WorldWideScience

Sample records for domain wall problem

  1. Matter antimatter domains: A possible solution to the CP domain wall problem in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.; Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.

  2. Domain wall diffusion and domain wall softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W T; Salje, E K H; Bismayer, U

    2003-01-01

    A number of experimental and computational studies of materials have shown that transport rates in domain walls may significantly differ from those in the bulk. One possible explanation for enhanced transport in a domain wall is that the domain wall is elastically soft with respect to the bulk. We investigate the softening of a ferroelastic domain wall in a simple, generic model. We calculate saddle point energies of solute atoms in the bulk and domain wall, using a geometry such that variation in the saddle point energy cannot be attributed to the structural differences of the bulk and the wall, but must instead be attributed to softening of the wall. Our results show a reduction of the saddle point energy in the wall, thus indicating that, in this model at least, domain walls are elastically soft compared with the bulk. A simple analysis based on an Einstein model allows us to explain the observed softening of the wall

  3. Flavor connections and neutrino mass hierarchy in variant invisible axion models without domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, C.Q.; Ng, J.N.

    1988-08-01

    New types of invisible axion model based on the recent variant axion models are presented. They belong to the N=1 type model and hence are free of domain wall problems. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry transformations are not totally generation and flavor blind, which may help in understanding the small values of electron and u-quark and large t-quark masses. The light neutrino mass pattern in the two Higgs singlet models can have a very different hierarchy that differs from the other type invisible axion model. (Author) (25 refs.)

  4. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  5. Domain Walls with Strings Attached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-08-20

    We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.

  6. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  7. Flexoelectricity in nematic domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Steve J

    2008-07-01

    Flexoelectric effects are studied in the domain walls of a nematic liquid crystal device showing the Freedericksz transition. Walls parallel to the alignment direction have a strong twist distortion and an electro-optic effect dominated by e1-e3 is seen. Walls perpendicular to the alignment direction have a strong splay-bend distortion and an electro-optic effect dominated by e1+e3 is seen. This allows the study of both flexoelectric coefficient combinations in a single device.

  8. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the scale of left-right symmetry breaking. Keywords. Leptogenesis; baryogenesis; domain walls; left-right symmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 98.80.Cq; 98.80.Ft. Explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem.

  9. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  10. Skyrmions from Instantons inside Domain Walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Tong, David

    2005-01-01

    Some years ago, Atiyah and Manton described a method to construct approximate Skyrmion solutions from Yang-Mills instantons. Here we present a dynamical realization of this construction using domain walls in a five-dimensional gauge theory. The non-Abelian gauge symmetry is broken in each vacuum but restored in the core of the domain wall, allowing instantons to nestle inside the wall. We show that the world volume dynamics of the wall is given by the Skyrme model, including the four-derivative term, and the instantons appear as domain wall Skyrmions

  11. Planar domain walls in black hole spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, Filip; Mach, Patryk

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of low-mass, planar domain walls in the so-called ϕ4 model of the scalar field on the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. We focus on a transit of a domain wall through a black hole and solve numerically the equations of motion for a range of parameters of the domain wall and the black hole. We observe a behavior resembling an occurrence of ringing modes. Perturbations of domain walls vanish during latter evolution, suggesting their stability against a passage through the black hole. The results obtained for Kerr and Reissner-Nordström black holes are also compared.

  12. Superfast domain walls in KTP single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A. A.; Alam, M. A.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    Potassium titanyl phosphate KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystals with periodical ferroelectric domain structures are one of the most promising materials for nonlinear optics, in which the main types of nonlinear optical interactions have been demonstrated. Despite the crucial importance of the in situ visualization of domain structure kinetics for creation of high quality periodical domain gratings, there are only a few works concerning KTP. We present the results of in situ visualization of domain kinetics in KTP with the time resolution down to 12.5 μs and simultaneous recording of the switching current data. The wide range of wall velocities with two orders of magnitude difference was observed for switching in a uniform electric field. The kinetic maps allowed analyzing the spatial distribution of wall motion velocities and classifying the walls by velocity ranges. The distinguished slow, fast, and superfast types of domain walls differed by their orientation. It was shown that the fast and slow domain walls provided the smooth input to the switching current, whereas the short-lived superfast walls resulted in short current peaks. The mobility and the threshold fields for all types of domain walls were estimated. The revealed increase in the wall velocity with deviation from low-index crystallographic planes for slow and fast walls was considered in terms of determined step generation and anisotropic kink motion. The obtained results are important for further development of domain engineering in KTP required for creation of high power, reliable, and effective coherent light sources.

  13. Theory of topological edges and domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, F.A.; Slingerland, J.K.; Haaker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate domain walls between topologically ordered phases in two spatial dimensions. We present a method which allows for the determination of the superselection sectors of excitations of such walls and which leads to a unified description of the kinematics of a wall and the two phases to

  14. Identification of pseudomurein cell wall binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbakkers, Peter J M; Geerts, Wim J; Ayman-Oz, Nilgün A; Keltjens, Jan T

    2006-12-01

    Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus is a methanogenic Gram-positive microorganism with a cell wall consisting of pseudomurein. Currently, no information is available on extracellular pseudomurein biology and so far only two prophage pseudomurein autolysins, PeiW and PeiP, have been reported. In this paper we show that PeiW and PeiP contain two different N-terminal pseudomurein cell wall binding domains. This finding was used to identify a novel domain, PB007923, on the M. thermautotrophicus genome present in 10 predicted open reading frames. Three homologues were identified in the Methanosphaera stadtmanae genome. Binding studies of fusion constructs of three separate PB007923 domains to green fluorescent protein revealed that it also constituted a cell wall binding domain. Both prophage domains and the PB007923 domain bound to the cell walls of Methanothermobacter species and fluorescence microscopy showed a preference for the septal region. Domain specificities were revealed by binding studies with other pseudomurein-containing archaea. Localized binding was observed for M. stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter species, while others stained evenly. The identification of the first pseudomurein cell wall binding domains reveals the dynamics of the pseudomurein cell wall and provides marker proteins to study the extracellular pseudomurein biology of M. thermautotrophicus and of other pseudomurein-containing archaea.

  15. Axially symmetric domain wall in 2+1-dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Jiro; Yamanaka, Yuki.

    1991-04-01

    An axially symmetric domain wall (string) in 2+1-dimensions is investigated in the synchronous gauge. This problem is also regarded as a cylindrical symmetric domain wall (membrane) in 3+1-dimensions. Using Israel's method, we present a general solution. As a special case, a static solution is obtained which agrees with the previous result of Deser and Jackiw obtained by another method. (author)

  16. Domain walls and spacetime-filling branes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Wess, J; Ivanov, EA

    1999-01-01

    We discuss branes with one transversal direction (domain walls) and no transversal direction (spacetime-filling branes). In particular, we briefly discuss a relationship between spacetime-filling branes and superstring theories with sixteen supercharges.

  17. Booted domain wall and charged Kaigorodov space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen

    2003-01-01

    The Kaigorodov space is a homogeneous Einstein space and it describes a pp-wave propagating in anti-de Sitter space. It is conjectured in the literature that M-theory or string theory on the Kaigorodov space times a compact manifold is dual to a conformal field theory in an infinitely-boosted frame with constant momentum density. In this Letter we present a charged generalization of the Kaigorodov space by boosting a non-extremal charged domain wall to the ultrarelativity limit where the boost velocity approaches the speed of light. The finite boost of the domain wall solution gives the charged generalization of the Carter-Novotny-Horsky metric. We study the thermodynamics associated with the charged Carter-Novotny-Horsky space and discuss its relation to that of the static black domain walls and its implications in the domain wall/QFT (quantum field theory) correspondence

  18. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  19. Stable charged antiparallel domain walls in hyperferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    Charge-neutral 180° domain walls that separate domains of antiparallel polarization directions are common structural topological defects in ferroelectrics. In normal ferroelectrics, charged 180° domain walls running perpendicular to the polarization directions are highly energetically unfavorable because of the depolarization field and are difficult to stabilize. We explore both neutral and charged 180° domain walls in hyperferroelectrics, a class of proper ferroelectrics with persistent polarization in the presence of a depolarization field, using density functional theory. We obtain zero temperature equilibrium structures of head-to-head and tail-to-tail walls in recently discovered ABC-type hexagonal hyperferroelectrics. Charged domain walls can also be stabilized in canonical ferroelectrics represented by LiNbO3 without any dopants, defects or mechanical clamping. First-principles electronic structure calculations show that charged domain walls can reduce and even close the band gap of host materials and support quasi-two-dimensional electron(hole) gas with enhanced electrical conductivity.

  20. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  1. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  2. Oscillatory domain wall velocity of current-induced domain wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.J.; Seo, S.M.; Lee, T.D.; Lee, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of Oersted field (H Oe ) on current-induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) in magnetic nanowires. We found that H Oe generates spin waves. Because of interaction between domain wall (DW) and spin wave, time-dependent wall velocity is oscillatory at the early stage of wall motion. The period of the oscillatory DW motion is in antiphase with the period of out-of-plane (OOP) magnetization oscillation inside the DW. The oscillatory wall velocity is suppressed as the thickness of nanowire decreases because of strong demagnetization field

  3. Domain walls in single-chain magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianet, Vivien; Urdampilleta, Matias; Colin, Thierry; Clérac, Rodolphe; Coulon, Claude

    2017-12-01

    The topology and creation energy of domain walls in different magnetic chains (called Single-Chain Magnets or SCMs) are discussed. As these domain walls, that can be seen as "defects", are known to control both static and dynamic properties of these one-dimensional systems, their study and understanding are necessary first steps before a deeper discussion of the SCM properties at finite temperature. The starting point of the paper is the simple regular ferromagnetic chain for which the characteristics of the domain walls are well known. Then two cases will be discussed (i) the "mixed chains" in which isotropic and anisotropic classical spins alternate, and (ii) the so-called "canted chains" where two different easy axis directions are present. In particular, we show that "strictly narrow" domain walls no longer exist in these more complex cases, while a cascade of phase transitions is found for canted chains as the canting angle approaches 45∘. The consequence for thermodynamic properties is briefly discussed in the last part of the paper.

  4. Compactified webs and domain wall partition functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper we use the topological vertex formalism to calculate a generalization of the ''domain wall'' partition function of M-strings. This generalization allows calculation of partition function of certain compactified webs using a simple gluing algorithm similar to M-strings case. (orig.)

  5. Domain wall partition functions and KP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M; Zuparic, M

    2009-01-01

    We observe that the partition function of the six-vertex model on a finite square lattice with domain wall boundary conditions is (a restriction of) a KP τ function and express it as an expectation value of charged free fermions (up to an overall normalization)

  6. Micromagnetic analysis of current-induced domain wall motion in a bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Takashi, E-mail: komine@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Aono, Tomosuke [Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 316-8511 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate current-induced domain wall motion in bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) coupling by modeling two body problems for motion equations of domain wall. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling and magnetostatic interactions on current-induced domain wall motion in SAF nanowires was also investigated. By assuming the rigid wall model for translational motion, the interlayer exchange coupling and the magnetostatic interaction between walls and domains in SAF nanowires enhances domain wall speed without any spin-orbit-torque. The enhancement of domain wall speed was discussed by energy distribution as a function of wall angle configuration in bilayer nanowires.

  7. Fast domain wall dynamics in amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, R., E-mail: rvarga@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54, Kosice (Slovakia); Klein, P.; Richter, K. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54, Kosice (Slovakia); Zhukov, A. [Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimica, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain); Vazquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    We have studied the effect of thermal treatment on the domain wall dynamics of FeSiB and FeCoMoB microwires. It was shown that annealing in transversal magnetic field increases the domain wall mobility as well as the domain wall velocity. Annealing under the tensile stress hinders the appearance of the monodomain structure but application of tensile stress leads to the magnetic bistability having the domain wall mobility twice higher that in as-cast state. Further increase of the tensile stress reduces the domain wall mobility but the domain wall velocity increases as a result of the decrease of critical propagation field. Annealing of the FeCoMoB microwire by Joule heating leads to introduction of the circular anisotropy that favors the vortex domain wall. Such treatment increases the domain wall mobility as well as the maximum domain wall velocity.

  8. Novel domain wall dynamics in synthetic antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we review fascinating new mechanisms on recently observed remarkable current driven domain wall motion in nanowires formed from perpendicularly magnetized synthetic antiferromagnets interfaced with heavy metallic layers, sources of spin-orbit torques. All the associated torques such as volumetric adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin-transfer-torque, spin-orbit torques, shape anisotropy field torques, Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction torques and most importantly a new powerful torque, exchange coupling torque, will be discussed based on an analytical model that provides an intuitive description of domain wall dynamics in synthetic ferromagnets as well as synthetic antiferromagnets. In addition, the current driven DW motion in the presence of in-plane fields will be investigated, thus deepening our knowledge about the role of the exchange coupling torque, which will be of potential use for application to various novel spintronic devices.

  9. Finite Temperature Qcd With Domain Wall Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, G T

    2001-01-01

    Domain wall fermions are a new lattice fermion formulation which preserves the full chiral symmetry of the continuum at finite lattice spacing, up to terms exponentially small in an extra parameter. We discuss the main features of the formulation and its application to study of QCD with two light fermions of equal mass. We also present numerical studies of the two flavor QCD thermodynamics with aT = 1/4.

  10. Domain Walls and Matter-Antimatter Domains in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgov A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a scenario of spontaneous (or dynamical C and CP violation according to which it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated matter and antimatter domains. So this scenario does not suffer from the problem of domain walls. According to this scenario the width of the domain wall should grow exponentially to prevent annihilation at the domain boundaries. Though there is a classical result obtained by Basu and Vilenkin that the width of the wall tends to the one of the stationary solution (constant physical width. That is why we considered thick domain walls in a de Sitter universe following paper by Basu and Vilenkin. However, we were interested not only in stationary solutions found therein, but also investigated the general case of domain wall evolution with time. When the wall thickness parameter, δ0 , is smaller than H−1/2 where H is the Hubble parameter in de Sitter space-time, then the stationary solutions exist, and initial field configurations tend with time to the stationary ones. However, there are no stationary solutions for δ0>H−1/2 We have calculated numerically the rate of the wall expansion in this case and have found that the width of the wall grows exponentially fast for δ0≫H−1 An explanation for the critical value δ0c=H−1/2 is also proposed.

  11. Topological Luttinger liquids from decorated domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Daniel E.; Scaffidi, Thomas; Vasseur, Romain

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a systematic construction of a gapless symmetry-protected topological phase in one dimension by "decorating" the domain walls of Luttinger liquids. The resulting strongly interacting phases provide a concrete example of a gapless symmetry-protected topological (gSPT) phase with robust symmetry-protected edge modes. Using boundary conformal field theory arguments, we show that while the bulks of such gSPT phases are identical to conventional Luttinger liquids, their boundary critical behavior is controlled by a different, strongly coupled renormalization group fixed point. Our results are checked against extensive density matrix renormalization group calculations.

  12. Domain Wall Evolution in Phase Transforming Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Domain wall motion and electric?field?induced strains in NBT ?xBT solid solutions from in situ neutron diffraction,” T.-M. Usher,* J. S. Forrester, E...Morphotropic Phase Boundary of NBT ?BT,” L. M. Denis,* J. Glaum, M. Hoffman, J. Forrester, and J. L. Jones, Electronic Materials and Applications 2013...titanate (PZT) and lead-free compositions Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (NKN) and Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ( NBT ). This past year, we reported results on piezoelectric compositions

  13. Origin of stationary domain wall enhanced ferroelectric susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-03-01

    Ferroelectrics usually adopt a multidomain state with domain walls separating domains with polarization axes oriented differently. It has long been recognized that domain walls can dramatically impact the properties of ferroelectric materials. The enhancement of low-field susceptibility/permittivity under subswitching conditions is usually attributed to reversible domain wall vibration. Recent experiments highlight the stationary domain wall contribution to the dielectric susceptibility irrespective of any lateral displacements or deformations of the wall. We study the effects of domain walls on the low-field permittivity of PbTiO3 with density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations. The static dielectric constant is calculated as a function of increasing domain wall density and temperature. We find an increase of dielectric permittivity with increasing domain wall density, which is expected to occur at a low driving field where the lateral motion of domain walls is forbidden. Real-space decomposition of the dielectric response reveals that frustrated dipoles within the finite width of the domain walls are responsible for the enhanced low-field permittivity. We explain the 100 % enhancement of the dielectric susceptibility form domain walls, which arises from the softer potential wells within them.

  14. Domain Wall Mobility in Co-Based Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kladivova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of the domain wall between opposite circularly magnetized domains in amorphous cylindrical sample with circular easy direction is theoretically studied. The wall is driven by DC current. Various mechanisms which influence the wall velocity were taken into account: current magnitude, deformation of the mowing wall, Hall effect, axially magnetized domain in the middle of the wire. Theoretical results obtained are in a good agreement with experiments on Cobased amorphous ferromagnetic wires.

  15. Gravitational field of spherical domain wall in higher dimension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An exact solution of Einstein's equations is found describing the gravitational field of a spherical domain wall with nonvanishing stress component in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Also we have studied the motion of test particle around the domain wall.

  16. Spin accumulation and magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzero, Maxim; Gor'kov, Lev; Zvezdin, Anatolii; Zvezdin, Konstantin

    2003-03-01

    Taking into account the difference in the density of states between the spin's majority and minority bands in a ferromagnet, we obtain a spatial behavior of the electrostatic potential at the domain wall boundaries. The value of discontinuity oscillates with the number of domains and contains information about system as a whole, such as the positions of the domain walls or collapse of the domain walls when an external magnetic field is applied. We explain experimentally observed values of magnetoresistance in terms of spin accumulation effects. For the latter we suggest that in nanowires made of itinerant ferromagnets a new type of domain walls is realized, in which system prefers to reduce the value of magnetization rather then rotating it going from one domain to another. We also discuss the questions related to conditions of stability of linear domain walls.

  17. Ratchet effect of the domain wall by asymmetric magnetostatic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hong-Guang; Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; Shim, Je-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2011-11-01

    We investigate a ratchet effect of magnetic domain wall motion in a ferromagnetic nanowire under AC magnetic fields using micromagnetic simulation. The ratchet effect for a transverse domain wall is achieved using an asymmetric magnetic potential generated by stray fields from non-contact trapezoidal ferromagnetic stubs near the straight nanowire. The ratchet phenomenon has been examined with various combinations of amplitude and frequency of the driving AC field. Interestingly, we find that the domain wall propagates along a preferential direction by the diode-like ratchet effect under AC field. The propagation of the domain wall strongly depends on the profile of the asymmetrical magnetic potentials and the driving AC field characteristics.

  18. Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Pedersen, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    Domain walls in periodically poled ferroelectric KTiOPO4 and LiNbO3 crystals are observed by making use of second-harmonic (SH) generation enhancement in the transition regions between neighboring domains. SH images of domain walls obtained with various samples for different polarization...... configurations are presented. The SH generation enhancement is found especially pronounced for the polarization of the SH radiation being perpendicular to the domain walls. The origin and selection rules for the contrast in SH images of domain walls are discussed. The results obtained suggest that the domain...... walls produce a deteriorating effect on SH generation by quasiphase matching. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(98)02039-7]....

  19. Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, T.; Christ, N.H.; Frison, J.; Garron, N.; Hudspith, R.J.; Izubuchi, T.; Janowski, T.; Jung, C.; Jüttner, A.; Kelly, C.; Kenway, R.D.; Lehner, C.; Marinkovic, M.; Mawhinney, R.D.; McGlynn, G.; Murphy, D.J.; Ohta, S.; Portelli, A.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Soni, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results for several light hadronic quantities ($f_\\pi$, $f_K$, $B_K$, $m_{ud}$, $m_s$, $t_0^{1/2}$, $w_0$) obtained from simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly-physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O(3)%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum `global fit' with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of $m_\\pi$, $m_K$ and $m_\\Omega$ to determine the two quark masses and the scale - all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with sub-percent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including: $f_\\pi$ = 130.2(9) MeV; $f_K$ = 155.5(8) MeV; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the $\\bar {\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, $B_K$...

  20. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    KAUST Repository

    Jué, Emilie

    2015-12-21

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  1. Spin motive forces due to magnetic vortices and domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.E.; Kruis, G.C.F.L.; Lavrijsen, R.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Koopmans, B.; Duine, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    We study spin motive forces, that is, spin-dependent forces and voltages induced by time-dependent magnetization textures, for moving magnetic vortices and domain walls. First, we consider the voltage generated by a one-dimensional field-driven domain wall. Next, we perform detailed calculations on

  2. One loop calculation of QCD with domain-wall quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S.; Taniguchi, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics

    1998-04-01

    We calculate one loop corrections to the domain-wall quark propagator in QCD. We show how the wave function is renormalized in this theory. Especially we are interested in the behavior of the massless fermion mode, which exists near the domain wall at the tree level. We show that this massless mode is stable against the quantum correction. (orig.). 5 refs.

  3. On domain-wall/QFT dualities in various dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Klaus; Bergshoeff, Eric; Halbersma, Rein; Schaar, Jan Pieter van der

    1999-01-01

    We investigate domain-wall/quantum field-theory correspondences in various dimensions. Our general analysis covers not only the well studied cases in 10 and 11 dimensions, but also enables us to discuss new cases like a type I/heterotic 6-brane in 10 dimensions and domain-wall dualities in lower

  4. Control of Domain Wall Polarity by Current Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaverbeke, A.; Bischof, A.; Allenspach, R.

    2008-09-01

    Direct observation of current-induced propagation of purely transverse magnetic domain walls with spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy is reported in Fe30Ni70 nanowires. After propagation, the domain walls keep their transverse nature but switch polarity in some cases. For uniform Ni70Fe30 wires, the effect is random and illustrates domain-wall propagation above the Walker threshold. In the case of Ni70Fe30/Fe wires, the transverse magnetization component in the wall is entirely determined by the polarity of the current pulse, an effect that is not reconciled by present theories even when taking into account the nonuniform Oersted field generated by the current.

  5. Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lazanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.

  6. Investigation of domain walls in GMO crystals by conoscope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, I.R.; Filimonova, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The patterns of polarized beam interference (conoscopic patterns) enable assessment of orientation and parameters of crystal's optical indicatrix. The presented conoscopic patterns of gadolinium molybdate crystal in the vicinity to plane and wedge-live domain walls differ from conoscopic patterns of the crystals far away from these walls which allows to spear about changes occurring in the crystal in the vicinity to domain walls

  7. SAW assisted domain wall motion in Co/Pt multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrington, Westin; Singh, Uday; Dominguez, Maya Abo; Alexander, James Rehwaldt; Nepal, Rabindra; Adenwalla, S.

    2018-01-01

    The motion of domain walls in thin ferromagnetic films is of both fundamental and technological interest. In particular, the ability to use drivers other than magnetic fields to control the positions of domain walls could be exciting for memory applications. Here, we show that high frequency dynamic strain produced by surface acoustic waves is an efficient driver of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy. A standing surface acoustic wave of resonant frequency 96.6 MHz increases the domain wall velocities in thin films of [Co/Pt]n by an order of magnitude compared to magnetic fields alone. This effect is highly resonant, effectively ruling out thermal effects, and the velocity shows distinct variations in the domain wall velocity at the nodes and antinodes of the standing wave. The data indicate that standing strain waves can drive the domain wall motion from the creep to the flow regime as the amplitude increases. Hence, strain waves could provide an alternative route to rapid domain wall motion.

  8. Supertube domain walls and elimination of closed timelike curves in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav

    2004-01-01

    We show that some novel physics of supertubes removes closed timelike curves from many supersymmetric spaces which naively suffer from this problem. The main claim is that supertubes naturally form domain walls, so while analytical continuation of the metric would lead to closed timelike curves, across the domain wall the metric is nondifferentiable, and the closed timelike curves are eliminated. In the examples we study, the metric inside the domain wall is always of the Goedel type, while outside the shell it looks like a localized rotating object, often a rotating black hole. Thus this mechanism prevents the appearance of closed timelike curves behind the horizons of certain rotating black holes

  9. Bichiral structure of ferroelectric domain walls driven by flexoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, P. V.; Tagantsev, A. K.; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Setter, N.

    2012-10-01

    The influence of flexoelectric coupling on the internal structure of neutral domain walls in the tetragonal phase of perovskite ferroelectrics is studied. The effect is shown to lower the symmetry of 180∘ walls which are oblique with respect to the cubic crystallographic axes, while {100} and {110} walls stay “untouched.” Being of the Ising type in the absence of the flexoelectric interaction, the oblique domain walls acquire a new polarization component with a structure qualitatively different from the classical Bloch-wall structure. In contrast to the Bloch-type walls, where the polarization vector draws a helix on passing from one domain to the other, in the flexoeffect-affected wall, the polarization rotates in opposite directions on the two sides of the wall and passes through zero in its center. Since the resulting polarization profile is invariant upon inversion with respect to the wall center, it does not break the wall symmetry, in contrast to the classical Bloch-type walls. The flexoelectric coupling lowers the domain wall energy and gives rise to its additional anisotropy, which is comparable to that conditioned by elastic anisotropy. The atomic order-of-magnitude estimates shows that the new polarization component P2 may be comparable with spontaneous polarization Ps, thus suggesting that, in general, it is mandatory to include the flexoelectric coupling in domain wall simulations in ferroelectrics. Calculations performed for barium titanate yield the maximal value of P2, which is much smaller than that of the spontaneous polarization. This smallness is attributed to an anomalously small value of a component of the “strain-polarization” electrostrictive tensor in this material.

  10. Individual domain wall resistance in submicron ferromagnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneau, R; Warin, P; Attané, J P; Petej, I; Beigné, C; Fermon, C; Klein, O; Marty, A; Ott, F; Samson, Y; Viret, M

    2002-04-15

    The resistance generated by individual domain walls is measured in a FePd nanostructure. Combining transport and magnetic imaging measurements, the intrinsic domain wall resistance is quantified. It is found positive and of a magnitude consistent with that predicted by models based on spin scattering effects within the walls. This magnetoresistance at a nanometer scale allows a direct counting of the number of walls inside the nanostructure. The effect is then used to measure changes in the magnetic configuration of submicron stripes under application of a magnetic field.

  11. Even-odd effects in magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzero, M.; Gor'kov, L. P.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Zvezdin, K. A.

    2003-03-01

    The difference in the density of states for the spin’s majority and minority bands in a ferromagnet changes the electrostatic potential along the domains, introducing discontinuities of the potential at domain boundaries. The value of the discontinuity oscillates with the number of domains. Discontinuity depends on the positions of domain walls, their motion, or the collapse of domain walls in applied magnetic field. Large values of the magnetoresistance are explained in terms of spin accumulation. We suggest a type of domain wall in nanowires made of itinerant ferromagnets, in which the magnetization vector changes without rotation. The absence of transverse magnetization components allows considerable spin accumulation, assuming the spin relaxation length LS is large enough.

  12. Gravitational waves from domain walls and their implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Nakayama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the impact of domain-wall annihilation on the currently ongoing and planned gravitational wave experiments, including a case in which domain walls experience a frictional force due to interactions with the ambient plasma. We show the sensitivity reach in terms of physical parameters, namely, the wall tension and the annihilation temperature. We find that a Higgs portal scalar, which stabilizes the Higgs potential at high energy scales, can form domain walls whose annihilation produces a large amount of gravitational waves within the reach of the advanced LIGO experiment (O5. Domain wall annihilation can also generate baryon asymmetry if the scalar is coupled to either SU(2L gauge fields or the (B−L current. This is a variant of spontaneous baryogenesis, but it naturally avoids the isocurvature constraint due to the scaling behavior of the domain-wall evolution. We delineate the parameter space where the domain-wall baryogenesis works successfully and discuss its implications for the gravitational wave experiments.

  13. Eight-Vertex Model of Two-Dimensional Domain Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Franz S.

    1983-09-01

    A statistical model of interacting linear domain walls (occurring, e.g., in monolayer adsorbates) is solved on the square lattice with use of exact and numerical results of an equivalent eight-vertex model. For attractive walls a commensurate and an incommensurate phase are separated by a first-order line for stiff walls and by a fluid phase for flexible walls. The phase boundaries with the fluid phase are Ising-like. For repulsive stiff walls an intermediate striped phase with a nonuniversal boundary occurs which vanishes for higher flexibilities. Moreover, disorder lines are located.

  14. Domain-wall trapping in a ferromagnetic nanowire network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, E.; Tanaka, M.; Miyajima, H.; Yamaoka, T.

    2003-05-01

    The magnetic domain configuration in a submicron Ni81Fe19 wire network has been investigated by magnetic force microscopy. To improve the responsivity of the magnetic force microscope, an active quality factor autocontrol method was adopted. In the remanent state, domain walls were observed trapped firmly at the vertexes of the network. The magnetic domain configurations appear to minimize the exchange energy at the vertexes. These results indicate that the magnetic property of the ferromagnetic network can be described in terms of the uniform magnetic moments of the wires and interwire magnetic interactions at the vertexes. The observed structure of the domain walls is well reproduced by micromagnetic simulations.

  15. Scalar triplet on a domain wall: an exact solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gani, Vakhid A. [Department of Mathematics,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Theory Department, National Research Center Kurchatov Institute,Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lizunova, Mariya A. [Theory Department, National Research Center Kurchatov Institute,Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Nuclear Physics,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Radomskiy, Roman V. [Department of Elementary Particle Physics,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-07

    We study a model with a real scalar Higgs field and a scalar triplet field that allows existence of a topological defect — a domain wall. The wall breaks the global O(3) symmetry of the model, which gives rise to non-Abelian orientational degrees of freedom. We found an exact analytic solution that describes a domain wall with a localized configuration of the triplet field on it. This solution enables one to calculate contributions to the action from the orientational and translational degrees of freedom of the triplet field. We also study the linear stability of the domain wall with the triplet field switched off. We obtain that degrees of freedom localized on the wall can appear or do not appear depending on the parameters of the model.

  16. Current driven domain wall motion in ferrimagnetic Heusler thin racetracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Panagiotis; Jeong, Jaewoo; Yang, See-Hun; Ferrante, Yari; Topuria, Teya; Samant, Mahesh; Parkin, Stuart

    Heusler compounds are a large family of materials with a wide range of tunable properties. Of particular interest are ferrimagnetic binary Heusler compounds that have low magnetization and high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in their tetragonally distorted forms. We have investigated a number of binary Mn based Heusler compounds and have prepared ultrathin films with thicknesses ranging from 1 to several unit cells. By forming racetracks from these materials we have demonstrated, for the first time, the current induced motion of domain walls with speeds up to 106 m/sec. We discuss the mechanisms by which the domain walls are moved with current which we find is surprisingly complex. Ferrimagnetic Heuslers are particularly interesting for spintronic applications because their low moment and high anisotropy allow for very narrow domain walls and, therefore, dense applications. We estimate the domain wall widths are of the order of a few unit cells.

  17. Runaway domain wall and space-time varying α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    Recently spatial as well as temporal variations of the fine structure constant α have been reported. We show that a ''runaway domain wall , which arises for the scalar field potential without minima, can account for such variations simultaneously. The time variation is induced by a runaway potential and the spatial variation is induced by the formation of a domain wall. The model is consistent with the current cosmological data and can be tested by the future experiments to test the equivalence principle

  18. Magnetic domain wall conduits for single cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Torti, A.; Kostesha, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The ability to trap, manipulate and release single cells on a surface is important both for fundamental studies of cellular processes and for the development of novel lab-on-chip miniaturized tools for biological and medical applications. In this paper we demonstrate how magnetic domain walls...... walls technology in lab-on-chip systems devoted to accurate individual cell trapping and manipulation....

  19. Axion-dilaton domain walls and fake supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Townsend, Paul K

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate domain-wall solutions of a two-parameter family of models in which gravity is coupled to an axion and to a dilaton with an exponential potential of either sign. A complete global analysis is presented for (i) constant axion and (ii) flat walls, including a study of bifurcations and a new exact domain-wall solution with non-constant axion. We reconsider 'fake-supergravity' issues in light of these results. We show, by example, how domain walls determine multi-valued superpotentials that branch at stationary points that are not stationary points of the potential, and we apply this result to potentials with anti-de Sitter vacua. We also show by example that 'adapted' truncation to a single-scalar model may be inconsistent, and we propose a 'generalized' fake-supergravity formalism that applies in some such cases

  20. Dynamics of cylindrical domain walls in smectic C liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, I W; Wigham, E J

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of cylindrical domain walls in planar aligned samples of smectic C liquid crystals is presented. A circular magnetic field, induced by an electric current, drives a time-dependent reorientation of the corresponding radially dependent director field. Nonlinear approximations to the relevant nonlinear dynamic equation, derived from smectic continuum theory, are solved in a comoving coordinated frame: exact solutions are found for a π-wall and numerical solutions are calculated for π/2-walls. Each calculation begins with an assumed initial state for the director that is a prescribed cylindrical domain wall. Such an initial wall will proceed to expand or contract as its central core propagates radially inwards or outwards, depending on the boundary conditions for the director, the elastic constants, the magnitude of the field and the sign of the magnetic anisotropy of the liquid crystal

  1. Webs of domain walls in supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke

    2005-01-01

    Webs of domain walls are constructed as 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in d=4, N=2 supersymmetric U(N C ) gauge theories with N F hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. Webs of walls can contain any numbers of external legs and loops like (p,q) string/5-brane webs. We find the moduli space M of a 1/4 BPS equation for wall webs to be the complex Grassmann manifold. When moduli spaces of 1/2 BPS states (parallel walls) and the vacua are removed from M, the noncompact moduli space of genuine 1/4 BPS wall webs is obtained. All the solutions are obtained explicitly and exactly in the strong gauge coupling limit. In the case of Abelian gauge theory, we work out the correspondence between configurations of wall web and the moduli space CP N F -1

  2. Domain walls and ferroelectric reversal in corundum derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meng; Vanderbilt, David

    2017-01-01

    Domain walls are the topological defects that mediate polarization reversal in ferroelectrics, and they may exhibit quite different geometric and electronic structures compared to the bulk. Therefore, a detailed atomic-scale understanding of the static and dynamic properties of domain walls is of pressing interest. In this work, we use first-principles methods to study the structures of 180∘ domain walls, both in their relaxed state and along the ferroelectric reversal pathway, in ferroelectrics belonging to the family of corundum derivatives. Our calculations predict their orientation, formation energy, and migration energy and also identify important couplings between polarization, magnetization, and chirality at the domain walls. Finally, we point out a strong empirical correlation between the height of the domain-wall-mediated polarization reversal barrier and the local bonding environment of the mobile A cations as measured by bond-valence sums. Our results thus provide both theoretical and empirical guidance for future searches for ferroelectric candidates in materials of the corundum derivative family.

  3. Majorana Fermion Rides on a Magnetic Domain Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Tewari, Sumanta; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    Owing to the recent progress on endowing the electronic structure of magnetic nanowires with topological properties, the associated topological solitons in the magnetic texture--magnetic domain walls--appear as very natural hosts for exotic electronic excitations. Here, we propose to use the magnetic domain walls to engender Majorana fermions, which has several notable advantages compared to the existing approaches. First of all, the local tunneling density-of-states anomaly associated with the Majorana zero mode bound to a smooth magnetic soliton is immune to most of parasitic artifacts associated with the abrupt physical ends of a wire, which mar the existing experimental probes. Second, a viable route to move and braid Majorana fermions is offered by domain-wall motion. In particular, we envision the recently demonstrated heat-current induced motion of domain walls in insulating ferromagnets as a promising tool for nonintrusive displacement of Majorana modes. This leads us to propose a feasible scheme for braiding domain walls within a magnetic nanowire network, which manifests the nob-Abelian exchange statistics within the Majorana subspace. This work has been supported in part by the U.S. DOE-BES, FAME, and AFOSR grants.

  4. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem. The combination B + L of the baryon and lepton numbers is known to be anomalous in the standard model (sM). For T >TEW, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition, the B +L violation becomes unsuppressed [1-3]. Thus any B +L.

  5. Implementation of one-dimensional domain wall dynamics simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsuk; Heo, Seo Weon; You, Chun-Yeol

    2017-12-01

    We implemented a one-dimensional domain wall (DW) dynamics simulator based on the well-developed collective coordinate approach to demonstrate DW motion under a given magnetic field and/or current flow. The simulator adopted all known influences, including three-dimensional external magnetic fields, spin transfer torque with non-adiabatic contribution, spin Hall effect, Rashba effect, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The simulator can calculate the position, velocity, internal magnetization angle, and tilting angle of the domain wall to the current direction or wire axis under given simulation conditions and material parameters. It will not only provide physical insights of domain wall dynamics to experimentalists, but also can be used to more easily simulate various physical circumstances before running time-consuming micromagnetic simulations or real experiments.

  6. Highly efficient domain wall motion in ferrimagnetic trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, See-Hun; Garg, Chirag; Parkin, Stuart; IBM-MPI spintronics Team

    The current-induced domain wall motion arising from chiral spin torque forms the basis of a number of technologies such as the racetrack memory and 3-terminal based MRAM devices. One of the main impediments towards this implementation is the high current density usually needed to move domain walls reliably. Here, we show that in ferrimagnetic trilayers, we can reduce the critical current required to move domain walls by 2-5 times compared to a ferromagnetic trilayer while dramatically increasing the velocity for the same current densities. This in part, is effected by the use of a Pt underlayer which is grown as a mixture of (111) and (100) phase, resulting in a 50% greater Slonczewski-like SOT compared to (111) Pt, as measured by harmonic Hall voltage measurements of current-induced effective fields.

  7. Submicrometric 2D ratchet effect in magnetic domain wall motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán-Guerrero, C., E-mail: ccastan@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Herrero-Albillos, J. [Fundación ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, J. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J.; Bartolomé, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); CINN (CSIC – Universidad de Oviedo – Principado de Asturias), Asturias (Spain); García, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Strips containing arrays of submicrometric triangular antidots with a 2D square periodicity have been fabricated by electron beam lithography. A clear ratchet effect of 180° domain wall motion under a varying applied field parallel to the walls has been observed. The direction is determined by the direction of the triangle vertices. In contrast, no ratchet effect is observed when the antidot array is constituted by symmetric rhomb-shaped antidots.

  8. Pseudo-Supersymmetry and the Domain-Wall/Cosmology Correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Skenderis, K.; Townsend, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between domain-wall and cosmological solutions of gravity coupled to scalar fields is explained. Any domain wall solution that admits a Killing spinor is shown to correspond to a cosmology that admits a pseudo-Killing spinor: whereas the Killing spinor obeys a Dirac-type equation with hermitian `mass'-matrix, the corresponding pseudo-Killing spinor obeys a Dirac-type equation with a anti-hermitian `mass'-matrix. We comment on some implications of (pseudo)supersymmetry.

  9. NMR and domain wall mobility in intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.P.; Sampaio, L.C.; Cunha, S.F.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of pulsed NMR can be used to study the distribution of hyperfine fields in a magnetic matrix. The dynamics of the domain walls are relevant to the generation of NMR signals. In the present study on the (R x Y 1-x ) Fe 2 intermetallic compounds, the reduction in the signals is associated to increased propagation fields. This indicates that a smaller domain wall mobility is at the origin of these effects. NMR spectra in this system show the importance of direct and indirect (i.e., mediated by Fe atoms) terms in the transferred hyperfine field. (author)

  10. Conduction through 71 degrees DomainWalls in BiFeO3 Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farokhipoor, S.; Noheda, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Local conduction at domains and domain walls is investigated in BiFeO3 thin films containing mostly 71 degrees domain walls. Measurements at room temperature reveal conduction through 71 degrees domain walls. Conduction through domains could also be observed at high enough temperatures. It is found

  11. Casimir densities for parallel plate in the domain wall background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setare, M R

    2003-01-01

    The Casimir forces on two parallel plates in the conformally flat domain wall background due to a conformally coupled massless scalar field satisfying mixed boundary conditions on the plates are investigated. In the general case of mixed boundary conditions, formulae are derived for the vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor and vacuum forces acting on the boundaries

  12. Gravitational field of spherical domain wall in higher dimension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and examine whether bound orbits are possible or not. This study will be of relevance to the structure formation because it gives some idea about the behaviour of the particles. (created at the early universe) in the gravitational field of the domain walls. Our paper is organized as follows: The basic equations are constructed ...

  13. On domain wall boundary conditions for the XXZ spin Hamiltonian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Reshetikhin, Nicolai

    In this note, we derive the spectrum of the infinite quantum XXZ spin chain with domain wall boundary conditions. The eigenstates are constructed as limits of Bethe states for the finite XXZ spin chain with quantum sl(2) invariant boundary conditions....

  14. The Quantum Noise of Ferromagnetic π-Bloch Domain Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Crompton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the probability per unit Euclidean-time of reversing the magnetization of a π-Bloch vector, which describes the Ferromagnetic Domain Walls of a Ferromagnetic Nanowire at finite-temperatures. Our approach, based on Langer’s Theory, treats the double sine-Gordon model that defines the π-Bloch vectors via a procedure of nonperturbative renormalization, and uses importance sampling methods to minimise the free energy of the system and identify the saddlepoint solution corresponding to the reversal probability. We identify that whilst the general solution for the free energy minima cannot be expressed in closed form, we can obtain a closed expression for the saddlepoint by maximizing the entanglement entropy of the system as a polynomial ring. We use this approach to quantify the geometric and non-geometric contributions to the entanglement entropy of the Ferromagnetic Nanowire, defined between entangled Ferromagnetic Domain Walls, and evaluate the Euclidean-time dependence of the domain wall width and angular momentum transfer at the domain walls, which has been recently proposed as a mechanism for Quantum Memory Storage.

  15. Performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic racetrack memory: domain wall versus skyrmion

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasello, R

    2017-06-20

    A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study of the performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetrack memory in terms of velocity and sensitivity to defects by using experimental parameters. We find that, to stabilize a SAF skyrmion, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the top and the bottom ferromagnet should have an opposite sign. The velocity of SAF skyrmions and SAF Néel domain walls are of the same order and can reach values larger than 1200 m s−1 if a spin–orbit torque from the spin-Hall effect with opposite sign is applied to both ferromagnets. The presence of disordered anisotropy in the form of randomly distributed grains introduces a threshold current for both SAF skyrmions and SAF domain walls motions.

  16. Primordial black hole and wormhole formation by domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Heling; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    In theories with a broken discrete symmetry, Hubble sized spherical domain walls may spontaneously nucleate during inflation. These objects are subsequently stretched by the inflationary expansion, resulting in a broad distribution of sizes. The fate of the walls after inflation depends on their radius. Walls smaller than a critical radius fall within the cosmological horizon early on and collapse due to their own tension, forming ordinary black holes. But if a wall is large enough, its repulsive gravitational field becomes dominant much before the wall can fall within the cosmological horizon. In this ``supercritical'' case, a wormhole throat develops, connecting the ambient exterior FRW universe with an interior baby universe, where the exponential growth of the wall radius takes place. The wormhole pinches off in a time-scale comparable to its light-crossing time, and black holes are formed at its two mouths. As discussed in previous work, the resulting black hole population has a wide distribution of masses and can have significant astrophysical effects. The mechanism of black hole formation has been previously studied for a dust-dominated universe. Here we investigate the case of a radiation-dominated universe, which is more relevant cosmologically, by using numerical simulations in order to find the initial mass of a black hole as a function of the wall size at the end of inflation. For large supercritical domain walls, this mass nearly saturates the upper bound according to which the black hole cannot be larger than the cosmological horizon. We also find that the subsequent accretion of radiation satisfies a scaling relation, resulting in a mass increase by about a factor of 2.

  17. Primordial black hole and wormhole formation by domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Heling; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In theories with a broken discrete symmetry, Hubble sized spherical domain walls may spontaneously nucleate during inflation. These objects are subsequently stretched by the inflationary expansion, resulting in a broad distribution of sizes. The fate of the walls after inflation depends on their radius. Walls smaller than a critical radius fall within the cosmological horizon early on and collapse due to their own tension, forming ordinary black holes. But if a wall is large enough, its repulsive gravitational field becomes dominant much before the wall can fall within the cosmological horizon. In this ''supercritical'' case, a wormhole throat develops, connecting the ambient exterior FRW universe with an interior baby universe, where the exponential growth of the wall radius takes place. The wormhole pinches off in a time-scale comparable to its light-crossing time, and black holes are formed at its two mouths. As discussed in previous work, the resulting black hole population has a wide distribution of masses and can have significant astrophysical effects. The mechanism of black hole formation has been previously studied for a dust-dominated universe. Here we investigate the case of a radiation-dominated universe, which is more relevant cosmologically, by using numerical simulations in order to find the initial mass of a black hole as a function of the wall size at the end of inflation. For large supercritical domain walls, this mass nearly saturates the upper bound according to which the black hole cannot be larger than the cosmological horizon. We also find that the subsequent accretion of radiation satisfies a scaling relation, resulting in a mass increase by about a factor of 2.

  18. Sequential injection of domain walls into ferroelectrics at different bias voltages: Paving the way for “domain wall memristors”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyte, J. R.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Einsle, J. F.; Gregg, J. M., E-mail: m.gregg@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Nanostructured Media (CNM), School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Ashcroft, C. M. [Centre for Nanostructured Media (CNM), School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Canalias, C. [Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gruverman, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588–0299 (United States)

    2014-08-14

    Simple meso-scale capacitor structures have been made by incorporating thin (∼300 nm) single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) between two coplanar Pt electrodes. The influence that either patterned protrusions in the electrodes or focused ion beam milled holes in the KTP have on the nucleation of reverse domains during switching was mapped using piezoresponse force microscopy imaging. The objective was to assess whether or not variations in the magnitude of field enhancement at localised “hot-spots,” caused by such patterning, could be used to both control the exact locations and bias voltages at which nucleation events occurred. It was found that both the patterning of electrodes and the milling of various hole geometries into the KTP could allow controlled sequential injection of domain wall pairs at different bias voltages; this capability could have implications for the design and operation of domain wall electronic devices, such as memristors, in the future.

  19. Trajectory of dynamically propagating magnetic domain walls at nanowire vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, David M.; Walton, Stephanie K.; Chadha, Megha; Zeissler, Katharina; Cohen, Lesley F.; Branford, Will R.; Functional magnetism Team

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale patterning techniques can be used to fabricate magnetic nanowire structures where the behavior of individual magnetic domain walls (DWs) can be investigated. In addition to the fundamental physical understanding of magnetism, research in this area is also driven by the potential to realize novel spintronic devices for technological applications. Magnetic DWs can support a wide variety of micromagnetic structures with different magnetization, chirality and topology based on their interaction with the nanostructure geometry. These interactions can govern the field dependent domain wall trajectory and subsequent magnetization reversal that takes place within nanowire vertex structures. In this work the additional factors affecting the trajectory due to the dynamic behavior of propagating DWs are investigated. This includes the time dependent periodic changes in the DW micromagnetic structure from Walker breakdown. These results have implications for future technological applications as well as suggesting processes that may govern magnetization reversal in artificial spin ice structures.

