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Sample records for domain mapping technique

  1. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  2. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  3. Topographic gravity modeling for global Bouguer maps to degree 2160: Validation of spectral and spatial domain forward modeling techniques at the 10 microGal level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Christian; Reußner, Elisabeth; Rexer, Moritz; Kuhn, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Over the past years, spectral techniques have become a standard to model Earth's global gravity field to 10 km scales, with the EGM2008 geopotential model being a prominent example. For some geophysical applications of EGM2008, particularly Bouguer gravity computation with spectral techniques, a topographic potential model of adequate resolution is required. However, current topographic potential models have not yet been successfully validated to degree 2160, and notable discrepancies between spectral modeling and Newtonian (numerical) integration well beyond the 10 mGal level have been reported. Here we accurately compute and validate gravity implied by a degree 2160 model of Earth's topographic masses. Our experiments are based on two key strategies, both of which require advanced computational resources. First, we construct a spectrally complete model of the gravity field which is generated by the degree 2160 Earth topography model. This involves expansion of the topographic potential to the 15th integer power of the topography and modeling of short-scale gravity signals to ultrahigh degree of 21,600, translating into unprecedented fine scales of 1 km. Second, we apply Newtonian integration in the space domain with high spatial resolution to reduce discretization errors. Our numerical study demonstrates excellent agreement (8 μGgal RMS) between gravity from both forward modeling techniques and provides insight into the convergence process associated with spectral modeling of gravity signals at very short scales (few km). As key conclusion, our work successfully validates the spectral domain forward modeling technique for degree 2160 topography and increases the confidence in new high-resolution global Bouguer gravity maps.

  4. Improving wetland mapping techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mapping wetland extent, structure and invasives using radar imagery. Acquiring optical, thermal, LIDAR, and RADAR images and analysis for improved wetland mapping,...

  5. DIMA 3.0: Domain Interaction Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qibin; Pagel, Philipp; Vilne, Baiba; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    Domain Interaction MAp (DIMA, available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/dima) is a database of predicted and known interactions between protein domains. It integrates 5807 structurally known interactions imported from the iPfam and 3did databases and 46,900 domain interactions predicted by four computational methods: domain phylogenetic profiling, domain pair exclusion algorithm correlated mutations and domain interaction prediction in a discriminative way. Additionally predictions are filtered to exclude those domain pairs that are reported as non-interacting by the Negatome database. The DIMA Web site allows to calculate domain interaction networks either for a domain of interest or for entire organisms, and to explore them interactively using the Flash-based Cytoscape Web software.

  6. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin surfaces were analysed by laser profilometry. Two roughness parameters, R(a) and the fractal dimension, were investigated as a first step towards methods of quantitative wear mechanism mapping. Both parameters were analysed for their relationship to the severity and prevalence of a mechanism....

  7. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin-on-disc tests of tungsten carbide pins against silicon carbide discs were performed and wear rate, mechanism and friction maps constructed. Correlations were observed between the wear mode and the friction of the pin-disc interface, and between the qualitative incidence of disruptive wear...

  8. Univalent Biharmonic Mappings and Linearly Connected Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayid Abdulhadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A four times continuously differentiable complex valued function F = u + iv in a simply connected domain Ω is biharmonic if the laplacian of F is harmonic. Every biharmonic mapping F in Ω has the representation F = |z|^2 G + K, where G and K are harmonic in Ω. This paper investigates the relationship between the univalence of F and of K using the concept of linearly connected domains.

  9. Metric domains, holomorphic mappings and nonlinear semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Reich

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We study nonlinear semigroups of holomorphic mappings on certain domains in complex Banach spaces. We examine, in particular, their differentiability and their representations by exponential and other product formulas. In addition, we also construct holomorphic retractions onto the stationary point sets of such semigroups.

  10. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola;

    2007-01-01

    argue that the implementation of underlying knowledge models in a sharable format, as domain ontologies - along with application of automatic ontology mapping techniques for model alignment - can help to overcome the "new-user" problem and will greatly widen opportunities for student model translation....... Moreover, it then becomes possible for systems from relevant domains to rely on knowledge transfer and reuse those portions of the student models that are related to overlapping concepts....

  11. Mining e-Learning Domain Concept Map from Academic Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wei, Chun-Wang; Chen, Hong-Jhe

    2008-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated the importance of concept map and its versatile applications especially in e-Learning. For example, while designing adaptive learning materials, designers need to refer to the concept map of a subject domain. Moreover, concept maps can show the whole picture and core knowledge about a subject domain. Research…

  12. An Introduction to the Space Mapping Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, Mohamed H.; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2001-01-01

    The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It is assumed that two different models of the same physical system are available: Besides the expensive model of primary interest (denoted the fine model), access...... to a cheaper (coarse) model is assumed which may be less accurate. The main idea of the space mapping technique is to use the coarse model to gain information about the fine model, and to apply this in the search for an optimal solution of the latter. Thus the technique iteratively establishes a mapping...... for engineering purposes. Thus the space mapping technique may be considered a preprocessing technique that perhaps must be succeeded by use of classical optimization techniques. We present an automatic scheme which integrates the space mapping and classical techniques....

  13. Software patterns, knowledge maps, and domain analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fayad, Mohamed E; Hegde, Srikanth GK; Basia, Anshu; Vakil, Ashka

    2014-01-01

    Preface AcknowledgmentsAuthors INTRODUCTIONAn Overview of Knowledge MapsIntroduction: Key Concepts-Software Stable Models, Knowledge Maps, Pattern Language, Goals, Capabilities (Enduring Business Themes + Business Objects) The Motivation The Problem The Objectives Overview of Software Stability Concepts Overview of Knowledge Maps Pattern Languages versus Knowledge Maps: A Brief ComparisonThe Solution Knowledge Maps Methodology or Concurrent Software Development ModelWhy Knowledge Maps? Research Methodology Undertaken Research Verification and Validation The Stratification of This Book Summary

  14. On the manifold-mapping optimization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverria, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced in an earlier paper. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures that otherwise require many evaluations of time-expensive cost functions. We give a proof of convergence for the manifold

  15. Fixed Points for Pseudocontractive Mappings on Unbounded Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Falset Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give some fixed point results for pseudocontractive mappings on nonbounded domains which allow us to obtain generalizations of recent fixed point theorems of Penot, Isac, and Németh. An application to integral equations is given.

  16. Quasiconformal Mappings and Weakly John Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚玉明

    2003-01-01

    @@ Let D be a bounded domain in R2 and c (≥ 1) be a constant. We say that D is a c-Johndomain if there exists x0 ∈ D such that for any x ∈ D, there must be a rectifiable curve γ C D,which joins x and x0, satisfying l(γ(x, y)) ≤ cd(y, D) for any y ∈γ, where l(γ(x, y)) denotesthe Euclidean length of the subcurve γ between x and y, d(y, D) is the Euclidean distance fromy to the boundary D of D. We say that D is a John domain if D is a c-John domain for somec (≥ 1).

  17. Digital Mapping Techniques '07 - Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '07 (DMT'07) workshop was attended by 85 technical experts from 49 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 27 state geological surveys. This year's meeting, the tenth in the annual series, was hosted by the South Carolina Geological Survey, from May 20-23, 2007, on the University of South Carolina campus in Columbia, South Carolina. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Geologic Map Database Project and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). As in previous year's meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information, principally in order to develop more efficient methods for digital mapping, cartography, GIS analysis, and information management. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LIDAR; 3) digital cartographic techniques; 4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; 5) analytical GIS techniques; and 6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

  18. Mapping techniques for atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Jasbir; Akhtar, Masood

    2007-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Although significant work still needs to be done, recent advances in understanding the mechanism of AF have led to the development of elegant catheter mapping techniques for ablation of AF. These improved mapping techniques are complemented by an evolution in various imaging and navigational technologies, several of which can now be combined in a process called registration, so that the physician no longer needs to rely solely on a mental image of the anatomy of the left atrium and the pulmonary vein while attempting to ablate the region. Ongoing advances in mapping technique will increase safety and efficacy and it is likely that AF ablation will become the first-line therapy in most patients with this complicated arrhythmia.

  19. Basement domain map of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Box, Stephen E.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; San Juan, Carma A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Saltus, Richard W.; Anderson, Eric D.; DeWitt, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a base layer for national-scale mineral resource assessments. Seventy-seven basement domains are represented as eighty-three polygons on the map. The domains are based on interpretations of basement composition, origin, and architecture and developed from a variety of sources. Analysis of previously published basement, lithotectonic, and terrane maps as well as models of planetary development were used to formulate the concept of basement and the methodology of defining domains that spanned the ages of Archean to present but formed through different processes. The preliminary compilations for the study areas utilized these maps, national-scale gravity and aeromagnetic data, published and limited new age and isotopic data, limited new field investigations, and conventional geologic maps. Citation of the relevant source data for compilations and the source and types of original interpretation, as derived from different types of data, are provided in supporting descriptive text and tables.

  20. New Techniques in Dark Matter Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Suzanne; Peterson, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a new pipeline for mapping dark matter associated with clusters of galaxies via weak gravitational lensing. This method will be useful both with current datasets and future large optical survey telescopes, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We use a novel source finding technique using a wavelet detection method. We then find known photometric and spectroscopic redshifts associated with our sources and measure the ellipticities of galaxies using a second moment technique. The ellipticity and photometric redshift distribution are then converted to a dark matter map. We have represented the dark matter as smoothed particles to invert the ellipticity map. This had yielded dark matter distributions when applied to our Subaru archive image of Abell 2218.

  1. An Introduction to the Space Mapping Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, Mohamed H.; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj;

    2001-01-01

    The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It is assumed that two different models of the same physical system are available: Besides the expensive model of primary interest (denoted the fine model), access...

  2. A specificity map for the PDZ domain family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Tonikian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction modules that recognize specific C-terminal sequences to assemble protein complexes in multicellular organisms. By scanning billions of random peptides, we accurately map binding specificity for approximately half of the over 330 PDZ domains in the human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteomes. The domains recognize features of the last seven ligand positions, and we find 16 distinct specificity classes conserved from worm to human, significantly extending the canonical two-class system based on position -2. Thus, most PDZ domains are not promiscuous, but rather are fine-tuned for specific interactions. Specificity profiling of 91 point mutants of a model PDZ domain reveals that the binding site is highly robust, as all mutants were able to recognize C-terminal peptides. However, many mutations altered specificity for ligand positions both close and far from the mutated position, suggesting that binding specificity can evolve rapidly under mutational pressure. Our specificity map enables the prediction and prioritization of natural protein interactions, which can be used to guide PDZ domain cell biology experiments. Using this approach, we predicted and validated several viral ligands for the PDZ domains of the SCRIB polarity protein. These findings indicate that many viruses produce PDZ ligands that disrupt host protein complexes for their own benefit, and that highly pathogenic strains target PDZ domains involved in cell polarity and growth.

  3. Fixed Point Approximation of Nonexpansive Mappings on a Nonlinear Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safeer Hussain Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a three-step iterative process to prove some strong and Δ-convergence results for nonexpansive mappings in a uniformly convex hyperbolic space, a nonlinear domain. Three-step iterative processes have numerous applications and hyperbolic spaces contain Banach spaces (linear domains as well as CAT(0 spaces. Thus our results can be viewed as extension and generalization of several known results in uniformly convex Banach spaces as well as CAT(0 spaces.

  4. Path Based Mapping Technique for Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiraj Dhawan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore a new way of autonomous mapping. Current systems using perception techniques like LAZER or SONAR use probabilistic methods and have a drawback of allowing considerable uncertainty in the mapping process. Our approach is to break down the environment, specifically indoor, into reachable areas and objects, separated by boundaries, and identifying their shape, to render various navigable paths around them. This is a novel method to do away with uncertainties, as far as possible, at the cost of temporal efficiency. Also this system demands only minimum and cheap hardware, as it relies on only Infra-Red sensors to do the job.

  5. Digital mapping techniques '06 - Workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2007-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques `06 (DMT`06) workshop was attended by more than 110 technical experts from 51 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 27 state geological surveys (see Appendix A of these Proceedings). This workshop was similar in nature to the previous nine meetings, which were held in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998), Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999), Lexington, Kentucky (Soller, 2000), Tuscaloosa, Alabama (Soller, 2001), Salt Lake City, Utah (Soller, 2002), Millersville, Pennsylvania (Soller, 2003), Portland, Oregon (Soller, 2004), and Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Soller, 2005). This year?s meeting was hosted by the Ohio Geological Survey, from June 11-14, 2006, on the Ohio State University campus in Columbus, Ohio. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. It is with great pleasure that I note that the objective was successfully met, as attendees continued to share and exchange knowledge and information, and renew friendships and collegial work begun at past DMT workshops.Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Capture Working Group, the latter of which was formed in August 1996 to support the AASG and the USGS in their effort to build a National Geologic Map Database (see Soller, this volume, and http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/info/standards/datacapt/). The Working Group was formed because increased production efficiencies, standardization, and quality of digital map products were needed for the database - and for the State and Federal geological surveys - to provide more high-quality digital maps to the public.At the 2006 meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, "publishing" includes Web-based release); 2) field data

  6. Network Partitioning Domain Knowledge Multiobjective Application Mapping for Large-Scale Network-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhen Tei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multiobjective application mapping technique targeted for large-scale network-on-chip (NoC. As the number of intellectual property (IP cores in multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC increases, NoC application mapping to find optimum core-to-topology mapping becomes more challenging. Besides, the conflicting cost and performance trade-off makes multiobjective application mapping techniques even more complex. This paper proposes an application mapping technique that incorporates domain knowledge into genetic algorithm (GA. The initial population of GA is initialized with network partitioning (NP while the crossover operator is guided with knowledge on communication demands. NP reduces the large-scale application mapping complexity and provides GA with a potential mapping search space. The proposed genetic operator is compared with state-of-the-art genetic operators in terms of solution quality. In this work, multiobjective optimization of energy and thermal-balance is considered. Through simulation, knowledge-based initial mapping shows significant improvement in Pareto front compared to random initial mapping that is widely used. The proposed knowledge-based crossover also shows better Pareto front compared to state-of-the-art knowledge-based crossover.

  7. Impact of Domain Modeling Techniques on the Quality of Domain Model: An Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiqmat Nisa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unified modeling language (UML is widely used to analyze and design different software development artifacts in an object oriented development. Domain model is a significant artifact that models the problem domain and visually represents real world objects and relationships among them. It facilitates the comprehension process by identifying the vocabulary and key concepts of the business world. Category list technique identifies concepts and associations with the help of pre defined categories, which are important to business information systems. Whereas noun phrasing technique performs grammatical analysis of use case description to recognize concepts and associations. Both of these techniques are used for the construction of domain model, however, no empirical evidence exists that evaluates the quality of the resultant domain model constructed via these two basic techniques. A controlled experiment was performed to investigate the impact of category list and noun phrasing technique on quality of the domain model. The constructed domain model is evaluated for completeness, correctness and effort required for its design. The obtained results show that category list technique is better than noun phrasing technique for the identification of concepts as it avoids generating unnecessary elements i.e. extra concepts, associations and attributes in the domain model. The noun phrasing technique produces a comprehensive domain model and requires less effort as compared to category list. There is no statistically significant difference between both techniques in case of correctness.

  8. Impact of Domain Modeling Techniques on the Quality of Domain Model: An Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiqmat Nisa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The unified modeling language (UML is widely used to analyze and design different software development artifacts in an object oriented development. Domain model is a significant artifact that models the problem domain and visually represents real world objects and relationships among them. It facilitates the comprehension process by identifying the vocabulary and key concepts of the business world. Category list technique identifies concepts and associations with the help of pre defined categories, which are important to business information systems. Whereas noun phrasing technique performs grammatical analysis of use case description to recognize concepts and associations. Both of these techniques are used for the construction of domain model, however, no empirical evidence exists that evaluates the quality of the resultant domain model constructed via these two basic techniques. A controlled experiment was performed to investigate the impact of category list and noun phrasing technique on quality of the domain model. The constructed domain model is evaluated for completeness, correctness and effort required for its design. The obtained results show that category list technique is better than noun phrasing technique for the identification of concepts as it avoids generating unnecessary elements i.e. extra concepts, associations and attributes in the domain model. The noun phrasing technique produces a comprehensive domain model and requires less effort as compared to category list. There is no statistically significant difference between both techniques in case of correctness.

  9. Microstructure of polycrystalline PBTTT films: domain mapping and structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettfort, Torben; Watts, Benjamin; Thomsen, Lars; Lee, Mijung; Sirringhaus, Henning; McNeill, Christopher R

    2012-02-28

    We utilize near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to study the microstructure and domain structure of polycrystalline films of the semiconducting polymer poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT). Total electron yield NEXAFS spectroscopy is used to examine the surface structure of the first 1-2 molecular layers, while bulk-sensitive STXM is used to produce maps of domain orientation and order sampled through the entire film thickness. We study different phases of PBTTT including as-cast, terraced and nanoribbon morphologies produced via spin-coating as well as aligned films of as-cast and nanoribbon morphologies produced by zone-casting. For the terraced morphology, domains are observed that are larger than the size of the terraced surface features, and the calculated degree of order is reduced compared to the nanoribbon morphology. For zone-cast films, we find that, although little optical anisotropy is observed in the bulk of as-cast films, a high degree of surface structural anisotropy is observed with NEXAFS spectroscopy, similar to what is observed in annealed nanoribbon films. This observation indicates that the aligned surface structure in unannealed zone-cast films templates the bulk ordering of the aligned nanoribbon phase. STXM domain mapping of aligned nanoribbon films reveals elongated, micrometer-wide domains with each domain misoriented with respect to its neighbor by up to 45°, but with broad domain boundaries. Within each nanoribbon domain, a high degree of X-ray dichroism is observed, indicating correlated ordering throughout the bulk of the film.

  10. Advances in Domain Mapping of Massively Parallel Scientific Computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hendrickson, Bruce A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    One of the most important concerns in parallel computing is the proper distribution of workload across processors. For most scientific applications on massively parallel machines, the best approach to this distribution is to employ data parallelism; that is, to break the datastructures supporting a computation into pieces and then to assign those pieces to different processors. Collectively, these partitioning and assignment tasks comprise the domain mapping problem.

  11. Mapping the Shh long-range regulatory domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eve; Devenney, Paul S; Hill, Robert E; Lettice, Laura A

    2014-10-01

    Coordinated gene expression controlled by long-distance enhancers is orchestrated by DNA regulatory sequences involving transcription factors and layers of control mechanisms. The Shh gene and well-established regulators are an example of genomic composition in which enhancers reside in a large desert extending into neighbouring genes to control the spatiotemporal pattern of expression. Exploiting the local hopping activity of the Sleeping Beauty transposon, the lacZ reporter gene was dispersed throughout the Shh region to systematically map the genomic features responsible for expression activity. We found that enhancer activities are retained inside a genomic region that corresponds to the topological associated domain (TAD) defined by Hi-C. This domain of approximately 900 kb is in an open conformation over its length and is generally susceptible to all Shh enhancers. Similar to the distal enhancers, an enhancer residing within the Shh second intron activates the reporter gene located at distances of hundreds of kilobases away, suggesting that both proximal and distal enhancers have the capacity to survey the Shh topological domain to recognise potential promoters. The widely expressed Rnf32 gene lying within the Shh domain evades enhancer activities by a process that may be common among other housekeeping genes that reside in large regulatory domains. Finally, the boundaries of the Shh TAD do not represent the absolute expression limits of enhancer activity, as expression activity is lost stepwise at a number of genomic positions at the verges of these domains.

  12. A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Huber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.

  13. Spatial Domain Technique for Visible Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterAdjeiFordjour; 王朔中

    2003-01-01

    A new technique for embedding visible watermarks into a digital image is described in this paper, which uses statistical properties of each pixel and its immediate surrounding pixels in the host image, and also the statistical properties of the host image and that of the image to be embedded (watermark), as the pixels in the host image are replaced one by one by the pixels in the watermark image. The aim is to establish a relationship between pixels in the images that will make the embedded watermark robust and semitransparent, and to minimize errors caused by watermark addition and subtraction. Also, the original image can be completely reconstructed from the watermarked images.

  14. Evaluation of Damping Using Frequency Domain Operational Modal Analysis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajric, Anela; Georgakis, Christos T.; Brincker, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques provide in most cases reasonably accurate estimates of structural frequencies and mode shapes. In contrast though, they are known to often produce uncertain structural damping estimates, which is mainly due to inherent random and/or bias errors...... domain techniques, the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and the Frequency Domain Polyreference (FDPR). The response of a two degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system is numerically established with specified modal parameters subjected to white noise loading. The system identification is evaluated with well...

  15. Evaluation of data analytic approaches to generating cross-domain mappings of controlled science vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent data publication practices have made increasing amounts of diverse datasets available online for the general research community to explore and integrate. Even with the abundance of data online, relevant data discovery and successful integration is still highly dependent upon the data being published with well-formed and understandable metadata. Tagging a dataset with well-known or controlled community terms is a common mechanism to indicate the intended purpose, subject matter, or other relevant facts of a dataset, however controlled domain terminology can be difficult for cross-domain researchers to interpret and leverage. It is also a challenge for integration portals to successfully provide cross-domain search capabilities over data holdings described using many different controlled vocabularies. Mappings between controlled vocabularies can be challenging because communities frequently develop specialized terminologies and have highly specific and contextual usages of common words. Despite this specificity it is highly desirable to produce cross-domain mappings to support data integration. In this contribution we evaluate the applicability of several data analytic techniques for the purpose of generating mappings between hierarchies of controlled science terms. We hope our efforts initiate more discussion on the topic and encourage future mapping efforts.

  16. Episodic Mapping: A Technique To Help Students Understand Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Henson, Kenneth

    Semantic mapping is effective with expository prose but not as effective with narrative prose. To achieve a better understanding of narrative prose, yet still keep the benefits of semantic mapping, the traditional approach can be modified into a technique called "episodic mapping." Episodic mapping is based on the idea that most stories…

  17. Evaluation of Damping Using Time Domain OMA Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajric, Anela; Brincker, Rune; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper a comparison is made of the effectiveness of three existing OMA techniques in providing accurate damping estimates for varying loadings, levels of noise, number of added measurement channels and structural damping. The evaluated techniques are derived in the time domain and are namely the Ibrahim...... Time Domain (ITD), Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm (ERA) and the Polyreference Time Domain (PTD). The response of a two degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system is numerically established from specified modal parameters with well separated and closely spaced modes. Two types of response are considered, free...... response and random response from white noise loading. Finally, the results of the numerical study are presented, in which the error of the structural damping estimates obtained by each OMA technique is shown for a range of damping levels. From this, it is clear that there are notable differences...

