supervised performance rates were high (onabotA=65.5%, PNBs=60.0%, TPIs=52.7%), usually in continuity clinic (60.0%) or headache elective (50.9%). Headache specialists (69.1%) or general neurology (32.7%) faculty most commonly trained residents. Formal credentialing was uncommon (16.4-18.2%), mostly by documenting supervised procedures (25.5%). Only 27.3% of programs permitted trainees to perform procedures independently. Most PDs felt procedural exposure (80.0-90.9%) and competence (50.9-56.4%) by all trainees was important. Resident exposure to procedures for headache is high, but credentialing mechanisms, while desired by most PDs, are not generally in place. Implementation
Full Text Available Samuel N Dubin,1,* Ian T Nolan,1,* Carl G Streed Jr,2 Richard E Greene,3 Asa E Radix,4 Shane D Morrison5 1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, 2Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, 3Department of Internal Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, 4Callen-Lorde Community Health Center, New York, NY, 5Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: A growing body of research continues to elucidate health inequities experienced by transgender individuals and further underscores the need for medical providers to be appropriately trained to deliver care to this population. Medical education in transgender health can empower physicians to identify and change the systemic barriers to care that cause transgender health inequities as well as improve knowledge about transgender-specific care. Methods: We conducted structured searches of five databases to identify literature related to medical education and transgender health. Of the 1272 papers reviewed, 119 papers were deemed relevant to predefined criteria, medical education, and transgender health topics. Citation tracking was conducted on the 119 papers using Scopus to identify an additional 12 relevant citations (a total of 131 papers. Searches were completed on October 15, 2017 and updated on December 11, 2017. Results: Transgender health has yet to gain widespread curricular exposure, but efforts toward incorporating transgender health into both undergraduate and graduate medical educations are nascent. There is no consensus on the exact educational interventions that should be used to address transgender health. Barriers to increased transgender health exposure include limited curricular time, lack of topic-specific competency among faculty, and underwhelming institutional support. All published
Ahmed, Hesham M; Gale, Stephen C; Tinti, Meredith S; Shiroff, Adam M; Macias, Aitor C; Rhodes, Stancie C; Defreese, Marissa A; Gracias, Vicente H
institution, respectively. This improved for the classes of 2010 and 2011 to 63% and 68%, respectively, after ESS creation. An ESS rotation is becoming essential in large teaching hospitals by helping to fulfill ACGME requirements and by providing emergent general surgical skills an efficient and well-supervised academic environment. Movement toward concentrating EGS on a single service can enhance resident education and may decrease the need to supplement certain aspects of general surgery education with away rotations.
Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.
Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…
Guyatt, G H; Cook, D J; Griffith, L; Walter, S D; Risdon, C; Liutkus, J
To explore postgraduate medical trainees' attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language. Self-administered questionnaire. Seven residency training programs at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents in the programs, 186 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 82.7%. Men and women were equally represented among the respondents. Categorization of attitudes about the use of language as gender-inclusive or gender-exclusive; characteristics predicting a gender-inclusive attitude. Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (0.90) supported the existence of a construct related to attitudes about language use, the poles of which were categorized as gender-inclusive and gender-exclusive. The authors classified residents with respect to their attitudes to language use from their responses to the questionnaire. In univariate analyses, sex, residency program and country of graduation significantly predicted a gender-inclusive attitude (p inclusive attitudes, whereas residents in surgery and anesthesia had the most gender-exclusive attitudes. Residents' values are reflected in the language they choose to use. Language use may provide an index of underlying attitudes that may create hostile environments for female trainees.
Failor, Erin; Bowdle, Andrew; Jelacic, Srdjan; Togashi, Kei
Demonstrate the feasibility of using the AirSim Bronchi airway simulator to teach residents how to manage lung isolation with double-lumen endotracheal tubes and bronchial blockers and evaluate their performance with a detailed checklist. Prospective observational study. University anesthesiology residency training program. Anesthesiology residents taking a cardiothoracic anesthesiology rotation. Residents were instructed in 7 tasks using the AirSim Bronchi: The use of the fiberoptic bronchoscope, methods for placing left and right double-lumen endotracheal tubes and 3 bronchial blockers (Univent, Arndt, and Cohen), and application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the unventilated lung. Two to 3 weeks later, checklists and a detailed scoring system were used to assess performance. Residents rated the curriculum and their own confidence in performing the tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Thirteen residents completed the curriculum. Their median Likert scale ratings of the curriculum based on a questionnaire with 6 items ranged from 4 to 5 of 5. Resident confidence scores for each lung isolation technique improved after the simulation training, with the median gain ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Likert levels depending on the task. The largest improvement occurred with the bronchial blockers (psimulator in a novel simulation curriculum to teach lung-isolation techniques to anesthesiology residents and evaluated performance using a detailed checklist scoring system. This curriculum is a promising educational tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Linda; Weston, W Wayne; Hillier, Loretta; Archibald, Douglas; Lee, Joseph
Family physicians often find themselves inadequately prepared to manage dementia. This article describes the curriculum for a resident training intervention in Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinics (PCCMC), outlines its underlying educational principles, and examines its impact on residents' ability to provide dementia care. PCCMCs are family physician-led interprofessional clinic teams that provide evidence-informed comprehensive assessment and management of memory concerns. Within PCCMCs residents learn to apply a structured approach to assessment, diagnosis, and management; training consists of a tutorial covering various topics related to dementia followed by work-based learning within the clinic. Significantly more residents who trained in PCCMCs (sample = 98), as compared to those in usual training programs (sample = 35), reported positive changes in knowledge, ability, and confidence in ability to assess and manage memory problems. The PCCMC training intervention for family medicine residents provides a significant opportunity for residents to learn about best clinical practices and interprofessional care needed for optimal dementia care integrated within primary care practice.
Scheepers, Renée A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H
Clinician-supervisors often work simultaneously as doctors and teachers. Supervisors who are more engaged for their teacher work are evaluated as better supervisors. Work engagement is affected by the work environment, yet the role of supervisors' personality traits is unclear. This study examined (i) the impact of supervisors' personality traits on work engagement in their doctors' and teachers' roles and (ii) how work engagement in both roles affects their teaching performance. Residents evaluated supervisors' teaching performance, using the validated System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities. Supervisors' reported work engagement in doctor and teacher roles separately using the validated Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Supervisors' personality traits were measured using the Big Five Inventory's five factor model covering conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability and openness. Overall, 549 (68%) residents and 636 (78%) supervisors participated. Conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness were positively associated with supervisors' engagement in their teacher work, which was subsequently positively associated with teaching performance. Conscientious, extraverted, and agreeable supervisors showed more engagement with their teacher work, which made them more likely to deliver adequate residency training. In addition to optimizing the work environment, faculty development and career planning could be tailor-made to fit supervisors' personality traits.
Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...
Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...
Coker, A J
Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic
Edwards, Janet P; Schofield, Adam; Paolucci, Elizabeth Oddone; Schieman, Colin; Kelly, Elizabeth; Servatyari, Ramin; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Grondin, Sean C
To identify core thoracic surgery procedures that require increased emphasis during thoracic surgery residency for residents to achieve operative independence and to compare the perspectives of residents and program directors in this regard. A modified Delphi process was used to create a survey that was distributed electronically to all Canadian thoracic surgery residents (12) and program directors (8) addressing the residents' ability to perform 19 core thoracic surgery procedures independently after the completion of residency. Residents were also questioned about the adequacy of their operative exposure to these 19 procedures during their residency training. A descriptive summary including calculations of frequencies and proportions was conducted. The perceptions of the 2 groups were then compared using the Fisher exact test employing a Bonferroni correction. The relationship between residents' operative exposure and their perceived operative ability was explored in the same fashion. The response rate was 100% for residents and program directors. No statistical differences were found between residents' and program directors' perceptions of residents' ability to perform the 19 core procedures independently. Both groups identified lung transplantation, first rib resection, and extrapleural pneumonectomy as procedures for which residents were not adequately prepared to perform independently. Residents' subjective ratings of operative exposure were in good agreement with their reported operative ability for 13 of 19 procedures. This study provides new insight into the perceptions of thoracic surgery residents and their program directors regarding operative ability. This study points to good agreement between residents and program directors regarding residents' surgical capabilities. This study provides information regarding potential weaknesses in thoracic surgery training, which may warrant an examination of the curricula of existing programs as well as a
Lacasse, Miriam; Théorêt, Johanne; Tessier, Sylvie; Arsenault, Louise
The CanMEDS-Family Medicine (CanMEDS-FM) framework defines the expected terminal enabling competencies (EC) for family medicine (FM) residency training in Canada. However, benchmarks throughout the 2-year program are not yet defined. This study aimed to identify expected time frames for achievement of the CanMEDS-FM competencies during FM residency training and create a developmental benchmarks scale for family medicine residency training. This 2011-2012 study followed a Delphi methodology. Selected faculty and clinical teachers identified, via questionnaire, the expected time of EC achievement from beginning of residency to one year in practice (0, 6, 12, […] 36 months). The 15-85th percentile intervals became the expected competency achievement interval. Content validity of the obtained benchmarks was assessed through a second Delphi round. The 1st and 2nd rounds were completed by 33 and 27 respondents, respectively. A developmental benchmarks scale was designed after the 1st round to illustrate expectations regarding achievement of each EC. The 2nd round (content validation) led to minor adjustments (1.9±2.7 months) of intervals for 44 of the 92 competencies, the others remaining unchanged. The Laval Developmental Benchmarks Scale for Family Medicine clarifies expectations regarding achievement of competencies throughout FM training. In a competency-based education system this now allows identification and management of outlying residents, both those excelling and needing remediation. Further research should focus on assessment of the scale reliability after pilot implementation in family medicine clinical teaching units at Laval University, and corroborate the established timeline in other sites.
Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...
Radiation oncology training in the United States: report from the Radiation Oncology Resident Training Working Group organized by the Society of Chairman of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP)
Purpose: In response to the major changes occurring in healthcare, medical education, and cancer research, SCAROP addressed issues related to post-graduate education that could enhance existing programs and complement the present system. Methods and Materials: SCAROP brought together a Working Group with a broad range of representatives organized in subcommittees to address: training, curriculum, and model building. Results: The Working Group emphasized the importance of training physicians with the necessary clinical, scientific, and analytical skills, and the need to provide expert radiation oncology services to patients throughout the United States. Opportunities currently exist for graduates in academic medicine, although there may be limited time and financial resources available to support academic pursuits. Conclusions: In the face of diminishing resources for training and education and the increased scope of knowledge required, a number of models for resident training are considered that can provide flexibility to complement the present system. This report is intended to initiate dialogue among the organizations responsible for radiation oncology resident education so that resident training can continually evolve to meet the needs of cancer patients and take advantage of opportunities for progress through innovative cancer care and research
Richards, Morgan K; McAteer, Jarod P; Drake, F Thurston; Goldin, Adam B; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Gow, Kenneth W
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created a shift in how many surgical diseases are treated. Examining the effect on resident operative experience provides valuable insight into trends that may be useful for restructuring the requirements of resident training. To evaluate changes in general surgery resident operative experience regarding MIS. Retrospective review of the frequency of MIS relative to open operations among general surgery residents using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for academic years 1993-1994 through 2011-2012. General surgery residency training among accredited programs in the United States. We analyzed the difference in the mean number of MIS techniques and corresponding open procedures across training periods using 2-tailed t tests with statistical significance set at P surgery has an increasingly prominent role in contemporary surgical therapy for many common diseases. The open approach, however, still predominates in all but 5 procedures. Residents today must become efficient at performing multiple techniques for a single procedure, which demands a broader skill set than in the past.
Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie
To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data regarding outpatient visits for RA...... patients between November 2013 and 2015 were extracted. The mean interval (day) between consultations, the nurse/physician visits ratio, and physician efficiency index (nurse/physician visits ratio × mean interval) for each senior and junior physicians were calculated. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints....../physician visits ratio (P = .01) and mean efficiency index (P = .04) of senior rheumatologists were significantly higher than that of junior physicians. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between physician postgraduate experience and physician efficiency index adjusted for DAS28 at baseline...
Horan, D L; Chapin, J; Klein, L; Schmidt, L A; Schulkin, J
To ascertain the current knowledge base and screening practices of obstetrician-gynecologists in the area of domestic violence. We mailed a survey to 189 ACOG Fellows who are members of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network. Questionnaires were also mailed to a random sample of 1250 nonmember Fellows. Obstetrician-gynecologists are aware of the nature of domestic violence and are familiar with common symptomatology that may be associated with domestic violence. For pregnant patients, 39% of respondents routinely screen at the first prenatal visit; 27% of respondents routinely screen nonpregnant patients at the initial visit. Screening is most likely to occur when the obstetrician-gynecologist suspects a patient is being abused, both during pregnancy (68%) and when the patient is not pregnant (72%). Only 30% of obstetrician-gynecologists received training on domestic violence during medical school; 37% received such instruction during residency training. The majority (67%) have received continuing education on the subject. Years since training and personal experiences with intimate-partner violence were associated with increased screening practices. Routine screening of all women for domestic violence has been recommended by ACOG for more than a decade. The majority of obstetrician-gynecologists screen both pregnant and nonpregnant patients when they suspect abuse. However, with universal screening, more female victims of violence can be identified and can receive needed services.
Satoi, Sohei; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Kawai, Manabu; Fujii, Tsutomu; Wada, Keita; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Sho, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Ippei; Hirano, Satoshi; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Unno, Michiaki; Yamaue, Hiroki; Kon, Masanori
The aim of the present study was to assess recent trends in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and the role of institutional standardization on the development of postoperative complications in 3,378 patients who underwent PD in Japan. Data were collected from 3,378 patients who underwent PD in 2006, 2010 and 2014 at 53 institutions. A standardized institution (SI) was defined as one that implements ≥7 of 13 quality initiatives according to departmental policy. There were 1,223 patients in the SI group and 2,155 in the non-SI group. Clinical parameters were compared over time, and between groups. Risk factors for morbidity and mortality were assessed by logistic regression analysis with a mixed-effects model. The number of patients who underwent PD in SIs increased from 16.5% in 2006 to 46.4% in 2014. The SI group experienced an improved process of care and a lower frequency of severe complications vs. the non-SI group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the SI group was associated with a lower incidence of delayed gastric emptying (odds ratio -0.499, P = 0.008) and incisional surgical site infection (odds ratio -0.999, P < 0.001). Standardization of care in PD may be important in reducing post-PD complications, and is a critical element for improving clinical outcomes. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
Seger, W; Sittaro, N-A; Lohse, R; Rabba, J
Empirical data, representative of the total population, are necessary for medico-actuarial risk calculations. Our study compares mortalities of long-term care (LTC) patients who are covered by statutory health insurance with regard to age and distribution of care levels when in home or institutional care with a special focus on whether rehabilitative care was performed. The data of 88,575 LTC patients were analyzed longitudinally for 10 years, using routine data analyses on the files of the German Federal Health Insurance fund (average observation period 2.5 years, a total of 221,625 observation years). The numbers of LTC patients and their care levels while in home or institutional care were calculated, as were any changes to another care level or discontinuation of LTC benefits (as a result of the need for care falling below the eligibility criteria for care leveI or to death) during 1-10 years after the onset of LTC, always with respect to whether rehabilitative care had taken place or not. For the evaluation of care factors an indicator was developed. Total mortality was found to decline and reactivation to increase considerably for LTC patients after rehabilitation, basically irrespective of their age or care level and in home or institutional care settings as well. Ten years after the onset of care, 30.7 % of the patients with rehabilitation were still in nursing care, 9.8 % were reactivated and 59.5 % deceased. In contrast, only 9.2 % were still in nursing care, 3.7 % reactivated and 87.1 % deceased without rehabilitation. These results are irrespective of age distribution, care level, and residence in home or institutional care settings. The care status of patients, measured by the percentage in reactivation, care level I-III, and death, substantially depends on age at onset and care level and in addition on rehabilitative procedures. Hypotheses for further research are outlined. Rehabilitation has a clear-cut potential for life extension as
Diffendorfer, James E.
The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles
Farver, Carol F; Smalling, Susan; Stoller, James K
Challenges in healthcare demand great leadership. In response, leadership training programs have been developed within academic medical centers, business schools, and healthcare organizations; however, we are unaware of any well-developed programs for physicians-in-training. To address this gap, we developed a two-day leadership development course for chief residents (CRs) at the Cleveland Clinic, framed around the concept of emotional intelligence. This paper describes our five-year experience with the CRs leadership program. Since inception, 105 CRs took the course; 81 (77%) completed before-and-after evaluations. Participants indicated that they had relatively little prior knowledge of the concepts that were presented and that the workshop greatly enhanced their familiarity with leadership competencies. Qualitative analysis of open-ended responses indicated that attendees valued the training, especially in conflict resolution and teamwork, and indicated specific action plans for applying these skills. Furthermore, the workshop spurred some participants to express plans to learn more about leadership competencies. This study extends prior experience in offering an emotional intelligence-based leadership workshop for CRs. Though the program is novel, further research is needed to more fully understand the impact of leadership training for CRs and for the institutions and patients they serve. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
... tell if my partner is abusive? Disagreements and arguments, even heated ones, are part of a normal ... patient, resources, and limitations unique to institution or type of practice, may be appropriate. Copyright August 2017 ...