  20. Fermion condensation and gapped domain walls in topological orders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yidun [Department of Physics and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093 (China); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Chenjie [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-03-31

    We study fermion condensation in bosonic topological orders in two spatial dimensions. Fermion condensation may be realized as gapped domain walls between bosonic and fermionic topological orders, which may be thought of as real-space phase transitions from bosonic to fermionic topological orders. This picture generalizes the previous idea of understanding boson condensation as gapped domain walls between bosonic topological orders. While simple-current fermion condensation was considered before, we systematically study general fermion condensation and show that it obeys a Hierarchy Principle: a general fermion condensation can always be decomposed into a boson condensation followed by a minimal fermion condensation. The latter involves only a single self-fermion that is its own anti-particle and that has unit quantum dimension. We develop the rules of minimal fermion condensation, which together with the known rules of boson condensation, provides a full set of rules for general fermion condensation.

  1. Dimensional reduction, magnetic flux strings, and domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco1, C. D.; López1, A.; Schaposnik2, F. A.

    2000-08-01

    We study some consequences of dimensionally reducing systems with massless fermions and Abelian gauge fields from 3+1 to 2+1 dimensions. We first consider fermions in the presence of an external Abelian gauge field. In the reduced theory, obtained by compactifying one of the coordinates "a la Kaluza-Klein", magnetic flux strings are mapped into domain wall defects. Fermionic zero modes, localized around the flux strings of the 3+1 dimensional theory, become also zero modes in the reduced theory, via the Callan and Harvey mechanism, and are concentrated around the domain wall defects. We also study a dynamical model: massless QED 4, with fermions confined to a plane, deriving the effective action that describes the "planar" system.

  2. Domain wall universe in the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we discuss the dynamics of a domain wall universe embedded into the charged black hole spacetime of the Einstein-Born-Infeld (EBI) theory. There are four kinds of possible spacetime structures, i.e., those with no horizon, the extremal one, those with two horizons (as the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole), and those with a single horizon (as the Schwarzshild black hole). We derive the effective cosmological equations on the wall. In contrast to the previous works, we take the contribution of the electrostatic energy on the wall into account. By examining the properties of the effective potential, we find that a bounce can always happen outside the (outer) horizon. For larger masses of the black hole, the height of the barrier between the horizon and bouncing point in the effective potential becomes smaller, leading to longer time scales of bouncing process. These results are compared with those in the previous works.

  3. Quenched scalar-meson correlator with domain wall fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelovsek, S.; Orginos, K

    2003-05-01

    We study the q-barq singlet and non-singlet scalar-meson masses using domain wall fermions and the quenched approximation. The singlet mass is found to be smaller than the non-singlet mass and indicates that the lowest singlet meson state could be lighter than 1 GeV. The two-point functions for very small quark masses are compared with expectations from the small-volume chiral perturbation theory and the presence of fermionic zero modes.

  4. Localization of bulk form fields on dilatonic domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-06-01

    We study the localization properties of bulk form potentials on dilatonic domain walls. We find that bulk form potentials of any ranks can be localized as form potentials of the same ranks or one lower ranks, for any values of the dilaton coupling parameter. For large enough values of the dilaton coupling parameter, bulk form potentials of any ranks can be localized as form potentials of both the same ranks and one lower ranks. (author)

  5. Aichelburg-Sexl boost of domain walls and cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P.A.; Israel, W.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the application of the Aichelburg-Sexl boost to plane and line distributions of matter. Our analysis shows that for a domain wall the space-time after the boost is flat except on a null hypersurface which is the history of a null shell. For a cosmic string we study the influence of the boost on the conical singularity and give the new value of the conical deficit

  6. Topological Valley Transport at Bilayer Graphene Domain Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    resistances are lower than that expected from the semiconductor bandgap in ideal bilayer graphene , presumably owing to impurities and defects in our devices...LETTER doi:10.1038/nature14364 Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls Long Ju1*, Zhiwen Shi1*, Nityan Nair1, Yinchuan Lv1...Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene . A tunable bandgap can be

  7. Domain Walls in Helical Magnets: Elasticity and Pinning

    OpenAIRE

    Nattermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Recently completely new types of domain walls (DWs) have been discovered in helical magnets, consisting generically of a regular array of {\\it pairs} of magnetic vortex lines \\cite{Li+12}. Only for special orientations DWs are free of vortices. In this article we calculate their elastic and pinning properties, using the pitch angle $\\theta$ as a small parameter. In particular we show that vortex free DWs exhibit long range elasticity which makes them very stiff and suppresses their pinning by...

  8. Domain Walls, Black Holes and Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-07-25

    Supersymmetric solutions, such as BPS domain walls or black holes, in four- and five-dimensional supergravity theories with eight supercharges can be described by effective quantum mechanics with a potential term. We show how properties of the latter theory can help us to learn about the physics of supersymmetric vacua and BPS solutions in these supergravity theories. The general approach is illustrated in a number of specific examples where scalar fields of matter multiplets take values in symmetric coset spaces.

  9. Segmental front line dynamics of randomly pinned ferroelastic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchberger, S.; Soprunyuk, V.; Schranz, W.; Carpenter, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements as a function of temperature, frequency, and dynamic force amplitude are used to perform a detailed study of the domain wall motion in LaAlO3. In previous DMA measurements Harrison et al. [Phys. Rev. B 69, 144101 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.144101] found evidence for dynamic phase transitions of ferroelastic domain walls in LaAlO3. In the present work we focus on the creep-to-relaxation region of domain wall motion using two complementary methods. We determine, in addition to dynamic susceptibility data, waiting time distributions of strain jerks during slowly increasing stress. These strain jerks, which result from self-similar avalanches close to the depinning threshold, follow a power-law behavior with an energy exponent ɛ =1.7 ±0.1 . Also, the distribution of waiting times between events follows a power law N (tw) ∝tw-(n +1 ) with an exponent n =0.9 , which transforms to a power law of susceptibility S (ω ) ∝ω-n . The present dynamic susceptibility data can be well fitted with a power law, with the same exponent (n =0.9 ) up to a characteristic frequency ω ≈ω* , where a crossover from stochastic DW motion to the pinned regime is well described using the scaling function of Fedorenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 70, 224104 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.224104].

  10. Joule heating and current-induced domain wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J.; Lemaître, A.; Niazi, T.; Faini, G.; Jeudy, V.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate numerically and experimentally the Joule heating produced by current pulses and its contribution to current-induced domain wall (DW) motion in a (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductor. Different thermal coupling between tracks and substrates are explored. A direct contact leads to a logarithmic transient temperature rise and a stationary state determined by the substrate thickness. The introduction of a low thermal conducting (Ga,In)As interlayer produces an additional temperature rise whose time variation and magnitude are analyzed. Experimentally, the measured temperature rises present a good agreement with predictions over more than four orders of magnitude in time for values of the heat conductivity and of the heat capacity close to those reported in the literature. The Joule heating is shown to produce non-linearities in the domain wall velocity versus current density characteristics. A correction of Joule heating is proposed and permits the identification of the flow regimes from a comparison of domain-wall dynamics in tracks presenting different pinning characteristics.

  11. Annihilation of Domain Walls in a Ferromagnetic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Huang, Kevin; Tchernyshyov, Oleg

    We study the annihilation of topological solitons in one of the simplest systems that support them: a one-dimensional ferromagnetic wire with an easy axis along its length. In the presence of energy dissipation due to viscous losses, two solitons (domain walls) on the wire, when released from afar, approach each other and eventually annihilate to create a uniformly magnetized state. Starting from a class of exact solutions for stationary two-domain-wall configurations in the absence of dissipation, we develop an effective theory that describes this annihilation in terms of four collective coordinates: a) the two zero modes corresponding to the location of the center and the average azimuthal angle of the full structure and b) their two conjugate momenta which describe the relative twist and the relative separation of the two domain walls respectively. Comparison with micromagnetic simulation on OOOMF confirms that this theory captures well the essential physics of the process. We believe this work will be a good starting point for studying the annihilation of more complicated topological solitons like vortices and skyrmions in ferromagnetic thin films. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-08ER46544.

  12. Domain wall propagation tuning in magnetic nanowires through geometric modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzuza, L.C.C., E-mail: luisarzuza179@gmail.com [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Universidad de la Costa, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Calle 58 No. 55-66, Barranquilla (Colombia); López-Ruiz, R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Salazar-Aravena, D. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, 1000007 Arica (Chile); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Béron, F.; Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The modulated nanowires dynamics occurs through two reversal modes. • Modulated nanowires show a change in the χ in contrast to homogeneous ones. • The FORC method reveals a non-uniform stray field due to shape modulation. - Abstract: The magnetic behavior of nickel modulated nanowires embedded in porous alumina membranes is investigated. Their diameters exhibit a sharp transition between below (35 nm) and above (52 nm) the theoretical limit for transverse and vortex domain walls. Magnetic hysteresis loops and first-order reversal curves (FORCs) were measured on several ordered nanowire arrays with different wide-narrow segment lengths ratio and compared with those from homogenous nanowires. The experimental magnetic response evidences a rather complex susceptibility behavior for nanowires with modulated diameter. Micromagnetic simulations on isolated and first-neighbors arrays of nanowires show that the domain wall structure, which depends on the segment diameter, suffers a transformation while crossing the diameter modulation, but without any pinning. The experimental array magnetic behavior can be ascribed to a heterogeneous stray field induced by the diameter modulation, yielding a stronger interaction field at the wide extremity than at the narrow one. The results evidence the possibility to control the domain wall propagation and morphology by modulating the lateral aspect of the magnetic entity.

  13. Domain wall fermion QCD with the exact one flavor algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Kelly, C.; Mawhinney, R. D.; Murphy, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Lattice QCD calculations including the effects of one or more nondegenerate sea quark flavors are conventionally performed using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, which computes the square root of the determinant of D†D , where D is the Dirac operator. The special case of two degenerate quark flavors with the same mass is described directly by the determinant of D†D —in particular, no square root is necessary—enabling a variety of algorithmic developments, which have driven down the cost of simulating the light (up and down) quarks in the isospin-symmetric limit of equal masses. As a result, the relative cost of single quark flavors—such as the strange or charm—computed with RHMC has become more expensive. This problem is even more severe in the context of our measurements of the Δ I =1 /2 K →π π matrix elements on lattice ensembles with G -parity boundary conditions, since G -parity is associated with a doubling of the number of quark flavors described by D , and thus RHMC is needed for the isospin-symmetric light quarks as well. In this paper we report on our implementation of the exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA) introduced by the TWQCD Collaboration for simulations including single flavors of domain wall quarks. We have developed a new preconditioner for the EOFA Dirac equation, which both reduces the cost of solving the Dirac equation and allows us to reuse the bulk of our existing high-performance code. Coupling these improvements with careful tuning of our integrator, the time per accepted trajectory in the production of our 2 +1 flavor G -parity ensembles with physical pion and kaon masses has been decreased by a factor of 4.2.

  14. Magnetic domain wall engineering in a nanoscale permalloy junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlin; Zhang, Xichao; Lu, Xianyang; Zhang, Jason; Yan, Yu; Ling, Hua; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yongbing

    2017-08-01

    Nanoscale magnetic junctions provide a useful approach to act as building blocks for magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAM), where one of the key issues is to control the magnetic domain configuration. Here, we study the domain structure and the magnetic switching in the Permalloy (Fe20Ni80) nanoscale magnetic junctions with different thicknesses by using micromagnetic simulations. It is found that both the 90-° and 45-° domain walls can be formed between the junctions and the wire arms depending on the thickness of the device. The magnetic switching fields show distinct thickness dependencies with a broad peak varying from 7 nm to 22 nm depending on the junction sizes, and the large magnetic switching fields favor the stability of the MRAM operation.

  15. Example of a self-consistent solution for a fermion on domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gani, V. A.; Ksenzov, V. G.; Kudryavtsev, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    A self-consistent solution for a fermion coupled to static scalar field in the form of a kink (domain wall) is discussed. In particular, the case when the fermion occupies an excited nonzero frequency level in the presence of the domain-wall field is studied. The effect of the domain-wall profile distortion is calculated analytically.

  16. Piercing of domain walls: new mechanism of gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Melkumova, Elena; Spirin, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Domain wall (DW) moving in media undergoes the friction force due to particle scattering. However certain particles are not scattered, but perforate the wall. As a result, the wall gets excited in the form of the branon wave, while the particle experiences an acceleration jump. This gives rise to generation of gravitational waves which we call "piercing gravitational radiation" (PGR). Though this effect is of higher order in the gravitational constant than the quadrupole radiation from the collapsing DWs, its amplitude is enhanced in the case of relativistic particles or photons because of absence of the velocity factor which is present in the quadrupole formula. We derive the spectral-angular distribution of PGR within the simplified model of the weakly gravitating particle-wall system in Minkowski space-time of arbitrary dimensions. Within this model the radiation amplitude is obtained analytically. The spectral-angular distribution of PGR in such an approach suffers from infrared and ultraviolet divergences as well as from collinear divergence in the case of a massless perforating particle. Different cut-off schemes appropriate in various dimensions are discussed. Our results are applicable both to cosmological DWs and to the braneworld models. PGR can be relevant in the infrared part of the spectrum of the relic gravitons where radiation from the collapsed DWs is damped.

  17. Domain-wall excitations in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, Hamid; Weigel, Martin

    2018-02-01

    The Ising spin glass in two dimensions exhibits rich behavior with subtle differences in the scaling for different coupling distributions. We use recently developed mappings to graph-theoretic problems together with highly efficient implementations of combinatorial optimization algorithms to determine exact ground states for systems on square lattices with up to 10 000 ×10 000 spins. While these mappings only work for planar graphs, for example for systems with periodic boundary conditions in at most one direction, we suggest here an iterative windowing technique that allows one to determine ground states for fully periodic samples up to sizes similar to those for the open-periodic case. Based on these techniques, a large number of disorder samples are used together with a careful finite-size scaling analysis to determine the stiffness exponents and domain-wall fractal dimensions with unprecedented accuracy, our best estimates being θ =-0.2793 (3 ) and df=1.273 19 (9 ) for Gaussian couplings. For bimodal disorder, a new uniform sampling algorithm allows us to study the domain-wall fractal dimension, finding df=1.279 (2 ) . Additionally, we also investigate the distributions of ground-state energies, of domain-wall energies, and domain-wall lengths.

  18. Higher dimensional curved domain walls on Kähler surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, Fiki T.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Radjabaycolle, Flinn C.; Wijaya, Rio N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study some aspects of curved BPS-like domain walls in higher dimensional gravity theory coupled to scalars where the scalars span a complex Kähler surface with scalar potential turned on. Assuming that a fake superpotential has a special form which depends on Kähler potential and a holomorphic function, we prove that BPS-like equations have a local unique solution. Then, we analyze the vacuum structure of the theory including their stability using dynamical system and their existence in ultraviolet-infrared regions using renormalization group flow.

  19. High temperature meson propagators with domain-wall quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagae, J.-F.; Sinclair, D. K.

    1999-01-01

    We study the chiral properties of domain-wall quarks at high temperatures on an ensemble of quenched configurations. Low lying eigenmodes of the Dirac operator are calculated and used to check the extent to which the Atiyah-Singer index theorem is obeyed on lattices with finite N 5 . We calculate the connected and disconnected screening propagators for the lowest mass scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the sectors of different topological charge and note that they behave as expected. Separating out the would-be zero eigenmodes enables us to accurately estimate the disconnected propagators with far less effort than would be needed otherwise

  20. Higher dimensional curved domain walls on Kähler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, Fiki T., E-mail: ftakbar@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Gunara, Bobby E., E-mail: bobby@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Radjabaycolle, Flinn C. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Cendrawasih University, Jl. Kampwolker Kampus Uncen Baru Waena-Jayapura 99351 (Indonesia); Wijaya, Rio N. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2017-03-15

    In this paper we study some aspects of curved BPS-like domain walls in higher dimensional gravity theory coupled to scalars where the scalars span a complex Kähler surface with scalar potential turned on. Assuming that a fake superpotential has a special form which depends on Kähler potential and a holomorphic function, we prove that BPS-like equations have a local unique solution. Then, we analyze the vacuum structure of the theory including their stability using dynamical system and their existence in ultraviolet-infrared regions using renormalization group flow.

  1. Domain walls in (Ga,Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugawara, A.; Kasai, H.; Tonomura, A.; Brown, P.D.; Campion, R. P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Zemen, Jan; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 4 (2008), 047202/1-047202/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002; GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA ČR GA202/04/1519 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor * Néel domain walls * electron holography * Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  2. Observation of injection and pinning of domain walls in magneticnanowires using photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Luc; Rettner, Charles; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Samant, MaheshG.; Parkin Stuart S.P.; Doran, Andrew; Scholl, Andreas

    2005-12-19

    Photoemission electron microscopy is used to explore the injection and pinning of magnetic domain walls in 250-nm-wide, 20-nm-thick Permalloy nanowires. Domain walls are injected from a micron-sized elliptical nucleation pad at one end of the nanowire. A vortex-like structure is readily nucleated in this pad at low magnetic fields 15 Oe, whereas injection of a domain wall into the nanowire requires significantly larger fields 60 Oe. Domain walls are pinned in the nanowire at notches patterned along the wires edges. The domain walls are observed to have vortex-like structures with chiralities that vary in successive experiments.

  3. Observation of injection and pinning of domain walls in magnetic nanowires using photoemission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luc; Rettner, Charles; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Samant, Mahesh G.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Doran, Andrew; Scholl, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    Photoemission electron microscopy is used to explore the injection and pinning of magnetic domain walls in 250-nm-wide, 20-nm-thick Permalloy nanowires. Domain walls are injected from a micron-sized elliptical nucleation pad at one end of the nanowire. A vortex-like structure is readily nucleated in this pad at low magnetic fields (<15Oe), whereas injection of a domain wall into the nanowire requires significantly larger fields (˜60Oe). Domain walls are pinned in the nanowire at notches patterned along the wire's edges. The domain walls are observed to have vortex-like structures with chiralities that vary in successive experiments.

  4. Localized fermions on domain walls and extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V K

    2014-01-01

    We study fermionic fields localized on topologically unstable domain walls bounded by strings in a grand unified theory theoretical framework. Particularly, we found that the localized fermionic degrees of freedom, which are up and down-quarks as well as charged leptons, are connected to three independent N = 2, d = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics algebras. As we demonstrate, these algebras can be combined to form higher order representations of N = 2, d = 1 supersymmetry. Due to the uniform coupling of the domain wall solutions to the down-quarks and leptons, we also show that a higher order N = 2, d = 1 representation of the down-quark–lepton system is invariant under a duality transformation between the couplings. In addition, the two N = 2, d = 1 supersymmetries of the down-quark–lepton system, combine at the coupling unification scale to form an N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetry. Furthermore, we present the various extra geometric and algebraic attributes that the fermionic systems acquire, owing to the underlying N = 2, d = 1 algebras. (paper)

  5. The profile of the domain walls in amorphous glass-covered microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F.; Rigue, J.N. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus Cachoeira do Sul, RS (Brazil); Carara, M., E-mail: carara@smail.ufsm.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Glass-covered microwires with positive magnetostriction were studied. • The single domain wall dynamics was studied under different conditions. • We have evaluated the profile and shape of the moving domain walls. • The domain wall evolves from a bell shape to a parabolic one when a current is applied. - Abstract: We have studied the domain wall dynamics in Joule-annealed amorphous glass-covered microwires with positive magnetostriction in the presence of an electric current, in order to evaluate the profile and shape of the moving domain wall. Such microwires are known to present magnetic bi-stability when axially magnetized. The single domain wall dynamics was evaluated under different conditions, under an axially applied stress and an electric current. We have observed the well known increasing of the domain wall damping with the applied stress due to the increase in the magnetoelastic anisotropy and, when the current is applied, depending on the current intensity and direction, a modification on the axial domain wall damping. When the orthogonal motion of the domain wall is considered, we have observed that the associated velocity present a smaller dependence on the applied current intensity. It was observed a modification on both the domain wall shape and length. In a general way, the domain wall evolves from a bell shape to a parabolic shape as the current intensity is increased. The results were explained in terms of the change in the magnetic energy promoted by the additional Oersted field.

  6. Study of domain wall propagation in nanostructured CoPt multilayers by using antisymmetric magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Perez-Junquera, A; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M; Menendez, J L; Ravelosona, D

    2010-01-01

    Domain wall propagation has been studied in perpendicular anisotropy CoPt multilayers patterned by e-beam lithography into 5 μm wide wires. Positive and negative peaks appear in time resolved magnetoresistance curves, associated to the different directions of domain wall propagation along the wires. The field dependence of domain wall velocity is well described by a creep model of a 1D wall in the presence of weak disorder with critical exponent μ=1/4.

  7. Domains within domains and walls within walls: Evidence for polar domains in cryogenic SrTiO.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salje, E.K.H.; Aktas, O.; Carpenter, M.A.; Laguta, Valentyn; Scott, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 24 (2013), "247603-1"-"247603-5" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric domains * SrTiO 3 * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  8. Determination of domain wall chirality using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan J. Chess

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Controlling domain wall chirality is increasingly seen in non-centrosymmetric materials. Mapping chiral magnetic domains requires knowledge about all the vector components of the magnetization, which poses a problem for conventional Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM that is only sensitive to magnetic fields perpendicular to the electron beams direction of travel. The standard approach in LTEM for determining the third component of the magnetization is to tilt the sample to some angle and record a second image. This presents a problem for any domain structures that are stabilized by an applied external magnetic field (e.g. skyrmions, because the standard LTEM setup does not allow independent control of the angle of an applied magnetic field, and sample tilt angle. Here we show that applying a modified transport of intensity equation analysis to LTEM images collected during an applied field sweep, we can determine the domain wall chirality of labyrinth domains in a perpendicularly magnetized material, avoiding the need to tilt the sample.

  9. High-pressure oxygenation of thin-wall YBCO single-domain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, X; Savchuk, Y; Sergienko, N; Prikhna, T; Diko, P

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen annealing of ReBCO bulk material, necessary to achieve superconducting properties, usually induces micro- and macro-cracks. This leads to a crack-assisted oxygenation process that allows oxygenating large bulk samples faster than single crystals. But excellent superconducting properties are cancelled by the poor mechanical ones. More progressive oxygenation strategy has been shown to reduce drastically the oxygenation cracks. The problem then arises to keep a reasonable annealing time. The concept of bulk Y123 single-domain samples with thin-wall geometry has been introduced to bypass the inherent limitation due to a slow oxygen diffusion rate. But it is not enough. The use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) enables to speed up further the process. It introduces a displacement in the equilibrium phase diagram towards higher temperatures, i.e., higher diffusion rates, to achieve a given oxygen content in the material. Remarkable results were obtained by applying such a high pressure oxygen annealing process on thin-wall single-domain samples. The trapped field of 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain samples was doubled (0.6T vs 0.3T at 77K) using an annealing time twice shorter (about 3 days). The initial development was made on thin bars. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample

  10. Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, K.; Skettrup, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Domain walls in periodically poled ferroelectric LiNbO3 crystals are observed with both far- and near-field imaging techniques that make use of second harmonic generation in the transition regions between neighbouring domains. Second harmonic images of domain walls represent bright lines of about 0.......5 micrometers in width (as measured with the near-field microscope) for the polarization of the second harmonic radiation perpendicular to the domain walls. Origin and selection rules for the constrast in second harmonic images of domain walls are discussed....

  11. Nanoscale thermoelectrical detection of magnetic domain wall propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysteczko, Patryk; Wells, James; Fernández Scarioni, Alexander; Soban, Zbynek; Janda, Tomas; Hu, Xiukun; Saidl, Vit; Campion, Richard P.; Mansell, Rhodri; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cowburn, Russell P.; Nemec, Petr; Kazakova, Olga; Wunderlich, Joerg; Schumacher, Hans Werner

    2017-06-01

    In magnetic nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) magnetic domain walls (DWs) are narrow and can move rapidly driven by current induced torques. This enables important applications like high-density memories for which the precise detection of the position and motion of a propagating DW is of utmost interest. Today's DW detection tools are often limited in resolution, require complex instrumentation, or can only be applied on specific materials. Here we show that the anomalous Nernst effect provides a simple and powerful tool to precisely track the position and motion of a single DW propagating in a PMA nanowire. We detect field and current driven DW propagation in both metallic heterostructures and dilute magnetic semiconductors over a broad temperature range. The demonstrated spatial accuracy below 20 nm is comparable to the DW width in typical metallic PMA systems.

  12. Anomalous Hall-like effect probe of antiferromagnetic domain wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lili; Qiu, Xuepeng; Zhou, Shiming

    2018-01-10

    Of crucial importance to antiferromagnetic (AF) spintronic devices, AF domain wall (AFDW), created in exchange biased Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 /Ni 0.50 Co 0.50 O (NiCoO)/Pt, is characterized by anomalous Hall-like effect through magnetic proximity effect and spin Hall magnetoresistance at NiCoO/Pt interface. The AFDW thickness, in the order of nanometers, has been for the first time proved in experiments to increase with increasing temperature. AF spins within AFDW show the same chirality in decent and ascent branches of ferromagnetic magnetization reversal process. Moreover, the uncompensated magnetic moment at the NiCoO/Pt interface is of perpendicular magnetization anisotropy and changes linearly in magnitude with temperature due to the reduced coordination of the magnetic atoms on the AF surface. This work will help to clarify the mechanism of the spin current propagation in AF materials and fully understand the physics behind exchange bias.

  13. Instability of Walker propagating domain wall in magnetic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Wang, X R

    2013-07-12

    The stability of the well-known Walker propagating domain wall (DW) solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation is analytically investigated. Surprisingly, a propagating DW is always dressed with spin waves so that the Walker rigid-body propagating DW mode does not occur in reality. In the low field region only stern spin waves are emitted while both stern and bow waves are generated under high fields. In a high enough field, but below the Walker breakdown field, the Walker solution could be convective or absolute unstable if the transverse magnetic anisotropy is larger than a critical value, corresponding to a significant modification of the DW profile and DW propagating speed.

  14. Vortices and domain walls: 'Wormholes' in unconventional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessarab, P F; Radievsky, A V

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the 2D and 3D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model we study superconductors with multicomponent order parameter (d-pairing). We argue that topological defects inside the sample do affect its thermodynamic properties such as hysteresis loop, susceptibility, etc. Along with earlier known topological defects such as Abrikosov vortices, domain walls (DWs) which separate different magnetic phases and even vortices inside the DW, we found an interesting combination of DWs and vortices. Namely we show that equivalent magnetic phases may be linked together with a vortex going through the other magnetic phase. This configuration may correspond to a stable state even in a zero external magnetic field. We also mention that this configuration is topologically similar to the 'wormholes' in the quantum gravity.

  15. Kaon B-parameter from quenched domain-wall QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Khan, A.; Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Burkhalter, R.; Ejiri, S.; Fukugita, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Izubuchi, T.; Kanaya, K.; Kaneko, T.; Kuramashi, Y.; Nagai, K.-I.; Noaki, J.; Okawa, M.; Shanahan, H.P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a calculation of B K with domain wall fermion action in quenched QCD. Simulations are made with a renormalization group improved gauge action at β = 2.6 and 2.9 corresponding to a -1 ∼ 2GeV and 3GeV. Effects due to finite fifth dimensional size N 5 and finite spatial size N σ are examined in detail. Matching to the continuum operator is made perturbatively at one loop order. We obtain B K (μ = 2GeV) 0.5746(61), where the error is statistical only, as an estimate of the continuum value in the MS-bar scheme with naive dimensional regularization. This value is smaller but consistent with B K (μ = 2GeV) = 0.628(42) obtained by the JLQCD Collaboration using the Kogut-Susskind quark action. Results for strange quark mass are also reported

  16. Domain walls in thermal gauge field theories - myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilga, A.V. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki

    1994-01-01

    We argue different Z{sub N} thermal vacua of hot pure Yang-Mills theory distinguished in the standard approach by different values of Polyakov loop average

    {sub T} corresponds actually to one and the same physical state. A critical discussion of the argument which are usually put forward in favor of the opposite conclusion (that, in pure continuum Yang-Mills theory, distinct Z{sub N}-phases may coexist in the physical space being separated by the domain walls finite surface energy) is given. In particular, we note that the same arguments can be applied with an equal ease to Abelian theories and would lead to the existence of the walls in the high-T 4-dim QED and to appearance of the queer high-T solitons with the mass {approx} T{sup 2}/e in the Schwinger model. We emphasize that these configurations may be relevant for the Euclidean path integral but whether they correspond to Minkowski space objects is unclear. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs.

  17. Persistent conductive footprints of 109o domain walls in bismuth ferrite films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolichnov, I.; Iwanowska, M.; Colla, E.; Ziegler, B.; Gaponenko, I.; Paruch, P.; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Setter, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conductive and piezoforce microscopy, we reveal a complex picture of electronic transport at weakly conductive 109° domain walls in bismuth ferrite films. Even once initial ferroelectric stripe domains are changed/erased, persistent conductive paths signal the original domain wall position.

  18. Elasticity problems in domains with nonsmooth boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Esparza, D

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we study the behaviour of elastic stress fields in domains with non-regular boundaries. We consider three-dimensional problems in elastic media with thin conical defects (inclusions or cavities) and analyse the stress singularity at their vertices. To construct asymptotic expansions for the stress and displacement fields in terms of a small parameter epsilon related to the 'thickness' of the defect, we employ a technique based on the work by Kondrat'ev, Maz'ya, Nazarov and Plamenevskii. We first study the stress distribution in an elastic body with a thin conical notch. We derive an asymptotic representation for the stress singularity exponent by reducing the original problem to a spectral problem for a 9x9 matrix. The elements of this matrix are found to depend upon the geometry of the cross-section of the notch and the elastic properties of the medium. We specify the sets of eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors for a circular, elliptical, 'triangular' and 'square' cross-section...

  19. Domain walls collision in Fe-rich and Co-rich glass covered microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of the investigation of domain walls propagation in Fe-rich and Co-rich microwires performed using Sixtus-Tonks and magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. It was found that under certain experimental conditions we are able to create the regime of the motion of two domain walls moving to opposite directions which terminates by the collision of the domain walls. Also the domain walls collision was visualized using magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope when the surface giant Barkhausen jump induced by circular magnetic field has been observed.

  20. The Effect of a Pulsed Magnetic Field on Domain Wall Resistance in Magnetic Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, R; Tehranchi, M M; Tabrizi, K Ghafoori [Department of Physics, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19838-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A, E-mail: Teranchi@cc.sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    The effect of a pulsed magnetic field on domain wall magnetoresistance for an ideal one-dimensional magnetic nanowire with a domain wall has been investigated. The analysis has been based on the Boltzmann transport equation, within the relaxation time approximation. The results indicate that the domain wall resistance increase when enhancing the magnetic field. The evaluation of local magnetization has been considered in the presence of a pulsed magnetic field. The time evaluation of the magnetization also has an effect on the domain wall resistance. The resistance depends on the contribution of the Zeeman and exchange interactions.

  1. Domain wall magnetoresistance in BiFeO3 thin films measured by scanning probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, N; Farokhipoor, S; Santiso, J; Noheda, B; Catalan, G

    2017-08-23

    We measure the magnetotransport properties of individual 71° domain walls in multiferroic BiFeO 3 by means of conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in the presence of magnetic fields up to one Tesla. The results suggest anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature, with the sign of the magnetoresistance depending on the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the domain wall plane. A consequence of this finding is that macroscopically averaged magnetoresistance measurements for domain wall bunches are likely to underestimate the magnetoresistance of each individual domain wall.

  2. Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklage, Lars; Krueger, Benjamin; Eiselt, Rene; Bolte, Markus; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido

    2008-10-07

    Current-induced domain-wall dynamics is investigated via high-resolution soft x-ray transmission microscopy by a stroboscopic pump-and-probe measurement scheme at a temporal resolution of 200 ps. A 180{sup o} domain wall in a restoring potential of a permalloy microstructure is displaced from its equilibrium position by nanosecond current pulses leading to oscillations with velocities up to 325 m/s. The motion of the wall is described with an analytical model of a rigid domain wall in a nonharmonic potential allowing one to determine the mass of the domain wall. We show that Oersted fields dominate the domain-wall dynamics in our geometry.

  3. Modeling thermally activated domain wall dynamics in thin magnetic strips with disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurson, L; Mughal, A; Serpico, C; Durin, G; Zapperi, S, E-mail: lasse.laurson@gmail.com [ISI Foundation, Torino (Italy)

    2011-04-01

    We study the effect of disorder and temperature on the field-driven dynamics of a transverse domain wall occurring in thin and narrow magnetic strips made of a soft magnetic material such as permalloy. Motivated by a micromagnetic description of such a domain wall, we construct a model based on two coupled flexible lines enclosing the domain wall transition region, capturing both the finite width and the characteristic V-shape of the wall. Disorder is included via randomly distributed pinning centers interacting with the two lines. We study the field-driven dynamics of the domain wall in disordered strips in a finite temperature, and compare our findings to experimental observations of stochastic domain wall dynamics.

  4. SH3b Cell wall binding domains can enhance anti-staphylococcal activity of endolysin lytic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases and a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset of these proteins contain a C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domain that has been shown [for some] to be essential for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic ac...

  5. Charm physics with physical light and strange quarks using domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Peter A; Garron, Nicolas; Khamseh, Ava; Marinkovic, Marina; Sanfilippo, Francesco; Tsang, Justus Tobias; Boyle, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of charm physics using RBC/UKQCD 2+1 flavour physical point domain wall fermion ensembles for the light quarks as well as for the valence charm quark. After a brief motivation of domain wall fermions as a suitable heavy quark discretisation we will show first results for masses and matrix elements.

  6. Five Dimensional Domain Walls in a Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D. R. K.; Govinda Rao, P.; Naidu, R. L.

    2008-11-01

    Five dimensional Kaluza-Klein space-time is considered in the presence of thick domain walls in the framework of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, [1986]). Exact cosmological model, which represents a stiff domain wall, is presented. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

  7. Resonant amplification of magnetic domain-wall motion by a train of current pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luc; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Jiang, Xin; Moriya, Rai; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart

    2007-03-16

    The current-induced motion of magnetic domain walls confined to nanostructures is of interest for applications in magnetoelectronic devices in which the domain wall serves as the logic gate or memory element. The injection of spin-polarized current below a threshold value through a domain wall confined to a pinning potential results in its precessional motion within the potential well. We show that by using a short train of current pulses, whose length and spacing are tuned to this precession frequency, the domain wall's oscillations can be resonantly amplified. This makes possible the motion of domain walls with much reduced currents, more than five times smaller than in the absence of resonant amplification.

  8. Inertial displacement of a domain wall excited by ultra-short circularly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, T.; Roy, P. E.; Otxoa, R. M.; Šobáň, Z.; Ramsay, A.; Irvine, A. C.; Trojanek, F.; Surýnek, M.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Němec, P.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2017-05-01

    Domain wall motion driven by ultra-short laser pulses is a pre-requisite for envisaged low-power spintronics combining storage of information in magnetoelectronic devices with high speed and long distance transmission of information encoded in circularly polarized light. Here we demonstrate the conversion of the circular polarization of incident femtosecond laser pulses into inertial displacement of a domain wall in a ferromagnetic semiconductor. In our study, we combine electrical measurements and magneto-optical imaging of the domain wall displacement with micromagnetic simulations. The optical spin-transfer torque acts over a picosecond recombination time of the spin-polarized photo-carriers that only leads to a deformation of the initial domain wall structure. We show that subsequent depinning and micrometre-distance displacement without an applied magnetic field or any other external stimuli can only occur due to the inertia of the domain wall.

  9. Modulated Magnetic Nanowires for Controlling Domain Wall Motion: Toward 3D Magnetic Memories

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-05-03

    Cylindrical magnetic nanowires are attractive materials for next generation data storage devices owing to the theoretically achievable high domain wall velocity and their efficient fabrication in highly dense arrays. In order to obtain control over domain wall motion, reliable and well-defined pinning sites are required. Here, we show that modulated nanowires consisting of alternating nickel and cobalt sections facilitate efficient domain wall pinning at the interfaces of those sections. By combining electron holography with micromagnetic simulations, the pinning effect can be explained by the interaction of the stray fields generated at the interface and the domain wall. Utilizing a modified differential phase contrast imaging, we visualized the pinned domain wall with a high resolution, revealing its three-dimensional vortex structure with the previously predicted Bloch point at its center. These findings suggest the potential of modulated nanowires for the development of high-density, three-dimensional data storage devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  10. Reply to "Domain-growth kinetics of systems with soft walls''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Præstgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of computer-simulation results for three different models with soft domain walls it is argued that the zero-temperature domain-growth kinetics falls in a separate universality class characterized by a kinetic growth exponent n≃0.25. However, for finite temperatures there is a distinct...... crossover to Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn kinetics n=0.50, thus suggesting that the soft-wall and hard-wall universality classes become identical at finite temperatures....

  11. Domain wall pinning by magnetic inhomogeneities in Sm(CoNi) sub 2. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Gaunt, P. (Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada (CA))

    1990-05-01

    Domain wall (thin 180{degree} wall) pinning by pinning sites of atomic size is studied by a new model which is based on the argument that the temperature dependence of the coercivity originates from both thermal activation of the domain wall and the temperature dependence of the height of the energy barriers. This model successfully describes the temperature dependence of the coercivity of a Sm(CoNi){sub 2.5} ferromagnet.

  12. Soft-wall domain-growth kinetics of twofold-degenerate ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1986-01-01

    The domain growth in a two-dimensional twofold-degenerate system with soft domain walls is shown to obey dynamical scaling. The value of the growth exponent is n≃0.25 which differs from the classical Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn prediction n=(1/2), but accords with recent findings for other growth models ...... with soft walls. The results suggest that domain-wall softness may be more important than the degeneracy of the ground state for a possible universal classification of domain-growth kinetics....

  13. Temporary formation of highly conducting domain walls for non-destructive read-out of ferroelectric domain-wall resistance switching memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Bai, Zi Long; Chen, Zhi Hui; He, Long; Zhang, David Wei; Zhang, Qing Hua; Shi, Jin An; Park, Min Hyuk; Scott, James F.; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jiang, An Quan

    2018-01-01

    Erasable conductive domain walls in insulating ferroelectric thin films can be used for non-destructive electrical read-out of the polarization states in ferroelectric memories. Still, the domain-wall currents extracted by these devices have not yet reached the intensity and stability required to drive read-out circuits operating at high speeds. This study demonstrated non-destructive read-out of digital data stored using specific domain-wall configurations in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films formed in mesa-geometry structures. Partially switched domains, which enable the formation of conductive walls during the read operation, spontaneously retract when the read voltage is removed, reducing the accumulation of mobile defects at the domain walls and potentially improving the device stability. Three-terminal memory devices produced 14 nA read currents at an operating voltage of 5 V, and operated up to T = 85 °C. The gap length can also be smaller than the film thickness, allowing the realization of ferroelectric memories with device dimensions far below 100 nm.

  14. Coulomb problem on single- and double-wall cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinega, Alexei; Voronova, Nina; Lozovik, Yurii

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the energies of ground and excited states of two opposite charge carriers confined on a single- or double-wall cylindrical surface. A nontrivial dependence of excited state energies on cylinder radius value (for the case of a single-wall cylinder) is found, and the explanation of this behavior is based on symmetry properties of the corresponding wavefunctions. The crossover from a one-dimensional problem to a two-dimensional one with increase of the radius value is discussed in detail. For the double-wall cylinder, we obtain and analyze the dependence of ground state energy on interwall distance and ratio between particle masses. (paper)

  15. Domain wall conductivity in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D J; Gruverman, A; Connell, J G; Seo, S S A

    2016-01-01

    Although enhanced conductivity of ferroelectric domain boundaries has been found in BiFeO 3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 films as well as hexagonal rare-earth manganite single crystals, the mechanism of the domain wall conductivity is still under debate. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe enhanced conductance at the electrically-neutral domain walls in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO 3 thin films where the structure and polarization direction are strongly constrained along the c-axis. This result indicates that domain wall conductivity in ferroelectric rare-earth manganites is not limited to charged domain walls. We show that the observed conductivity in the TbMnO 3 films is governed by a single conduction mechanism, namely, the back-to-back Schottky diodes tuned by the segregation of defects. (paper)

  16. Domain wall energy landscapes in amorphous magnetic films with asymmetric arrays of holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alija, A; Perez-Junquera, A; RodrIguez-RodrIguez, G; Velez, M; Alameda, J M; MartIn, J I [Depto. Fisica, Fac. Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Marconi, V I; Kolton, A B; Parrondo, J M R [Depto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, and GISC, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Anguita, J V [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CNM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, Tres Cantos, 28760 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-02-21

    Arrays of asymmetric holes have been defined in amorphous Co-Si films by e-beam lithography in order to study domain wall motion across the array subject to the asymmetric pinning potential created by the holes. Experimental results on Kerr effect magnetooptical measurements and hysteresis loops are compared with micromagnetic simulations in films with arrays of triangular holes. These show that the potential asymmetry favours forward wall propagation for flat walls but, if the wall contains a kink, net backward wall propagation is preferred at low fields, in agreement with minor loop experiments. The difference between the fields needed for forward and backward flat wall propagation increases as the size of the triangular holes is reduced, becoming maximum for 1 {mu}m triangles, which is the characteristic length scale set by domain wall width.

  17. Domain wall energy landscapes in amorphous magnetic films with asymmetric arrays of holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alija, A; Perez-Junquera, A; RodrIguez-RodrIguez, G; Velez, M; Alameda, J M; MartIn, J I; Marconi, V I; Kolton, A B; Parrondo, J M R; Anguita, J V

    2009-01-01

    Arrays of asymmetric holes have been defined in amorphous Co-Si films by e-beam lithography in order to study domain wall motion across the array subject to the asymmetric pinning potential created by the holes. Experimental results on Kerr effect magnetooptical measurements and hysteresis loops are compared with micromagnetic simulations in films with arrays of triangular holes. These show that the potential asymmetry favours forward wall propagation for flat walls but, if the wall contains a kink, net backward wall propagation is preferred at low fields, in agreement with minor loop experiments. The difference between the fields needed for forward and backward flat wall propagation increases as the size of the triangular holes is reduced, becoming maximum for 1 μm triangles, which is the characteristic length scale set by domain wall width.

  18. N=1 domain wall solutions of massive type II supergravity as generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, J.

    2006-05-01

    We study N=1 domain wall solutions of type IIB supergravity compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold in the presence of RR and NS electric and magnetic fluxes. We show that the dynamics of the scalar fields along the direction transverse to the domain wall is described by gradient flow equations controlled by a superpotential W. We then provide a geometrical interpretation of the gradient flow equations in terms of the mirror symmetric compactification of type IIA. They correspond to a set of generalized Hitchin flow equations of a manifold with SU(3) x SU(3)structure which is fibered over the direction transverse to the domain wall. (Orig.)

  19. Domain wall displacements in amorphous films and multilayers studied with a magnetic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhil, T.G.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic force microscope (MFM) was used to study the displacement of domain walls (DW) in amorphous TbFe alloy films and Co/Pd multilayer films with high spatial resolution. The reversible bending of domain wall segments pinned to defects and irreversible, jumplike displacement of domain wall segments were imaged with the MFM in an applied magnetic field. The maximum reversible displacement of domain walls was 50 endash 100 nm and the length of the segments which reversibly curved in the field was about 150 nm. Measurement of the change in radius of curvature of a DW segment in response to an applied field allowed estimation of the DW energy density and self-demagnetizing field of the film acting on the DW. The DW energy density for the TbFe films was about 1 erg/cm 2 . It was shown that the self-demagnetizing field acting on a domain wall depends on the domain structure surrounding the studied DW segment. For instance, for a film with saturation magnetization 100 G and thickness 80 nm, which exhibited a mazelike domain structure, the demagnetizing field varied from 100 G in the center of a mazelike domain to 400 G near the edge of a domain. The irreversible displacement of a DW was not a continuous process. The 200 endash 400 nm long DW segments exhibited jumplike motion over distances of 100 endash 150 nm. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Domain decomposition methods for hyperbolic problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here K denotes a generic constant. Combining (2.6) and (2.7) we obtain the result. □. Let Oi be the domain as shown in figure 1, and wi be a continuously differentiable function defined on ¯Oi. Letw be the function defined on ×(0,τ)such that its restriction to. Oi is wi. Then w will, in general, be discontinuous across the lines li ...

  1. Unidirectional effect in domain wall propagation observed in bistable glass-coated microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onufer, J., E-mail: jozef.onufer@tuke.sk; Ziman, J., E-mail: jan.ziman@tuke.sk; Kladivová, M., E-mail: maria.kladivova@tuke.sk

    2015-12-15

    Systematic study of domain wall velocity versus applied magnetic field dependences in glass-coated amorphous Fe{sub 77.5}Si{sub 7.5}B{sub 15} wire was carried out, revealing the existence of a very interesting phenomenon. Domain wall mobility can be significantly different in cases when magnetization reversal caused by domain wall motion results in different orientation of magnetization. The magnitude and sign of this so-called unidirectional effect can change along the wire. There are also samples with weak unidirectional effect in which it is possible, in regions of higher values of applied magnetic field, to observe the highest wall velocities. It is very probable that damping of domain wall motion is responsible for this effect. As a hypothesis a mechanism based on eddy current damping of domain wall motion was proposed for interpretation of this effect. In the framework of this mechanism asymmetric and non-linear volt-ampere characteristics of the metal–glass interface might be responsible for the unidirectional effect. - Highlights: • Unidirectional effect in domain wall propagation was observed. • The magnitude and sign of the unidirectional effect can change along the wire. • A hypothesis for interpretation of the unidirectional effect is proposed.

  2. Laccases Direct Lignification in the Discrete Secondary Cell Wall Domains of Protoxylem1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A.; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A. Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. PMID:25157028

  3. Laccases direct lignification in the discrete secondary cell wall domains of protoxylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A Lacey

    2014-10-01

    Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Domain walls of gauged supergravity, M-branes and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, I.; Sfetsos, K.

    1999-01-01

    We provide an algebraic classification of all supersymmetric domain wall solutions of maximal gauged supergravity in four and seven dimensions, in the presence of non-trivial scalar fields in the coset SL(8,R)/SO(8) and SL(5,R)/SO(5) respectively. These solutions satisfy first-order equations, which can be obtained using the method of Bogomol'nyi. From an eleven-dimensional point of view they correspond to various continuous distributions of M2- and M5-branes. The Christoffel-Schwarz transformation and the uniformization of the associated algebraic curves are used in order to determine the Schrodinger potential for the scalar and graviton fluctuations on the corresponding backgrounds. In many cases we explicitly solve the Schrodinger problem by employing techniques of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The analysis is parallel to the construction of domain walls of five-dimensional gauged supergravity, with scalar fields in the coset SL(6,R)/SO(6), using algebraic curves or continuous distributions of D3-brane...