  18. Concept Mapping: A Critical Thinking Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles M.; Zha, Shenghua

    2013-01-01

    Concept mapping, graphically depicting the structure of abstract concepts, is based on the observation that pictures and line drawings are often more easily comprehended than the words that represent an abstract concept. The efficacy of concept mapping for facilitating critical thinking was assessed in four sections of an introductory psychology…

  19. Process Mapping: Tools, Techniques, & Critical Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2002-01-01

    Explains process mapping as an analytical tool and a process intervention that performance technologists can use to improve human performance by reducing error variance. Highlights include benefits of process mapping; and critical success factors, including organizational readiness, time commitment by participants, and the availability of a…

  20. Manifold mapping: a two-level optimization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverria, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced recently [Echeverría and Hemker in space mapping and defect correction. Comput Methods Appl Math 5(2): 107-–136, 2005]. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures that otherwise requi

  1. Manifold mapping: a two-level optimization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced recently [Echeverría and Hemker in space mapping and defect correction. Comput Methods Appl Math 5(2): 107--136, 2005]. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures that otherwise requi

  2. Frequency domain simultaneous algebraic reconstruction techniques: algorithm and convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zheng, Yibin

    2005-03-01

    We propose a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) in the frequency domain for linear imaging problems. This algorithm has the advantage of efficiently incorporating pixel correlations in an a priori image model. First it is shown that the generalized SART algorithm converges to the weighted minimum norm solution of a weighted least square problem. Then an implementation in the frequency domain is described. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated with fan beam computed tomography (CT) examples. Compared to the traditional SART and its major alternative ART, the new algorithm offers superior image quality and potential application to other modalities.

  3. The use of Time Domain Electromagnetic method and Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding to map groundwater salinity in the Barotse sub-basin, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Wibroe, Johanne; Staal-Thomsen, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results from the application of two geophysical exploration techniques, Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) and Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) that have proved effective in mapping groundwater salinity variations within the sedimentary formations...

  4. Denoising time-domain induced polarisation data using wavelet techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravin N.; Cull, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Time-domain induced polarisation (TDIP) methods are routinely used for near-surface evaluations in quasi-urban environments harbouring networks of buried civil infrastructure. A conventional technique for improving signal to noise ratio in such environments is by using analogue or digital low-pass filtering followed by stacking and rectification. However, this induces large distortions in the processed data. In this study, we have conducted the first application of wavelet based denoising techniques for processing raw TDIP data. Our investigation included laboratory and field measurements to better understand the advantages and limitations of this technique. It was found that distortions arising from conventional filtering can be significantly avoided with the use of wavelet based denoising techniques. With recent advances in full-waveform acquisition and analysis, incorporation of wavelet denoising techniques can further enhance surveying capabilities. In this work, we present the rationale for utilising wavelet denoising methods and discuss some important implications, which can positively influence TDIP methods.

  5. Secure image transform domain technique for steganographic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturki, Faisal T.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2001-08-01

    Digital steganography is the art of secretly hiding information inside a multimedia signal in such a way that its very existence is concealed. In this paper, we present a new steganographic technique for covert communications. The technique embeds the hidden information in the transform domain after decorrelating the image samples in the spatial domain using a key. This results in a significant increase in the number of transform coefficients that can be used to transmit the hidden information, and therefore, increases the data embedding capacity. The hidden information is embedded in the transform domain after taking a block DCT of the decorrelated image. A quantization technique is used to embed the hidden data. The decoding process requires the availability of the same key that was used to decorrelate the image samples. By using quantization techniques, the hidden information can be recovered reliably. If the key is not available at the decoder it is impossible to recover the hidden information. Hence, this system is secure against removal attacks. The statistical properties of the cover and the stego image remain identical for small quantization steps. Therefore, the hidden data cannot be detected. The data embedding system is modeled as transmitting information through a Gaussian channel.

  6. Structural mapping of the coiled-coil domain of a bacterial condensin and comparative analyses across all domains of life suggest conserved features of SMC proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Vincent M; Stanage, Tyler H; Mims, Alexandra; Norden, Ian S; Oakley, Martha G

    2015-06-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins form the cores of multisubunit complexes that are required for the segregation and global organization of chromosomes in all domains of life. These proteins share a common domain structure in which N- and C- terminal regions pack against one another to form a globular ATPase domain. This "head" domain is connected to a central, globular, "hinge" or dimerization domain by a long, antiparallel coiled coil. To date, most efforts for structural characterization of SMC proteins have focused on the globular domains. Recently, however, we developed a method to map interstrand interactions in the 50-nm coiled-coil domain of MukB, the divergent SMC protein found in γ-proteobacteria. Here, we apply that technique to map the structure of the Bacillus subtilis SMC (BsSMC) coiled-coil domain. We find that, in contrast to the relatively complicated coiled-coil domain of MukB, the BsSMC domain is nearly continuous, with only two detectable coiled-coil interruptions. Near the middle of the domain is a break in coiled-coil structure in which there are three more residues on the C-terminal strand than on the N-terminal strand. Close to the head domain, there is a second break with a significantly longer insertion on the same strand. These results provide an experience base that allows an informed interpretation of the output of coiled-coil prediction algorithms for this family of proteins. A comparison of such predictions suggests that these coiled-coil deviations are highly conserved across SMC types in a wide variety of organisms, including humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Secured color image watermarking technique in DWT-DCT domain

    CERN Document Server

    Gunjal, Baisa L

    2011-01-01

    The multilayer secured DWT-DCT and YIQ color space based image watermarking technique with robustness and better correlation is presented here. The security levels are increased by using multiple pn sequences, Arnold scrambling, DWT domain, DCT domain and color space conversions. Peak signal to noise ratio and Normalized correlations are used as measurement metrics. The 512x512 sized color images with different histograms are used for testing and watermark of size 64x64 is embedded in HL region of DWT and 4x4 DCT is used. 'Haar' wavelet is used for decomposition and direct flexing factor is used. We got PSNR value is 63.9988 for flexing factor k=1 for Lena image and the maximum NC 0.9781 for flexing factor k=4 in Q color space. The comparative performance in Y, I and Q color space is presented. The technique is robust for different attacks like scaling, compression, rotation etc.

  8. Pictorial Narrative Mapping as a Qualitative Analytic Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Lapum; Linda Liu; Sarah Hume; Siyuan Wang; Megan Nguyen; Bailey Harding; Kathryn Church; Gideon Cohen; Yau, Terrence M

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative analysis is often a textual undertaking. However, it can be helpful to think about and represent study phenomena or narrative accounts in nontextual ways. In this article, we share our unique and artistic process in developing and employing pictorial narrative mapping as a qualitative analytic technique. We recast a nontextual, artistic–analytic technique by combining elements related to narrative mapping and narrative art. This technique involves aesthetic attunement to data and ...

  9. Remote sensing techniques for mangrove mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaiphasa, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves, important components of the world's coastal ecosystems, are threatened by the expansion of human settlements, the boom in commercial aquaculture, the impact of tidal waves and storm surges, etc. Such threats are leading to the increasing demand for detailed mangrove maps for the purpose o

  10. An implementation of synthetic aperture focusing technique in frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2007-07-01

    A new implementation of a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) based on concepts used in synthetic aperture radar and sonar is presented in the paper. The algorithm, based on the convolution model of the imaging system developed in frequency domain, accounts for the beam pattern of the finite-sized transducer used in the synthetic aperture. The 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for the calculation of a 2D spectrum of the ultrasonic data. The spectrum is then interpolated to convert the polar coordinate system used for the acquisition of ultrasonic signals to the rectangular coordinates used for the presentation of imaging results. After compensating the transducer lobe amplitude profile using a Wiener filter, the transformed spectrum is subjected to the 2D inverse Fourier transform to get the time-domain image again. The algorithm is computationally attractive due to the use of 2D FFT. The performance of the proposed frequency-domain algorithm and the classical time-domain SAFT are compared in the paper using simulated and real ultrasonic data.

  11. Comparison of Satellite Image Enhancement Techniques in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Narasimhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison of various existing satellite image resolution enhancement techniques in wavelet domain is done. Each method is analysed quantitatively and visually. There are various wavelet domain based methods such as Wavelet Zero Padding, Dual Tree-Complex Wavelet Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Cycle Spinning and Undecimated Wavelet Transform. On the basis of analysis, the most efficient method is proposed. The algorithms take the low resolution image as the input image and then wavelet transformation using daubechies (db3 is used to decompose the input image into different sub band images containing high and low frequency component. Then these subband images along with the input image are interpolated followed by combining all these images to generate a new resolution enhanced image by an inverse process.

  12. Image Resolution Enhancement using DWT and Spatial Domain Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. G. Padma Priya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Image Resolution is one of the important quality metrics of images. Images with high resolution are required in many fields. In this paper, a new resolution enhancement technique is proposed based on the interpolation of four sub band images generated by Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and the original Low Resolution (LR input image. In this technique, the four sub band images generated by DWT and the input LR image are interpolated with scaling factor, α and then performed inverse DWT to obtain the intermediate High Resolution (HR Image. The difference between the intermediate HR image and the interpolated LR input image is added to the intermediate HR image to obtain final output HR Image. Lanczos interpolation is used in this technique. The proposed technique is tested on well known bench mark images. The quantitative and visual results shows the superiority of the proposed technique over the conventional and state of art image resolution enhancement techniques in wavelet domain using haar wavelet filter.

  13. A Disaster Document Classification Technique Using Domain Specific Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Mudassar Ilyas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Manual data collection and entry is one of the bottlenecks in conventional disaster management information systems. Time is a critical factor in emergency situations and timely data collection and processing may help in saving several lives. An effective disaster management system needs to collect data from World Wide Web automatically. A prerequisite for data collection process is document classification mechanism to classify a particular document into different categories. Ontologies are formal bodies of knowledge used to capture machine understandable semantics of a domain of interest and have been used successfully to support document classification in various domains. This paper presents an ontology-based document classification technique for automatic data collection in a disaster management system. A general ontology of disasters is used that contains the description of several natural and man-made disasters. The proposed technique augments the conventional classification measures with the ontological knowledge to improve the precision of classification. A preliminary implementation of the proposed technique shows promising results with up to 10% overall improvement in precision when compared with conventional classification methods.

  14. Mapping the structural and dynamical features of kinesin motor domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Scarabelli

    Full Text Available Kinesin motor proteins drive intracellular transport by coupling ATP hydrolysis to conformational changes that mediate directed movement along microtubules. Characterizing these distinct conformations and their interconversion mechanism is essential to determining an atomic-level model of kinesin action. Here we report a comprehensive principal component analysis of 114 experimental structures along with the results of conventional and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations that together map the structural dynamics of the kinesin motor domain. All experimental structures were found to reside in one of three distinct conformational clusters (ATP-like, ADP-like and Eg5 inhibitor-bound. These groups differ in the orientation of key functional elements, most notably the microtubule binding α4-α5, loop8 subdomain and α2b-β4-β6-β7 motor domain tip. Group membership was found not to correlate with the nature of the bound nucleotide in a given structure. However, groupings were coincident with distinct neck-linker orientations. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of ATP, ADP and nucleotide free Eg5 indicate that all three nucleotide states could sample the major crystallographically observed conformations. Differences in the dynamic coupling of distal sites were also evident. In multiple ATP bound simulations, the neck-linker, loop8 and the α4-α5 subdomain display correlated motions that are absent in ADP bound simulations. Further dissection of these couplings provides evidence for a network of dynamic communication between the active site, microtubule-binding interface and neck-linker via loop7 and loop13. Additional simulations indicate that the mutations G325A and G326A in loop13 reduce the flexibility of these regions and disrupt their couplings. Our combined results indicate that the reported ATP and ADP-like conformations of kinesin are intrinsically accessible regardless of nucleotide state and support a model where neck

  15. Pictorial Narrative Mapping as a Qualitative Analytic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Lapum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis is often a textual undertaking. However, it can be helpful to think about and represent study phenomena or narrative accounts in nontextual ways. In this article, we share our unique and artistic process in developing and employing pictorial narrative mapping as a qualitative analytic technique. We recast a nontextual, artistic–analytic technique by combining elements related to narrative mapping and narrative art. This technique involves aesthetic attunement to data and visual representation through pictorial design. We advanced this technique in the context of a narrative study about how arts-informed dissemination methods influence health-care practitioners’ delivery of care. We found that the Pictorial Narrative Mapping process prompted an aesthetic and imaginative experience in the analytic process of qualitative inquiry. As an analytic technique, Pictorial Narrative Mapping extends the inquiry process and enhances rigor through artistic means as well as iterative and critical dialogue. Additionally, pictorial narrative maps can provide a holistic account of the phenomenon under study and assist researchers to make meaning of nuances within complex narratives. As researchers consider employing Pictorial Narrative Mapping, we recommend that they draw upon this technique as a malleable script yielding to an organic process that emerges from both their own data and analytic discussions. We are further curious about its imaginative capacities in social and health science literature, its possibilities in other disciplinary contexts, and the prospects of what Maxine Greene refers to as becoming more wide awake—in our case, in future research analytic endeavors.

  16. Optimization using surrogate models - by the space mapping technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    mapping surrogate has a lower approximation error for long steps. For short steps, however, the Taylor model of the expensive model is best, due to exact interpolation at the model origin. Five algorithms for space mapping optimization are presented and the numerical performance is evaluated. Three...... conditions are satisfied. So hybrid methods, combining the space mapping technique with classical optimization methods, should be used if convergence to high accuracy is wanted. Approximation abilities of the space mapping surrogate are compared with those of a Taylor model of the expensive model. The space...

  17. Optimization using surrogate models - by the space mapping technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    mapping surrogate has a lower approximation error for long steps. For short steps, however, the Taylor model of the expensive model is best, due to exact interpolation at the model origin. Five algorithms for space mapping optimization are presented and the numerical performance is evaluated. Three...... conditions are satisfied. So hybrid methods, combining the space mapping technique with classical optimization methods, should be used if convergence to high accuracy is wanted. Approximation abilities of the space mapping surrogate are compared with those of a Taylor model of the expensive model. The space...

  18. The factors forming investor’s failure: Is financial literacy a matter? Viewing test by cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amari Mouna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply cognitive map-related techniques to extract causal knowledge from a specific problem domain. This paper proposes to draw an average cognitive map in order to identify the failure factors of the Tunisian small investors. Our paper extends traditional and behavioral finance and previous research by proposing a new approach to building an average cognitive map for the explanation of small investors’ failure in the stock market.

  19. Time domain localization technique with sparsity constraint for imaging acoustic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Thomas; Doutres, Olivier; Sgard, Franck; Berry, Alain

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses source localization technique in time domain for broadband acoustic sources. The objective is to accurately and quickly detect the position and amplitude of noise sources in workplaces in order to propose adequate noise control options and prevent workers hearing loss or safety risk. First, the generalized cross correlation associated with a spherical microphone array is used to generate an initial noise source map. Then a linear inverse problem is defined to improve this initial map. Commonly, the linear inverse problem is solved with an l2 -regularization. In this study, two sparsity constraints are used to solve the inverse problem, the orthogonal matching pursuit and the truncated Newton interior-point method. Synthetic data are used to highlight the performances of the technique. High resolution imaging is achieved for various acoustic sources configurations. Moreover, the amplitudes of the acoustic sources are correctly estimated. A comparison of computation times shows that the technique is compatible with quasi real-time generation of noise source maps. Finally, the technique is tested with real data.

  20. Historical shoreline mapping (I): improving techniques and reducing positioning errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.

    1994-01-01

    A critical need exists among coastal researchers and policy-makers for a precise method to obtain shoreline positions from historical maps and aerial photographs. A number of methods that vary widely in approach and accuracy have been developed to meet this need. None of the existing methods, however, address the entire range of cartographic and photogrammetric techniques required for accurate coastal mapping. Thus, their application to many typical shoreline mapping problems is limited. In addition, no shoreline mapping technique provides an adequate basis for quantifying the many errors inherent in shoreline mapping using maps and air photos. As a result, current assessments of errors in air photo mapping techniques generally (and falsely) assume that errors in shoreline positions are represented by the sum of a series of worst-case assumptions about digitizer operator resolution and ground control accuracy. These assessments also ignore altogether other errors that commonly approach ground distances of 10 m. This paper provides a conceptual and analytical framework for improved methods of extracting geographic data from maps and aerial photographs. We also present a new approach to shoreline mapping using air photos that revises and extends a number of photogrammetric techniques. These techniques include (1) developing spatially and temporally overlapping control networks for large groups of photos; (2) digitizing air photos for use in shoreline mapping; (3) preprocessing digitized photos to remove lens distortion and film deformation effects; (4) simultaneous aerotriangulation of large groups of spatially and temporally overlapping photos; and (5) using a single-ray intersection technique to determine geographic shoreline coordinates and express the horizontal and vertical error associated with a given digitized shoreline. As long as historical maps and air photos are used in studies of shoreline change, there will be a considerable amount of error (on the

  1. Mapping the climate: guidance on appropriate techniques to map climate variables and their uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, N. R.; Hartley, A.; Hemming, D.

    2012-02-01

    Maps are a crucial asset in communicating climate science to a diverse audience, and there is a wealth of software available to analyse and visualise climate information. However, this availability makes it easy to create poor maps as users often lack an underlying cartographic knowledge. Unlike traditional cartography, where many known standards allow maps to be interpreted easily, there is no standard mapping approach used to represent uncertainty (in climate or other information). Consequently, a wide range of techniques have been applied for this purpose, and users may spend unnecessary time trying to understand the mapping approach rather than interpreting the information presented. Furthermore, communicating and visualising uncertainties in climate data and climate change projections, using for example ensemble based approaches, presents additional challenges for mapping that require careful consideration. The aim of this paper is to provide background information and guidance on suitable techniques for mapping climate variables, including uncertainty. We assess a range of existing and novel techniques for mapping variables and uncertainties, comparing "intrinsic" approaches that use colour in much the same way as conventional thematic maps with "extrinsic" approaches that incorporate additional geometry such as points or features. Using cartographic knowledge and lessons learned from mapping in different disciplines we propose the following 6 general mapping guidelines to develop a suitable mapping technique that represents both magnitude and uncertainty in climate data: text-indent:1em;">- use a sensible sequential or diverging colour scheme; text-indent:1em;">- use appropriate colour symbolism if it is applicable; text-indent:1em;">- ensure the map is usable by colour blind people; text-indent:1em;">- use a data classification scheme that does not misrepresent the data; text-indent:1em;">- use a map projection that does not distort the data text-indent:1em

  2. Active chromatin domains are defined by acetylation islands revealed by genome-wide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Tae-Young; Cuddapah, Suresh; Zhao, Keji

    2005-03-01

    The identity and developmental potential of a human cell is specified by its epigenome that is largely defined by patterns of chromatin modifications including histone acetylation. Here we report high-resolution genome-wide mapping of diacetylation of histone H3 at Lys 9 and Lys 14 in resting and activated human T cells by genome-wide mapping technique (GMAT). Our data show that high levels of the H3 acetylation are detected in gene-rich regions. The chromatin accessibility and gene expression of a genetic domain is correlated with hyperacetylation of promoters and other regulatory elements but not with generally elevated acetylation of the entire domain. Islands of acetylation are identified in the intergenic and transcribed regions. The locations of the 46,813 acetylation islands identified in this study are significantly correlated with conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) and many of them are colocalized with known regulatory elements in T cells. TCR signaling induces 4045 new acetylation loci that may mediate the global chromatin remodeling and gene activation. We propose that the acetylation islands are epigenetic marks that allow prediction of functional regulatory elements.

  3. THE DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUES FOR THE FINITE ELEMENT PROBABILITY COMPUTATIONAL METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoqi

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we shall study the domain decomposition techniques for the finite element probability computational methods. These techniques provide a theoretical basis for parallel probability computational methods.

  4. Bootstrapping Domain Knowledge Exploration using Conceptual Mapping of Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Eldefrawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia is one of the largest online encyclopedias that exist in a hypertext form. This nature prevents Wikipedia’s potential to be fully discovered. Therefore the focus of this paper is on the role of domain knowledge in supporting the exploration of classical encyclopedic content, which in this case is Wikipedia. A main contribution provided by the author of this work is a methodology for identifying the nature, the form and the role of domain knowledge expressed in conceptual form. It’s also a method of representation and analysis for describing the domain knowledge and for the extraction of the logical representation of a raw form of the domain knowledge. Such logical representation is of limited value in describing the real nature of domain knowledge. Hence we transform it into an adequate graphical representation, mostly of an arc-node form which is called conceptual representation.

  5. A Corpus-based Evaluation of a Domain-specific Text to Knowledge Mapping Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Rushdi; Elsayed, Adel; Akter, Quazi Mah-Zereen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate a Text to Knowledge Mapping (TKM) Prototype. The prototype is domain-specific, the purpose of which is to map instructional text onto a knowledge domain. The context of the knowledge domain is DC electrical circuit. During development, the prototype has been tested with a limited data set from the domain. The prototype reached a stage where it needs to be evaluated with a representative linguistic data set called corpus. A corpus is a collection of text dr...

  6. Digital Mapping Techniques '11–12 workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '11 (DMT'11) workshop was hosted by Virginia Division of Geology and Mineral Resources and The College of William & Mary, and coordinated by the National Geologic Map Database project. Conducted May 22-25 on the campus of The College of William & Mary, in Williamsburg, Virginia, it was attended by 77 technical experts from 30 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 19 State geological surveys (see "DMT'11 Presentations and Attendees" in these Proceedings).

  7. Technique of Embedding Depth Maps into 2D Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazutake Uehira; Hiroshi Unno; Youichi Takashima

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new technique that is used to embed depth maps into corresponding 2-dimensional (2D) images. Since a 2D image and its depth map are integrated into one type of image format, they can be treated as if they were one 2D image. Thereby, it can reduce the amount of data in 3D images by half and simplify the processes for sending them through networks because the synchronization between images for the left and right eyes becomes unnecessary. We embed depth maps in the quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) data of 2D images. The key to this technique is whether the depth maps could be embedded into 2D images without perceivably deteriorating their quality. We try to reduce their deterioration by compressing the depth map data by using the differences from the next pixel to the left. We assume that there is only one non-zero pixel at most on one horizontal line in the DCT block because the depth map values change abruptly. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the quality of the 2D images embedded with depth maps and find that satisfactory quality could be achieved.