Tarpley, Margaret J; Davidson, Mario A; Tarpley, John L
In 2002 and 2003 the ACGME Outcome Project (assessing residents based on competencies) and duty-hours restrictions were implemented. One strategy for assisting PDs in the increased workload was to hire nonphysician educators with training and experience in curriculum design, teaching techniques, adult learning theories, and research methods. This study sought to document prevalence and responsibilities of nonphysician educators. IRB approval was received for a two-part study. All 247 general surgery PDs were e-mailed the question, "Do you have a nonphysician educator as a member of your surgery education office?" Those who replied "yes" or volunteered "not currently but in the past" were e-mailed a link to an electronic survey concerning the role of the nonphysician educator. Residency training programs in general surgery. General surgery program directors. Of the 126 PDs who responded to the initial query, 37 said "yes" and 4 replied "not currently but in the past". Thirty-two PDs of the initial 41 respondents completed the survey. Significant findings included: 65% were hired in the last 6 years; faculty rank is held by 69%; and curriculum development was the most common responsibility but teaching, research, and administrative duties were often listed. PDs perceived that faculty, residents, and medical students had mostly positive attitudes towards nonphysician educators. The overall results seem to support the notion that nonphysician educators serve as vital members of the team. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.
Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.
When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities
... order requiring any domestic financial institution or group of domestic financial institutions in a... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...
Satterwhite, Thomas; Son, Ji; Carey, Joseph; Echo, Anthony; Spurling, Terry; Paro, John; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Chang, James; Lee, Gordon K
We previously reported results of our on-line microsurgery training program, showing that residents who had access to our website significantly improved their cognitive and technical skills. In this study, we report an objective means for expert evaluators to reliably rate trainees' technical skills under the microscope, with the use of our novel global rating scale. "Microsurgery Essentials" (http://smartmicrosurgery.com) is our on-line training curriculum. Residents were randomly divided into 2 groups: 1 group reviewed this online resource and the other did not. Pre- and post-tests consisted of videotaped microsurgical sessions in which the trainee performed "microsurgery" on 3 different models: latex glove, penrose drain, and the dorsal vessel of a chicken foot. The SMaRT (Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training) scale, consisting of 9 categories graded on a 5-point Likert scale, was used to assess the trainees. Results were analyzed with ANOVA and Student t test, with P less than 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Seventeen residents participated in the study. The SMaRT scale adequately differentiated the performance of more experienced senior residents (PGY-4 to PGY-6, total average score=3.43) from less experienced junior residents (PGY-1 to PGY-3, total average score=2.10, P0.05). Additionally, junior residents who had access to our website showed a significant increase in their graded technical performance by 0.7 points when compared to residents who did not have access to the website who showed an improvement of only 0.2 points (P=0.01). Our SMaRT scale is valid and reliable in assessing the microsurgical skills of residents and other trainees. Current trainees are more likely to use self-directed on-line education because of its easy accessibility and interactive format. Our global rating scale can help ensure residents are achieving appropriate technical milestones.
Starsoneck, Leslie; Ake, George
Children's exposure to domestic violence is well established as an adverse childhood experience (ACE). Much is known about the impact of this exposure, but efforts to ameliorate its effects are too often unsuccessful. Reconsidering our response requires a candid assessment of whether convening large and disparate systems leads to the best outcome. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Valuing women’s labour: Law, empowerment and human rights of migrant filipino domestic workers in Pakistan 11th Asian Law Institute International Conference Law in Asia: Balancing Tradition and Modernization
International labour migration has expanded across the globe and is no more confined to migration from Asia to Europe, Americas and oil rich Gulf countries. New regional migration patterns have emerged, creating new labour markets within countries in Asia. Domestic service is an informal labour sector where international labour migration is taking place. Historically, domestic service for others' households has remained a principal way of earning a living for women. Affluent families in the d...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
sexual harassment in residency training programs and the professional status of perpetrators. Through a literature review and a previous qualitative study we developed a self-administered questionnaire. Thirteen events that could be experienced by residents and ten possible perpetrators were described in the questionnaire. Residents were asked to record whether they had experienced these events, at least once, and who was responsible. This survey was distribuided among the residents from three hospitals of Buenos Aires city. A total of 322 residents answered the questionnaire (55% women 72% of whom worked in clinical programs, 22% in surgical programs, and 6% in diagnostic programs. Mistreatment was reported by 89% of the residents. On average each resident recorded 8 different episodes of mistreatment, such as being criticized for not completing administrative work (75%, being shouted at (64%, being humiliated in public (57%, sexual harassment (10%, being exposed to pornographic material without permission (7%, being hit or pushed (15%, suffering racial or religious discrimination (10%. The most common perpetrators were senior residents (26%, chief resident (19%, attending physicians (14%, and nurses (8%. Mistreatment and abuse are commonly experienced by residents in training programs. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to address this problem in the training environment.
Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara
Traditionally created to deal with the unfriendly domestic environment, business groups (BGs) are increasingly internationalizing. However, how BGs can reconcile their strictly domestic orientation with an international dimension still remains an open question. Drawing on arguments from...... organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...
Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...
Westmarland, Nicole; Thorlby, Katie; Wistow, Jane; Gadd, David
While domestic violence is high on the public policy agenda in the UK, successive reviews have highlighted policing problems. A recent HMIC report found domestic violence is not policed at the same level as other offences and identified a catalogue of policing failures that have a long history of recurrence. With domestic violence accounting for around a large proportion of violent crime incidents reported to the police, and the majority of all female homicides (Office for National Statistics...
Domestic violence, spouse abuse, and battering all refer to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate relationship. Domestic violence may take the form of physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is generally repeated, and often escalates within relationships. Most evidence indicates that domestic violence is predominantly perpetrated by men against women. Some evidence suggests that women are just as likely to use violence against male partners as men are...
Mihić Biljana D.
In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou
as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...... to animals in process of de-domestication. Secondly, the paper explores the implications of de-domestication for nature management, focusing on notions of naturalness and wildness. Finally, because the current division of ethical topics, with its dependence upon whether animals and nature are domesticated...
Vamanu, Dan V.
One term of reference for validly teaming up with Project RODOS (Real-Time-On-Line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies in Europe) is to institutionally - contribute research initiatives geared towards emulating the RODOS functions on novel conceptual pathways, expand system's coverage of issues that are relevant in a nuclear crisis management and bring in a domestic perspective on how the system may best perform in each and every national - i.e. legal, managerial, logistic and cultural environment. On this line, one reviews the approach taken in the IFIN-HH RODOS Group to address the challenge, as well a number of representative outputs. These include: i) A phase-one, pre-RODOS, period (1990 - 1994), involving topical field orientation, feasibility demonstrations and expertise acquisition by hands-on training in environmental radiology modeling and DSS code development, the resulting products - codes in the 'APUD' and 'ACA-IFA' family, including custom versions developed by appointment of the IAEA Safety Section and AECL-Research, Ontario, Canada - being favourably reviewed by the NEA/OECD Data Bank; ii) A phase-two, upgrading and consolidation period (1994 -1996), assisted by the IAEA fellowship system and the US Government via the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Washington, D.C, having on record an effective participation in the development of the US NRC, EPA, and DOE's 'FRMAC Assessment Manual - The Federal manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency', and the 'RTM-95 International Technical Response Manual', and the research initiative of developing a software support for the manuals' implementation - the codes 'ROBOT' (Rule-Oriented Basic Operational Tool); iii) A phase-three period (1996 - ), evolving within the RODOS framework and featuring, inter alia: (a) the application of the ROBOT concept in the development of a standalone software platform, code-named NOTEPAD for DSS support in field operations, nuclear accident
Crawford, Ian; Smith, Stephen; Webb, Steven.
This publication traces the background to the imposition of VAT on domestic energy, and considers the current patterns of spending. Results of a simulation of the effects of imposition of 17.5% VAT on domestic fuels are presented, and policy measures to offset the impact on poorer households are considered. (UK)
Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...
A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)
Parmar, Alpa; Sampson, Alice
This paper critiques the approach of identifying ‘best practice’ projects and discusses the problem with simply transferring projects into different contexts. The argument is illustrated by explaining the evaluation process of three domestic violence projects which all had the same aim, which was to reduce domestic violence. The evaluated projects all delivered advocacy programmes and were located in disadvantaged areas in the United Kingdom. A more suitable evaluation approach is proposed wh...
... 3224 TTD You CAN do something about domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of many behaviors directed ... violence. Look in the Yellow Pages under “domestic violence help,” “domestic violence shelters,” “human services organizations,” or “crisis intervention” ...
Arnoldo Oscar, Delgado
Full Text Available Since its installation in our country, domestic development theory and practice have been object of diverse assimilation that, at times, contributed to dilute an essential feature of those clusters of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs that founded the domestic interest in 1970’s: the continuous innovation of products and production processes, possible only by the imprint of cultural factors in the establishment of a socio-institutional environment self-regulated to benefit it. The stage begun in 2003 seems to be at a similar risk: in order to reverse the terrible consequences of the previous decade and achieving a growth with an inclusion, now it assimilates into the social economy trying to go beyond mere social welfares and form a socio/productive mesh based on solidarity and cooperation ties. Beyond the legitimacy of the pose, the precariousness of the underlying setting demonstrates a gap that still separates us from the ideal model, requiring from us to agree seriously with the medium and long term state policy to promote the territorial development according to the contemporary society requirements.
Acceptability and Impact of a Required Palliative Care Rotation with Prerotation and Postrotation Observed Simulated Clinical Experience during Internal Medicine Residency Training on Primary Palliative Communication Skills.
Vergo, Maxwell T; Sachs, Sharona; MacMartin, Meredith A; Kirkland, Kathryn B; Cullinan, Amelia M; Stephens, Lisa A
Improving communication training for primary palliative care using a required palliative care rotation for internal medicine (IM) residents has not been assessed. To assess skills acquisition and acceptability for IM residents not selecting an elective. A consecutive, single-arm cohort underwent preobjective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with learner-centric feedback, two weeks of clinical experience, and finally a post-OSCE to crystallize learner-centric take home points. IM second year residents from Dartmouth-Hitchcock were exposed to a required experiential palliative care rotation. Pre- and post-OSCE using a standardized score card for behavioral skills, including patient-centered interviewing, discussing goals of care/code status, and responding to emotion, as well as a confidential mixed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the experience. Twelve residents were included in the educational program (two were excluded because of shortened experiences) and showed statistically significant improvements in overall communication and more specifically in discussing code status and responding to emotions. General patient-centered interviewing skills were not significantly improved, but prerotation scores reflected pre-existing competency in this domain. Residents viewed the observed simulated clinical experience (OSCE) and required rotation as positive experiences, but wished for more opportunities to practice communication skills in real clinical encounters. A required palliative care experiential rotation flanked by OSCEs at our institution improved the acquisition of primary palliative care communication skills similarly to other nonclinical educational platforms, but may better meet the needs of the resident and faculty as well as address all required ACGME milestones.
Resultados da cirurgia para otospongiose com dois tipos de prótese em procedimentos realizados por residentes Results of stapes surgery for otosclerosis with two kinds of prothesis in residency training
Full Text Available A cirurgia do estapédio é um dos tratamentos indicados para a melhora da surdez condutiva secundária à otospongiose. O procedimento requer habilidade e experiência do cirurgião e faz parte do treinamento durante a residência médica. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar qual tipo de prótese (teflon ou mista de metal e aço apresenta melhores os resultados auditivos em cirurgias realizadas por residentes e a incidência de complicações. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas retrospectivamente 189 intervenções cirúrgicas que tiveram participação ativa de residentes, comparando-se os dois tipos de prótese utilizados. Os resultados audiométricos foram analisados conforme orientação do Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium e segundo o Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots. RESULTADOS: O gap aéreo-ósseo diminuiu em média 21,90 dB (pStapes surgery is one of the approaches indicated to treat conductive hearing loss secondary to otosclerosis. The procedures requires skill and experience from the surgeon and is part of medical residency training. AIMS: To assess which type of prosthesis (Teflon or metal/steel presents the best results in surgeries performed by residents and the incidence of complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we retrospectively assessed 189 interventions that counted on the active participation of resident physicians, and we compared the two types of prosthesis used. Audiometric results were analyzed following the guidelines from the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium and also according to the Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots. RESULTS: Bone-air gap reduced in an average value of 21.90 dB (p<0.05 after the surgery in the group that received the Teflon prosthesis and 21.37 dB (p<0.05 in the group that received the mixed prosthesis, and gain in SRI was of 22.33 and 26.10 dB (p<0.05, and the air-bone gap was below 20 dB in 80.6% and 85.04%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We did not see differences in the audiometry and in the incidence of
Sandøe, Peter; Nørspang, Annika Patursson; Forkman, Björn
The way in which domestic cats are kept and bred has changed dramatically over the last two centuries. Notably, a significant number of cats are kept indoors, most of them are neutered and many are selectively bred. This likely has consequences for their welfare. A few studies link housing, neuter......; that a smaller proportion of the free-roaming cats suffered from the behavioural problems investigated; and that entire cats had significantly more behavioural problems than neutered cats. Finally, significantly more purebred cats than domestic shorthair cats were found to have diseases. Being confined, being...
Guita Grin Debert
Full Text Available Alternative conflict resolution based on conciliation have been identified as a possible response to problems of access to courts deriving from the numbers, costs and length of proceedings in the Brazilian's judicial system. This paper focuses on these alternative forms of justice, regarding domestic violence. Using ethnographic studies of Women's Police Stations and at Small Claim Courts, we argue that conciliation can be very different in these two institutions of the judicial system. The contrasts between moral values and the symbols used in different forms by these two institutions offer elements that can further be our understanding of the context in which Maria da Penha Law was created on August 17th of 2006. With the promulgation of this law, cases of domestic violence against women were excluded from Small Claim Courts in Brazil.
Frans van Vught
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that both internal and external pressures and conditions urge contemporary higher education institutions to carefully think through their institutional profiles positions in domestic and global higher education contexts. We subsequently analyse strategic positioning from the strategic management literature and offer four tools — mapping, multi-dimensional ranking, benchmarking and degree profiling — to assist higher education institutions in their profiling and positioning strategies.
Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.
The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms
Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile
A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are
Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'
Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson
Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.
Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...
This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.
Durand, C.; Bergey, J.L.
In the management of domestic waste, some incoherencies persist. The tax on waste is always 20.6% instead of 5.5% for water or transport. The price of buying back electric power by Electricite de France is too low according to the appreciation of the cogeneration club. Regarding to the sell of stream to industrial, stream buyers are not always reliable, no enough guarantee are given by them to allow to cogeneration club to invest. (N.C.)
The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...
Zis, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Artemiadis, Artemios K
Work engagement, defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption, can ameliorate patient care and reduce medical errors. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate work engagement among neurology residents in the region of Attica, Greece. In total, 113 residents participated in this study. Demographic and work-related characteristics, as well as emotional exhaustion and personality traits (neuroticism), were examined via an anonymous questionnaire. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The study sample had a mean age of 34.6 ± 3.6 years, ranging from 26 to 45 years. Sixty-two (54.9%) participants were women and 45 (39.8%) were married. After adjusting for sex, emotional exhaustion, and neuroticism, the main factors associated with work engagement were autonomy and chances for professional development. Providing more chances for trainees' professional development as well as allowing for and supporting greater job autonomy may improve work engagement during neurology training. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Sørensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh
Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk...... that the residents benefit from the intervention because they experienced more optimal challenges than before the intervention. However, the matching of resident and case seems to work against the established culture in the department: The daily work has for many years been organized so that senior doctors have...... their “own” patients and they do not “share” patients with residents. Thus the patients were accustomed to have their “own” specialist doctor. Conclusion: The intervention generated optimal challenges, but revealed the need for more team-based organization of senior doctors and residents’ working...
... TENANT PARTICIPATION AND TENANT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING Tenant Participation § 964.140 Resident... Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies, programs... colleges, vocational schools; and (4) HUD and other Federal agencies and other local public, private and...
Full Text Available The article examines the domestic experience in government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier.Compared the degree of economic freedom in Ukraine. The emphasis is on the need to develop a national strategy of institutional development of domestic entrepreneurship.
Wells, Deborah L
The domestic dog is one of the most commonly owned, and widely utilized, animals in today's society. This paper provides an overview of research that has explored the relationship between the domestic dog and human well-being. The article initially concentrates on the value of dogs for physical health in humans, exploring the evidence that this species can prevent us from becoming ill, facilitate our recovery from ill-health, and even serve as an early warning system for certain types of underlying ailment including cancer, oncoming seizures and hypoglycaemia. The paper then examines the relationship between dogs and psychological health in humans, exploring the ability of this species to aid the disabled and serve as a therapist to those in institutional settings such as hospitals, residential homes and prisons. Weaknesses in the existing research in this area are highlighted throughout the article. Taken together, the studies reviewed suggest that dogs can have prophylactic and therapeutic value for people.