  5. Study of the structure of ferroelectric domain walls in barium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, L.; Thorel, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Evry cedex (France) ; Kilaas, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Montardi, Y. [Rhone-Poulenc, CRA, Aubervilliers (France)

    1995-02-01

    Structure of 90{degree} ferroelectric domain boundaries in barium titanate ceramics has been studied by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy and High Resolution TEM. Tilts of specific fringes across domain walls are measured on HREM images and Selected Area Diffraction Patterns. They are in a good agreement with the twin model admitted for these domain boundaries. A computerized method has been developed to give access to quantitative information about atomic displacements across these ferroelectric domain walls. The so calculated displacement field is then compared with Landau-Ginzburg based theoretical predictions.

  6. Stable branches of a solution for a fermion on domain wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gani, V. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation); Ksenzov, V. G.; Kudryavtsev, A. E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    The case when a fermion occupies an excited nonzero frequency level in the field of domain wall is discussed. It is demonstrated that a solution exists for the coupling constant in the limited interval 1 < g < g{sub max} Almost-Equal-To 1.65. It is shown that indeed there are different branches of stable solution for g in this interval. The first one corresponds to a fermion located on the domain wall (1 < g < 4{radical}2{pi}). The second branch, which belongs to the interval 4{radical}2{pi} {<=} g {<=} g{sub max}, describes a polarized fermion off the domain wall. The third branch with 1 < g < g{sub max} describes an excited antifermion in the field of the domain wall.

  7. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  8. Unidirectional Magnon-Driven Domain Wall Motion due to Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seo-Won

    2018-03-28

    We theoretically study magnon-driven motion of a tranverse domain wall in the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Contrary to previous studies, the domain wall moves along the same direction regardless of the magnon-flow direction. Our symmetry analysis reveals that the odd order DMI contributions to the domain wall velocity are independent of the magnon-flow direction. Corresponding DMI-induced asymmetric transitions from a spin-wave state to another give rise to a large momentum transfer to the domain wall without nonreciprocity and much reflection. This counterintuitive unidirectional motion occurs not only for a spin wave with a single wavevector but also for thermal magnons with distributed wavevectors.

  9. Adiabatic spin-transfer-torque-induced domain wall creep in a magnetic metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttagupta, S.; Fukami, S.; Zhang, C.; Sato, H.; Yamanouchi, M.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of elastic interfaces is a general field of interest in statistical physics, where magnetic domain wall has served as a prototypical example. Domain wall `creep’ under the action of sub-threshold driving forces with thermal activation is known to be described by a scaling law with a certain universality class, which represents the mechanism of the interaction of domain walls with the applied forces over the disorder of the system. Here we show different universality classes depending on the driving forces, magnetic field or spin-polarized current, in a metallic system, which have hitherto been seen only in a magnetic semiconductor. We reveal that an adiabatic spin-transfer torque plays a major role in determining the universality class of current-induced creep, which does not depend on the intricacies of material disorder. Our results shed light on the physics of the creep motion of domain walls and other elastic systems.

  10. One-dimensional in-plane edge domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ross G.; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Slastikov, Valeriy V.

    2018-03-01

    We study existence and properties of 1D edge domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic films with uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the magnetization vector is constrained to lie entirely in the film plane, with the preferred directions dictated by the magnetocrystalline easy axis. We consider magnetization profiles in the vicinity of a straight film edge oriented at an arbitrary angle with respect to the easy axis. To minimize the micromagnetic energy, these profiles form transition layers in which the magnetization vector rotates away from the direction of the easy axis to align with the film edge. We prove existence of edge domain walls as minimizers of the appropriate 1D micromagnetic energy functional and show that they are classical solutions of the associated Euler–Lagrange equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition at the edge. We also perform a numerical study of these 1D domain walls and uncover further properties of these domain wall profiles.

  11. Domain-wall curvature and coercivity in pinning type Sm endash Co magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skomski, R.

    1997-01-01

    The origin of coercivity in precipitation hardened Sm endash Co magnets is investigated. By considering domain-wall pinning at boundary phase and Z phase inhomogenities, it is found that the hexagonal Z phase has no direct influence on the coercivity. The intuitive assumption of plane domain walls made in a recent calculation is unrealistic but has no direct effect on the coercivity. However, due to the comparatively large size of the 12:17 cells, the calculated three dimensional domain-wall curvature is sufficiently large to assure a nearly ideal nestling of the domain walls to the 1:5 cell boundary. This nestling yields a coercivity increase from about 0.1 to about 1 T and is therefore responsible for the high coercivity of 2:17 based Sm endash Co magnets. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Magnetic hysteresis and domain wall dynamics in single chain magnets with antiferromagnetic interchain coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukharov, A A; Ovchinnikov, A S; Baranov, N V [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg, 620083 (Russian Federation); Inoue, K [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-11-03

    Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate magnetic hysteresis in two- and three-dimensional systems of weakly antiferromagnetically coupled spin chains based on a scenario of domain wall (kink) motion within the chains. By adapting the model of walkers to simulate the domain wall dynamics and using the Ising-like dipole-dipole model, we study the effects of interchain coupling, temperature and anisotropy axis direction on hysteresis curves.

  13. Domain wall solitons and Hopf algebraic translational symmetries in noncommutative field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, Yuya; Sasakura, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Domain wall solitons are the simplest topological objects in field theories. The conventional translational symmetry in a field theory is the generator of a one-parameter family of domain wall solutions, and induces a massless moduli field which propagates along a domain wall. We study similar issues in braided noncommutative field theories possessing Hopf algebraic translational symmetries. As a concrete example, we discuss a domain wall soliton in the scalar φ 4 braided noncommutative field theory in Lie-algebraic noncommutative space-time, [x i ,x j ]=2iκε ijk x k (i,j,k=1,2,3), which has a Hopf algebraic translational symmetry. We first discuss the existence of a domain wall soliton in view of Derrick's theorem, and construct explicitly a one-parameter family of solutions in perturbation of the noncommutativity parameter κ. We then find the massless moduli field which propagates on the domain wall soliton. We further extend our analysis to the general Hopf algebraic translational symmetry

  14. Current-driven domain wall motion enhanced by the microwave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Li, Zhi-xiong; Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-07-14

    The magnetic domain wall (DW) motion driven by a spin-polarized current opens a new concept for memory and logic devices. However, the critical current density required to overcome the intrinsic and/or extrinsic pinning of DW remains too large for practical applications. Here, we show, by using micromagnetic simulations and analytical approaches, that the application of a microwave field offers an effective solution to this problem. When a transverse microwave field is applied, the adiabatic spin-transfer torque (STT) alone can sustain a steady-state DW motion without the sign of Walker breakdown, meaning that the intrinsic pinning disappears. The extrinsic pinning can also be effectively reduced. Moreover, the DW velocity is increased greatly for the microwave-assisted DW motion. This provides a new way to manipulate the DW motion at low current densities.

  15. An Analytical Time Domain Solution for the Forced Vibration Analysis of Thick-Walled Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Movahedian

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we propose a time domain analytical solution for the forced vibration analysis of thick-walled hollow cylinders in presence of polar orthotropy. In this regard, solution of the governing equation is decomposed into two parts. The role of the first one is to satisfy boundary conditions utilizing the method of separation of variables besides of Fourier series expansion of the non-homogenous boundary conditions. The second part has been also expressed as the series of orthogonal characteristic functions with the aim of satisfaction of initial conditions. The proposed analytical solution has been implemented to evaluate the dynamic response of the cylinder in solution of some sample problems which are chosen from previous studies.

  16. Domain decomposition methods for the neutron diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The neutronic simulation of a nuclear reactor core is performed using the neutron transport equation, and leads to an eigenvalue problem in the steady-state case. Among the deterministic resolution methods, simplified transport (SPN) or diffusion approximations are often used. The MINOS solver developed at CEA Saclay uses a mixed dual finite element method for the resolution of these problems. and has shown his efficiency. In order to take into account the heterogeneities of the geometry, a very fine mesh is generally required, and leads to expensive calculations for industrial applications. In order to take advantage of parallel computers, and to reduce the computing time and the local memory requirement, we propose here two domain decomposition methods based on the MINOS solver. The first approach is a component mode synthesis method on overlapping sub-domains: several Eigenmodes solutions of a local problem on each sub-domain are taken as basis functions used for the resolution of the global problem on the whole domain. The second approach is an iterative method based on a non-overlapping domain decomposition with Robin interface conditions. At each iteration, we solve the problem on each sub-domain with the interface conditions given by the solutions on the adjacent sub-domains estimated at the previous iteration. Numerical results on parallel computers are presented for the diffusion model on realistic 2D and 3D cores. (authors)

  17. Mobility of ferroelastic domain walls in barium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 349, - (2007), s. 49-54 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains * BaTiO 3 * Ginzburg-Landau theory * mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.427, year: 2007

  18. Crossed ratchet effects on magnetic domain walls: geometry and transverse field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alija, A; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Alameda, J M; Martin, J I; Velez, M, E-mail: mvelez@uniovi.es [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-17

    Domain wall propagation across a 2D array of asymmetric holes is strongly dependent on the domain wall configuration: i.e. on whether the wall is flat or kinked. This results in interesting crossed ratchet and asymmetric accommodation effects that have been studied as a function of geometry and transverse field. Micromagnetic simulations have shown that the observation of crossed ratchet effects is easier for arrow than for triangular holes due to a larger field range in which kink propagation is the preferred mode for domain wall motion. Also, it has been found that dc transverse fields can produce a significant enhancement of the easy axis asymmetric accommodation and, also, that ac transverse fields can be rectified by the crossed ratchet potential.

  19. Non-dense domain operator matrices and Cauchy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalaoui Rhali, S.

    2002-12-01

    In this work, we study Cauchy problems with non-dense domain operator matrices. By assuming that the entries of an unbounded operator matrix are Hille-Yosida operators, we give a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring that the part of this operator matrix generates a semigroup in the closure of its domain. This allows us to prove the well-posedness of the corresponding Cauchy problem. Our results are applied to delay and neutral differential equations. (author)

  20. Domain Walls and Textured Vortices in a Two-Component Ginzburg-Landau Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2005-01-01

    We look for domain wall and textured vortex solutions in a two-component Ginzburg-Landau model inspired by two-band superconductivity. The two-dimensional two-component model, with equal coherence lengths and no magnetic field, shows some interesting properties. In the absence of a Josephson type...... coupling between the two order parameters a ''textured vortex'' is found by analytical and numerical solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equations. With a Josephson type coupling between the two order parameters we find the system to split up in two domains separated by a domain wall, where the order parameter...

  1. Ferroelastic domain walls in barium titanate - quantitative phenomenological model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Márton, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2009), s. 50-62 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA AV ČR 1ET300100401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains * BaTiO 3 * Ginzburg-Landau theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2009

  2. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Zhukova, V., E-mail: valentina.zhukova@ehu.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48011 (Spain)

    2012-05-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe{sub 74}B{sub 13}Si{sub 11}C{sub 2} microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height.

  3. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Zhukova, V.; Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M.; Perov, N.; Zhukov, A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe 74 B 13 Si 11 C 2 microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height

  4. Domain wall dynamics in ultrathin Pt/Co/AlOx microstrips under large combined magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jué, E.; Thiaville, A.; Pizzini, S.; Miltat, J.; Sampaio, J.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Rohart, S.; Vogel, J.; Bonfim, M.; Boulle, O.; Auffret, S.; Miron, I. M.; Gaudin, G.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetic domain walls in ultrathin strip-patterned Pt/Co/AlOx samples with perpendicular easy axis has been studied experimentally under an easy-axis field, superposed to a hard-axis field oriented along the strip. The easy-axis field is large so that the domain walls move well beyond the creep regime. A chiral effect is observed where the domain wall velocity shows a monotonous and surprisingly large variation with an in-plane field. A micromagnetic analysis, combining analytic, one-dimensional, and two-dimensional simulations with structural disorder, shows that this behavior can be reproduced with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction of the interfacial type, with due consideration of the dynamics of the tilt degree of freedom of the domain wall. The estimated effective value of this interaction (D ≈-2.2 mJ /m2 for a 0.6 nm Co thickness) is consistent with values obtained by other techniques. It is also shown, by micromagnetic analysis, that several modes and characteristic times occur in the dynamics of the tilt of such domain walls.

  5. Proposal for a Domain Wall Nano-Oscillator driven by Non-uniform Spin Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanchar; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran; Tulapurkar, Ashwin

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new mechanism and a related device concept for a robust, magnetic field tunable radio-frequency (rf) oscillator using the self oscillation of a magnetic domain wall subject to a uniform static magnetic field and a spatially non-uniform vertical dc spin current. The self oscillation of the domain wall is created as it translates periodically between two unstable positions, one being in the region where both the dc spin current and the magnetic field are present, and the other, being where only the magnetic field is present. The vertical dc spin current pushes it away from one unstable position while the magnetic field pushes it away from the other. We show that such oscillations are stable under noise and can exhibit a quality factor of over 1000. A domain wall under dynamic translation, not only being a source for rich physics, is also a promising candidate for advancements in nanoelectronics with the actively researched racetrack memory architecture, digital and analog switching paradigms as candidate examples. Devising a stable rf oscillator using a domain wall is hence another step towards the realization of an all domain wall logic scheme.

  6. Electric-field control of magnetic domain-wall velocity in ultrathin cobalt with perpendicular magnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, D; Kawaguchi, M; Fukami, S; Ishiwata, N; Shimamura, K; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T

    2012-06-06

    Controlling the displacement of a magnetic domain wall is potentially useful for information processing in magnetic non-volatile memories and logic devices. A magnetic domain wall can be moved by applying an external magnetic field and/or electric current, and its velocity depends on their magnitudes. Here we show that the applying an electric field can change the velocity of a magnetic domain wall significantly. A field-effect device, consisting of a top-gate electrode, a dielectric insulator layer, and a wire-shaped ferromagnetic Co/Pt thin layer with perpendicular anisotropy, was used to observe it in a finite magnetic field. We found that the application of the electric fields in the range of ± 2-3 MV cm(-1) can change the magnetic domain wall velocity in its creep regime (10(6)-10(3) m s(-1)) by more than an order of magnitude. This significant change is due to electrical modulation of the energy barrier for the magnetic domain wall motion.

  7. Metallic Interface Emerging at Magnetic Domain Wall of Antiferromagnetic Insulator: Fate of Extinct Weyl Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Yamaji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators, in contrast to ordinary semiconductors, accompany protected metallic surfaces described by Dirac-type fermions. Here, we theoretically show that another emergent two-dimensional metal embedded in the bulk insulator is realized at a magnetic domain wall. The domain wall has long been studied as an ingredient of both old-fashioned and leading-edge spintronics. The domain wall here, as an interface of seemingly trivial antiferromagnetic insulators, emergently realizes a functional interface preserved by zero modes with robust two-dimensional Fermi surfaces, where pyrochlore iridium oxides proposed to host the condensed-matter realization of Weyl fermions offer such examples at low temperatures. The existence of in-gap states that are pinned at domain walls, theoretically resembling spin or charge solitons in polyacetylene, and protected as the edges of hidden one-dimensional weak Chern insulators characterized by a zero-dimensional class-A topological invariant, solves experimental puzzles observed in R_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7} with rare-earth elements R. The domain wall realizes a novel quantum confinement of electrons and embosses a net uniform magnetization that enables magnetic control of electronic interface transports beyond the semiconductor paradigm.

  8. A micromagnetic study of the oscillations of pinned domain walls in magnetic ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejos, Oscar; Torres, Carlos; Hernandez-Gomez, Pablo; Lopez-Diaz, Luis; Torres, Luis; Martinez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The work studies the dynamics of domain walls in magnetic ribbons with thicknesses of the order of magnitude of the permalloy exchange length (5.7 nm) by means of micromagnetic simulations. Two small defects are symmetrically placed on both edges of the ribbon, one on each edge, occupying the whole ribbon thickness. One transverse domain wall is pinned by the defects, in a head-to-head configuration. A free wall oscillation is forced by applying a static external magnetic field in the direction of the large axis until the wall reaches a new equilibrium position (elongation), and then removed. Three dynamic regimes are observed depending on the size of the cross ribbon section

  9. Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Nanostrips under the Influence of Rashba Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Puliafito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-orbit Rashba effect applies a torque on the magnetization of a ferromagnetic nanostrip in the case of structural inversion asymmetry, also affecting the steady domain wall motion induced by a spin-polarized current. This influence is here analytically studied in the framework of the extended Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, including the Rashba effect as an additive term of the effective field. Results of previous micromagnetic simulations and experiments have shown that this field yields an increased value of the Walker breakdown current together with an enlargement of the domain wall width. In order to analytically describe these results, the standard travelling wave ansatz for the steady domain wall motion is here adopted. Results of our investigations reveal the impossibility to reproduce, at the same time, the previous features and suggest the need of a more sophisticated model whose development requires, in turn, additional information to be extracted from ad hoc micromagnetic simulations.

  10. Resonant electron tunnelling assisted by charged domain walls in multiferroic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Tornos, Javier; Hernandez-Martin, David; Beltran, Juan I.; Munuera, Carmen; Cabero, Mariona; Perez-Muñoz, Ana; Ricote, Jesus; Mompean, Federico; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Sefrioui, Zouhair; Leon, Carlos; Pennycook, Steve J.; Muñoz, Maria Carmen; Varela, Maria; Santamaria, Jacobo

    2017-07-01

    The peculiar features of domain walls observed in ferroelectrics make them promising active elements for next-generation non-volatile memories, logic gates and energy-harvesting devices. Although extensive research activity has been devoted recently to making full use of this technological potential, concrete realizations of working nanodevices exploiting these functional properties are yet to be demonstrated. Here, we fabricate a multiferroic tunnel junction based on ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric BaTiO3 tunnel barrier, where a head-to-head domain wall is constrained. An electron gas stabilized by oxygen vacancies is confined within the domain wall, displaying discrete quantum-well energy levels. These states assist resonant electron tunnelling processes across the barrier, leading to strong quantum oscillations of the electrical conductance.

  11. Reconfigurable magnetic domain wall pinning using vortex-generated magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Aaron C. H.; Izaac, Joshua A.; Altaf, Fouzia; Baltz, Vincent; Metaxas, Peter J.

    2017-05-01

    Although often important for domain wall device applications, reproducible fabrication of pinning sites at the nano-scale remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that the stray magnetic field generated beneath magnetic vortex cores can be used to generate localized pinning sites for magnetic domain walls in an underlying, perpendicularly magnetized nanostrip. Moreover, we show that the pinning strength can be tuned by switching the vortex core polarity: switching the core polarity so that it is aligned with the magnetization of the expanding domain (rather than against it) can reduce the vortex-mediated wall depinning field by between 40% and 90%, depending on the system geometry. Significant reductions in the depinning field are also demonstrated in narrow strips by shifting the core away from the strips' centers.

  12. Excitation transport through a domain wall in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke; Ohashi, Yoji

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the tunneling properties of collective excitations through a domain wall in the ferromagnetic phase of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T=0, we show that the transverse spin wave undergoes perfect reflection in the low-energy limit. This reflection property differs considerably from that of a domain wall in a Heisenberg ferromagnet where spin-wave excitations exhibit perfect transmission at arbitrary energy. When the Bogoliubov mode is scattered from this domain wall soliton, the transmission and reflection coefficients exhibit pronounced nonmonotonicity. In particular, we find perfect reflection of the Bogoliubov mode at energies where bound states appear. This is in stark contrast to the perfect transmission of the Bogoliubov mode with arbitrary energy through a dark soliton in a scalar Bose-Einstein condensate.

  13. Quasi-one-dimensional solutions for domain walls and their constraints in improper ferroelastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, W. (Materials Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA (USA) Department of Physics, Pennsylvania StateUniversity, University Park, PA (USA) Laboratory of Atomic Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA)); Barsch, G.R. (Materials Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania University, University Park, PA (USA) Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (USA)); Krumhansl, J.A. (Laboratory of Atomic and Solid StatePhysics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Based on a Landau-Ginzburg model for improper ferroelastic perovskites, we have analyzed quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) solutions for twin boundaries (domain walls) and the associated constraints. Because of the coupling of the order parameter to the elastic strain, in general domain walls must be described by fully three-dimensional (3D) solutions. Q1D solutions exist only with the presence of one of the following: (i) body force, (ii) surface stress, and (iii) interface dislocations. The shape change induced by the domain wall is also discussed for each of the above three cases. These conclusions hold quite generally for all Landau-Ginzburg models of improper ferroelastics.

  14. Excess velocity of magnetic domain walls close to the depinning field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Nirvana B.; Fernández Aguirre, Iván; Albornoz, Lucas J.; Kolton, Alejandro B.; Rojas-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Collin, Sophie; George, Jean Marie; Diaz Pardo, Rebeca; Jeudy, Vincent; Bustingorry, Sebastian; Curiale, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field driven domain wall velocities in [Co/Ni] based multilayers thin films have been measured using polar magneto-optic Kerr effect microscopy. The low field results are shown to be consistent with the universal creep regime of domain wall motion, characterized by a stretched exponential growth of the velocity with the inverse of the applied field. Approaching the depinning field from below results in an unexpected excess velocity with respect to the creep law. We analyze these results using scaling theory to show that this speeding up of domain wall motion can be interpreted as due to the increase of the size of the deterministic relaxation close to the depinning transition. We propose a phenomenological model to accurately fit the observed excess velocity and to obtain characteristic values for the depinning field Hd, the depinning temperature Td, and the characteristic velocity scale v0 for each sample.

  15. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Alejos, Ó., E-mail: oscaral@ee.uva.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Muñoz, J.M. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  16. On the equilibrium configuration of the Kittel type domain structure with Bloch walls, l80deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrila, H.

    1975-01-01

    Using a phenomenologic method for appreciating different components of the free energy, the equilibrium configuration of the Kittel-type domain structure with Bloch walls is obtained. By improving the known methods, more accurate magnetostatic energy calculations are reported. In order to determine the equilibrium structure, the total free energy is minimized with respect to two system parameters: the Bloch wall width and the structure half-period. (author)

  17. Endolysin of bacteriophage BFK20: evidence of a catalytic and a cell wall binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerova, Martina; Halgasova, Nora; Ugorcakova, Jana; Bukovska, Gabriela

    2011-08-01

    A gene product of ORF24' was identified on the genome of corynephage BFK20 as a putative phage endolysin. The protein of endolysin BFK20 (gp24') has a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal amidase_2 domain (gp24CD) and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (gp24BD). The C-terminal domain is unrelated to any of the known cell wall binding domains of phage endolysins. The whole endolysin gene and the sequences of its N-terminal and C-terminal domains were cloned; proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The lytic activities of endolysin and its catalytic domain were demonstrated on corynebacteria and bacillus substrates. The binding activity of cell wall binding domain alone and in fusion with green fluorescent protein (gp24BD-GFP) were shown by specific binding assays to the cell surface of BFK20 host Brevibacterium flavum CCM 251 as well as those of other corynebacteria. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Domain Decomposition Approach for the Gust Response Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.; Susan-Resiga, Romeo F.

    2002-01-01

    A domain decomposition method is developed for solving the aerodynamic/aeroacoustic problem of an airfoil in a vortical gust. The computational domain is divided into inner and outer regions wherein the governing equations are cast in different forms suitable for accurate computations in each region. Boundary conditions which ensure continuity of pressure and velocity are imposed along the interface separating the two regions. A numerical study is presented for reduced frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 3.0. It is seen that the domain decomposition approach in providing robust and grid independent solutions.

  19. Magnetization reversal of the transverse domain wall confined between two clusters of magnetic impurities in a ferromagnetic planar nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, D.; Leonel, S.A.; Coura, P.Z.; Sato, F.; Costa, B.V.; Vázquez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been used to investigate the polarity reversal of the transverse domain wall in rectangular magnetic nanowires and the stabilization of the domain wall position after occurring the polarity reversal. In order to control the wall position we have considered two clusters of magnetic impurities, identical and equidistant from the nanowire width axis. Traps of pinning and blocking for the transverse domain wall can be originated from magnetic impurities, consisting of a local variation of the exchange constant. Under suitable excitation amplitudes it is possible to switch the polarity of the transverse domain wall by applying a nanosecond axial magnetic field pulse in a fast and controllable way. - Highlights: • Traps for pinning and blocking transverse domain walls are proposed. • The traps consisting of localized modifications of the magnetic properties. • The wall polarity can be reversed in a fast and controllable way.

  20. Magnetization reversal of the transverse domain wall confined between two clusters of magnetic impurities in a ferromagnetic planar nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, D., E-mail: danilotoscano@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Leonel, S.A., E-mail: sidiney@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Coura, P.Z., E-mail: pablo@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Sato, F., E-mail: sjfsato@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Costa, B.V., E-mail: bvc@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30123–970 (Brazil); Vázquez, M., E-mail: mvazquez@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC. 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations have been used to investigate the polarity reversal of the transverse domain wall in rectangular magnetic nanowires and the stabilization of the domain wall position after occurring the polarity reversal. In order to control the wall position we have considered two clusters of magnetic impurities, identical and equidistant from the nanowire width axis. Traps of pinning and blocking for the transverse domain wall can be originated from magnetic impurities, consisting of a local variation of the exchange constant. Under suitable excitation amplitudes it is possible to switch the polarity of the transverse domain wall by applying a nanosecond axial magnetic field pulse in a fast and controllable way. - Highlights: • Traps for pinning and blocking transverse domain walls are proposed. • The traps consisting of localized modifications of the magnetic properties. • The wall polarity can be reversed in a fast and controllable way.

  1. Critical current density of domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, T; Imamura, H, E-mail: tomohiro-taniguchi@aist.go.jp, E-mail: h-imamura@aist.go.jp [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    The domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque was studied by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. For a domain wall whose rotation angle {theta}{sub max} is less than 180{sup 0}, we found the existence of the critical current density above which the magnetization dynamics are induced. We studied the dependence of the critical current density on the rotation angle {theta}{sub max} and found that the critical current density is proportional to 180{sup 0} - {theta}{sub max}.

  2. Control and braiding of Majorana fermions bound to magnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Tewari, Sumanta; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2015-07-01

    Owing to the recent progress on endowing the electronic structure of magnetic nanowires with topological properties, the associated topological solitons in the magnetic texture—magnetic domain walls—appear as very natural hosts for exotic electronic excitations. Here, we propose to use the magnetic domain walls to engender Majorana fermions, which has several notable advantages compared to the existing approaches. First of all, the local tunneling density-of-states anomaly associated with the Majorana zero mode bound to a smooth magnetic soliton is immune to most of parasitic artifacts associated with the abrupt physical ends of a wire, which mar the existing experimental probes. Second, a viable route to move and braid Majorana fermions is offered by domain-wall motion. In particular, we envision the recently demonstrated heat-current induced motion of domain walls in insulating ferromagnets as a promising tool for nonintrusive displacement of Majorana modes. This leads us to propose a feasible scheme for braiding domain walls within a magnetic nanowire network, which manifests the nob-Abelian exchange statistics within the Majorana subspace.

  3. Exact Solution of the Six-Vertex Model with Domain Wall Boundary Conditions. Disordered Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Bleher, P M

    2005-01-01

    The six-vertex model, or the square ice model, with domain wall boundary conditions (DWBC) has been introduced and solved for finite $N$ by Korepin and Izergin. The solution is based on the Yang-Baxter equations and it represents the free energy in terms of an $N\\times N$ Hankel determinant. Paul Zinn-Justin observed that the Izergin-Korepin formula can be re-expressed in terms of the partition function of a random matrix model with a nonpolynomial interaction. We use this observation to obtain the large $N$ asymptotics of the six-vertex model with DWBC in the disordered phase. The solution is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach and the Deift-Zhou nonlinear steepest descent method. As was noticed by Kuperberg, the problem of enumeration of alternating sign matrices (the ASM problem) is a special case of the the six-vertex model. We compare the obtained exact solution of the six-vertex model with known exact results for the 1, 2, and 3 enumerations of ASMs, and also with the exact solution on the so-called f...

  4. Mobility of domain walls in proper ferroelastic martensites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsch, G.R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.]|[Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-01

    Based on the Landau-Ginzberg free energy functional for an O{sub h}-D{sub 4h} proper ferroelastic martensitic transformation the mobility of a (110) twin boundary in a large bicrystal has been calculated by including dissipation in the approximation of the phonon viscosity model and by solving the inverse boundary value problem for the limiting case of strong shear modulus softening. Application to actual materials requires determination of the phonon viscosity tensor from experimental ultrasonic attenuation or low frequency internal friction data after subtraction of ``extrinsic`` losses, especially those from pretransformation structural strain modulations (``tweed``) and dislocations. Numerical application to V{sub 3}Si, the only proper ferroelastic martensite for which such experimental data pertaining to the soft [110]/[1 anti 10] shear mode are available, is discussed. (orig.).

  5. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S. [Hong Kong Baptist College (Hong Kong)

    1994-12-31

    The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.

  7. Homogenization of some evolution problems in domains with small holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bituin Cabarrubias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the asymptotic behavior of the wave and heat equations in periodically perforated domains with small holes and Dirichlet conditions on the boundary of the holes. In the first part we extend to time-dependent functions the periodic unfolding method for domains with small holes introduced in [6]. Therein, the method was applied to the study of elliptic problems with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes, recovering the homogenization result with a "strange term" originally obtained in [11] for the Laplacian. In the second part we obtain some homogenization results for the wave and heat equations with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes. The results concerning the wave equation extend those obtained in [12] for the case where the elliptic part of the operator is the Laplacian.

  8. Internal friction due to domain-wall motion in martensitically transformed A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1985-01-01

    A lattice instability in A15 materials in some cases leads to a cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic transformation at low temperatures. The transformed material orients in lamellae with c axes alternately aligned along the directions producing domain walls between the lamellae. An internal-friction (delta) feature below T/sub m/ is attributed to stress-induced domain-wall motion. The magnitude of the friction increases as temperature is lowered below T/sub m/ as (1-c/a) increases, and behaves as (1-c/a) 2 from T/sub m/ down to the superconducting critical temperature where the increasing tetragonality is inhibited. The effect of strain in the lattice is to decrease the domain-wall internal friction, but not affect T/sub m/. Neutron-induced disorder and the addition of some third-elements in alloying decrease both delta and T/sub m/, with some elements reducing only the former. Less than 1 at. % H is seen to completely suppress both delta and T/sub m. Martensitically transformed V 2 Zr demonstrates low-temperature internal-friction and modulus behavior consists with easy β/m wall motion relative to the easy m/m motion of the A15's. For the V 2 Zr, a peak in delta is observed, qualitatively in agreement with expected β/m wall motion

  9. Internal friction due to domain-wall motion in martensitically transformed A15 compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1985-01-01

    A lattice instability in A15 materials in some cases leads to a cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic transformation at low temperatures. The transformed material orients in lamellae with c axes alternately aligned along the <100> directions producing domain walls between the lamellae. An internal-friction (delta) feature below T/sub m/ is attributed to stress-induced domain-wall motion. The magnitude of the friction increases as temperature is lowered below T/sub m/ as (1-c/a) increases, and behaves as (1-c/a)/sup 2/ from T/sub m/ down to the superconducting critical temperature where the increasing tetragonality is inhibited. The effect of strain in the lattice is to decrease the domain-wall internal friction, but not affect T/sub m/. Neutron-induced disorder and the addition of some third-elements in alloying decrease both delta and T/sub m/, with some elements reducing only the former. Less than 1 at. % H is seen to completely suppress both delta and T/sub m. Martensitically transformed V/sub 2/Zr demonstrates low-temperature internal-friction and modulus behavior consists with easy ..beta../m wall motion relative to the easy m/m motion of the A15's. For the V/sub 2/Zr, a peak in delta is observed, qualitatively in agreement with expected ..beta../m wall motion.

  10. Nonadiabatic Spin Torque Investigated Using Thermally Activated Magnetic Domain Wall Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltschka, M.; Woetzel, Mathias; Rhensius, J.

    2010-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, we investigate the thermally activated motion of domain walls (DWs) between two positions in Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) nanowires at room temperature. We show that this purely thermal motion is well described by an Arrhenius law, allowing for a description...

  11. Simulations of super-structure domain walls in two dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Beleggia, Marco; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    We simulate the formation of domain walls in two-dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles. Particle parameters are chosen to match recent electron holography and Lorentz microscopy studies of almost monodisperse cobalt nanoparticles assembled into regular, elongated lattices. As the parti......We simulate the formation of domain walls in two-dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles. Particle parameters are chosen to match recent electron holography and Lorentz microscopy studies of almost monodisperse cobalt nanoparticles assembled into regular, elongated lattices...... taking the role of the atomic spins. The coupling is, however, different. The superspins interact only by dipolar interactions as exchange coupling between individual nanoparticles may be neglected due to interparticle spacing. We observe that it is energetically favorable to introduce domain walls...... oriented along the long dimension of nanoparticle assemblies rather than along the short dimension. This is unlike what is typically observed in continuous magnetic materials, where the exchange interaction introduces an energetic cost proportional to the area of the domain walls. Structural disorder...

  12. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein's field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.

  13. Free-carrier-compensated charged domain walls produced with super-bandgap illumination in insulating ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednyakov, Petr; Sluka, T.; Tagantsev, A.; Damjanovic, D.; Setter, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 43 (2016), s. 9498-9503 ISSN 0935-9648 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : super-bandgap illumination * charged domain walls * ferroelectric BaTiO 3 * free-carrier generation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 19.791, year: 2016

  14. Analysis of domain wall dynamics based on skewness of magnetic Barkhausen noise for applied stress determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Song [College of Electrical Engineering and Control Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816 (China); School of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Tian, GuiYun, E-mail: tian280@hotmail.com [School of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Merz Court, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Dobmann, Gerd; Wang, Ping [School of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Skewness of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) signal is used as a new feature for applied stress determination. After experimental studies, skewness presents its ability for measuring applied tensile stress compared with conventional feature, meanwhile, a non-linear behavior of this new feature and an independence of the excitation conditions under compressive stress are found and discussed. Effective damping during domain wall motion influencing the asymmetric shape of the MBN statistical distribution function is discussed under compressive and tensile stress variation. Domain wall (DW) energy and distance between pinning edges of the DW are considered altering the characteristic relaxation time, which is the reason for the non-linear phenomenon of skewness. - Highlights: • The skewness of magnetic Barkhausen noise profile is proposed as a new feature for applied stress determination. • The skewness is sensitive to applied stress and independent to excitation frequency. • Domain wall energy and pinning distance influence the relaxation time of domain wall, which leads to a non-linear behavior of skewness under compressive stress.

  15. Domain wall magnetoresistance in BiFeO3 thin films measured by scanning probe microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domingo, N.; Farokhipoor, S.; Santiso, J.; Noheda, B.; Catalan, G.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the magnetotransport properties of individual 71 degrees domain walls in multiferroic BiFeO3 by means of conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in the presence of magnetic fields up to one Tesla. The results suggest anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature, with the sign of

  16. Crossover from quantum tunneling to classical hopping of domain walls in ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Pu, Fu-Cho

    2001-09-01

    In the model of quantum tunneling of domain walls in ferromagnets given by Chudnovsky et al., the crossover from quantum tunneling to classical hopping is investigated. Considering the periodical boundary condition of spatial coordinate, the type of transition depends critically on the length of ferromagnet along the Y-axis.

  17. Breaking of chiral symmetry in vortex domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otálora, J.A.; López-López, J.A.; Landeros, P.; Vargas, P.; Núñez, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused to the field-induced dynamics of vortex-like domain walls (VDWs) in magnetic nanotubes (MNTs). Based on a dissipative Lagrangian formalism that fully includes damping as well as exchange and dipole–dipole coupling, it is shown that VDW motion is very sensitive to the chirality, giving rise to a chiral asymmetry in the vortex wall propagation. As a consequence, the dynamics of the wall is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes and solid nanowires. Besides the well-known Walker breakdown that stands at the onset of the precessional wall motion, it is found an additional breakdown field (called here the chiral breakdown) that modifies the steady regime of VDWs. We also show outstanding VDWs dynamical properties at low applied fields, as low-field mobilities (∼10km/(sT)) and very short relaxation times (∼1ns), offering a reliable fast control of VDWs velocities (∼1000m/s at applied fields of 0.7 mT). - Highlights: • We model analytically the dynamics of vortex domain walls in magnetic nanotubes. • We fully include damping, exchange and dipole–dipole coupling. • The wall dynamics is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes. • We report and describe an extra dynamical instability, the Chiral Breakdown field. • We report outstanding dynamical properties at weak magnetic fields

  18. Dynamical scaling, domain-growth kinetics, and domain-wall shapes of quenched two-dimensional anisotropic XY models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Praestgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    obeys dynamical scaling and the shape of the dynamical scaling function pertaining to the structure factor is found to depend on P. Specifically, this function is described by a Porod-law behavior, q-ω, where ω increases with the wall softness. The kinetic exponent, which describes how the linear domain...... infinite to zero temperature as well as to nonzero temperatures below the ordering transition. The continuous nature of the spin variables causes the domain walls to be ‘‘soft’’ and characterized by a finite thickness. The steady-state thickness of the walls can be varied by a model parameter, P. At zero...... size varies with time, R(t)∼tn, is for both models at zero temperature determined to be n≃0.25, independent of P. At finite temperatures, the growth kinetics is found to cross over to the Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn law characterized by n≃0.50. The results support the idea of two separate zero...

  19. Stochastic Current-Driven Domain-Wall Motion Observed by X-Ray Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Guido

    2008-03-01

    Transmission x-ray microscopy can directly visualize the influence of a spin-polarized current on the magnetization of micro- and nanostructures. We investigate the stochastic motion of domain walls in curved wires [1] and the motion of vortices in squares [2]. To observe domain-wall motion pulses of nanosecond duration and high current density are send through permalloy wires and either move or deform the domain wall. The current pulses have nanosecond duration and a high current density of up to 1.0 10^12 A/m^2 and drive the wall either undisturbed, i.e. as a composite particle through the wire or causes structural changes of the magnetization. Repetitive pulse measurements reveal the stochastic nature of current induced domain-wall motion. From the experiments we estimate the ratio between the degree of nonadiabaticity and the Gilbert damping parameter indicating the importance of the nonadiabatic contribution to current driven domain-wall motion. To compare experimental results with theory the spin-torque transfer model of Zhang and Li [3] is implemented in the micromagnetic framework OOMMF [4]. The code is applied to determine the current-induced domain wall velocity using the material parameters of permalloy. The simulations support the interpretation of the experimental results. Sinusoidal high-density currents are applied to micrometer-sized permalloy squares containing ferromagnetic vortices. Spin-torque induced vortex gyration on the nanosecond timescale is observed. The phase of the gyration in structures with different chirality are compared to an analytical model and micromagnetic simulations, considering both alternating spin-polarized currents and the current's Oersted fields. This analysis reveals that spin-torque is the main source of motion. Supported by the DFG via SFB 668 and GK 1286 as well as by the U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231. References: [1] G. Meier, M. Bolte, R. Eiselt, U. Merkt, B. Krüger, D. Pfannkuche, D.-H. Kim, and P

  20. Tunneling decay of false domain walls: The silence of the lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberichter, Mareike, E-mail: M.Haberichter@kent.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, Richard, E-mail: richard.mackenzie@umontreal.ca; Ung, Yvan, E-mail: klingon-ecology@hotmail.com [Groupe de Physique des Particules, Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Paranjape, M. B., E-mail: paranj@lps.umontreal.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Groupe de Physique des Particules, Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); St. John’s College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TP (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    We study the decay of “false” domain walls, that is, metastable states of the quantum theory where the true vacuum is trapped inside the wall with the false vacuum outside. We consider a theory with two scalar fields, a shepherd field and a field of sheep. The shepherd field serves to herd the solitons of the sheep field so that they are nicely bunched together. However, quantum tunnelling of the shepherd field releases the sheep to spread out uncontrollably. We show how to calculate the tunnelling amplitude for such a disintegration.

  1. Tunneling decay of false domain walls: The silence of the lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberichter, Mareike; MacKenzie, Richard; Ung, Yvan; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    We study the decay of “false” domain walls, that is, metastable states of the quantum theory where the true vacuum is trapped inside the wall with the false vacuum outside. We consider a theory with two scalar fields, a shepherd field and a field of sheep. The shepherd field serves to herd the solitons of the sheep field so that they are nicely bunched together. However, quantum tunnelling of the shepherd field releases the sheep to spread out uncontrollably. We show how to calculate the tunnelling amplitude for such a disintegration.

  2. Optimized cobalt nanowires for domain wall manipulation imaged by in situ Lorentz microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, L. A.; Magén, C.; Snoeck, E.; Gatel, C.; Serrano-Ramón, L.

    2013-01-01

    Direct observation of domain wall (DW) nucleation and propagation in focused electron beam induced deposited Co nanowires as a function of their dimensions was carried out by Lorentz microscopy (LTEM) upon in situ application of magnetic field. Optimal dimensions favoring the unambiguous DW nucleation/propagation required for applications were found in 500-nm-wide and 13-nm-thick Co nanowires, with a maximum nucleation field and the largest gap between nucleation and propagation fields. The internal DW structures were resolved using the transport-of-intensity equation formalism in LTEM images and showed that the optimal nanowire dimensions correspond to the crossover between the nucleation of transverse and vortex walls.

  3. Scalable Domain Decomposition Preconditioners for Heterogeneous Elliptic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jolivet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Domain decomposition methods are, alongside multigrid methods, one of the dominant paradigms in contemporary large-scale partial differential equation simulation. In this paper, a lightweight implementation of a theoretically and numerically scalable preconditioner is presented in the context of overlapping methods. The performance of this work is assessed by numerical simulations executed on thousands of cores, for solving various highly heterogeneous elliptic problems in both 2D and 3D with billions of degrees of freedom. Such problems arise in computational science and engineering, in solid and fluid mechanics. While focusing on overlapping domain decomposition methods might seem too restrictive, it will be shown how this work can be applied to a variety of other methods, such as non-overlapping methods and abstract deflation based preconditioners. It is also presented how multilevel preconditioners can be used to avoid communication during an iterative process such as a Krylov method.

  4. Optimal Control Problems for Partial Differential Equations on Reticulated Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, Peter I

    2011-01-01

    In the development of optimal control, the complexity of the systems to which it is applied has increased significantly, becoming an issue in scientific computing. In order to carry out model-reduction on these systems, the authors of this work have developed a method based on asymptotic analysis. Moving from abstract explanations to examples and applications with a focus on structural network problems, they aim at combining techniques of homogenization and approximation. Optimal Control Problems for Partial Differential Equations on Reticulated Domains is an excellent reference tool for gradu

  5. Varying domains in a general class of sublinear elliptic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cano-Casanova

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use the linear theory developed in [8] and [9] to show the continuous dependence of the positive solutions of a general class of sublinear elliptic boundary value problems of mixed type with respect to the underlying domain. Our main theorem completes the results of Daners and Dancer [12] -and the references there in-, where the classical Robin problem was dealt with. Besides the fact that we are working with mixed non-classical boundary conditions, it must be mentioned that this paper is considering problems where bifurcation from infinity occurs; now a days, analyzing these general problems, where the coefficients are allowed to vary and eventually vanishing or changing sign, is focusing a great deal of attention -as they give rise to metasolutions (e.g., [20]-.

  6. Measurements of nanoscale domain wall flexing in a ferromagnetic thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, A L; Nowakowski, M E; Wilson, M J; Rench, D W; Schiffer, P; Awschalom, D D; Samarth, N

    2011-08-12

    We use the high spatial sensitivity of the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga(1-x)Mn(x)As, combined with the magneto-optical Kerr effect, to probe the nanoscale elastic flexing behavior of a single magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic thin film. Our technique allows position sensitive characterization of the pinning site density, which we estimate to be ∼10(14) cm(-3). Analysis of single site depinning events and their temperature dependence yields estimates of pinning site forces (10 pN range) as well as the thermal deactivation energy. Our data provide evidence for a much higher intrinsic domain wall mobility for flexing than previously observed in optically probed μm scale measurements.

  7. Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Antonio; Kenneth C. Bowler; Peter A. Boyle; Norman H. Christ; Michael A. Clark; Saul D. Cohen; Chris Dawson; Alistair Hart; Balint Joó; Chulwoo Jung; Richard D. Kenway; Shu Li; Meifeng Lin; Robert D. Mawhinney; Christopher M. Maynard; Shigemi Ohta; Robert J. Tweedie; Azusa Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator relevant to simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a $16^3\\times 32$ space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings $a^{-1} \\ge 1.6$ GeV.

  8. Switching of ± 360° domain wall states in a nanoring by an azimuthal Oersted field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N R; Licht, A S; Li, Y; Sun, Y; Tuominen, M T; Aidala, K E

    2011-12-02

    We demonstrate magnetic switching between two 360° domain wall vortex states in cobalt nanorings, which are candidate magnetic states for robust and low power magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) devices. These 360° domain wall (DW) or 'twisted onion' states can have clockwise or counterclockwise circulation, the two states for data storage. Reliable switching between the states is necessary for any realistic device. We accomplish this switching by applying a circular Oersted field created by passing current through a metal atomic force microscope tip placed at the center of the ring. After initializing in an onion state, we rotate the DWs to one side of the ring by passing a current through the center, and can switch between the two twisted states by reversing the current, causing the DWs to split and meet again on the opposite side of the ring. A larger current will annihilate the DWs and create a perfect vortex state in the rings.

  9. Current-driven domain wall ratchet in a nanomagnet with functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri; Saxena, Avadh

    We develop a concept of functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which provides novel ways of efficient control of the magnetization dynamics. Using this approach we realize the ratchet motion of the domain wall in a magnetic nanowire driven by spin polarized current with potential applications in magnetic devices such as race-track memory and magnetic logical devices. By engineering the spatial profile of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya parameters we provide a unidirectional motion of the domain wall along the wire. We base our study on phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations using a collective variable approach. In effective equations of motion the functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction appears as a driving force, which can either suppress the action of the pumping by the current or can reinforce it. All analytical predictions are well confirmed by numerical simulations.

  10. Logic circuit prototypes for three-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions with mobile domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currivan-Incorvia, J A; Siddiqui, S; Dutta, S; Evarts, E R; Zhang, J; Bono, D; Ross, C A; Baldo, M A

    2016-01-12

    Spintronic computing promises superior energy efficiency and nonvolatility compared to conventional field-effect transistor logic. But, it has proven difficult to realize spintronic circuits with a versatile, scalable device design that is adaptable to emerging material physics. Here we present prototypes of a logic device that encode information in the position of a magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic wire. We show that a single three-terminal device can perform inverter and buffer operations. We demonstrate one device can drive two subsequent gates and logic propagation in a circuit of three inverters. This prototype demonstration shows that magnetic domain wall logic devices have the necessary characteristics for future computing, including nonlinearity, gain, cascadability, and room temperature operation.