  8. Automated thermal mapping techniques using chromatic image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal imaging techniques are introduced using a chromatic image analysis system and temperature sensitive coatings. These techniques are used for thermal mapping and surface heat transfer measurements on aerothermodynamic test models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Measurements are made on complex vehicle configurations in a timely manner and at minimal expense. The image analysis system uses separate wavelength filtered images to analyze surface spectral intensity data. The system was initially developed for quantitative surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors but was found useful in interpreting phase change paint and liquid crystal data as well.

  9. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available to cyber warfare. This article aims to provide evidence towards the probability of predicting and mapping traditional warfare measurements to the cyber warfare domain. Currently the only way of cyber warfare measurement is located in traditional information...

  10. Antibody mapping and tissue localization of globular and cysteine-rich regions of perlecan domain III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V; Sthanam, M;

    1995-01-01

    Perlecan is the best-characterized basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It has a large (approximately 400 KD) core protein consisting of five distinct domains. Domain III, a centrally located domain, contains three globular domains separated by cysteine-rich epidermal growth factor (EGF...... blotting showed that six of the nine MAbs recognized Domain III of perlecan, three of them mapping to globular Subdomain IIIc, and the other three recognized epitopes within the cysteine-rich regions. All six MAbs stained every basement membrane of several mouse organs as well as some connective tissues...

  11. Column-Oriented Storage Techniques for MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Floratou, Avrilia; Shekita, Eugene; Tata, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Users of MapReduce often run into performance problems when they scale up their workloads. Many of the problems they encounter can be overcome by applying techniques learned from over three decades of research on parallel DBMSs. However, translating these techniques to a MapReduce implementation such as Hadoop presents unique challenges that can lead to new design choices. This paper describes how column-oriented storage techniques can be incorporated in Hadoop in a way that preserves its popular programming APIs. We show that simply using binary storage formats in Hadoop can provide a 3x performance boost over the naive use of text files. We then introduce a column-oriented storage format that is compatible with the replication and scheduling constraints of Hadoop and show that it can speed up MapReduce jobs on real workloads by an order of magnitude. We also show that dealing with complex column types such as arrays, maps, and nested records, which are common in MapReduce jobs, can incur significant CPU ove...

  12. Basement domain map of the conterminous U.S.A. and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as...

  13. Basement domain map of the conterminous U.S.A. and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a...

  14. A Novel Transfer Learning Method Based on Common Space Mapping and Weighted Domain Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for the problem of domain transfer learning. We map the data of two domains to one single common space, and learn a classifier in this common space. Then we adapt the common classifier to the two domains by adding two adaptive functions to it respectively. In the common space, the target domain data points are weighted and matched to the target domain in term of distributions. The weighting terms of source domain data points and the target domain classification responses are also regularized by the local reconstruction coefficients. The novel transfer learning framework is evaluated over some benchmark cross-domain data sets, and it outperforms the existing state-of-the-art transfer learning methods.

  15. UAS Mapping as an alternative for land surveying techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Devriendt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Can a UAS mapping technique compete with standard surveying techniques? Since the boom in different RPAS (remotely piloted air system, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAS (unmanned aerial system, this is one of the crucial questions when it comes to UAS mappings. Not the looks and feels are important but the reliability, ease-to-use, and accuracy that you get with a system based on hardware and corresponding software. This was also one of the issues that the Dutch Land Registry asked a few months ago aimed at achieving an effective and usable system for updating property boundaries in new-build districts. Orbit GT gave them a ready-made answer: a definitive outcome based on years of research and development in UAS mapping technology and software.

  16. Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals.

  17. THE PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION FOR SPIRAL-LIKE MAPPINGS OF TYPE α ON BOUNDED BALANCED PSEUDOCONVEX DOMAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Let Ω be a bounded balanced pseudoconvex domain in Cn that admits a plurisubhamonic defining function of class C2. The authors prove that if f is a spiral-like mapping of type α on Ω, then f can be expressed as a limiting form concerning a Schwarz mapping. Moreover, the characteristics for star-like mappings and spiral-like mappings of type α are obtained. As a direct application, the growth theorem for spiral-like mappings of type α is set up.

  18. Two new variants of the manifold-mapping technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverria, D.

    2006-01-01

    Manifold-mapping is an efficient surrogate-based optimization technique aimed at the acceleration of very time-consuming design problems. In this paper we present two new variants of the original algorithm that make it applicable to a broader range of optimization scenarios. The first variant is use

  19. Kronos: Mapping Black Hole Environments in the Time Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. M.; Kronos Science Team

    2001-05-01

    Kronos is a multiwavelength (X-ray, EUV, UV, and optical) observatory designed for high time resolution, long-duration spectroscopy of faint sources from high-Earth orbit. It will be proposed to NASA as a Medium Explorer (MIDEX). The main scientific goals of the mission are the study of accretion processes and related outflow phenomena (such as disk winds and jets) in black hole systems of all masses, as well as neutron star and white dwarf interacting binary systems. Coaligned X-ray, EUV, UV/optical telescopes will provide simultaneous spectrophotometry to perform reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei and eclipse mapping of binary stars to map the structure and dynamics of these systems on microarcsecond angular scales.

  20. Modulated scattering technique in the terahertz domain enabled by current actuated vanadium dioxide switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, W. A.; Tamagnone, M.; Émond, N.; Le Drogoff, B.; Capdevila, S.; Skrivervik, A.; Chaker, M.; Mosig, J. R.; Ionescu, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The modulated scattering technique is based on the use of reconfigurable electromagnetic scatterers, structures able to scatter and modulate an impinging electromagnetic field in function of a control signal. The modulated scattering technique is used in a wide range of frequencies up to millimeter waves for various applications, such as field mapping of circuits or antennas, radio-frequency identification devices and imaging applications. However, its implementation in the terahertz domain remains challenging. Here, we describe the design and experimental demonstration of the modulated scattering technique at terahertz frequencies. We characterize a modulated scatterer consisting in a bowtie antenna loaded with a vanadium dioxide switch, actuated using a continuous current. The modulated scatterer behavior is demonstrated using a time domain terahertz spectroscopy setup and shows significant signal strength well above 0.5 THz, which makes this device a promising candidate for the development of fast and energy-efficient THz communication devices and imaging systems. Moreover, our experiments allowed us to verify the operation of a single micro-meter sized VO2 switch at terahertz frequencies, thanks to the coupling provided by the antenna.

  1. Modular Ontology Techniques and their Applications in the Biomedical Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Johnson, Thomas M; Chute, Christopher G

    2008-08-05

    In the past several years, various ontologies and terminologies such as the Gene Ontology have been developed to enable interoperability across multiple diverse medical information systems. They provide a standard way of representing terms and concepts thereby supporting easy transmission and interpretation of data for various applications. However, with their growing utilization, not only has the number of available ontologies increased considerably, but they are also becoming larger and more complex to manage. Toward this end, a growing body of work is emerging in the area of modular ontologies where the emphasis is on either extracting and managing "modules" of an ontology relevant to a particular application scenario (ontology decomposition) or developing them independently and integrating into a larger ontology (ontology composition). In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art approaches in modular ontologies focusing on techniques that are based on rigorous logical formalisms as well as well-studied graph theories. We analyze and compare how such approaches can be leveraged in developing tools and applications in the biomedical domain. We conclude by highlighting some of the limitations of the modular ontology formalisms and put forward additional requirements to steer their future development.

  2. Techniques of stapler-based navigational thoracoscopic segmentectomy using virtual assisted lung mapping (VAL-MAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Murayama, Tomonori; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Anatomical segmentectomies play an important role in oncological lung resection, particularly for ground-glass types of primary lung cancers. This operation can also be applied to metastatic lung tumors deep in the lung. Virtual assisted lung mapping (VAL-MAP) is a novel technique that allows for bronchoscopic multi-spot dye markings to provide "geometric information" to the lung surface, using three-dimensional virtual images. In addition to wedge resections, VAL-MAP has been found to be useful in thoracoscopic segmentectomies, particularly complex segmentectomies, such as combined subsegmentectomies or extended segmentectomies. There are five steps in VAL-MAP-assisted segmentectomies: (I) "standing" stitches along the resection lines; (II) cleaning hilar anatomy; (III) confirming hilar anatomy; (IV) going 1 cm deeper; (V) step-by-step stapling technique. Depending on the anatomy, segmentectomies can be classified into linear (lingular, S6, S2), V- or U-shaped (right S1, left S3, S2b + S3a), and three dimensional (S7, S8, S9, S10) segmentectomies. Particularly three dimensional segmentectomies are challenging in the complexity of stapling techniques. This review focuses on how VAL-MAP can be utilized in segmentectomy, and how this technique can assist the stapling process in even the most challenging ones.

  3. Towards A Cross-Domain MapReduce Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuy D.; Gondree, Mark A.; Khosalim, Jean; Irvine, Cynthia E.

    2013-01-01

    The Apache™ Hadoop® framework provides parallel processing and distributed data storage capabilities that data analytics applications can utilize to process massive sets of raw data. These Big Data applications typically run as a set of MapReduce jobs to take advantage of Hadoop’s ease of service deployment and large-scale parallelism. Yet, Hadoop has not been adapted for multilevel secure (MLS) environments where data of different security classifications co-exist...

  4. Towards A Cross-Domain MapReduce Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuy D.; Gondree, Mark A.; Khosalim, Jean; Irvine, Cynthia E.

    2013-01-01

    The Apache™ Hadoop® framework provides parallel processing and distributed data storage capabilities that data analytics applications can utilize to process massive sets of raw data. These Big Data applications typically run as a set of MapReduce jobs to take advantage of Hadoop’s ease of service deployment and large-scale parallelism. Yet, Hadoop has not been adapted for multilevel secure (MLS) environments where data of different security classifications co-exist...

  5. Uncertainty in mapping urban air quality using crowdsourcing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Small and low-cost sensors measuring various air pollutants have become available in recent years owing to advances in sensor technology. Such sensors have significant potential for improving high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment as they can be deployed in comparatively large numbers and therefore are able to provide information at unprecedented spatial detail. However, such sensor devices are subject to significant and currently little understood uncertainties that affect their usability. Not only do these devices exhibit random errors and biases of occasionally substantial magnitudes, but these errors may also shift over time. In addition, there often tends to be significant inter-sensor variability even when supposedly identical sensors from the same manufacturer are used. We need to quantify accurately these uncertainties to make proper use of the information they provide. Furthermore, when making use of the data and producing derived products such as maps, the measurement uncertainties that propagate throughout the analysis need to be clearly communicated to the scientific and non-scientific users of the map products. Based on recent experiences within the EU-funded projects CITI-SENSE and hackAIR we discuss the uncertainties along the entire processing chain when using crowdsourcing techniques for mapping urban air quality. Starting with the uncertainties exhibited by the sensors themselves, we present ways of quantifying the error characteristics of a network of low-cost microsensors and show suitable statistical metrics for summarizing them. Subsequently, we briefly present a data-fusion-based method for mapping air quality in the urban environment and illustrate how we propagate the uncertainties of the individual sensors throughout the mapping system, resulting in detailed maps that document the pixel-level uncertainty for each concentration field. Finally, we present methods for communicating the resulting spatial uncertainty

  6. Immune evolutionary algorithms with domain knowledge for simultaneous localization and mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-yi; CAI Zi-xing

    2006-01-01

    Immune evolutionary algorithms with domain knowledge were presented to solve the problem of simultaneous localization and mapping for a mobile robot in unknown environments. Two operators with domain knowledge were designed in algorithms, where the feature of parallel line segments without the problem of data association was used to construct a vaccination operator, and the characters of convex vertices in polygonal obstacle were extended to develop a pulling operator of key point grid. The experimental results of a real mobile robot show that the computational expensiveness of algorithms designed is less than other evolutionary algorithms for simultaneous localization and mapping and the maps obtained are very accurate. Because immune evolutionary algorithms with domain knowledge have some advantages, the convergence rate of designed algorithms is about 44 % higher than those of other algorithms.

  7. Influence of pansharpening techniques in obtaining accurate vegetation thematic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In last decades, there have been a decline in natural resources, becoming important to develop reliable methodologies for their management. The appearance of very high resolution sensors has offered a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management. In this context, improvements are needed for obtaining higher quality of the information available in order to get reliable classified images. Thus, pansharpening enhances the spatial resolution of the multispectral band by incorporating information from the panchromatic image. The main goal in the study is to implement pixel and object-based classification techniques applied to the fused imagery using different pansharpening algorithms and the evaluation of thematic maps generated that serve to obtain accurate information for the conservation of natural resources. A vulnerable heterogenic ecosystem from Canary Islands (Spain) was chosen, Teide National Park, and Worldview-2 high resolution imagery was employed. The classes considered of interest were set by the National Park conservation managers. 7 pansharpening techniques (GS, FIHS, HCS, MTF based, Wavelet `à trous' and Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps) were chosen in order to improve the data quality with the goal to analyze the vegetation classes. Next, different classification algorithms were applied at pixel-based and object-based approach, moreover, an accuracy assessment of the different thematic maps obtained were performed. The highest classification accuracy was obtained applying Support Vector Machine classifier at object-based approach in the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps fused image. Finally, highlight the difficulty of the classification in Teide ecosystem due to the heterogeneity and the small size of the species. Thus, it is important to obtain accurate thematic maps for further studies in the management and conservation of natural resources.

  8. The Use of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques for Soil Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Soils have high natural spatial variability. This has been recognized for a long time, and many methods of mapping that spatial variability have been investigated. One technique that has received considerable attention over the last ~30 years is electromagnetic induction (EMI). Particularly when coupled with modern GPS and GIS systems, EMI techniques have allowed the rapid and relatively inexpensive collection of large spatially-related data sets that can be correlated to soil properties that either directly or indirectly influence electrical conductance in the soil. Soil electrical conductivity is directly controlled by soil water content, soluble salt content, clay content and mineralogy, and temperature. A wide range of indirect controls have been identified, such as soil organic matter content and bulk density; both influence water relationships in the soil. EMI techniques work best in areas where there are large changes in one soil property that influences soil electrical conductance, and don't work as well when soil properties that influence electrical conductance are largely homogenous. This presentation will present examples of situations where EMI techniques were successful as well as a couple of examples of situations where EMI was not so useful in mapping the spatial variability of soil properties. Reasons for both the successes and failures will be discussed.

  9. Persistent Mappings in Cross-Domain Analogical Learning of Physics Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ms. What is the value of I? (Problem 21-37, Giancoli 1991). This problem is represented by a case of 14 facts, defining the entities, events...domains. For example, Giancoli (1991) introduces rotational motion over an entire chapter, coming back to the analogy with linear motion repeatedly...retrieval? 6.1 Materials The problems were selected from a variety of physics resources, (Shearer et al. 1971; Giancoli 1991; Ogata 1997; Fogiel

  10. Convergence of implicit iterates with errors for mappings with unbounded domain in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Fukhar-Ud-Din

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that an implicit iterative process with errors converges weakly and strongly to a common fixed point of a finite family of asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings on unbounded sets in a uniformly convex Banach space. Our results generalize and improve upon, among others, the corresponding recent results of Sun (2003 in the following two different directions: (i domain of the mappings is unbounded, (ii the iterative sequence contains an error term.

  11. Algebraic approximations of holomorphic maps from Stein domains to projective manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Demailly, J P; Shiffman, B; Demailly, Jean-Pierre; Lempert, Laszlo; Shiffman, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    (Note: This paper is a revision of our manuscript of December 11, 1992. The present version contains many technical changes in the first three sections. More general results are obtained with a simpler proof.) --------- {\\bf Abstract.} It is shown that every holomorphic map $f$ from a Runge domain $\\Omega$ of an affine algebraic variety $S$ into a projective algebraic manifold $X$ is a uniform limit of Nash algebraic maps $f_\

  12. Beethoven's Last Piano Sonata and Those Who Follow Crocodiles: Cross-Domain Mappings of Auditory Pitch in a Musical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Zohar; Timmers, Renee

    2010-01-01

    Though auditory pitch is customarily mapped in Western cultures onto spatial verticality (high-low), both anthropological reports and cognitive studies suggest that pitch may be mapped onto a wide variety of other domains. We collected a total number of 35 pitch mappings and investigated in four experiments how these mappings are used and…

  13. Industrial application of domain specific languages combined with formal techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Two Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) have been developed to improve the development of a power control component of interventional X-ray systems of Philips. Configuration files and test cases are generated from instances of these DSLs. To increase the confidence in these instances and the generators

  14. Constructing a Soil Class Map of Denmark based on the FAO Legend Using Digital Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Minasny, Budiman; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Soil mapping in Denmark has a long history and a series of soil maps based on conventional mapping approaches have been produced. In this study, a national soil map of Denmark was constructed based on the FAO–Unesco Revised Legend 1990 using digital soil mapping techniques, existing soil profile...

  15. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Predicting and Mapping Daily Pan Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.; Sharma, Kirty

    2017-08-01

    In this study, Artificial Intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Model Tree (MT) and Genetic Programming (GP) are used to develop daily pan evaporation time-series (TS) prediction and cause-effect (CE) mapping models. Ten years of observed daily meteorological data such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, dew point temperature and pan evaporation are used for developing the models. For each technique, several models are developed by changing the number of inputs and other model parameters. The performance of each model is evaluated using standard statistical measures such as Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Error, Normalized Mean Square Error and correlation coefficient (R). The results showed that daily TS-GP (4) model predicted better with a correlation coefficient of 0.959 than other TS models. Among various CE models, CE-ANN (6-10-1) resulted better than MT and GP models with a correlation coefficient of 0.881. Because of the complex non-linear inter-relationship among various meteorological variables, CE mapping models could not achieve the performance of TS models. From this study, it was found that GP performs better for recognizing single pattern (time series modelling), whereas ANN is better for modelling multiple patterns (cause-effect modelling) in the data.

  16. New Optimal DWT Domain Image Watermarking Technique via Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Ning; KUANG Jing-ming; HE Zun-wen

    2007-01-01

    A novel optimal image watermarking scheme is proposed in which the genetic algor ithm (GA) is employed to obtain the improvement of algorithm performance. Arnold transform is utilized to obtain the scrambled watermark, and then the embedding and extraction of watermark are implemented in digital wavelet transform (DWT) domain. During the watermarking process, GA is employed to search optimal parame ters of embedding strength and times of Arnold transform to gain the optimization of watermarking performance. Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the quality of watermarked image and give almost the same robustness of the watermark.

  17. A video encryption method based on chaotic maps in DCT domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguo Yang; Shenghe Sun

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new and secure video encryption method based on chaotic maps in DCT domain,which is quite in keeping with the common ideas and the frequent practices of video encryption.We select the 1-frames of the video sequence as encryption objects.First,we introduce two coupling chaotic maps to scramble the DCT coefficients of every original I-frame,and receive the scrambled I-frame.Second,we encrypt the DCT coefficients of the scrambled I-frame using another chaotic map.In the whole process,we use three chaotic maps and five keys; the I-frame is encrypted twice.Finally,we performed several tests and the experimental results have proved our method to be secure and efficient.

  18. An Improved Frequency Domain Technique for Determining Soil Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-Rui; MA Dao-Kun; LIN Jian-Hui; P. SCHULZE LAMMERS; L. DAMEROW

    2005-01-01

    For many years a soil water content sensor with low cost, reliability and sufficient accuracy has been desirable. Thus,an improved measurement method based on the frequency domain (FD) principle for determining soil water content was considered. Unlike other measurement principles, a new measurable index, η, which was independent of the output impedance and the amplitude of the oscillator while relying on the electrical impedance of a multi-pin probe, was proposed. Moreover, a model for processing the impedance of the multi-pin soil probe was developed, and several important electrical parameters for establishing their operating ranges applicable to this probe were evaluated. In order to confirm the theoretical analysis, an experiment was conducted with a 4-pin probe. Using the developed model, the relationship between the proposed indexηand soil volumetric water content was shown to be linear (R2 = 0.9921). Thus, as the measurable index, ηseemed satisfactory.

  19. Time domain electromagnetic sensing techniques for underground pipe diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chow-Son

    2013-04-01

    Based upon frequency domain integral equation thin sheet theory, comparative numerical modeling using three-component time domain electromagnetic (TEM) receiver was under taken. A forward modeling approach was used to compute the voltage response of half-space containing one or more conductive bodies excited by a bi-polar square wave form. Although this method utilizes conductor scattering, it is particularly useful as a practical use for the non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of the transport infrastructure consequences from natural disasters. Unlike single component data, results from the three-component data are unambiguous as to the location and orientation of conductors. Measurements with the addition of horizontal- component data for secondary magnetic fields lead a better indication of target location, and target size determination, orientation, and characteristics, especially for the targets in the horizontal plan. I analyze three-axis TEM data from a known well site and detect transient volt anomalies, which are consistent with our theoretical modeling and which can be correlated with well locations in the conductor host. From this and other surveys, it is apparent that there is a lot of useful information in the horizontal components of near-surface TEM surveys. Whilst the vertical component contains stronger anomaly data and provide the best indication on a given target's location, the horizontal component data, can be used to determine size, orientation, and characteristics of targets, especially for targets extending horizon tally (i.e., power lines, sewer pipes, etc.). As a result, the three-component TEM survey is an essential element for high-resolution EM engineering survey.

  20. A Corpus-based Evaluation of a Domain-specific Text to Knowledge Mapping Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Shams, Rushdi; Akter, Quazi Mah-Zereen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate a Text to Knowledge Mapping (TKM) Prototype. The prototype is domain-specific, the purpose of which is to map instructional text onto a knowledge domain. The context of the knowledge domain is DC electrical circuit. During development, the prototype has been tested with a limited data set from the domain. The prototype reached a stage where it needs to be evaluated with a representative linguistic data set called corpus. A corpus is a collection of text drawn from typical sources which can be used as a test data set to evaluate NLP systems. As there is no available corpus for the domain, we developed and annotated a representative corpus. The evaluation of the prototype considers two of its major components- lexical components and knowledge model. Evaluation on lexical components enriches the lexical resources of the prototype like vocabulary and grammar structures. This leads the prototype to parse a reasonable amount of sentences in the corpus. While dealing with the lex...

  1. Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Mapping Shifting Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Vijaya Kumari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation is an ancient and primitive method of cultivation, also referred to as ‘slash and burn’ or ‘rotational bush fallow agricultural system’. The practice mainly involves removal of the forests by primitive slash and burn technique followed by mixed cropping for short period before abandoning the site. Tribals all over India are known to follow the practice of shifting cultivation with some regional variations. The present study has been undertaken to estimate the spatial distribution of podu cultivation in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh by using remote sensing techniques. Results of the present study indicate that an estimated area of 10,491.857 acres of the forest area is under shifting cultivation in Srikakulam district. Shifting cultivation has caused a great deal of environmental degradation. Remote sensing techniques with repetitive coverage and synoptic view provide database for assessing environment degrading practices. Mapping of shifting areas is important not only from ecological point of view but also for management purposes.