Shorrock, L D; Henderson, G [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom); Bown, J H.F. [NBA Tectonics, London (United Kingdom)
The purpose of this publication to gather together in one volume some of the more important United Kingdom data on domestic energy and the measures that have been taken to improve the efficiency with which it is used. The introductory section discusses the main underlying trends affecting domestic energy use. It is followed by six main sections: Section 1 deals with fuel prices and household expenditure on energy. Section 2 is concerned with basic statistics on population, households and the housing stock (age, tenure, dwelling type and regional distribution). Section 3 presents information on the uptake of insulation measures in the housing stock. Section 4 presents information on changes to the housing stock heat loss, heating systems, temperatures and energy use. This section looks at what would have happened to the energy use of the housing stock if energy efficiency improvements had not been introduced. Section 4 contains the main conclusions on the effectiveness of insulation, improvements in efficiency and the rising standards of service achieved within the housing stock. Section 5 draws together the topics discussed in section 4 to illustrate the individual effects of rising levels of service, external temperature variations, improved insulation and improved heating efficiency, and how these combine to determine domestic section energy consumption. Section 6 considers the fuels used to meet the energy demand of the housing stock and the carbon dioxide emissions which result from this fuel use. The primary energy consumption associated with the energy delivered to the housing stock is also addressed in this section. A final energy balance diagram draws together the various topics discussed in the report by showing the main energy flows related to the housing stock. (author)
Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Pawłowska-Muc, Agnieszka Konstancja; Pilewska-Kozak, Anna Bogusława; Stadnicka, Grażyna; Pałucka, Klaudia
Łepecka-Klusek Celina, Pawłowska-Muc Agnieszka Konstancja, Pilewska‑Kozak Anna Bogusława, Stadnicka Grażyna, Pałucka Klaudia. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):169-182. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18420 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A169-182 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/564476 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18420 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. A...
Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing
Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.
Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan
Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...
This essay considers the potential of histories of transnational movements of people, and the erosion of boundaries between British domestic and imperial history, to expand and revise the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century British domestic life and work. Literatures on migration demonstrate how far the history of home involves transnational themes, including the recruitment of migrants and refugees who crossed national borders to do domestic work—in Britain and empire—and their deve...
Full Text Available The number of domestic violence cases that are reported officially in Kosovo does not represent the real situation. The cases that are reported do not get the expected support by the relevant institutions. The concerning situation on the lack of protection for the domestic violence victims keeps being reported by Non-governmental organizations that work on protection of women’s rights. The paper is based on the literature review, statistical data, surveys, and interviews. The results show women hesitate to report the violence against them. The relevant institutions, mainly police and the courts do not implement the dispositions of the applicable laws accordingly to ensure protection of the domestic violence victims. In few cases, the protection order petitions were neglected, and this negligence in one of the cases resulted having the perpetrator kill the victim. It shows that there should be a stricter monitoring of implementation of the applicable laws and not permit the cultural approach toward domestic violence be part of the institutions and have impact in their decisions. That would directly enable Kosovo society change the perception and raise the awareness that the perpetrators of the domestic violence shall get the relevant punishment.
At the time of the dawn of agriculture, plant domestication was very slow. As agriculture progressed, however, domestication began to evolve faster and reached its highest point with the advent of plant breeders who played a very important role in solving the world food problem. One of the fastest moving strategies was a better exploitation of genetic diversity, both natural and induced. However, intensive plant breeding activity caused a heavy fall in genetic variability. Gene banks then provided a further tool for modern agriculture, specifically to preserve genetic resources and to help breeders to further domesticate important crops and to introduce and domesticate new species. (author). 3 refs
Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana
Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel
to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...
Agrawal, Ajay [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)
Alternate fuels offer unique challenges and opportunities as energy source for power generation, vehicular transportation, and industrial applications. Institute for Sustainable Energy (ISE) at UA conducts innovative research to utilize the complex mix of domestically-produced alternate fuels to achieve low-emissions, high energy-efficiency, and fuel-flexibility. ISE also provides educational and advancement opportunities to students and researchers in the energy field. Basic research probing the physics and chemistry of alternative fuels has generated practical concepts investigated in a burner and engine test platforms.
Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC Â» Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI
Doss, Daniel Adrian; Henley, Russ; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Hong, Qiuqi; Miller, Lauren
The authors examined students' perceptions of plagiarism from a higher education teaching institution within the U.S. southeast. This study employed a five-point Likert-scale to examine differences of perceptions between domestic versus international students. Statistically significant outcomes were observed regarding the notions that plagiarism…
The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.
Bunn, Mikiko Yazawa; Higa, Nicole A; Parker, Willie J; Kaneshiro, Bliss
Domestic violence is an important health concern that has been shown to have adverse effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of prenatal screening for domestic violence in a hospital-based resident clinic setting with screening practices in private obstetric offices in Honolulu, Hawai'i and to explore physician attitudes towards domestic violence screening during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was conducted at Queen's Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawai'i in women who delivered between 2003 and 2004. A 6 item written survey was also given to all attending and resident physicians with obstetric privileges. Descriptive statistics including frequency measures were generated and chi square tests were used to compare categorical variables. A total of 270 charts were reviewed. There was a statistically significant difference (p obstetric practices (39.3 percent) that were screened for domestic violence. While the majority of respondents (77.6%) to the domestic violence survey were aware that the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends domestic violence screening in pregnancy most respondents (69.0 percent) indicated that they "never or rarely" screened their patients for domestic violence. Despite professional recommendations and an awareness of these recommendations, between 2003 and 2004, routine prenatal screening for domestic violence was markedly lacking for patients in this study population.
Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....
Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung
The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables
Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables.
Uranium exploration in the United States reached its alltime high in 1978 when the chief exploration indicator, surface drilling, totaled 47 million feet. In 1979, however, total drilling declined to 41 million feet, and during the first 8 months of 1980 the trend continued, as surface drilling was 27% less than for the same period in 1979. The total drilling for 1980 now is expected to be below 30 million feet, far less than the 39.4 million feet planned by industry at the beginning of the year. Falling uranium prices, the uncertainties of future uranium demand, rising costs, and the possibility of stiff foreign competition are the prime causes for the current reduction in domestic uranium exploration. Uranium exploration in the United States continues to be concentrated in the vicinity of major producing areas such as the San Juan Basin, Wyoming Basins, Texas Coastal Plain, Paradox Basin, and northeastern Washington, and in areas of recent discoveries including the Henry Mountains, Utah, the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon, and central Colorado. The distributions, by location, of total surface drilling for 1979 and the first half of 1980 are presented
.... Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first
Fürstenberg, Dr Kai
Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.
García, M E; Blanco, J L
In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.
Full Text Available A violência doméstica é o uso da força entre parceiros que vivem juntos como um casal. A maioria é uma forma de gestão de conflitos conhecida como autoajuda: o tratamento de uma queixa com agressão. Em Violência doméstica e tempo social eu introduzo dois princípios de violência doméstica que explicam 1 quais casais têm mais violência e 2 o que causa sua violência. O primeiro princípio - a violência doméstica é uma função direta da distância doméstica – explica por que algumas estruturas domésticas (como “patriarquias frias” têm mais violência do que outras (como “democracias estreitas”. O segundo princípio – a violência doméstica é uma função direta do movimento do tempo doméstico – explica casos particulares de violência doméstica com mudanças (como diminuição da intimidade ou aumento da desigualdade nas relações domésticas onde elas ocorrem. Esses princípios explicam a violência doméstica nas sociedades tradicionais e modernas, entre homens e mulheres, e em casais heterossexuais e do mesmo sexo. Domestic violence is the use of force between partners who live together as a couple. Most is a form of conflict management known as self-help: the handling of a grievance with aggression. Here I introduce two principles of domestic violence that explain 1 which couples have more violence and 2 what causes their violence. The first principle – domestic violence is a direct function of domestic distance – explains why some domestic structures (such as “cold patriarchies” have more violence than others (such as “close democracies”. The second principle – domestic violence is a direct function of the movement of domestic time – explains particular cases of domestic violence with changes (such as decreases of intimacy or increases of inequality in the domestic relationships where they occur. These principles explain domestic violence in traditional and modern societies, by men and
Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....
The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)
..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...
This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media i...... their traditional gender roles.......This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media...... into their daily lives and routines and that increased media access has opened up the home, turned the domestic space from a secluded place to a connected space, where women can get input from, connect and interact with the world beyond their immediate surrounding, while remaining at home concurrently fulfilling...
A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.
Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain
Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.
Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J
Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell
and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....
In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....
...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
Cherawaty Thalib, Mutia
This study was conducted with an empirical juridical approach. The juridical approach was done by identifying community norms and legal policy related to the domestic workers existence, while the empirical approach was done by observing social phenomenon of housemaid and local culture that underlies the working relationship between employer and domestic workers (housemaid). In-depth interviews and group discussions were done to obtain the data. The result shows that the domestic workers existence in Gorontalo cannot be relied upon the domestic service market because it is increasingly eroded by socio-cultural changes that evolve in the rapid rise society awareness of human rights and technological development. Huyula’s culture values, timoa, ambu, bilohe, and tolianga remain as survival strategies for some domestic workers who last longer with their work. For new domestic workers, the bargaining position is increasingly high with the poor quality of work. Some of the rural workers who still hold the principle of “dila biasa” (uncustomary principle), moomu (unwilling), moolito / moqolito (shame), affect their resilience in working as domestic workers. On the other hand, domestic work relations as a social institution is not supported by strong instruments like the government. Consequently, it needs an integrated thinking and step by step designing of the form of protection for domestic workers based on the local culture values of Gorontalo people.
... REPORTING, PROCEDURES AND PENALTIES REGULATIONS Reports § 501.604 Reports by U.S. financial institutions on rejected funds transfers. (a) Who must report. Any financial institution that rejects a funds transfer... institution, domestic bank, financial institution or U.S. financial institution, as those terms are defined in...
Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt
In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....
Objective: The purpose of this study; by collecting official data from the Ministry of Justice, analysing trends in time and differences among cities and regions. Method: Criminal data was taken from the criminal courts via the Ministry of Justice between 2008 and 2011. Population data was obtained for the Turkish statistical Institute. The data obtained in this context, was analysed and presented with Geographic Information System (GIS). Results: The highest prevalence of domestic vi...
Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese
Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...
Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.
Increased international student mobility worldwide necessitates studying its impact on students, particularly for domestic students who have been neglected in research but who are greater in number than mobile students. It is also important that higher education institutions facilitate domestic students' relationships with international students…
Rac, R; Crisp, C S
The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.
Levis, C.; Flores, Bernardo; Moreira, Priscilla; Luize, Bruno G.; Alves, Rubana; Franco-Moraes, Juliano; Lins, Juliana; Konings, Evelien; Pena Claros, M.; Bongers, F.; Costa, Flavia; Clement, Charles
For millennia, Amazonian peoples have managed forest resources, modifying the natural environment in subtle and persistent ways. Legacies of past human occupation are striking near archaeological sites, yet we still lack a clear picture of how human management practices resulted in the domestication
Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.
This paper describes the main results of a research project with the objective of reducing the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators by increasing the efficiency of the refrigeration system. The improvement of the system efficiency was to be obtained by:1) Introducing continuous operation ...
Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri
Abstract Objective To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of domestic violence education in improving physicians’ knowledge, recognition, and management of abused women. Data sources The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and November 1, 2012. This search was supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles using a combined text-word and MeSH-heading search strategy. Study selection Randomized controlled trials were selected that used educational interventions among physicians and provided data on the effects of the interventions. Synthesis Nine randomized controlled trials were included that described different educational approaches with various outcome measures. Three studies examined the effects of educational interventions among postgraduate trainee physicians and found an increase in knowledge but no change in behaviour with regard to identifying victims of domestic violence. Six studies examined educational interventions for practising physicians. Three of these studies used multifaceted physician training that combined education with system support interventions to change physician behaviour, such as increasing general awareness of domestic violence with brochures and posters, providing aids to remind physicians how to identify victims, facilitating physician access to victim support services, and providing audits and feedback. Multifaceted educational interventions included interactive workshops, Web-based learning, and experiential training. Another study used focus-group discussions and training, and showed improved domestic violence reporting among physicians. The remaining 2 studies showed improved perceptions of practising physicians’ self-efficacy using problem-based online learning. Conclusion It was difficult to determine the most effective educational strategy, as the educational interventions and the outcome measures varied
The paper focuses on the foreign debt management of the Hungarian and Slovenian policy makers in the global financial markets. The proposed argument combines a theoretical refinement of international financial markets as locally embedded social relations with a domestically oriented institutional analysis of foreign debt management. I argue that in order to understand the differences between the two states’ debt management strategies, it is important to look at the institutional differences w...
Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole
The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary...
... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As ... each year. This kind of violence is called domestic violence or intimate partner violence. The US Department of ...
Wright, Lynn M.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The domestic terrorist threat in the United States is active and complex, with ongoing threats from violent left- and right-wing extremist groups, and radicalization and recruitment efforts by international terrorist groups. In response, domestic intelligence agencies, at all levels of government, have instituted reforms and improvements since 9/11, but there are still gaps in information-sharing and community engagement. For example, ...
This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...
Lombardo, Joesph [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment’s intention is to purchase a multi-purpose computer cluster in support of the Performance Assessment Institute (PA Institute). The PA Institute will serve as a research consortium located in Las Vegas Nevada with membership that includes: national laboratories, universities, industry partners, and domestic and international governments. This center will provide a one-of-a-kind centralized facility for the accumulation of information for use by Institutions of Higher Learning, the U.S. Government, and Regulatory Agencies and approved users. This initiative will enhance and extend High Performance Computing (HPC) resources in Nevada to support critical national and international needs in "scientific confirmation". The PA Institute will be promoted as the leading Modeling, Learning and Research Center worldwide. The program proposes to utilize the existing supercomputing capabilities and alliances of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as a base, and to extend these resource and capabilities through a collaborative relationship with its membership. The PA Institute will provide an academic setting for interactive sharing, learning, mentoring and monitoring of multi-disciplinary performance assessment and performance confirmation information. The role of the PA Institute is to facilitate research, knowledge-increase, and knowledge-sharing among users.
Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva
Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....
Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson
As imports capture a substantial portion of the domestic wood furniture market, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain an industry perspective of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that might enhance domestic competitiveness. A mail survey was conducted...
van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence against men isn't always easy to identify, but it can be a serious threat. Know how to recognize if ... Staff Women aren't the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust company...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of any designated foreign country: Any bank or trust...
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence
The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the
Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.
The proliferation of general and specialist hospitals, lunatic asylums, and workhouse infirmaries in the nineteenth century challenged the popular perception of the home as a suitable site of health care. Amidst the emergence of yet another type of institution, the tuberculosis sanatorium, tuberculosis control in the Edwardian period was re-sited and re-scaled to accommodate what might be termed a ‘preventive therapy’ of domestic space. Three interlinked perspectives demonstrate why and how this happened. First, I explore the role of the national and local state in legitimating domestic space as a scale and a site for the regulation of tuberculosis patients and prevention of the disease. Second, I investigate how tuberculosis self-help manuals promoted a technology of the self that was founded largely on the principles of sanatorium therapy but was necessarily reconfigured to reflect the social relations of domestic space. Third, I assess the marketing of consumer goods to the domiciled tuberculosis sufferer through the pages of the British Journal of Tuberculosis. It is suggested that a common tubercular ‘language’ of material consumption was fashioned in order to normalise the accumulation of possessions for use in the home. These arguments are situated in relation to recent historical research on material culture and identity at the turn of the twentieth century, which has stressed the cultivation of individuality and that the right sort of possessions appropriately arranged in domestic space signified well-regulated morality. PMID:24882921
Full Text Available The description kraudfandinh as an innovative tool to attract private investment in promising business projects as a special type of financing over the Internet. Powered its classification and kraud lists of successful projects, clearly illustrated by comparison of the normal business process to create a product and a similar process using kraudfandinh, given the differences between them and the main advantages. Based on the summaries of the literature and current practices of foreign companies and kraud platforms, defined the prospects of its application by domestic enterprises in various industries, proved its positive impact on the economy of Ukraine. The main problem of the use of this instrument in the domestic business, according to national circumstances, given their explanations. Described the prospects for its implementation at Ukrainian enterprises in terms of economic instability. The characteristic of the first Ukrainian kraudfandinh platforms by their future prospects in this direction
This study analyses au pair arrangements in six EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain) through descriptions of national and international legal frameworks and practices of au pairing. The findings show different patterns of au pair migration and different ...... situations of au pairing as well as different strategies to protect the au pairs. The overall recommendation is to separate current au pair immigration into two programmes: one of cultural exchange and one of domestic and care work....