  11. Perterbative O(asa) matching in static heavy and domain-wall light quark system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa,T.

    2008-07-14

    We discuss the perturbative O(a{sub s}a) matching in the static heavy and domain-wall light quark system. The gluon action is the Iwasaki action and the link smearing is performed in the static heavy action. The chiral symmetry of the light quark realized by using the domain-wall fermion formulation does not prohibit the mixing of the operators at O(a). The application of O(a) improvement to the actual data shows that the B meson decay constant f{sub B}, the matrix elements M{sub B} and the B parameter B{sub B} have non-negligible effects, while the effect on the SU(3) breaking ratio {zeta} is small.

  12. Strain-controlled magnetic domain wall propagation in hybrid piezoelectric/ferromagnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Devolder, Thibaut; Agnus, Guillaume; Aubert, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent; Kim, Joo-Von; Zhao, Weisheng; Trypiniotis, Theodossis; Cowburn, Russell P; Chappert, Claude; Ravelosona, Dafiné; Lecoeur, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The control of magnetic order in nanoscale devices underpins many proposals for integrating spintronics concepts into conventional electronics. A key challenge lies in finding an energy-efficient means of control, as power dissipation remains an important factor limiting future miniaturization of integrated circuits. One promising approach involves magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric systems, where induced strains can bear directly on the magnetic anisotropy. While such processes have been demonstrated in several multiferroic heterostructures, the incorporation of such complex materials into practical geometries has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the possibility of generating sizeable anisotropy changes, through induced strains driven by applied electric fields, in hybrid piezoelectric/spin-valve nanowires. By combining magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetoresistance measurements, we show that domain wall propagation fields can be doubled under locally applied strains. These results highlight the prospect of constructing low-power domain wall gates for magnetic logic devices.

  13. Enhanced Worldvolume Supersymmetry and Intersecting Domain Walls in N=1 SQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Shifman, M; Vainshtein, A I

    2004-01-01

    We study the worldvolume dynamics of BPS domain walls in N=1 SQCD with N_f=N flavors, and exhibit an enhancement of supersymmetry for the reduced moduli space associated with broken flavor symmetries. We provide an explicit construction of the worldvolume superalgebra which corresponds to an N=2 Kahler sigma model in 2+1D deformed by a potential, given by the norm squared of a U(1) Killing vector, resulting from the flavor symmetries broken by unequal quark masses. This framework leads to a worldvolume description of novel two-wall junction configurations, which are 1/4-BPS objects, but nonetheless preserve two supercharges when viewed as kinks on the wall worldvolume.

  14. Inertial displacement of a domain wall excited by ultra-short circularly polarized laser pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Tomáš; Roy, P.E.; Otxoa, R.M.; Šobáň, Zbyněk; Ramsay, A.; Irvine, A.C.; Trojánek, F.; Surynek, M.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Němec, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May (2017), 1-7, č. článku 15226. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 610115 - SC2 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * domain walls Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  15. On-Chip Manipulation of Protein-Coated Magnetic Beads via Domain-Wall Conduits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Vavassori, Paolo; Gobbi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Geometrically constrained magnetic domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires can be manipulated at the nanometer scale. The inhomogeneous magnetic stray field generated by a DW can capture a magnetic nanoparticle in solution. On-chip nanomanipulation of individual magnetic beads coated with proteins...... is demonstrated through the motion of geometrically constrained DWs in specially designed magnetic nanoconduits fully integrated in a lab-on-a-chip platform....

  16. Magneto-transport measurements of domain wall propagation in individual multi segmented cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2016-03-01

    Magnetotransport measurements were performed on multisegmented Co/Ni nanowires fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition. Individual nanowires were isolated and electrodes patterned to study their magnetization reversal process. The magnetoresistance reversal curve of the multisegmented nanowire exhibits a step in the switching field. Micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization reversal process are in agreement with the experimental findings and attribute the step at the switching field to the pinning of a domain wall at the interface of the Co/Ni nanowire.

  17. High antiferromagnetic domain wall velocity induced by Néel spin-orbit torques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomonay, O.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, Jairo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 017202. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * domain walls * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  18. The Kaon B-parameter from Two-Flavour Dynamical Domain Wall Fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the calculation of the kaon B-parameter using two dynamical flavours of domain wall fermions. Our analysis is based on three ensembles of configurations, each consisting of about 5,000 HMC trajectories, with a lattice spacing of approximately 1.7 GeV for 16 3 x32 lattices; dynamical quark masses range from approximately the strange quark mass to half of that. Both degenerate and non-degenerate quark masses are used for the kaons

  19. Identification of microscopic domain wall motion from temperature dependence of nonlinear dielectric response.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Sluka, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 16 (2017), č. článku 162906. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : microscopic domain wall * electric fields * temperature dependence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4981874

  20. The Cosmological Constant and Domain Walls in Orientifold Field Theories and N=1 Gluodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss domain walls and vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) in N=1 gluodynamics and in non-supersymmetric large N orientifold field theories which have been recently shown to be planar equivalent (in the boson sector) to N=1 gluodynamics. A relation between the vanishing force between two parallel walls and vanishing cosmological constant is pointed out. This relation may explain why the cosmological constant vanishes in the orientifold field theory at leading order although the hadronic spectrum of this theory does not contain fermions in the limit N-->infinity. The cancellation is among even and odd parity bosonic contributions, due to NS-NS and R-R cancellations in the annulus amplitude of the underlying string theory. We use the open-closed string channel duality to describe interaction between the domain walls which is interpreted as the exchange of composite ``dilatons'' and ``axions'' coupled to the walls. Finally, we study some planar equivalent pairs in which both theories in the parent...

  1. Exploring Cell Wall Composition and Modifications During the Development of the Gynoecium Medial Domain in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Herrera-Ubaldo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, the gynoecium, the inner whorl of the flower, is the female reproductive part. Many tissues important for fertilization such as the stigma, style, transmitting tract, placenta, ovules, and septum, comprising the medial domain, arise from the carpel margin meristem. During gynoecium development, septum fusion occurs and tissues form continuously to prepare for a successful pollination and fertilization. During gynoecium development, cell wall modifications take place and one of the most important is the formation of the transmitting tract, having a great impact on reproductive competence because it facilitates pollen tube growth and movement through the ovary. In this study, using a combination of classical staining methods, fluorescent dyes, and indirect immunolocalization, we analyzed cell wall composition and modifications accompanying medial domain formation during gynoecium development. We detected coordinated changes in polysaccharide distribution through time, cell wall modifications preceding the formation of the transmitting tract, mucosubstances increase during transmitting tract formation, and a decrease of mannan distribution. Furthermore, we also detected changes in lipid distribution during septum fusion. Proper cell wall composition and modifications are important for postgenital fusion of the carpel (septum fusion and transmitting tract formation, because these tissues affect plant reproductive competence.

  2. Magnetic scanning gate microscopy of a domain wall nanosensor using microparticle probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corte-León, H., E-mail: hector.corte@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Gribkov, B. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Krzysteczko, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig D-38116 (Germany); Marchi, F.; Motte, J.-F. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, Grenoble F-38042 (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, Grenoble F-38042 (France); Schumacher, H.W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig D-38116 (Germany); Antonov, V. [Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Kazakova, O. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    We apply the magnetic scanning gate microscopy (SGM) technique to study the interaction between a magnetic bead (MB) and a domain wall (DW) trapped in an L-shaped magnetic nanostructure. Magnetic SGM is performed using a custom-made probe, comprising a hard magnetic NdFeB bead of diameter 1.6 µm attached to a standard silicon tip. The MB–DW interaction is detected by measuring changes in the electrical resistance of the device as a function of the tip position. By scanning at different heights, we create a 3D map of the MB–DW interaction and extract the sensing volume for different widths of the nanostructure's arms. It is shown that for 50 nm wide devices the sensing volume is a cone of 880 nm in diameter by 1.4 µm in height, and reduces down to 800 nm in height for 100 nm devices with almost no change in its diameter. - Highlights: • AFM tips with a magnetic bead attached used to test interaction with domain wall. • Domain wall inside a nanostructure affect the electrical resistance. • Recording electrical resistance while scanning with modified AFM probe. • Change of resistance as a function of the position of the magnetic bead. • This allows comparing different devices in a reproducible and controllable way.

  3. Logic and memory concepts for all-magnetic computing based on transverse domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, J.; Van de Wiele, B.; Dupré, L.; Van Waeyenberge, B.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a non-volatile digital logic and memory concept in which the binary data is stored in the transverse magnetic domain walls present in in-plane magnetized nanowires with sufficiently small cross sectional dimensions. We assign the digital bit to the two possible orientations of the transverse domain wall. Numerical proofs-of-concept are presented for a NOT-, AND- and OR-gate, a FAN-out as well as a reading and writing device. Contrary to the chirality based vortex domain wall logic gates introduced in Omari and Hayward (2014 Phys. Rev. Appl. 2 044001), the presented concepts remain applicable when miniaturized and are driven by electrical currents, making the technology compatible with the in-plane racetrack memory concept. The individual devices can be easily combined to logic networks working with clock speeds that scale linearly with decreasing design dimensions. This opens opportunities to an all-magnetic computing technology where the digital data is stored and processed under the same magnetic representation.

  4. Logic and memory concepts for all-magnetic computing based on transverse domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeulen, J; Van de Wiele, B; Dupré, L; Van Waeyenberge, B

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a non-volatile digital logic and memory concept in which the binary data is stored in the transverse magnetic domain walls present in in-plane magnetized nanowires with sufficiently small cross sectional dimensions. We assign the digital bit to the two possible orientations of the transverse domain wall. Numerical proofs-of-concept are presented for a NOT-, AND- and OR-gate, a FAN-out as well as a reading and writing device. Contrary to the chirality based vortex domain wall logic gates introduced in Omari and Hayward (2014 Phys. Rev. Appl. 2 044001), the presented concepts remain applicable when miniaturized and are driven by electrical currents, making the technology compatible with the in-plane racetrack memory concept. The individual devices can be easily combined to logic networks working with clock speeds that scale linearly with decreasing design dimensions. This opens opportunities to an all-magnetic computing technology where the digital data is stored and processed under the same magnetic representation. (paper)

  5. Transmission XMCD-PEEM imaging of an engineered vertical FEBID cobalt nanowire with a domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartelle, A.; Pablo-Navarro, J.; Staňo, M.; Bochmann, S.; Pairis, S.; Rioult, M.; Thirion, C.; Belkhou, R.; de Teresa, J. M.; Magén, C.; Fruchart, O.

    2018-01-01

    Using focused electron-beam-induced deposition, we fabricate a vertical, platinum-coated cobalt nanowire with a controlled three-dimensional structure. The latter is engineered to feature bends along the height: these are used as pinning sites for domain walls, which are obtained at remanence after saturation of the nanostructure in a horizontally applied magnetic field. The presence of domain walls is investigated using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) coupled to photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). The vertical geometry of our sample combined with the low incidence of the x-ray beam produce an extended wire shadow which we use to recover the wire’s magnetic configuration. In this transmission configuration, the whole sample volume is probed, thus circumventing the limitation of PEEM to surfaces. This article reports on the first study of magnetic nanostructures standing perpendicular to the substrate with XMCD-PEEM. The use of this technique in shadow mode enabled us to confirm the presence of a domain wall without direct imaging of the nanowire.

  6. Domain Wall Dynamics Driven by a Localized Injection of a Spin-Polarized Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchio, Giovanni; Maugeri, Natale; Torres, Luis; Azzerboni, Bruno

    2010-06-01

    This paper introduces an oscillator scheme based on the oscillations of magnetic domain walls due to spin-polarized currents, where the current is injected perpendicular to the sample plane in a localized part of a nanowire. Depending on the geometrical and physical characteristic of the system, we identify two different dynamical regimes (auto-oscillations) when an out-of-plane external field is applied. The first regime is characterized by nucleation of domain walls (DWs) below the current injection site and the propagation of those up to the end of the nanowire, we also found an oscillation frequency larger than 5GHz with a linear dependence on the applied current density. This simple system can be used as a tuneable steady-state domain wall oscillator. In the second dynamical regime, we observe the nucleation of two DWs which propagate back and forth in the nanowire with a sub-GHz oscillation frequency. The micromagnetic spectral mapping technique shows the spatial distribution of the output power is localized symmetrically in the nanowire. We suggest that this configuration can be used as micromagnetic transformer to decouple electrically two different circuits.

  7. Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, O.; Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls (DDW) in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, for different values of both perpendicular field and longitudinal current excitation associated to the Spin-Hall effect, has been studied, taking into account different values of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This study has been carried out with the help of the q-Φ one-dimensional model and micromagnetic simulations. We have found that Walker breakdown may be avoided by applying a certain threshold current, even though the inverse effect is also possible. We have also found that, for particular values of field and current, the magnetization within the DDW experiences an abrupt change of orientation, which provokes a change on the contribution of current to the terminal DDW velocity. This effect disappears for sufficiently strong DMI, as it is expected from the model. - Highlights: • Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current have been reported. • Field-like torques and Slonczewskii-like torques due to spin-orbit interactions have been considered. • The response is associated with the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • An asymmetric behavior arising from the existence of degenerate states is shown. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  8. Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L., E-mail: luis.st@ee.uva.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, O. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls (DDW) in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, for different values of both perpendicular field and longitudinal current excitation associated to the Spin-Hall effect, has been studied, taking into account different values of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This study has been carried out with the help of the q-Φ one-dimensional model and micromagnetic simulations. We have found that Walker breakdown may be avoided by applying a certain threshold current, even though the inverse effect is also possible. We have also found that, for particular values of field and current, the magnetization within the DDW experiences an abrupt change of orientation, which provokes a change on the contribution of current to the terminal DDW velocity. This effect disappears for sufficiently strong DMI, as it is expected from the model. - Highlights: • Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current have been reported. • Field-like torques and Slonczewskii-like torques due to spin-orbit interactions have been considered. • The response is associated with the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • An asymmetric behavior arising from the existence of degenerate states is shown. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  9. Three-dimensional, time-resolved profiling of ferroelectric domain wall dynamics by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussmann, Alexander; Schmidt, Sebastian; Wehmeier, Lukas; Eng, Lukas M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute of Applied Physics and Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Dresden (Germany); Kirsten, Lars; Cimalla, Peter; Koch, Edmund [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Clinical Sensoring and Monitoring, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We apply here spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for the precise detection and temporal tracking of ferroelectric domain walls (DWs) in magnesium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (Mg:PPLN). We reproducibly map static DWs at an axial (depth) resolution down to ∝ 0.6 μm, being located up to 0.5 mm well inside the single crystalline Mg:PPLN sample. We show that a full 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the DW geometry is possible from the collected data, when applying a special algorithm that accounts for the nonlinear optical dispersion of the material. Our OCT investigation provides valuable reference information on the DWs' polarization charge distribution, which is known to be the key to the electrical conductivity of ferroelectric DWs in such systems. Hence, we carefully analyze the SD-OCT signal dependence both when varying the direction of incident polarization, and when applying electrical fields along the polar axis. Surprisingly, the large backreflection intensities recorded under extraordinary polarization are not affected by any electrical field, at least for field strengths below the switching threshold, while no significant signals above noise floor are detected under ordinary polarization. Finally, we employed the high-speed SD-OCT setup for the real-time DW tracking upon ferroelectric domain switching under high external fields. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Domain decomposition multigrid methods for nonlinear reaction-diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrarás, A.; Gaspar, F. J.; Portero, L.; Rodrigo, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we propose efficient discretizations for nonlinear evolutionary reaction-diffusion problems on general two-dimensional domains. The spatial domain is discretized through an unstructured coarse triangulation, which is subsequently refined via regular triangular grids. Following the method of lines approach, we first consider a finite element spatial discretization, and then use a linearly implicit splitting time integrator related to a suitable decomposition of the triangulation nodes. Such a procedure provides a linear system per internal stage. The equations corresponding to those nodes lying strictly inside the elements of the coarse triangulation can be decoupled and solved in parallel using geometric multigrid techniques. The method is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, since it avoids the need for Schwarz-type iteration procedures. In addition, it is formulated for triangular elements, thus yielding much flexibility in the discretization of complex geometries. To illustrate its practical utility, the algorithm is shown to reproduce the pattern-forming dynamics of the Schnakenberg model.

  11. Domain Walls, near-BPS Bubbles and Probabilities in the Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceresole, Anna; /INFN, Turin /Turin U.; Dall' Agata, Gianguido; /CERN; Giryavets, Alexander; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-06-27

    We develop a theory of static BPS domain walls in stringy landscape and present a large family of BPS walls interpolating between different supersymmetric vacua. Examples include KKLT models, STU models, type IIB multiple flux vacua, and models with several Minkowski and AdS vacua. After the uplifting, some of the vacua become dS, whereas some others remain AdS. The near-BPS walls separating these vacua may be seen as bubble walls in the theory of vacuum decay. As an outcome of our investigation of the BPS walls, we found that the decay rate of dS vacua to a collapsing space with a negative vacuum energy can be quite large. The parts of space that experience a decay to a collapsing space, or to a Minkowski vacuum, never return back to dS space. The channels of irreversible vacuum decay serve as sinks for the probability flow. The existence of such sinks is a distinguishing feature of the landscape. We show that it strongly affects the probability distributions in string cosmology.

  12. Quantum Interference Control of Ballistic Magneto- resistance in a Magnetic Nanowire Containing Two Atomic- Size Domain Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fallahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoresistance of a one-dimensional electron gas in a metallic ferromagnetic nanowire containing two atomic-size domain walls has been investigated in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. The magnetoresistance is calculated in the ballistic regime, within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. It has been demonstrated that the conductance of a magnetic nanowire with double domain walls can be controlled through the domain walls separation. Also, we have represented another alternative way that enables us to handle easily the magnetoresistance of such a system as well as its conductance by utilizing the Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction induced by the external gates.

  13. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2015-03-12

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  14. Investigation of domain walls in PPLN by confocal raman microscopy and PCA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Bourson, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is a powerful tool for investigation of ferroelectric domains. Mechanical stresses and electric fields existed in the vicinity of neutral and charged domain walls modify frequency, intensity and width of spectral lines [1], thus allowing to visualize micro- and nanodomain structures both at the surface and in the bulk of the crystal [2,3]. Stresses and fields are naturally coupled in ferroelectrics due to inverse piezoelectric effect and hardly can be separated in Raman spectra. PCA is a powerful statistical method for analysis of large data matrix providing a set of orthogonal variables, called principal components (PCs). PCA is widely used for classification of experimental data, for example, in crystallization experiments, for detection of small amounts of components in solid mixtures etc. [4,5]. In Raman spectroscopy PCA was applied for analysis of phase transitions and provided critical pressure with good accuracy [6]. In the present work we for the first time applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method for analysis of Raman spectra measured in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). We found that principal components demonstrate different sensitivity to mechanical stresses and electric fields in the vicinity of the domain walls. This allowed us to separately visualize spatial distribution of fields and electric fields at the surface and in the bulk of PPLN.

  15. Control of domain wall pinning by localised focused Ga + ion irradiation on Au capped NiFe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding domain wall pinning and propagation in nanowires are important for future spintronics and nanoparticle manipulation technologies. Here, the effects of microscopic local modification of the magnetic properties, induced by focused-ion-beam intermixing, in NiFe/Au bilayer nanowires on the pinning behavior of domain walls was investigated. The effects of irradiation dose and the length of the irradiated features were investigated experimentally. The results are considered in the context of detailed quasi-static micromagnetic simulations, where the ion-induced modification was represented as a local reduction of the saturation magnetization. Simulations show that domain wall pinning behavior depends on the magnitude of the magnetization change, the length of the modified region, and the domain wall structure. Comparative analysis indicates that reduced saturation magnetisation is not solely responsible for the experimentally observed pinning behavior.

  16. Brownian motion and entropic torque driven motion of domain walls in antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengren; Chen, Zhiyuan; Qin, Minghui; Lu, Xubing; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Junming

    2018-02-01

    We study the spin dynamics in antiferromagnetic nanowire under an applied temperature gradient using micromagnetic simulations on a classical spin model with a uniaxial anisotropy. The entropic torque driven domain-wall motion and the Brownian motion are discussed in detail, and their competition determines the antiferromagnetic wall motion towards the hotter or colder region. Furthermore, the spin dynamics in an antiferromagnet can be well tuned by the anisotropy and the temperature gradient. Thus, this paper not only strengthens the main conclusions obtained in earlier works [Kim et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 020402(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.020402; Selzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.107201], but more importantly gives the concrete conditions under which these conclusions apply, respectively. Our results may provide useful information on the antiferromagnetic spintronics for future experiments and storage device design.

  17. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2017-05-08

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  18. Interplay between collective pinning and artificial defects on domain wall propagation in Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Menendez, J L [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC)-Univ. Oviedo -UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Ravelosona, D, E-mail: mvelez@uniovi.e [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Univ. Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-08-04

    The interplay between collective pinning on intrinsic structural defects and artificial pinning at a patterned hole is studied in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy. The pinning strength of a patterned hole is measured through its efficiency to stop domain wall (DW) propagation into a consecutive unpatterned nanowire section (using antisymmetric magnetoresistance to detect the direction of DW propagation) whereas collective pinning is characterized by the field dependence of DW velocity. Close to room temperature, collective pinning becomes weaker than artificial pinning so that pinning at the hole compensates nucleation-pad geometry, blocking DW propagation across the nanowire.

  19. General purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of cosmological domain wall network evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J R C C C; Martins, C J A P

    2017-10-01

    Topological defects unavoidably form at symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. To probe the parameter space of theoretical models and set tighter experimental constraints (exploiting the recent advances in astrophysical observations), one requires more and more demanding simulations, and therefore more hardware resources and computation time. Improving the speed and efficiency of existing codes is essential. Here we present a general purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of the canonical Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm for the evolution of cosmological domain wall networks. This is ported to the Open Computing Language standard, and as a consequence significant speedups are achieved both in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D simulations.

  20. Nucleon structure in the chiral regime with domain wall fermions on an improved staggered sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Edwards; G. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; J.W. Negele; K. Orginos; A.V. Pochinsky; D.B. Renner; D.G. Richards; W. Schroers

    2006-01-01

    Moments of unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and generalized form factors of the nucleon are presented from a preliminary analysis of lattice results using pion masses down to 359 MeV. The twist two matrix elements are calculated using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks and asqtad staggered sea quarks and are renormalized perturbatively. Several observables are extrapolated to the physical limit using chiral perturbation theory. Results are compared with experimental moments of quark distributions and electromagnetic form factors and phenomenologically determined generalized form factors, and the implications on the transverse structure and spin content of the nucleon are discussed

  1. General purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of cosmological domain wall network evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J. R. C. C. C.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2017-10-01

    Topological defects unavoidably form at symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. To probe the parameter space of theoretical models and set tighter experimental constraints (exploiting the recent advances in astrophysical observations), one requires more and more demanding simulations, and therefore more hardware resources and computation time. Improving the speed and efficiency of existing codes is essential. Here we present a general purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of the canonical Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm for the evolution of cosmological domain wall networks. This is ported to the Open Computing Language standard, and as a consequence significant speedups are achieved both in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D simulations.

  2. Interplay between collective pinning and artificial defects on domain wall propagation in Co/Pt multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M; Menendez, J L; Ravelosona, D

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between collective pinning on intrinsic structural defects and artificial pinning at a patterned hole is studied in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy. The pinning strength of a patterned hole is measured through its efficiency to stop domain wall (DW) propagation into a consecutive unpatterned nanowire section (using antisymmetric magnetoresistance to detect the direction of DW propagation) whereas collective pinning is characterized by the field dependence of DW velocity. Close to room temperature, collective pinning becomes weaker than artificial pinning so that pinning at the hole compensates nucleation-pad geometry, blocking DW propagation across the nanowire.

  3. Tracking random walk of individual domain walls in cylindrical nanomagnets with resistance noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrita; Mukhopadhyay, Soumik; Ghosh, Arindam

    2010-08-06

    The stochasticity of domain-wall (DW) motion in magnetic nanowires has been probed by measuring slow fluctuations, or noise, in electrical resistance at small magnetic fields. By controlled injection of DWs into isolated cylindrical nanowires of nickel, we have been able to track the motion of the DWs between the electrical leads by discrete steps in the resistance. Closer inspection of the time dependence of noise reveals a diffusive random walk of the DWs with a universal kinetic exponent. Our experiments outline a method with which electrical resistance is able to detect the kinetic state of the DWs inside the nanowires, which can be useful in DW-based memory designs.

  4. Direct Observation of Domain-Wall Surface Tension by Deflating or Inflating a Magnetic Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Vernier, Nicolas; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Vila, Laurent; Zhang, Yue; Ravelosona, Dafiné

    2018-02-01

    The surface energy of a magnetic domain wall (DW) strongly affects its static and dynamic behaviors. However, this effect is seldom directly observed, and some of the related phenomena are not well understood. Moreover, a reliable method to quantify the DW surface energy is still absent. Here, we report a series of experiments in which the DW surface energy becomes a dominant parameter. We observe that a semicircular magnetic domain bubble can spontaneously collapse under the Laplace pressure induced by DW surface energy. We further demonstrate that the surface energy can lead to a geometrically induced pinning when the DW propagates in a Hall cross or from a nanowire into a nucleation pad. Based on these observations, we develop two methods to quantify the DW surface energy, which can be very helpful in the estimation of intrinsic parameters such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions or exchange stiffness in magnetic ultrathin films.

  5. Nucleation and pinning at 360degree domain walls in SmCo/sub 5/ and related alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, P.; Mylvaganam, C.K.

    1977-06-01

    It is shown that in a high forward field neighboring 180degree ferromagnetic domain walls come together and either annihilate one another (''unwinding walls'') or combine to form 360degree walls separating domains magnetized in the same direction (''winding walls''). If the 360degree wall encounters:i an inhomogeneity of lower zero-field wall energy (infinityZAK), it may be pinned. A finite reverse field is then required to split the 360degree wall nucleus into two transient 180 degree walls which will reverse the magnetization. The model is developed micromagnetically and applied to the pinning of domain walls at grain boundary inhomogeneities in SmCo/sub 5/ alloys. The nucleation--unpinning coercive field is calculated for inhomogeneities which are assumed to have the magnetic properties of pure cobalt. Inhomogeneity widths from 55.6 to 204 A give coercive forces from zero to 3.8 x 10/sup 4/ Oe..A critical constants chosen, this thickness is 55.6 A It is suggested that one function of liquid-phase sintering may be to increase the inhomogeneity thickness beyond the critical value.

  6. Incorporating Domain Knowledge in Matching Problems via Harmonic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Deepti; Collins, Maxwell; Kondor, Risi; Singh, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Matching one set of objects to another is a ubiquitous task in machine learning and computer vision that often reduces to some form of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The QAP is known to be notoriously hard, both in theory and in practice. Here, we investigate if this difficulty can be mitigated when some additional piece of information is available: (a) that all QAP instances of interest come from the same application, and (b) the correct solution for a set of such QAP instances is given. We propose a new approach to accelerate the solution of QAPs based on learning parameters for a modified objective function from prior QAP instances. A key feature of our approach is that it takes advantage of the algebraic structure of permutations, in conjunction with special methods for optimizing functions over the symmetric group n in Fourier space. Experiments show that in practical domains the new method can outperform existing approaches.

  7. Quenched lattice QCD with domain wall fermions and the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Wingate, M.; Chen, P.; Christ, N.; Cristian, C.; Fleming, G.; Kaehler, A.; Liao, X.; Liu, G.; Malureanu, C.; Mawhinney, R.; Siegert, G.; Sui, C.; Wu, L.; Zhestkov, Y.; Dawson, C.; Soni, A.; Ohta, S.; Vranas, P.

    2004-01-01

    Quenched QCD simulations on three volumes 8 3 x, 12 3 x and 16 3 x32 and three couplings β=5.7, 5.85 and 6.0 using domain wall fermions provide a consistent picture of quenched QCD. We demonstrate that the small induced effects of chiral symmetry breaking inherent in this formulation can be described by a residual mass (m res ) whose size decreases as the separation between the domain walls (L s ) is increased. However, at stronger couplings much larger values of L s are required to achieve a given physical value of m res . For β=6.0 and L s =16, we find m res /m s =0.033(3), while for β=5.7, and L s =48, m res /m s =0.074(5), where m s is the strange quark mass. These values are significantly smaller than those obtained from a more naive determination in our earlier studies. Important effects of topological near zero modes which should afflict an accurate quenched calculation are easily visible in both the chiral condensate and the pion propagator. These effects can be controlled by working at an appropriately large volume. A non-linear behavior of m π 2 in the limit of small quark mass suggests the presence of additional infrared subtlety in the quenched approximation. Good scaling is seen both in masses and in f π over our entire range, with inverse lattice spacing varying between 1 and 2 GeV

  8. Steady motion of skyrmions and domains walls under diffusive spin torques

    KAUST Repository

    Elías, Ricardo Gabriel

    2017-03-09

    We explore the role of the spin diffusion of conducting electrons in two-dimensional magnetic textures (domain walls and skyrmions) with spatial variation of the order of the spin precession length λex. The effect of diffusion reflects in four additional torques that are third order in spatial derivatives of magnetization and bilinear in λex and in the nonadiabatic parameter β′. In order to study the dynamics of the solitons when these diffusive torques are present, we derive the Thiele equation in the limit of steady motion and we compare the results with the nondiffusive limit. When considering a homogenous current these torques increase the longitudinal velocity of transverse domain walls of width Δ by a factor (λex/Δ)2(α/3), α being the magnetic damping constant. In the case of single skyrmions with core radius r0 these new contributions tend to increase the Magnus effect in an amount proportional to (λex/r0)2(1+2αβ′).

  9. Current-driven domain wall motion based memory devices: Application to a ratchet ferromagnetic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, Luis; Martínez, Eduardo; Raposo, Víctor; Alejos, Óscar

    2018-04-01

    Ratchet memories, where perpendicular magnetocristalline anisotropy is tailored so as to precisely control the magnetic transitions, has been recently proven to be a feasible device to store and manipulate data bits. For such devices, it has been shown that the current-driven regime of domain walls can improve their performances with respect to the field-driven one. However, the relaxing time required by the traveling domain walls constitutes a certain drawback if the former regime is considered, since it results in longer device latencies. In order to speed up the bit shifting procedure, it is demonstrated here that the application of a current of inverse polarity during the DW relaxing time may reduce such latencies. The reverse current must be sufficiently high as to drive the DW to the equilibrium position faster than the anisotropy slope itself, but with an amplitude sufficiently low as to avoid DW backward shifting. Alternatively, it is possible to use such a reverse current to increase the proper range of operation for a given relaxing time, i.e., the pair of values of the current amplitude and pulse time that ensures single DW jumps for a certain latency time.

  10. Magnetic fingerprint of interfacial coupling between CoFe and nanoscale ferroelectric domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qintong; Murray, Peyton; You, Lu; Wan, Caihua; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wenjing; Khan, Usman; Wang, Junling; Liu, Kai; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-08-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling in ferromagnetic/multiferroic systems is often manifested in the exchange bias effect, which may have combined contributions from multiple sources, such as domain walls, chemical defects, or strain. In this study we magnetically "fingerprint" the coupling behavior of CoFe grown on epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films by magnetometry and the first-order-reversal-curves (FORC). The contribution to exchange bias from 71°, 109° and charged ferroelectric domain walls (DWs) was elucidated by the FORC distribution. CoFe samples grown on BFO with 71° DWs only exhibit an enhancement of the coercivity, but little exchange bias. Samples grown on BFO with 109° DWs and mosaic DWs exhibit a much larger exchange bias, with the main enhancement attributed to 109° and charged DWs. Based on the Malozemoff random field model, a varying-anisotropy model is proposed to account for the exchange bias enhancement. This work sheds light on the relationship between the exchange bias effect of the CoFe/BFO heterointerface and the ferroelectric DWs, and provides a path for multiferroic device analysis and design.

  11. Monte Carlo calculations on the magnetization profile and domain wall structure in bulk systems and nanoconstricitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Costa-Kraemer, J. L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm suitable to study systems described by an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian is presented. This technique has been tested successfully with 3D and 2D systems, illustrating how magnetic properties depend on the dimensionality and the coordination number. We have found that magnetic properties of constrictions differ from those appearing in bulk. In particular, spin fluctuations are considerable larger than those calculated for bulk materials. In addition, domain walls are strongly modified when a constriction is present, with a decrease of the domain-wall width. This decrease is explained in terms of previous theoretical works. [Spanish] Se presenta un algoritmo de Monte Carlo para estudiar sistemas discritos por un hamiltoniano anisotropico de Heisenburg. Esta tecnica ha sido probada exitosamente con sistemas de dos y tres dimensiones, ilustrado con las propiedades magneticas dependen de la dimensionalidad y el numero de coordinacion. Hemos encontrado que las propiedades magneticas de constricciones difieren de aquellas del bulto. En particular, las fluctuaciones de espin son considerablemente mayores. Ademas, las paredes de dominio son fuertemente modificadas cuando una construccion esta presente, originando un decrecimiento del ancho de la pared de dominio. Damos cuenta de este decrecimiento en terminos de un trabajo teorico previo.

  12. A Highly Accurate Regular Domain Collocation Method for Solving Potential Problems in the Irregular Doubly Connected Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Qing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedding the irregular doubly connected domain into an annular regular region, the unknown functions can be approximated by the barycentric Lagrange interpolation in the regular region. A highly accurate regular domain collocation method is proposed for solving potential problems on the irregular doubly connected domain in polar coordinate system. The formulations of regular domain collocation method are constructed by using barycentric Lagrange interpolation collocation method on the regular domain in polar coordinate system. The boundary conditions are discretized by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. An additional method is used to impose the boundary conditions. The least square method can be used to solve the overconstrained equations. The function values of points in the irregular doubly connected domain can be calculated by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. Some numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the presented method.

  13. Enhancement of spin Hall effect induced torques for current-driven magnetic domain wall motion: Inner interface effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Do

    2016-05-23

    We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.

  14. Interacting domain-specific languages with biological problem solving environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cickovski, Trevor M.

    Iteratively developing a biological model and verifying results with lab observations has become standard practice in computational biology. This process is currently facilitated by biological Problem Solving Environments (PSEs), multi-tiered and modular software frameworks which traditionally consist of two layers: a computational layer written in a high level language using design patterns, and a user interface layer which hides its details. Although PSEs have proven effective, they still enforce some communication overhead between biologists refining their models through repeated comparison with experimental observations in vitro or in vivo, and programmers actually implementing model extensions and modifications within the computational layer. I illustrate the use of biological Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) as a middle-level PSE tier to ameliorate this problem by providing experimentalists with the ability to iteratively test and develop their models using a higher degree of expressive power compared to a graphical interface, while saving the requirement of general purpose programming knowledge. I develop two radically different biological DSLs: XML-based BIOLOGO will model biological morphogenesis using a cell-centered stochastic cellular automaton and translate into C++ modules for an object-oriented PSE C OMPUCELL3D, and MDLab will provide a set of high-level Python libraries for running molecular dynamics simulations, using wrapped functionality from the C++ PSE PROTOMOL. I describe each language in detail, including its its roles within the larger PSE and its expressibility in terms of representable phenomena, and a discussion of observations from users of the languages. Moreover I will use these studies to draw general conclusions about biological DSL development, including dependencies upon the goals of the corresponding PSE, strategies, and tradeoffs.

  15. Pseudoscalar meson in two flavors QCD with the optimal domain-wall fermion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Ting-Wai [Physics Department, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Quantum Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tung-Han, E-mail: thhsieh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Mao, Yao-Yuan [Physics Department, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-31

    We perform hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) simulations of two flavors QCD with the optimal domain-wall fermion (ODWF), on the 16{sup 3} Multiplication-Sign 32 lattice (with lattice spacing a{approx}0.1 fm), for eight sea-quark masses corresponding to pion masses in the range 228-565 MeV. We calculate the mass and the decay constant of the pseudoscalar meson, and compare our data with the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). We find that our data is in good agreement with the sea-quark mass dependence predicted by the next-to-leading order (NLO) ChPT, and provides a determination of the low-energy constants l{sup Macron }{sub 3} and l{sup Macron }{sub 4}, the pion decay constant, the chiral condensate, and the average up and down quark mass.

  16. Possible method to observe the breathing mode of a magnetic domain wall in the Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Michiyasu; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Koshibae, Wataru; Hikino, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic domain wall (DW) behaves as a massive particle with elasticity. Sliding and oscillation of the DW have been observed experimentally, whereas vibration of a width in the DW, ‘breathing mode’, has not been measured so far. We theoretically propose how to observe the breathing mode by the Josephson junction having a ferromagnetic layer between superconducting electrodes. The current-voltage (I-V) curve is calculated by an equivalent circuit of the resistively shunted junction model. The breathing mode is identified by stepwise structures in the I-V curve, which appear at the voltages V = n (ℏ/2e)ω with the fundamental constant ℏ/e, integer number n and the frequency of the breathing mode ω. (paper)

  17. Vortices and domain walls: 'Wormholes' in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessarab, P F [St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, 199164 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Radievsky, A V, E-mail: van_der_paul@yahoo.co.u [Immanuel Kant State University of Russia, Nevskogo str. 14, 236016 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    In the framework of the 2D and 3D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model we study superconductors with multicomponent order parameter (d-pairing). We argue that topological defects inside the sample do affect its thermodynamic properties such as hysteresis loop, susceptibility, etc. Along with earlier known topological defects such as Abrikosov vortices, domain walls (DWs) which separate different magnetic phases and even vortices inside the DW, we found an interesting combination of DWs and vortices. Namely we show that equivalent magnetic phases may be linked together with a vortex going through the other magnetic phase. This configuration may correspond to a stable state even in a zero external magnetic field. We also mention that this configuration is topologically similar to the 'wormholes' in the quantum gravity.

  18. Easy moment direction and antiferromagnetic domain wall motion in Mn{sub 2}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthem, Vitoria M.T.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Colin, Claire V.; Haettel, Richard; Dufeu, Didier [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Givord, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.givord@neel.cnrs.fr [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    The interest of giving active functions to antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials in spintronics devices has been realized recently. Mn{sub 2}Au is a high-Néel temperature antiferromagnet with large Mn moment, lying in plane of the tetragonal structure. To determine the direction of the moments in Mn{sub 2}Au, an original approach is demonstrated, which should be generic to planar AFM materials. It involves the rotation of the granular sample around an axis perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The family of easy moment directions is 〈110〉. For grains prevented from rotating, the dominant magnetization process is AFM domain wall motion. Textured Mn{sub 2}Au nanoelements could be introduced in spintronics devices, in which the Mn moments would be switched under modest external excitation.

  19. fK /f{pi} in Full QCD with Domain Wall Valence Quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silas Beane; Paulo Bedaque; Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage

    2007-05-01

    We compute the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} using domain-wall valence quarks and rooted improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. By employing continuum chiral perturbation theory, we extract the Gasser-Leutwyler low-energy constant L{sub 5}, and extrapolate f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} to the physical point. We find: f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} = 1.218 {+-} 0.002{sub -0.024}{sup +0.011} where the first error is statistical and the second error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation and fitting procedures. This value agrees within the uncertainties with the determination by the MILC collaboration, calculated using Kogut-Susskind valence quarks, indicating that systematic errors arising from the choice of lattice valence quark are small.

  20. Exact pseudofermion action for Monte Carlo simulation of domain-wall fermion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an exact pseudofermion action for hybrid Monte Carlo simulation (HMC of one-flavor domain-wall fermion (DWF, with the effective 4-dimensional Dirac operator equal to the optimal rational approximation of the overlap-Dirac operator with kernel H=cHw(1+dγ5Hw−1, where c and d are constants. Using this exact pseudofermion action, we perform HMC of one-flavor QCD, and compare its characteristics with the widely used rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm (RHMC. Moreover, to demonstrate the practicality of the exact one-flavor algorithm (EOFA, we perform the first dynamical simulation of the (1+1-flavors QCD with DWF.

  1. Selective Killing of Pathogenic Bacteria by Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticle - Cell Wall Binding Domain (CBD) Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Domyoung; Kwon, Seok Joon; Wu, Xia; Sauve, Jessica; Lee, Inseon; Nam, Jahyun; Kim, Jungbae; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2018-04-05

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics indiscriminately kill bacteria, removing non-pathogenic microorganisms and leading to evolution of antibiotic resistant strains. Specific antimicrobials that could selectively kill pathogenic bacteria without targeting other bacteria in the natural microbial community or microbiome may be able to address this concern. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles, suitably conjugated to a selective cell wall binding domain (CBD), can efficiently target and selectively kill bacteria. As a relevant example, CBDBA from Bacillus anthracis selectively bound to B. anthracis in a mixture with B. subtilis, as well in a mixture with Staphylococcus aureus. This new biologically-assisted hybrid strategy, therefore, has the potential to provide selective decontamination of pathogenic bacteria with minimal impact on normal microflora.

  2. Adsorbate induced domain-wall ordering on silicon(111); Adsorbatinduzierte Domaenenwandordnung auf Silizium(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, C.

    2006-09-14

    The gold-induced (5 x 2)-reconstruction on the Si(111) surface has been investigated in detail. Investigations with scanning tunneling microscopy, electron diffraction and simple electron diffraction simulation as combining element are presented. The defect density in the (5 x 2)-reconstructed areas has been analysed in dependency on temperature and gold density on the surface. One important result is the categorization of this reconstruction as domain-wall reconstruction like the other gold induced reconstructions on this surface in the submonolayer-coverage regime. The correlation of the adatoms on the (5 x 2)-reconstructed areas is analysed and the silicon coverage in the areas is determined from the growth dynamics of the reconstruction. Based on this, a new model, which has been developed in cooperation with Steve Erwin from the Naval Research Center, Washington, is presented. (orig.)

  3. Condition of the ratchet effect of a magnetic domain wall motion under an asymmetric potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hong-Guang; Zhang, Xiaozhong; Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the ratchet effect of magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a straight ferromagnetic nanowire under ac magnetic field by means of micromagnetic simulation. A structure-stable DW ratchet effect along the ferromagnetic nanowire is observed utilizing an asymmetric potential produced by a nonuniform magnetostatic stray field from an array of a periodic non-contact trapezoidal stubs. A diode-like consecutive operation process for a transverse DW motion is examined with variation of the ac field frequency and amplitude, where the necessary conditions for the DW ratchet effect are systematically examined. We have also obtained the empirical relation between a DW velocity of the ratchet effect and the ac field frequency and amplitude.

  4. Coercivity of domain wall motion in thin films of amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, M.; Giles, R. C.; Patterson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulations of a two dimensional lattice of magnetic dipoles are performed on the Connection Machine. The lattice is a discrete model for thin films of amorphous rare-earth transition metal alloys, which have application as the storage media in erasable optical data storage systems. In these simulations, the dipoles follow the dynamic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation under the influence of an effective field arising from local anisotropy, near-neighbor exchange, classical dipole-dipole interactions, and an externally applied field. Various sources of coercivity, such as defects and/or inhomogeneities in the lattice, are introduced and the subsequent motion of domain walls in response to external fields is investigated.

  5. Mesoscopic Metal-Insulator Transition at Ferroelastic Domain Walls in VO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith M [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kolmakov, Andrei [ORNL; Luk' yanchuk, Prof. Igor A. [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Shelton Jr, William Allison [ORNL; Strelcov, Evgheni [Southern Illinois University; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The novel phenomena induced by symmetry breaking at homointerfaces between ferroic variants in ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials have attracted recently much attention. Using variable temperature scanning microwave microscopy, we demonstrate the mesoscopic strain-induced metal-insulator phase transitions in the vicinity of ferroelastic domain walls in the semiconductive VO2 that nucleated at temperatures as much as 10-12 C below bulk transition, resulting in the formation of conductive channels in the material. Density functional theory is used to rationalize the process low activation energy. This behavior, linked to the strain inhomogeneity inherent in ferroelastic materials, can strongly affect interpretation of phase-transition studies in VO2 and similar materials with symmetry-lowering transitions, and can also be used to enable new generations of electronic devices though strain engineering of conductive and semiconductive regions.

  6. Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index from the domain-wall fermion Dirac operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Hidenori; Onogi, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    The Atiyah-Patodi-Singer (APS) index theorem attracts attention for understanding physics on the surface of materials in topological phases. The mathematical setup for this theorem is, however, not directly related to the physical fermion system, as it imposes on the fermion fields a nonlocal boundary condition known as the "APS boundary condition" by hand, which is unlikely to be realized in the materials. In this work, we attempt to reformulate the APS index in a "physicist-friendly" way for a simple setup with U (1 ) or S U (N ) gauge group on a flat four-dimensional Euclidean space. We find that the same index as APS is obtained from the domain-wall fermion Dirac operator with a local boundary condition, which is naturally given by the kink structure in the mass term. As the boundary condition does not depend on the gauge fields, our new definition of the index is easy to compute with the standard Fujikawa method.

  7. A New Boundary Model for Simulating Complex and Flexible Wall Bounded Domain in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mokhtarian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive area of applications, simulation of complex wall bounded problems or any deformable boundary is still a challenge in a Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation. This limitation is rooted in the soft force nature of DPD and the fact that we need to use an antipenetration model for escaped particles. In the present paper, we propose a new model of antipenetration which preserves the conservation of linear momentum on the boundaries and enables us to simulate complex and flexible boundaries. Finally by performing numerical simulations, we demonstrate the validity of our new model.