  2. Cosmology with intensity mapping techniques using atomic and molecular lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, José; Santos, Mário G; Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the intensity mapping technique using updated models for the different emission lines from galaxies and identify which ones are more promising for cosmological studies of the post reionization epoch. We consider the emission of ${\\rm Ly\\alpha}$, ${\\rm H\\alpha}$, H$\\beta$, optical and infrared oxygen lines, nitrogen lines, CII and the CO rotational lines. We then identify that ${\\rm Ly\\alpha}$, ${\\rm H\\alpha}$, OII, CII and the lowest rotational CO lines are the best candidates to be used as IM probes. These lines form a complementary set of probes of the galaxies emission spectra. We then use reasonable experimental setups from current, planned or proposed experiments to access the detectability of the power spectrum of each emission line. Intensity mapping of ${\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ emission from $z=2$ to 3 will be possible in the near future with HETDEX, while far-infrared lines require new dedicated experiments. We also show that the proposed SPHEREx satellite can use OII and ${\\r...

  3. Multiscale analysis of damage using dual and primal domain decomposition techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloberas-Valls, O.; Everdij, F.P.X.; Rixen, D.J.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, dual and primal domain decomposition techniques are studied for the multiscale analysis of failure in quasi-brittle materials. The multiscale strategy essentially consists in decomposing the structure into a number of nonoverlapping domains and considering a refined spatial res

  4. Applications of Mapping and Tomographic Techniques in Gem Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gem Sciences are scientific studies of gemstones - their genesis, provenance, synthesis, enhancement, treatment and identification. As high quality forms of specific minerals, the gemstones exhibit unusual physical properties that are usually unseen in the regular counterparts. Most gemstones are colored by trace elements incorporated in the crystal lattice during various growth stages; forming coloration zones of various scales. Studying the spectral and chemical contrast across color zones helps elucidating the origins of colors. These are done by UV-visible spectrometers with microscope and LA-ICPMS in modern gemological laboratories. In the case of diamonds, their colored zones arise from various structural defects incorporated in different growth zones and are studied with FTIR spectrometers with IR microscope and laser photoluminescence spectrometers. Advancement in modern synthetic techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has created some problem for identification. Some exploratory experiments in carbon isotope mapping were done on diamonds using SIMS. The most important issue in pearls is to identify one particular pearl being a cultured one or a natural pearl. The price difference can be enormous. Classical way of such identification is done by x-ray radiographs, which clearly show the bead and the nacre. Modern cultured pearl advancement has eliminated the need for an artificial bead, but a small piece of tissue instead. Nowadays, computer x-ray tomography (CT) scanning devices are used to depict the clear image of the interior of a pearl. In the Chinese jade market, filling fissures with epoxy and/or wax are very commonly seen. We are currently exploring Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to map the distribution of artificial resin within a polycrystalline aggregates.

  5. A microwave technique for mapping thin sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is presented for mapping the distribution of new, young and first-year sea ice in seasonal sea ice zones that utilizes microwave spectral and polarization information from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP SSM/I). The motivation for this work stems from the need for accurate estimates of open water and thin ice within the Arctic ice pack. The technique utilizes the microwave polarization and spectral characteristics of these three ice types through two microwave radiance ratios: the 19.4 GHz polarization and the spectral gradient ratio, which is a measure of the spectral difference between the 19.4-GHz and the 37.0-GHz vertically polarized radiance components. The combined use of the spectral gradient ratio and polarization reduces the low ice concentration bias generally associated with the presence of thin ice types. The microwave polarization, which is sensitive to changes in ice thickness and ice surface characteristics, is used to classify new, young, and first-year ice types.

  6. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

    2014-12-20

    In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis.

  7. Aerial remote sensing hyperspectral techniques for rocky outcrops mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer hyperspectral data, acquired during aerial campaigns made in 1998 over the Pollino National Park in the framework of the «Progetto Pollino», have been used to set up a supervised technique devoted to identify the presence of selected rocky outcrops. Tests have been performed over an extended area characterised by a complex orography. Within this area, serpentinite was chosen as a test-rock because it is present in isolated outcrops, distributed all over the test-area, besides subtending important problems of environmental nature as it contains asbestos. Geological information, coming from field observations or geological maps, was used to trigger the algorithms and as ground truth for its validation. Two spectral analysis techniques, SAM (Spectral Angle Mapper and LSU (Linear Spectral Unmixing, have been applied and their results n combined to automatically identify serpentinite outcrops and, in some cases, to mark its boundaries. The approach used in this work is characterised by simplicity (no atmosphere and illumination corrections were performed on MIVIS data, robustness (material of interest is identified for certainty and intrinsic exportability (the method proposed can be applied on different geographic areas and, in theory, to identify any kind of material because no datum about atmospheric and illumination conditions is required.

  8. Large areas elemental mapping by ion beam analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. F.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Curado, J. F.; Allegro, P.; Moro, M. V.; Campos, P. H. O. V.; Santos, S. B.; Kajiya, E. A. M.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The external beam line of the Laboratory for Material Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI) is a versatile setup for multi-technique analysis. X-ray detectors for Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) measurements, a Gamma-ray detector for Particle Induced Gamma- ray Emission (PIGE), and a particle detector for scattering analysis, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), were already installed. In this work, we present some results, using a large (60-cm range) XYZ computer controlled sample positioning system, completely developed and build in our laboratory. The XYZ stage was installed at the external beam line and its high spacial resolution (better than 5 μm over the full range) enables positioning the sample with high accuracy and high reproducibility. The combination of a sub-millimeter beam with the large range XYZ robotic stage is being used to produce elemental maps of large areas in samples like paintings, ceramics, stones, fossils, and all sort of samples. Due to its particular characteristics, this is a unique device in the sense of multi-technique analysis of large areas. With the continuous development of the external beam line at LAMFI, coupled to the robotic XYZ stage, it is becoming a robust and reliable option for regular analysis of trace elements (Z > 5) competing with the traditional in-vacuum ion-beam-analysis with the advantage of automatic rastering.

  9. Novel frequency domain techniques and advances in Finite Difference Time domain (FDTD) method for efficient solution of multiscale electromagnetic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayappan, Kadappan

    With the advent of sub-micron technologies and increasing awareness of Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility (EMI/EMC) issues, designers are often interested in full- wave solutions of complete systems, taking to account a variety of environments in which the system operates. However, attempts to do this substantially increase the complexities involved in computing full-wave solutions, especially when the problems involve multi- scale geometries with very fine features. For such problems, even the well-established numerical methods, such as the time domain technique FDTD and the frequency domain methods FEM and MoM, are often challenged to the limits of their capabilities. In an attempt to address such challenges, three novel techniques have been introduced in this work, namely Dipole Moment (DM) Approach, Recursive Update in Frequency Domain (RUFD) and New Finite Difference Time Domain ( vFDTD). Furthermore, the efficacy of the above techniques has been illustrated, via several examples, and the results obtained by proposed techniques have been compared with other existing numerical methods for the purpose of validation. The DM method is a new physics-based approach for formulating MoM problems, which is based on the use of dipole moments (DMs), as opposed to the conventional Green's functions. The absence of the Green's functions, as well as those of the vector and scalar potentials, helps to eliminate two of the key sources of difficulties in the conventional MoM formulation, namely the singularity and low-frequency problems. Specifically, we show that there are no singularities that we need to be concerned with in the DM formulation; hence, this obviates the need for special techniques for integrating these singularities. Yet another salutary feature of the DM approach is its ability to handle thin and lossy structures, or whether they are metallic, dielectric-type, or even combinations thereof. We have found that the DM formulation can handle these

  10. Image encryption with chaotic map and Arnold transform in the gyrator transform domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jun; Luo, Hongling; Zhao, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.; Cai, Bin

    2017-05-01

    An image encryption method combing chaotic map and Arnold transform in the gyrator transform domains was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image is XOR-ed with a random binary sequence generated by a logistic map. Then, the gyrator transform is performed. Finally, the amplitude and phase of the gyrator transform are permutated by Arnold transform. The decryption procedure is the inverse operation of encryption. The secret keys used in the proposed method include the control parameter and the initial value of the logistic map, the rotation angle of the gyrator transform, and the transform number of the Arnold transform. Therefore, the key space is large, while the key data volume is small. The numerical simulation was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the security analysis was performed in terms of the histogram of the encrypted image, the sensitiveness to the secret keys, decryption upon ciphertext loss, and resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack.

  11. Semantic Data And Visualization Techniques Applied To Geologic Field Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.; Royo-Leon, M.; Munoz, R.; Estrada, E.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Pennington, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic field mapping involves the use of technology before, during, and after visiting a site. Geologists utilize hardware such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to mobile computing platforms such as tablets that include software such as ESRI's ArcPad and other software to produce maps and figures for a final analysis and report. Hand written field notes contain important information and drawings or sketches of specific areas within the field study. Our goal is to collect and geo-tag final and raw field data into a cyber-infrastructure environment with an ontology that allows for large data processing, visualization, sharing, and searching, aiding in connecting field research with prior research in the same area and/or aid with experiment replication. Online searches of a specific field area return results such as weather data from NOAA and QuakeML seismic data from USGS. These results that can then be saved to a field mobile device and searched while in the field where there is no Internet connection. To accomplish this we created the GeoField ontology service using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Protégé software. Advanced queries on the dataset can be made using reasoning capabilities can be supported that go beyond a standard database service. These improvements include the automated discovery of data relevant to a specific field site and visualization techniques aimed at enhancing analysis and collaboration while in the field by draping data over mobile views of the site using augmented reality. A case study is being performed at University of Texas at El Paso's Indio Mountains Research Station located near Van Horn, Texas, an active multi-disciplinary field study site. The user can interactively move the camera around the study site and view their data digitally. Geologist's can check their data against the site in real-time and improve collaboration with another person as both parties have the same interactive view of the data.

  12. Dynamic Phase-Mapping of Domain Nucleation in MgO:LiNbO3 Crystal by Digital Holographic Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Wei-Juan; LIU De-An; ZHI Ya-Nan; LUAN Zhu; LIU Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative phase-mapping of the domain nucleation in MgO:LiNbO3 crystals is presented by using the digital holographic interferometry. An unexpected peak phase at the beginning of the domain nucleation is observed and it is lowered as the spreading of the domain nucleus. The existence of the nucleus changes the moving speed of the domain wall by pinning it for 3 s. Such in-situ quantitative analysis of the domain nucleation process is a key to optimizing domain structure fabrication.

  13. Analyzing the Effects of Various Concept Mapping Techniques on Learning Achievement under Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Lee, Li-Tze; Tien, Li-Chu; Wang, Yu-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of different concept mapping techniques on the learning achievement of senior accounting students and whether achievements attained using various techniques are affected by different learning styles. The techniques are computer-assisted construct-by-self-concept mapping (CACSB), computer-assisted…

  14. Cosmology with intensity mapping techniques using atomic and molecular lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José; Silva, Marta B.; Santos, Mário G.; Cooray, Asantha

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the intensity mapping (IM) technique using updated models for the different emission lines from galaxies. We identify which ones are more promising for cosmological studies of the post-reionization epoch. We consider the emission of Lyα, Hα, Hβ, optical and infrared oxygen lines, nitrogen lines, C II and the CO rotational lines. We show that Lyα, Hα, O II, C II and the lowest rotational CO lines are the best candidates to be used as IM probes. These lines form a complementary set of probes of the galaxies' emission spectra. We then use reasonable experimental setups from current, planned or proposed experiments to assess the detectability of the power spectrum of each emission line. IM of Lyα emission from z = 2 to 3 will be possible in the near future with Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, while far-infrared lines require new dedicated experiments. We also show that the proposed SPHEREx satellite can use O II and Hα IM to study the large-scale distribution of matter in intermediate redshifts of 1-4. We find that submillimetre experiments with bolometers can have similar performances at intermediate redshifts using C II and CO(3-2).

  15. A NEW TECHNIQUE BASED ON CHAOTIC STEGANOGRAPHY AND ENCRYPTION TEXT IN DCT DOMAIN FOR COLOR IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELAD J. SAEED

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Image steganography is the art of hiding information into a cover image. This paper presents a new technique based on chaotic steganography and encryption text in DCT domain for color image, where DCT is used to transform original image (cover image from spatial domain to frequency domain. This technique used chaotic function in two phases; firstly; for encryption secret message, second; for embedding in DCT cover image. With this new technique, good results are obtained through satisfying the important properties of steganography such as: imperceptibility; improved by having mean square error (MSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and normalized correlation (NC, to phase and capacity; improved by encoding the secret message characters with variable length codes and embedding the secret message in one level of color image only.

  16. Functional mapping of human dynamin-1-like GTPase domain based on x-ray structure analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wenger

    Full Text Available Human dynamin-1-like protein (DNM1L is a GTP-driven molecular machine that segregates mitochondria and peroxisomes. To obtain insights into its catalytic mechanism, we determined crystal structures of a construct comprising the GTPase domain and the bundle signaling element (BSE in the nucleotide-free and GTP-analogue-bound states. The GTPase domain of DNM1L is structurally related to that of dynamin and binds the nucleotide 5'-Guanylyl-imidodiphosphate (GMP-PNP via five highly conserved motifs, whereas the BSE folds into a pocket at the opposite side. Based on these structures, the GTPase center was systematically mapped by alanine mutagenesis and kinetic measurements. Thus, residues essential for the GTPase reaction were characterized, among them Lys38, Ser39 and Ser40 in the phosphate binding loop, Thr59 from switch I, Asp146 and Gly149 from switch II, Lys216 and Asp218 in the G4 element, as well as Asn246 in the G5 element. Also, mutated Glu81 and Glu82 in the unique 16-residue insertion of DNM1L influence the activity significantly. Mutations of Gln34, Ser35, and Asp190 in the predicted assembly interface interfered with dimerization of the GTPase domain induced by a transition state analogue and led to a loss of the lipid-stimulated GTPase activity. Our data point to related catalytic mechanisms of DNM1L and dynamin involving dimerization of their GTPase domains.

  17. A frequency domain radar interferometric imaging (FII) technique based on high-resolution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Helal, D.; Crochet, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, we propose a frequency-domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique for a better knowledge of the vertical distribution of the atmospheric scatterers detected by MST radars. This is an extension of the dual frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) technique to multiple frequencies. Its objective is to reduce the ambiguity (resulting from the use of only two adjacent frequencies), inherent with the FDI technique. Different methods, commonly used in antenna array processing, are first described within the context of application to the FII technique. These methods are the Fourier-based imaging, the Capon's and the singular value decomposition method used with the MUSIC algorithm. Some preliminary simulations and tests performed on data collected with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan) are also presented. This work is a first step in the developments of the FII technique which seems to be very promising.

  18. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION WITH NONMATCHING GRIDS FOR EXTERIOR TRANSMISSION PROBLEMS VIA FEM AND DTN MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-e Yang; De-hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a non-overlapping domain decomposition method (DDM) for exterior transmission problems in the plane. Based on the natural boundary integral operator, we combine the DDM with a Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) mapping and provide the numerical analysis with nonmatching grids. The weak continuity of the approximation solutions on the interface is imposed by a dual basis multiplier. We show that this multiplier space can generate optimal error estimate and obtain the corresponding rate of convergence. Finally, several numerical examples confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Mapping C-terminal transactivation domains of the nuclear HER family receptor tyrosine kinase HER3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Toni M; Iida, Mari; Luthar, Neha; Wleklinski, Matthew J; Starr, Megan M; Wheeler, Deric L

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear localized HER family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been observed in primary tumor specimens and cancer cell lines for nearly two decades. Inside the nucleus, HER family members (EGFR, HER2, and HER3) have been shown to function as co-transcriptional activators for various cancer-promoting genes. However, the regions of each receptor that confer transcriptional potential remain poorly defined. The current study aimed to map the putative transactivation domains (TADs) of the HER3 receptor. To accomplish this goal, various intracellular regions of HER3 were fused to the DNA binding domain of the yeast transcription factor Gal4 (Gal4DBD) and tested for their ability to transactivate Gal4 UAS-luciferase. Results from these analyses demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of HER3 (CTD, amino acids distal to the tyrosine kinase domain) contained potent transactivation potential. Next, nine HER3-CTD truncation mutants were constructed to map minimal regions of transactivation potential using the Gal4 UAS-luciferase based system. These analyses identified a bipartite region of 34 (B₁) and 27 (B₂) amino acids in length that conferred the majority of HER3's transactivation potential. Next, we identified full-length nuclear HER3 association and regulation of a 122 bp region of the cyclin D1 promoter. To understand how the B₁ and B₂ regions influenced the transcriptional functions of nuclear HER3, we performed cyclin D1 promoter-luciferase assays in which HER3 deleted of the B₁ and B₂ regions was severely hindered in regulating this promoter. Further, the overexpression of HER3 enhanced cyclin D1 mRNA expression, while HER3 deleted of its identified TADs was hindered at doing so. Thus, the ability for HER3 to function as a transcriptional co-activator may be dependent on specific C-terminal TADs.

  20. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

  1. Lexical-semantic Mapping between Chinese and English Controlled Vocabularies in the Domain of Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jiun Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts a lexical-semantic mapping between the Chinese controlled vocabulary developed by the National Palace Museum (NPM-CV in Taiwan and an English controlled vocabulary, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT developed by the Getty Research Institute in the U.S. that is primarily based on Western art. The research question is: In mapping a Chinese controlled vocabulary in Chinese art to a Western-centered art thesaurus, what types of relationships can be identified and what are the issues in mapping? The study’s main findings reveal that only one-third of the NPM-CV terms can be mapped as “exact equivalence” to AAT terms and three-fifths of the NPMCV terms have hierarchical relationships (narrower to broader with some AAT terms. Clearly, using AAT alone to index Chinese art collections will lead to insufficient indexing specificity. The study then proposes solutions to improve Chinese-English semantic interoperability for multilingual knowledge organization systems in the domain of Chinese art. [Article content in Chinese

  2. Domain XML semantic integration based on extraction rules and ontology mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A plenty of XML documents exist in petroleum engineering field, but traditional XML integration solution can’t provide semantic query, which leads to low data use efficiency. In light of WeXML(oil&gas well XML data semantic integration and query requirement, this paper proposes a semantic integration method based on extraction rules and ontology mapping. The method firstly defines a series of extraction rules with which elements and properties of WeXML Schema are mapped to classes and properties in WeOWL ontology, respectively; secondly, an algorithm is used to transform WeXML documents into WeOWL instances. Because WeOWL provides limited semantics, ontology mappings between two ontologies are then built to explain class and property of global ontology with terms of WeOWL, and semantic query based on global domain concepts model is provided. By constructing a WeXML data semantic integration prototype system, the proposed transformational rule, the transfer algorithm and the mapping rule are tested.

  3. Mapping subtrappean sediments and delineating structure with the aid of heliborne time domain electromagnetics: Case study from Kaladgi Basin, Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Markandeyulu, A.; Chaturvedi, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of subtrappean sediments is a complex geological problem attempted by many interpreters applying different geophysical techniques. Variations in thickness and resistivity of traps and underlying sediments, respectively, results in considerable uncertainty in the interpretation of geophysical data. It is proposed that the transient electromagnetic technique is an effective geophysical tool for delineation of the sub-trappean sediments, due to marked resistivity contrast between the Deccan trap, and underlying sediments and/or basement. The northern margin of the Kaladgi basin is covered under trap. A heliborne time domain electromagnetic survey was conducted to demarcate the basin extent and map the sub-trappean sediments. Conductivity depth transformations were used to map the interface between conductive trap and resistive 'basement'. Two resistivity contrast boundaries are picked: the first corresponds to the bottom of the shallow conductive unit interpreted as the base of the Deccan Volcanics and the second - picked at the base of a deeper subsurface conductive zone - is interpreted as the weathered paleo-surface of the crystalline basement. This second boundary can only be seen in areas where the volcanics are thin or absent, suggesting that the volcanics are masking the EM signal preventing deeper penetration. An interesting feature, which shows prominently in the EM data but less clearly imaged in the magnetic data, is observed in the vicinity of Mudhol. The surface geology interpreted from satellite imagery show Deccan trap cover around Mudhol. Modelling of TDEM data suggest the presence of synclinal basin structure. The depth of penetration of the heliborne TDEM data is estimated to be approximately 350 m for the study area. This suggests that heliborne TDEM could penetrate significant thicknesses of conductive Deccan trap cover to delineate structure below in the Bagalkot Group.

  4. Impact of corpus domain for sentiment classification: An evaluation study using supervised machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsi, Redouane; Zaim, Mounia; El Alami, Jamila

    2017-07-01

    Thanks to the development of the internet, a large community now has the possibility to communicate and express its opinions and preferences through multiple media such as blogs, forums, social networks and e-commerce sites. Today, it becomes clearer that opinions published on the web are a very valuable source for decision-making, so a rapidly growing field of research called “sentiment analysis” is born to address the problem of automatically determining the polarity (Positive, negative, neutral,…) of textual opinions. People expressing themselves in a particular domain often use specific domain language expressions, thus, building a classifier, which performs well in different domains is a challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of domain for sentiment classification when using machine learning techniques. In our study three popular machine learning techniques: Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naive Bayes and K nearest neighbors(KNN) were applied on datasets collected from different domains. Experimental results show that Support Vector Machines outperforms other classifiers in all domains, since it achieved at least 74.75% accuracy with a standard deviation of 4,08.

  5. Crystal Structure of the MAP3K TAO2 Kinase Domain Bound by an Inhibitor Staurosporine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Jun ZHOU; Li-Guang SUN; Yan GAO; Elizabeth J. GOLDSMITH

    2006-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, which transfer signals from the cell surface to the nucleus, controlling multiple cellular programs. MAPKs are activated by MAPK kinases [MAP2Ks or MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases (MEK)], which in turn are activated by MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks). TAO2 is a MAP3K level kinase that activates the MAP2Ks MEK3 and MEK6 to activate p38 MAPKs. Because p38 MAPKs are key regulators of expression of inflammatory cytokines, they appear to be involved in human diseases such as asthma and autoimmunity. As an upstream activator of p38s, TAO2 represents a potential drug target. Here we report the crystal structure of active TAO2 kinase domain in complex with staurosporine, a broadrange protein kinase inhibitor that inhibits TAO2 with an IC50 of 3 μM. The structure reveals that staurosporine occupies the position where the adenosine of ATP binds in TAO2, and the binding of the inhibitor mimics many features of ATP binding. Both polar and nonpolar interactions contribute to the enzyme-inhibitor recognition. Staurosporine induces conformational changes in TAO2 residues that surround the inhibitor molecule, but causes very limited global changes in the kinase. The structure provides atomic details for TAO2-staurosporine interactions, and explains the relatively low potency of staurosporine against TAO2. The structure presented here should aid in the design of inhibitors specific to TAO2 and related kinases.