This article highlights currently available efficient, low emission technical concepts for the combustion of wood, log-burning boilers, woodchip boilers, and the use of wood pellets. The economics of domestic heating with wood, the higher costs incurred with modern efficient wood burners as compared with fuelwood costs, and the proposed European Commission's campaign to implement more wood heated dwellings are discussed, and the transition from traditional to modern wood heating, and options for stimulating growth in renewable energy are considered
This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...
This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.
Keefer, Carol L
Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.
Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.
The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...
... Basal- like Breast Cancer. Date: June 13, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...
Tada, Eisuke; Hiyama, Tadao; Kato, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu; Shimamoto, Susumu
This paper describes thermal results obtained in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil which was constructed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in order to develop large superconducting coils for fusion in international collaboration proposed by the IEA. The domestic test was carried out from May 13 to June 17 in 1982 by using the test facility named as SETF (Superconducting Engineering Test Facility) which was composed of a 350-l/h helium cryogenic system, a vacuum system, a 30 KA-DC power supply and protection system, and a PDP-11/70 computer system. The cool-down characteristics, heat load, fast discharge characteristics, stability, and warm-up characteristics of the LCT coil were successfully measured in the test. The details of thermal test results acquired in the cool-down, heat load measurement, fast discharge, and warm-up, and the comparison between measurements and calculations are described in this paper. (author)
Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne
The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....
The paper introduces the endothermic energy systems being developed for buildings. These use the concept of solar assisted heat pumps where thermal energy is harvested using large integrated solar collectors connected to energy stores. The low grade energy is upgraded using heat pumps to provide thermal energy effectively to a wide variety of applications for space heating and cooling and hot water. The domestic housing sector is focused upon here and a current EC funded project aimed at assessing the potential of the endothermic technology for providing the thermal energy for space heating and cooling and hot water is presented. (author)
Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally
Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.
Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to
Full Text Available Garbage is solid wastes which have mostly organic composition and the rest consists of plastic paper cloth rubber bone and others. Garbage disposal in urban areas is often a burden because it involves financing for waste transport disposal sites health and environmental hygiene. The burden of waste management is increasing as the volume of waste increases due to population growth and community behavior. Samarinda as a developing city also experienced the problem. Problems encountered include low service coverage especially for domestic waste high landfill demand and high government subsidies that resulted in the community no matter the amount of waste generated. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the waste management by the government of Samarinda City from management management aspects institutional capacity and financing system is environmentally sound. The method used is non experimental method and do direct observation in the field. Data collection with questionnaires field observations document analysis and literature. Based on the results of the study concluded as follows Waste management by the Government of Samarinda City as a whole has been good and has environmentally minded by running the system of collecting transporting and destruction and separating waste from waste processing and sources into compost fertilizer though still very limited in scope. Waste management by the capital intensive Samarinda City Government leads to high costs by the operational costs of trucks and other vehicles.
These individuals and groups include the Black Panther Party, Weather Underground, Covenant Sword and the Arm of the Lord, Ku Klux Klan, Earth...based and left wing and right wing groups such as the Covenant Sword and the Arm of the Lord, Ku Klux Klan, Black Panther Party, and the Weather...TERMS Watch list, domestic terrorism, validation, designation, domestic terrorism organization, material support, domestic surveillance, SHAC, animal
Basu, D.; Chakrabarti, R.K.
To meet the energy requirements in the domestic and metallurgical sectors CMPDI have taken in hand some developmental projects using coal as a feedback. 4 projects are described - mechanized conversion of coal to domestic coke, formed coke making by Didier-Keihan-Sumitomo process, domestic briquette making based on non-copking coal resources, and smokeless coal blocks utilising inferior grade raw coal and washery by-products.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by inflicting physical harm, bodily injury, or sexua...
.... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade issues within the USSR. Topics include: production, distribution, economics, housing and personal services, policies, personal income and savings.
Chakravorty, U.; Fesharaki, F.; Zhou, S.
The literature on OPEC energy policy has focused primarily on its production and export potential. The rapidly increasing domestic demand for petroleum products in OPEC countries has often been ignored. This study estimates domestic demand for petroleum products by the major OPEC economies and forecasts consumption trends under alternative assumptions regarding economic growth and price deregulation. It concludes that product demand is generally price and income inelastic and thus domestic consumption in OPEC will continue to grow rapidly, even if domestic prices are raised closer to world levels in the near future
Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia
Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...
Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia
Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stasiukynas, Andrius; Survila, Arvydas; Smalskys, Vainius
Lithuania offers an interesting case of lagging in terms of domestic waste recycling in the European context. Despite the adoption of all relevant EU regulation, including a pricing system, which is designed to be more conducive for recycling. One important group of policy instruments which in the application of which Lithuania needs to improve, is public participation in environmental governance. The objective of this study is to relate the means of public participation and the decision-making on waste management and recycling outcomes. The study consisted of two stages. Stage one: key decision-making public agencies responsible for policy formulation and implementation of domestic waste management were identified. Later, an analysis of public available documentation covering decision-making in these institutions was conducted with the aim to measure the level of citizen engagement. Stage two: agency managers and staff responsible for citizen engagement were interviewed with the goal of evaluating their attitudes. Attitudes of officials are a crucial for a successful citizen engagement. The results showed that officials recognized very little the value of citizen engagement. They perceived contribution as an the creation of additional challenges to be tackled with, rather than help to lower service delivery costs and improve policy effectiveness. This renders the government with a depleted number of options of improving domestic waste management to "top-down" measures and imposition of financial incentives or costs.
Šyc, Michal; Horák, J.; Hopan, F.; Krpec, K.; Tomšej, T.; Ocelka, T.; Pekárek, Vladimír
Roč. 45, č. 21 (2011), s. 9427-9434 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A2/116/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : domestic combustion * PCDD/F * emission factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2011
Kyselý, René; Peške, L.
Roč. 51, č. 1 (2016), s. 15-39 ISSN 0761-3032 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Horse (Equus) * E. hydruntinus * osteometry * domestication * Czech Republic * Bohemia * Neolithic * Copper Age * Bronze Age * LSI Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016
Roč. 12, č. 1 (2004), s. 107-109 ISSN 1336-300X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : non-specific myiasis * domestic animals * Lucilia sericata Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine
International and domestic mathematics teaching assistants (MTAs) are a critical part of mathematics education because they teach a substantial portion of low-level mathematics courses at research institutions. Even if there are several factors to build on MTAs' pedagogical practices, MTAs' beliefs significantly influence the MTAs' practices. The…
Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used
Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)
Thomsen, Lotte; McCormick, Dorothy; Kamau, Paul
This paper addresses the domestically owned food-processing industry in Kenya and explores thesale of processed food products to the domestic ‘modern’ retail sector. Food processing represents astep up in the value chain compared to fresh food production and may thus, at least potentially, leadto...
It was an unprecedented decade for its break with the previous trend; but so far, the new trend does not correspond to a substantial change in growth strategy to ensure that foreign savings become complementary rather than a substitute for domestic savings. Keywords: consumption, economic growth strategy, domestic ...
Saad, A.; Hegazi, N.
Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life
Smith, M; Martin, F
Domestic violence is a significant social and health problem that has received intensive recent publicity in the lay media. Nurses should play a major role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions. Intensified health promotion and public policy initiatives can reduce the incidence of domestic violence in the future.
In this paper, we argue that these intimate practices have references beyond their domestic dimensions, for they point to a worldly movement of life writ domestically small. It is via a sensory network that the spatially and temporally disparate worlds of homeland and new homes are remembered and forgotten, and where ...
Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...
Edleson, Jeffrey L.
Expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence through a review of 31 research articles. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be associated with exposure to domestic violence. Factors that appear to moderate the impact of witnessing violence (child abuse,…
Offers the author's experiences in teaching a college-level domestic violence sociology course, presenting specific strategies and a description of the syllabus. The course presents a feminist analysis of domestic violence and examines how the patriarchal structure and ideology of society create and perpetuate violence. (SLD)
Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized
Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R. N.; Gupta, Vinay; Kundu, A. S.
Domestic violence can result in many negative health consequences for women's health and well-being. Studies on domestic violence illustrate that abused women in various settings had increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and…
Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw
It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…
Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…
Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…
Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik
Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.
WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA: EXPERIENCES FROM. NORTHERN ... affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. .... Serengeti Plains are shared by NCA and the SNP. Normally, in .... communication network) and social services .... motivation to conserve nature.
Full Text Available This article discusses to what extent and how the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR has initiated and engaged in domestic judicial reforms. It shows that the judgments of the Strasbourg Court, rather than having effects only with respect to the individual whose rights have been violated, have much deeper structural effects in the design and operation of domestic judicial systems. This article argues that this phenomenon goes rather unnoticed, but it has deep implications for both the developing and developed European democracies. To demonstrate this phenomenon, this article assesses the impact of the ECtHR on three judicial design issues. First, it illustrates how the ECtHR has challenged the role of the advocates general. Second, it explains how the ECtHR has gradually curbed the jurisdiction of military courts both over civilians and over military officers, which has brought these courts to the brink of their abolition. Finally, it outlines how the ECtHR in its judgments regarding the disciplining of judges empowers the judiciary at the expense of other political institutions within the State. Based on the analysis of these three judicial design issues, we conclude that the Strasbourg Court is affecting the internal architecture of domestic judiciaries as it gradually endorses the unification of court administration and changes the power structures within the judiciary.
This contribution examines the domestic reinterpretations of international and European recommendations in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs). It asks under what conditions these institutional recommendations, but also global processes such as the university rankings, affect domestic public policies. The countries of Central and…
From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs
Full Text Available A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop management. Despite its importance, a dearth of information exists regarding the status of wild populations of papaya, as compared to the extent of knowledge, and interest, on domesticated varieties. We review the evidence on the extant wild populations of papaya, as well as its origin and distribution. Also, we synthetize what is known on the domestication history of the species, including the domestication syndrome that distinguishes wild and domesticated papayas. Moreover, we make an account of the use of genetic markers to assess genetic diversity of wild and domesticated papaya, and discuss the importance of papaya as the first species with a transgenic cultivar to be released for human consumption, and one that has its complete genome sequenced. Evidence from different disciplines strongly suggest that papaya originated and was domesticated in Mesoamerica, and that wild populations in the region possess, still, high genetic diversity compared to the domesticated papaya. Finally, we outline papaya as an excellent model species for genomic studies that will help gain insight into the domestication process and improvement of papaya and other tropical crops.
Bezverkhii Kostiantyn V.
Full Text Available The article discusses issues of reporting in view of theories of domestic and foreign institutionalists. Study of formation of reporting under conditions of institutional transformations is realised in close connection with production and integration processes, which are peculiar to this specific period of the society historical development. In the result of the study of the said problem the article offers a functional scheme of development of the regulatory and legal framework of reporting and the scheme of regulation of accounting and financial reporting under conditions of institutional environment of Ukraine. By the results of the conducted study the article gives main principles, which have to be adhered to when preparing an integrated report under influence of the institutional environment in Ukraine. The article develops a mechanism of interconnection of reports at an enterprise and formation, on their basis, of integrated reports in the institutional environment. It puts the first stone in the foundation of formation of a new concept of reporting, connected with integration of the accounting and reporting information in the institutional environment.
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Regulatory..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550, 6001... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Research..., lf33c.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Multi-site... Branch, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...
Páles, Judit; Kuti, Zsolt; Csávás, Csaba
The basic purpose of this study is to didactically demonstrate the factors shaping the currency swap stock of domestic banks prior to the crisis and to provide a descriptive analysis of how the structure and the functioning of the market changed during the crisis. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. In addition to the wide ranging applicability of the transaction, the rise in the currency swap stock of domestic credit institutions is also attributable to macroeconomic factors. T...
Judit Páles; Zsolt Kuti; Csaba Csávás
The basic purpose of this study is to didactically demonstrate the factors shaping the currency swap stock of domestic banks prior to the crisis and to provide a descriptive analysis of how the structure and the functioning of the market changed during the crisis. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. In addition to the wide ranging applicability of the transaction, the rise in the currency swap stock of domestic credit institutions is also attributable to macroeconomic factors. T...
Teppei Nagano; Eiko Ooka; Naohiko Baba
Transactions in the yen money markets have become active since the end of the quantitative easing policy (QEP) in March 2006. In particular, transactions by foreign financial institutions have been increasing in the offshore markets including the FX swap and euroyen deposit markets, as well as the domestic money markets. This Review surveys the spreads and hence the arbitrage relationship between those offshore markets and the domestic money markets. In the short-term money markets, the sprea...
Kang, D. I.; Jung, W. D.
This paper introduces the background and development activities of domestic standardization of procedure and method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to avoid the intervention of subjectivity by HRA analyst in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as possible, and the review of the HRA results for domestic nuclear power plants under design studied by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. We identify the HRA methods used for PSA for domestic NPPs and discuss the subjectivity of HRA analyst shown in performing a HRA. Also, we introduce the PSA guidelines published in USA and review the HRA results based on them. We propose the system of a standard procedure and method for HRA to be developed
... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Emergency Medicine Career Development. Date: April 8, 2011. Time: 8 a.m... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research...
... Institute Special Emphasis Panel Program Project Grant Review in Vascular Medicine. Date: January 31, 2012... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837...
...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center... of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, (Telephone Conference... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
... Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, (Telephone Conference Call... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
The domestic uranium industry continues to operate at a reduced level, due to low prices and increased foreign competition. For four years (1984-1987) the Secretary of Energy declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected for 1988. Exploration and development drilling, at the rate of 2 million ft/year, continue in areas of producing mines and recent discoveries, especially in northwestern Arizona, northwestern Nebraska, south Texas, Wyoming, and the Paradox basin of Colorado and Utah. Production of uranium concentrate continues at a rate of 13 to 15 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) per year. Conventional mining in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas accounts for approximately 55% of the production. The remaining 45% comes from solution (in situ) mining, from mine water recovery, and as by-products from copper production and the manufacture of phosphoric acid. Solution mining is an important technique in Wyoming, Nebraska, and Texas. By-product production comes from phosphate plants in Florida and Louisiana and a copper mine in Utah. Unmined deposits in areas such as the Grants, New Mexico, district are being investigated for their application to solution mining technology. The discovered uranium resources in the US are quite large, and the potential to discover additional resources is excellent. However, higher prices and a strong market will be necessary for their exploitation
Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.
Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive
Li, Ming Hua
research streams including the resource-based view, institutional and organizational theory frameworks, as well as the dynamic capabilities perspective, we suggest that institutional change in China serves a formative role in the development of firm strategic orientation and dynamic capabilities leading......The phenomenon of systematic institutional change in many developing countries can produce enduring transformations in the strategic orientation and organization of domestic firms. Such changes may impact the formation of their dynamic capabilities and adaptive learning which can translate...... into visible differences in their internationalization strategies and pathways. Using China as an illustrative example of a transitioning economy experiencing upsurges in outward FDI, this study develops a theoretical framework to explain how institutional transformation at various levels of government led...
Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter
The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....
Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E
Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Radulović Danka M.
Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.
Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted
The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...
Meeks, Natalie M; McGuire, April L; Carroll, Bryan T
The use of online educational resources and professional social networking sites is increasing. The field of dermatology is currently under-utilizing online social networking as a means of professional collaboration and sharing of training materials. In this study, we sought to assess the current structure of and satisfaction with dermatology resident education and gauge interest for a professional social networking site for educational collaboration. Two surveys-one for residents and one for faculty-were electronically distributed via the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery and Association of Professors of Dermatology (APD) listserves. The surveys confirmed that there is interest among dermatology residents and faculty in a dermatology professional networking site with the goal to enhance educational collaboration.
Kiesau, Carter D; Heim, Kathryn A; Parekh, Selene G
Leadership and business challenges have become increasingly present in the practice of medicine. Orthopaedic residency programs are at the forefront of educating and preparing orthopaedic surgeons. This study attempts to quantify the number of orthopaedic residency programs in the United States that include leadership or business topics in resident education program and to determine which topics are being taught and rate the importance of various leadership characteristics and business topics. A survey was sent to all orthopaedic department chairpersons and residency program directors in the United States via e-mail. The survey responses were collected using a survey collection website. The respondents rated the importance of leadership training for residents as somewhat important. The quality of character, integrity, and honesty received the highest average rating among 19 different qualities of good leaders in orthopaedics. The inclusion of business training in resident education was also rated as somewhat important. The topic of billing and coding received the highest average rating among 14 different orthopaedically relevant business topics. A variety of topics beyond the scope of clinical practice must be included in orthopaedic residency educational curricula. The decreased participation of newly trained orthopaedic surgeons in leadership positions and national and state orthopaedic organizations is concerning for the future of orthopaedic surgery. Increased inclusion of leadership and business training in resident education is important to better prepare trainees for the future.
Rutherford, Kimberly; Oda, Joanna
Background Almost three-quarters of family practice residents in British Columbia (BC) meet criteria for burnout. We sought to understand how burnout is perceived and experienced by family medicine residents, and to identify both contributory and protective factors for resident burnout. Method Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with ten family practice residents from five distinct University of British Columbia training sites. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Seventy percent of the focus group participants met criteria for burnout using the MBI. The experience of burnout was described as physical and emotional exhaustion, loss of motivation, isolation from loved ones, and disillusionment with the medical profession. Contributory factors included high workload, burned-out colleagues, perceived undervaluing of family medicine, lack of autonomy, and inability to achieve work-life balance. Protective factors included strong role models in medicine, feeling that one’s work is valued and rotations in family medicine. Conclusions The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors. PMID:26451218
Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen
Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…
Conclusions: The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors.