  8. Soliton-like magnetic domain wall motion induced by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Teruo

    Topological defects such as magnetic solitons, vortices, Bloch lines, and skyrmions start to play an important role in modern magnetism due to their extraordinary stability which can be hailed as future memory devices. Recently, novel type of antisymmetric exchange interaction, namely the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), has been uncovered and found to influence on the formation of topological defects. Exploring how the DMI affects the dynamics of topological defects is therefore an important task. Here we investigate the dynamics of the magnetic domain wall (DW) under a DMI by developing a time-of-flight measurement scheme which allows us to measure the DW velocity for magnetic fields up to 0.3T. For a weak DMI, the trend of DW velocity follows the Walker's model which predicts that the velocity of DW increases with field up to a threshold (Walker field) and decreases abruptly. On the other hand, for a strong DMI, velocity breakdown is completely suppressed and the DW keeps its maximum velocity even far above the Walker field. Such a distinct trend of the DW velocity, which has never been predicted, can be explained in terms of magnetic soliton, of which topology can be protected by the DMI. Importantly, such a soliton-like DW motion is only observed in two dimensional systems, implying that the vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) creating inside of the magnetic domain-wall play a crucial role. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15H05702, 26870300, 26870304, 26103002, 25.4251, Collaborative Research Program of the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, and R & D Project for ICT Key Technology of MEXT from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  9. Substructure hybrid testing of reinforced concrete shear wall structure using a domain overlapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Peng; Gong, Runhua; Wang, Tao; Xue, Weichen

    2017-10-01

    An online hybrid test was carried out on a 40-story 120-m high concrete shear wall structure. The structure was divided into two substructures whereby a physical model of the bottom three stories was tested in the laboratory and the upper 37 stories were simulated numerically using ABAQUS. An overlapping domain method was employed for the bottom three stories to ensure the validity of the boundary conditions of the superstructure. Mixed control was adopted in the test. Displacement control was used to apply the horizontal displacement, while two controlled force actuators were applied to simulate the overturning moment, which is very large and cannot be ignored in the substructure hybrid test of high-rise buildings. A series of tests with earthquake sources of sequentially increasing intensities were carried out. The test results indicate that the proposed hybrid test method is a solution to reproduce the seismic response of high-rise concrete shear wall buildings. The seismic performance of the tested precast high-rise building satisfies the requirements of the Chinese seismic design code.

  10. Insights into Substrate Specificity of NlpC/P60 Cell Wall Hydrolases Containing Bacterial SH3 Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    ABSTRACT

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. These enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    IMPORTANCEPeptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural

  11. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, D. [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  12. Characterization of applied tensile stress using domain wall dynamic behavior of grain-oriented electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fasheng; Ren, Wenwei; Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Stress measurement that provides early indication of stress status has become increasingly demanding in the field of Non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E). Bridging the correlation between micro magnetic properties and the applied tensile stress is the first conceptual step to come up with a new method of non-destructive testing. This study investigates the characterization of applied tensile stress with in-situ magnetic domain imaging and their dynamic behaviors by using magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy assisted with magneto-optical indicator film (MOIF). Threshold magnetic field (TMF) feature to reflect 180 ° domain wall (DW) characteristics behaviors in different grains is proposed for stress detection. It is verified that TMF is a threshold feature with better sensitivity and brings linear correlation for stress characterization in comparison to classical coercive field, remanent magnetization, hysteresis loss and permeability parameters. The results indicate that 180 ° DWs dynamic in the inner grain is highly correlated with stress. The DW dynamics of turn over (TO) tests for different grains is studied to illustrate the repeatability of TMF. Experimental tests of high permeability grain oriented (HGO) electrical steels under stress loading have been conducted to verify this study.

  13. Imaging and tuning polarity at SrTiO3 domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Yiftach; Haham, Noam; Shperber, Yishai; Bell, Christopher; Xie, Yanwu; Chen, Zhuoyu; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Kalisky, Beena

    2017-12-01

    Electrostatic fields tune the ground state of interfaces between complex oxide materials. Electronic properties, such as conductivity and superconductivity, can be tuned and then used to create and control circuit elements and gate-defined devices. Here we show that naturally occurring twin boundaries, with properties that are different from their surrounding bulk, can tune the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface 2DEG at the nanoscale. In particular, SrTiO3 domain boundaries have the unusual distinction of remaining highly mobile down to low temperatures, and were recently suggested to be polar. Here we apply localized pressure to an individual SrTiO3 twin boundary and detect a change in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface current distribution. Our data directly confirm the existence of polarity at the twin boundaries, and demonstrate that they can serve as effective tunable gates. As the location of SrTiO3 domain walls can be controlled using external field stimuli, our findings suggest a novel approach to manipulate SrTiO3-based devices on the nanoscale.

  14. Hysteresis loop design by geometry of garnet film element with single domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidanov, V A; Vetoshko, P M; Stempkovskiy, A L

    2011-01-01

    Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of magnetostatic stable states of two-domain structure in Bi-substituted uniaxial garnet film elements was made. Single domain walls (DW) between two opposite normally magnetized parts in isolated rectangular strip and strip-like bridge are found to exhibit different behavior. DW inside strip (bridge) suffers increasing repulsion (attraction) from nearest edge when shifted from element center. DW position center position is stable in isolated strip but bridge is magnetized spontaneously to one of two saturated states in zero external field. Isolated strip magnetization process occurs reversibly while bridge magnetization reversal occurs by coercive manner. Strip susceptibility and bridge coercive field are entirely defined by magnetostatic barrier created by element boundary stray field in case of constant DW length during magnetization reversal. Variation of strip and bridge boundary shape along DW trajectory gives the opportunity to create additional controllable potential profile due to DW surface energy modulation by DW length. Garnet elements with high Faraday rotation and low light switching field were developed for fine magnetic sensing and optical data processing applications.

  15. Dispersion relation and unphysical poles of Möbius domain-wall fermions in free field theory at finite Ls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the dispersion relation of Möbius domain-wall fermions in free field theory at finite Ls. We find that there are Ls - 1 extra poles of Möbius domain-wall fermions in addition to the pole which realizes the physical mode in the continuum limit. The unphysical contribution of these extra poles could be significant when we introduce heavy quarks. We show in this report the fundamental properties of these unphysical poles and discuss the optimal choice of Möbius parameters to minimize their contribution to four-dimensional physics.

  16. Lytic activity of the staphylolytic Twort phage endolysin CHAP domain is enhanced by the SH3b cell wall binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen C; Swift, Steven; Korobova, Olga; Schischkova, Nina; Kopylov, Pavel; Donovan, David M; Abaev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Increases in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus have elicited efforts to develop novel antimicrobials to treat these drug-resistant pathogens. One potential treatment repurposes the lytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages as antimicrobials. The phage Twort endolysin (PlyTW) harbors three domains, a cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidase domain (CHAP), an amidase-2 domain and a SH3b-5 cell wall binding domain (CBD). Our results indicate that the CHAP domain alone is necessary and sufficient for lysis of live S. aureus, while the amidase-2 domain is insufficient for cell lysis when provided alone. Loss of the CBD results in ∼10X reduction of enzymatic activity in both turbidity reduction and plate lysis assays compared to the full length protein. Deletion of the amidase-2 domain resulted in a protein (PlyTW Δ172-373) with lytic activity that exceeded the activity of the full length construct in both the turbidity reduction and plate lysis assays. Addition of Ca(2+) enhanced the turbidity reduction activity of both the full length protein and truncation constructs harboring the CHAP domain. Chelation by addition of EDTA or the addition of zinc inhibited the activity of all PlyTW constructs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Benchmarking LES with wall-functions and RANS for fatigue problems in thermal–hydraulics systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunstall, R., E-mail: ryan.tunstall@manchester.ac.uk [School of MACE, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Laurence, D.; Prosser, R. [School of MACE, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Skillen, A. [Scientific Computing Department, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We benchmark LES with blended wall-functions and low-Re RANS for a pipe bend and T-Junction. • Blended wall-laws allow the first cell from the wall to be placed anywhere in the boundary layer. • In both cases LES predictions improve as the first cell wall spacing is reduced. • Near-wall temperature fluctuations in the T-Junction are overpredicted by wall-modelled LES. • The EBRSM outperforms other RANS models for the pipe bend. - Abstract: In assessing whether nuclear plant components such as T-Junctions are likely to suffer thermal fatigue problems in service, CFD techniques need to provide accurate predictions for wall temperature fluctuations. Though it has been established that this is within the capabilities of wall-resolved LES, its high computational cost has prevented widespread usage in industry. In the present paper the suitability of LES with blended wall-functions, that allow the first cell to be placed in any part of the boundary layer, is assessed. Numerical results for the flows through a 90° pipe bend and a T-Junction are compared against experimental data. Both test cases contain areas where equilibrium laws are violated in practice. It is shown that reducing the first cell wall spacing improves agreement with experimental data by limiting the extent from the wall in which the solution is constrained to an equilibrium law. The LES with wall-function approach consistently overpredicts the near-wall temperature fluctuations in the T-Junction, suggesting that it can be considered as a conservative approach. We also benchmark a range of low-Re RANS models. EBRSM predictions for the 90° pipe bend are in significantly better agreement with experimental data than those from the other models. There are discrepancies from all RANS models in the case of the T-Junction.

  18. Piezoelectric properties of twinned ferroelectric perovskites with head-to-head and tail-to-tail domain walls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondrejkovič, Petr; Márton, Pavel; Guennou, Mael; Setter, N.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 2 (2013), "024114-1"-"024114-9" ISSN 1098-0121 Grant - others:7th Framework Programme(XE) 268058 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : piezoelectric properties * charged domain walls * domain structure * twinned ferroelectric Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013 http://link. aps .org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.88.024114

  19. Role of net charge on catalytic domain and influence of cell wall binding domain on bactericidal activity, specificity, and host range of phage lysins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lieh Yoon; Yang, Chen; Perego, Marta; Osterman, Andrei; Liddington, Robert

    2011-09-30

    The recombinant lysins of lytic phages, when applied externally to Gram-positive bacteria, can be efficient bactericidal agents, typically retaining high specificity. Their development as novel antibacterial agents offers many potential advantages over conventional antibiotics. Protein engineering could exploit this potential further by generating novel lysins fit for distinct target populations and environments. However, access to the peptidoglycan layer is controlled by a variety of secondary cell wall polymers, chemical modifications, and (in some cases) S-layers and capsules. Classical lysins require a cell wall-binding domain (CBD) that targets the catalytic domain to the peptidoglycan layer via binding to a secondary cell wall polymer component. The cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria generally have a negative charge, and we noticed a correlation between (positive) charge on the catalytic domain and bacteriolytic activity in the absence of the CBD (nonclassical behavior). We investigated a physical basis for this correlation by comparing the structures and activities of pairs of lysins where the lytic activity of one of each pair was CBD-independent. We found that by engineering a reversal of sign of the net charge of the catalytic domain, we could either eliminate or create CBD dependence. We also provide evidence that the S-layer of Bacillus anthracis acts as a molecular sieve that is chiefly size-dependent, favoring catalytic domains over full-length lysins. Our work suggests a number of facile approaches for fine-tuning lysin activity, either to enhance or reduce specificity/host range and/or bactericidal potential, as required.

  20. Interplay of domain walls and magnetization rotation on dynamic magnetization process in iron/polymer–matrix soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobák, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.dobak@student.upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Fáberová, Mária; Bureš, Radovan [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-03-15

    This study sheds light on the dynamic magnetization process in iron/resin soft magnetic composites from the viewpoint of quantitative decomposition of their complex permeability spectra into the viscous domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content. The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials. - Highlights: • A first decomposition of complex permeability into domain wall and rotation parts in soft magnetic composites. • A pure relaxation nature of dynamic magnetization processes. • A complete loss separation in soft magnetic composites. • The domain walls activity is considerably suppressed in composites with smaller iron particles and higher matrix content. • The demagnetizing field acts as a significant factor at the dynamic magnetization process.

  1. Higher Dimensional LRS Bianchi Type-I Domain Walls in a Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katore, S. D.; Adhav, K. S.; Shaikh, A. Y.; Sarkate, N. K.

    2010-10-01

    An exact higher dimensional LRS Bianchi type-I cosmological model is obtained in presence of thick domain walls in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A113:467, 1985). Some physical and kinematical properties of the models are also discussed.

  2. Contribution of the irreversible displacement of domain walls to the piezoelectric effect in barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovic, D

    1997-01-01

    The contribution from the irreversible displacement of non-180 deg domain walls to the direct longitudinal piezoelectric d sub 3 sub 3 coefficient of BaTiO sub 3 and Pb(Zr, Ti)O sub 3 ceramics was determined quantitatively by using the Rayleigh law. Effects of the crystal structure and microstructure of the ceramics as well as the external d.c. pressure on the domain wall contribution to d sub 3 sub 3 were examined. In barium titanate, this domain wall contribution is large (up to 35% of the total d sub 3 sub 3 , under the experimental conditions used) and dependent on the external d.c. pressure in coarse grained ceramics, and much smaller and independent of the external d.c. pressure in fine-grained samples. The presence of internal stresses in fine-grained ceramics could account for the observed behaviour. The analysis shows that the domain-wall contribution to the d sub 3 sub 3 in lead zirconate titanate ceramics is large in compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary that contain a mixture of te...

  3. Domain walls and perturbation theory in high temperature gauge theory SU(2) in 2+1 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Korthals-Altes, C P; Stephanov, M A; Teper, M; Altes, C Korthals

    1997-01-01

    We study the detailed properties of Z_2 domain walls in the deconfined high temperature phase of the d=2+1 SU(2) gauge theory. These walls are studied both by computer simulations of the lattice theory and by one-loop perturbative calculations. The latter are carried out both in the continuum and on the lattice. We find that leading order perturbation theory reproduces the detailed properties of these domain walls remarkably accurately even at temperatures where the effective dimensionless expansion parameter, g^2/T, is close to unity. The quantities studied include the surface tension, the action density profiles, roughening and the electric screening mass. It is only for the last quantity that we find an exception to the precocious success of perturbation theory. All this shows that, despite the presence of infrared divergences at higher orders, high-T perturbation theory can be an accurate calculational tool.

  4. Domain walls and perturbation theory in high-temperature gauge theory: SU(2) in 2+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korthals Altes, C.; Michels, A.; Teper, M.; Stephanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We study the detailed properties of Z 2 domain walls in the deconfined high-temperature phase of the d=2+1 SU(2) gauge theory. These walls are studied both by computer simulations of the lattice theory and by one-loop perturbative calculations. The latter are carried out both in the continuum and on the lattice. We find that leading order perturbation theory reproduces the detailed properties of these domain walls remarkably accurately even at temperatures where the effective dimensionless expansion parameter g 2 /T is close to unity. The quantities studied include the surface tension, the action density profiles, roughening, and the electric screening mass. It is only for the last quantity that we find an exception to the precocious success of perturbation theory. All this shows that, despite the presence of infrared divergences at higher orders, high-T perturbation theory can be an accurate calculational tool. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for VBLs in the walls of hard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, X.F.; Guo, G.X.; Xu, J.P.; Liu, S.P.; Wang, L.N.; Huo, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for vertical Bloch lines in the walls of three kinds of hard domains is investigated experimentally. It is found that for each kind of three hard domains, there exists a critical in-plane field range, i. e. [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], which depends on temperatures and in which vertical Bloch lines are unstable. Here, H ip (1) (T) is the initial critical in-plane field where VBLs in the walls of three kinds of hard domains are annihilated, and H ip (2) (T) is the lowest in-plane field where VBLs in their corresponding hard domains are annihilated completely. H ip (1) (T), H ip (2) (T) and [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], all decrease as the temperature increase. Furthermore, H ip (1) (T) and H ip (2) (T) reach zero at T 0 1 and T 0 , respectively. In addition, there exists a relationship among them, when T is unchanged, H ip (1) (T) of the three kinds of hard domains (ordinary hard bubbles (OHB), first kind of dumbbell domain (ID) and second kind of dumbbell domains (IID)) decrease successively, and theirH ip (2) (T) are the same

  6. Magnetic properties, domain-wall creep motion, and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in Pt/Co/Ir thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Philippa M.; Tunnicliffe, Harry; Shahbazi, Kowsar; Burnell, Gavin; Moore, Thomas A.

    2018-04-01

    We study the magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Ir thin films and investigate the domain-wall creep method of determining the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in ultrathin films. Measurements of the Co layer thickness dependence of saturation magnetization, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and symmetric and antisymmetric (i.e., DM) exchange energies in Pt/Co/Ir thin films have been made to determine the relationship between these properties. We discuss the measurement of the DM interaction by the expansion of a reverse domain in the domain-wall creep regime. We show how the creep parameters behave as a function of in-plane bias field and discuss the effects of domain-wall roughness on the measurement of the DM interaction by domain expansion. Whereas modifications to the creep law with DM field and in-plane bias fields have taken into account changes in the energy barrier scaling parameter α , we find that both α and the velocity scaling parameter v0 change as a function of in-plane bias field.

  7. All-optical switching by domain wall motion in Co/Pd superlattices with a high-repetition-rate laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoveyda, Farzaneh; Hohenstein, Erich; Smadici, Serban

    All-optical switching (AOS) of magnetization with femtosecond laser pulses has been demonstrated in ferri- and ferromagnetic materials. Current models mostly correlate ultrafast reversal with the uniform rotation of magnetization. In addition, while single-pulse switching in ferrimagnets has been reported, AOS in ferromagnetic Co/Pt has also been observed with overlapping pulses. This suggests the possibility to initiate a magnetization reversal with a high repetition rate laser. In our work, ferromagnetic Co/Pd superlattices, deposited by e-beam evaporation, were scanned under a high repetition rate Ti:Sapphire laser beam. Imaging with polarizing and magnetic force microscopes confirmed that AOS was attained. Intriguingly, measurements with a chopped beam showed a few ms delay before the reversed domains become visible. These domains gradually expanded by domain wall motion. We explain the delay with heat accumulation due to the high-repetition-rate laser pulses. The heat accumulation introduces in-plane thermal gradients, which apply forces on the magnetic domain walls. This suggests a model of the observed reversal by thermally driven domain wall motion.

  8. 4D Lorentz electron microscopy imaging: magnetic domain wall nucleation, reversal, and wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Soon; Baskin, J Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-09-08

    Magnetization reversal is an important topic of research in the fields of both basic and applied ferromagnetism. For the study of magnetization reversal dynamics and magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic thin films, imaging techniques are indispensable. Here, we report 4D imaging of DWs by the out-of-focus Fresnel method in Lorentz ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), with in situ spatial and temporal resolutions. The temporal change in magnetization, as revealed by changes in image contrast, is clocked using an impulsive optical field to produce structural deformation of the specimen, thus modulating magnetic field components in the specimen plane. Directly visualized are DW nucleation and subsequent annihilation and oscillatory reappearance (periods of 32 and 45 ns) in nickel films on two different substrates. For the case of Ni films on a Ti/Si(3)N(4) substrate, under conditions of minimum residual external magnetic field, the oscillation is associated with a unique traveling wave train of periodic magnetization reversal. The velocity of DW propagation in this wave train is measured to be 172 m/s with a wavelength of 7.8 microm. The success of this study demonstrates the promise of Lorentz UEM for real-space imaging of spin switching, ferromagnetic resonance, and laser-induced demagnetization in ferromagnetic nanostructures.

  9. Fast domain wall motion in the vicinity of the angular momentum compensation temperature of ferrimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kab-Jin; Kim, Se Kwon; Hirata, Yuushou; Oh, Se-Hyeok; Tono, Takayuki; Kim, Duck-Ho; Okuno, Takaya; Ham, Woo Seung; Kim, Sanghoon; Go, Gyoungchoon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Tsukamoto, Arata; Moriyama, Takahiro; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Ono, Teruo

    2017-12-01

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging research field which aims to utilize antiferromagnets as core elements in spintronic devices. A central motivation towards this direction is that antiferromagnetic spin dynamics is expected to be much faster than its ferromagnetic counterpart. Recent theories indeed predicted faster dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls (DWs) than ferromagnetic DWs. However, experimental investigations of antiferromagnetic spin dynamics have remained unexplored, mainly because of the magnetic field immunity of antiferromagnets. Here we show that fast field-driven antiferromagnetic spin dynamics is realized in ferrimagnets at the angular momentum compensation point TA. Using rare earth-3d-transition metal ferrimagnetic compounds where net magnetic moment is nonzero at TA, the field-driven DW mobility is remarkably enhanced up to 20 km s-1 T-1. The collective coordinate approach generalized for ferrimagnets and atomistic spin model simulations show that this remarkable enhancement is a consequence of antiferromagnetic spin dynamics at TA. Our finding allows us to investigate the physics of antiferromagnetic spin dynamics and highlights the importance of tuning of the angular momentum compensation point of ferrimagnets, which could be a key towards ferrimagnetic spintronics.

  10. An exploratory study of heavy domain wall fermions on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Peter; Marinkovic, Marina Krstic; Sanfilippo, Francesco; Spraggs, Matthew; Tsang, Justus Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We report on an exploratory study of domain wall fermions (DWF) as a lattice regularisation for heavy quarks. Within the framework of quenched QCD with the tree-level improved Symanzik gauge action we identify the DWF parameters which minimise discretisation effects. We find the corresponding effective 4$d$ overlap operator to be exponentially local, independent of the quark mass. We determine a maximum bare heavy quark mass of $am_h\\approx 0.4$, below which the approximate chiral symmetry and O(a)-improvement of DWF are sustained. This threshold appears to be largely independent of the lattice spacing. Based on these findings, we carried out a detailed scaling study for the heavy-strange meson dispersion relation and decay constant on four ensembles with lattice spacings in the range $2.0-5.7\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$. We observe very mild $a^2$ scaling towards the continuum limit. Our findings establish a sound basis for heavy DWF in dynamical simulations of lattice QCD with relevance to Standard Model phenomenology.

  11. Atomic structure and domain wall pinning in samarium-cobalt-based permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrschnabel, M; Yi, M; Uestuener, K; Liesegang, M; Katter, M; Kleebe, H-J; Xu, B; Gutfleisch, O; Molina-Luna, L

    2017-07-04

    A higher saturation magnetization obtained by an increased iron content is essential for yielding larger energy products in rare-earth Sm 2 Co 17 -type pinning-controlled permanent magnets. These are of importance for high-temperature industrial applications due to their intrinsic corrosion resistance and temperature stability. Here we present model magnets with an increased iron content based on a unique nanostructure and -chemical modification route using Fe, Cu, and Zr as dopants. The iron content controls the formation of a diamond-shaped cellular structure that dominates the density and strength of the domain wall pinning sites and thus the coercivity. Using ultra-high-resolution experimental and theoretical methods, we revealed the atomic structure of the single phases present and established a direct correlation to the macroscopic magnetic properties. With further development, this knowledge can be applied to produce samarium cobalt permanent magnets with improved magnetic performance.Understanding the factors that determine the properties of permanent magnets, which play a central role in many industrial applications, can help in improving their performance. Here, the authors study how changes in the iron content affect the microstructure of samarium cobalt magnets.

  12. Prediction and Experimental Evidence for Thermodynamically Stable Charged Orbital Domain Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing’an; Gray, K. E.; Wilkins, S. B.; Garcia Fernandez, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    The quest for miniaturization is prevalent in many fields of modern science and technology. The ultimate limit for conduction would be a one-dimensional (1D) chain of atoms and, for example, carbon nanotubes are a notable approximation to this ideal. Here we present strong evidence for an unexpected phenomenon—a sliding charge-density wave along pseudo-1D, atomically homogeneous orbital domain walls (ODWs) in insulating bilayer manganite crystals. At a threshold electric field, crystals exhibit abrupt transformations to higher conductance, while x-ray diffraction confirms that these are not due to heating or melting of charge order. The conductance data resemble those of well-known pseudo-1D sliding-charge-density waves, in particular the presence of a depinning voltage. The vital link is our theoretical insight that ODWs must be partially charged due to competition between orbital-induced strain and Coulomb repulsion. The ideas found here embody a new principle for creating ultra-nano conductive paths in other materials and devices.

  13. Manipulation of domain-wall solitons in bi- and trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Wang, Sheng; Shi, Zhiwen; Jin, Chenhao; Utama, M. Iqbal Bakti; Zhao, Sihan; Shen, Yuen-Ron; Gao, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Topological dislocations and stacking faults greatly affect the performance of functional crystalline materials1-3. Layer-stacking domain walls (DWs) in graphene alter its electronic properties and give rise to fascinating new physics such as quantum valley Hall edge states4-10. Extensive efforts have been dedicated to the engineering of dislocations to obtain materials with advanced properties. However, the manipulation of individual dislocations to precisely control the local structure and local properties of bulk material remains an outstanding challenge. Here we report the manipulation of individual layer-stacking DWs in bi- and trilayer graphene by means of a local mechanical force exerted by an atomic force microscope tip. We demonstrate experimentally the capability to move, erase and split individual DWs as well as annihilate or create closed-loop DWs. We further show that the DW motion is highly anisotropic, offering a simple approach to create solitons with designed atomic structures. Most artificially created DW structures are found to be stable at room temperature.

  14. A novel and highly specific phage endolysin cell wall binding domain for detection of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Sim, Jieun; Kang, Taejoon; Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Hyun Kyu; Chung, Bong Hyun; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-09-01

    Rapid, specific and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for public health and safety. Bacillus cereus is harmful as it causes foodborne illness and a number of systemic and local infections. We report a novel phage endolysin cell wall-binding domain (CBD) for B. cereus and the development of a highly specific and sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based B. cereus detection method using the CBD. The newly discovered CBD from endolysin of PBC1, a B. cereus-specific bacteriophage, provides high specificity and binding capacity to B. cereus. By using the CBD-modified SPR chips, B. cereus can be detected at the range of 10(5)-10(8) CFU/ml. More importantly, the detection limit can be improved to 10(2) CFU/ml by using a subtractive inhibition assay based on the pre-incubation of B. cereus and CBDs, removal of CBD-bound B. cereus, and SPR detection of the unbound CBDs. The present study suggests that the small and genetically engineered CBDs can be promising biological probes for B. cereus. We anticipate that the CBD-based SPR-sensing methods will be useful for the sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of B. cereus.

  15. Spin Hall driven domain wall motion in magnetic bilayers coupled by a magnetic oxide interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Furuta, Masaki; Zhu, Jian-Gang Jimmy

    2018-05-01

    mCell, previously proposed by our group, is a four-terminal magnetoresistive device with isolated write- and read-paths for all-spin logic and memory applications. A mCell requires an electric-insulating magnetic layer to couple the spin Hall driven write-path to the magnetic free layer of the read-path. Both paths are magnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy and their perpendicularly oriented magnetization needs to be maintained with this insertion layer. We have developed a magnetic oxide (FeOx) insertion layer to serve for these purposes. We show that the FeOx insertion layer provides sufficient magnetic coupling between adjacent perpendicular magnetic layers. Resistance measurement shows that this magnetic oxide layer can act as an electric-insulating layer. In addition, spin Hall driven domain wall motion in magnetic bi-layers coupled by the FeOx insertion layer is significantly enhanced compared to that in magnetic single layer; it also requires low voltage threshold that poses possibility for power-efficient device applications.

  16. Dramatic effect of curvature on DW velocity in chiral domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Chirag; Yang, See-Hun; Phung, Timothy; Pushp, Aakash; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Magnetoelectronics Group, IBM Almaden Team

    The use of current pulses to manipulate domain walls (DWs) in nanowires is one of the most exciting developments in spintronics over the past decade, promising a range of novel devices. However, even after more than 10 years of work on current induced DW motion it has not been realized that the curvature of the nanowire can affect the speed of chiral DWs. Here we show that simply changing the sign of the curvature of a nanowire, dramatically changes the speed of Néel DWs in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires, by up to a factor of 10. We find that, DWs have an increased or decreased velocity in wires of a given curvature, independent of the DW chirality and the sign of the current induced torques. The fundamental origin of this effect is due to a current induced tilting of the DW that breaks the symmetry of the DW's motion with respect to the curvature of the wire. Whilst the strong dependence of the DW velocity on the nanowire's curvature may offer added device functionalities, we find that in synthetic antiferromagnetic nanowires, the influence of the curvature on the DW's velocity can be completely removed.

  17. Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Alejos, Oscar [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belen, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos s/n, E-38008 Salamanca (Spain); Hals, Kjetil M. D. [Niels Bohr International Academy and the Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vila, Laurent [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Graduate School of Excellence “Materials Science in Mainz” (MAINZ), Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ocker, Berthold [Singulus Technologies AG, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany); Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-09-21

    We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}\\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites.

  18. Interlocked chiral/polar domain walls and large optical rotation in Ni3TeO6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyun Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chirality, i.e., handedness, pervades much of modern science from elementary particles, DNA-based biology to molecular chemistry; however, most of the chirality-relevant materials have been based on complex molecules. Here, we report inorganic single-crystalline Ni3TeO6, forming in a corundum-related R3 structure with both chirality and polarity. These chiral Ni3TeO6 single crystals exhibit a large optical specific rotation (α—1355° dm−1 cm3 g−1. We demonstrate, for the first time, that in Ni3TeO6, chiral and polar domains form an intriguing domain pattern, resembling a radiation warning sign, which stems from interlocked chiral and polar domain walls through lowering of the wall energy.

  19. Spherical domain wall formed by field dynamics of Hawking radiation and spontaneous charging-up of black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation in the gauge Higgs-Yukawa theory. The ballistic model is proposed as an effective description of the system. We find that a spherical domain wall around the black hole is formed by field dynamics rather than thermal phase transition. The formation is a general property of the black hole whose Hawking temperature is equal to or greater than the energy scale of the theory. The formation of the electroweak wall and that of the GUT wall are shown. We also find a phenomenon of the spontaneous charging-up of the black hole by the wall. The Hawking radiation drives a mechanism of the charge transportation into the black hole when C- and CP-violation are assumed. The mechanism can strongly transport the hyper-charge into a black hole of the electroweak scale

  20. Collage-type approach to inverse problems for elliptic PDEs on perforated domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb E. Kunze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a collage-based method for solving inverse problems for elliptic partial differential equations on a perforated domain. The main results of this paper establish a link between the solution of an inverse problem on a perforated domain and the solution of the same model on a domain with no holes. The numerical examples at the end of the paper show the goodness of this approach.

  1. Parallel time domain solvers for electrically large transient scattering problems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2014-09-26

    Marching on in time (MOT)-based integral equation solvers represent an increasingly appealing avenue for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions with large and complex structures. MOT integral equation solvers for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from perfect electrically conducting objects are obtained by enforcing electric field boundary conditions and implicitly time advance electric surface current densities by iteratively solving sparse systems of equations at all time steps. Contrary to finite difference and element competitors, these solvers apply to nonlinear and multi-scale structures comprising geometrically intricate and deep sub-wavelength features residing atop electrically large platforms. Moreover, they are high-order accurate, stable in the low- and high-frequency limits, and applicable to conducting and penetrable structures represented by highly irregular meshes. This presentation reviews some recent advances in the parallel implementations of time domain integral equation solvers, specifically those that leverage multilevel plane-wave time-domain algorithm (PWTD) on modern manycore computer architectures including graphics processing units (GPUs) and distributed memory supercomputers. The GPU-based implementation achieves at least one order of magnitude speedups compared to serial implementations while the distributed parallel implementation are highly scalable to thousands of compute-nodes. A distributed parallel PWTD kernel has been adopted to solve time domain surface/volume integral equations (TDSIE/TDVIE) for analyzing transient scattering from large and complex-shaped perfectly electrically conducting (PEC)/dielectric objects involving ten million/tens of millions of spatial unknowns.

  2. Hysteresis modelling of GO laminations for arbitrary in-plane directions taking into account the dynamics of orthogonal domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghel, A.P.S.; Sai Ram, B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chwastek, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland); Daniel, L. [Group of Electrical Engineering-Paris (GeePs), CNRS(UMR8507)/CentraleSupelec/UPMC/Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kulkarni, S.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-11-15

    The anisotropy of magnetic properties in grain-oriented steels is related to their microstructure. It results from the anisotropy of the single crystal properties combined to crystallographic texture. The magnetization process along arbitrary directions can be explained using phase equilibrium for domain patterns, which can be described using Neel's phase theory. According to the theory the fractions of 180° and 90° domain walls depend on the direction of magnetization. This paper presents an approach to model hysteresis loops of grain-oriented steels along arbitrary in-plane directions. The considered description is based on a modification of the Jiles–Atherton model. It includes a modified expression for the anhysteretic magnetization which takes into account contributions of two types of domain walls. The computed hysteresis curves for different directions are in good agreement with experimental results. - Highlights: • An extended Jiles–Atherton description is used to model hysteresis loops in GO steels. • The model stresses the role of material anisotropy and different contributions of the two types of domain walls. • Hysteresis loops can be modeled along arbitrary in-plane directions. • Modeling results are in good agreement with experiments.

  3. Towards a more analytic understanding of the pinning of domain walls in high-temperature permanent magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2000-01-01

    We discuss analytic results for the depinning of domain walls based on different models for wall pinning in permanent magnets. We propose an explanation for the different temperature dependences of the coercive field for repulsive and attractive pinning potential when the pinning boundary forms an array of pyramids and suggest that the switching dynamics are different in the two regimes. This may be tested experimentally by magnetic viscosity measurements on samples with different Cu contents. We also found analytically that when the pinning boundary forms an array of cubes, the coercive field always decreases no matter whether the pinning potential is repulsive or attractive. This is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. A TFETI domain decomposition solver for elastoplastic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, M.; Kozubek, T.; Sysala, Stanislav; Valdman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 231, č. 1 (2014), s. 634-653 ISSN 0096-3003 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : elastoplasticity * Total FETI domain decomposition method * Finite element method * Semismooth Newton method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0096300314000253/1-s2.0-S0096300314000253-main.pdf?_tid=33a29cf4-996a-11e3-8c5a-00000aacb360&acdnat=1392816896_4584697dc26cf934dcf590c63f0dbab7

  5. Nucleon structure in lattice QCD with dynamical domain-wall fermions quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey-Wen Lin; Shigemi Ohta

    2006-01-01

    We report RBC and RBC/UKQCD lattice QCD numerical calculations of nucleon electroweak matrix elements with dynamical domain-wall fermions (DWF) quarks. The first, RBC, set of dynamical DWF ensembles employs two degenerate flavors of DWF quarks and the DBW2 gauge action. Three sea quark mass values of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 in lattice units are used with about 200 gauge configurations each. The lattice cutoff is about 1.7 GeV and the spatial volume is about (1.9 fm) 3 . Despite the small volume, the ratio of the isovector vector and axial charges g A /g V and that of structure function moments u-d / Δ u-Δ d are in agreement with experiment, and show only very mild quark mass dependence. The second, RBC/UK, set of ensembles employs one strange and two degenerate (up and down) dynamical DWF quarks and Iwasaki gauge action. The strange quark mass is set at 0.04, and three up/down mass values of 0.03, 0.02 and 0.01 in lattice units are used. The lattice cutoff is about 1.6 GeV and the spatial volume is about (3.0 fm) 3 . Even with preliminary statistics of 25-30 gauge configurations, the ratios g A /g V and u-d / Δu - Δd are consistent with experiment and show only very mild quark mass dependence. Another structure function moment, d 1 , though yet to be renormalized, appears small in both sets

  6. NUCLEON STRUCTURE IN LATTICE QCD WITH DYNAMICAL DOMAIN--WALL FERMIONS QUARKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIN, H.W.; OHTA, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report RBC and RBC/UKQCD lattice QCD numerical calculations of nucleon electroweak matrix elements with dynamical domain-wall fermions (DWF) quarks. The first, RBC, set of dynamical DWF ensembles employs two degenerate flavors of DWF quarks and the DBW2 gauge action. Three sea quark mass values of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 in lattice units are used with 220 gauge configurations each. The lattice cutoff is a -1 ∼ 1.7GeV and the spatial volume is about (1.9fm) 3 . Despite the small volume, the ratio of the isovector vector and axial charges g A /g V and that of structure function moments u-d / Δu-Δd are in agreement with experiment, and show only very mild quark mass dependence. The second, RBC/UK, set of ensembles employs one strange and two degenerate (up and down) dynamical DWF quarks and Iwasaki gauge action. The strange quark mass is set at 0.04, and three up/down mass values of 0.03, 0.02 and 0.01 in lattice units are used. The lattice cutoff is a -1 ∼ 1.6GeV and the spatial volume is about (3.0fm) 3 . Even with preliminary statistics of 25-30 gauge configurations, the ratios g A /g V and u-d / Δu-Δd are consistent with experiment and show only very mild quark mass dependence. Another structure function moment, d 1 , though yet to be renormalized, appears small in both sets

  7. On a boundary value problem in a strongly pseudoconvex domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    It has previously been shown that if G a subset of Csup(n) is a strongly pseudoconvex domain, then to every boundary point P an element of delta G there exists a function f(z) holomorphic in a neighbourhood of G-bar (the closure of G) such that |f(z)| assumes its maximum in G-bar at P and only at P. Now the following theorem is proved. Let G be a strongly pseudoconvex domain in Csup(n) and P, Q be elements of delta G, P not equal to Q. Then there exists a function f(z) holomorphic in a neighbourhood of G-bar, such that |f(P)|=|f(Q)|=Max|f(anti G)|=1, f(P) not equal to f(Q) and |f(T)|<1, for all T elements of G-bar - set (P,Q). This theorem is used to improve the results already obtained by the author concerning the Caratheodory metric and the Caratheodory limiting balls in G. Similar results do not exist if G is only pseudoconvex

  8. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  9. The Neumann Problem for the Laplace Equation on General Domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2007), s. 1107-1139 ISSN 0011-4642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Laplace equation * Neumann problem * potential Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.155, year: 2007

  10. Time evolution of one-dimensional gapless models from a domain wall initial state: stochastic Loewner evolution continued?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Hagendorf, Christian; Doussal, Pierre Le

    2008-01-01

    We study the time evolution of quantum one-dimensional gapless systems evolving from initial states with a domain wall. We generalize the path integral imaginary time approach that together with boundary conformal field theory allows us to derive the time and space dependence of general correlation functions. The latter are explicitly obtained for the Ising universality class, and the typical behavior of one- and two-point functions is derived for the general case. Possible connections with the stochastic Loewner evolution are discussed and explicit results for one-point time dependent averages are obtained for generic κ for boundary conditions corresponding to stochastic Loewner evolution. We use this set of results to predict the time evolution of the entanglement entropy and obtain the universal constant shift due to the presence of a domain wall in the initial state

  11. Identification of defect distribution at ferroelectric domain walls from evolution of nonlinear dielectric response during the aging process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Sluka, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), č. článku 064114. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nonlinear dielectric response * ferroelectric domain walls * aging process * phase field simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016 http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.064114

  12. Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bratt, J.D.; Engelhardt, M.; Hagler, Ph.; Lin, H.W.; Lin, M.F.; Meyer, H.B.; Musch, B.; Negele, J.W.; Orginos, K.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Procura, M.; Richards, D.G.; Schroers, W.; Syritsyn, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.

  13. Stress-induced phase transition in ferroelectric domain walls of BaTiO.sub.3./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stepkova, Vilgelmina; Márton, Pavel; Hlinka, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 21 (2012), 1-4 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : phase transition * ferroelectric domain walls * BaTiO 3 * rhombohedral * phase-field simulations * epitaxial stress * chiral Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  14. Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratt, Jonathan; Engelhardt, Michael; Haegler, Philipp; Huey-Wen, Lin; Lin, Meifeng; Meyer, Harvey; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pochinsky, Andrew; Procura, Massimiliano; Richards, David; Schroers, Wolfram; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2010-11-01

    We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.

  15. Characterization of a novel cell wall binding domain-containing Staphylococcus aureus endolysin LysSA97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Endolysin from Staphylococcus aureus phage SA97 (LysSA97) was cloned and investigated. LysSA97 specifically lyse the staphylococcal strains and effectively disrupted staphylococcal biofilms. Bioinformatic analysis of LysSA97 revealed a novel putative cell wall binding domain (CBD) as well as two enzymatically active domains (EADs) containing cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP, PF05257) and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Amidase-3, PF01520) domains. Comparison of 98 endolysin genes of S. aureus phages deposited in GenBank showed that they can be classified into six groups based on their domain composition. Interestingly, approximately 80.61 % of the staphylococcal endolysins have a src-homology 3 (SH3, PF08460) domain as CBD, but the remaining 19.39 %, including LysSA97, has a putative C-terminal CBD with no homology to the known CBD. The fusion protein containing green fluorescent protein and the putative CBD of LysSA97 showed a specific binding spectrum against staphylococcal cells comparable to SH3 domain (PF08460), suggesting that the C-terminal domain of LysSA97 is a novel CBD of staphylococcal endolysins.

  16. Murein and pseudomurein cell wall binding domains of bacteria and archaea-a comparative view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Kok, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall, a major barrier protecting cells from their environment, is an essential compartment of both bacteria and archaea. It protects the organism from internal turgor pressure and gives a defined shape to the cell. The cell wall serves also as an anchoring surface for various proteins and

  17. Low-cost control problems on perforated and non-perforated domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the homogenization of a class of optimal control problems whose state equations are given by second order elliptic boundary value problems with oscillating coefficients posed on perforated and non-perforated domains. We attempt to describe the limit problem when the cost of the control is also of the same order ...

  18. BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A LOADED EQUATION ELLIPTIC-HYPERBOLIC TYPE IN A DOUBLY CONNECTED DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Kh. Abdullaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of the solution of one boundary value problem for the loaded elliptic-hyperbolic equation of the second order with two lines of change of type in double-connected domain. Similar results have been received by D.M.Kuryhazov, when investigated domain is one-connected.

  19. The numerical solution of boundary value problems over an infinite domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, M.; Skinner, R.

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for the numerical solution of boundary value problems over infinite domains. An example that illustrates also the strength and accuracy of a numerical procedure for calculating Green's functions is described in detail

  20. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXTREMAL PROBLEMS IN ARBITRARY DOMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhin Mikhail Vasilevich

    2012-10-01

    The author considers the problems concerning where B is either a unit sphere in the (D space or one of the classes , p>1. He shows the possibility of the results concerning the characteristic of extreme functions, their uniqueness, the possilble presentation of the functions from the classes and with the use of the Cauchy-Stieltjes integrals in the component of the D\\ suppµ set and the boundary behavior of an extreme function from the (D class. One should note that the given mathematical system can be implemented for making decisions in the field of construction engineering and structural analysis, it can provide research assistants and engineers with the background necessary for developing sound solutions and rational proposals.

  1. A minimum of three motifs is essential for optimal binding of pseudomurein cell wall-binding domain of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ram R Visweswaran

    Full Text Available We have biochemically and functionally characterized the pseudomurein cell wall-binding (PMB domain that is present at the C-terminus of the Surface (S-layer protein MTH719 from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Chemical denaturation of the protein with guanidinium hydrochloride occurred at 3.8 M. A PMB-GFP fusion protein not only binds to intact pseudomurein of methanogenic archaea, but also to spheroplasts of lysozyme-treated bacterial cells. This binding is pH dependent. At least two of the three motifs that are present in the domain are necessary for binding. Limited proteolysis revealed a possible cleavage site in the spacing sequence between motifs 1 and 2 of the PMB domain, indicating that the motif region itself is protected from proteases.

  2. Asymptotic analysis of the narrow escape problem in dendritic spine shaped domain: three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Lee, Hyundae; Wang, Yuliang

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the three-dimensional narrow escape problem in a dendritic spine shaped domain, which is composed of a relatively big head and a thin neck. The narrow escape problem is to compute the mean first passage time of Brownian particles traveling from inside the head to the end of the neck. The original model is to solve a mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary value problem for the Poisson equation in the composite domain, and is computationally challenging. In this paper we seek to transfer the original problem to a mixed Robin-Neumann boundary value problem by dropping the thin neck part, and rigorously derive the asymptotic expansion of the mean first passage time with high order terms. This study is a nontrivial three-dimensional generalization of the work in Li (2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47 505202), where a two-dimensional analogue domain is considered.

  3. Generalized multiscale finite element methods for problems in perforated heterogeneous domains

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2015-06-08

    Complex processes in perforated domains occur in many real-world applications. These problems are typically characterized by physical processes in domains with multiple scales. Moreover, these problems are intrinsically multiscale and their discretizations can yield very large linear or nonlinear systems. In this paper, we investigate multiscale approaches that attempt to solve such problems on a coarse grid by constructing multiscale basis functions in each coarse grid, where the coarse grid can contain many perforations. In particular, we are interested in cases when there is no scale separation and the perforations can have different sizes. In this regard, we mention some earlier pioneering works, where the authors develop multiscale finite element methods. In our paper, we follow Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) and develop a multiscale procedure where we identify multiscale basis functions in each coarse block using snapshot space and local spectral problems. We show that with a few basis functions in each coarse block, one can approximate the solution, where each coarse block can contain many small inclusions. We apply our general concept to (1) Laplace equation in perforated domains; (2) elasticity equation in perforated domains; and (3) Stokes equations in perforated domains. Numerical results are presented for these problems using two types of heterogeneous perforated domains. The analysis of the proposed methods will be presented elsewhere. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

  4. An investigation of domains and walls in two NdFeB alloys by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.; Chapman, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been used to investigate the domain structure in NdFeB alloy ampersand The variation of domain period in thinned sections has been studied for two different alloys and an energy minimization model has been used to calculate the specific domain wall energy (σ) for each alloy. For the basic alloy (A) a value for σ of 20.4mJ/m 2 Was found, whilst the alloy with additions of Dy (B) had a value which was ∼10% lower. This apparently surprising result is attributed to a decrease in the RE-TM exchange energy which more than offsets the increase in anisotropy resulting from the addition of Dy. The behavior of domains as they approach a grain boundary has also been investigated. It has been observed that the relative orientation of the c-axes of two adjacent grains is extremely important in determining the behavior of the domain structure at the grain boundary

  5. Domain decomposition method for the Baltic Sea based on theory of adjoint equation and inverse problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezina, Natalya; Agoshkov, Valery

    2017-04-01

    Domain decomposition method (DDM) allows one to present a domain with complex geometry as a set of essentially simpler subdomains. This method is particularly applied for the hydrodynamics of oceans and seas. In each subdomain the system of thermo-hydrodynamic equations in the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations is solved. The problem of obtaining solution in the whole domain is that it is necessary to combine solutions in subdomains. For this purposes iterative algorithm is created and numerical experiments are conducted to investigate an effectiveness of developed algorithm using DDM. For symmetric operators in DDM, Poincare-Steklov's operators [1] are used, but for the problems of the hydrodynamics, it is not suitable. In this case for the problem, adjoint equation method [2] and inverse problem theory are used. In addition, it is possible to create algorithms for the parallel calculations using DDM on multiprocessor computer system. DDM for the model of the Baltic Sea dynamics is numerically studied. The results of numerical experiments using DDM are compared with the solution of the system of hydrodynamic equations in the whole domain. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 14-11-00609, the formulation of the iterative process and numerical experiments). [1] V.I. Agoshkov, Domain Decompositions Methods in the Mathematical Physics Problem // Numerical processes and systems, No 8, Moscow, 1991 (in Russian). [2] V.I. Agoshkov, Optimal Control Approaches and Adjoint Equations in the Mathematical Physics Problem, Institute of Numerical Mathematics, RAS, Moscow, 2003 (in Russian).