  6. Design of UWB pulse radio transceiver using statistical correlation technique in frequency domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new technique to extract low power UWB pulse radio signals, near to noise level, using statistical correlation technique in frequency domain. The receiver consists of many narrow bandpass filters which extract energy either from transmitted UWB signal, interfering channels or noise. Transmitted UWB data can be eliminated by statistical correlation of multiple bandpass filter outputs. Super-regenerative oscillators, tuned within UWB spectrum, are designed as bandpass filters. Summers and comparators perform statistical correlation.

  7. Using Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition as a Robust Technique to Harmonic Excitation in Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique for eliminating the influence of these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For various experiments, the quality of the method is assessed and compared to the results obtained using broadband stochastic excitation forces. Good...

  8. A Robust Audio Watermarking Technique Operates in MDCT Domain based on Perceptual Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Bellaaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available the review presents a digital audio watermarking technique operating in the frequency domain with two variants. This technique uses the Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT to move to the frequency domain. To ensure more inaudibility, we exploited the proprieties of the psychoacoustic model 1 (PMH1 of MPEG1 encoder layer I in the first variant and those of psychoacoustic model 2 (PMH2 of MPEG1 encoder Layer III in the second alternative to search the places for insertion of the watermark. In both variants of the technique, the bits of the mark will be duplicated to increase the capacity of insertion then inserted into the least significant bit (LSB. For more reliability in the detection phase, we use an error correction code (Hamming on the mark. Next, to analyze the performance of the proposed technique, we perform two comparative studies. In the first, we compare the proposed digital audio watermarking technique with her two variants and those achieved by Luigi Rosa and Rolf Brigola, ‘which we download the M-files of each’. The technique developed by Luigi Rosa operates in the frequency domain but using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT as transformation and that proposed by Rolf Brigola uses the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. We studied the robustness of each technique against different types of attacks such as compression / decompression MP3, stirmark audio attack and we evaluated the inaudibility by using an objective approach by calculating the SNR and the ODG notes given by PEAQ. The robustness of this technique is shown against different types of attacks. In the second, we prove the contribution of the proposed technique by comparing the payload data, imperceptibility and robustness against attack MP3 with others existing techniques in the literature.

  9. Time-Domain Techniques for Computation and Reconstruction of One-Dimensional Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a time-domain technique to compute the electromagnetic fields and to reconstruct the permittivity profile within a one-dimensional medium of finite length. The medium is characterized by a permittivity as well as conductivity profile which vary only with depth. The discussed scattering problem is thus one-dimensional. The modeling tool is divided into two different schemes which are named as the forward solver and the inverse solver. The task of the forward solver is to compute the internal fields of the specimen which is performed by Green’s function approach. When a known electromagnetic wave is incident normally on the media, the resulting electromagnetic field within the media can be calculated by constructing a Green’s operator. This operator maps the incident field on either side of the medium to the field at an arbitrary observation point. It is nothing but a matrix of integral operators with kernels satisfying known partial differential equations. The reflection and transmission behavior of the medium is also determined from the boundary values of the Green's operator. The inverse solver is responsible for solving an inverse scattering problem by reconstructing the permittivity profile of the medium. Though it is possible to use several algorithms to solve this problem, the invariant embedding method, also known as the layer-stripping method, has been implemented here due to the advantage that it requires a finite time trace of reflection data. Here only one round trip of reflection data is used, where one round trip is defined by the time required by the pulse to propagate through the medium and back again. The inversion process begins by retrieving the reflection kernel from the reflected wave data by simply using a deconvolution technique. The rest of the task can easily be performed by applying a numerical approach to determine different profile parameters. Both the solvers have been found to have the

  10. Modelling and Design of a Microstrip Band-Pass Filter Using Space Mapping Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Mohanna, Shahram

    2010-01-01

    Determination of design parameters based on electromagnetic simulations of microwave circuits is an iterative and often time-consuming procedure. Space mapping is a powerful technique to optimize such complex models by efficiently substituting accurate but expensive electromagnetic models, fine models, with fast and approximate models, coarse models. In this paper, we apply two space mapping, an explicit space mapping as well as an implicit and response residual space mapping, techniques to a case study application, a microstrip band-pass filter. First, we model the case study application and optimize its design parameters, using explicit space mapping modelling approach. Then, we use implicit and response residual space mapping approach to optimize the filter's design parameters. Finally, the performance of each design methods is evaluated. It is shown that the use of above-mentioned techniques leads to achieving satisfactory design solutions with a minimum number of computationally expensive fine model eval...

  11. Magnetic induction technique for mapping vertical conductive fractures: electronic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landt, J.A.; Koelle, A.R.; Trump, M.A.; Nickell, J.D. Jr.

    1978-09-01

    This report is the last in a series that describes the preliminary design of an instrument capable of mapping conductive fractures deep below the surface of the earth. Earlier reports dealt with theoretical analysis, the general status of the instrument development, and materials vendor searches. Here, attention is focused on the electronics design and prototype hardware to perform the mapping task. A phase-sensitive detector is described that has a sensitivity in the tens of nanovolts. Coil-switching circuitry is also described, as well as a downhole data link tailor-made for this particular instrument's needs.

  12. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  13. Total Field and Scattered Field Technique for Fourth-Order Symplectic Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Wei; HUANG Zhi-Xiang; WU Xian-Liang; CHEN Ming-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Using symplectic integrator propagator, a three-dimensional fourth-order symplectic finite difference time domain (SFDTD) method is studied, which is of the fourth order in both the time and space domains. The method is nondissipative and can save more memory compared with the traditional FDTD method. The total field and scattered field (TF-SF) technique is derived for the SFDTD method to provide the incident wave source conditions. The bistatic radar cross section (RCS) of a dielectric sphere is computed by using the SFDTD method for the first time. Numerical results suggest that the SFDTD algorithm acquires better stability and accuracy compared with the traditional FDTD method.

  14. A simple technique for high resolution time domain phase noise measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Donahoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A new time domain phase comparator is described. The device uses a novel technique to allow time domain phase measurements to be made with period and time interval counters without the use of offset reference oscillators. The device uses a single reference oscillator and allows measurements with a phase resolution greater than the noise floor of the reference. Data is presented showing a phase resolution of 0.02ps at 5 MHz with a crystal reference. The device has application in measuring the phase stability of systems where approximate phase quadrature can be maintained.

  15. Real-time spatial frequency domain imaging by single snapshot multiple frequency demodulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zili; Lin, Weihao; Chen, Xinlin; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, Min

    2017-02-01

    We have presented a novel Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation (SSMD) method enabling single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties of turbid media in the Spatial Frequency Domain. SSMD makes use of the orthogonality of harmonic functions and extracts the modulation transfer function (MTF) at multiple modulation frequencies and of arbitrary orientations and amplitudes simultaneously from a single structured-illuminated image at once. SSMD not only increases significantly the data acquisition speed and reduces motion artifacts but also exhibits excellent noise suppression in imaging as well. The performance of SSMD-SFDI is demonstrated with experiments on both tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo for recovering optical properties. SSMD is ideal in the implementation of a real-time spatial frequency domain imaging platform, which will open up SFDI for vast applications in, for example, mapping the optical properties of a dynamic turbid medium or monitoring fast temporal evolutions.

  16. Clinical and molecular cytogenetics and gene mapping: principles and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, U

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the history of human cytogenetics with respect to technical advances from chromosome banding to molecular cytogenetics. Technologies such as in situ hybridization, chromosome painting, comparative genomic hybridization and interphase cytogenetics and their applications are discussed. The assignments of genes to chromosome regions by somatic cell genetics is illustrated by molecular analyses of somatic cell hybrid panels. The generation of complete physical maps of human chromosomes, by radiation hybrid mapping of sequence-tagged sites and establishment of chromosome-specific yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) banks and clone overlaps (contigs), is exemplified by studies of chromosome 18. The last section outlines the recent and future advances in clinical cytogenetics made possible by progress in molecular genetics.

  17. Modeling and Analyzing Terrain Data Acquired by Modern Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    enhanced by new terrain mapping technologies such as Laser altimetry (LIDAR), ground based laser scanning and Real Time Kinematic GPS ( RTK - GPS ) that...developed and implemented an approach that has the following features: it is modular so that a user can use different models for each of the modules ...support some way of connecting separate modules together to form pipelines, however this requires manual intervention. While a typical GIS can manage

  18. DNA fiber mapping techniques for the assembly of high-resolution physical maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, H U

    2001-08-01

    High-resolution physical maps are indispensable for directed sequencing projects or the finishing stages of shotgun sequencing projects. These maps are also critical for the positional cloning of disease genes and genetic elements that regulate gene expression. Typically, physical maps are based on ordered sets of large insert DNA clones from cosmid, P1/PAC/BAC, or yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries. Recent technical developments provide detailed information about overlaps or gaps between clones and precisely locate the position of sequence tagged sites or expressed sequences, and thus support efforts to determine the complete sequence of the human genome and model organisms. Assembly of physical maps is greatly facilitated by hybridization of non-isotopically labeled DNA probes onto DNA molecules that were released from interphase cell nuclei or recombinant DNA clones, stretched to some extent and then immobilized on a solid support. The bound DNA, collectively called "DNA fibers," may consist of single DNA molecules in some experiments or bundles of chromatin fibers in others. Once released from the interphase nuclei, the DNA fibers become more accessible to probes and detection reagents. Hybridization efficiency is therefore increased, allowing the detection of DNA targets as small as a few hundred base pairs. This review summarizes different approaches to DNA fiber mapping and discusses the detection sensitivity and mapping accuracy as well as recent achievements in mapping expressed sequence tags and DNA replication sites.

  19. Mapping cis-Regulatory Domains in the Human Genome UsingMulti-Species Conservation of Synteny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Rubin, EdwardM.; Couronne, Olivier

    2005-06-13

    Our inability to associate distant regulatory elements with the genes that they regulate has largely precluded their examination for sequence alterations contributing to human disease. One major obstacle is the large genomic space surrounding targeted genes in which such elements could potentially reside. In order to delineate gene regulatory boundaries we used whole-genome human-mouse-chicken (HMC) and human-mouse-frog (HMF) multiple alignments to compile conserved blocks of synteny (CBS), under the hypothesis that these blocks have been kept intact throughout evolution at least in part by the requirement of regulatory elements to stay linked to the genes that they regulate. A total of 2,116 and 1,942 CBS>200 kb were assembled for HMC and HMF respectively, encompassing 1.53 and 0.86 Gb of human sequence. To support the existence of complex long-range regulatory domains within these CBS we analyzed the prevalence and distribution of chromosomal aberrations leading to position effects (disruption of a genes regulatory environment), observing a clear bias not only for mapping onto CBS but also for longer CBS size. Our results provide a genome wide data set characterizing the regulatory domains of genes and the conserved regulatory elements within them.

  20. Spatially Resolved Mapping of Electrical Conductivity around Individual Domain (Grain) Boundaries in Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, An-Ping [ORNL; Clark, Kendal W [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL; He, Guowei [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Feenstra, Randall [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

    2013-01-01

    Graphene films can now be produced on the scale of up to meters. However, all large-scale graphene films contain topological defects that can significantly affect the characteristic transport behaviors of graphene. Here, we spatially map the structures and electronic transport near specific domain and grain boundaries in graphene, and evaluate effects of different types of defect on the electronic conductivity in epitaxial graphene grown on SiC and CVD graphene on Cu subsequently transferred to a SiO2 substrate. We use a combined approach with a multi-probe scanning tunneling potentiometry to investigate both structures and transport at individual grain boundaries and domain boundaries that are defined by coalesced grains, surface steps, and changes in layer thickness. It is found that the substrate step on SiC presents a significant potential barrier for electron transport of epitaxial graphene due to the reduced charge transport from the substrate at the step edges, monolayer-bilayer boundaries exhibit a high resistivity that can change depending on directions of the current across the boundary, and the resistivity of grain boundaries changes with the transition width of the disordered region between two adjacent grains in graphene. The detailed understanding of graphene defects will provide the feedback for controlled engineering of defects in large-scale graphene films.

  1. LRR conservation mapping to predict functional sites within protein leucine-rich repeat domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helft

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of protein functional sites can be a critical first step for analysis of large or complex proteins. Contemporary methods often require several homologous sequences and/or a known protein structure, but these resources are not available for many proteins. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs are ligand interaction domains found in numerous proteins across all taxonomic kingdoms, including immune system receptors in plants and animals. We devised Repeat Conservation Mapping (RCM, a computational method that predicts functional sites of LRR domains. RCM utilizes two or more homologous sequences and a generic representation of the LRR structure to identify conserved or diversified patches of amino acids on the predicted surface of the LRR. RCM was validated using solved LRR+ligand structures from multiple taxa, identifying ligand interaction sites. RCM was then used for de novo dissection of two plant microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptors, EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR and FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2. In vivo testing of Arabidopsis thaliana EFR and FLS2 receptors mutagenized at sites identified by RCM demonstrated previously unknown functional sites. The RCM predictions for EFR, FLS2 and a third plant LRR protein, PGIP, compared favorably to predictions from ODA (optimal docking area, Consurf, and PAML (positive selection analyses, but RCM also made valid functional site predictions not available from these other bioinformatic approaches. RCM analyses can be conducted with any LRR-containing proteins at www.plantpath.wisc.edu/RCM, and the approach should be modifiable for use with other types of repeat protein domains.

  2. Thermal conductivity mapping of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings on simulated fuel particles by time-domain thermoreflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Honorato, E. [Materials Science Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Chiritescu, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Xiao, P. [Materials Science Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Ping.xiao@manchester.ac.uk; Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Marsh, G.; Abram, T.J. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Springfields PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Thermal conductivity of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings on spherical particles has been mapped using time-domain thermoreflectance. The thermal conductivities measured for pyrolytic carbon ranged between 3.4 and 13.5 W/m K. The effect of porosity, pore-size distribution, anisotropy, in-plane disorder and domain sizes is discussed. A thermal conductivity of 168 W/m K was obtained for SiC. Mapping of the thermal conductivity of coated fuel particles provides useful data for modeling fuel performance during the operation of nuclear reactors.

  3. Statistical Techniques Complement UML When Developing Domain Models of Complex Dynamical Biosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Jon; Qwarnstrom, Eva E.

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling and simulation is increasingly being used to complement traditional wet-lab techniques when investigating the mechanistic behaviours of complex biological systems. In order to ensure computational models are fit for purpose, it is essential that the abstracted view of biology captured in the computational model, is clearly and unambiguously defined within a conceptual model of the biological domain (a domain model), that acts to accurately represent the biological system and to document the functional requirements for the resultant computational model. We present a domain model of the IL-1 stimulated NF-κB signalling pathway, which unambiguously defines the spatial, temporal and stochastic requirements for our future computational model. Through the development of this model, we observe that, in isolation, UML is not sufficient for the purpose of creating a domain model, and that a number of descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques provide complementary perspectives, in particular when modelling the heterogeneity of dynamics at the single-cell level. We believe this approach of using UML to define the structure and interactions within a complex system, along with statistics to define the stochastic and dynamic nature of complex systems, is crucial for ensuring that conceptual models of complex dynamical biosystems, which are developed using UML, are fit for purpose, and unambiguously define the functional requirements for the resultant computational model. PMID:27571414

  4. Statistical Techniques Complement UML When Developing Domain Models of Complex Dynamical Biosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard A; Timmis, Jon; Qwarnstrom, Eva E

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling and simulation is increasingly being used to complement traditional wet-lab techniques when investigating the mechanistic behaviours of complex biological systems. In order to ensure computational models are fit for purpose, it is essential that the abstracted view of biology captured in the computational model, is clearly and unambiguously defined within a conceptual model of the biological domain (a domain model), that acts to accurately represent the biological system and to document the functional requirements for the resultant computational model. We present a domain model of the IL-1 stimulated NF-κB signalling pathway, which unambiguously defines the spatial, temporal and stochastic requirements for our future computational model. Through the development of this model, we observe that, in isolation, UML is not sufficient for the purpose of creating a domain model, and that a number of descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques provide complementary perspectives, in particular when modelling the heterogeneity of dynamics at the single-cell level. We believe this approach of using UML to define the structure and interactions within a complex system, along with statistics to define the stochastic and dynamic nature of complex systems, is crucial for ensuring that conceptual models of complex dynamical biosystems, which are developed using UML, are fit for purpose, and unambiguously define the functional requirements for the resultant computational model.

  5. Gully Erosion Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NdifelaniM

    Gully Features Extraction Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Ndifelani .... catchment area and NDVI as threshold and the accuracy indicated a negligible over estimation. In SA, the use of ..... data and software used in this research. We also ...

  6. Establishment of Relationships between Material Design and Product Design Domains by Hybrid FEM-ANN Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, K Soorya; Raj, M Joseph Malvin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, research on AI based modeling technique to optimize development of new alloys with necessitated improvements in properties and chemical mixture over existing alloys as per functional requirements of product is done. The current research work novels AI in lieu of predictions to establish association between material and product customary. Advanced computational simulation techniques like CFD, FEA interrogations are made viable to authenticate product dynamics in context to experimental investigations. Accordingly, the current research is focused towards binding relationships between material design and product design domains. The input to feed forward back propagation prediction network model constitutes of material design features. Parameters relevant to product design strategies are furnished as target outputs. The outcomes of ANN shows good sign of correlation between material and product design domains. The study enriches a new path to illustrate material factors at the time of new product d...

  7. A HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION OF SERVO SYSTEM WITH FRICTION FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIK.RAFI KIRAN,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The system identification process in servo system with frictional force seems to be a complex task becauseof its non-linear nature. For such non-linear systems, a good choice is system identification in frequencydomain. However, most of the techniques are manual and are inappropriate for determination of systemparameters. This makes system identification ineffective for servo systems with frictional force. Toovercome this issue, a hybrid technique is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique exploits neuralnetwork and genetic algorithm to determine the system parameters of servo systems with friction. In theproposed technique, the target parameters are determined from the transfer function derived for thesystem. Subsequently, the system parameters are identified by a process formed by blending the neuralnetwork and genetic algorithm techniques. Prior to performing the identification procedure, backpropagation training is given to the neural network using a pre-examined dataset. Then with thecombined operation of neural network and genetic algorithm, the system parameters that are closer tothe target parameters for the servo system with frictional force are determined. The technique isimplemented and compared with the existing frequency domain identification technique. From thecomparative results, it is evident that the proposed technique outperforms the existing technique.

  8. Suitability of the RGB Channels for a Pixel Manipulation in a Spatial Domain Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Poljicak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine which channel in rgb color space is the most suitable (regarding perceptibility for a pixel manipulation in a spatial domain data  hiding techniques. For this purpose three custom test targets were generated. The research also shows the behavior of two closely related colors in the ps (Print-Scan process. The results are interpreted using both a quantitative method (statistical comparison and a qualitative method (visual comparison.

  9. Solving radiative transfer problems in highly heterogeneous media via domain decomposition and convergence acceleration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previti, Alberto; Furfaro, Roberto; Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with finding accurate solutions for photon transport problems in highly heterogeneous media fastly, efficiently and with modest memory resources. We propose an extended version of the analytical discrete ordinates method, coupled with domain decomposition-derived algorithms and non-linear convergence acceleration techniques. Numerical performances are evaluated using a challenging case study available in the literature. A study of accuracy versus computational time and memory requirements is reported for transport calculations that are relevant for remote sensing applications.

  10. Suitability of the rgb Channels for a Pixel Manipulation in a Spatial Domain Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Mandić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine which channel in rgb color space is the most suitable (regarding perceptibility for a pixel manipulation in a spatial domain data hiding techniques. For this purpose three custom test targets were generated. The research also shows the behavior of two closely related colors in the ps (Print-Scan process. The results are interpreted using both a quantitative method (statistical comparison and a qualitative method (visual comparison.

  11. Reference Map Technique for Incompressible Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, Chris; Wu, Chen-Hung; Yu, Yue; Kamrin, Ken

    2016-11-01

    We present a fully Eulerian approach to simulate soft structures immersed in an incompressible fluid. The flow is simulated on a fixed grid using a second order projection method to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the fluid-structure interfaces are modeled using the level set method. By introducing a reference map variable to model finite-deformation constitutive relations in the structure on the same grid as the fluid, the interfacial coupling is highly simplified. This fully Eulerian approach provides a computationally efficient alternative to moving mesh approaches. Example simulations featuring many-body contacts and flexible swimmers will be presented.

  12. A hybrid fringe analysis technique for the elimination of random noise in interferometric wrapped phase maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1994-10-01

    A fringe analysis technique, which makes use of the spatial filtering property of the Fourier transform method, for the elimination of random impulsive noise in the wrapped phase maps obtained using the phase stepping technique, is presented. Phase noise is converted into intensity noise by transforming the wrapped phase map into a continuous fringe pattern inside the digital image processor. Fourier transform method is employed to filter out the intensity noise and recover the clean wrapped phase map. Computer generated carrier fringes are used to preserve the sign information. This technique makes the two dimensional phase unwrapping process less involved, because it eliminates the local phase fluctuations, which act as pseudo 2π discontinuities. The technique is applied for the elimination of noise in a phase map obtained using electro-optic holography.

  13. Analyzing Classroom Strategy: Evaluating the Concept Mapping Technique at SSC Level in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mahmood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the usage of Concept Mapping in the teaching-learning situation of English at SSC Level. The study is descriptive and analytical in nature and tries to investigate the effects which Concept Mapping renders in the academic environment in the context of ESL classroom setting. The research offers strategies for adopting certain techniques and up gradation of the content taught at the mentioned level by the inculcation of such techniques. Overall, the study produced a range of implementable outcomes by a pervasive discussion of Concept Mapping, the role of the textbooks, the importance of adding the technique to the contents of ESL classroom setting. For data collection and data analysis, two classes were selected. Both were taught the same content under controlled conditions. The concept mapping technique in the class guided the learners towards the improved way of learning the text of second language.

  14. Analysis of a Reflectarray by Using an Iterative Domain Decomposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient method for the analysis of different objects that may contain a complex feeding system and a reflector structure. The approach is based on a domain decomposition technique that divides the geometry into several parts to minimize the vast computational resources required when applying a full wave method. This technique is also parallelized by using the Message Passing Interface to minimize the memory and time requirements of the simulation. A reflectarray analysis serves as an example of the proposed approach.