Bongiovanni, Tasce; Yeo, Heather; Sosa, Julie A; Yoo, Peter S; Long, Theodore; Rosenthal, Marjorie; Berg, David; Curry, Leslie; Nunez-Smith, Marcella
High rates of attrition from general surgery residency may threaten the surgical workforce. We sought to gain further insight regarding resident motivations for leaving general surgery residency. We conducted in-depth interviews to generate rich narrative data that explored individual experiences. An interdisciplinary team used the constant comparative method to analyze the data. Four themes characterized experiences of our 19 interviewees who left their residency program. Participants (1) felt an informal contract was breached when clinical duties were prioritized over education, (2) characterized a culture in which there was no safe space to share personal and programmatic concerns, (3) expressed a scarcity of role models who demonstrated better work-life balance, and (4) reported negative interactions with authority resulting in a profound loss of commitment. As general surgery graduate education continues to evolve, our findings may inform interventions and policies regarding programmatic changes to boost retention in surgical residency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kwon, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Young-Mee; Chang, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Ae-Ri
The core curriculum in graduate medical education (GME) is an educational program that covers the minimum body of knowledge and skills that is required of all residents, regardless of their specialty. This study examined the opinions of stakeholders in GME regarding the core curriculum. A questionnaire was administered at three tertiary hospitals that were affiliated with one university; 192 residents and 61 faculty members and attending physicians participated in the survey. The questionnaire comprised six items on physician competency and the needs for a core curriculum. Questions on subjects or topics and adequate training years for each topics were asked only to residents. Most residents (78.6%) and faculty members (86.9%) chose "medical expertise" as the "doctor's role in the 21st century." In contrast, communicator, manager, and collaborator were recognized by less than 30% of all participants. Most residents (74.1%) responded that a core curriculum is "necessary but not feasible," whereas 68.3% of faculty members answered that it is "absolutely needed." Regarding subjects that should be included in the core curriculum, residents and faculty members had disparate preferences- residents preferred more "management of a private clinic" and "financial management," whereas faculty members desired "medical ethics" and "communication skills." Residents and faculty members agree that residents should develop a wide range of competencies in their training. However, the perception of the feasibility and opinions on the contents of the core curriculum differed between groups. Further studies with larger samples should be conducted to define the roles and professional competencies of physicians and the needs for a core curriculum in GME.
Boehnlein, James K; Leung, Paul K; Kinzie, John David
The purpose of this article is to describe the goals and structure of cross-cultural psychiatric training at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU). This training in core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of cultural psychiatry over the past three decades has included medical students, residents, and fellows, along with allied mental health personnel. The curriculum includes both didactic sessions devoted to core topics in the field and varied clinical experiences in community settings and the Intercultural Psychiatric Program under the supervision of experienced academic faculty. The authors review the central elements of the training experiences and include a detailed description of the core clinical settings and experiences. At the conclusion of their clinical experiences, trainees have specialized cross-cultural psychiatric knowledge and skills, including treatment of refugees and immigrants, sociocultural variables that influence the assessment and treatment of a wide range of psychiatric conditions, and comfort with cultural dynamics that influence both the doctor/patient relationship and collaboration with a wide range of mental health professionals. Because of rapid demographic changes in the U.S. population, providing cross-cultural training for students, residents, and fellows is an essential foundation for the education of the next generation of clinicians and health care leaders. OHSU has provided a long-term model for this training in a busy clinical and academic setting that places an emphasis on multidisciplinary and multicultural collaboration.
64 of 172 or 37.2%). Fewer respondents (46.5%) had knowledge of mentoring, which depended on years spent in residency (X2=24.605, df=6, p=0.000); older age (X2=44.680, df=9, p=0.000); working in public hospital (X2=15.662, df=3, ...
Rutherford, Kimberly; Oda, Joanna
Almost three-quarters of family practice residents in British Columbia (BC) meet criteria for burnout. We sought to understand how burnout is perceived and experienced by family medicine residents, and to identify both contributory and protective factors for resident burnout. Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with ten family practice residents from five distinct University of British Columbia training sites. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Seventy percent of the focus group participants met criteria for burnout using the MBI. The experience of burnout was described as physical and emotional exhaustion, loss of motivation, isolation from loved ones, and disillusionment with the medical profession. Contributory factors included high workload, burned-out colleagues, perceived undervaluing of family medicine, lack of autonomy, and inability to achieve work-life balance. Protective factors included strong role models in medicine, feeling that one's work is valued and rotations in family medicine. The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors.
4 Department of Peridontal and Community Dentistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 5 Department of ... had <5 hours of research or private study per week. ..... in the USA issued a directive limiting resident doctors' working hours. Following this ...
Radiation treatments in radiation oncology clinics have been always planned to irradiate three dimensional (3D) volumes. Though the term 3D planning has come in vogue only in recent years, the essence of 3D planning had been always there. This is because the patient is a 3D subject and every treatment option adopted in a radiotherapy clinic has to be based on a 3D judgement of its acceptability. An essential aspect of training of radiation oncology residents is to help them understand the different techniques and methods used to get an acceptable 3D dose delivery. The tools of 3D planning should be introduced to the residents for their educational value. The regular use of these tools may require not only fast computers and work stations, but also a change of routine in the department. This might be difficult since the departmental routine can evolve only gradually. On the other hand, an insight about the advantages of the tools could be gained through a simple personal computer. Some examples of using the 3D planning tools through a personal computer, for educational purposes have been presented here, using clinical contexts routinely encountered. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs
Fish, D G
In the view of residents in their last year of specialty training, the Fellowship is now becoming the operative standard for obtaining hospital privileges in urban centres and they felt that this implied that the two standards, the Certificate and the Fellowship of the Royal College, were not achieving the purpose for which they were designed. Although 80% of the residents intended to write the Fellowship, few viewed a year in a basic science department or in research as of intrinsic value in terms of their future practice.The examinations of the Royal College were the subject of criticism, most residents feeling that the examinations did not test the knowledge and ability gained in training. Most expressed a desire for ongoing evaluation during the training period.Service responsibilities were generally regarded as too heavy.Despite the criticism of both training and examination, most residents felt that their training had provided them with the experience and background they needed to practise as specialists.
Background Several residency program characteristics have been suggested as measures of program quality, but associations between these measures are unknown. We set out to determine associations between these potential measures of program quality. Methods Survey of internal medicine residency programs that shared an online ambulatory curriculum on hospital type, faculty size, number of trainees, proportion of international medical graduate (IMG) trainees, Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores, three-year American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE) first-try pass rates, Residency Review Committee-Internal Medicine (RRC-IM) certification length, program director clinical duties, and use of pharmaceutical funding to support education. Associations assessed using Chi-square, Spearman rank correlation, univariate and multivariable linear regression. Results Fifty one of 67 programs responded (response rate 76.1%), including 29 (56.9%) community teaching and 17 (33.3%) university hospitals, with a mean of 68 trainees and 101 faculty. Forty four percent of trainees were IMGs. The average post-graduate year (PGY)-2 IM-ITE raw score was 63.1, which was 66.8 for PGY3s. Average 3-year ABIM-CE pass rate was 95.8%; average RRC-IM certification was 4.3 years. ABIM-CE results, IM-ITE results, and length of RRC-IM certification were strongly associated with each other (p ITE scores were higher in programs with more IMGs and in programs that accepted pharmaceutical support (p < 0.05). RRC-IM certification was shorter in programs with higher numbers of IMGs. In multivariable analysis, a higher proportion of IMGs was associated with 1.17 years shorter RRC accreditation. Conclusions Associations between quality indicators are complex, but suggest that the presence of IMGs is associated with better performance on standardized tests but decreased duration of RRC-IM certification. PMID:21651768
.... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade within the USSR. Topics include: consumer goods production and distribution, housing and personal services, and consumer sector policy and economics.
Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter
Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the phenomenon of domestic violence and the distinctive features for which is it may be recognized as a specific form of torture and/or terrorism at home. The author provides an overview of the scientific debate among feminist authors on this conception which has given rise to an innovative approach to understanding the concept of domestic violence. Underscoring the substantive similarity of domestic violence with the acts of torture and/or terrorism, the author urges for state action arguing that domestic violence as a form of gender-based violence should be approached by applying the same logic and strategies which are employed in response to traditional torture and terrorism.
Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.
industry in Tanzania economy, it has been shown repeatedly ... What factors restrain faster growth of domestic .... needs (i.e. food, clothing and shelter) is no longer ... communication network) and social services ..... Advertising, Promotion and.
May 25, 2009 ... POSSIBLE RISK IT POSED TO HUMANS IN KABIGERIET VILLAGE, NAKURU COUNTY, KENYA. E.K. Kemoi, BSc, MSc, ... tree in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest (7). ... Sample collection: Environmental collection of domestic ...
Skogstad, Grace Darlene
Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...
Four post-treatment systems of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were ... efficiency in organic matter removal, exception made for polishing ponds (PP) (155 mg.L-1) due ... ption and the domestic sewage discharge into water.
Vries, de I.M.
The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.
Ending domestic violence against women: assessment of knowledge and ... Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized for this study. ... study documented poor knowledge and perception of DV among the studied population.
certain parasites which cause health problems in humans and domestic animals ... The genomic DNA was isolated using standard protocol as described by ..... panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Himalayan monal. Lophophorus ...
Mulvihill, John J.
Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)
Charles R. Clement
Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and
Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira; Juan Núñez-Farfán
A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya) is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop ...
Grønbæk, Kaj; Petersen, Marianne Graves
, domestic materials, such as photos, music, messages. become digitized. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ambient presentation of materials in homes.......This paper analyses the potentials for use of hypermedia in homes based on empirical studies. The use of physical materials is characterized by collaborative spatial organization and persistent visual awareness. Qualities that are currently not well supported for digital materials. However...
Krizsan, Andrea; Paantjens, Marjolein
This article juxtaposes shifts in prevailing frames on domestic violence in the Netherlands, Hungary and the EU. Domestic violence, first brought on the political agenda by women’s rights proponents as a problem related to gender inequalities, has been framed and re-framed under the influence of mainstream policy makers. The analysis of these frames shows how shifts in the gender of governance, particularly the marginalization of feminist NGO voices, have led to shifts in the governance of ge...
Domestic violence continues to be a global problem that kills and maims – physically, psychologically, sexually and economically. This problem is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. Domestic Violence occurs in all kinds of intimate relationships, including married couples, people who are dating, couples who live together, parents, same-sex partners, people who were formerly in a relationship and teen dating relationships...
Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the
Eynon, Julia; Carrier, Judith; Rees, Sally; Cartwright, Annie
Domestic violence has been described as a public health epidemic, with victims of domestic violence encountered in all health care settings. Within the United Kingdom the role of the health visitor (specialist community public health nurse) is to promote health in the whole community; every family with a child under five years has a named health visitor. Preparation for the health visitor role is unique to the United Kingdom. Health visitors are particularly well placed to identify and support mothers who are experiencing domestic violence. The objective of this review was to synthesise the best available evidence relating to support provided by UK health visitors for mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from both the mothers and the health visitors' perspectives. The participants of interest were mothers who have experienced domestic violence and health visitors who offer support to those mothers.The self reported experiences of health visitor support provided to mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from the perspective of both the mothers and the health visitors providing the support.This review considered studies that focus on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and feminist research. Studies published up to April 2011 were included in the review. The search was restricted to English language studies. The databases searched were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, EMBASE, British Nursing Index and Archive, ASSIA and TRIP. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data synthesis used the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for meta-synthesis by meta-aggregation. Findings were synthesised into categories, which were aggregated into synthesised findings. Four
Elena Desdentado Daroca
Full Text Available This paper analyses the latest Spanish reforms regarding domestic work. The Spanish legislator, doubtlessly influenced by the ILO Domestic Work Convention nº 189 – which, however, was not later ratified in Spain- made a deep reform on domestic work in 2011. This legal reform implied a striking change that affected both working conditions and social security of employees in the family home. The aim of this reform has been to bring the regulation in domestic work closer to the general regulation for other workers, although maintaining certain specialties. Regarding working conditions, their setting as “particular employment relationship” has been held. However, the differences between this relationship and the common ones have been reduced. As for social security, domestic employees have been incorporated into the General Social Security System, but with important specialties, thus erasing the Special Domestic Employees System. The paper also examines the legal changes that have taken place in this field after the new Government arose.
Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I
During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. © 2015 The Author(s).
be legitimated by non-elites and how their everyday actions alter policy paths established in crisis. This is illustrated by re-examining a case frequently associated with punctuated equilibrium theories of crisis and institutional change: interwar Britain. In contrast to conventional explanations, I argue......Who drives domestic institutional change in the face of international economic crisis? For rationalists the answer is powerful self-interested actors who struggle for material gains during an exogenously generated crisis. For economic constructivists it is ideational entrepreneurs who use ideas...... as weapons to establish paths for institutional change during crisis-driven uncertainty. Both approaches are elite-centric and conceive legitimacy as established by command or proclamation. This article establishes why domestic institutional change in response to international economic constraints must...
Lee, Byung Ryung
This report is focused on the following two views : First view is the issues that the domestic nuclear industry is presently facing are diagnosis of the actuality and survey of the countermeasure for the domestic market opening due to UR agreement and advance to foreign market. Second view is diagnosis of the outside status and grouping of the countermeasure. For the second view, internal restraints of public research institute are studied by dividing it into research and industry. As a short-term countermeasure, effective results can be expected by considering th e collaborating countermeasure which the domestic nuclear industry can oppose, with positive and negative views for the change of local and international nuclear circumstances
Lee, Byung Ryung
This report is focused on the following two views : First view is the issues that the domestic nuclear industry is presently facing are diagnosis of the actuality and survey of the countermeasure for the domestic market opening due to UR agreement and advance to foreign market. Second view is diagnosis of the outside status and grouping of the countermeasure. For the second view, internal restraints of public research institute are studied by dividing it into research and industry. As a short-term countermeasure, effective results can be expected by considering th e collaborating countermeasure which the domestic nuclear industry can oppose, with positive and negative views for the change of local and international nuclear circumstances.
Stucchi, Tamara; Pedersen, Torben; Kumar, Vikas
that have impacts of different magnitudes on international investments. We also investigate the case of firms affiliated with domestic business groups. We develop four hypotheses and test them using data on Indian firms. Our findings provide interesting insights into different institutional factors...
Domestic violence is a continuing public health problem. Immigrant women facing domestic violence have additional challenges in dealing with domestic violence and accessing services. Hopeful thinking has been identified as a strategy for intervening and surviving beyond domestic violence. The purpose of this multiple descriptive case study was to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all
Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia
Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial
Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid
Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing
Full Text Available The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L. Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill. D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago, coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species.
Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey
The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide [Formula: see text] values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. Copyright © 2016 Velasco et al.
Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey
The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. PMID:27707802
Knežević Snežana B.
Full Text Available Introduction. Identification of victims of domestic violence among the women using the healthcare is not sufficient. Objective. The aim of this study is to identify the barriers that prevent health care professionals in identifying domestic violence more often. Method. A questionnaire was distributed to health workers in the Health center of Kraljevo, by e-mail. Results. The study comprised 136 health care workers, 73.3% female and 26.7% male. 70.6% were doctors and 29.4% technicians. The mean age of respondents was 38.93 ± 7.7, (range 31-50, with the average 11.36 ± 7.74 years of service. The social barriers were significantly more present among female health workers (p=0.037. The most frequent answer is the lack of guidelines. This answer is significantly in correlation with professional qualification (p=0.002. The prominent institutional barriers are overwork (53.7%, lack of information about the procedures (significantly present among doctors, p=0.003, and the fear for their own safety (46.3%. Barriers associated to the health care workers themselves have the least number of responses, with limited time as the most important, followed by lack of training (44.9% and lack of knowledge, that is significantly related to gender (p=0.002 and to qualifications (p=0.009. Women expect more authority in their work, p=0.035. Among the 4 groups of barriers, the majority of answers is related to the victims of violence themselves (43.9%, statistically more significant among doctors, p=0.004, predominantly responding that victims hide the violent behavior of their partners (65.4%. Conclusion. Provide continuous education about domestic violence and evaluation of knowledge, encourage the victims to trust the health system, raise awareness about the judgment of violence, and skillfully inform the women of resources in the community.
Frantz, L.A.F.; Schraiber, J.G.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Cagan, A.; Bosse, M.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Larson, G.; Groenen, M.A.M.
Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional
Cheng, S J
This article discusses the legal systems in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan and the protection of migrant domestic workers who are vulnerable to domestic violence and abuse. Migration in the last 10 years in Asia has increasingly included female migrants who are usually employed in domestic services, the entertainment industry, and health care services. This work places women migrants in a vulnerable position in the isolation of households, away from public oversight. Labor laws are not applied to domestic workers, who are considered of low societal value. In Hong Kong, domestic work is covered under the labor laws, but the societal perception is that housework is not really work. Employer-employee relationships are more clear cut in institutional settings. Most domestic workers live with their employers. They are outsiders to families and must maintain professional relationships within an intimate environment. The isolation within a household discourages development of support systems and contacts with women doing similar work. There is a power struggle between women of unequal stature concerning the operation of the household and the interrelationships with family members. The power dynamic, the nature of the family structure, and culture are all interrelated. The first year's income covers the cost of securing foreign employment, and workers are vulnerable in this first year due to their debts. Employers protect their investment by working them to capacity or using fear and physical confinement to secure obedience. Workers are humiliated and immobilized. The comparison between the three countries illustrates the potential for protecting migrant domestic workers. Singapore and Taiwan lack sufficient legal and social support for migrant women, and Hong Kong must use a more comprehensive approach for integrating power dynamics, employment, work regulations, and labor status.
Ocaya, Bruno; Ruranga, Charles; Kaberuka, William
This study uses a VAR model to analyse the dynamic relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and domestic investment (DI) in Rwanda for the period 1970 to 2011. Several selection lag criteria chose a maximum lag of one, and a bivariate VAR(1) model specification in levels was adopted. Unit root tests show that both GDP and DI series are…
Helminthiasis of the domestic-fowl ( Gallus gallus domestics ) and its adverse effects on sustainable poultry-meat production in Nigeria. ... This study is a reflection of the case across Nigeria and perhaps the tropical world, where the losses maybe higher because helminthiasis has been reported to be ubitiquous by earlier ...
Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li
Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.
Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.
Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole; Rudzinski, Anna; Grimaldi, Ilaria M; Pires, J Chris; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Dobney, Keith; Gremillion, Kristen J; Barton, Loukas; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Purugganan, Michael D; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Bollongino, Ruth; Burger, Joachim; Fuller, Dorian Q; Bradley, Daniel G; Balding, David J; Richerson, Peter J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Larson, Greger; Thomas, Mark G
The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary enterprise that has come to involve the skills of evolutionary biologists and geneticists. Although the application of new information sources and methodologies has dramatically transformed our ability to study and understand domestication, it has also generated increasingly large and complex datasets, the interpretation of which is not straightforward. In particular, challenges of equifinality, evolutionary variance, and emergence of unexpected or counter-intuitive patterns all face researchers attempting to infer past processes directly from patterns in data. We argue that explicit modeling approaches, drawing upon emerging methodologies in statistics and population genetics, provide a powerful means of addressing these limitations. Modeling also offers an approach to analyzing datasets that avoids conclusions steered by implicit biases, and makes possible the formal integration of different data types. Here we outline some of the modeling approaches most relevant to current problems in domestication research, and demonstrate the ways in which simulation modeling is beginning to reshape our understanding of the domestication process.
Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier
The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement
Rezagama, Arya; Purwono; Damayanti, Verika
Shifting from traditional system to large, centralised infrastructure domestic waste is widely complex challenge. Most of fhe sanitary system on household in Surakarta use on site septictank, 17% sewerage system reached and16,0% stll open defecations. Sanitation development sustained aims to develop policy and strategies waste management domestic Surakarta in the long term (20 years). The projection use quantitative method and institutional condition approach by SWOT analysis. Surakarta City get priority sanitation urban planning from Indonesian government in Presiden Joko Widodo era. The domestic waste management systems that is Surakarta divided into system on-site and system off site. Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) mojosongo, WWTP pucangsawit and WWTP Semanggi will be developed to treat 30% domestic waste of Surakarta Residence. While on-site system will are served 70% residence by service programs Regular Cleaning Septictank. The toughest challenge is how to increase community participation in waste management and improve the company"s financial condition. Sanitation sustainable development is going to happen if supported by facility development also good, institutional development, the arrangement that oversees, and the public participation.
Kjær, Anne Mette; Ulriksen, Marianne Sandvad
-building with regard to mobilizing resources for social development. In the paper we analyse how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. We establish a theoretical framework based on the political settlement theory, within which we explore instances of revenue bargain......-making. The first two instances relate to the actual mobilization of resources, whereas the third example focuses on bargains over spending priorities within a given revenue base. We find that in Uganda, a low-income country with competing political factions, there are specific challenges to mobilizing resources......This synthesis paper brings together the research findings from four papers prepared by the Uganda team as a part of the UNRISD Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development project, which addresses three broad themes: bargaining and contestation, key relations, and institution...
Gustiano, R; Kontara, E K; Wahyuningsih, H; Subagja, J; Asih, S; Saputr, A
Mahseer is an economically important fish in the world with a distribution from the Himalayan Mountains up to Southeast Asia. One species of Masheer is Tor soro in the Indonesian Archipelago. For a long time, T. soro has been collected from the wild and now is becoming rare. In addition, the degradation of its habitat is another problem. Hence, it is urgent that this species is saved from extinction. Domestication of T. soro from North Sumatra has been conducted since 1996. This paper reports the results of domestication of T. soro starting from collecting live specimens, genetic and morphometric characterizations, evaluation to breeding, and growing out. In 2010, domestication was successful to produce a second generation of young broodstocks and now the breeding technology is being shared with several provinces where T. soro exist.
Dong, Subo; Carey, Sean; Gould, Andrew; Zhu, Wei
We propose to combine Spitzer, Gaia, and ground-based measurements to determine the mass, distance, and transverse velocity of the 'domestic' microlensing event J0507+2447. This is only the second 'domestic' event (microlensed source distance less than about 1 kpc) ever discovered, but this number is already 10 times higher than the number that are expected. Hence, determining the nature of these lenses would resolve a major puzzle. The low expected rate is what caused Einstein to delay publication of his microlensing idea by 24 years. By very good fortune, Spitzer's narrow 38 day window of observations overlaps magnified portions of the event. To determine the mass requires to measure both the 'microlens parallax' (courtesy of Spitzer) and the 'angular Einstein radius' (which can be derived from Gaia astrometry). Thus, this is a truly rare opportunity to probe the nature of 'domestic' microlenses.
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The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.
Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W
Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per
Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities . Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development
Seemann, Stefan E; Anthon, Christian; Palasca, Oana
affected by the lack of genomic sequence. Herein, we quantify the quality of the genome assemblies of 20 domesticated animals and related species by assessing a range of measurable parameters, and we show that there is a positive correlation between the fraction of mappable reads from RNAseq data...... domesticated animal genomes still need to be sequenced deeper in order to produce high-quality assemblies. In the meanwhile, ironically, the extent to which RNAseq and other next-generation data is produced frequently far exceeds that of the genomic sequence. Furthermore, basic comparative analysis is often...
Magdalena Domínguez Pérez
Full Text Available In this paper domestic tourism in Uruguay is analyzed by introducing an Origin-Destination matrix approach, and an attraction coefficient is calculated. We show that Montevideo is an attractive destination to every department except itself (even if it emits more trips than it receives, and the Southeast region is the main destination. Another important outcome is the importance of intra-regional patterns, associated to trips to bordering departments. Findings provide destination managers with practical knowledge, useful for reducing seasonality and attracting more domestic tourists throughout the year, as well as to deliver a better service offer, that attracts both usual visitors and new ones from competitive destinations.
Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354
Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.
Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)
Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the determinants of domestic credit across a wide range of 7 countries; these are United Kingdom, Malaysia, Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Indonesia. We use dynamic panel estimation to examine effects of exchange rate, inflation, lending interest rate, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking on domestic credit. We obtain several notable empirical results. First, the lending interest rate, banking crisis negatively and insignificantly contribute to domestic credit. The existence of Islamic bank has positive and insignificant contribution to domestic credit, while exchange rate positively and significantly contributes to domestic credit. Inflation negatively and significantly contributes to domestic credit. Second, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking show insignificant effect on domestic credit. Third, we find that today’s domestic credit is depended on domestic credit in the previous year.DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4906
Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth
Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; N44DA-10-5542... Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, 6101 Executive Blvd., Room 220, MSC 8401, Bethesda, MD 20852, 301-435-1432, [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and...
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... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, SecuRX..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction...
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Kolk, A.; Fortanier, F.
Purpose - The domestic institutional context has emerged as a key determinant of firms' environmental disclosure, but studies have hardly addressed the extent to which exposure to foreign institutional contexts plays a role in the occurrence and contents of non-financial disclosure, which are
... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Conference... developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...
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... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...
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Foss, Nicolai Juul; Garzarelli, Giampaolo
The paper revisits the socioeconomic theory of the Austrian School economist Ludwig M. Lachmann. By showing that the common claim that Lachmann's idiosyncratic (read: eclectic and multidisciplinary) approach to economics entails nihilism is unfounded, it reaches the following conclusions. (1......) Lachmann held a sophisticated institutional position to economics that anticipated developments in contemporary new institutional economics. (2) Lachmann's sociological and economic reading of institutions offers insights for the problem of coordination. (3) Lachmann extends contemporary new institutional...... theory without simultaneously denying the policy approach of comparative institutional analysis. (90 words.)KeywordsComparative institutional analysis, coordination, expectations, institutionalevolution, interpretative institutionalism.JEL CodesB31, B52, B53, D80....
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...
Alsou R. Kamaleyeva
Full Text Available The article analyzes the foreign and domestic experience of distance learning in institution of higher education in physical training for its optimal use to create each student-athlete equal educational opportunities regardless of the form of training.
Teegen, W.-R.; Kyselý, René
Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 139-146 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : domestic pig (Sus scrofa f. domestica) * enamel defect * enamel and root hypoplasia * Iron Age (La Tène period) * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2014-02-kysely.pdf
Geelen, C.P.J.M.; Oostendorp, P.A.
In the years to come many domestic heat pump systems are to be installed in the Netherlands. The Dutch agency for energy and environment, NOVEM, and the association of energy utility companies, EnergieNed, give high priority to the monitoring of heat pump systems. The results of the projects,
Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B
Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.
Brouwer, Paul; Brautigam, A.; Kulahoglu, C.; Tazelaar, A.O.E.; Kurz, S.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Werf, van der A.K.; Weber, A.P.M.; Schluepmann, H.
Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome.
Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, A.; Külahoglu, C.; Tazelaar, A.O.E.; Kurz, S.; Nierop, K.G.J.; van der Werf, A.; Weber, A.P.M.; Schlupmann, Henriette
Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome.
Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Kane, P.; Thorne, M.C.
This chapter deals with plutonium adsorption, retention and translocation rates in lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, liver and in body tissues of domestic animals and man. Urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium is discussed. Transfer rates to eggs, milk, foetus and newborn are considered. Of all these subjects, data are presented extracted from literature and cast in tables
Domestic violence against women or girl child has been an old phenomenon women were compared as weak, vulnerable, and in position to be exploited. The traditional norms has made them subject of violence where men were given the outright domination over the issue that affect their lines. They are assaulted ...
Ofei-aboagye, R O
This article aims to expose the anxiety of abused women in Ghana by defining domestic violence within their culture. A survey conducted among 50 women clients of the Legal Aid Clinic of the International Federation of Women Lawyers in Ghana revealed that wife beating, to some extent, is an acceptable norm of the society. These battered women are more likely to define their experiences as a form of discipline at the hands of their husbands rather than domestic violence or wife battering. An examination of their social practices demonstrates that tradition is the most important reason why Ghanaian women accept the obvious disparity between their lifestyles and that of their male counterparts. Their traditional folk tales narrates stories about a man beating his wife to maintain law and order; while Ghanaian folk and highlife songs revolve around themes that encourage this mastery of wives and male superiority. The existence of domestic violence in all Ghanaian communities highlights the need for social reforms and substantive equality for Ghanaian women. Initial solutions include emphasis on public education, which fosters awareness and social change through women's organizations that work within communities. Once educational efforts have been established, long-term solutions such as adopting legislation to help battered women, as well as educating the police and the judiciary about domestic violence can then be integrated into Ghanaian society.
d' Aspremont, J.; Brölmann, C.; Reinisch, A.
International courts, despite the wide-ranging means that have been put at their disposal, need the cooperation of various domestic actors. The cooperation of States with international criminal tribunals has not always been without difficulty, as these tribunals have been the object of various
This study was therefore designed to identify the factors that influenced domestic water contamination in our rural communities and recommend some intervention measures that can reduce this high morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases in Nigeria. Water samples from the water sources serving six rural ...
A.R. Darban Astane
Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.
Capodieci, Nicola; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Cabri, Giacomo; Aiello, Marco
The domestic energy market is changing with the increasing availability of energy micro-generating facilities. On the long run, households will have the possibility to trade energy for purchasing to and for selling from a number of different actors. We model such a futuristic scenario using software
Bahl, Christian R.H.
beverage coolers, A/Cs for cars and electronics cooling. Devices for heating have not been extensively demonstrated. Here we consider a promising application of magnetocaloric heat pumps for domestic heating. The task of designing and building such a device is a multidisciplinary one encompassing materials...
Borrely, Sueli I.
This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs
Waterways Management Branch GPS Global Positioning System HHO home heating oil LCA Lake Carriers’ Association MAR USCG Domestic Icebreaking...These four types of cargo are further grouped into two broader categories, namely, Home Heating Oil ( HHO ) shipments or Non- HHO shipments. The data
occur in the home and the devastating consequences on the individuals involved and the society at large. ... Female genital mutilation is a form of domestic violence. ... places of work and girls and young women in secondary schools and .... students with anger problem, the various anger management techniques should be ...
Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.
Energy management for domestic heating is a non trivial research challenge, especially given the dynamics associated to indoor and outdoor air temperatures, required comfortable temperature set points over time, parameters of the heating source and system, and energy loss rate and capacity of a
Ali, Sirwan Kamil
Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…
Banal forms of nationalism permeate our everyday life. However, it is not very clear when all kinds of banal objects and practices became nationalised. In this article, I focus on the domestic sphere by analysing how around 1900 a small group of activists began to propagate the nationalisation of
Qinfeng Guo; Robert Ricklefs
Susceptibility of an area to invasion by exotic species is often judged by the fraction of introduced species in the local biota. However, the degree of invasion, particularly in mainland areas, has often been underestimated because of the exclusion of âdomestic exoticsâ (those introduced to internal units from within the national border) in calculations. Because all...
Malik Irina Petrovna
Full Text Available An analysis of the fundamental principles of the corporate governance theory is carried out with substantiation of the use of institutional theory to ensure the effective development of the corporate sector of Ukrainian economy. The proposals on the allocation of corporate governance models on the example of publishing and printing industry are elaborated and institute of shareholder ownership was laid in the basis of construction. Institutional support at the macro-, meso-and micro-economic level is considered, that corresponds to the current state of Ukrainian economy and helps to improve the efficiency of corporate governance by domestic companies.
Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615
Institutional shelter to protect adolescent victims of domestic violence: theory or practice? Albergue institucional para proteger a adolescentes víctimas de violencia doméstica: ¿la teoría o la práctica? O acolhimento institucional como proteção a adolescentes vítimas de violência doméstica: teoria ou prática?
Diene Monique Carlos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand and analyze, from the perspective of adolescent victims of domestic violence who were cared for in an institution in Campinas-SP, the protective factors to which they are submitted and / or have access. METHOD: This was qualitative research, with data collection occurring through focus groups with 17 adolescents, and semistructured interviews with seven of them; the data analysis was based on content analysis, using a thematic modality. RESULTS: Two themes emerged, entitled Four Walls and Trust. We discuss the context of institutional care, that despite the efforts made contemporaneously, still maintains an authoritarian environment; the importance of the bond and trust established with some employees, acting as protective factors for the adolescents and the protective aspect of religiosity. CONCLUSIONS: It is understood that these considerations should be valued and reinforced through the healthcare services provided to children and adolescents, as they contribute to the promotion of the physical and mental health of this population. OBJETIVO: Comprender y analizar, desde la perspectiva de adolescentes víctimas de violencia doméstica que fueron atendidas en una institución en Campinas-SP, los factores de protección que se les proponen, y / o tienen acceso. MÉTODO: Esta fue una investigación cualitativa, la recopilación de datos de produjo a través de grupos focales con 17 adolescentes, y con entrevistas semi-estructuradas con siete de ellos; el análisis de los datos se basó en el análisis de contenido, usando una modalidad temática. RESULTADOS: Emergieron dos temas, titulados Cuatro Paredes y Confianza. Se discute el contexto de un albergue institucional, que a pesar de los esfuerzos realizados contemporáneamente, todavía mantiene un ambiente autoritario; la importancia del vínculo y la confianza establecida con algunos empleados, actuando como factores de protección para los adolescentes y el aspecto de
Roč. 43, č. 2 (2008), s. 7-37 ISSN 0761-3032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Bos primigenius * local domestic ation * crossbreeding * cattle * Eneolithic * osteometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
The Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Domestic Animal Genomics was chartered in March 2002 to enhance communication and awareness of the importance of domesticated animals, both livestock and companion, as a critical part...