  6. Identification of effective visual problem solving strategies in a complex visual domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Students in complex visual domains must acquire visual problem solving strategies that allow them to make fast decisions and come up with good solutions to real-time problems. In this study, 31 air traffic controllers at different levels of expertise (novice, intermediate, expert) were confronted

  7. Initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunmei.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of the global solutions to the initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain. When the space dimension n >= 3, the unique global solution of the above problem is obtained for small initial data, even if the nonlinear term is fully nonlinear and contains the unknown function itself. (author). 10 refs

  8. Cell wall domain and moisture content influence southern pine electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Leandro Passarini; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of movement of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall. This movement depends strongly on moisture content and is necessary for structural damage mechanisms such as fastener corrosion and wood decay. Here, we present the first measurements of electrical resistance of southern pine at the subcellular level as a function...

  9. Nucleon transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions from domain wall fermion calculations at 297 MeV pion mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Michael; Musch, Bernhard; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Gupta, Rajan; Hagler, Phillip; Negele, John; Pochinsky, Andrew; Shafer, Andreas; Syritsyn, Sergey; Yoon, Boram

    2014-12-01

    Lattice QCD calculations of transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs) in a nucleon are performed based on a definition of TMDs via hadronic matrix elements of quark bilocal operators containing staple-shaped gauge connections. A parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes serves to cast them in the Lorentz frame preferred for the lattice calculation. Using a RBC/UKQCD domain wall fermion ensemble corresponding to a pion mass of 297MeV, on a lattice with spacing 0.084fm, selected TMD observables are accessed and compared to previous explorations at heavier pion masses on coarser lattices.

  10. Implementation of equivalent domain integral method in the two-dimensional analysis of mixed mode problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, I. S.; Shivakumar, K. N.

    1989-01-01

    An equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for calculating J-intergrals for two-dimensional cracked elastic bodies is presented. The details of the method and its implementation are presented for isoparametric elements. The total and product integrals consist of the sum of an area of domain integral and line integrals on the crack faces. The line integrals vanish only when the crack faces are traction free and the loading is either pure mode 1 or pure mode 2 or a combination of both with only the square-root singular term in the stress field. The EDI method gave accurate values of the J-integrals for two mode I and two mixed mode problems. Numerical studies showed that domains consisting of one layer of elements are sufficient to obtain accurate J-integral values. Two procedures for separating the individual modes from the domain integrals are presented. The procedure that uses the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the stress and displacement fields to calculate the individual modes gave accurate values of the integrals for all problems analyzed. The EDI method when applied to a problem of an interface crack in two different materials showed that the mode 1 and mode 2 components are domain dependent while the total integral is not. This behavior is caused by the presence of the oscillatory part of the singularity in bimaterial crack problems. The EDI method, thus, shows behavior similar to the virtual crack closure method for bimaterial problems.

  11. Ferroelectricity driven magnetism at domain walls in LaAlO3/PbTiO3 superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, P. X.; Dong, S.; Liu, H. M.; Ma, C. Y.; Yan, Z. B.; Zhong, C. G.; Liu, J. -M.

    2015-01-01

    Charge dipole moment and spin moment rarely coexist in single-phase bulk materials except in some multiferroics. Despite the progress in the past decade, for most multiferroics their magnetoelectric performance remains poor due to the intrinsic exclusion between charge dipole and spin moment. As an alternative approach, the oxide heterostructures may evade the intrinsic limits in bulk materials and provide more attractive potential to realize the magnetoelectric functions. Here we perform a first-principles study on LaAlO3/PbTiO3 superlattices. Although neither of the components is magnetic, magnetic moments emerge at the ferroelectric domain walls of PbTiO3 in these superlattices. Such a twist between ferroelectric domain and local magnetic moment, not only manifests an interesting type of multiferroicity, but also is possible useful to pursuit the electrical-control of magnetism in nanoscale heterostructures. PMID:26269322

  12. Graphene Exfoliation at a Ferroelectric Domain Wall Induced by the Piezoelectric Effect: Impact on the Conductance of the Graphene Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Kurchak, Anatolii I.; Strikha, Maksym V.

    2017-11-01

    p -n junctions in graphene on ferroelectric substrates have been actively studied, but the impact of the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric substrate with ferroelectric domain walls (FDWs) on graphene characteristics was not considered. Because of the piezoeffect, ferroelectric domain stripes with opposite spontaneous polarizations elongate or contract depending on the polarity of voltage applied to the substrate. We show that the alternating piezoelectric displacement of the ferroelectric domain surfaces can lead to the alternate stretching and separation of graphene areas at the steps between elongated and contracted domains. Graphene separation at FDWs induced by the piezoeffect can cause unusual effects. In particular, the conductance of the graphene channel in a field-effect transistor increases significantly because electrons in the stretched section scatter on acoustic phonons. At the same time, the graphene conductance is determined by ferroelectric spontaneous polarization and varies greatly in the presence of FDWs. The revealed piezomechanism of graphene conductance control is promising for next generations of graphene-based field-effect transistors, modulators, electrical transducers, and piezoresistive elements. Also, our results propose the method of suspended graphene fabrication based on the piezoeffect in a ferroelectric substrate that does not require any additional technological procedures.

  13. An equivalent domain integral method in the two-dimensional analysis of mixed mode crack problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, I. S.; Shivakumar, K. N.

    1990-01-01

    An equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for calculating J-integrals for two-dimensional cracked elastic bodies is presented. The details of the method and its implementation are presented for isoparametric elements. The EDI method gave accurate values of the J-integrals for two mode I and two mixed mode problems. Numerical studies showed that domains consisting of one layer of elements are sufficient to obtain accurate J-integral values. Two procedures for separating the individual modes from the domain integrals are presented.

  14. A Parallel Non-Overlapping Domain-Decomposition Algorithm for Compressible Fluid Flow Problems on Triangulated Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers an algebraic preconditioning algorithm for hyperbolic-elliptic fluid flow problems. The algorithm is based on a parallel non-overlapping Schur complement domain-decomposition technique for triangulated domains. In the Schur complement technique, the triangulation is first partitioned into a number of non-overlapping subdomains and interfaces. This suggests a reordering of triangulation vertices which separates subdomain and interface solution unknowns. The reordering induces a natural 2 x 2 block partitioning of the discretization matrix. Exact LU factorization of this block system yields a Schur complement matrix which couples subdomains and the interface together. The remaining sections of this paper present a family of approximate techniques for both constructing and applying the Schur complement as a domain-decomposition preconditioner. The approximate Schur complement serves as an algebraic coarse space operator, thus avoiding the known difficulties associated with the direct formation of a coarse space discretization. In developing Schur complement approximations, particular attention has been given to improving sequential and parallel efficiency of implementations without significantly degrading the quality of the preconditioner. A computer code based on these developments has been tested on the IBM SP2 using MPI message passing protocol. A number of 2-D calculations are presented for both scalar advection-diffusion equations as well as the Euler equations governing compressible fluid flow to demonstrate performance of the preconditioning algorithm.

  15. Birth, growth and death of an antivortex during the propagation of a transverse domain wall in magnetic nanostrips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.Y. [Physics Department, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); HKUST Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Wang, X.R., E-mail: phxwan@ust.hk [Physics Department, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); HKUST Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Antivortex birth, growth and death accompanying the propagation of a transverse domain wall (DW) in magnetic nanostrips are observed and analyzed. Antivortex formation is an intrinsic process of a strawberry-like transverse DW originated from magnetostatic interaction. Under an external magnetic field, the wider width region of a DW tends to move faster than the narrower one. This speed mismatch tilts and elongates DW center line. As a result, an antivortex with a well-defined polarity is periodically born near the tail of the DW center line. The antivortex either moves along the center line and dies on the other side of the nanostrip, or grows to its maximum size, detaches itself from the DW, and vanishes eventually. The former route reverses the polarity of DW while the later keeps the DW polarity unchanged. The evolution of the DW structures is analyzed using winding numbers assigned to each topological defects. The phase diagram in the field-width plane is obtained and the damping constant's influence on the phase diagram is discussed. - Highlights: • The magnetostatic interaction leads to a strawberry-like domain wall. • Two types of antivortices evolutions are identified. • Antivortex generation can cause decrease of Walker breakdown field. • The phase diagrams on the field-width plane are obtained.

  16. The Laplace equation boundary value problems on bounded and unbounded Lipschitz domains

    CERN Document Server

    Medková, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    This book is devoted to boundary value problems of the Laplace equation on bounded and unbounded Lipschitz domains. It studies the Dirichlet problem, the Neumann problem, the Robin problem, the derivative oblique problem, the transmission problem, the skip problem and mixed problems. It also examines different solutions - classical, in Sobolev spaces, in Besov spaces, in homogeneous Sobolev spaces and in the sense of non-tangential limit. It also explains relations between different solutions. The book has been written in a way that makes it as readable as possible for a wide mathematical audience, and includes all the fundamental definitions and propositions from other fields of mathematics. This book is of interest to research students, as well as experts in partial differential equations and numerical analysis.

  17. Solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems using a spectral domain approach - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.; Ko, W. L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of some recent developments on the use of the spectral-domain approach for deriving high-frequency solutions to electromagnetics scattering and radiation problems. The spectral approach is not only useful for interpreting the well-known Keller formulas based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), it can also be employed for verifying the accuracy of GTD and other asymptotic solutions and systematically improving the results when such improvements are needed. The problem of plane wave diffraction by a finite screen or a strip is presented as an example of the application of the spectral-domain approach.

  18. Role of flexoelectric coupling in polarization rotations at the a-c domain walls in ferroelectric perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Chen, Long-Qing; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-05-01

    Ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain walls play important roles in ferroelectric properties. However, their couplings with flexoelectricity have been less understood. In this work, we applied phase-field simulation to investigate the flexoelectric coupling with ferroelectric a/c twin structures in lead ziconate titanate thin films. Local stress gradients were found to exist near twin walls that created both lateral and vertical electric fields through the flexoelectric effect, resulting in polarization inclinations from either horizontal or normal orientation, polarization rotation angles deviated from 90°, and consequently highly asymmetric a/c twin walls. By tuning the flexoelectric strengths in a reasonable range from first-principles calculations, we found that the transverse flexoelectric coefficient has a larger influence on the polarization rotation than longitudinal and shear coefficients. As polar rotations that commonly occur at compositional morphotropic phase boundaries contribute to the piezoelectric enhancement, this work calls for further exploration of alternative strain-engineered polar rotations via flexoelectricity in ferroelectric thin films.

  19. Depinning of the transverse domain wall trapped at magnetic impurities patterned in planar nanowires: Control of the wall motion using low-intensity and short-duration current pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, E. L. M.; Toscano, D.; Gomes, J. C. S.; Monteiro, M. G.; Sato, F.; Leonel, S. A.; Coura, P. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding and controlling of domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires is extremely important for the development and production of many spintronic devices. It is well known that notches are able to pin domain walls, but their pinning potential strength are too strong and it demands high-intensity current pulses to achieve wall depinning in magnetic nanowires. However, traps of pinning can be also originated from magnetic impurities, consisting of located variations of the nanowire's magnetic properties, such as exchange stiffness constant, saturation magnetization, anisotropy constant, damping parameter, and so on. In this work, we have performed micromagnetic simulations to investigate the depinning mechanism of a transverse domain wall (TDW) trapped at an artificial magnetic defect using spin-polarized current pulses. In order to create pinning traps, a simplified magnetic impurity model, only based on a local reduction of the exchange stiffness constant, have been considered. In order to provide a background for experimental studies, we have varied the parameter related to the pinning potential strength of the magnetic impurity. By adjusting the pinning potential of magnetic impurities and choosing simultaneously a suitable current pulse, we have found that it is possible to obtain domain wall depinning by applying low-intensity and short-duration current pulses. Furthermore, it was considered a planar magnetic nanowire containing a linear distribution of equally-spaced magnetic impurities and we have demonstrated the position control of a single TDW by applying sequential current pulses; that means the wall movement from an impurity to another.

  20. Peculiarities of low-frequency dielectric spectra and domain wall motion in gadolinium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiyarova, N.M.; Gorin, S.V.; Dontsova, L.I.; Shil'nikov, A.V.; Shuvalov, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low-frequency Debye dispersion of dielectric permeability in GMO with the low values of high-frequency limit ε ∞ was investigated in a wide temperature range as well as in fields of variable amplitude. The features of domain boundaries motion were studied at the partial repolarization in monopolar P-pulsed fields. The model of cooperationrelaxation motion brifing in parallel with positive to negative contribution to polarization that explained the low values of ε ∞ was suggested

  1. Resistance spikes and domain wall loops in Ising quantum Hall ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 21 (2001), s. 236801-1 - 216501-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P5.10; GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnet * domains Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.668, year: 2001

  2. Classical solutions of mixed problems for quasilinear first order PFDEs on a cylindrical domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czernous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We abandon the setting of the domain as a Cartesian product of real intervals, customary for first order PFDEs (partial functional differential equations with initial boundary conditions. We give a new set of conditions on the possibly unbounded domain \\(\\Omega\\ with Lipschitz differentiable boundary. Well-posedness is then reliant on a variant of the normal vector condition. There is a neighbourhood of \\(\\partial\\Omega\\ with the property that if a characteristic trajectory has a point therein, then its every earlier point lies there as well. With local assumptions on coefficients and on the free term, we prove existence and Lipschitz dependence on data of classical solutions on \\((0,c\\times\\Omega\\ to the initial boundary value problem, for small \\(c\\. Regularity of solutions matches this domain, and the proof uses the Banach fixed-point theorem. Our general model of functional dependence covers problems with deviating arguments and integro-differential equations.

  3. Sub-optimal Hankel norm approximation problem : a frequency-domain approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftime, OV; Sasane, AJ

    We obtain a simple solution for the sub-optimal Hankel norm approximation problem for the Wiener class of matrix-valued functions. The approach is via J-spectral factorization and frequency-domain techniques. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculating Probabilistic Distance to Solution in a Complex Problem Solving Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudol, Leigh Ann; Rivers, Kelly; Harris, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    In complex problem solving domains, correct solutions are often comprised of a combination of individual components. Students usually go through several attempts, each attempt reflecting an individual solution state that can be observed during practice. Classic metrics to measure student performance over time rely on counting the number of…

  5. Asymptotic Analysis of a Nonlinear Problem on Domain Boundaries in Convection Patterns by Homotopy Renormalization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In this article, using the homotopy renormalization method, the asymptotic analysis to a nonlinear problem on domain boundaries in convection patterns are given. In particular, by taking a variable coefficient homotopy equation, the global asymptotic solutions satisfying boundary conditions are obtained. These results are better than the existing analytic approximation solutions.

  6. Problems of Implementing SCORM in an Enterprise Distance Learning Architecture: SCORM Incompatibility across Multiple Web Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Delivering content to distant users located in dispersed networks, separated by firewalls and different web domains requires extensive customization and integration. This article outlines some of the problems of implementing the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) in the Marine Corps' Distance Learning System (MarineNet) and extends…

  7. Convergence Analysis of Domain Decomposition algorithms with full overlapping for the advection-diffusion problems

    OpenAIRE

    Le Tallec, Patrick; Tidriri, Moulay D.

    1994-01-01

    Projet MENUSIN; The aim of this paper is to study the convergence properties of a Time Marching Algorithm solving Advection-Diffusion problems on two domains using incompatible discretizations. The basic algorithm is first presented, and theoretical or numerical results illustrate its convergence properties. This study is based on spectral theory, a priori estimates and a Di-Giorgi-Nash maximum principle .

  8. Ferroelectric Domain Walls in BaTiO_3: Fingerprints in XRPD Diagrams and Quantitative HRTEM Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floquet, N.; Valot, C. M.; Mesnier, M. T.; Niepce, J. C.; Normand, L.; Thorel, A.; Kilaas, R.

    1997-06-01

    The structure of ferroelectric domain walls in BaTiO3 has been investigated through two complementary approaches, a global one by the fine analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns, the other essentially local via a quantitative image analysis method developed and applied to High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy images. These two original approaches converge towards a clear description of 90^{circ} walls which are shown to be a 4 6 nm wide region where the crystallographic discontinuity is accommodated by irregular atomic displacements. The results given here demonstrate that the usual structural theoretical description of walls commonly accepted for energy calculations are far too simplistic. The two underlying methodologies which have been developed to carry out these approaches can possibly be applied to other ferroelectrics, but without any doubt to other systems where twins or coherent interfaces are expected. Une étude de la structure des murs de domaines ferroélectriques dans BaTiO3 est réalisée à travers deux approches complémentaires : une approche globale par une méthode fine d'analyse des diagrammes de poudre de diffraction des rayons X, et une autre très locale par une méthode quantitative d'analyse des images obtenues par microscopie électronique de haute résolution. Ces deux approches originales convergent vers une description claire des murs de domaines à 90^{circ} : c'est une région large de 4 6 nm où la discontinuité cristallographique est accommodée par des déplacements atomiques irréguliers. Ces résultats montrent que la description structurale théorique communément utilisée pour des calculs d'énergies est de loin trop simpliste. Les méthodologies développées, propres à chacune des analyses structurales utilisées, peuvent être appliquées à l'étude de tout autre matériau ferroélectrique, mais aussi à tout autre matériau cristallisé où des maclages ou interfaces cohérentes sont attendues.

  9. Switchable field-tuned control of magnetic domain wall pinning along Co microwires by 3D e-beam lithographed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Roldán, C.; Quirós, C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G.; Vélez, M.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic circuits composed of Co microwires crossed by elevated Co bridges have been patterned on Si substrate by e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The lithographic procedure includes a double resist procedure that optimizes the shape of the bridge, so that 200 nm air gaps can be routinely achieved in between the wire and bridge elements. Microwire magnetization reversal processes have been analyzed by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy with different remanent bridge configurations. When the Co bridge is magnetized along the in-plane direction parallel to the wire axis, its stray field induces a marked pinning effect on domain wall propagation along the wire below it, even without being in contact. Changing the sign of the remanent state of the bridge, domain wall pinning can be selected to occur in either the ascending or descending branches of the wire hysteresis loop. Thus, these wire-bridge 3D circuits provide a simple system for tunable domain wall pinning controllable through the pre-recorded bridge remanent state. - Highlights: • Electron beam lithography is used to fabricate a tridimensional magnetic circuit. • Proposed circuit is made of a Co bridge overcrossing a non-contacted Co microwire. • Domain wall propagation can be controlled by previous magnetization of the system. • Domain wall pinning in the wire depends on the applied magnetic field sign.

  10. Nanoscale control of stripe-ordered magnetic domain walls by vertical spin transfer torque in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Shizhe; Ma, Ji; Xie, Lishan; Wang, Chuanshou; Malik, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zhang, Yuelin; Xia, Ke; Nan, Ce-Wen; Zhang, Jinxing

    2018-02-01

    Stripe-ordered domains with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been intensively investigated due to their potential applications in high-density magnetic data-storage devices. However, the conventional control methods (e.g., epitaxial strain, local heating, magnetic field, and magnetoelectric effect) of the stripe-ordered domain walls either cannot meet the demands for miniaturization and low power consumption of spintronic devices or require high strength of the electric field due to the small value of the magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. Here, a domain-wall resistive effect of 0.1% was clarified in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films between the configurations of current in the plane and perpendicular to the plane of walls. Furthermore, a reversible nanoscale control of the domain-wall re-orientation by vertical spin transfer torque across the probe/film interface was achieved, where a probe voltage of 0.1 V was applied on a manganite-based capacitor. We also demonstrated that the stripe-ordered magnetic domain-wall re-orientation strongly depends on the AC frequency of the scanning probe voltage which was applied on the capacitor.

  11. Switchable field-tuned control of magnetic domain wall pinning along Co microwires by 3D e-beam lithographed structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Roldán, C., E-mail: c.blanco@cinn.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain); Quirós, C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G.; Vélez, M.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Three-dimensional magnetic circuits composed of Co microwires crossed by elevated Co bridges have been patterned on Si substrate by e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The lithographic procedure includes a double resist procedure that optimizes the shape of the bridge, so that 200 nm air gaps can be routinely achieved in between the wire and bridge elements. Microwire magnetization reversal processes have been analyzed by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy with different remanent bridge configurations. When the Co bridge is magnetized along the in-plane direction parallel to the wire axis, its stray field induces a marked pinning effect on domain wall propagation along the wire below it, even without being in contact. Changing the sign of the remanent state of the bridge, domain wall pinning can be selected to occur in either the ascending or descending branches of the wire hysteresis loop. Thus, these wire-bridge 3D circuits provide a simple system for tunable domain wall pinning controllable through the pre-recorded bridge remanent state. - Highlights: • Electron beam lithography is used to fabricate a tridimensional magnetic circuit. • Proposed circuit is made of a Co bridge overcrossing a non-contacted Co microwire. • Domain wall propagation can be controlled by previous magnetization of the system. • Domain wall pinning in the wire depends on the applied magnetic field sign.

  12. Approximate controllability of a semilinear elliptic problem with Robin condition in a periodically perforated domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Agarwal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the approximate controllability and homegenization results of a semi-linear elliptic problem with Robin boundary condition in a periodically perforated domain. We prove the existence of minimal norm control using Lions constructive approach, which is based on Fenchel-Rockafeller duality theory, and by means of Zuazua's fixed point arguments. Then, as the homogenization parameter goes to zero, we link the limit of the optimal controls (the limit of fixed point of the controllability problems with the optimal control of the corresponding homogenized problem.

  13. Interface-induced chiral domain walls, spin spirals and skyrmions revealed by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Kubetzka, André; Pietzsch, Oswald; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2014-10-01

    The spin textures of ultra-thin magnetic layers exhibit surprising variety. The loss of inversion symmetry at the interface of the magnetic layer and substrate gives rise to the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction which favors non-collinear spin arrangements with unique rotational sense. Here we review the application of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy to such systems, which has led to the discovery of interface-induced chiral domain walls and spin spirals. Recently, different interface-driven skyrmion lattices have been found, and the writing as well as the deleting of individual skyrmions based on local spin-polarized current injection has been demonstrated. These interface-induced non-collinear magnetic states offer new exciting possibilities to study fundamental magnetic interactions and to tailor material properties for spintronic applications.

  14. The Cr dependence problem of eigenvalues of the Laplace operator on domains in the plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Julian; Montenegro, Marcos

    2018-03-01

    The Cr dependence problem of multiple Dirichlet eigenvalues on domains is discussed for elliptic operators by regarding C r + 1-smooth one-parameter families of C1 perturbations of domains in Rn. As applications of our main theorem (Theorem 1), we provide a fairly complete description for all eigenvalues of the Laplace operator on disks and squares in R2 and also for its second eigenvalue on balls in Rn for any n ≥ 3. The central tool used in our proof is a degenerate implicit function theorem on Banach spaces (Theorem 2) of independent interest.

  15. Inhomogeneous nucleation and domain wall motion with Barkhausen avalanches in epitaxial PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Kim, Hun Ho; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Ik Joo; Yoon, Jong Gul

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the ferroelectric (FE) domain nucleation and domain wall motion in epitaxial PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 capacitors by using modified piezoresponse force microscopy with the domain-tracing method. From time-dependent FE domain evolution images, we observed that defect-mediated inhomogeneous nucleation occurred with a stochastic nature. In addition, we found that the number of nuclei N(t) was linearly proportional to log t, where t is the accumulated time of the applied pulse fields. The time-dependence of N(t) suggests a distribution of energy barriers for nucleation, which may determine the stochastic nature of domain nucleation. We also observed that the domain grew with consecutive Barkhausen avalanches and that the growth direction became anisotropic when the domain radius was larger than a critical radius of about 100 nm.

  16. The influence of thermal activation and the intrinsic temperature dependence of the spin torque effect in current-induced domain wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagras, P; Klaeui, M; Laufenberg, M; Bedau, D; Vila, L; Faini, G; Vaz, C A F; Bland, J A C; Ruediger, U

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of domain wall motion in Ni 80 Fe 20 ring structures induced by current pulses as well as conventional magnetic fields is presented. Using constrictions we demonstrate that current-induced domain wall motion can be used to displace walls into parts of the structure where no pulsed currents are flowing. Measurements at variable temperatures between 2 and 300 K show that the fields necessary for wall motion decrease with increasing temperature, which can be explained by thermal activation. For the current-induced case we find, depending on the geometry and temperature range, that the current densities necessary for displacement can increase or decrease with rising temperature. This indicates that, in addition to thermal excitations, an intrinsic temperature dependence of the efficiency of the spin torque effect is present and leads to an increase in the critical current density with increasing temperature

  17. Spontaneous Z2 symmetry breaking in the orbifold daughter of N=1 super-Yang-Mills theory, fractional domain walls and vacuum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armoni, A.; Gorsky, A.; Shifman, M.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the fate of the Z 2 symmetry and the vacuum structure in a SU(N)xSU(N) gauge theory with one bifundamental Dirac fermion. This theory can be obtained from SU(2N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory by virtue of Z 2 orbifolding. We analyze dynamics of domain walls and argue that the Z 2 symmetry is spontaneously broken. Since unbroken Z 2 is a necessary condition for nonperturbative planar equivalence we conclude that the orbifold daughter is nonperturbatively nonequivalent to its supersymmetric parent. En route, our investigation reveals the existence of fractional domain walls, similar to fractional D-branes of string theory on orbifolds. We conjecture on the fate of these domain walls in the true solution of the Z 2 -broken orbifold theory. We also comment on relation with nonsupersymmetric string theories and closed-string tachyon condensation

  18. STATIONARY PROBLEM OF MOISTURE-INDUCED ELASTICITY OF HETEROGENEOUS THICK-WALLED CYLINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Vladimir Igorevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many problems of identification of the stress-strain state against the background of the heat and mass transfer are solved through the application of constant (averaged values of mechanical properties (elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and derivation of differential equations with constant coefficients. Due to irregular distribution of temperature and other factors of impact, including the moisture content, mechanical properties of many materials change significantly; therefore, the problems in question are solved within the framework of mechanics of heterogeneous bodies. In this paper, the authors solve the classical problem of the steady-state moisture-induced elasticity of a thick-walled cylinder by taking account of the changes in the value of the elastic modulus caused by the influence of moisture. In this case, the problem is reduced to a differential equation with variable coefficients, which makes the solution more complicated though more accurate. It is proven that due regard for the heterogeneity leads to a significant increase in stresses, if compared to the solution based on the mean values of the modulus of elasticity.

  19. Iterative Method to Solve a Data Completion Problem for Biharmonic Equation for Rectangular Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajani Chakir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we are interested in a class of problems of great importance in many areas of industry and engineering. It is the invese problem for the biharmonic equation. It consists to complete the missing data on the inaccessible part from the measured data on the accessible part of the boundary. To solve this ill-posed problem, we opted for the alternative iterative method developed by Kozlov, Mazya and Fomin which is a convergent method for the elliptical Cauchy problems in general. The numerical implementation of the iterative algorithm is based on the application of the boundary element method (BEM for a sequence of mixed well-posed direct problems. Numerical results are performed for a square domain showing the effectiveness of the algorithm by BEM to produce accurate and stable numerical results.

  20. Collective coordinate models of domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized systems under the spin hall effect and longitudinal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, S. Ali, E-mail: ali.nasseri@isi.it [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Politecnico di Torino - Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moretti, Simone; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca - Cardenal Plá y Deniel, 22, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Serpico, Claudio [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); University of Naples Federico II - Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Durin, Gianfranco [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) - Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies on heterostructures of ultrathin ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and an oxide have highlighted the importance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and broken inversion symmetry in domain wall (DW) motion. Specifically, chiral DWs are stabilized in these systems due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). SOC can also lead to enhanced current induced DW motion, with the Spin Hall effect (SHE) suggested as the dominant mechanism for this observation. The efficiency of SHE driven DW motion depends on the internal magnetic structure of the DW, which could be controlled using externally applied longitudinal in-plane fields. In this work, micromagnetic simulations and collective coordinate models are used to study current-driven DW motion under longitudinal in-plane fields in perpendicularly magnetized samples with strong DMI. Several extended collective coordinate models are developed to reproduce the micromagnetic results. While these extended models show improvements over traditional models of this kind, there are still discrepancies between them and micromagnetic simulations which require further work. - Highlights: • Moving DWs in PMA material maintain their structure under longitudinal in-plane fields. • As a result of longitudinal fields, magnetization in the domains becomes canted. • A critical longitudinal field was identified and correlated with the DMI strength. • A canted collective coordinate model was developed for DW motion under in-plane fields.

  1. Promoting Experimental Problem-Solving Ability in Sixth-Grade Students through Problem-Oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an Intervention Study in a Complex Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…

  2. A computational domain decomposition approach for solving coupled flow-structure-thermal interaction problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Aulisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solving complex coupled processes involving fluid-structure-thermal interactions is a challenging problem in computational sciences and engineering. Currently there exist numerous public-domain and commercial codes available in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD and Computational Thermodynamics (CTD. Different groups specializing in modelling individual process such as CSD, CFD, CTD often come together to solve a complex coupled application. Direct numerical simulation of the non-linear equations for even the most simplified fluid-structure-thermal interaction (FSTI model depends on the convergence of iterative solvers which in turn rely heavily on the properties of the coupled system. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a flexible multilevel algorithm with finite elements that can be used to study a coupled FSTI. The method relies on decomposing the complex global domain, into several local sub-domains, solving smaller problems over these sub-domains and then gluing back the local solution in an efficient and accurate fashion to yield the global solution. Our numerical results suggest that the proposed solution methodology is robust and reliable.

  3. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  4. MFM observations of domain wall creep and pinning effects in amorphous Co{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} films with diluted arrays of antidots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Perez-Junquera, A [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Velez, M [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Anguita, J V [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CNM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, Tres Cantos, 28760 Madrid (Spain); Martin, J I [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Rubio, H [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Alameda, J M [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-05-21

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) has been used to analyse the behaviour of domain walls in uniaxial amorphous Co{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} films patterned with diluted arrays of antidots by electron beam lithography. The walls are found to be pinned by the antidot array when the antidot density is high enough along the easy axis. The expansion of reversed nuclei under the influence of the tip stray field has been observed in several consecutive MFM images of the same area, showing how the competition between line tension effects and pinning by the patterned holes governs the creep motion of the 180{sup 0} walls across the array of antidots.

  5. MFM observations of domain wall creep and pinning effects in amorphous CoxSi1-x films with diluted arrays of antidots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Perez-Junquera, A; Velez, M; Anguita, J V; Martin, J I; Rubio, H; Alameda, J M

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) has been used to analyse the behaviour of domain walls in uniaxial amorphous Co x Si 1-x films patterned with diluted arrays of antidots by electron beam lithography. The walls are found to be pinned by the antidot array when the antidot density is high enough along the easy axis. The expansion of reversed nuclei under the influence of the tip stray field has been observed in several consecutive MFM images of the same area, showing how the competition between line tension effects and pinning by the patterned holes governs the creep motion of the 180 0 walls across the array of antidots

  6. Defect-phase-dynamics approach to statistical domain-growth problem of clock models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, K.

    1985-01-01

    The growth of statistical domains in quenched Ising-like p-state clock models with p = 3 or more is investigated theoretically, reformulating the analysis of Ohta et al. (1982) in terms of a phase variable and studying the dynamics of defects introduced into the phase field when the phase variable becomes multivalued. The resulting defect/phase domain-growth equation is applied to the interpretation of Monte Carlo simulations in two dimensions (Kaski and Gunton, 1983; Grest and Srolovitz, 1984), and problems encountered in the analysis of related Potts models are discussed. In the two-dimensional case, the problem is essentially that of a purely dissipative Coulomb gas, with a sq rt t growth law complicated by vertex-pinning effects at small t.

  7. Elliptic differential operators on Lipschitz domains and abstract boundary value problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Micheler, Till

    2014-11-15

    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, which is of more abstract nature, the notion of quasi-boundary triples and associated Weyl functions is developed further in such a way that it can be applied to elliptic boundary value problems on non-smooth domains. A key feature is the extension of the boundary maps by continuity to the duals of certain range spaces, which directly leads to a description of all self-adjoint extensions of the underlying symmetric operator with the help of abstract boundary values. In the second part of the paper a complete description is obtained of all self-adjoint realizations of the Laplacian on bounded Lipschitz domains, as well as Kreĭn type resolvent formulas and a spectral characterization in terms of energy dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps. These results can be viewed as the natural generalization of recent results by Gesztesy and Mitrea for quasi-convex domains. In this connection we also characterize the maximal range spaces of the Dirichlet and Neumann trace operators on a bounded Lipschitz domain in terms of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map. The general results from the first part of the paper are also applied to higher order elliptic operators on smooth domains, and particular attention is paid to the second order case which is illustrated with various examples.

  8. Seismic problems of thin-walled piping for technologically important water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejent, B.; Kosek, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The results of theoretical, calculation and experimental work associated with the problems of seismic stress of pipings with technologically important water at the Mochovce and Temelin nuclear power plants are discussed. The inner diameter of the piping is 500 to 1600 mm, wall thickness 8 to 12 mm; it is subject to vigorous corrosion, which at the Temelin power plant attains a value of 4.5 mm by the end of the service life (30 years). Discussed are the results of the static strength calculations, of experimental investigation of the properties of the friction pair in the push fit of the piping and of static examination of the loading capacity of the piping shell in the points of the supports. From the earthquake resistance aspect, attention is paid particularly to the vibro-isolation of the piping systems by virtue of friction in the supports. (Z.M.). 11 figs., 6 refs

  9. A computational domain decomposition approach for solving coupled flow-structure-thermal interaction problems

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio Aulisa; Sandro Manservisi; Padmanabhan Seshaiyer

    2009-01-01

    Solving complex coupled processes involving fluid-structure-thermal interactions is a challenging problem in computational sciences and engineering. Currently there exist numerous public-domain and commercial codes available in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) and Computational Thermodynamics (CTD). Different groups specializing in modelling individual process such as CSD, CFD, CTD often come together to solve a complex coupled ap...

  10. The Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Ampere equation in convex (but not strictly convex domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hartenstine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Amp`ere equation $det D^2 u = mu$ in a bounded strictly convex domain $Omega$ in $mathbb{R}^n$ has a weak solution (in the sense of Aleksandrov for any finite Borel measure $mu$ on $Omega$ and for any continuous boundary data. We consider the Dirichlet problem when $Omega$ is only assumed to be convex, and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the boundary data for solvability.

  11. Domain decomposition methods for the mixed dual formulation of the critical neutron diffusion problem; Methodes de decomposition de domaine pour la formulation mixte duale du probleme critique de la diffusion des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, P

    2007-12-15

    The neutronic simulation of a nuclear reactor core is performed using the neutron transport equation, and leads to an eigenvalue problem in the steady-state case. Among the deterministic resolution methods, diffusion approximation is often used. For this problem, the MINOS solver based on a mixed dual finite element method has shown his efficiency. In order to take advantage of parallel computers, and to reduce the computing time and the local memory requirement, we propose in this dissertation two domain decomposition methods for the resolution of the mixed dual form of the eigenvalue neutron diffusion problem. The first approach is a component mode synthesis method on overlapping sub-domains. Several Eigenmodes solutions of a local problem solved by MINOS on each sub-domain are taken as basis functions used for the resolution of the global problem on the whole domain. The second approach is a modified iterative Schwarz algorithm based on non-overlapping domain decomposition with Robin interface conditions. At each iteration, the problem is solved on each sub domain by MINOS with the interface conditions deduced from the solutions on the adjacent sub-domains at the previous iteration. The iterations allow the simultaneous convergence of the domain decomposition and the eigenvalue problem. We demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency in parallel of these two methods with numerical results for the diffusion model on realistic 2- and 3-dimensional cores. (author)

  12. Singular Integral Operators Associated with Elliptic Boundary Value Problems in Non-smooth Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awala, Hussein

    Many boundary value problems of mathematical physics are modelled by elliptic differential operators L in a given domain O. An effective method for treating such problems is the method of layer potentials, whose essence resides in reducing matters to solving a boundary integral equation. This, in turn, requires inverting a singular integral operator, naturally associated with L and O, on appropriate function spaces on ∂O. When the operator L is of second order and the domain O is Lipschitz (i.e., O is locally the upper-graph of a Lipschitz function) the fundamental work of B. Dahlberg, C. Kenig, D. Jerison, E. Fabes, N. Riviere, G. Verchota, R. Brown, and many others, has opened the door for the development of a far-reaching theory in this setting, even though several very difficult questions still remain unanswered. In this dissertation, the goal is to solve a number of open questions regarding spectral properties of singular integral operators associated with second and higher-order elliptic boundary value problems in non-smooth domains. Among other spectral results, we establish symmetry properties of harmonic classical double layer potentials associated with the Laplacian in the class of Lipschitz domains in R2. An array of useful tools and techniques from Harmonic Analysis, Partial Differential Equations play a key role in our approach, and these are discussed as preliminary material in the thesis: • Mellin Transforms and Fourier Analysis; • Calderon-Zygmund Theory in Uniformly Rectifiable Domains; • Boundary Integral Methods. Chapter four deals with proving invertibility properties of singular integral operators naturally associated with the mixed (Zaremba) problem for the Laplacian and the Lame system in infinite sectors in two dimensions, when considering their action on the Lebesgue scale of p integrable functions, for $1 their action on the Lebesgue scale of p integrable functions, for 1 functions). Finally, chapter six, deals with spectral issues

  13. Bridging the divide: Middle Eastern walls and fences and the spatial governance of problem populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a long history of spatial control through walling in the region, walls and fences have been built in the Middle East in recent years to undertake a range of practices. Gated communities, residential and security compounds, anti-migrant walls, separation barriers and counter-insurgency

  14. The nonlocal problem for a hyperbolic equation with Bessel operator in a rectangular domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Zaitseva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a boundary value problem for a hyperbolic equation with Bessel differential operator in a rectangular domain with integral nonlocal boundary value condition of the first kind. The equivalence between boundary value problem with integral nonlocal condition of the first kind and a local boundary value problem with mixed boundary conditions of the first and third kinds is proved. The existence and uniqueness of solution of the equivalent problem are established by means of the spectral method. At the uniqueness proof the completeness of the eigenfunction system of the spectral problem is used . At the existence proof the assessment of coefficients of series, the asymptotic formula for Bessel function of the first kind and asymptotic formula for eigenvalues are used. Sufficient conditions on the functions defining initial data of the problem are received. The solution of the problem is obtained in explicit form. The solution is obtained in the form of the Fourier–Bessel series. Its convergence is proved in the class of regular solutions.

  15. A family of domain decomposition methods for the massively parallel solution of computational mechanics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Kendall Hugh

    The Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) algorithms are numerically scalable iterative domain decomposition methods for solving systems of equations generated from the finite element discretization of second- or fourth-order elasticity problems. These methods have been substantially improved over the last ten years and recently shown parallel scalability up to one thousand processors. The purpose of this thesis is to present and investigate a dual-primal FETI method, which addresses some of the critical issues related to the original FETI methods. These critical issues involve the accurate computation of the local rigid body modes, the cost and size of the FETI coarse problems with respect to fourth-order elasticity problems, and the overall robustness and versatility of the equation solver. These improvements due to the dual-primal FETI formulation are especially beneficial when implemented on massively parallel distributed memory computers such as the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Red Option supercomputer. Numerical results will be shown detailing scalability with respect to the mesh size, subdomain size, and the number of elements per subdomain for both second- and fourth-order elasticity problems. Parallel scalability will be reported for various large scale realistic problems on a SGI Origin 2000 and the ASCI Red option massively parallel supercomputer. Lastly, results from linear dynamics, eigenvalue analysis and geometrically non-linear static problems will be shown highlighting the benefits of FETI methods for solving large-scale problems with multiple right hand sides.

  16. Separating spin torque and heating effects in current-induced domain wall motion probed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, F.; Klaeui, M.; Backes, D.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of domain wall motion and transformations due to injected current pulses in permalloy zigzag structures using off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy are reported. Heating on membranes leads to thermally activated random behavior at low current densities and by backcoatin...

  17. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial...

  18. Activity-Centered Domain Characterization for Problem-Driven Scientific Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, G Elisabeta

    2018-01-01

    Although visualization design models exist in the literature in the form of higher-level methodological frameworks, these models do not present a clear methodological prescription for the domain characterization step. This work presents a framework and end-to-end model for requirements engineering in problem-driven visualization application design. The framework and model are based on the activity-centered design paradigm, which is an enhancement of human-centered design. The proposed activity-centered approach focuses on user tasks and activities, and allows an explicit link between the requirements engineering process with the abstraction stage-and its evaluation-of existing, higher-level visualization design models. In a departure from existing visualization design models, the resulting model: assigns value to a visualization based on user activities; ranks user tasks before the user data; partitions requirements in activity-related capabilities and nonfunctional characteristics and constraints; and explicitly incorporates the user workflows into the requirements process. A further merit of this model is its explicit integration of functional specifications, a concept this work adapts from the software engineering literature, into the visualization design nested model. A quantitative evaluation using two sets of interdisciplinary projects supports the merits of the activity-centered model. The result is a practical roadmap to the domain characterization step of visualization design for problem-driven data visualization. Following this domain characterization model can help remove a number of pitfalls that have been identified multiple times in the visualization design literature.

  19. A balancing domain decomposition method by constraints for advection-diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xuemin; Li, Jing

    2008-12-10

    The balancing domain decomposition methods by constraints are extended to solving nonsymmetric, positive definite linear systems resulting from the finite element discretization of advection-diffusion equations. A pre-conditioned GMRES iteration is used to solve a Schur complement system of equations for the subdomain interface variables. In the preconditioning step of each iteration, a partially sub-assembled finite element problem is solved. A convergence rate estimate for the GMRES iteration is established, under the condition that the diameters of subdomains are small enough. It is independent of the number of subdomains and grows only slowly with the subdomain problem size. Numerical experiments for several two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems illustrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Symplectic Analytical Solutions for the Magnetoelectroelastic Solids Plane Problem in Rectangular Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chuan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The transversely isotropic magnetoelectroelastic solids plane problem in rectangular domain is derived to Hamiltonian system. In symplectic geometry space with the origin variables—displacements, electric potential, and magnetic potential, as well as their duality variables—lengthways stress, electric displacement, and magnetic induction, on the basis of the obtained eigensolutions of zero-eigenvalue, the eigensolutions of nonzero-eigenvalues are also obtained. The former are the basic solutions of Saint-Venant problem, and the latter are the solutions which have the local effect, decay drastically with respect to distance, and are covered in the Saint-Venant principle. So the complete solution of the problem is given out by the symplectic eigensolutions expansion. Finally, a few examples are selected and their analytical solutions are presented.

  1. Multi-layer potentials and boundary problems for higher-order elliptic systems in Lipschitz domains

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrea, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Many phenomena in engineering and mathematical physics can be modeled by means of boundary value problems for a certain elliptic differential operator in a given domain. When the differential operator under discussion is of second order a variety of tools are available for dealing with such problems, including boundary integral methods, variational methods, harmonic measure techniques, and methods based on classical harmonic analysis. When the differential operator is of higher-order (as is the case, e.g., with anisotropic plate bending when one deals with a fourth order operator) only a few options could be successfully implemented. In the 1970s Alberto Calderón, one of the founders of the modern theory of Singular Integral Operators, advocated the use of layer potentials for the treatment of higher-order elliptic boundary value problems. The present monograph represents the first systematic treatment based on this approach. This research monograph lays, for the first time, the mathematical foundation aimed...

  2. A combined integrating- and differentiating-matrix formulation for boundary-value problems on rectangular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    Integrating and differentiating matrices allow the numerical integration and differential of functions whose values are known at points of a discrete grid. Previous derivations of these matrices were restricted to one dimensional grids or to rectangular grids with uniform spacing in at least one direction. Integrating and differentiating matrices were developed for grids with nonuniform spacing in both directions. The use of these matrices as operators to reformulate boundary value problems on rectangular domains as matrix problems for a finite dimensional solution vector is considered. The method requires nonuniform grids which include near boundary points. An eigenvalue problem for the transverse vibrations of a simply supported rectangular plate is solved to illustrate the method.

  3. A combined integrating and differentiating matrix formulation for boundary value problems on rectangular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    Integrating and differentiating matrices allow the numerical integration and differential of functions whose values are known at points of a discrete grid. Previous derivations of these matrices were restricted to one dimensional grids or to rectangular grids with uniform spacing in at least one direction. Integrating and differentiating matrices were developed for grids with nonuniform spacing in both directions. The use of these matrices as operators to reformulate boundary value problems on rectangular domains as matrix problems for a finite dimensional solution vector is considered. The method requires nonuniform grids which include near boundary points. An eigenvalue problem for the transverse vibrations of a simply supported rectangular plate is solved to illustrate the method.

  4. Domain decomposition method for nonconforming finite element approximations of anisotropic elliptic problems on nonmatching grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliassov, S.Y. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An approach to the construction of an iterative method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations arising from nonconforming finite element discretizations with nonmatching grids for second order elliptic boundary value problems with anisotropic coefficients is considered. The technique suggested is based on decomposition of the original domain into nonoverlapping subdomains. The elliptic problem is presented in the macro-hybrid form with Lagrange multipliers at the interfaces between subdomains. A block diagonal preconditioner is proposed which is spectrally equivalent to the original saddle point matrix and has the optimal order of arithmetical complexity. The preconditioner includes blocks for preconditioning subdomain and interface problems. It is shown that constants of spectral equivalence axe independent of values of coefficients and mesh step size.

  5. Reprint of Domain decomposition multigrid methods for nonlinear reaction-diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrarás, A.; Gaspar, F. J.; Portero, L.; Rodrigo, C.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we propose efficient discretizations for nonlinear evolutionary reaction-diffusion problems on general two-dimensional domains. The spatial domain is discretized through an unstructured coarse triangulation, which is subsequently refined via regular triangular grids. Following the method of lines approach, we first consider a finite element spatial discretization, and then use a linearly implicit splitting time integrator related to a suitable decomposition of the triangulation nodes. Such a procedure provides a linear system per internal stage. The equations corresponding to those nodes lying strictly inside the elements of the coarse triangulation can be decoupled and solved in parallel using geometric multigrid techniques. The method is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, since it avoids the need for Schwarz-type iteration procedures. In addition, it is formulated for triangular elements, thus yielding much flexibility in the discretization of complex geometries. To illustrate its practical utility, the algorithm is shown to reproduce the pattern-forming dynamics of the Schnakenberg model.

  6. On the initial condition problem of the time domain PMCHWT surface integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes

    2017-05-13

    Non-physical, linearly increasing and constant current components are induced in marching on-in-time solution of time domain surface integral equations when initial conditions on time derivatives of (unknown) equivalent currents are not enforced properly. This problem can be remedied by solving the time integral of the surface integral for auxiliary currents that are defined to be the time derivatives of the equivalent currents. Then the equivalent currents are obtained by numerically differentiating the auxiliary ones. In this work, this approach is applied to the marching on-in-time solution of the time domain Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai surface integral equation enforced on dispersive/plasmonic scatterers. Accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example.

  7. Birth, growth and death of an antivortex during the propagation of a transverse domain wall in magnetic nanostrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H. Y.; Wang, X. R.