  15. Fra Angelico's painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated with terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) the well-known Lamentation over the dead Christ panel painting (San Marco Museum, Florence) painted by Fra Giovanni Angelico within 1436 and 1441. The investigation provided a better understanding of the construction and gilding technique used by the eminent artist, as well as the plastering technique used during the nineteenth-century restoration intervention. The evidence obtained from THz-TDI scans was correlated with the available documentation on the preservation history of the art piece. Erosion and damages documented for the wooden support, especially in the lower margin, found confirmation in the THz-TD images.

  16. A Modified Normalization Technique for Frequency-Domain Full Waveform Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Jeong, G.; Min, D. J.; KIM, S.; Heo, J. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique to estimate subsurface material properties minimizing the misfit function built with residuals between field and modeled data. To achieve computational efficiency, FWI has been performed in the frequency domain by carrying out modeling in the frequency domain, whereas observed data (time-series data) are Fourier-transformed.One of the main drawbacks of seismic FWI is that it easily gets stuck in local minima because of lacking of low-frequency data. To compensate for this limitation, damped wavefields are used, as in the Laplace-domain waveform inversion. Using damped wavefield in FWI plays a role in generating low-frequency components and help recover long-wavelength structures. With these newly generated low-frequency components, we propose a modified frequency-normalization technique, which has an effect of boosting contribution of low-frequency components to model parameter update.In this study, we introduce the modified frequency-normalization technique which effectively amplifies low-frequency components of damped wavefields. Our method is demonstrated for synthetic data for the SEG/EAGE salt model. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20168510030830) and by the Dual Use Technology Program, granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea.

  17. Domain specificity of MAP3K family members, MLK and Tak1, for JNK signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Beth; Lennox, Ashley L; Garlena, Rebecca A

    2014-06-01

    A highly diverse set of protein kinases functions as early responders in the mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MAPK/SAPK) signaling pathways. For instance, humans possess 14 MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks) that activate Jun kinase (JNK) signaling downstream. A major challenge is to decipher the selective and redundant functions of these upstream MAP3Ks. Taking advantage of the relative simplicity of Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, we assessed MAP3K signaling specificity in several JNK-dependent processes during development and stress response. Our approach was to generate molecular chimeras between two MAP3K family members, the mixed lineage kinase, Slpr, and the TGF-β activated kinase, Tak1, which share 32% amino acid identity across the kinase domain but otherwise differ in sequence and domain structure, and then test the contributions of various domains for protein localization, complementation of mutants, and activation of signaling. We found that overexpression of the wild-type kinases stimulated JNK signaling in alternate contexts, so cells were capable of responding to both MAP3Ks, but with distinct outcomes. Relative to wild-type, the catalytic domain swaps compensated weakly or not at all, despite having a shared substrate, the JNK kinase Hep. Tak1 C-terminal domain-containing constructs were inhibitory in Tak1 signaling contexts, including tumor necrosis factor-dependent cell death and innate immune signaling; however, depressing antimicrobial gene expression did not necessarily cause phenotypic susceptibility to infection. These same constructs were neutral in the context of Slpr-dependent developmental signaling, reflecting differential subcellular protein localization and by inference, point of activation. Altogether, our findings suggest that the selective deployment of a particular MAP3K can be attributed in part to its inherent sequence differences, cellular localization, and binding partner availability.

  18. Temporal Geobiotic Mapping: a conceptual mapping technique toward visualising geobiotic areas in cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte C. Ebach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geobiota are defined by taxic assemblages (i.e., biota and their defining abiotic breaks, which are mapped in cross-section to reveal past and future biotic boundaries. We term this conceptual approach Temporal Geobiotic Mapping (TGM and offer it as a conceptual approach for biogeography. TGM is based on geological cross-sectioning, which creates maps based on the distribution of biota and known abiotic factors that drive their distribution, such as climate, topography, soil chemistry and underlying geology. However, the availability of abiotic data is limited for many areas. Unlike other approaches, TGM can be used when there is minimal data available. In order to demonstrate TGM, we use the well-known area in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales (NSW, south-eastern Australia and show how surface processes such as weathering and erosion affect the future distribution of a Moist Basalt Forest taxic assemblage. Biotic areas are best represented visually as maps, which can show transgressions and regressions of biota and abiota over time. Using such maps, a biogeographer can directly compare animal and plant distributions with features in the abiotic environment and may identify significant geographical barriers or pathways that explain biotic distributions.

  19. 3D Mapping of the SPRY2 domain of ryanodine receptor 1 by single-particle cryo-EM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Perálvarez-Marín

    Full Text Available The type 1 skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1 is principally responsible for Ca(2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and for the subsequent muscle contraction. The RyR1 contains three SPRY domains. SPRY domains are generally known to mediate protein-protein interactions, however the location of the three SPRY domains in the 3D structure of the RyR1 is not known. Combining immunolabeling and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy we have mapped the SPRY2 domain (S1085-V1208 in the 3D structure of RyR1 using three different antibodies against the SPRY2 domain. Two obstacles for the image processing procedure; limited amount of data and signal dilution introduced by the multiple orientations of the antibody bound in the tetrameric RyR1, were overcome by modifying the 3D reconstruction scheme. This approach enabled us to ascertain that the three antibodies bind to the same region, to obtain a 3D reconstruction of RyR1 with the antibody bound, and to map SPRY2 to the periphery of the cytoplasmic domain of RyR1. We report here the first 3D localization of a SPRY2 domain in any known RyR isoform.

  20. Photoinduced force microscopy: A technique for hyperspectral nanochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdick, Ryan A.; Morrison, William; Nowak, Derek; Albrecht, Thomas R.; Jahng, Junghoon; Park, Sung

    2017-08-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have intensified the need for tools that can characterize newly synthesized nanomaterials. A variety of techniques has recently been shown which combines atomic force microscopy (AFM) with optical illumination including tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM), and photothermal induced resonance microscopy (PTIR). To varying degrees, these existing techniques enable optical spectroscopy with the nanoscale spatial resolution inherent to AFM, thereby providing nanochemical interrogation of a specimen. Here we discuss photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM), a recently developed technique for nanoscale optical spectroscopy that exploits image forces acting between an AFM tip and sample to detect wavelength-dependent polarization within the sample to generate absorption spectra. This approach enables ∼10 nm spatial resolution with spectra that show correlation with macroscopic optical absorption spectra. Unlike other techniques, PiFM achieves this high resolution with virtually no constraints on sample or substrate properties. The applicability of PiFM to a variety of archetypal systems is reported here, highlighting the potential of PiFM as a useful tool for a wide variety of industrial and academic investigations, including semiconducting nanoparticles, nanocellulose, block copolymers, and low dimensional systems, as well as chemical and morphological mixing at interfaces.

  1. Some Signal Processing Techniques for Use in Broadband Time Domain Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    At the present time, in the typical broadband, time domain microwave spectroscopy experiment each free induction decay (FID) collected is on the order of 10^6 data points in length with a sampling rate on the order of 10-12 seconds per point. Traditionally, the FID is processed using a fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT) with the resulting power spectrum used in ensuing spectral analyses. For use with the FFT algorithm we have implemented some pre- and post-processing techniques to improve the signal quality. These techniques include the use of Lissajous plots to ensure phase stability in signal addition, novel windowing functions, and also automated broadband phase corrections which allow the absorption spectrum to be used as a more highly resolved version of the traditional power spectrum (see figure). We have also implemented alternatives to the FFT algorithm for time domain signal processing including Hankel singular valued decomposition, a maximum entropy method, and wavelet transformations. Although these techniques are unlikely to be used in place of a fast Fourier transform we will demonstrate how each of these techniques may be used to augment the traditional FFT algorithm in regards to spectral analysis.

  2. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  3. Unstructured characteristic method embedded with variational nodal method using domain decomposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, E.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA Cadarache (DER/SPRC/LEPH), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Santandrea, S. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures DM2S/SERMA/LENR, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes a recently-developed extension of our 'Multi-methods,multi-domains' (MM-MD) method for the solution of the multigroup transport equation. Based on a domain decomposition technique, our approach allows us to treat the one-group equation by cooperatively employing several numerical methods together. In this work, we describe the coupling between the Method of Characteristics (integro-differential equation, unstructured meshes) with the Variational Nodal Method (even parity equation, cartesian meshes). Then, the coupling method is applied to the benchmark model of the Phebus experimental facility (Cea Cadarache). Our domain decomposition method give us the capability to employ a very fine mesh in describing a particular fuel bundle with an appropriate numerical method (MOC), while using a much large mesh size in the rest of the core, in conjunction with a coarse-mesh method (VNM). This application shows the benefits of our MM-MD approach, in terms of accuracy and computing time: the domain decomposition method allows us to reduce the Cpu time, while preserving a good accuracy of the neutronic indicators: reactivity, core-to-bundle power coupling coefficient and flux error. (authors)

  4. Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdeisat, Munther A.; Burton, David R.; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen

    2016-10-01

    The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications.

  5. Comparing interpolation techniques for annual temperature mapping across Xinjiang region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren-ping, Zhang; Jing, Guo; Tian-gang, Liang; Qi-sheng, Feng; Aimaiti, Yusupujiang

    2016-11-01

    Interpolating climatic variables such as temperature is challenging due to the highly variable nature of meteorological processes and the difficulty in establishing a representative network of stations. In this paper, based on the monthly temperature data which obtained from the 154 official meteorological stations in the Xinjiang region and surrounding areas, we compared five spatial interpolation techniques: Inverse distance weighting (IDW), Ordinary kriging, Cokriging, thin-plate smoothing splines (ANUSPLIN) and Empirical Bayesian kriging(EBK). Error metrics were used to validate interpolations against independent data. Results indicated that, the ANUSPLIN performed best than the other four interpolation methods.

  6. Can social semantic web techniques foster collaborative curriculum mapping in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, Cord; Finsterer, Sonja; Cremer, Jan; Schenkat, Hennig

    2013-08-15

    Curriculum mapping, which is aimed at the systematic realignment of the planned, taught, and learned curriculum, is considered a challenging and ongoing effort in medical education. Second-generation curriculum managing systems foster knowledge management processes including curriculum mapping in order to give comprehensive support to learners, teachers, and administrators. The large quantity of custom-built software in this field indicates a shortcoming of available IT tools and standards. The project reported here aims at the systematic adoption of techniques and standards of the Social Semantic Web to implement collaborative curriculum mapping for a complete medical model curriculum. A semantic MediaWiki (SMW)-based Web application has been introduced as a platform for the elicitation and revision process of the Aachen Catalogue of Learning Objectives (ACLO). The semantic wiki uses a domain model of the curricular context and offers structured (form-based) data entry, multiple views, structured querying, semantic indexing, and commenting for learning objectives ("LOs"). Semantic indexing of learning objectives relies on both a controlled vocabulary of international medical classifications (ICD, MeSH) and a folksonomy maintained by the users. An additional module supporting the global checking of consistency complements the semantic wiki. Statements of the Object Constraint Language define the consistency criteria. We evaluated the application by a scenario-based formative usability study, where the participants solved tasks in the (fictional) context of 7 typical situations and answered a questionnaire containing Likert-scaled items and free-text questions. At present, ACLO contains roughly 5350 operational (ie, specific and measurable) objectives acquired during the last 25 months. The wiki-based user interface uses 13 online forms for data entry and 4 online forms for flexible searches of LOs, and all the forms are accessible by standard Web browsers. The

  7. Image reconstruction using wavelet multi-resolution technique for time-domain diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Gao, Feng; Jiao, Yuting; Zhao, Huijuan

    2010-02-01

    It is generally believed that the inverse problem in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is highly ill-posed and its solution is always under-determined and sensitive to noise, which is the main problem in the application of DOT. In this paper, we propose a method on image reconstruction for time-domain diffuse optical tomography based on panel detection and Finite-Difference Method, and introduce an approach to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the reconstruction process. We propose a multi-level scheme to reduce the number of unknowns by parameterizing the spatial distribution of optical properties via wavelet transform and then reconstruct the coefficients of this transform. Compared with previous traditional uni-level full spatial domain algorithm, this method can efficiently improve the reconstruction quality. Numerical simulations show that wavelet-based multi-level inversion is superior to the uni-level algebraic reconstruction technique.

  8. Improvement of Frequency Domain Output Only Modal Identification from the Application of the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2004-01-01

    from the time series, are due to the noise reduction that results from the time averaging procedure of the random decrement technique, and from avoiding leakage in the spectral densities, as long as the random decrement functions are evaluated with sufficient time length to have a complete decay within......This paper explores the idea of estimating the spectral densities as the Fourier transform of the random decrement functions for the application of frequency domain output-only modal identification methods. The gains in relation to the usual procedure of computing the spectral densities directly...... that length. The idea is applied in the analysis of ambient vibration data collected in a ¼ scale model of a 4-story building. The results show that a considerable improvement is achieved, in terms of noise reduction in the spectral density functions and corresponding quality of the frequency domain modal...

  9. A Generic Current Mode Design for Multifunction Grounded Capacitor Filters Employing Log-Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic design (GD for realizing an nth order log-domain multifunction filter (MFF, which can yield four possible stable filter configurations, each offering simultaneously lowpass (LP, highpass (HP, and bandpass (BP frequency responses, is presented. The features of these filters are very simple, consisting of merely a few exponential transconductor cells and capacitors; all grounded elements, capable of absorbing the shunt parasitic capacitances, responses are electronically tuneable, and suitable for monolithic integration. Furthermore, being designed using log-domain technique, it offers all its advantages. As an example, 5th-order MFFs are designed in each case and their performances are evaluated through simulation. Lastly, a comparative study of the MFFs is also carried, which helps in selecting better high-order MFF for a given application.

  10. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

  11. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

  12. Ambiguities in results obtained with 2D gel replicon mapping techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, two 2-dimensional (2D) gel techniques, termed neutral/neutral and neutral/alkaline, have been developed and employed to map replication origins in eukaryotic plasmids and chromosomal DNA. The neutral/neutral technique, which requires less DNA for analysis, has been preferentially used in r

  13. My Solar System: A Developmentally Adapted Eco-Mapping Technique for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Fazio-Griffith, Laura J.; Rohr, Shannon N.

    2008-01-01

    Counseling children requires specific skills and techniques, such as play therapy and expressive arts, to address developmental manifestations and to facilitate the understanding of presenting problems. This article outlines an adapted eco-mapping activity that can be used as a creative counseling technique with children in order to promote…

  14. Mapping the self-association domains of ataxin-1: identification of novel non overlapping motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P. Menon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 is caused by aggregation and misfolding of the ataxin-1 protein. While the pathology correlates with mutations that lead to expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the protein, other regions contribute to the aggregation process as also non-expanded ataxin-1 is intrinsically aggregation-prone and forms nuclear foci in cell. Here, we have used a combined approach based on FRET analysis, confocal microscopy and in vitro techniques to map aggregation-prone regions other than polyglutamine and to establish the importance of dimerization in self-association/foci formation. Identification of aggregation-prone regions other than polyglutamine could greatly help the development of SCA1 treatment more specific than that based on targeting the low complexity polyglutamine region.

  15. Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Roblyer, Darren M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    We present an application of spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) to the wide-field imaging of drug delivery to brain tissue. Measurements were compared with values obtained by a previously validated variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the method of optical pharmacokinetics (OP). We demonstrate a cross-correlation between the two methods for absorption extraction and drug concentration determination in both experimental tissue phantoms and freshly extracted rodent brain tissue. These methods were first used to assess intra-arterial (IA) delivery of cationic liposomes to brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats under transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Results were found to be in agreement with previously published experimental data and pharmacokinetic models of IA drug delivery. We then applied the same scheme to evaluate IA mitoxantrone delivery to glioma-bearing rats. Good correlation was seen between OP and SFDI determined concentrations taken from normal and tumor averaged sites. This study shows the feasibility of mapping drug/tracer distributions and encourages the use of SFDI for spatial imaging of tissues for drug/tracer-tagged carrier deposition and pharmacokinetic studies.

  16. A Secure and Semi-Blind Technique of Embedding Color Watermark in RGB Image Using Curvelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeeta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A semi-blind and secure watermarking technique for the color image using curvelet domain has been proposed. To make the algorithm secure a Bijection mapping function has been used. The watermark also separated into color planes and each color plane into a bit planes. The most significant bit (MSB planes of each color used as the embedding information and remaining bit planes are used as a key at the time of extraction. The MSB planes of each color of watermark image embedded into the curvelet coefficients of the blue color plane of the processed cover image. For embedding the MSB bit planes of watermark image in the cover image each curvelet coefficient of blue planes of the processed cover image has been compared with the value of its 8 connected coefficients (neighbors. The results of the watermarking scheme have been analyzed by different quality assessment metric such as PSNR, Correlation Coefficient (CC and Mean Structure Similarity Index Measure (MSSIM. The experimental results show that the proposed technique gives the good invisibility of watermark, the quality of extracting watermark and robustness against different attacks.

  17. Analysis of BER of OFDM in Optical Domain with Different Modulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Gifty Arul Marin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In OFDM system, the subcarrier frequencies are chosen so that the subcarriers are orthogonal to each other, meaning that cross talk between the sub channels is eliminated. Priority of OFDM system is given to minimizing the interference or crosstalk among the channels and symbols comprising the data stream. The primary advantage of OFDM is its ability to cope with severe channel conditions like attenuation of high frequencies, narrowband interference and frequency selective fading due to multipath. The existing OFDM systems were modelled based on frequency domain using various modulation techniques in AWGN channel. This is a research analysis to calculate the efficient BER of the OFDM system in the optical domain using BPSK and QPSK modulation techniques. This project can be used for high speed applications requiring more band width. Finally, performance comparison of BPSK and QPSK modulation schemes in OFDM system and the calculation of BER (Bit Error Rate using these modulation techniques is to be done. The entire OFDM system is implemented using SIMULINK tool in MATLAB

  18. Digital Mapping Techniques '08—Workshop Proceedings, Moscow, Idaho, May 18–21, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '08 (DMT'08) workshop was attended by more than 100 technical experts from 40 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 24 State geological surveys. This year's meeting, the twelfth in the annual series, was hosted by the Idaho Geological Survey, from May 18-21, 2008, on the University of Idaho campus in Moscow, Idaho. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Geologic Map Database Project and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). As in previous years' meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information, principally in order to develop more efficient methods for digital mapping, cartography, GIS analysis, and information management. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized (1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, "publishing" includes Web-based release); (2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LiDAR; (3) digital cartographic techniques; (4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; (5) analytical GIS techniques; and (6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

  19. Extended radar observations with the frequency radar domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Crochet, M.

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we present high-resolution observations obtained with the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan, /34.85°N, /136.10°E) using the frequency radar domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique. This technique has recently been introduced for improving the range resolution capabilities of the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars which are limited by their minimum pulse length. The Fourier-based imaging, the Capon method have been performed with 5 equally spaced frequencies between 46.25 and 46.75MHz and with an initial range resolution of 300m. These results have been compared firstly to results obtained using the frequency domain interferometry (FDI) technique with Δf=0.5MHz and, secondly, to results from a classical Doppler beam swinging (DBS) mode applied with a range resolution of 150m. Thin echoing structures could be tracked owing to the improved radar range resolution and some complex structures possibly related to Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities have been detected. Indeed, these structures appeared within the core of a wind shear and were associated with intense vertical wind fluctuations. Moreover, a well-defined thin echo layer was found in an altitude range located below the height of the wind shear. The radar observations have not been fully interpreted yet because the radar configuration was not adapted for this kind of study and because of the lack of complementary information provided by other techniques when the interesting echoing phenomena occurred. However, the results confirm the high potentialities of the FII technique for the study of atmospheric dynamics at small scales.

  20. Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2016-07-01

    In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic mapping techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage maps. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate mapping techniques. Predictive habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The predictive maps were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter maps. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest predictive performances. Spatial predictions of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest predictions to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble mapping techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for predictive habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust predictions, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to prediction outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble mapping approaches have clear value for spatial management.

  1. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  2. Stakeholder approach, Stakeholders mental model: A visualization test with cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui Nassreddine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.

  3. Digital Mapping Techniques '09-Workshop Proceedings, Morgantown, West Virginia, May 10-13, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '09 (DMT'09) workshop was attended by 90 technical experts from 42 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 24 State geological surveys. This workshop, the thirteenth in the annual series, was hosted by the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, May 10-13, 2009, on the West Virginia University campus in Morgantown, West Virginia. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the National Geologic Map Database project and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG).

  4. Comprehensive binary interaction mapping of SH2 domains via fluorescence polarization reveals novel functional diversification of ErbB receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Hause

    Full Text Available First-generation interaction maps of Src homology 2 (SH2 domains with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK phosphosites have previously been generated using protein microarray (PM technologies. Here, we developed a large-scale fluorescence polarization (FP methodology that was able to characterize interactions between SH2 domains and ErbB receptor phosphosites with higher fidelity and sensitivity than was previously achieved with PMs. We used the FP assay to query the interaction of synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to 89 ErbB receptor intracellular tyrosine sites against 93 human SH2 domains and 2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domains. From 358,944 polarization measurements, the affinities for 1,405 unique biological interactions were determined, 83% of which are novel. In contrast to data from previous reports, our analyses suggested that ErbB2 was not more promiscuous than the other ErbB receptors. Our results showed that each receptor displays unique preferences in the affinity and location of recruited SH2 domains that may contribute to differences in downstream signaling potential. ErbB1 was enriched versus the other receptors for recruitment of domains from RAS GEFs whereas ErbB2 was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine and phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. ErbB3, the kinase inactive ErbB receptor family member, was predictably enriched for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol kinases and surprisingly, was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, and RHO GEFs but depleted for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. Many novel interactions were also observed with phosphopeptides corresponding to ErbB receptor tyrosines not previously reported to be phosphorylated by mass spectrometry, suggesting the existence of many biologically relevant RTK sites that may be phosphorylated but below the detection threshold of standard mass spectrometry

  5. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the KAON factory central control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inwood, C. (Inwood Real-Time Systems Associates, Kinburn, ON (Canada)); Ludgate, G.A.; Dohan, D.A.; Osberg, E.A.; Koscielniak, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility)

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements. (orig.).

  6. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the Kaon Factory central control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inwood, Clifford; Ludgate, G. A.; Dohan, D. A.; Osberg, E. A.; Koscielniak, S.

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements.