J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)
textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign
The breeding of domestic animals has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on population genetics, artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer (ET) technologies have led to significan...
Domestic Workers and Career Women: The Dilemma of Family Stability. ... Sociological research on paid domestic work has increased substantially in ... This paper sets out therefore to answer the following questions: who benefits in the long ...
Raquel Martínez Buján
Full Text Available This paper explores the characteristics of and transformations that Spanish domestic service has undergone in the since 2000. The paper also analyzes the domestic service’s contribution to the Spanish economy since the beginning of the country’s economic crisis. Relying on quantitative analysis of the domestic work data from the Active Population Survey, the most relevant changes identified are the increase of its demand and the consolidation of migrants workers in it. The paper also looks at the tasks carried out in the households of employers. The recent conversion of the domestic services in a nonprofessional care sector seems to mitigate the burden of personal care work that Spanish families aim to provide to their older relatives. This transformation of domestic work into care work has changed some traditional features of this occupation: the outcomes of qualitative data show changes in the intensification of the tasks carried out, a tendency to higher male workers, a reappearance of live-in workers, and key modifications in the relationship between employer families and employees. Finally, this paper incorporates a short assessment of Real Royal Decree 1620/2011 (which regulates domestic service and Law 39/2006 (Law on the Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons to analyze which is the legal space delegate to the labor category related with the non-professional caregivers in private homes.
Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Pompanon, François; Blum, Michael G. B.; Negrini, Riccardo; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; Balkız, Özge; Mashkour, Marjan; Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Kence, Aykut; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Taberlet, Pierre
The emergence of farming during the Neolithic transition, including the domestication of livestock, was a critical point in the evolution of human kind. The goat (Capra hircus) was one of the first domesticated ungulates. In this study, we compared the genetic diversity of domestic goats to that of the modern representatives of their wild ancestor, the bezoar, by analyzing 473 samples collected over the whole distribution range of the latter species. This partly confirms and significantly clarifies the goat domestication scenario already proposed by archaeological evidence. All of the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups found in current domestic goats have also been found in the bezoar. The geographic distribution of these haplogroups in the wild ancestor allowed the localization of the main domestication centers. We found no haplotype that could have been domesticated in the eastern half of the Iranian Plateau, nor further to the east. A signature of population expansion in bezoars of the C haplogroup suggests an early domestication center on the Central Iranian Plateau (Yazd and Kerman Provinces) and in the Southern Zagros (Fars Province), possibly corresponding to the management of wild flocks. However, the contribution of this center to the current domestic goat population is rather low (1.4%). We also found a second domestication center covering a large area in Eastern Anatolia, and possibly in Northern and Central Zagros. This last domestication center is the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. This finding is consistent with archaeological data identifying Eastern Anatolia as an important domestication center. PMID:19004765
Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László
To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.
Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara
Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias p...
Sandu Mihaela Luminița
Full Text Available The effects of domestic violence phenomenon and its severity were recently acknowledged worldwide, most European Union countries faced with significant increase in cases of domestic violence. Due to the inefficient public social services in combating and preventing domestic violence, services like this are taken mostly by civil society. However, help victims of domestic violence, there are several protection services, and a range of social services targeting the aggressors.
Keith Walsh; Martina Brockmeier; Alan Matthews
This paper employs the GTAP computable general equilibrium model and dataset to analyse the implications of domestic support reductions in the context of agricultural trade liberalisation. Three specific issues are addressed: overhang in domestic support, the accurate distinction of the boxes in the GTAP dataset and the treatment of market price support in the amber box. An extensive domestic support database is used to calculate the change in applied domestic support rates from a specified c...
Institutional development in ancient Athens ranged from banking and legally recorded and sustained private ownership of a variety of goods and services that enabled domestic and international trade to liturgical mechanisms for procurement of public goods. These institutions in turn provided...... agreements with Macedonia (IG I2 105). However, no regular channels of trade or transactions are identified before this Macedonian agreement (407/6). We know that some constructed ships were forcefully appropriated to one degree or another through hegemonic tribute or battle (through which they might also......, the “most silent and least recorded of the major ancient industries” (Meiggs). Aristotle highlighted both the threat of illegal forest use and the need for public intervention to curtail it by identifying forest wardens as one of the key items needing state provision for democratic governance (Aristot. Pol...
CONCLUSION: Men are also victims of domestic violence in this setting, but the violence is mostly verbal and psychological in nature. There is need to provide support services for male victims of domestic violence and also encourage them to report their experience of domestic violence in order to obtain help and ...
Thiara, Ravi K.; Hague, Gill; Mullender, Audrey
The links between disability and domestic violence have been under-examined to date, leading to the marginalisation of disabled women affected by domestic violence in theory, politics, and practice. This paper draws on the findings from the first national study in the United Kingdom of the needs of disabled women experiencing domestic violence and…
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence is a serious threat for many women. Know the signs of an abusive relationship and how to leave a dangerous ... If this sounds familiar, you might be experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence — also called intimate partner violence — occurs ...
Conwill, William Louis
There are striking gender, race, and class variations in rates of domestic violence. Some leading family theorists called for an intersectional analysis of how gender, race and class systems interact to improve domestic violence theory. This article improves domestic violence theory by: 1) using the discourse, or language, of intersectionality; 2)…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Pei-Ying; Wu, Jia-Lin; Li, Chien-De; Kuo, Fang-Yu
The present study analyzed national data from "Domestic Violence Report System" derived primarily from the Council of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults Prevention, Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan, to describe the reported prevalence of domestic violence in people with disabilities and to examine the time-effect on the prevalence…
Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson; Rich Christianson
There is little question that imports have captured a substantial portion of the domestic furniture market. However, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain industry perspectives of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that can enhance domestic competitiveness...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuer or domestic concern. 80.4 Section 80.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.4 Issuer or domestic concern. The request must be submitted by an issuer or domestic concern...
In India, the nature of interdependency between wife and husband is regarded as different from what it is in the west. It is observed that in Indian state of Bihar, there is co-existence of memory of domestic violence and attitudinal justification of domestic violence on all the dimensions of domestic violence. However, In Tamil ...
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For far too long, domestic violence was ignored or treated as a private matter where victims were... reducing the incidence of domestic violence. But we also know that we have not come far enough, and that...
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... silence surrounding domestic violence to reach thousands of survivors, prevent countless incidences of abuse, and save untold numbers of lives. While these are critical achievements, domestic violence...
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we recognize the significant achievements we have made in reducing domestic violence in America, and we recommit ourselves to the important work still...
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... response to domestic violence has greatly improved. What was too often seen as a private matter best hidden... domestic violence homicides and improved training for police, prosecutors, and advocates. Yet we must do...
Almeida, Fátima Susana Jesus; Coutinho, Emília Carvalho; Duarte, João Carvalho; Chaves, Cláudia Margarida Balula; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Amaral, Odete Pereira; Parreira, Vitória Castro
To determine the prevalence of domestic violence (physical, psychological or sexual) during pregnancy and to characterise these women. Pregnant women are not immune to domestic violence and therefore may be subject to any form of physical, psychological or sexual violence by partners. Health professionals' knowledge and awareness are important in the identification and intervention of pregnant women who experience domestic violence. Quantitative, descriptive, correlational study, using a nonprobabilistic convenience sample consisting of a total of 852 postpartum women, of whom 370 were experiencing domestic violence according to the criteria adopted through the modified scale of prevalence, applied between February-June 2012 in two Portuguese public health institutions. Authorisation was given by the Ethics Committees/Administration Councils of both institutions involved and the National Committee of Data Protection. The prevalence of DV during pregnancy was 43·4% (physical violence - 21·9%; psychological violence - 43·2%; and sexual violence - 19·6%). These women had the following profile: immigrant (OR = 5·70; IC95% 3·32-9·78), non-Caucasian (OR = 6·27; IC95% 3·76-10·46), single/divorced/widowed (OR = 2·28; IC95% 1·70-3·05), academic qualifications up to year 9 (OR = 4·94; IC95% 3·31-7·37); between 10-12 years of schooling (OR = 2·36; IC95% 1·70-3·29); unemployed (OR = 2·01; IC95% 1·50-2·69); and with a monthly income domestic violence. This is associated with certain sociodemographic factors identified in the study. Psychological violence was the most prevalent during pregnancy. Knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of pregnant women who experience domestic violence is of paramount importance in planning appropriate strategies for their needs during pregnancy. Results indicate the need for nurses to intervene when warning signs of domestic violence against pregnant women are detected. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nataliya N. Fedyakova
Full Text Available Introduction: this paper deals with the foreign and domestic experience of creation and use of educational institution management automation systems. The problems of higher educational institutions management are essential in conditions of growing competition between educational institutions. Their complexity and timeliness defines multifunctional activity of higher educational institutions, diversity of funding sources, the variety of forms and types of educational, scientific, industrial and economic activities, the need for monitoring of the market of educational services and the labor market (including the need for employment of graduates, the necessity for adaptation to continuously changing economic conditions. Materials and Methods: system approach and method of comparison were used in analysing the current state of development and organisation of the automated information systems of higher education. These methods were also used to compare the qualitative characteristics of different technologies and methods of creation of the automated information systems. Results: the foreign and domestic educational institution management automation systems SIMS. net, Capita Education, SPRUT, Galaxy of Higher Educational Institution Management”, and “GSVedomosty” were analysed. Disadvantages of the functional module AIS – AWP pertaining to the University Rector of the higher educational institution were found. The improvement of higher educational institution AIS by implementing decision support systems for the management, made on the basis of the model of SaaS (software as a service is discussed. The author developed a model of automated score-rating system to assess the individual performance of students. Discussion and Conclusions: the author tackles the problems of higher educational institution AIS taking into account the specifics of the use of higher educational institution management information systems. They have a practical
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.
Shimamoto, S.; Ando, T.; Hiyama, T.
The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), representing Japan, is now making one of six test coils for the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Large Coil Task(LCT). The Japanese LCT coil, which has a stored energy of 120 MJ, is based on a NgTi conductor, is pool-cooled, has a maximum field of 8T, and is edgewise, double-pancake wound, was completed in October, 1981. The LCT coil will be tested in the newly constructed domestic test facility up to its rated current in November, 1981, before transportation ORNL. The domestic test facility, which is composed of a cryogenic system a vacuum system, a power supply with protection system, and a data acqusition and control system, was completed and its performance measured at a new building for the LCT test at JSAERI in June, 1981. This paper describes the latest construction status of the Japanese LCT coil and the domestic test facility. The performance of the domestic test facility is described in this paper
Collier, Rachael; Quinlivan, Julie A
Domestic violence is common in women and is associated with poorer health-care outcomes. However, no causal pathway has been identified to explain this observation. We have followed a cohort of women to determine whether poorer outcomes can be explained by high rates of default and loss to follow-up. A prospective cohort study was performed. Institutional ethics approval was obtained. Participants were consecutive patients attending colposcopy clinics at a major metropolitan hospital in Australia. Following ascertainment of domestic violence status, appointment outcomes for colposcopy services were tracked for a 3-year period. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to determine demographic factors associated with default from care and loss to follow-up. Of 581 women approached, consent was obtained from 574 women (99%). Domestic violence status was obtained from 566 women, of whom 187 (33%) had a recent history of exposure. Women exposed to violence were more likely to default from colposcopy once (26.2% vs 7.4%; P default and loss to follow-up. Domestic violence is a risk factor for default from attendance and loss to follow-up at colposcopy services. This may explain the mechanism behind adverse health-care outcomes seen. Screening and targeted appointment intervention programs may improve clinical compliance. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Kimuna, Sitawa R; Djamba, Yanyi K; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna
This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced physical violence in the past 12 months before the survey; the corresponding figure for sexual violence was 8.3%. The multivariate logistic regression results show key determinants of physical and sexual violence. Some of the most salient findings are that urban residence, household wealth, affiliation with Christian religious denominations, wife's age at marriage and education are associated with lower risk of physical and sexual violence. In contrast, being employed and being the wife of a man who drank alcohol increased the odds of experiencing both physical and sexual violence. Moreover, respondents who believed that wife-beating was justified under certain circumstances were more likely to experience domestic violence. These results and significant regional differences observed in this study suggest that gender role conditioning and cultural norms both contribute to domestic violence. Interventions, therefore, need to go beyond the institutional and legal levels to include cultural capital, which addresses partner and relationship issues.
Gómez, Eduardo J; Ruger, Jennifer Prah
In recent years, several emerging nations with burgeoning economies and in transition to democracy have pursued health policy innovations. As these nations have integrated into the world economy through bilateral trade and diplomacy, they have also become increasingly exposed to international pressures and norms and focused on more effective, equitable health care systems. There are several lessons learned from the case studies of Brazil, Ghana, India, China, Vietnam, and Thailand in this special issue on the global and domestic politics of health policy in emerging nations. For the countries examined, although sensitive to international preferences, domestic governments preferred to implement policy on their own and at their own pace. During the policy-making and implementation process, international and domestic actors played different roles in health policy making vis-à-vis other reform actors -- at times the state played an intermediary role. In several countries, civil society also played a central role in designing and implementing policy at all levels of government. International institutions also have a number of mechanisms and strategies in their tool box to influence a country's domestic health governance, and they use them, particularly in the context of an uncertain state or internal discordance within the state. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.
. For a safe and reliable operation of electric power systems, the balance between electricity generation and consumption has to be maintained. The conventional fossil fuel based power generation achieves this balance by adjusting the generation to follow the consumption. In the electric power system......Electricity has become an inevitable part of human life in present day world. In the past two centuries, the electric power system has undergone a lot of changes. Due to the awareness about the adverse impact of the fossil fuels, the power industry is adopting green and sustainable energy sources....... In general, the electricity consumers are classified as industrial, commercial and domestic. In this dissertation, only the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in the domestic segment are considered for the demand response study. The study is funded by Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR...
Full Text Available The battered women’s movement in the United States contributed to a sweeping change in the recognition of men’s violence against female intimate partners. Naming the problem and arguing in favor if its identification as a serious problem meriting a collective response were key aspects of this effort. Criminal and civil laws have been written and revised in an effort to answer calls to take such violence seriously. Scholars have devoted significant attention to the consequences of this reframing of violence, especially around the unintended outcomes of the incorporation of domestic violence into criminal justice regimes. Family law, however, has remained largely unexamined by criminologists. This paper calls for criminological attention to family law responses to domestic violence and provides directions for future research.
Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry
Full Text Available The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abused elderly. The predominant groups were: ages between 70 – 79 years. (75.0%, the female sex (59.3%, those with marital links (65.6% dissatisfaction with their lives like a psychological symptom (53,2% psychological abused (50,0% and children as principles aggressors. The adult persons studied were a victim of any kind of domestic abused and as a consequence was presented second psychological manifestations.
Increasing numbers of technical and consumer products incorporating radioactive material are becoming available to the Australian public. One consumer device of this type coming into common use is the domestic smoke detector that uses Americium 241 in detecting smoke. This device has obvious life-saving and property-saving advantages and is attractive in that it is attractive in that it is self-contained, battery powered and needs little maintenance. The National Health and Medical Research Council in October 1978 recommended conditions, which are listed, are intended to ensure that radiation safety is preserved. They provide for the testing and approval of all models of domestic smoke detectors using radioactive material. The National Health and Medical Research Council stated that provided these conditions are applied it had no objection to the sale of these detectors by retailers
To cope with the future energy problem in Japan, the enhancement of her own technology is continuing in the nuclear power field. Developments in the past, current state, and problems for the future are described regarding LWR power plants. The technology introduced from overseas countries cannot be used as it is. The domestic technology thus consists of the conversion of nuclear power technology so as to meet Japan's own condition and the domestic manufacture of machinery. In the former category, there are the aspects of aseismatic design, waste disposal, software, etc. In the latter, there are the productions of reactor vessels, steam generators, large valves, piping, etc. As the problems for the future, there are reliability and safety and the associated standardization. (Mori, K.)
Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.
Krishna Rao, E G
Domestic fuel for cooking forms one of the basic needs of human society. In India, the pressure of this need has exceeded the regeneration potential of the growing forests which supply a large proportion of this basic need. The pressure can be greatly relieved by converting wood to charcoal before it reaches the consumer. The present paper examines this aspect and reviews the modern methods of charcoal production on fuelwood resources. Besides being a choice domestic fuel, charcoal is a valuable raw material in various industries. Charcoal making industry can be established as a rural based industry (as part of community forestry projects) and would generate much needed cash income at grassroot level. The strategy would be important in dealing with the problem of chronic poverty at this level. (Refs. 5).
The state incentives for home-based renewables in the domestic market continue to grow and change creating opportunities for the small wind turbine market. Tracking the opportunities to get small wind turbines included in incentive policies and developing a proactive industry approach is important because market changes can occur anytime. There are near-term opportunities to work with states in developing their strategies for disbursing system benefit charges, adding tags to existing policies for other small renewables to include small wind, and developing state-wide net metering programs. Other opportunities to improve the domestic market exist but will be quite challenging to implement. Other opportunities include federal tax credits, state wind access laws, equipment verification for specific states, and leasing programs for small wind turbines
Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the situation of the domestic workers and focuses on some issues related to its dimension in the world and in Brazil, to their conditions of work and its importance to the labor market and to the households. We aim to demonstrate the relevance of the concept of decent work, promoted by ILO – International Labor Organization, for the domestic work and the need to extend their rights to level them with the other workers. It also highlights the opportunity offered by the next International Labor Conference, in 2010, when one of the issues of the agenda is to discuss the crafting and adoption of international labor standards in the form of a specific convention or recommendation.