    2014-11-01

    Antivortex birth, growth and death accompanying the propagation of a transverse domain wall (DW) in magnetic nanostrips are observed and analyzed. Antivortex formation is an intrinsic process of a strawberry-like transverse DW originated from magnetostatic interaction. Under an external magnetic field, the wider width region of a DW tends to move faster than the narrower one. This speed mismatch tilts and elongates DW center line. As a result, an antivortex with a well-defined polarity is periodically born near the tail of the DW center line. The antivortex either moves along the center line and dies on the other side of the nanostrip, or grows to its maximum size, detaches itself from the DW, and vanishes eventually. The former route reverses the polarity of DW while the later keeps the DW polarity unchanged. The evolution of the DW structures is analyzed using winding numbers assigned to each topological defects. The phase diagram in the field-width plane is obtained and the damping constant's influence on the phase diagram is discussed.

  8. Domain-wall motion at an ultrahigh speed driven by spin–orbit torque in synthetic antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziyang; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhua; Cheng, Ming; Lu, Zhihong; Yang, Xiaofei; Shi, Jing; Xiong, Rui

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we present our numerical investigation about the spin–orbit-torque induced domain-wall (DW) motion in a synthetic antiferromagnetic multilayer nanotrack. This nanotrack was composed by two ferromagnetic (FM) layers with a RKKY inter-layer antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange coupling. The velocity of DW was well manipulated by varying parameters including inter-layer exchange constant, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) strength, the current density and the magnetic anisotropy. The DW velocity was found to be strictly related to the orientation of the moments in the two FM layers. When the interlayer exchange constant or the DMI constant were larger than a critical value, there was a large angle between the moments in one FM layer and that in the other one under the current, and the DW was driven to move at an ultrahigh speed (around 10 000 m s‑1). However, when the DMI or the AFM exchange coupling was weaker than the critical value, the moments in one FM layer were parallel to that in the other one under the current, and the velocity was significantly reduced.

  9. Magnetic domain-wall creep driven by field and current in Ta/CoFeB/MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuttaGupta, S.; Fukami, S.; Kuerbanjiang, B.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Lazarov, V. K.; Ohno, H.

    2017-05-01

    Creep motion of magnetic domain wall (DW), thermally activated DW dynamics under subthreshold driving forces, is a paradigm to understand the interaction between driven interfaces and applied external forces. Previous investigation has shown that DW in a metallic system interacts differently with current and magnetic field, manifesting itself as different universality classes for the creep motion. In this article, we first review the experimental determination of the universality classes for current- and field-driven DW creeps in a Ta/CoFeB/MgO wire, and then elucidate the underlying factors governing the obtained results. We show that the nature of torque arising from current in association with DW configuration determines universality class for the current-induced creep in this system. We also discuss the correlation between the field-induced DW creep characteristics and structure observed by a transmission electron microscope. The observed results are expected to provide a deeper understanding for physics of DW motion in various magnetic materials.

  10. Magnetic domain-wall creep driven by field and current in Ta/CoFeB/MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DuttaGupta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Creep motion of magnetic domain wall (DW, thermally activated DW dynamics under subthreshold driving forces, is a paradigm to understand the interaction between driven interfaces and applied external forces. Previous investigation has shown that DW in a metallic system interacts differently with current and magnetic field, manifesting itself as different universality classes for the creep motion. In this article, we first review the experimental determination of the universality classes for current- and field-driven DW creeps in a Ta/CoFeB/MgO wire, and then elucidate the underlying factors governing the obtained results. We show that the nature of torque arising from current in association with DW configuration determines universality class for the current-induced creep in this system. We also discuss the correlation between the field-induced DW creep characteristics and structure observed by a transmission electron microscope. The observed results are expected to provide a deeper understanding for physics of DW motion in various magnetic materials.

  11. Lateral flow assay-based bacterial detection using engineered cell wall binding domains of a phage endolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Shin, Joong Ho; Heu, Sunggi; Park, Je-Kyun; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-10-15

    The development of a cost-effective and efficient bacterial detection assay is essential for diagnostic fields, particularly in resource-poor settings. Although antibodies have been widely used for bacterial capture, the production of soluble antibodies is still expensive and time-consuming. Here, we developed a nitrocellulose-based lateral flow assay using cell wall binding domains (CBDs) from phage as a recognition element and colloidal gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric signal for the detection of a model pathogenic bacterium, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus). To improve conjugation efficiency and detection sensitivity, cysteine-glutathione-S-transferase-tagged CBDs and maltose-binding protein-tagged CBDs were produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and incorporated in our assays. The sensitivity of the strip to detect B. cereus was 1×10 4 CFU/mL and the overall assay time was 20min. The assay showed superior results compared to the antibody-based approach, and did not show any significant cross-reactivity. This proof of concept study indicates that the lateral flow assay using engineered CBDs hold considerable promise as simple, rapid, and cost-effective biosensors for whole cell detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Competition between domain walls and the reverse magnetization in the magnetic relaxation of a Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt spin switcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, R. B.; L'vova, G. L.; Hamadeh, A.; Mangin, S.

    2018-01-01

    A multilayer Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt/GaAs heterostructures demonstrates a long term (to several hours) magnetic relaxation between two stable states of the magnetization of the system. The magnetization reversal of the heterostructure layers occurs both due to the formation of nuclei of the reverse magnetization domains and as a result of their further growth by means of motion of domain walls. The competition between two these processes provides a nonexponential character of the magnetic relaxation. At 300 K, the contributions of these processes to the relaxation are commensurable, while, at temperatures lower than 200 K, the contribution of the nucleation is suppressed and the magnetic relaxation occurs as a result of motion of the domain walls.

  13. On sparse forward solutions in non-stationary domains for the EIT imaging problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartzis, Panagiotis; Liatsis, Panos

    2011-01-01

    In the forward EIT-problem numerical solutions of an elliptic partial differential equation are required. Given the arbitrary geometries encountered, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is, naturally, the method of choice. Nowadays, in EIT applications, there is an increasing demand for finer Finite Element mesh models. This in turn results to a soaring number of degrees of freedom and an excessive number of unknowns. As such, only piece-wise linear basis functions can practically be employed to maintain inexpensive computations. In addition, domain reduction and/or compression schemes are often sought to further counteract for the growing number of unknowns. In this paper, we replace the piece-wise linear with wavelet basis functions (coupled with the domain embedding method) to enable sparse approximations of the forward computations. Given that the forward solutions are repeatedly, if not extensively, utilised during the image reconstruction process, considerable computational savings can be recorded whilst maintaining O(N) forward problem complexity. We verify with numerical results that, in practice, less than 5% of the involved coefficients are actually required for computations and, hence, needs to be stored. We finalise this work by addressing the impact to the inverse problem. It is worth underlining that the proposed scheme is independent of the actual family of wavelet basis functions of compact support.

  14. The Lp Robin problem for Laplace equations in Lipschitz and (semi-)convex domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sibei; Yang, Dachun; Yuan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Let n ≥ 3 and Ω be a bounded Lipschitz domain in Rn. Assume that p ∈ (2 , ∞) and the function b ∈L∞ (∂ Ω) is non-negative, where ∂Ω denotes the boundary of Ω. Denote by ν the outward unit normal to ∂Ω. In this article, the authors give two necessary and sufficient conditions for the unique solvability of the Robin problem for the Laplace equation Δu = 0 in Ω with boundary data ∂ u / ∂ ν + bu = f ∈Lp (∂ Ω), respectively, in terms of a weak reverse Hölder inequality with exponent p or the unique solvability of the Robin problem with boundary data in some weighted L2 (∂ Ω) space. As applications, the authors obtain the unique solvability of the Robin problem for the Laplace equation in the bounded (semi-)convex domain Ω with boundary data in (weighted) Lp (∂ Ω) for any given p ∈ (1 , ∞).

  15. Domain decomposition based iterative methods for nonlinear elliptic finite element problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, X.C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The class of overlapping Schwarz algorithms has been extensively studied for linear elliptic finite element problems. In this presentation, the author considers the solution of systems of nonlinear algebraic equations arising from the finite element discretization of some nonlinear elliptic equations. Several overlapping Schwarz algorithms, including the additive and multiplicative versions, with inexact Newton acceleration will be discussed. The author shows that the convergence rate of the Newton`s method is independent of the mesh size used in the finite element discretization, and also independent of the number of subdomains into which the original domain in decomposed. Numerical examples will be presented.

  16. A matching problem revisited for stability analysis of resistive wall modes in flowing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, J.; Tokuda, S.; Aiba, N.

    2010-01-01

    The classical matching problem for magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis is revisited to study effects of the plasma flow on the resistive wall modes (RWMs). The Newcomb equation, which describes the marginal states and governs the regions except for the resonant surface, is generalized to analyze the stability of flowing plasmas. When there exists no flow, the singular point of the Newcomb equation and the resonant surface degenerate into the rational surface. The location of the rational surface is prescribed by the equilibrium, hence the inner layer, which must contain the resonant surface, can be set a priori. When the flow exists, the singular point of the Newcomb equation splits in two due to the Doppler shift. Additionally, the resonant surface deviates from the singular points and the rational surface if the resonant eigenmode has a real frequency. Since the location of the resonant surface depends on the unknown real frequency, it can be determined only a posteriori. Hence the classical asymptotic matching method cannot be applied. This paper shows that a new matching method that generalizes the asymptotic one to use the inner layer with finite width works well for the stability analysis of flowing plasmas. If the real frequency is limited in a certain range such as the RWM case, the resonance occurs somewhere in the finite region around the singular points, hence the inner layer with finite width can capture the resonant surface.

  17. Domain Walls Conductivity in Hybrid Organometallic Perovskites and Their Essential Role in CH3NH3PbI3 Solar Cell High Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkeev, Sergey N.; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2015-01-01

    The past several years has witnessed a surge of interest in organometallic trihalide perovskites, which are at the heart of the new generation of solid-state solar cells. Here, we calculated the static conductivity of charged domain walls in n- and p- doped organometallic uniaxial ferroelectric semiconductor perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 using the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) theory. We find that due to the charge carrier accumulation, the static conductivity may drastically increase at the domain wall by 3 – 4 orders of magnitude in comparison with conductivity through the bulk of the material. Also, a two-dimensional degenerated gas of highly mobile charge carriers could be formed at the wall. The high values of conductivity at domain walls and interfaces explain high efficiency in organometallic solution-processed perovskite films which contains lots of different point and extended defects. These results could suggest new routes to enhance the performance of this promising class of novel photovoltaic materials. PMID:26088321

  18. Critical Domain Problem for the Reaction–Telegraph Equation Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weam Alharbi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A telegraph equation is believed to be an appropriate model of population dynamics as it accounts for the directional persistence of individual animal movement. Being motivated by the problem of habitat fragmentation, which is known to be a major threat to biodiversity that causes species extinction worldwide, we consider the reaction–telegraph equation (i.e., telegraph equation combined with the population growth on a bounded domain with the goal to establish the conditions of species survival. We first show analytically that, in the case of linear growth, the expression for the domain’s critical size coincides with the critical size of the corresponding reaction–diffusion model. We then consider two biologically relevant cases of nonlinear growth, i.e., the logistic growth and the growth with a strong Allee effect. Using extensive numerical simulations, we show that in both cases the critical domain size of the reaction–telegraph equation is larger than the critical domain size of the reaction–diffusion equation. Finally, we discuss possible modifications of the model in order to enhance the positivity of its solutions.

  19. A 2D Time Domain DRBEM Computer Model for MagnetoThermoelastic Coupled Wave Propagation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical computer model based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM is extended to study magneto-thermoelastic coupled wave propagation problems with relaxation times involving anisotropic functionally graded solids. The model formulation is tested through its application to the problem of a solid placed in a constant primary magnetic field acting in the direction of the z-axis and rotating about this axis with a constant angular velocity. In the case of two-dimensional deformation, an implicit-explicit time domain DRBEM was presented and implemented to obtain the solution for the displacement and temperature fields. A comparison of the results is presented graphically in the context of Lord and Shulman (LS and Green and Lindsay (GL theories. Numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented graphically.

  20. The effect of magnetic domain walls on the complex permeability of bulk Z-type cobalt hexaferrite along both W and Y-phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daró, Fábio R., E-mail: vonrho.colaborador@ieav.cta.br [Post Graduate Program, Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA), Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP 12228-900, São José Dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Migliano, Antonio Carlos C. [Applied Physics Division (EFA), Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Trevo Coronel Aviador José Alberto Albano do Amarante, 1, CEP 12228-001, São José Dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Zanella, Glauco P.; Hirata, Anderson K. [Post Graduate Program, Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA), Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP 12228-900, São José Dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Polli, Yasmara C. [Applied Physics Division (EFA), Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Trevo Coronel Aviador José Alberto Albano do Amarante, 1, CEP 12228-001, São José Dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Salvadori, Maria Cecília B. [Thin Films Laboratory (LFF), Institute of Physics (IFUSP), University of São Paulo - USP, Rua do Matão, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    We analyzed a bulk cobalt hexaferrite sample set with the same powder composition obtained by the solid–state reaction method, and made of the W, Y and Z-phases. Transmission/reflection method (TR) measurements of the complex impedance both in radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) spectra, as well as reflectance (RL) exhibited high absorption and small losses, still appearing similar to the pattern that is exhibited by the Z-type, even though the largest amount of W-phase. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM), in turn, revealed the existence of narrow magnetic domains consisting of 300–500 nm wide parallel stripes on the crystal basal plane and down to 100 nm wide parallel stripes aligned in parallel to stacked crystal layers that would not be easily perceived by other methods. These domains may contribute to the exhibited complex permeability, since in ferrite both domain wall resonance (DWR) and domain – or spin rotation – resonance (DR) are inversely proportional to the square root of domain width. Nevertheless, we concluded that several flux-pinning defects and impeding factors of the polycrystalline setup, such as charge carriers shown by TR, are probably more important than anisotropy isolated to determine domain setup, and how this acts on the complex magnetic permeability. - Highlights: • MFM detected small magnetic domains not easily perceived by other methods. • High ferromagnetic resonances are favored by narrow magnetic domains. • Electron hopping improves permittivity but is undesirable for permeability.

  1. The domain interface method: a general-purpose non-intrusive technique for non-conforming domain decomposition problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, M; Lloberas-Valls, O; Cante, J; Oliver, J

    A domain decomposition technique is proposed which is capable of properly connecting arbitrary non-conforming interfaces. The strategy essentially consists in considering a fictitious zero-width interface between the non-matching meshes which is discretized using a Delaunay triangulation. Continuity is satisfied across domains through normal and tangential stresses provided by the discretized interface and inserted in the formulation in the form of Lagrange multipliers. The final structure of the global system of equations resembles the dual assembly of substructures where the Lagrange multipliers are employed to nullify the gap between domains. A new approach to handle floating subdomains is outlined which can be implemented without significantly altering the structure of standard industrial finite element codes. The effectiveness of the developed algorithm is demonstrated through a patch test example and a number of tests that highlight the accuracy of the methodology and independence of the results with respect to the framework parameters. Considering its high degree of flexibility and non-intrusive character, the proposed domain decomposition framework is regarded as an attractive alternative to other established techniques such as the mortar approach.

  2. Domain walls of BaTiO.sub.3./sub. and PbTiO.sub.3./sub. within Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 375, č. 1 (2008), 132-137 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : domain walls * Landau- Ginsburg theory * ferroelectricity * BaTiO 3 * PbTiO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2008

  3. Phenomenological model of a 90.sup.o./sup. domain wall in BaTiO.sub.3./sub.-type ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Márton, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 10 (2006), 104104/1-104104/12 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : BaTiO3 3 * ferroelectrics * domain wall * Ginzburg-Landau model Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2006

  4. Sobolev spaces, their generalizations and elliptic problems in smooth and Lipschitz domains

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, Mikhail S

    2015-01-01

    This book, which is based on several courses of lectures given by the author at the Independent University of Moscow, is devoted to Sobolev-type spaces and boundary value problems for linear elliptic partial differential equations. Its main focus is on problems in non-smooth (Lipschitz) domains for strongly elliptic systems.   The author, who is a prominent expert in the theory of linear partial differential equations, spectral theory, and pseudodifferential operators, has included his own very recent findings in the present book.   The book is well suited as a modern graduate textbook, utilizing a thorough and clear format that strikes a good balance between the choice of material and the style of exposition. It can be used both as an introduction to recent advances in elliptic equations and boundary value problems, and as a valuable survey and reference work. It also includes a good deal of new and extremely useful material not available in standard textbooks to date.   Graduate and post-graduate student...

  5. Transcript Profiling Identifies NAC-Domain Genes Involved in Regulating Wall Ingrowth Deposition in Phloem Parenchyma Transfer Cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhou Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transfer cells (TCs play important roles in facilitating enhanced rates of nutrient transport at key apoplasmic/symplasmic junctions along the nutrient acquisition and transport pathways in plants. TCs achieve this capacity by developing elaborate wall ingrowth networks which serve to increase plasma membrane surface area thus increasing the cell's surface area-to-volume ratio to achieve increased flux of nutrients across the plasma membrane. Phloem parenchyma (PP cells of Arabidopsis leaf veins trans-differentiate to become PP TCs which likely function in a two-step phloem loading mechanism by facilitating unloading of photoassimilates into the apoplasm for subsequent energy-dependent uptake into the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC complex. We are using PP TCs in Arabidopsis as a genetic model to identify transcription factors involved in coordinating deposition of the wall ingrowth network. Confocal imaging of pseudo-Schiff propidium iodide-stained tissue revealed different profiles of temporal development of wall ingrowth deposition across maturing cotyledons and juvenile leaves, and a basipetal gradient of deposition across mature adult leaves. RNA-Seq analysis was undertaken to identify differentially expressed genes common to these three different profiles of wall ingrowth deposition. This analysis identified 68 transcription factors up-regulated two-fold or more in at least two of the three experimental comparisons, with six of these transcription factors belonging to Clade III of the NAC-domain family. Phenotypic analysis of these NAC genes using insertional mutants revealed significant reductions in levels of wall ingrowth deposition, particularly in a double mutant of NAC056 and NAC018, as well as compromised sucrose-dependent root growth, indicating impaired capacity for phloem loading. Collectively, these results support the proposition that Clade III members of the NAC-domain family in Arabidopsis play important roles in

  6. Transcript Profiling Identifies NAC-Domain Genes Involved in Regulating Wall Ingrowth Deposition in Phloem Parenchyma Transfer Cells ofArabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuzhou; Hou, Jiexi; Yu, Fen; Nguyen, Suong T T; McCurdy, David W

    2018-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) play important roles in facilitating enhanced rates of nutrient transport at key apoplasmic/symplasmic junctions along the nutrient acquisition and transport pathways in plants. TCs achieve this capacity by developing elaborate wall ingrowth networks which serve to increase plasma membrane surface area thus increasing the cell's surface area-to-volume ratio to achieve increased flux of nutrients across the plasma membrane. Phloem parenchyma (PP) cells of Arabidopsis leaf veins trans -differentiate to become PP TCs which likely function in a two-step phloem loading mechanism by facilitating unloading of photoassimilates into the apoplasm for subsequent energy-dependent uptake into the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC) complex. We are using PP TCs in Arabidopsis as a genetic model to identify transcription factors involved in coordinating deposition of the wall ingrowth network. Confocal imaging of pseudo-Schiff propidium iodide-stained tissue revealed different profiles of temporal development of wall ingrowth deposition across maturing cotyledons and juvenile leaves, and a basipetal gradient of deposition across mature adult leaves. RNA-Seq analysis was undertaken to identify differentially expressed genes common to these three different profiles of wall ingrowth deposition. This analysis identified 68 transcription factors up-regulated two-fold or more in at least two of the three experimental comparisons, with six of these transcription factors belonging to Clade III of the NAC-domain family. Phenotypic analysis of these NAC genes using insertional mutants revealed significant reductions in levels of wall ingrowth deposition, particularly in a double mutant of NAC056 and NAC018 , as well as compromised sucrose-dependent root growth, indicating impaired capacity for phloem loading. Collectively, these results support the proposition that Clade III members of the NAC-domain family in Arabidopsis play important roles in regulating wall

  7. Current induced domain wall motion and tilting in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the presence of the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jijun; Li, Dong; Cui, Baoshan; Guo, Xiaobin; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yupei; Mao, Jian; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li

    2018-04-01

    Current induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) was studied in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) by the spin-orbit torque (SOT). We measured the strength of DMI and SOT efficiency in Pt/Co/Ta with the variation of the thickness of Ta using a current induced hysteresis loop shift method. The results indicate that the DMI stabilizes a chiral Néel-type domain wall (DW), and the DW motion can be driven by the enhanced large SOT generated from Pt and Ta with opposite signs of spin Hall angle in Pt/Co/Ta stacks. The CIDWM velocity, which is 104 times larger than the field driven DW velocity, obeys a creep law, and reaches around tens of meters per second with current density of ~106 A cm‑2. We also found that the Joule heating accompanied with current also accelerates the DW motion. Meanwhile, a domain wall tilting was observed, which increases with current density increasing. These results can be explained by the spin Hall effect generated from both heavy metals Pt and Ta, inherent DMI, and the current accompanying Joule heating effect. Our results could provide some new designing prospects to move multiple DWs by SOT for achieving racetrack memories.

  8. An iterative finite-element collocation method for parabolic problems using domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Advection-dominated flows occur widely in the transport of groundwater contaminants, the movements of fluids in enhanced oil recovery projects, and many other contexts. In numerical models of such flows, adaptive local grid refinement is a conceptually attractive approach for resolving the sharp fronts or layers that tend to characterize the solutions. However, this approach can be difficult to implement in practice. A domain decomposition method developed by Bramble, Ewing, Pasciak, and Schatz, known as the BEPS method, overcomes many of the difficulties. We demonstrate the applicability of the iterative BEPS ideas to finite-element collocation on trial spaces of piecewise Hermite bicubics. The resulting scheme allows one to refine selected parts of a spatial grid without destroying algebraic efficiencies associated with the original coarse grid. We apply the method to two dimensional time-dependent advection-diffusion problems.

  9. An iterative finite-element collocation method for parabolic problems using domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, M.C.

    1992-11-01

    Advection-dominated flows occur widely in the transport of groundwater contaminants, the movements of fluids in enhanced oil recovery projects, and many other contexts. In numerical models of such flows, adaptive local grid refinement is a conceptually attractive approach for resolving the sharp fronts or layers that tend to characterize the solutions. However, this approach can be difficult to implement in practice. A domain decomposition method developed by Bramble, Ewing, Pasciak, and Schatz, known as the BEPS method, overcomes many of the difficulties. We demonstrate the applicability of the iterative BEPS ideas to finite-element collocation on trial spaces of piecewise Hermite bicubics. The resulting scheme allows one to refine selected parts of a spatial grid without destroying algebraic efficiencies associated with the original coarse grid. We apply the method to two dimensional time-dependent advection-diffusion problems.

  10. A boundary value problem for a third order hyperbolic equation with degeneration of order inside the domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzanna Kh. Makaova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the boundary value problem for a degenerating third order equation of hyperbolic type in a mixed domain. The equation under consideration in the positive part of the domain coincides with the Hallaire equation, which is a pseudoparabolic type equation. Moreover, in the negative part of the domain it coincides with a degenerating hyperbolic equation of the first kind, the particular case of the Bitsadze–Lykov equation. The existence and uniqueness theorem for the solution is proved. The uniqueness of the solution to the problem is proved with the Tricomi method. Using the functional relationships of the positive and negative parts of the domain on the degeneration line, we arrive at the convolution type Volterra integral equation of the 2nd kind with respect to the desired solution by a derivative trace. With the Laplace transform method, we obtain the solution of the integral equation in its explicit form. At last, the solution to the problem under study is written out explicitly as the solution of the second boundary-value problem in the positive part of the domain for the Hallaire equation and as the solution to the Cauchy problem in the negative part of the domain for a degenerate hyperbolic equation of the first kind.

  11. A guide to using the Theoretical Domains Framework of behaviour change to investigate implementation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lou; Francis, Jill; Islam, Rafat; O'Connor, Denise; Patey, Andrea; Ivers, Noah; Foy, Robbie; Duncan, Eilidh M; Colquhoun, Heather; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Lawton, Rebecca; Michie, Susan

    2017-06-21

    Implementing new practices requires changes in the behaviour of relevant actors, and this is facilitated by understanding of the determinants of current and desired behaviours. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed by a collaboration of behavioural scientists and implementation researchers who identified theories relevant to implementation and grouped constructs from these theories into domains. The collaboration aimed to provide a comprehensive, theory-informed approach to identify determinants of behaviour. The first version was published in 2005, and a subsequent version following a validation exercise was published in 2012. This guide offers practical guidance for those who wish to apply the TDF to assess implementation problems and support intervention design. It presents a brief rationale for using a theoretical approach to investigate and address implementation problems, summarises the TDF and its development, and describes how to apply the TDF to achieve implementation objectives. Examples from the implementation research literature are presented to illustrate relevant methods and practical considerations. Researchers from Canada, the UK and Australia attended a 3-day meeting in December 2012 to build an international collaboration among researchers and decision-makers interested in the advancing use of the TDF. The participants were experienced in using the TDF to assess implementation problems, design interventions, and/or understand change processes. This guide is an output of the meeting and also draws on the authors' collective experience. Examples from the implementation research literature judged by authors to be representative of specific applications of the TDF are included in this guide. We explain and illustrate methods, with a focus on qualitative approaches, for selecting and specifying target behaviours key to implementation, selecting the study design, deciding the sampling strategy, developing study materials, collecting and

  12. Overlap valence on 2+1 flavor domain wall fermion configurations with deflation and low-mode substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, A.; Alexandru, A.; Lee, F. X.; Chen, Y.; Doi, T.; Dong, S. J.; Draper, T.; Gong, M.; Horvath, I.; Liu, K. F.; Hasenfratz, A.; Mathur, N.; Streuer, T.; Zhang, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    The overlap fermion propagator is calculated on 2+1 flavor domain-wall fermion gauge configurations on 16 3 x32, 24 3 x64 and 32 3 x64 lattices. With hyper-cubic (HYP) smearing and low eigenmode deflation, it is shown that the inversion of the overlap operator can be expedited by ∼20 times for the 16 3 x32 lattice and ∼80 times for the 32 3 x64 lattice. The overhead cost for calculating eigenmodes ranges from 4.5 to 7.9 propagators for the above lattices. Through the study of hyperfine splitting, we found that the O(m 2 a 2 ) error is small and these dynamical fermion lattices can adequately accommodate quark mass up to the charm quark. A preliminary calculation of the low-energy constant Δ mix which characterizes the discretization error of the pion made up of a pair of sea and valence quarks in this mixed-action approach is carried out via the scalar correlator with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. It is found to be small which shifts a 300 MeV pion mass by ∼10 to 19 MeV on these sets of lattices. We have studied the signal-to-noise issue of the noise source for the meson and baryon. We introduce a new algorithm with Z 3 grid source and low eigenmode substitution to study the many-to-all meson and baryon correlators. It is found to be efficient in reducing errors for the correlators of both mesons and baryons. With 64-point Z 3 grid source and low-mode substitution, it can reduce the statistical errors of the light quark (m π ∼200-300 MeV) meson and nucleon correlators by a factor of ∼3-4 as compared to the point source. The Z 3 grid source itself can reduce the errors of the charmonium correlators by a factor of ∼3.

  13. Formation of self-organized domain structures with charged domain walls in lithium niobate with surface layer modified by proton exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Chuvakova, M. A.; Dolbilov, M. A.; Zelenovskiy, P. S.; Lobov, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    We have studied the self-organized dendrite domain structures appeared as a result of polarization reversal in the uniform field in lithium niobate single crystals with the artificial surface layer created by proton exchange. We have revealed the self-organized sub-micron scale dendrite domain patterns consisting of domain stripes oriented along the X crystallographic directions separated by arrays of dashed residual domains at the surface by scanning probe microscopy. Raman confocal microscopy allowed visualizing the quasi-regular dendrite domain structures with similar geometry in the vicinity of both polar surfaces. The depth of the structure was about 20 μm for Z+ polar surface and 70 μm for Z- one. According to the proposed mechanism, the dendrite structure formation at the surface was related to the ineffective screening of the residual depolarization field. The computer simulation of the structure formation based on the cellular automata model with probabilistic switching rule proved the eligibility of the proposed scheme, the simulated dendrite domain patterns at various depths being similar to the experimental ones.

  14. Design of a Dual-Mapping Learning Approach for Problem Solving and Knowledge Construction in Ill-Structured Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Spector, J. Michael; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been increasingly used as an important approach to learning especially in ill-structured domains. It is assumed that knowledge can be better consolidated and extended through problem-solving experience. However, many learners do not have the ability to separate general knowledge from specific cases, which inhibits successful…

  15. Dynamical implications of sample shape for avalanches in 2-dimensional random-field Ising model with saw-tooth domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2018-03-01

    We study dynamics of a built-in domain wall (DW) in 2-dimensional disordered ferromagnets with different sample shapes using random-field Ising model on a square lattice rotated by 45 degrees. The saw-tooth DW of the length Lx is created along one side and swept through the sample by slow ramping of the external field until the complete magnetisation reversal and the wall annihilation at the open top boundary at a distance Ly. By fixing the number of spins N =Lx ×Ly = 106 and the random-field distribution at a value above the critical disorder, we vary the ratio of the DW length to the annihilation distance in the range Lx /Ly ∈ [ 1 / 16 , 16 ] . The periodic boundary conditions are applied in the y-direction so that these ratios comprise different samples, i.e., surfaces of cylinders with the changing perimeter Lx and height Ly. We analyse the avalanches of the DW slips between following field updates, and the multifractal structure of the magnetisation fluctuation time series. Our main findings are that the domain-wall lengths materialised in different sample shapes have an impact on the dynamics at all scales. Moreover, the domain-wall motion at the beginning of the hysteresis loop (HLB) probes the disorder effects resulting in the fluctuations that are significantly different from the large avalanches in the central part of the loop (HLC), where the strong fields dominate. Specifically, the fluctuations in HLB exhibit a wide multi-fractal spectrum, which shifts towards higher values of the exponents when the DW length is reduced. The distributions of the avalanches in this segments of the loops obey power-law decay and the exponential cutoffs with the exponents firmly in the mean-field universality class for long DW. In contrast, the avalanches in the HLC obey Tsallis density distribution with the power-law tails which indicate the new categories of the scale invariant behaviour for different ratios Lx /Ly. The large fluctuations in the HLC, on the other

  16. A solution for the Graetz problem in parallel plates, with axial heat conduction in the fluid and in the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biage, M.

    1983-04-01

    A heat transfer problem in parallel plates with infinite with has been solved, with axial heat conduction in the fluid and in the wall, considering steady-state laminar flow for a Newtonian fluid and a fully developed velocity profile. The duct consists of an infinite inicial part, insulated on both plates, an intermediale part of finite length, with a prescribed heat flux in the upper plate and insulated on the botton plate, and by another infinite part also insulated on both plates. The problem has been solved by a numerical combination of the integral equation method and the variational method. Both, the performance of the numerical technique employed and results obtained are analyzed in this work. It is demostrated that the heat conduction in the wall significantly modifies the heat transfer parameters. (Author) [pt

  17. Coupled Static and Dynamic Buckling Modelling of Thin-Walled Structures in Elastic Range Review of Selected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołakowski Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of papers that investigate the static and dynamic coupled buckling and post-buckling behaviour of thin-walled structures is carried out. The problem of static coupled buckling is sufficiently well-recognized. The analysis of dynamic interactive buckling is limited in practice to columns, single plates and shells. The applications of finite element method (FEM or/and analytical-numerical method (ANM to solve interaction buckling problems are on-going. In Poland, the team of scientists from the Department of Strength of Materials, Lodz University of Technology and co-workers developed the analytical-numerical method. This method allows to determine static buckling stresses, natural frequencies, coefficients of the equation describing the post-buckling equilibrium path and dynamic response of the plate structure subjected to compression load and/or bending moment. Using the dynamic buckling criteria, it is possible to determine the dynamic critical load. They presented a lot of interesting results for problems of the static and dynamic coupled buckling of thin-walled plate structures with complex shapes of cross-sections, including an interaction of component plates. The most important advantage of presented analytical-numerical method is that it enables to describe all buckling modes and the post-buckling behaviours of thin-walled columns made of different materials. Thin isotropic, orthotropic or laminate structures were considered.

  18. Surgical management of temple-related problems following lateral wall rim-sparing orbital decompression for thyroid-related orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, We Fong; Patel, Bhupendra Ck; Malhotra, Raman

    2016-08-01

    To report a case series of patients with persistent temple-related problems following lateral wall rim-sparing (LWRS) orbital decompression for thyroid-related orbitopathy and to discuss their management. Retrospective review of medical records of patients referred to two oculoplastic centres (Corneoplastic Unit, Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, UK and Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA) for intervention to improve/alleviate temple-related problems. All patients were seeking treatment for their persistent, temple-related problems of minimum 3 years' duration post decompression. The main outcome measure was the resolution or improvement of temple-related problems. Eleven orbits of six patients (five females) with a median age of 57 years (range 23-65) were included in this study. Temple-related problems consisted of cosmetically bothersome temple hollowness (n=11; 100%), masticatory oscillopsia (n=8; 73%), temple tenderness (n=4; 36%), 'clicking' sensation (n=4; 36%) and gaze-evoked ocular pain (n=4; 36%). Nine orbits were also complicated by proptosis and exposure keratopathy. Preoperative imaging studies showed the absence of lateral wall in all 11 orbits and evidence of prolapsed lacrimal gland into the wall defect in four orbits. Intervention included the repair of the lateral wall defect with a sheet implant, orbital decompression involving fat, the medial wall or orbital floor and autologous fat transfer or synthetic filler for temple hollowness. Postoperatively, there was full resolution of masticatory oscillation, temple tenderness, 'clicking' sensation and gaze-evoked ocular pain, and an improvement in temple hollowness. Pre-existing diplopia in one patient resolved after surgery while two patients developed new-onset diplopia necessitating strabismus surgery. This is the first paper to show that persistent, troublesome temple-related problems following LWRS orbital decompression can be surgically corrected. Patients

  19. OPERATOR-RELATED FORMULATION OF THE EIGENVALUE PROBLEM FOR THE BOUNDARY PROBLEM OF ANALYSIS OF THE WALL BEAM WITH PIECEWISE-CONSTANT PHYSICAL AND GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ALONGSIDE THE BASIC DIRECTION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE DISCRETE-CONTINUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel Alekseevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the operator-related formulation of the eigenvalue problem of analysis of the wall beam with piecewise-constant physical and geometrical parameters alongside the so-called basic direction within the framework of the discrete-continual approach (discrete-continual finite element method, discrete-continual variation-difference method. Generally, discrete-continual formulations are contemporary mathematical models which are currently becoming available for computer-based implementation. They allow investigators to consider the boundary effects whenever solution components represent rapidly varying functions. Another feature of discrete-continual methods is the absence of limitations imposed on lengths of structures. Two-dimensional model of elasticity is used as a design model of a structure. In accordance with the so-called extended domain method, the domain is limited by the boundary of arbitrary shape. Corresponding key features at the stage of numerical implementation of discrete-continual methods include convenient mathematical formulas, effective computational patterns and algorithms, simple data processing techniques, etc. The definition of an expression for an operator of the problem under consideration, if resolved in the isotropic medium, is presented; the allowance for supports restrained by elastic members is provided; standard boundary conditions are taken into account

  20. Identifying longitudinal growth trajectories of learning domains in problem-based learning: a latent growth curve modeling approach using SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Paul F; Lee, Ming

    2015-05-01

    To determine the direction and extent to which medical student scores (as observed by small-group tutors) on four problem-based-learning-related domains change over nine consecutive blocks during a two-year period (Domains: Problem Solving/Use of Information/Group Process/Professionalism). Latent growth curve modeling is used to analyze performance trajectories in each domain of two cohorts of 1st and 2nd year students (n = 296). Slopes of the growth trajectories show similar linear increments in the first three domains. Further analysis revealed relative strong individual variability in initial scores but not in their later increments. Professionalism, on the other hand, shows low variability and has very small, insignificant slope increments. In this study, we showed that the learning domains (Problem Solving, Use of Information, and Group Process) observed during PBL tutorials are not only related to each other but also develop cumulatively over time. Professionalism, in contrast to the other domains studied, is less affected by the curriculum suggesting that this represents a stable characteristic. The observation that the PBL tutorial has an equal benefit to all students is noteworthy and needs further investigation.

  1. Manipulation of multiple 360o domain wall structures and its current-driven motion in a magnetic nanostripe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of multiple transverse walls (TWs in a magnetic nanostripe is studied by micromagnetic simulations. It shows that, when TWs are arranged in a stripe with same orientation, they will attract each other and finally annihilate. However, when adjacent TWs are arranged with opposite orientation, a metastable complex wall can be formed, e.g., two TWs lead to 360o wall. For three or more TWs, the formed complex wall includes a number of 360o substructures, which is called multiple 360o structure (M360S here. The M360S itself may be used to store multiple logical data since each 360o substructure can act as logical ”0” or ”1”. On the other hand, the M360S may behave like single TW under an applied current, namely, the M360S can be driven steadily by current like that of single TW. A parity effect of the number of 360o substructures on the critical current for the annihilation is found. Namely, when the number is odd or even, the critical current increase or decrease with the increasing of the number, respectively. The parity effect is relevant to the out-of-plane magnetic moment of the M360S.

  2. One repeat of the cell wall binding domain is sufficient for anchoring the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The N-terminal repeat (SAC1) of the S-protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus bound efficiently and specifically to cell wall fragments (CWFs) when fused to green fluorescent protein, whereas the C-terminal repeat (SAC2) did not. Treatment of CWFs with hydrofluoric acid, but not phenol, prevented

  3. Superstructural chirality of a periodic system of domains of opposite chirality and π-walls in B.sub.2./sub. phase composed of bent-shaped molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 83, 10-11 (2010), s. 1001-1013 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : B 2 phase * bent-shaped molecules * domains of opposite chirality * π-walls * superstructural chirality Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010

  4. Adaptive Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method with Variable Domain of Influence in 2D Elastostatic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamuda Pudjisuryadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG method that employs polygonal sub-domains constructed from several triangular patches rather than the typically used circular sub-domains is presented. Moving least-squares approximation is used to construct the trial displacements and linear, Lagrange interpolation functions are used to construct the test functions. An adaptive technique to improve the accuracy of approximate solutions is developed to minimize the computational cost. Variable domain of influence (VDOI and effective stress gradient indicator (EK for local error assessment are the focus of this study. Several numerical examples are presented to verify the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed adaptive MLPG method. The results show that the proposed adaptive technique performs as expected that is refining the problem domain in area with high stress concentration in which higher accuracy is commonly required.

  5. Analysis of the Diffuse Domain Method for Second Order Elliptic Boundary Value Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Martin; Elvetun, Ole; Schlottbom, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The diffuse domain method for partial differential equations on complicated geometries recently received strong attention in particular from practitioners, but many fundamental issues in the analysis are still widely open. In this paper, we study the diffuse domain method for approximating second

  6. Versions of the Collocation and Least Residuals Method for Solving Problems of Mathematical Physics in the Convex Quadrangular Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily A. Belyaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new versions of the collocations and least residuals (CLR method of high-order accuracy are proposed and implemented for the numerical solution of the boundary value problems for PDE in the convex quadrangular domains. Their implementation and numerical experiments are performed by the examples of solving the biharmonic and Poisson equations. The solution of the biharmonic equation is used for simulation of the stress-strain state of an isotropic plate under the action of the transverse load. Differential problems are projected into the space of fourth-degree polynomials by the CLR method. The boundary conditions for the approximate solution are put down exactly on the boundary of the computational domain. The versions of the CLR method are implemented on the grids, which are constructed by two different ways. In the first version, a “quasiregular” grid is constructed in the domain, the extreme lines of this grid coincide with the boundaries of the domain. In the second version, the domain is initially covered by a regular grid with rectangular cells. Herewith, the collocation and matching points that are situated outside the domain are used for approximation of the differential equations in the boundary cells that had been crossed by the boundary. In addition the “small” irregular triangular cells that had been cut off by the domain boundary from rectangular cells of the initial regular grid are joined to adjacent quadrangular cells. This technique allowed to essentially reduce the conditionality of the system of linear algebraic equations of the approximate problem in comparison with the case when small irregular cells together with other cells were used as independent ones for constructing an approximate solution of the problem. It is shown that the approximate solution of problems converges with high order and matches with high accuracy with the analytical solution of the test problems in the case of the known solution in

  7. Computer simulations of sequency-dependent dielectric response of 90-degree domain walls in tetragonal barium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Márton, Pavel; Hlinka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 373, č. 1 (2008), s. 139-144 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains * BaTiO 3 * Ginzburg-Landau theory * mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2008

  8. The wall paintings in Tirsted Church: problems of aesthetic presentation after the fourth re-restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Thillemann, Lise

    2002-01-01

    according to the whim of the restorer. The most recent re-restoration of the paintings took place in 1999 and 2000. After completing the technical treatments, the conservators faced difficult decisions about the aesthetic presentation. The case study presented here describes the historical background......, and the technical, ethical and esthetical problems influencing these decisions....

  9. Space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for parabolic problems in time-dependent domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janivita Joto Sudirham, J.J.S.; Sudirham, J.J.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this report a space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method for the solution of the advection-diffusion-reaction equation in time-dependent domains is presented and analyzed. The variational formulation is based on a combination of the space-time DG method developed by van der Vegt

  10. Domain Decomposition for Generalized Unilateral Semi-Coercive Contact Problem with Given Friction in Elasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daněk, Josef; Hlaváček, Ivan; Nedoma, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 3 (2005), s. 271-300 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/087 Keywords : domain decomposition * unilateral contact * Tresca's friction model * formulation in displacements * linear finite elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2005

  11. Stabilization of the norm of the solution of a mixed problem in an unbounded domain for parabolic equations of orders 4 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukminov, F Kh; Bikkulov, I M

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour as t→∞ of the solution of a mixed problem for parabolic equations in an unbounded domain with two exits to infinity is studied. A certain class of domains is distinguished, in which an estimate characterizing the stabilization of solutions and determined by the geometry of the domain is established. This estimate is proved to be sharp in a certain sense for a broad class of domains with two exits to infinity.

  12. The myosin motor domain-containing chitin synthase PdChsVII is required for development, cell wall integrity and virulence in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía, Mónica; Harries, Eleonora; Marcos, Jose F

    2014-06-01

    Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall and a potential target in the development of new antifungal compounds, due to its presence in fungi and not in plants or vertebrates. Chitin synthase genes (chs) constitute a complex family in filamentous fungi and are involved in fungal development, morphogenesis, pathogenesis and virulence. In this study, additional chs genes in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum have been identified. Comparative analyses included each PdChs in each one of the classes I to VII previously established, and support the grouping of these into three divisions. Disruption of the gene coding PdChsVII, which contains a short version of a myosin motor domain, has been achieved by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and revealed its role in the life cycle of the fungus. Disruption strains were viable but showed reduced growth and conidia production. Moreover, Pdchs mutants developed morphological defects as balloon-like enlarged cells and increased chitin content, indicative of an altered cell wall structure. Gene disruption also increased susceptibility to antifungal compounds such as calcofluor white (CFW), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hydroxide peroxide (H2O2) and commercial fungicides, but significantly no change was observed in the sensitivity to antifungal peptides. The PdchsVII mutants were able to infect citrus fruit and produced tissue maceration, although had reduced virulence and most importantly were greatly impaired in the production of visible mycelium and conidia on the fruit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Heat-and-Mass Transfer Conjugated Problem Solution while Forming Thin-Wall Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Еsman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of heat-and-mass transfer conjugated problem in case of moving of liquid melts in channels of metallic forms (moulds, dies, crystallizers etc.. Investigations of velocity profiles at various flow sections, current lines in the calculated area, pressure and viscosity fields in non-stationary state have been carried out in the paper.The paper reveals that current is of parabolic shape in the annular channel at rather large distance from a projection up and down the flow and pressure along channel section is practically unchangeable.The executed investigations of heat-and-mass transfer in the moving melt make it possible to create a data base of control parameters for development of prospective technologies  of special casting methods. 

  14. Identification of Two Binding Domains, One for Peptidoglycan and Another for a Secondary Cell Wall Polymer, on the N-Terminal Part of the S-Layer Protein SbsB from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sára, Margit; Egelseer, Eva M.; Dekitsch, Christine; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    1998-01-01

    First studies on the structure-function relationship of the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p2 revealed the coexistence of two binding domains on its N-terminal part, one for peptidoglycan and another for a secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP). The peptidoglycan binding domain is located between amino acids 1 to 138 of the mature S-layer protein comprising a typical S-layer homologous domain. The SCWP binding domain lies between amino acids 240 to 331 and possesses a high serine plus glycine content. PMID:9852032

  15. Fictitious Domain Technique for the Calculation of Time-Periodic Solutions of Scattering Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fictitious domain technique is coupled to the improved time-explicit asymptotic method for calculating time-periodic solution of wave equation. Conventionally, the practical implementation of fictitious domain method relies on finite difference time discretizations schemes and finite element approximation. Our new method applies finite difference approximations in space instead of conventional finite element approximation. We use the Dirac delta function to transport the variational forms of the wave equations to the differential form and then solve it by finite difference schemes. Our method is relatively easier to code and requires fewer computational operations than conventional finite element method. The numerical experiments show that the new method performs as well as the method using conventional finite element approximation.

  16. A Thermophilic Phage Endolysin Fusion to a Clostridium perfringens-Specific Cell Wall Binding Domain Creates an Anti-Clostridium Antimicrobial with Improved Thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Swift

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease and is the presumptive etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis among chickens. Treatment of poultry with antibiotics is becoming less acceptable. Endolysin enzymes are potential replacements for antibiotics. Many enzymes are added to animal feed during production and are subjected to high-heat stress during feed processing. To produce a thermostabile endolysin for treating poultry, an E. coli codon-optimized gene was synthesized that fused the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase domain from the endolysin of the thermophilic bacteriophage ɸGVE2 to the cell-wall binding domain (CWB from the endolysin of the C. perfringens-specific bacteriophage ɸCP26F. The resulting protein, PlyGVE2CpCWB, lysed C. perfringens in liquid and solid cultures. PlyGVE2CpCWB was most active at pH 8, had peak activity at 10 mM NaCl, 40% activity at 150 mM NaCl and was still 16% active at 600 mM NaCl. The protein was able to withstand temperatures up to 50° C and still lyse C. perfringens. Herein, we report the construction and characterization of a thermostable chimeric endolysin that could potentially be utilized as a feed additive to control the bacterium during poultry production.