  7. A Low Power Digital Accumulation Technique for Digital-Domain CMOS TDI Image Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changwei; Nie, Kaiming; Xu, Jiangtao; Gao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an accumulation technique suitable for digital domain CMOS time delay integration (TDI) image sensors is proposed to reduce power consumption without degrading the rate of imaging. In terms of the slight variations of quantization codes among different pixel exposures towards the same object, the pixel array is divided into two groups: one is for coarse quantization of high bits only, and the other one is for fine quantization of low bits. Then, the complete quantization codes are composed of both results from the coarse-and-fine quantization. The equivalent operation comparably reduces the total required bit numbers of the quantization. In the 0.18 µm CMOS process, two versions of 16-stage digital domain CMOS TDI image sensor chains based on a 10-bit successive approximate register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), with and without the proposed technique, are designed. The simulation results show that the average power consumption of slices of the two versions are 6.47×10-8 J/line and 7.4×10-8 J/line, respectively. Meanwhile, the linearity of the two versions are 99.74% and 99.99%, respectively. PMID:27669256

  8. A Low Power Digital Accumulation Technique for Digital-Domain CMOS TDI Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changwei; Nie, Kaiming; Xu, Jiangtao; Gao, Jing

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, an accumulation technique suitable for digital domain CMOS time delay integration (TDI) image sensors is proposed to reduce power consumption without degrading the rate of imaging. In terms of the slight variations of quantization codes among different pixel exposures towards the same object, the pixel array is divided into two groups: one is for coarse quantization of high bits only, and the other one is for fine quantization of low bits. Then, the complete quantization codes are composed of both results from the coarse-and-fine quantization. The equivalent operation comparably reduces the total required bit numbers of the quantization. In the 0.18 µm CMOS process, two versions of 16-stage digital domain CMOS TDI image sensor chains based on a 10-bit successive approximate register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), with and without the proposed technique, are designed. The simulation results show that the average power consumption of slices of the two versions are 6 . 47 × 10 - 8 J/line and 7 . 4 × 10 - 8 J/line, respectively. Meanwhile, the linearity of the two versions are 99.74% and 99.99%, respectively.

  9. Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method

  10. Digital Mapping Techniques '10-Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento, California, May 16-19, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Soller, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '10 (DMT'10) workshop was attended by 110 technical experts from 40 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 19 State geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop, hosted by the California Geological Survey, May 16-19, 2010, in Sacramento, California, was similar in nature to the previous 13 meetings (see Appendix B). The meeting was coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Geologic Map Database project. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. It is with great pleasure that I note that the objective was again successfully met, as attendees continued to share and exchange knowledge and information, and renew friendships and collegial work begun at past DMT workshops. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized (1) methods for creating and publishing map products ("publishing" includes Web-based release); (2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LiDAR; (3) digital cartographic techniques; (4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; (5) analytical GIS techniques; and (6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

  11. Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry for fast detection of dynamic strain incorporating double-edge technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Mingjia; Wang, Chong; Xia, Haiyun; Shentu, Guoliang; Dou, Xiankang; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-wei

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a direct detection Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR) is demonstrated for fast distributed dynamic strain sensing incorporating double-edge technique, time-division multiplexing technique and upconversion technique. In order to guarantee the robust stability of the system, the double-edge technique is implemented by using a convert single-channel FPI and a fiber-coupled upconversion single-photon detector, incorporating a time-division multiplexing method. The upconversion single-photon detector is adopted to upconvert the backscattering photons from 1548.1 nm to 863 nm, which is subsequently detected by a Silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD). In the experiment, dynamic strain disturbance up to 1.9 mε over 1.5 km of a polarization maintaining fiber is detected at a sampling rate of 30 Hz. An accuracy of ± 30 με and spatial resolution of 0.6 m are realized.

  12. Method to Depict Many Kinds of Choroplethic Map through VB and Surfer Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING; Xiang-tao; ZHU; Guo-guang; DUAN; Li-jie; LI; Chao; LUO; Bo-liang; CAI; Yuan-gang

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to picture choroplethic map through VB and Surfer techniques. [Method] Taking the way to depict many kinds of choroplethic map through VB and Surfer techniques as an example, methods to realize data process, system protection and programming through ActiveX control under VB 6.0 programming environment. [Result] In the development of "Hunan Modern Agricultural Meteorological Business Service Comprehensive Platform", because of different requirements, the workload was large, but picture and data was isolated by dint of ActiveX control, which improved the software efficiency. [Conclusion] The study solved the problems such as programming workload reduction, code utilization efficiency improvement and software interface.

  13. Detecting Environmental Change Using Self-Organizing Map Techniques Applied to the ERA-40 Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gebri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is a valuable tool in meteorological applications. Properly selected data mining techniques enable researchers to process and analyze massive amounts of data collected by satellites and other instruments. Large spatial-temporal datasets can be analyzed using different linear and nonlinear methods. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM is a promising tool for clustering and visualizing high dimensional data and mapping spatial-temporal datasets describing nonlinear phenomena. We present results of the application of the SOM technique in regions of interest within the European re-analysis data set. The possibility of detecting climate change signals through the visualization capability of SOM tools is examined.

  14. Nano-domains of high viscosity and stiffness mapped in the cell membrane by thermal noise imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yunhsiang; Pralle, Arnd

    2012-02-01

    The cell membrane is thought to contain spatial domains, created by cholesterol-lipid clusters and by interactions with the membrane cytoskeleton. The influence of these domains on membrane protein mobility and cell signaling has clearly been demonstrate. Yet, due to their small size and transient nature, the cholesterol stabilized domains cannot be visualized directly. We show here that thermal noise imaging (TNI) which tracks the diffusion of a colloid labeled membrane protein with microsecond and nanometer precision, can visualize cholesterol stabilized domains, also know as lipid raft, in intact cells. Using TNI to confine a single membrane protein to diffuse for seconds in an area of 300nm x 300nm provides sufficient data for high resolutions maps of the local diffusion, local attraction potentials and membrane stiffness. Using a GPI-anchored GFP molecule to probe the membrane of PtK2 cells we detect domains of increased membrane stiffness, which also show increase viscosity and are the preferred location for the GPI-anchored protein. These domains are further stabilized by addition of ganglioside cross linking toxins and disappear after removal of the cholesterol.

  15. Web Mapping Architectures Based on Open Specifications and Free and Open Source Software in the Water Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Muñoz, C.; Brovelli, M. A.; Kilsedar, C. E.; Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Oxoli, D.

    2017-09-01

    The availability of water-related data and information across different geographical and jurisdictional scales is of critical importance for the conservation and management of water resources in the 21st century. Today information assets are often found fragmented across multiple agencies that use incompatible data formats and procedures for data collection, storage, maintenance, analysis, and distribution. The growing adoption of Web mapping systems in the water domain is reducing the gap between data availability and its practical use and accessibility. Nevertheless, more attention must be given to the design and development of these systems to achieve high levels of interoperability and usability while fulfilling different end user informational needs. This paper first presents a brief overview of technologies used in the water domain, and then presents three examples of Web mapping architectures based on free and open source software (FOSS) and the use of open specifications (OS) that address different users' needs for data sharing, visualization, manipulation, scenario simulations, and map production. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the latest developments in OS for geospatial and water-related data collection, storage, and sharing, combined with the use of mature FOSS projects facilitate the creation of sophisticated interoperable Web-based information systems in the water domain.

  16. WEB MAPPING ARCHITECTURES BASED ON OPEN SPECIFICATIONS AND FREE AND OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE IN THE WATER DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arias Muñoz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water-related data and information across different geographical and jurisdictional scales is of critical importance for the conservation and management of water resources in the 21st century. Today information assets are often found fragmented across multiple agencies that use incompatible data formats and procedures for data collection, storage, maintenance, analysis, and distribution. The growing adoption of Web mapping systems in the water domain is reducing the gap between data availability and its practical use and accessibility. Nevertheless, more attention must be given to the design and development of these systems to achieve high levels of interoperability and usability while fulfilling different end user informational needs. This paper first presents a brief overview of technologies used in the water domain, and then presents three examples of Web mapping architectures based on free and open source software (FOSS and the use of open specifications (OS that address different users’ needs for data sharing, visualization, manipulation, scenario simulations, and map production. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the latest developments in OS for geospatial and water-related data collection, storage, and sharing, combined with the use of mature FOSS projects facilitate the creation of sophisticated interoperable Web-based information systems in the water domain.

  17. Expulsion characterization in resistance spot welding by means of a hardness mapping technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Ghazanfari; M.Naderi

    2014-01-01

    Expulsion is an undesired event during resistance spot welding because the weld quality deteriorates. It is the ejection of molten metal from the weld nugget which usually occurs due to applying a high current for a short welding time. Expulsion has a significant impact on the final yield strength of the weld, thus the detection and characterization of expulsion events is significant for the quality assurance of resistance spot welds. In this study, hardness mapping, using a scanning hardness machine, was used as a quality assurance technique for re-sistance spot welding. Hardness tests were conducted on a resistance spot welded sample to prepare a hardness map. The test results showed good correlation between the hardness map and metallographic cross sections. The technique also provided further fundamental understand-ing of the resistance spot welding process, especially regarding the occurrence of expulsion in the nugget.

  18. The Effect of Mnemonic and Mapping Techniques on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of selected presentation techniques including the keyword method, the peg word method, the loci method, argument mapping, concept mapping and mind mapping on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production. To this end, a sample of 151 Iranian female students from a public pre-university school in Islam Shahr was selected. They were assigned to six groups. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the afore-mentioned treatment conditions. After the experimental period, two post-tests in multiple choice and fill-in-the-blanks formats were administered to assess the participants’ vocabulary comprehension and production. Two independent One-Way ANOVA procedures were used to analyze the obtained data. The results showed that the differences among the effects of the above-mentioned techniques were statistically significant in both vocabulary comprehension and production. These findings can have implications for learners, teachers, and materials’ developers.

  19. Filtering techniques for the detection of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters in multifrequency CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Herranz, D; Hobson, M P; Barreiro, R B; Diego-Rodriguez, J M; Martínez-González, E; Lasenby, A N

    2002-01-01

    The problem of detecting Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) clusters in multifrequency CMB observations is investigated using a number of filtering techniques. A multifilter approach is introduced, which optimizes the detection of SZ clusters on microwave maps. An alternative method is also investigated, in which maps at different frequencies are combined in an optimal manner so that existing filtering techniques can be applied to the single combined map. The SZ profiles are approximated by the circularly-symmetric template $\\tau (x) = [1 +(x/r_c)^2]^{-\\lambda}$, with $\\lambda \\simeq \\tfrac{1}{2}$ and $x\\equiv |\\vec{x}|$, where the core radius $r_c$ and the overall amplitude of the effect are not fixed a priori, but are determined from the data. The background emission is modelled by a homogeneous and isotropic random field, characterized by a cross-power spectrum $P_{\

  20. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  1. Broadband absorption spectroscopy by combining frequency-domain and steady-state techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota B.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Butler, John A.; Hsiang, D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2001-06-01

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media is presented using a combination of frequency-domain (FD) and steady-state (SS) reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light SS measurement, while the FD data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption ((mu) a) and reduced scattering ((mu) s') derived from the FD data are used to intensity-calibrate the SS measurements and to estimate (mu) s' at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. After these steps are performed, (mu) a can be determined by comparing the SS reflectance values to the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. We present an application of this method to breast tumor characterization. A case study of a fibroadenoma is shown, where different absorption spectra were found between the normal and the tumor sides.

  2. Universal filters of arbitrary order and type employing square-root-domain technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, F. A.; Psychalinos, C.; Shah, N. A.

    2014-07-01

    Novel Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) and Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) universal filter topologies of arbitrary order and type are introduced in this paper. The proposed topologies have been realised by employing Square-Root Domain (SRD) technique. An offered benefit of the universal filter topologies is that only grounded capacitors are required for their implementations and the resonant frequency of the filters can be electronically controlled by an appropriate dc current. The proposed universal filters simultaneously offer all the five standard filtering functions i.e. Lowpass (LP), Highpass (HP) and Bandpass (BP), Bandstop (BS) and Allpass (AP) frequency responses. In addition, the SIMO topology is generic in the sense that it can yield four different stable filter configurations. Two design examples are provided in each configuration and the correct operation of the corresponding topologies has been evaluated through the PSPICE software with BSIM 0.35-µm CMOS process model parameters.

  3. Prediction in Health Domain Using Bayesian Networks Optimization Based on Induction Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgaer, Pablo; Britos, Paola; García-Martínez, Ramón

    A Bayesian network is a directed acyclic graph in which each node represents a variable and each arc a probabilistic dependency; they are used to provide: a compact form to represent the knowledge and flexible methods of reasoning. Obtaining it from data is a learning process that is divided in two steps: structural learning and parametric learning. In this paper we define an automatic learning method that optimizes the Bayesian networks applied to classification, using a hybrid method of learning that combines the advantages of the induction techniques of the decision trees (TDIDT-C4.5) with those of the Bayesian networks. The resulting method is applied to prediction in health domain.

  4. A VLSI Implementation of Rank-Order Searching Circuit Employing a Time-Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Tu Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a compact and low-power rank-order searching (ROS circuit that can be used for building associative memories and rank-order filters (ROFs by employing time-domain computation and floating-gate MOS techniques. The architecture inherits the accuracy and programmability of digital implementations as well as the compactness and low-power consumption of analog ones. We aim to implement identification function as the first priority objective. Filtering function would be implemented once the location identification function has been carried out. The prototype circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It consumes only 132.3 μW for an eight-input demonstration case.

  5. Information Landscaping: Information Mapping, Charting, Querying and Reporting Techniques for Total Quality Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bor-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Total quality management and knowledge management are merged and used as a conceptual model to direct and develop information landscaping techniques through the coordination of information mapping, charting, querying, and reporting. Goals included: merge citation analysis and data mining, and apply data visualization and information architecture…

  6. Optimization of Thermal Aspects of Friction Stir Welding – Initial Studies Using a Space Mapping Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize a thermal model of a friction stir welding process. The optimization is performed using a space mapping technique in which an analytical model is used along with the FEM model to be optimized. The results are compared to traditional gradient based optimization...

  7. Techniques for Down-Sampling a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. The software tool of the current two new techniques can be used in all optical model validation processes involving large space optical surfaces

  8. Data Maps: A Hypertext Technique for Visualizing, Analyzing and Presenting Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Mark

    Making diagrams of the relationships among data is not a new idea: however, the utility of computerized hypertext techniques makes the task more feasible, on a wider scale of data. Data maps using "EntryWay" (a hypertext editing program) were made based on qualitative data from eight different research projects, including: a discourse…

  9. Information Landscaping: Information Mapping, Charting, Querying and Reporting Techniques for Total Quality Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bor-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Total quality management and knowledge management are merged and used as a conceptual model to direct and develop information landscaping techniques through the coordination of information mapping, charting, querying, and reporting. Goals included: merge citation analysis and data mining, and apply data visualization and information architecture…

  10. Accuracy of vertical radial plume mapping technique in measuring lagoon gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) posted a ground-based optical remote sensing method on its website called OTM 10 for measuring fugitive gas emission flux from area sources such as closed landfills. The OTM 10 utilizes the vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) technique to c...

  11. Optimization of Thermal Aspects of Friction Stir Welding – Initial Studies Using a Space Mapping Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize a thermal model of a friction stir welding process. The optimization is performed using a space mapping technique in which an analytical model is used along with the FEM model to be optimized. The results are compared to traditional gradient based optimization...

  12. Space-mapping techniques applied to the optimization of a safety isolating transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.V. Tran; S. Brisset; D. Echeverria (David); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P. Brochet

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSpace-mapping optimization techniques allow to allign low-fidelity and high-fidelity models in order to reduce the computational time and increase the accuracy of the solution. The main idea is to build an approximate model from the difference of response between both models. Therefore

  13. Comparing human and automatic thesaurus mapping approaches in the agricultural domain

    CERN Document Server

    Lauser, Boris; Caracciolo, Caterina; Keizer, Johannes; van Hage, Willem Robert; Mayr, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge organization systems (KOS), like thesauri and other controlled vocabularies, are used to provide subject access to information systems across the web. Due to the heterogeneity of these systems, mapping between vocabularies becomes crucial for retrieving relevant information. However, mapping thesauri is a laborious task, and thus big efforts are being made to automate the mapping process. This paper examines two mapping approaches involving the agricultural thesaurus AGROVOC, one machine-created and one human created. We are addressing the basic question "What are the pros and cons of human and automatic mapping and how can they complement each other?" By pointing out the difficulties in specific cases or groups of cases and grouping the sample into simple and difficult types of mappings, we show the limitations of current automatic methods and come up with some basic recommendations on what approach to use when.

  14. The SARS Coronavirus S Glycoprotein Receptor Binding Domain: Fine Mapping and Functional Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiaodong

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entry of the SARS coronavirus (SCV into cells is initiated by binding of its spike envelope glycoprotein (S to a receptor, ACE2. We and others identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD by using S fragments of various lengths but all including the amino acid residue 318 and two other potential glycosylation sites. To further characterize the role of glycosylation and identify residues important for its function as an interacting partner of ACE2, we have cloned, expressed and characterized various soluble fragments of S containing RBD, and mutated all potential glycosylation sites and 32 other residues. The shortest of these fragments still able to bind the receptor ACE2 did not include residue 318 (which is a potential glycosylation site, but started at residue 319, and has only two potential glycosylation sites (residues 330 and 357. Mutation of each of these sites to either alanine or glutamine, as well as mutation of residue 318 to alanine in longer fragments resulted in the same decrease of molecular weight (by approximately 3 kDa suggesting that all glycosylation sites are functional. Simultaneous mutation of all glycosylation sites resulted in lack of expression suggesting that at least one glycosylation site (any of the three is required for expression. Glycosylation did not affect binding to ACE2. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the fragment S319–518 resulted in the identification of ten residues (K390, R426, D429, T431, I455, N473, F483, Q492, Y494, R495 that significantly reduced binding to ACE2, and one residue (D393 that appears to increase binding. Mutation of residue T431 reduced binding by about 2-fold, and mutation of the other eight residues – by more than 10-fold. Analysis of these data and the mapping of these mutations on the recently determined crystal structure of a fragment containing the RBD complexed to ACE2 (Li, F, Li, W, Farzan, M, and Harrison, S. C., submitted suggested the existence of two hot

  15. Network mapping among the functional domains of Chikungunya virus nonstructural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Jyoti; Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Gulati, Sahil; Dudha, Namrata; Gupta, Amita; Chaudhary, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Formation of virus specific replicase complex is among the most important steps that determines the fate of viral transcription and replication during Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. In the present study, the authors have computationally generated a 3D structure of CHIKV late replicase complex on the basis of the interactions identified among the domains of CHIKV nonstructural proteins (nsPs) which make up the late replicase complex. The interactions among the domains of CHIKV nsPs were identified using systems such as pull down, protein interaction ELISA, and yeast two-hybrid. The structures of nsPs were generated using I-TASSER and the biological assembly of the replicase complex was determined using ZRANK and RDOCK. A total of 36 interactions among the domains and full length proteins were tested and 12 novel interactions have been identified. These interactions included the homodimerization of nsP1 and nsP4 through their respective C-ter domains; the associations of nsP2 helicase domain and C-ter domain of nsP4 with methyltransferase and membrane binding domains of nsP1; the interaction of nsP2 protease domain with C-ter domain of nsP4; and the interaction of nsP3 macro and alphavirus unique domains with the C-ter domain of nsP1. The novel interactions identified in the current study form a network of organized associations that suggest the spatial arrangement of nsPs in the late replicase complex of CHIKV.

  16. Acoustic emission source location in complex structures using full automatic delta T mapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaili, Safaa Kh.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Holford, Karen M.; Eaton, Mark J.; Pullin, Rhys

    2016-05-01

    An easy to use, fast to apply, cost-effective, and very accurate non-destructive testing (NDT) technique for damage localisation in complex structures is key for the uptake of structural health monitoring systems (SHM). Acoustic emission (AE) is a viable technique that can be used for SHM and one of the most attractive features is the ability to locate AE sources. The time of arrival (TOA) technique is traditionally used to locate AE sources, and relies on the assumption of constant wave speed within the material and uninterrupted propagation path between the source and the sensor. In complex structural geometries and complex materials such as composites, this assumption is no longer valid. Delta T mapping was developed in Cardiff in order to overcome these limitations; this technique uses artificial sources on an area of interest to create training maps. These are used to locate subsequent AE sources. However operator expertise is required to select the best data from the training maps and to choose the correct parameter to locate the sources, which can be a time consuming process. This paper presents a new and improved fully automatic delta T mapping technique where a clustering algorithm is used to automatically identify and select the highly correlated events at each grid point whilst the "Minimum Difference" approach is used to determine the source location. This removes the requirement for operator expertise, saving time and preventing human errors. A thorough assessment is conducted to evaluate the performance and the robustness of the new technique. In the initial test, the results showed excellent reduction in running time as well as improved accuracy of locating AE sources, as a result of the automatic selection of the training data. Furthermore, because the process is performed automatically, this is now a very simple and reliable technique due to the prevention of the potential source of error related to manual manipulation.

  17. Stabilization technique for real-time high-resolution vascular ultrasound using frequency domain interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Hirofumi; Taki, Kousuke; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Motoi; Sato, Toru

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed an ultrasound imaging method based on frequency domain interferometry (FDI) with an adaptive beamforming technique to depict real-time high-resolution images of human carotid artery. Our previous study has investigated the performance of the proposed imaging method under an ideal condition with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the present study, we propose a technique that has the potential to improve accuracy in estimating echo intensity using the FDI imaging method. We investigated the performance of the proposed technique in a simulation study that two flat interfaces were located at depths of 15.0 and 15.2 mm and white noise was added. Because the -6 dB bandwidth of the signal used in this simulation study is 2.6 MHz, the conventional B-mode imaging method failed to depict the two interfaces. Both the conventional and proposed FDI imaging methods succeeded to depict the two interfaces when the SNR ranged from 15 to 30 dB. However, the average error of the estimated echo intensity at the interfaces using the conventional FDI imaging method ranged from 7.2 to 10.5 dB. In contrast, that using the FDI imaging method with the proposed technique ranged from 2.0 to 2.2 dB. The present study demonstrates the potential of the FDI imaging method in depicting robust and high-range-resolution ultrasound images of arterial wall, indicating the possibility to improve the diagnosis of atherosclerosis in early stages.

  18. Mapping the transcription repressive domain in the highly conserved human gene hnulp1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    HNULP1,a new member of the basic helixloop-helix transcription factors,contains a DUF654 domain in its C-terminus and is highly conserved from Drosophilae,yeast,zebrafish to mouse.The function of this motif,however,is currently unknown.In this research,we fused five deletion fragments of the DUF654 domain to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and then co-transfected with plasmids L8G5-Luc and VP-16.The analysis of the GAL4 luciferase reporter gene indicated that fragments from 228 to 407 amino acids in the DUF654 domain had a strong transcription repression activity.Therefore,this study lays a solid foundation for research on the mechanism of hnulp1 transcriptional regulation and the function of the DUF654 domain.

