Full Text Available Vasyl' Danylenko, ed. Ukrains'ka intelihentsiia i vlada: Zvedennia sekretnoho viddilu DPU USRR 1927–1929 rr. [The Ukrainian Intelligentsia and State Power. Summaries of the Secret Department of State Political Administration of the Ukrainian SSR for 1927–1929]. Kyiv: Tempora, 2012. 756 pp. Illustrations. Appendix. Indexes. 70 UAH, cloth.
Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-
Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011
Gaidys, Vladas, 1952-
Leedu turu-uuringute keskuse pikaaegne juht räägib leedulaste hoiakutest, avaliku arvamuse küsitlustest, parteidest, president Dalia Grybauskaitest, ekspresidentidest ja märgib, et uuringud ei ole ära ostetavad
Gaidys, Vladas, 1952-
Leedus aastatel 1997-1999 läbi viidud uuringu käigus selgitati rahvaaarvamus kahe küsimuse kohta: milline on Leedu praegune majanduslik olukord ja milline on teie perekonna majanduslik olukord. Diagrammid
Pokorný, Petr; Sádlo, Jiří; Kaplan, M.; Mikolášová, K.; Veselý, J.
Roč. 57, č. 1 (2005), s. 57-99 ISSN 0323-1267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA8002204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : La-téne period * fortified hilltop site * cistern * pollen analyses * palaeoecology * environmental archaeology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Pokorný, Petr; Boenke, N.; Chytráček, Miloslav; Nováková, K.; Sádlo, Jiří; Veselý, J.; Kuneš, P.; Jankovská, Vlasta
Roč. 15, č. 4 (2006), s. 419-433 ISSN 0939-6314 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA8002204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : pollen analysis * plant macro-remains * Cladocera * land-use history Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2006
Chytráček, Miloslav; Danielisová, Alžběta; Pokorný, P.; Kočár, Petr; Kyselý, René; Kyncl, T.; Sádlo, Jiří; Šmejda, L.; Zavřel, J.
Roč. 103, prosinec (2012), s. 273-338 ISSN 0031-0506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA8002204 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M300020903 Program:M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : fortified settlement * power center * fortifications * Hallstatt period * La Tène period * cistern * radiocarbon dating * dendrochronological analysis * pollen analysis Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Full Text Available Vprašal si me, Lucilij, kako to, da se dobrim ljudem pripeti toliko hudega, če pa svetu vlada Previdnost. O tem bi bilo primerneje govoriti v posebni razpravi, kjer bi skušal dokazati, da ves svet vodi božja Previdnost in da Bog bdi nad nami. Tebi pa je ljubše, če iz celote iztrgam le delček in ovržem en sam ugovor, ne da bi se dotaknil spornega vprašanja. Zato bom zagovarjal ravnanje bogov, kar ni tako težko.
Full Text Available Ovaj rad bavi se ulogom odgoja i obrazovanja u autoritarnom društvu u McEwanovu romanu Dijete u vremenu. Manipulacijom odgoja i obrazovanja omogućuje se prikriveno zadiranje u intimu obitelji i slobode pojedinaca, prekrajanje društva i njegovih vrijednosti po željama i volji male skupine ljudi koja drži moć u svojim rukama. McEwan se koristi sveobuhvatnosti odgoja kao društvene pojave da bi nam dao savršen uvid u jedno društvo i njegove ideale. Odgoj ima ključnu ulogu u indoktrinaciji i u formiranju odnosa pojedinca prema autoritetu. Opisujući navodno sastavljanje priručnika za odgoj djece, koji je naručila Vlada, McEwan se bavi odnosima između sustava i pojedinca, između javnog i privatnog, individualne slobode i javnog interesa.
Matowane, Retshedisitswe Godfrey; Wieteska, Lukasz; Bamal, Hans Denis; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Van Wyk, Mari; Manume, Nessie Agnes; Abdalla, Sara Mohamed Hasaan; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Gront, Dominik; Syed, Khajamohiddin
Sporotrichosis is an emerging chronic, granulomatous, subcutaneous, mycotic infection caused by Sporothrix species. Sporotrichosis is treated with the azole drug itraconazole as ketoconazole is ineffective. It is a well-known fact that azole drugs act by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins. To date, nothing is known about P450s in Sporothrix schenckii and the molecular basis of its resistance to ketoconazole. Here we present genome-wide identification, annotation, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive P450 family-level comparative analysis of S. schenckii P450s with pathogenic fungi P450s, along with a rationale for ketoconazole resistance by S. schenckii based on in silico structural analysis of CYP51. Genome data-mining of S. schenckii revealed 40 P450s in its genome that can be grouped into 32 P450 families and 39 P450 subfamilies. Comprehensive comparative analysis of P450s revealed that S. schenckii shares 11 P450 families with plant pathogenic fungi and has three unique P450 families: CYP5077, CYP5386 and CYP5696 (novel family). Among P450s, CYP51, the main target of azole drugs was also found in S. schenckii. 3D modeling of S. schenckii CYP51 revealed the presence of characteristic P450 motifs with exceptionally large reductase interaction site 2. In silico analysis revealed number of mutations that can be associated with ketoconazole resistance, especially at the channel entrance to the active site. One of possible reason for better stabilization of itraconazole, compared to ketoconazole, is that the more extended molecule of itraconazole may form a hydrogen bond with ASN-230. This in turn may explain its effectiveness against S. schenckii vis-a-vis resistant to ketoconazole. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Castrignanò, Silvia; D'Avino, Serena; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Catucci, Gianluca; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco
Chimerogenesis involving cytochromes P450 is a successful approach to generate catalytically self-sufficient enzymes. However, the connection between the different functional modules should allow a certain degree of flexibility in order to obtain functional and catalytically efficient proteins. We previously applied the molecular Lego approach to develop a chimeric P450 3A4 enzyme linked to the reductase domain of P450 BM3 (BMR). Three constructs were designed with the connecting loop containing no glycine, 3 glycine or 5 glycine residues and showed a different catalytic activity and coupling efficiency. Here we investigate how the linker affects the ability of P450 3A4 to bind substrates and inhibitors. We measure the electron transfer rates and the catalytic properties of the enzyme also in the presence of ketoconazole as inhibitor. The data show that the construct 3A4-5GLY-BMR with the longest loop better retains the binding ability and cooperativity for testosterone, compared to P450 3A4. In both 3A4-3GLY-BMR and 3A4-5GLY-BMR, the substrate induces an increase in the first electron transfer rate and a shorter lag phase related to a domain rearrangements, when compared to the construct without Gly. These data are consistent with docking results and secondary structure predictions showing a propensity to form helical structures in the loop of the 3A4-BMR and 3A4-3GLY-BMR. All three chimeras retain the ability to bind the inhibitor ketoconazole and show an IC 50 comparable with those reported for the wild type protein. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nelson, David R
Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses. CYPs from the fungi, one of the most diverse groups, are being explored and organized as nearly 800 fungal species are now sequenced. The CYP clan structure in fungi is emerging with 805 CYP families sorting into 32 CYP clans. >3000 bacterial sequences are named, mostly from terrestrial or freshwater sources. Of 18,379 bacterial sequences downloaded from the CYPED database, all are >43% identical to named CYPs. Therefore, they fit in the 602 named P450 prokaryotic families. Diversity in this group is becoming saturated, however 25% of 3305 seawater bacterial P450s did not match known P450 families, indicating marine bacterial CYPs are not as well sampled as land/freshwater based bacterial CYPs. Future sequencing plans of the Genome 10K project, i5k and GIGA (Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance) are expected to produce more than one million cytochrome P450 sequences by 2020. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mak, Piotr J; Denisov, Ilia G
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are thiolate heme proteins that can, often under physiological conditions, catalyze many distinct oxidative transformations on a wide variety of molecules, including relatively simple alkanes or fatty acids, as well as more complex compounds such as steroids and exogenous pollutants. They perform such impressive chemistry utilizing a sophisticated catalytic cycle that involves a series of consecutive chemical transformations of heme prosthetic group. Each of these steps provides a unique spectral signature that reflects changes in oxidation or spin states, deformation of the porphyrin ring or alteration of dioxygen moieties. For a long time, the focus of cytochrome P450 research was to understand the underlying reaction mechanism of each enzymatic step, with the biggest challenge being identification and characterization of the powerful oxidizing intermediates. Spectroscopic methods, such as electronic absorption (UV-Vis), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), Mössbauer, X-ray absorption (XAS), and resonance Raman (rR), have been useful tools in providing multifaceted and detailed mechanistic insights into the biophysics and biochemistry of these fascinating enzymes. The combination of spectroscopic techniques with novel approaches, such as cryoreduction and Nanodisc technology, allowed for generation, trapping and characterizing long sought transient intermediates, a task that has been difficult to achieve using other methods. Results obtained from the UV-Vis, rR and EPR spectroscopies are the main focus of this review, while the remaining spectroscopic techniques are briefly summarized. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This volume includes expanded lecture notes from the School and Conference in Probability Theory held at ICTP in May, 2001. Probability theory is a very large area, too large for a single school and conference. The organizers, G. Lawler, C. Newman, and S. Varadhan chose to focus on a number of active research areas that have their roots in statistical physics. The pervasive theme in these lectures is trying to find the large time or large space behaviour of models defined on discrete lattices. Usually the definition of the model is relatively simple: either assigning a particular weight to each possible configuration (equilibrium statistical mechanics) or specifying the rules under which the system evolves (nonequilibrium statistical mechanics). Interacting particle systems is the area of probability that studies the evolution of particles (either finite or infinite in number) under random motions. The evolution of particles depends on the positions of the other particles; often one assumes that it depends only on the particles that are close to the particular particle. Thomas Liggett's lectures give an introduction to this very large area. Claudio Landim's follows up by discussing hydrodynamic limits of particle systems. The goal of this area is to describe the long time, large system size dynamics in terms of partial differential equations. The area of random media is concerned with the properties of materials or environments that are not homogeneous. Percolation theory studies one of the simplest stated models for impurities - taking a lattice and removing some of the vertices or bonds. Luiz Renato G. Fontes and Vladas Sidoravicius give a detailed introduction to this area. Random walk in random environment combines two sources of randomness - a particle performing stochastic motion in which the transition probabilities depend on position and have been chosen from some probability distribution. Alain-Sol Sznitman gives a survey of recent developments in this