  17. A Thermophilic Phage Endolysin Fusion to a Clostridium perfringens-Specific Cell Wall Binding Domain Creates an Anti-Clostridium Antimicrobial with Improved Thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Steven M; Seal, Bruce S; Garrish, Johnna K; Oakley, Brian B; Hiett, Kelli; Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Woolsey, Rebekah; Schegg, Kathleen M; Line, John Eric; Donovan, David M

    2015-06-12

    Clostridium perfringens is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease and is the presumptive etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis among chickens. Treatment of poultry with antibiotics is becoming less acceptable. Endolysin enzymes are potential replacements for antibiotics. Many enzymes are added to animal feed during production and are subjected to high-heat stress during feed processing. To produce a thermostabile endolysin for treating poultry, an E. coli codon-optimized gene was synthesized that fused the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase domain from the endolysin of the thermophilic bacteriophage ɸGVE2 to the cell-wall binding domain (CWB) from the endolysin of the C. perfringens-specific bacteriophage ɸCP26F. The resulting protein, PlyGVE2CpCWB, lysed C. perfringens in liquid and solid cultures. PlyGVE2CpCWB was most active at pH 8, had peak activity at 10 mM NaCl, 40% activity at 150 mM NaCl and was still 16% active at 600 mM NaCl. The protein was able to withstand temperatures up to 50° C and still lyse C. perfringens. Herein, we report the construction and characterization of a thermostable chimeric endolysin that could potentially be utilized as a feed additive to control the bacterium during poultry production.

  18. Promoting Experimental Problem-solving Ability in Sixth-grade Students Through Problem-oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an intervention study in a complex domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-03-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of experimental problem-solving ability better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess students' abilities in a quasi-experimental intervention study utilizing a pretest/posttest control-group design (N = 340; average performing sixth-grade students). The treatment group received lessons on forest ecosystems consistent with the principle of education for sustainable development. This learning environment was expected to help students enhance their ecological knowledge and their theoretical and methodological experimental competencies. Two control groups received either the teachers' usual lessons on forest ecosystems or non-specific lessons on other science topics. We found that the treatment promoted specific components of experimental problem-solving ability (generating epistemic questions, planning two-factorial experiments, and identifying correct experimental controls). However, the observed effects were small, and awareness for aspects of higher ecological experimental validity was not promoted by the treatment.

  19. On the mixed problem for the semilinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman PDE system in Besov spaces on creased Lipschitz domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutt, Robert; Kohr, Mirela; Mikhailov, Sergey E.; Wendland, Wolfgang L.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary value problem for the semilinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman system in $L_p$-based Besov spaces on a bounded Lipschitz domain in ${\\mathbb R}^3$, with $p$ in a neighborhood of $2$. This system is obtained by adding the semilinear term $|{\\bf u}|{\\bf u}$ to the linear Brinkman equation. {First, we provide some results about} equivalence between the Gagliardo and non-tangential traces, as well as between the weak canonical conormal derivatives and the non-tangential conormal derivatives. Various mapping and invertibility properties of some integral operators of potential theory for the linear Brinkman system, and well posedness results for the Dirichlet and Neumann problems in $L_p$-based Besov spaces on bounded Lipschitz domains in ${\\mathbb R}^n$ ($n\\geq 3$) are also presented. Then, employing integral potential operators, we show the well-posedness in $L_2$-based Sobolev spaces for the mixed problem of Dirichlet-Neumann type for the linear Brinkman system on a bounded Lipschitz domain in ${\\mathbb R}^n$ $(n\\geq 3)$. Further, by using some stability results of Fredholm and invertibility properties and exploring invertibility of the associated Neumann-to-Dirichlet operator, we extend the well-posedness property to some $L_p$-based Sobolev spaces. Next we use the well-posedness result in the linear case combined with a fixed point theorem in order to show the existence and uniqueness for a mixed boundary value problem of Dirichlet and Neumann type for the semilinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman system in $L_p$-based Besov spaces, with $p\\in (2-\\varepsilon ,2+\\varepsilon)$ and some parameter $\\varepsilon >0$.

  20. The successive approximation method for the Dirichlet problem in a planar domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2008), s. 177-192 ISSN 1233-7234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Laplace equation * Dirichlet problem * single-layer potential Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Towards a Standard-based Domain-specific Platform to Solve Machine Learning-based Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente García-Díaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is one of the most important subfields of computer science and can be used to solve a variety of interesting artificial intelligence problems. There are different languages, framework and tools to define the data needed to solve machine learning-based problems. However, there is a great number of very diverse alternatives which makes it difficult the intercommunication, portability and re-usability of the definitions, designs or algorithms that any developer may create. In this paper, we take the first step towards a language and a development environment independent of the underlying technologies, allowing developers to design solutions to solve machine learning-based problems in a simple and fast way, automatically generating code for other technologies. That can be considered a transparent bridge among current technologies. We rely on Model-Driven Engineering approach, focusing on the creation of models to abstract the definition of artifacts from the underlying technologies.

  2. Overlapping domain decomposition preconditioners for the generalized Davidson method for the eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathopoulos, A.; Fischer, C.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Saad, Y.

    1994-12-31

    The solution of the large, sparse, symmetric eigenvalue problem, Ax = {lambda}x, is central to many scientific applications. Among many iterative methods that attempt to solve this problem, the Lanczos and the Generalized Davidson (GD) are the most widely used methods. The Lanczos method builds an orthogonal basis for the Krylov subspace, from which the required eigenvectors are approximated through a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure. Each Lanczos iteration is economical to compute but the number of iterations may grow significantly for difficult problems. The GD method can be considered a preconditioned version of Lanczos. In each step the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is solved and explicit orthogonalization of the preconditioned residual ((M {minus} {lambda}I){sup {minus}1}(A {minus} {lambda}I)x) is performed. Therefore, the GD method attempts to improve convergence and robustness at the expense of a more complicated step.

  3. Low-cost control problems on perforated and non-perforated domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lions in [8]. Lions had originally called it cheap control and the current terminology was used by Kesavan and Saint Jean Paulin in [7]. Kesavan and Saint Jean Paulin (cf. [7]) had considered the low-cost problems when the admissible set was eitherL2( )(unconstrained case) or the positive cone in L2( ). For the rest of the ...

  4. The Integral Equation Method and the Neumann Problem for the Poisson Equation on NTA Domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 21 (2009), s. 227-247 ISSN 0378-620X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Poisson equation * Neumann problem * integral equation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2009

  5. One problem of the Navier type for the Stokes system in planar domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 261, č. 10 (2016), s. 5670-5689 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Stokes system * Navier type problem * regularity of a solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039616302121

  6. Proposal for an All-Spin Artificial Neural Network: Emulating Neural and Synaptic Functionalities Through Domain Wall Motion in Ferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Shim, Yong; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    Non-Boolean computing based on emerging post-CMOS technologies can potentially pave the way for low-power neural computing platforms. However, existing work on such emerging neuromorphic architectures have either focused on solely mimicking the neuron, or the synapse functionality. While memristive devices have been proposed to emulate biological synapses, spintronic devices have proved to be efficient at performing the thresholding operation of the neuron at ultra-low currents. In this work, we propose an All-Spin Artificial Neural Network where a single spintronic device acts as the basic building block of the system. The device offers a direct mapping to synapse and neuron functionalities in the brain while inter-layer network communication is accomplished via CMOS transistors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a neural architecture where a single nanoelectronic device is able to mimic both neurons and synapses. The ultra-low voltage operation of low resistance magneto-metallic neurons enables the low-voltage operation of the array of spintronic synapses, thereby leading to ultra-low power neural architectures. Device-level simulations, calibrated to experimental results, was used to drive the circuit and system level simulations of the neural network for a standard pattern recognition problem. Simulation studies indicate energy savings by  ∼  100× in comparison to a corresponding digital/analog CMOS neuron implementation.

  7. Prospects of application structural mathematical constructs as bases tool conceptualization the subject domain of sociology (statement of a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Maslennikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the approach to the decision of a problem of conceptual integration of sociology as the set of theoretical knowledge belonging to type - conceptually difficult - the big theories. Development of theoretical sociology with use of forms of the mathematical theory is considered as a private problem in relation to more general problem of development of theoretical knowledge with use of forms of the mathematical theory. Development the theoretical sociology is offered to carry out with use of forms of the mathematical theory on the basis of properties structural mathematical constructs and with application the mathematical methods developed in a scientific direction “The Conceptual analysis and designing”[40] . In the given direction it is used not only a paradigm of structuralism, but also a principle of an ascention from abstract to concrete in the knowledge, realized in procedure of synthesis of formal theories with use of the device of structural mathematics. The system analysis, the theory of systems and the theory of structures of N. Burbaki concerns to sources of occurrence of a method of the conceptual analysis. The method is intended for the analysis of subject domains of a high level of complexity, realization of conceptual modeling of objects from these subject domains and reception of new knowledge about essence of subject domains and their relations. Conceptual complexity of phenomena is understood as complexity of the structures expressing the relations and interrelations between concepts, describing interesting area from the point of view of solved tasks. For a subject domain conceptual complexity is potentially established by quantity of basic sets on which scales of sets and the steps belonging to them representing definitions of developed theory of a subject domain are constructed. In article is exposed to the analysis role structural mathematical constructs device in expansion integrating tool conceptualization

  8. B-meson decay constants from 2+1-flavor lattice QCD with domain-wall light quarks and relativistic heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Flynn, Jonathan M. [Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Izubuchi, Taku [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kawanai, Taichi [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lehner, Christoph [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Soni, Amarjit [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Van de Water, Ruth S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Witzel, Oliver [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We calculate the B-meson decay constants fB, fBs, and their ratio in unquenched lattice QCD using domain-wall light quarks and relativistic b-quarks. We use gauge-field ensembles generated by the RBC and UKQCD collaborations using the domain-wall fermion action and Iwasaki gauge action with three flavors of light dynamical quarks. We analyze data at two lattice spacings of a ≈ 0.11, 0.086 fm with unitary pion masses as light as Mπ ≈ 290 MeV; this enables us to control the extrapolation to the physical light-quark masses and continuum. For the b-quarks we use the anisotropic clover action with the relativistic heavy-quark interpretation, such that discretization errors from the heavy-quark action are of the same size as from the light-quark sector. We renormalize the lattice heavy-light axial-vector current using a mostly nonperturbative method in which we compute the bulk of the matching factor nonperturbatively, with a small correction, that is close to unity, in lattice perturbation theory. We also improve the lattice heavy-light current through O(αsa). We extrapolate our results to the physical light-quark masses and continuum using SU(2) heavy-meson chiral perturbation theory, and provide a complete systematic error budget. We obtain fB0 = 196.2(15.7) MeV, fB+ = 195.4(15.8) MeV, fBs = 235.4(12.2) MeV, fBs/fB0 = 1.193(59), and fBs/fB+ = 1.220(82), where the errors are statistical and total systematic added in quadrature. In addition, these results are in good agreement with other published results and provide an important independent cross check of other three-flavor determinations of B-meson decay constants using staggered light quarks.

  9. Solving Problems in Various Domains by Hybrid Models of High Performance Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii Rogozhin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a hybrid model of high performance computations. The model is based on membrane system (P~system where some membranes may contain quantum device that is triggered by the data entering the membrane. This model is supposed to take advantages of both biomolecular and quantum paradigms and to overcome some of their inherent limitations. The proposed approach is demonstrated through two selected problems: SAT, and image retrieving.

  10. Multitrace/singletrace formulations and Domain Decomposition Methods for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems for bounded composite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos; Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Turc, Catalin

    2017-12-01

    We present Nyström discretizations of multitrace/singletrace formulations and non-overlapping Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM) for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems for bounded composite scatterers with piecewise constant material properties. We investigate the performance of DDM with both classical Robin and optimized transmission boundary conditions. The optimized transmission boundary conditions incorporate square root Fourier multiplier approximations of Dirichlet to Neumann operators. While the multitrace/singletrace formulations as well as the DDM that use classical Robin transmission conditions are not particularly well suited for Krylov subspace iterative solutions of high-contrast high-frequency Helmholtz transmission problems, we provide ample numerical evidence that DDM with optimized transmission conditions constitute efficient computational alternatives for these type of applications. In the case of large numbers of subdomains with different material properties, we show that the associated DDM linear system can be efficiently solved via hierarchical Schur complements elimination.

  11. Numerical method for solving joint thermo-diffusive problems in an infinite combined domain with thin resistant interphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wrobel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a class of Boundary Value Problems describing jointthermo-diffussive fields in an infinite combined domain, which consists oftwo subdomains, matched by a thin intermediate layer. The main problemis reduced to an equivalent one given in the bounded subdomain, withnon-local boundary condition on the transmission surface. Such a conditionincorporates all the information about the infinite subdomain and theintermediate layer. The equivalent problem is solved by means of FiniteElement Method in frames of Matlab package. As it is not possible tointroduce the non-local boundary conditions along a part of the boundarydirectly into FEM code, a dedicated iterative subroutine is constructed.Effectiveness of the method has been checked on selected benchmarks.Accuracy and convergence of the procedure have been addressed inthe analysis.

  12. The finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflove, A.; Umashankar, K. R.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation and recent applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for the numerical modeling of electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems are considered. It is shown that improvements in FD-TD modeling concepts and software implementation often make it a preferable choice for structures which cannot be easily treated by conventional integral equations and asymptotic approaches. Recent FD-TD modeling validations in research areas including coupling to wires and wire bundles in free space and cavities, scattering from surfaces in relativistic motion, inverse scattering, and radiation condition theory, are reviewed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of FD-TD, and guidelines concerning when FD-TD should and should not be used in high-frequency electromagnetic modeling problems, are summarized.

  13. Domain wall and interphase boundary motion in (1−x)Bi(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}–xPbTiO{sub 3} near the morphotropic phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutuncu, Goknur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Fancher, Chris M.; Zhao, Jianwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: JacobJones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Electric field-induced changes in the domain wall motion of (1−x)Bi(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}–xPbTiO{sub 3} (BMT-xPT) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) where x = 0.37 (BMT-37PT) and x = 0.38 (BMT-38PT), are studied by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Through Rietveld analysis and profile fitting, a mixture of coexisting monoclinic (Cm) and tetragonal (P4mm) phases is identified at room temperature. Extrinsic contributions to the property coefficients are evident from electric-field-induced domain wall motion in both the tetragonal and monoclinic phases, as well as through the interphase boundary motion between the two phases. Domain wall motion in the tetragonal and monoclinic phases for BMT-37PT is larger than that of BMT-38PT, possibly due to this composition's closer proximity to the MPB. Increased interphase boundary motion was also observed in BMT-37PT. Lattice strain, which is a function of both intrinsic piezoelectric strain and elastic interactions of the grains (the latter originating from domain wall and interphase boundary motion), is similar for the respective tetragonal and monoclinic phases.

  14. Application of a COTS Resource Optimization Framework to the SSN Sensor Tasking Domain - Part I: Problem Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T.

    With the onset of the SmallSat era, the RSO catalog is expected to see continuing growth in the near future. This presents a significant challenge to the current sensor tasking of the SSN. The Air Force is in need of a sensor tasking system that is robust, efficient, scalable, and able to respond in real-time to interruptive events that can change the tracking requirements of the RSOs. Furthermore, the system must be capable of using processed data from heterogeneous sensors to improve tasking efficiency. The SSN sensor tasking can be regarded as an economic problem of supply and demand: the amount of tracking data needed by each RSO represents the demand side while the SSN sensor tasking represents the supply side. As the number of RSOs to be tracked grows, demand exceeds supply. The decision-maker is faced with the problem of how to allocate resources in the most efficient manner. Braxton recently developed a framework called Multi-Objective Resource Optimization using Genetic Algorithm (MOROUGA) as one of its modern COTS software products. This optimization framework took advantage of the maturing technology of evolutionary computation in the last 15 years. This framework was applied successfully to address the resource allocation of an AFSCN-like problem. In any resource allocation problem, there are five key elements: (1) the resource pool, (2) the tasks using the resources, (3) a set of constraints on the tasks and the resources, (4) the objective functions to be optimized, and (5) the demand levied on the resources. In this paper we explain in detail how the design features of this optimization framework are directly applicable to address the SSN sensor tasking domain. We also discuss our validation effort as well as present the result of the AFSCN resource allocation domain using a prototype based on this optimization framework.

  15. Monotonicity based imaging method for time-domain eddy current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Z.; Ventre, S.; Udpa, L.; Tamburrino, A.

    2017-12-01

    Eddy current imaging is an example of inverse problem in nondestructive evaluation for detecting anomalies in conducting materials. This paper introduces the concept of time constants and associated natural modes in eddy current imaging. The monotonicity of time constants is then described and applied to develop a non-iterative imaging method. The proposed imaging method has a low computational cost which makes it suitable for real-time operations. Full 3D numerical examples prove the effectiveness of the method in realistic scenarios. This paper is dedicated to Professor Guglielmo Rubinacci on the occasion of his 65th Birthday.

  16. First results from 2+1-Flavor Domain Wall QCD: Mass Spectrum, Topology Change and Chiral Symmetry with $L_s=8$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Antonio; T. Blum; K. C. Bowler; P. A. Boyle; N. H. Christ; S. D. Cohen; M. A. Clark; C. Dawson; A. Hart; K. Hashimoto; T. Izubuchi; B. Joó; C. Jung; A. D. Kennedy; R. D. Kenway; S. Li; H. W. Lin; M.F. Lin; R. D. Mawhinney; C.M. Maynard; J. Noaki; S. Ohta; S. Sasaki; A. Soni; R. J. Tweedie; A. Yamaguchi

    2007-06-01

    We present results for the static interquark potential, light meson and baryon masses, and light pseudoscalar meson decay constants obtained from simulations of domain wall QCD with one dynamical flavour approximating the $s$ quark, and two degenerate dynamical flavours with input bare masses ranging from $m_s$ to $m_s/4$ approximating the $u$ and $d$ quarks. We compare these quantities obtained using the Iwasaki and DBW2 improved gauge actions, and actions with larger rectangle coefficients, on $16^3\\times32$ lattices. We seek parameter values at which both the chiral symmetry breaking residual mass due to the finite lattice extent in the fifth dimension and the Monte Carlo time history for topological charge are acceptable for this set of quark masses at lattice spacings above 0.1 fm. We find that the Iwasaki gauge action is best, demonstrating the feasibility of using QCDOC to generate ensembles which are good representations of the QCD path integral on lattices of up to 3 fm in spatial extent with lattice spacings in the range 0.09-0.13 fm. Despite large residual masses and a limited number of sea quark mass values with which to perform chiral extrapolations, our results for light hadronic physics scale and agree with experimental measurements within our statistical uncertainties.

  17. Comparison between collective coordinate models for domain wall motion in PMA nanostrips in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, J.; Nasseri, S. A.; Van de Wiele, B.; Durin, G.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Dupré, L.

    2018-03-01

    Lagrangian-based collective coordinate models for magnetic domain wall (DW) motion rely on an ansatz for the DW profile and a Lagrangian approach to describe the DW motion in terms of a set of time-dependent collective coordinates: the DW position, the DW magnetization angle, the DW width and the DW tilting angle. Another approach was recently used to derive similar equations of motion by averaging the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation without any ansatz, and identifying the relevant collective coordinates afterwards. In this paper, we use an updated version of the semi-analytical equations to compare the Lagrangian-based collective coordinate models with micromagnetic simulations for field- and STT-driven (spin-transfer torque-driven) DW motion in Pt/CoFe/MgO and Pt/Co/AlOx nanostrips. Through this comparison, we assess the accuracy of the different models, and provide insight into the deviations of the models from simulations. It is found that the lack of terms related to DW asymmetry in the Lagrangian-based collective coordinate models significantly contributes to the discrepancy between the predictions of the most accurate Lagrangian-based model and the micromagnetic simulations in the field-driven case. This is in contrast to the STT-driven case where the DW remains symmetric.

  18. Race by Gender Group Differences in the Protective Effects of Socioeconomic Factors Against Sustained Health Problems Across Five Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Nikahd, Amirmasoud; Malekahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Zamanian, Hadi

    2016-10-17

    Despite the existing literature on the central role of socioeconomic status (SES; education and income) for maintaining health, less is known about group differences in this effect. Built on the intersectionality approach, this study compared race by gender groups for the effects of baseline education and income on sustained health problems in five domains: depressive symptoms, insomnia, physical inactivity, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health (SRH). Data came from waves 7, 8, and 10 of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which were collected in 2004, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The study followed 37,495 white and black men and women above age 50 for up to 6 years. This number included 12,495 white men, 15,581 white women, 3839 black men, and 5580 black women. Individuals reported their depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) 11), insomnia, physical inactivity, BMI, and SRH across all waves. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare black men, black women, white men, and white women for the effects of education and income in 2004 on sustained health problems from 2004 to 2010. In the pooled sample, higher education and income at baseline were associated with lower sustained health problems across all five domains. However, race by gender group differences were found in the effects of education and income on sustained insomnia, physical inactivity, and BMI, but not depressive symptoms and SRH. The protective effects of education against insomnia, physical inactivity, and BMI were not found for black men. For black women, the effect of education on BMI was not found. Income had a protective effect against sustained high BMI among white and black women but not white and black men. The intersection of race and gender alters the protective effects of social determinants on sustained health problems such as insomnia, physical inactivity, and BMI. Social groups particularly vary in the operant

  19. Cross Domain Analogies for Learning Domain Theories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klenk, Matthew; Forbus, Ken

    2007-01-01

    .... This work describes a method for learning new domain theories by analogy. We use analogies between pairs of problems and worked solutions to create a domain mapping between a familiar and a new domain...

  20. Involvement of family members in life with type 2 diabetes: Six interconnected problem domains of significance for family health identity and healthcare authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Dan; Andersen, Tue Helms; Varming, Annemarie; Ommundsen, Christine; Willaing, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Family involvement plays a key role in diabetes management. Problems and challenges related to type 2-diabetes often affect the whole family, and relatives are at increased risk of developing diabetes themselves. We highlight these issues in our objectives: (1) to uncover specific family problems associated with mutual involvement in life with type 2-diabetes and (2) to analytically look at ways of approaching these problems in healthcare settings. Qualitative data were gathered in participatory problem assessment workshops. The data were analysed in three rounds using radical hermeneutics. Problems were categorized in six domains: knowledge, communication, support, everyday life, roles and worries. The final cross-analysis focusing on the link between family identity and healthcare authenticity provided information on how the six domains can be approached in healthcare settings. The study generated important knowledge about problems associated with family involvement in life with type 2 diabetes and about how family involvement can be supported in healthcare practice.

  1. Effect of Electric Field and Temperature on Average Structure and Domain Wall Motion in 0.93Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ neutron powder diffraction patterns and dielectric spectra of 0.93Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 ceramic were investigated under different electrical fields and temperatures. An electric-field-induced phase transition from metrically cubic to metrically tetragonal, associated with strong domain wall motion, occurs. Such induced phase and domain wall motion are unchanged until the high-temperature phase transition occurs from metrically tetragonal to metrically cubic. All these changes are irrelevant to the observed depolarization temperature (75°C. The depolarization behaviour is thus suggested to be associated with the local structure caused by the octahedral tilt twinning disorder.

  2. Exploring the Domain Specificity of Creativity in Children: The Relationship between a Non-Verbal Creative Production Test and Creative Problem-Solving Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students’ scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spa-tial artistic, and oral linguistic in the DIS-COVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses and the TCT-DP (Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Produc-tion, a non-verbal general measure of creativi-ty, were examined. The participants were 135 first and second graders from two schools in the Southwestern United States from linguisti-cally and culturally diverse backgrounds. Pearson correlations, canonical correlations, and multiple regression analyses were calcu-lated to describe the relationship between the TCT-DP and the three DISCOVER creative problem-solving activities. We found that crea-tivity has both domain-specific and domain-general aspects, but that the domain-specific component seemed more prominent. One im-plication of these results is that educators should consider assessing creativity in specific domains to place students in special programs for gifted students rather than relying only on domain-general measures of divergent think-ing or creativity.

  3. The contrast-source stress-velocity integral-equation formulation of three-dimensional time-domain elastodynamic scattering problems : A structured approach using tensor partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Abubakar, A.; Habashy, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The contrast-source stress-velocity integral-equation formulation of three-dimensional time-domain elastodynamic scattering problems is discussed. A novel feature of the formulation is a tensor partitioning of the relevant dynamic stress and the contrast source volume density of deformation rate.

  4. Improving the parallel performance of a domain decomposition preconditioning technique in the Jacobi-Davidson method for large scale eigenvalue problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Genseberger (Menno)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractMost computational work in Jacobi-Davidson [9], an iterative method for large scale eigenvalue problems, is due to a so-called correction equation. In [5] a strategy for the approximate solution of the correction equation was proposed. This strategy is based on a domain decomposition

  5. A Fourth Order Accurate Discretization for the Laplace and Heat Equations on Arbitrary Domains, with Applications to the Stefan Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibou, Frederic; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first describe a fourth order accurate finite difference discretization for both the Laplace equation and the heat equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on irregular domains...

  6. A coupled electro-thermo-mechanical FEM code for large scale problems including multi-domain and multiple time-step aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Menanteau, Laurent; Pantalé, Olivier; Caperaa, Serge

    2005-01-01

    This work concerns the development of a virtual prototyping tool for large scale electro-thermo-mechanical simulation of power converters used in railway transport including multi-domain and multiple time-steps aspects. For this purpose, Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) is used to give on one hand the ability to treat large scale problems and on the other hand, for transient analysis, the ability to use different time-steps in different parts of the numerical model. An Object-Oriented progra...

  7. A New Application of the Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Method to Solve MHD Jeffery-Hamel Flows Problem in Nonparallel Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Inc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes Jeffery-Hamel flow: fluid flow between two rigid plane walls, where the angle between them is 2α. A new method called the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method (RKHSM is briefly introduced. The validity of the reproducing kernel method is set by comparing our results with HAM, DTM, and HPM and numerical results for different values of H, α, and Re. The results show up that the proposed reproducing kernel method can achieve good results in predicting the solutions of such problems. Comparison between obtained results showed that RKHSM is more acceptable and accurate than other methods. This method is very useful and applicable for solving nonlinear problems.

  8. Magnetic domain-wall motion study under an electric field in a Finemet{sup ®} thin film on flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ngo Thi [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS-Université Paris XIII, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Mercone, Silvana, E-mail: silvana.mercone@univ-paris13.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS-Université Paris XIII, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Moulin, Johan [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 Université Paris Sud/CNRS, Orsay (France); Bahoui, Anouar El; Faurie, Damien; Zighem, Fatih; Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Haddadi, Halim [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS-Université Paris XIII, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-01-01

    We study the influence of applied in-plane elastic strains on the static magnetic configuration of a 530 nm magnetostrictive FeCuNbSiB (Finemet{sup ®}) thin film. The in-plane strains are induced via the application of a voltage to a piezoelectric actuator on which the film/substrate system was glued. A quantitative characterization of the voltage dependence of the induced-strain at the surface of the film was performed using a digital image correlation technique. Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) images at remanence (H=0 Oe and U=0 V) clearly reveal the presence of weak stripe domains. The effect of the voltage-induced strain shows the existence of a voltage threshold value for the strike configuration break. For a maximum strain of ε{sub XX}∼0.5×10{sup −3} we succeed in destabilizing the stripes configuration helping the setting up of a complete homogeneous magnetic pattern. - Highlights: • Elastic strain effect on the magnetic domain structure of a Finemet/Kapton is investigated. • External loading is applied thanks to a piezo-actuator on which the sample is glued. • The amount of strains was measured by the Digital Image Correlation technique. • Magnetic Force Microscopy showed high mobility of magnetic stripes domains. • Bending, curving and branching of domains go into maze-like pattern.

  9. More than 1,001 problems with protein domain databases: transmembrane regions, signal peptides and the issue of sequence homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Cheong Wong

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome sequencing gained general importance for life science because functional annotation of otherwise experimentally uncharacterized sequences is made possible by the theory of biomolecular sequence homology. Historically, the paradigm of similarity of protein sequences implying common structure, function and ancestry was generalized based on studies of globular domains. Having the same fold imposes strict conditions over the packing in the hydrophobic core requiring similarity of hydrophobic patterns. The implications of sequence similarity among non-globular protein segments have not been studied to the same extent; nevertheless, homology considerations are silently extended for them. This appears especially detrimental in the case of transmembrane helices (TMs and signal peptides (SPs where sequence similarity is necessarily a consequence of physical requirements rather than common ancestry. Thus, matching of SPs/TMs creates the illusion of matching hydrophobic cores. Therefore, inclusion of SPs/TMs into domain models can give rise to wrong annotations. More than 1001 domains among the 10,340 models of Pfam release 23 and 18 domains of SMART version 6 (out of 809 contain SP/TM regions. As expected, fragment-mode HMM searches generate promiscuous hits limited to solely the SP/TM part among clearly unrelated proteins. More worryingly, we show explicit examples that the scores of clearly false-positive hits, even in global-mode searches, can be elevated into the significance range just by matching the hydrophobic runs. In the PIR iProClass database v3.74 using conservative criteria, we find that at least between 2.1% and 13.6% of its annotated Pfam hits appear unjustified for a set of validated domain models. Thus, false-positive domain hits enforced by SP/TM regions can lead to dramatic annotation errors where the hit has nothing in common with the problematic domain model except the SP/TM region itself. We suggest a workflow of

  10. Fictitious domain methods for elliptic problems with general boundary conditions with an application to the numerical simulation of two phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, I.

    2006-09-01

    This work is dedicated to the introduction of two original fictitious domain methods for the resolution of elliptic problems (mainly convection-diffusion problems) with general and eventually mixed boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Robin or Neumann. The originality lies in the approximation of the immersed boundary by an approximate interface derived from the fictitious domain Cartesian mesh, which is generally not boundary-fitted to the physical domain. The same generic numerical scheme is used to impose the embedded boundary conditions. Hence, these methods require neither a surface mesh of the immersed boundary nor the local modification of the numerical scheme. We study two modelling of the immersed boundary. In the first one, called spread interface, the approximate immersed boundary is the union of the cells crossed by the physical immersed boundary. In the second one, called thin interface, the approximate immersed boundary lies on sides of mesh cells. Additional algebraic transmission conditions linking both flux and solution jumps through the thin approximate interface are introduced. The fictitious problem to solve as well as the treatment of the embedded boundary conditions are detailed for the two methods. A Q1 finite element scheme is implemented for the numerical validation of the spread interface approach while a new cell-centered finite volume scheme is derived for the thin interface approach with immersed jumps. Each method is then combined to multilevel local mesh refinement algorithms (with solution or flux residual) to increase the precision of the solution in the vicinity of the immersed interface. A convergence analysis of a Q1 finite element method with non-boundary fitted meshes is also presented. This study proves the convergence rates of the present methods. Among the various industrial applications, the simulation on a model of heat exchanger in french nuclear power plants enables us to appreciate the performances of the fictitious domain

  11. The Third Problem for the Laplace Equation on a Planar Cracked Domain with Modified Jump Conditions on Cracks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2006), s. 471-507 ISSN 0897-3962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : third problem * Laplace equation * integral equation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. The Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method for the Solution of Higher-Order Boundary Value Problems in Finite Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve some higher-order boundary value problems by the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM. The proposed method is capable to handle a wide variety of linear and nonlinear problems effectively. The numerical results given by OHAM are compared with the exact solutions and the solutions obtained by Adomian decomposition (ADM, variational iteration (VIM, homotopy perturbation (HPM, and variational iteration decomposition method (VIDM. The results show that the proposed method is more effective and reliable.

  13. Domain wall motion and magnetization reversal processes in a FeSi picture frame single crystal studied by the time-dependent neutron depolarization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaik, F.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    The three dimensional neutron depolarization technique, which gives detailed information about the static properties of ferromagnetic materials, has been extended to a method by means of which the time dependence of magnetic phenomena can be studied. The measurement of the neutron depolarization against time is made possible by applying a periodical magnetic field on the investigated specimen and by continuous sampling of the transmitted neutron intensity in time channels, which are started synchronously with the applied field. The technique has been used in the study of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature of a (010) [001] picture frame FeSi single crystal (3.5 wt.% Si) with outer dimensions of (15 x 10 x 0.26) mm and a frame width of 2.78 mm. (Auth.)

  14. Plasma-wall interactions in tokamaks, a scope between physics and chemistry; Interactions plasma-paroi dans les tokamaks. Un domaine a l'interface de la physique et de la chimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosset, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Allouche, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2005-09-01

    Remarkable results have been obtained in thermonuclear fusion researches since the first experiments performed in tokamaks, about 40 years ago. The next step is now to succeed in controlling deuterium-tritium long discharges in order to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. This is the aim of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the next magnetic fusion device. While great progresses have been made, new questions emerged and the plasma-wall interactions are one of them. In this paper, we show that this domain is interdisciplinary, particularly because of the presence of carbon and hydrogen. Indeed, we highlight the fundamental role played by chemical processes in the interactions between hydrogen and carbon-based materials and the beneficial contribution of quantum-modelling works in the understanding of them. Ab initio calculations, using the density functional theory, allow studying chemical reactivity of the concerned species. Elementary processes and associated energies can be investigated without any empirical assumptions. The understanding of the elementary reactions, the calculation of the energy transfer and barriers of reaction, together with the modelling of reactions through quantum molecular dynamics provide helpful and more realistic input data to plasma-wall interaction simulation codes. (authors)

  15. 3D non-linear time domain FEM–BEM approach to soil–structure interaction problems

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Ordóñez, Antonio; Galvín, Pedro; Domínguez Abascal, José

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic soil-structure interaction is concerned with the study of structures supported on flexible soils and subjected to dynamic actions. Methods combining the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM) are well suited to address dynamic soil-structure interaction problems. Hence, FEM-BEM models have been widely used. However, non-linear contact conditions and non-linear behaviour of the structures have not usually been considered in the analyses. This paper ...

  16. How Experts Solve a Novel Problem within Their Domain of Expertise (Hoe Experts een Nieuw Probleem Binnen hun Expertisegebied Oplossen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-02

    Coca Cola . In order to be able to make a comparison with the competitors, Pepsi Cola and a house...features was "the taste of Coca Cola ". Reading about the taste of Coca Cola , a lot of beginners were reminded of the " Pepsi challenge", that had been...between neighboring goals in verbal protocols. 18 2.2 Materials All subjects received the following problem: The manufacturer of Coca Cola wants to

  17. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...... not described in terms of domains, and recent research e.g. about the multilingual communities in the Danish-German border area seems to confirm this....

  18. Efficient method of solving the problems of steady-state oscillations of symmetric rectangular domains of general type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Валентинівна Лупаренко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the wave processes in bounded elastic bodies are examined, we are faced with a significant complication of the structure of the wave field compared to the case of infinite bodies. This is due to the complex nature of the reflection of elastic waves from the boundaries of the body because the direction of the general flow of energy is changed. Even more complicated the structure of the wave field is, if there are inner boundaries between fields with different elastic properties. This entails the emergence of new wave effects associated with the dynamic stress concentration in the vicinity of the internal and external boundaries of the field. The nature of edge effects is changed too. They will depend not only from the size of the field but also from the geometric and elastic parameters defining the nature of heterogeneity. At the forefront are the questions of systematization of the results for the purpose of extradition of practical recommendations for optimal design of heterogeneous section details in particular conditions of its operation. Urgent enough is the question of the possibility of neglecting of structural heterogeneity and anisotropy of the section of the body in strengthening calculations and evaluation of possible errors. The mathematical basis for the study will be the expressions for particular solutions of equations of motion, constructed for infinite layers, which are sets of plane standing waves. When choosing the form of partial solutions, we must take into account not only the opportunity to satisfy the boundary conditions at the exterior boundary of the field, but also the mechanical properties at the interface of the sphere. This entails the complication of numerical-analytical algorithm of solving the problem

  19. Fictitious domain methods for elliptic problems with general boundary conditions with an application to the numerical simulation of two phase flows; Methodes de domaine fictif pour des problemes elliptiques avec conditions aux limites generales en vue de la simulation numerique d'ecoulements diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiere, I

    2006-09-15

    This work is dedicated to the introduction of two original fictitious domain methods for the resolution of elliptic problems (mainly convection-diffusion problems) with general and eventually mixed boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Robin or Neumann. The originality lies in the approximation of the immersed boundary by an approximate interface derived from the fictitious domain Cartesian mesh, which is generally not boundary-fitted to the physical domain. The same generic numerical scheme is used to impose the embedded boundary conditions. Hence, these methods require neither a surface mesh of the immersed boundary nor the local modification of the numerical scheme. We study two modelling of the immersed boundary. In the first one, called spread interface, the approximate immersed boundary is the union of the cells crossed by the physical immersed boundary. In the second one, called thin interface, the approximate immersed boundary lies on sides of mesh cells. Additional algebraic transmission conditions linking both flux and solution jumps through the thin approximate interface are introduced. The fictitious problem to solve as well as the treatment of the embedded boundary conditions are detailed for the two methods. A Q1 finite element scheme is implemented for the numerical validation of the spread interface approach while a new cell-centered finite volume scheme is derived for the thin interface approach with immersed jumps. Each method is then combined to multilevel local mesh refinement algorithms (with solution or flux residual) to increase the precision of the solution in the vicinity of the immersed interface. A convergence analysis of a Q1 finite element method with non-boundary fitted meshes is also presented. This study proves the convergence rates of the present methods. Among the various industrial applications, the simulation on a model of heat exchanger in french nuclear power plants enables us to appreciate the performances of the fictitious domain

  20. 1 D Additive correction strategy for solving tow dimensional problem of heat and mas transfer in porous media with non-rectangular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mers, A.; Mimet, A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new procedure using 1 D additive correction strategy (AC), for resolution of tow dimensional problem of heat and mass transfer in field reactor of adsorption cooling machine. The reactor contains a porous medium constituted of activated carbon reacting by adsorption with ammonia. The present paper demonstrated how the new procedure of the (AC) propose here can be used, in the case of non-rectangular domain and strongly anisotropic coefficients, to improve the convergence rate of different iterative solvers currently used: Point Gauss-Seidel (GS), the line Gauss-Seidel (LGS), strongly implicit procedure (SIP) and the strongly implicit solver (SIS). Results shows that for different solvers, the performance of the additive correction strategy is efficiently improved by using the new procedure.(Author)

  1. Finite-element solution to multidimensional multisource electromagnetic problems in the frequency domain using non-conforming meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Yury G.; Persova, Marina G.; Domnikov, Petr A.; Koshkina, Yulia I.; Vagin, Denis V.

    2018-03-01

    We propose an approach to solving multisource induction logging problems in multidimensional media. According to the type of induction logging tools, the measurements are performed in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 14 MHz, transmitter-receiver offsets vary in the range of 0.5-8 m or more, and the trajectory length is up to 1 km. For calculating the total field, the primary-secondary field approach is used. The secondary field is calculated with the use of the finite-element method (FEM), irregular non-conforming meshes with local refinements and a direct solver. The approach to constructing basis functions with the continuous tangential components (from Hcurl(Ω)) on the non-conforming meshes from the standard shape vector functions is developed. On the basis of this method, the algorithm of generating global matrices and a vector of the finite-element equation system is proposed. We also propose the method of grouping the logging tool positions, which makes it possible to significantly increase the computational effectiveness. This is achieved due to the compromise between the possibility of using the 1-D background medium, which is very similar to the investigated multidimensional medium for a small group, and the decrease in the number of the finite-element matrix factorizations with the increasing number of tool positions in one group. For calculating the primary field, we propose the method based on the use of FEM. This method is highly effective when the 1-D field is required to be calculated at a great number of points. The use of this method significantly increases the effectiveness of the primary-secondary field approach. The proposed approach makes it possible to perform modelling both in the 2.5-D case (i.e. without taking into account a borehole and/or invasion zone effect) and the 3-D case (i.e. for models with a borehole and invasion zone). The accuracy of numerical results obtained with the use of the proposed approach is compared with the one

  2. Participatory Heuristic Evaluation of the Second Iteration of the eWALL Interface Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangaard, Stine; Schaarup, Clara; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2016-01-01

    The number of people having a chronic disease is increasing. Telehealth may provide an alternative to traditional medicine as telehealth solutions have shown to have a positive influence on quality of live and to decrease the number of hospital visits. A new telehealth solution is the eWALL system. Previously, the eWALL interface application has been evaluated using participatory heuristic evaluation (PHE). The previous round of PHE lead to drastic changes of the eWALL interface application. Consequently, a second round of PHE was performed. Five usability experts and two work-domain professionals inspected the eWALL interface application and identified usability problems (n = 384). The work domain professionals had a tendency to use other heuristics than the usability experts highlighting the relevance of using PHE in an interface development process.

  3. Slinky evolution of domain wall brane cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, Avihay; Davidson, Aharon; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-12-01

    Invoking an initial symmetry between the time t and some extra spatial dimension y, we discuss a novel scenario where the dynamical formation of the 4 dimensional brane and its cosmological evolution are induced simultaneously by a common t↔y symmetry breaking mechanism. The local maximum of the underlying scalar potential is mapped onto a “watershed” curve in the (t,y) plane; the direction tangent to this curve is identified as the cosmic time, whereas the perpendicular direction serves locally as the extra spatial dimension. Special attention is devoted to the so-called slinky configurations, whose brane cosmology is characterized by a decaying cosmological constant along the watershed curve. Such a slinky solution is first constructed within a simplified case where the watershed is constrained by y=0. The physical requirements for a slinky configuration to generate a realistic model of cosmological evolution are then discussed in a more elaborated framework.

  4. Slinky evolution of domain wall brane cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadosh, Avihay; Davidson, Aharon; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Invoking an initial symmetry between the time t and some extra spatial dimension y, we discuss a novel scenario where the dynamical formation of the 4 dimensional brane and its cosmological evolution are induced simultaneously by a common t y symmetry breaking mechanism. The local maximum of the

  5. Slinky evolution of domain wall brane cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Kadosh, Avihay; Davidson, Aharon; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Invoking an initial symmetry between the time $ t $ and some extra spatial dimension $ y $, we discuss a novel scenario where the dynamical formation of the 4-dim brane and its cosmological evolution are induced simultaneously by a common $ ty $ symmetry breaking mechanism. The local maximum of the underlying scalar potential is mapped onto a 'watershed' curve in the $ (t,y) $ plane; the direction tangent to this curve is identified as the cosmic time, whereas the perpendicular direction serv...

  6. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... techniques in manipulating the micro-structure and domain structure to result in desired interactions between neighbouring grains could prove to be beneficial for future polycrystalline ferroelectric materials....

  7. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...

  8. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  9. Dissipative particle dynamics study of phase separation in binary fluid mixtures in periodic and confined domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Anand, D Vijay; Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V

    2017-08-21

    We investigate the phase separation behavior of binary mixtures in two-dimensional periodic and confined domains using dissipative particle dynamics. Two canonical problems of fluid mechanics are considered for the confined domains: square cavity with no-slip walls and lid-driven cavity with one driven wall. The dynamics is studied for both weakly and strongly separating mixtures and different area fractions. The phase separation process is analyzed using the structure factor and the total interface length. The dynamics of phase separation in the square cavity and lid-driven cavity are observed to be significantly slower when compared to the dynamics in the periodic domain. The presence of the no-slip walls and the inertial effects significantly influences the separation dynamics. Finally, we show that the growth exponent for the strongly separating case is invariant to changes in the inter-species repulsion parameter.

  10. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  11. Dynamics of strings between walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke

    2009-01-01

    Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1) N gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.

  12. A New Application of the Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Method to Solve MHD Jeffery-Hamel Flows Problem in Nonparallel Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Inc, Mustafa; Akgül, Ali; Kılıçman, Adem

    2013-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes Jeffery-Hamel flow: fluid flow between two rigid plane walls, where the angle between them is 2 $\\alpha $ . A new method called the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method (RKHSM) is briefly introduced. The validity of the reproducing kernel method is set by comparing our results with HAM, DTM, and HPM and numerical results for different values of $H$ , $\\alpha $ , and Re. The results show up that the proposed reproducing kernel method can achieve good results in ...

  13. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  14. First-principles theory of improper ferroelastic walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Massimiliano; Schiaffino, Andrea

    Domain walls in ferroic materials are characterized by unique structural and electronic properties that markedly depart from those of the homogeneous crystalline phase. These often enable new functionalities that are forbidden by symmetry in the bulk and are of interest for applications, e.g., in nanoelectronics. Ferroelastic twin walls, in particular, have received considerable attention in the past few years, as they are characterized by a net dipole moment even if the parent material is nonpolar. Several models have been proposed to rationalize this observation, ranging from flexoelectricity to improper ferroelectricity, but a fundamental theory of the effect is still missing. In this talk I will first give a brief overview of the technical and conceptual challenges that one has to face when approaching this problem from the perspective of microscopic electronic-structure theory. Next, by using ferroelastic twins in SrTiO3 as a testcase, I will show how these challenges can be successfully overcome, leading to a physically consistent, quantitatively predictive description of domain wall-induced polarity. Finally, I will discuss practical examples where a twin wall structure can break macroscopic inversion symmetry, and thereby yield a nonvanishing electrical polarization. Supported by MINECO-Spain through Grants No. FIS2013-48668-C2-2-P and No. SEV-2015-0496, and by Generalitat de Catalunya (Grant No. 2014SRG301).

  15. Thermal treatment wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  16. Learning and Domain Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Yishay

    Domain adaptation is a fundamental learning problem where one wishes to use labeled data from one or several source domains to learn a hypothesis performing well on a different, yet related, domain for which no labeled data is available. This generalization across domains is a very significant challenge for many machine learning applications and arises in a variety of natural settings, including NLP tasks (document classification, sentiment analysis, etc.), speech recognition (speakers and noise or environment adaptation) and face recognition (different lighting conditions, different population composition).

  17. Domain Selectivity in BiFeO3 Thin Films by Modified Substrate Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solmaz, Alim; Huijben, Mark; Koster, Gertjan; Egoavil, Ricardo; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Verbeeck, Jo; Noheda, Beatriz; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric domain formation is an essential feature in ferroelectric thin films. These domains and domain walls can be manipulated depending on the growth conditions. In rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films, the ordering of the domains and the presence of specific types of domain walls play a crucial

  18. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  19. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  20. Viscous flow through slowly expanding or contracting porous walls with low seepage Reynolds number: a model for transport of biological fluids through vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Saeed

    2011-10-01

    In this article, the problem of laminar, isothermal, incompressible and viscous flow in a rectangular domain bounded by two moving porous walls, which enable the fluid to enter or exit during successive expansions or contractions, is investigated. The governing non-linear equations and their associated boundary conditions are transformed into a highly non-linear ordinary differential equation. The series solution of the problem is obtained by utilising the homotopy perturbation method. Graphical results are presented to investigate the influence of the non-dimensional wall dilation rate and seepage Reynolds number (Re) on the velocity, normal pressure distribution and wall shear stress. Since the transport of biological fluids through contracting or expanding vessels is characterised by low seepage Res, the current study focuses on the viscous flow driven by small wall contractions and expansions of two weakly permeable walls.