I Wayan Subamia
Full Text Available The Research Institute for Freshwater Ornamental Fish Culture has been conducting domestication research since 2004 on adult freshwater puffer fish or buntal broodstock in which the fish were reared in aquaria and fed with small feed fish teri (anchovy and earthworm (Lumbricus sp.. The domestication of freshwater puffer fish or buntal has resulted in successful environmental adaptation and reproductive ability of the fish and further rearing of its fry. The adaptive ability was indicated by its high survival rate, good growth and development, and the reproductive success in spawning, egg production, hatching as well as growing of the larvae to fry stages. The mature gonad stage of the fish was reached at an average body weight of 150 g with a reproductive period of 5 months. The spawning occurred naturally and the eggs were gradually released at interval periods of 14—18 days with egg production rates of 1,000—1,900 eggs per spawning. The highest egg fertilization rate was 96%, with the highest egg hatching rate of 78.6%. Hatching process took place on the 6th to 13th days after spawning process. The surviving larvae began feeding filtered natural foods Moina sp. on the 3rd day up to the 6th day, whereas unfiltered Moina sp. was given from the 7th to 14th days. The fish were fed the live feed Culex sp. from the 15th to 30th days. In the following period the fish was fed earthworm and small feed fish teri (anchovy.
Gately, Dermot; Al-Yousef, Nourah; Al-Sheikh, Hamad M.H.
OPEC′s domestic oil consumption has increased seven-fold in 40 years, to 8.5 million barrels per day (mbd). They consume almost as much oil as China. This constitutes one-fourth of their production. Such rapid growth in consumption (5.1% annually, faster than their income growth of 3.1%) will challenge OPEC′s ability to increase their oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE/EIA) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in OPEC oil consumption – to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in OPEC oil exports with only modest increases in production. We analyze 1971–2010 data econometrically, with panel co-integration methods. We estimate that the income elasticity of consumption is about 1 for energy and oil. This means that OPEC′s energy and oil consumption will grow as rapidly as their income. Hence, continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the unprecedented slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE/EIA and BP – adding an extra 6 mbd of OPEC consumption in 2030. This will have major implications for OPEC production and export levels, and for world oil prices. -- Highlights: •We analyze rapid growth of OPEC oil consumption (sevenfold since 1971: 5.1% annually). •Panel co-integration econometric estimate of income elasticity about 1.0. •Consensus projections (IEA, DOE/EIA) have consistently under projected OPEC consumption. •Future oil market implications if OPEC consumption grows as fast as income (as in past)
Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn
This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....
Bokulic, Caitlin; Henry, Erin; Plesko, George A.
This paper presents a new reconciliation of financial to taxable income, drawing from public financial statement and Schedule M-3 data for a panel of firms. The reconciliation compares the financial statement income of a firm’s consolidated financial statement entities to the financial statement income of a firm’s tax return entities on a worldwide, domestic, and foreign income basis. This analysis highlights the relation between these various measures of corporate income to better understand...
Clément, R. Charles; De Cristo-Araujo, Michelly; Coppens D'Eeckenbrugge, Géo; Alves Pereira, Allessandro; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane
Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and guaraná (Paullinia cupana), while hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), inga (Inga edulis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) are being studied. Emerg...
VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C.; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray
Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Yh regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations’ geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Yh sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Yh divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Yh arose only ∼4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Yh chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Yh chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551
Song, Ligang; Garnaut, Ross; Fang, Cai; Johnston, Lauren
The phrase ‘New Normal’ captures the ongoing shift in the pattern and drivers of China’s economic growth. China’s new growth rate is both slower and imposing difficult structural change. These new economic conditions are challenging yet offer opportunities for China and its economic partners. Reforms must be deepened but also make growth more inclusive and environmentally sustainable, over this decade and beyond. This year’s Update offers both global context and domestic insight into this ch...
Borras-Guevara, Martha Lucia; Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I
Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence. Eighty-three adult heterosexual women (mean age ± SD = 26.7 ± 6.01) answered a survey that included questions about health (e.g. frequency of illnesses during the last year and during childhood), access to media (e.g. time spent watching television, frequency of internet use), education (i.e. highest level achieved) and violence perceptions. Participants' masculinity preferences for Salvadoran, European and Colombian male faces were recorded. Factor analysis revealed two different factors for the answers to questions related to violence. One factor loaded mostly on questions related to public violence and the second factor related to domestic violence. We found that women with higher scores on the domestic violence factor preferred significantly less masculine Colombian male faces. Even after controlling for participant age, education, access to media (TV and internet) and health-related factors, the domestic violence factor contributed significantly to explaining masculinity preferences. The results presented here suggest that women's preferences for masculinity may be a strategy to avoid aggressive partners and that the source of violence matters in mate choice. Women who perceive higher risks of domestic violence prefer less masculine looking partners. Using an experimental approach, we show that Colombian women who feel more in danger of violence within partnership prefer the faces of less masculine males. This was true even after controlling for women's education level
Osei Bonsu Patterson
Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...
Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.
Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562
Weisenberg, Scott A; Perlada, David E
Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole.
Yutian Chen; Pradeep Dubey; Debapriya Sen
We show that offshore outsourcing can occur even when there are no economies of scale or cost advantages for the foreign firms. What drives the phenomenon is that domestic firms, by accepting orders for intermediate goods, incur the disadvantage of becoming Stackelberg followers in the ensuing competition to sell the final good. Thus they have incentive to quote high provider prices to ward off future competitors, compelling them to outsource offshore.
Analysis of the scheme of petroleum product realization at the domestic market of the Russian Federation is presented. The scheme is being realized now in the framework of Lukoil petroleum company and its regional department in down the Volga region in particular. Work of this department in the field of marketing, market analysis and development of regional strategies of expansion of petroleum product commodity markets is described
Mauri, Elisa Marta; Nespoli, Antonella; Persico, Giuseppina; Zobbi, Virna Franca
the aim of this qualitative study was to explore midwives׳ knowledge and clinical experience of domestic violence among pregnant women, with particular emphasis on their perceptions of their professional role. the data collected for this phenomenological-hermeneutical qualitative study were collected using semi-structured interviews, and analysed according to Denzin and Lincoln (2011). fifteen hospital and community midwives working in the local health district of Monza and Brianza in northern Italy were recruited between July and October 2012. three main themes emerged: 'it is difficult to recognise domestic violence' because of a limited knowledge of the most common signs and symptoms of violence, a lack of training, cultural taboos, and the women׳s unwillingness to disclose abuse; 'we have a certain number of means of identifying violence', such as relationships with the woman, specific professional training and screening tools, which have advantages and disadvantages; 'the professionals involved' in identifying and managing family violence highlight the importance of a interdisciplinary approach. midwives acknowledge their crucial role in identifying and managing domestic violence but are still unprepared to do so and indicate various barriers that need to be overcome. There is a need to implement basic university education on the subject and provide specific professional training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poor control has been identified as one of the reasons why recent field trials of domestic heat pumps in the UK have produced disappointing results. Most of the technology in use today uses a thermostatically-controlled fixed speed compressor with a mechanical expansion device. This article investigates improved control of these heat pumps through the design and evaluation of a new multivariable fuzzy logic control system utilising a variable speed compressor drive with capacity control linked through to evaporator superheat control. A new dynamic thermal model of a domestic heat pump validated using experimental data forms the basis of the work. The proposed control system is evaluated using median and extreme daily heating demand profiles for a typical UK house compared with a basic thermostatically-controlled alternative. Results show good tracking of the heating temperature and superheat control variables, reduced cycling and an improvement in performance averaging 20%. - Highlights: • A new dynamic model of a domestic heat pump is developed and validated. • A new multivariable fuzzy logic heat pump control system is developed/reported. • The fuzzy controller regulates both plant capacity and evaporator superheat degree. • Thermal buffer storage is also considered as well as compressor cycling. • The new controller shows good variable tracking and a reduction in energy of 20%.
Schmidt, Gregory K.
NASA created the first virtual institute, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), in 2009 with an aim toward bringing together geographically disparate and multidisciplinary teams toward the goal of answering broad questions in the then-new discipline of astrobiology. With the success of the virtual institute model, NASA then created the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) in 2008 to address questions of science and human exploration of the Moon, and then the NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) in 2012 which addresses key questions in the development of aeronautics technologies. With the broadening of NASA's human exploration targets to include Near Earth Asteroids and the moons of Mars as well as the Moon, the NLSI morphed into the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) in 2012. SSERVI funds domestic research teams to address broad questions at the intersection of science and human exploration, with the underlying principle that science enables human exploration, and human exploration enables science. Nine domestic teams were funded in 2014 for a five-year period to address a variety of different topics, and nine international partners (with more to come) also work with the U.S. teams on a variety of topics of mutual interest. The result is a robust and productive research infrastructure that is not only scientifically productive but can respond to strategic topics of domestic and international interest, and which develops a new generation of researchers. This is all accomplished with the aid of virtual collaboration technologies which enable scientific research at a distance. The virtual institute model is widely applicable to a range of space science and exploration problems.
Wilson, J R
This article discusses the workings of a Consumer Safety System and identifies the problems of collecting and using domestic accident data. In the light of proposed changes in the civil law on product liability, particular consideration is given to the difficulties of providing evidence of consumer product involvement in domestic accidents. The paper is based on one read at the CBI Conference "Product Liability in Perspective", held at the Hilton Hotel, London, 30-31 March, 1977. The views expressed are those of the Institute for Consumer Ergonomics and are not necessarily those of the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection.
Thai, Thi Minh; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée
This paper addresses impacts of the institutional framework on small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) innovation and networking practices. Through an explorative study of a domestic SME-dominated sector in Vietnam, we find that the institutional framework limits incentives for long......-term investments, resulting in exploitative cost-control strategies rather than product-oriented innovation. Due to dominating social norms, SMEs form trust-based friendship networks, potentially limiting knowledge acquisition and weakening business rationality. Institutional pressures reinforce negative...... influences on SMEs' incentives to develop innovation ambidexterity. The findings suggest that new institutional economic sociology provides a promising foundation for understanding how institutional frameworks influence SMEs' innovation practices in emerging economies....
Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik
endogeneity of the acquisition dummy. Overall, our results give no support to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a brain drain of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic......The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...
Frances Dalton Cleaver
Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change. Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.
Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L.; Searle, Steven M. J.; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Davis, Brian W.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Barr, Christina S.; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Murphy, William J.; Warren, Wesley C.
Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592
Among mammals a majority of each individual's daily expectations, motivations, and behaviors are directed to encounters with conspecifics. Therefore the knowledge of the genesis, control, and consequences of social interactions is crucial for understanding their social life. We present here our research on the sociophysiology, domestication, and social evolution of wild (Cavia aperea and Galea musteloides) and domestic (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) guinea pigs, which summarizes general rules for many group-living mammals. It is shown that social interactions have consequences not only for the individuals' reproductive success but also for their degrees of stress and welfare. The way in which individuals interact is controlled not only by the present environment but also by the previous social experiences which they have gathered during their behavioral development. Furthermore, the study of ontogeny does not begin at birth, because prenatal social factors acting on pregnant females can also affect the way in which the offspring will interact when adult. In addition, to understand the genesis of interactions between domesticated animals implies knowledge of the behavioral and physiological changes which occurred during the process of domestication. Finally, understanding the social interactions among individuals of the wild ancestor of the domesticated form requires knowledge of how their behavior patterns were brought about by natural selection during the process of social evolution.
Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C
Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae.
Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette
In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.
Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob
This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... between and exploit the multiple, potentially contradictory institutional logics of the different spheres in which they operate. While much research has elucidated how institutional entrepreneurs effect change, this study illustrates how effective entrepreneurs managing and exploiting institutional...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...
Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn
Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... and institutions. In this paper, we emphasize that in the current context of globalization, firms and actors within firms are continuously developing the way in which they organize work and employment to produce goods and services that are competitive in global markets. The paper argues that new market conditions...... lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create...
Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; McGarry, Julie
To identify, review and critically evaluate published empirical studies concerned with the prevalence, management and support for survivors of domestic violence and abuse who present at emergency department. Domestic violence and abuse is a global phenomenon with a wealth of studies that explore the different aspects of the issue including the economic, social and health effects on survivors and on society as a whole. Emergency department is widely recognised as one healthcare facility where domestic violence and abuse survivors will often disclose domestic violence and abuse. In the UK, National Institute of Clinical Excellence produced guidelines in 2014 requiring all sectors of health care and those they work alongside to recognise support and manage survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Whilst there is an increasing body of research on domestic violence and abuse, limited synthesised work has been conducted in the context of domestic violence and abuse within emergency department. This review encompasses empirical studies conducted in emergency department for screening interventions, management and support for domestic violence and abuse patients including prevalence. This review included studies that included emergency department staff, emergency department service users and domestic violence and abuse survivors. A systematic approach across five electronic bibliographic databases found 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria published between 2000-2015. From the 35 studies, four descriptive overarching themes were identified (i) prevalence of domestic violence and abuse in emergency department, (ii) use of domestic violence and abuse screening tools and emergency department interventions, (iii) current obstacles for staff working in emergency department and (iv) emergency department users and survivor perspectives. Having knowledgeable and supportive emergency department staff can have a positive benefit for the longer-term health of the domestic
Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman
Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik's Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative emotions, deprivation and aggression, can be factor of
Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.
? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview
In ancient times, people practised cleanliness often for religious reasons. In the Greek period the idea that human health is related to the physical environment developed. The notion that microscopic organisms might cause infectious diseases begun to take shape in the 16th and 17th century.
wird vom Neorealismusparadigma unterstotzt, hier dargestel It durch Kenneth Waltz. Das liberate Paradigma unterstUtzt die Perspektive der "Kultur von Zur... Paradigma folgen. Urn diesen aktuellen Weg in Richtung Realismus zu andern, mul$ Deutschland bestimmte Institutionen verandern oder abschaffen. In der
Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)
The Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) was established in 1999 and became operational in 2003 as a semi-autonomous organization accountable to ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...
Görgen, T; Nägele, B
The main task of a federally funded model project in the German city of Hannover was to develop approaches for prevention and intervention in the field of domestic elder abuse. Over a three year period (1998-2001), different approaches--like a telephone helpline for senior citizens, and social workers operating as counsellors for elderly people and their relatives--were tested at a local level. The paper presents results from the evaluation of the project and draws conclusions for future prevention and intervention in the field. The authors argue that the explicit use of the conceptual framework of "violence"/"abuse" creates potentials for scandalizing the issue and is therefore supportive for media appearance, whereas it can impede the approach to the main target groups (elderly people and their relatives) and reduce accessibility of counselling services for potential clients. In the light of evaluation results the focus of the project ("domestic elder abuse" or "violence against elderly people in close relationships") was too narrow for a local project. Counselling services were used in a relatively small number of cases; analyses of cases show that incidents of domestic elder abuse are often embedded in complex problem constellations. Cases brought to the attention of the model project were multifaceted and not limited to incidents of neglect and abuse of elderly care recipients caused by caregiver overload. Cases of intimate violence in partnerships and of intergenerational violence without any of the participants being dependent on care show the need to develop a broader concept of domestic elder abuse. Integration of the concepts of domestic violence, violence against women, elder abuse/neglect and abuse/neglect in caregiving relationships is necessary on a conceptual level as well as on the level of interagency cooperation of institutions dealing with cases of "elder abuse".
A common form of domestic smoke detector is the ionization chamber smoke detector. A small radioactive source provides the ionization and when smoke enters the sensitive volume the change in voltage is sensed electronically. The use of domestic ionization chamber smoke detectors is widespread and is recommended by fire authorities and insurance companies. That one million such detectors were imported into New South Wales in 1994 is an indication of the numbers involved. The typical radioactive source in a domestic smoke detector is Am 241, which is regarded as one of the more hazardous radionuclides. If it is such a hazardous material, should it be allowed in the normal household without any control? Or, in a smoke detector, is it in a less hazardous form than assumed in the ICRP recommendations and do its benefits outweigh its possible risks? In spite of the apparent hazard of Am 241, the possession of the radioactive source in smoke detectors is generally exempt from any form of regulation. Waste regulations, however, set requirements for the disposal of Am 241 and these regulations can be interpreted as applying to smoke detectors. We appear to have a situation where a home owner can legally purchase any number of smoke detectors but when they fail there are codes of practice that prevent them being disposed of. On the other hand, smoke detectors have a direct life saving function and reports indicate that smoke detectors can reduce both injury and property damage by up to 50%. Do these benefits from the use of smoke detectors compensate for any radiological risk? (author)