  19. A Biophysical Image Compositing Technique for the Global-Scale Extraction and Mapping of Barren Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram C. Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the barren lands play a key role in the interaction between land cover dynamics and climate system, an efficient methodology for the global-scale extraction and mapping of the barren lands is important. The discriminative potential of the existing soil/bareness indexes was assessed by collecting globally distributed reference data belonging to major land cover types. The existing soil/bareness indexes parameterized at the local scale did not work satisfactorily everywhere at the global level. A new technique called the Biophysical Image Composite (BIC is proposed in the research by exploiting time-series of the multi-spectral data to capture global-scale barren land attributes effectively. The BIC is a false color composite image made up of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, short wave infrared reflectance, and green reflectance, which were specially selected from the highest vegetation activity period by avoiding signals from the seasonal snowfall. The drastic contrast between the barren lands and vegetation as exhibited by the BIC provides a robust extraction and mapping of the barren lands, and facilitates its visual interpretation. Random Forests based supervised classification approach was applied on the BIC for the mapping of global barren lands. A new global barren land cover map of year 2013 was produced with high accuracy. The comparison of the resulted map with an existing map of the same year showed a substantial discrepancy between two maps due to methodological variation. To cope with this problem, the BIC based mapping methodology, with a special account of the land surface phenological changes, is suggested to standardize the global-scale estimates and mapping of the barren lands.

  20. Accuracy assessment of GPS and surveying technique in forest road mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Abdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest road networks provide access to the forest as a source of timber production and tourism services. Moreover, it is considered the main tool to protect forests from fire and smuggling. The prerequisite of road management and maintenance planning is to have spatial distribution and map of the roads. But newly constructed or some other forest road segments are not available in national maps. Therefore, mapping these networks is raised as a priority for a forest manager. The aim of this study was to assess accuracy of routine methods in road mapping. For this purpose, Patom district forest road was selected and road network map was extracted from the National Cartographic Center maps as the ground truth or base map. The map of the network was acquired using two methods, a GPS receiver and survey technique. Selecting 70 sample points on the network and considering the National Cartographic Center map as base map, accuracy was determined for two methods. The results showed that while the survey method was more accurate at the beginning of the path (first 500 meters, accumulation of errors resulted in higher rates of error in this method (up to 263 meters compared to GPS. Mann-Whitney test revealed significant differences in accuracy of two methods and mean accuracies were 38.86 and 147.90 for GPS and surveying respectively. The results showed that for samples 1-15 there was no significant difference between the survey and GPS data but for samples 28-42 and 56-70 statistically significant difference were existed between the survey and GPS data. Regression analysis showed that the relation between GPS and surveying accuracies and distance were best defined by cubic (R2 adj = 0.65 and linear (R2 adj = 0.83 regression models respectively. Applying 10 and 5 meters buffers around base map, 68 and 41% of GPS and 44 and 21% of surveying derived road were overlapped with buffer zones. The time required to complete the survey was found to increase the

  1. A wafer mapping technique for residual stress in surface micromachined films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, G.; Murray, J.; Smith, S.; Desmulliez, M. P. Y.; Mount, A. R.; Walton, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The design of MEMS devices employing movable structures is crucially dependant on the mechanical behaviour of the deposited materials. It is therefore important to be able to fully characterize the micromachined films and predict with confidence the mechanical properties of patterned structures. This paper presents a characterization technique that enables the residual stress in MEMS films to be mapped at the wafer level by using microstructures released by surface micromachining. These dedicated MEMS test structures and the associated measurement techniques are used to extract localized information on the strain and Young’s modulus of the film under investigation. The residual stress is then determined by numerically coupling this data with a finite element analysis of the structure. This paper illustrates the measurement routine and demonstrates it with a case study using electrochemically deposited alloys of nickel and iron, particularly prone to develop high levels of residual stress. The results show that the technique enables wafer mapping of film non-uniformities and identifies wafer-to-wafer differences. A comparison between the results obtained from the mapping technique and conventional wafer bow measurements highlights the benefits of using a procedure tailored to films that are non-uniform, patterned and surface-micromachined, as opposed to simple standard stress extraction methods. The presented technique reveals detailed information that is generally unexplored when using conventional stress extraction methods such as wafer bow measurements.

  2. Parametric techniques for characterizing myocardial tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (part 1): T1 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Palazón, R J; Ortiz Pérez, J T; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Solé Arqués, M

    2016-01-01

    The development of myocardial fibrosis is a common process in the appearance of ventricular dysfunction in many heart diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to accurately evaluate the structure and function of the heart, and its role in the macroscopic characterization of myocardial fibrosis by late enhancement techniques has been widely validated clinically. Recent studies have demonstrated that T1-mapping techniques can quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis and the expansion of the myocardial extracellular space in absolute terms. However, further studies are necessary to validate the usefulness of this technique in the early detection of tissue remodeling at a time when implementing early treatment would improve a patient's prognosis. This article reviews the state of the art for T1 mapping of the myocardium, its clinical applications, and its limitations. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of mesh morphing and mapping techniques in patient specific modelling of the human pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Zoryana; Beek, Maarten; Whyne, Cari Marisa

    2012-08-01

    Robust generation of pelvic finite element models is necessary to understand variation in mechanical behaviour resulting from differences in gender, aging, disease and injury. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate mesh morphing and mapping techniques to facilitate the creation and structural analysis of specimen-specific finite element (FE) models of the pelvis. A specimen-specific pelvic FE model (source mesh) was generated following a traditional user-intensive meshing scheme. The source mesh was morphed onto a computed tomography scan generated target surface of a second pelvis using a landmarked-based approach, in which exterior source nodes were shifted to target surface vertices, while constrained along a normal. A second copy of the morphed model was further refined through mesh mapping, in which surface nodes of the initial morphed model were selected in patches and remapped onto the surfaces of the target model. Computed tomography intensity-based material properties were assigned to each model. The source, target, morphed and mapped models were analyzed under axial compression using linear static FE analysis, and their strain distributions were evaluated. Morphing and mapping techniques were effectively applied to generate good quality and geometrically complex specimen-specific pelvic FE models. Mapping significantly improved strain concurrence with the target pelvis FE model.

  4. Portable (handheld) clinical device for quantitative spectroscopy of skin, utilizing spatial frequency domain reflectance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Dang, An N.; Huang, Samantha S.; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-09-01

    Spatial Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (SFDS) is a technique for quantifying in-vivo tissue optical properties. SFDS employs structured light patterns that are projected onto tissues using a spatial light modulator, such as a digital micromirror device. In combination with appropriate models of light propagation, this technique can be used to quantify tissue optical properties (absorption, μa, and scattering, μs', coefficients) and chromophore concentrations. Here we present a handheld implementation of an SFDS device that employs line (one dimensional) imaging. This instrument can measure 1088 spatial locations that span a 3 cm line as opposed to our original benchtop SFDS system that only collects a single 1 mm diameter spot. This imager, however, retains the spectral resolution (˜1 nm) and range (450-1000 nm) of our original benchtop SFDS device. In the context of homogeneous turbid media, we demonstrate that this new system matches the spectral response of our original system to within 1% across a typical range of spatial frequencies (0-0.35 mm-1). With the new form factor, the device has tremendously improved mobility and portability, allowing for greater ease of use in a clinical setting. A smaller size also enables access to different tissue locations, which increases the flexibility of the device. The design of this portable system not only enables SFDS to be used in clinical settings but also enables visualization of properties of layered tissues such as skin.

  5. A Survey on Face Detection and Recognition Techniques in Different Application Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Kumar Rath

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent technology the popularity and demand of image processing is increasing due to its immense number of application in various fields. Most of these are related to biometric science like face recognitions, fingerprint recognition, iris scan, and speech recognition. Among them face detection is a very powerful tool for video surveillance, human computer interface, face recognition, and image database management. There are a different number of works on this subject. Face recognition is a rapidly evolving technology, which has been widely used in forensics such as criminal identification, secured access, and prison security. In this paper we had gone through different survey and technical papers of this field and list out the different techniques like Linear discriminant analysis, Viola and Jones classification and adaboost learning curvature analysis and discuss about their advantages and disadvantages also describe some of the detection and recognition algorithms, mention some application domain along with different challenges in this field. . We had proposed a classification of detection techniques and discuss all the recognition methods also.

  6. Structure-function analysis of the extracellular domain of the pneumococcal cell division site positioning protein MapZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuse, Sylvie; Jean, Nicolas L.; Guinot, Mégane; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Grangeasse, Christophe; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Accurate placement of the bacterial division site is a prerequisite for the generation of two viable and identical daughter cells. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the positive regulatory mechanism involving the membrane protein MapZ positions precisely the conserved cell division protein FtsZ at the cell centre. Here we characterize the structure of the extracellular domain of MapZ and show that it displays a bi-modular structure composed of two subdomains separated by a flexible serine-rich linker. We further demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminal subdomain serves as a pedestal for the C-terminal subdomain, which determines the ability of MapZ to mark the division site. The C-terminal subdomain displays a patch of conserved amino acids and we show that this patch defines a structural motif crucial for MapZ function. Altogether, this structure-function analysis of MapZ provides the first molecular characterization of a positive regulatory process of bacterial cell division.

  7. Structure-function analysis of the extracellular domain of the pneumococcal cell division site positioning protein MapZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuse, Sylvie; Jean, Nicolas L; Guinot, Mégane; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Grangeasse, Christophe; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-27

    Accurate placement of the bacterial division site is a prerequisite for the generation of two viable and identical daughter cells. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the positive regulatory mechanism involving the membrane protein MapZ positions precisely the conserved cell division protein FtsZ at the cell centre. Here we characterize the structure of the extracellular domain of MapZ and show that it displays a bi-modular structure composed of two subdomains separated by a flexible serine-rich linker. We further demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminal subdomain serves as a pedestal for the C-terminal subdomain, which determines the ability of MapZ to mark the division site. The C-terminal subdomain displays a patch of conserved amino acids and we show that this patch defines a structural motif crucial for MapZ function. Altogether, this structure-function analysis of MapZ provides the first molecular characterization of a positive regulatory process of bacterial cell division.

  8. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  9. Structure of the PSD-95/MAP1A complex reveals a unique target recognition mode of the MAGUK GK domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yitian; Shang, Yuan; Zhang, Rongguang; Zhu, Jinwei

    2017-08-10

    The PSD-95 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are major synaptic scaffold proteins and play crucial roles in the dynamic regulation of dendritic remodelling, which is understood to be the foundation of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The guanylate kinase (GK) domain of MAGUK family proteins functions as a phosphor-peptide binding module. However, the GK domain of PSD-95 has been found to directly bind to a peptide sequence within the C-terminal region of neuronal-specific microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A), although the detailed molecular mechanism governing this phosphorylation-independent interaction at the atomic level is missing. In the present study, we determine the crystal structure of PSD-95 GK in complex with the MAP1A peptide at 2.6-Å resolution. The complex structure reveals that, unlike a linear and elongated conformation in the phosphor-peptide/GK complexes, the MAP1A peptide adopts a unique conformation with a stretch of hydrophobic residues far from each other in the primary sequence clustering and interacting with the 'hydrophobic site' of PSD-95 GK and a highly conserved aspartic acid of MAP1A (D2117) mimicking the phosphor-serine/threonine in binding to the 'phosphor-site' of PSD-95 GK. We demonstrate that the MAP1A peptide may undergo a conformational transition upon binding to PSD-95 GK. Further structural comparison of known DLG GK-mediated complexes reveals the target recognition specificity and versatility of DLG GKs. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Feature Specific Criminal Mapping using Data Mining Techniques and Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model

    OpenAIRE

    Uttam Mande; Y. Srinivas; Murthy, J. V. R.

    2012-01-01

    Lot of research is projected to map the criminal with that of crime and it is observed that there is still a huge increase in the crime rate due to the gap between the optimal usage of technologies and investigation. This has given scope for the development of new methodologies in the area of crime investigation using the techniques based on data mining, image processing, forensic, and social mining. In this paper, presents a model using new methodology for mapping the criminal with the crime...

  11. Digital Mapping Techniques '05--Workshop Proceedings, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, April 24-27, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Intorduction: The Digital Mapping Techniques '05 (DMT'05) workshop was attended by more than 100 technical experts from 47 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 25 state geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop was similar in nature to the previous eight meetings, held in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), in Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998), in Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999), in Lexington, Kentucky (Soller, 2000), in Tuscaloosa, Alabama (Soller, 2001), in Salt Lake City, Utah (Soller, 2002), in Millersville, Pennsylvania (Soller, 2003), and in Portland, Oregon (Soller, 2004). This year's meeting was hosted by the Louisiana Geological Survey, from April 24-27, 2005, on the Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. It is with great pleasure I note that the objective was successfully met, as attendees continued to share and exchange knowledge and information, and to renew friendships and collegial work begun at past DMT workshops. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Capture Working Group, which was formed in August 1996, to support the AASG and the USGS in their effort to build a National Geologic Map Database (see Soller and Berg, this volume, and http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/info/standards/datacapt/). The Working Group was formed because increased production efficiencies, standardization, and quality of digital map products were needed for the database?and for the State and Federal geological surveys?to provide more high-quality digital maps to the public. At the 2005 meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) field data capture software and

  12. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two organizati

  13. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two organizati

  14. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two

  15. Geostatistical techniques applied to mapping limnological variables and quantify the uncertainty associated with estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Cigagna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study aimed to map the concentrations of limnological variables in a reservoir employing semivariogram geostatistical techniques and Kriging estimates for unsampled locations, as well as the uncertainty calculation associated with the estimates. Methods: We established twenty-seven points distributed in a regular mesh for sampling. Then it was determined the concentrations of chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Subsequently, a spatial variability analysis was performed and the semivariogram function was modeled for all variables and the variographic mathematical models were established. The main geostatistical estimation technique was the ordinary Kriging. The work was developed with the estimate of a heavy grid points for each variables that formed the basis of the interpolated maps. Results: Through the semivariogram analysis was possible to identify the random component as not significant for the estimation process of chlorophyll-a, and as significant for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Geostatistical maps were produced from the Kriging for each variable and the respective standard deviations of the estimates calculated. These measurements allowed us to map the concentrations of limnological variables throughout the reservoir. The calculation of standard deviations provided the quality of the estimates and, consequently, the reliability of the final product. Conclusions: The use of the Kriging statistical technique to estimate heavy mesh points associated with the error dispersion (standard deviation of the estimate, made it possible to make quality and reliable maps of the estimated variables. Concentrations of limnological variables in general were higher in the lacustrine zone and decreased towards the riverine zone. The chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen correlated comparing the grid generated by Kriging. Although the use of Kriging is more laborious compared to other interpolation methods, this

  16. Mapping of functional domains and characterization of the transcription factor Cph1 that mediate morphogenesis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Protiti; Ghorai, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sumit; Kamthan, Mohan; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Datta, Asis

    2015-10-01

    Cph1, a transcription factor of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase pathway, regulates morphogenesis in human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Here, by following a systemic deletion approach, we have identified functional domains and motifs of Cph1 that are involved in transcription factor activity and cellular morphogenesis. We found that the N-terminal homeodomain is essential for the DNA binding activity; however, C-terminal domain and polyglutamine motif (PQ) are indispensable for the transcriptional activation function. Complementation analysis of the cph1Δ null mutant using various deletion derivatives revealed functional significance of the N- and C-terminal domains and PQ motif in filamentation process, chlamydospore formation and sensitivity to the cell wall interfering compounds. Genome-wide identification of the Cph1 binding site and quantitative RT-PCR transcript analysis in cph1Δ null mutant revealed that a number of genes which are associated with the filamentous growth, maintaining cell wall organization and mitochondrial function, and the genes of the pH response pathway are the transcriptional targets of Cph1. The data also suggest that Cph1 may function as a positive or negative regulator depending on the morphological state and physiological conditions. Moreover, differential expression of the upstream MAP kinase pathway genes in wild type and cph1Δ null mutant indicated the existence of a feedback regulation.

  17. Towards the XML schema measurement based on mapping between XML and OO domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran; Heričko, Marjan; Pušnik, Maja

    2017-07-01

    Measuring quality of IT solutions is a priority in software engineering. Although numerous metrics for measuring object-oriented code already exist, measuring quality of UML models or XML Schemas is still developing. One of the research questions in the overall research leaded by ideas described in this paper is whether we can apply already defined object-oriented design metrics on XML schemas based on predefined mappings. In this paper, basic ideas for mentioned mapping are presented. This mapping is prerequisite for setting the future approach to XML schema quality measuring with object-oriented metrics.

  18. Geographic mapping of choroidal thickness in myopic eyes using 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide a geographical map of choroidal thickness (CT around the macular region among subjects with low, moderate and high myopia. Methods: 20 myopic subjects (n = 40 eyes without other identified pathologies participated in this study: 20 eyes of ≤ 3 diopters (D (low myopic, 10 eyes between -3 and -6D (moderate myopic, and 10 eyes of ≥ 6D (high myopic. The mean age of subjects was 30.2 years (± 7.6 years; range, 24 to 46 years. A 1050 nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT system, operating at 120 kHz imaging rate, was used in this study to simultaneously capture 3D anatomical images of the choroid and measure intraocular length (IOL in the subject. The 3D OCT images of the choroid were segmented into superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants, from which the CT was measured, representing radial distance between the outer retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer and inner scleral border. Measurements were made within concentric regions centered at fovea centralis, extended to 5 mm away from fovea at 1 mm intervals in the nasal and temporal directions. The measured IOL was the distance from the anterior cornea surface to the RPE in alignment along the optical axis of the eye. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate CT at each geographic region and observe the relationship between CT and the degree of myopia. Results: For low myopic eyes, the IOL was measured at 24.619 ± 0.016 mm. The CT (273.85 ± 49.01 μm was greatest under fovea as is in the case of healthy eyes. Peripheral to the fovea, the mean CT decreased rapidly along the nasal direction, reaching a minimum of 180.65 ± 58.25μm at 5 mm away from the fovea. There was less of a change in thickness from the fovea in the temporal direction reaching a minimum of 234.25 ± 42.27 μm. In contrast to the low myopic eyes, for moderate and high myopic eyes, CTs were thickest in temporal region (where CT = 194.94 ± 27.28 and 163 ± 34.89

  19. Comparing human and automatic thesaurus mapping approaches in the agricultural domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauser, B.; Johannsen, G.; Caracciolo, C.; Hage, W.R. van; Keizer, J.; Mayr, P.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge organization systems (KOS), like thesauri and other controlled vocabularies, are used to provide subject access to information systems across the web. Due to the heterogeneity of these systems, mapping between vocabularies becomes crucial for retrieving relevant information. However, mappi

  20. Beam rate influence on dose distribution and fluence map in IMRT dynamic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosarek, Krzysztof; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Osewski, Wojciech; Dolla, Lukasz; Bekman, Barbara; Petrovic, Borislava

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of beam rate on dose distribution in IMRT plans and then to evaluate agreement of calculated and measured dose distributions for various beam rate values. Accelerators used in radiotherapy utilize some beam rate modes which can shorten irradiation time and thus reduce ability of patient movement during a treatment session. This aspect should be considered in high conformal dynamic techniques. Dose calculation was done for two different beam rates (100 MU/min and 600 MU/min) in an IMRT plan. For both, a comparison of Radiation Planning Index (RPI) and MU was conducted. Secondly, the comparison of optimal fluence maps and corresponding actual fluence maps was done. Next, actual fluence maps were measured and compared with the calculated ones. Gamma index was used for that assessment. Additionally, positions of each leaf of the MLC were controlled by home made software. Dose distribution obtained for lower beam rates was slightly better than for higher beam rates in terms of target coverage and risk structure protection. Lower numbers of MUs were achieved in 100 MU/min plans than in 600 MU/min plans. Actual fluence maps converted from optimal ones demonstrated more similarity in 100 MU/min plans. Better conformity of the measured maps to the calculated ones was obtained when a lower beam rate was applied. However, these differences were small. No correlation was found between quality of fluence map conversion and leaf motion accuracy. Execution of dynamic techniques is dependent on beam rate. However, these differences are minor. Analysis shows a slight superiority of a lower beam rate. It does not significantly affect treatment accuracy.

  1. Digital mapping techniques '00, workshop proceedings - May 17-20, 2000, Lexington, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The Digital Mapping Techniques '00 (DMT'00) workshop was attended by 99 technical experts from 42 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 28 state geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop was similar in nature to the first three meetings, held in June, 1997, in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), in May, 1998, in Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998a), and in May, 1999, in Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999). This year's meeting was hosted by the Kentucky Geological Survey, from May 17 to 20, 2000, on the University of Kentucky campus in Lexington. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. When, based on discussions at the workshop, an attendee adopts or modifies a newly learned technique, the workshop clearly has met that objective. Evidence of learning and cooperation among participating agencies continued to be a highlight of the DMT workshops (see example in Soller, 1998b, and various papers in this volume). The meeting's general goal was to help move the state geological surveys and the USGS toward development of more cost-effective, flexible, and useful systems for digital mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis. Through oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions, emphasis was given to: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database; 3) progress toward building a standard geologic map data model; 4) field data-collection systems; and 5) map citation and authorship guidelines. Four representatives of the GIS hardware and software vendor community were invited to participate. The four annual DMT workshops were coordinated by the AASG/USGS Data Capture Working Group, which was formed in August, 1996, to support the Association of American State Geologists and the USGS in their effort

  2. Breast density mapping based upon system calibration, x-ray techniques, and FFDM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Smith, Andrew P.; Jing, Zhenxue; Wu, Tao

    2007-03-01

    Clinical studies have correlated a high breast density to a women's risk of breast cancer. A breast density measurement that can quantitatively depict the volume distribution and percentage of dense tissues in breasts would be very useful for risk factor assessment of breast cancer, and might be more predictive of risks than the common but subjective and coarse 4-point BIRADS scale. This paper proposes to use a neural-network mapping to compute the breast density information based upon system calibration data, x-ray techniques, and Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images. The mapping consists of four modules, namely, system calibration, generator of beam quality, generator of normalized absorption, and a multi-layer feed-forward neural network. As the core of breast density mapping, the network accepts x-ray target/filter combination, normalized x-ray absorption, pixel-wise breast thickness map, and x-ray beam quality during image acquisition as input elements, and exports a pixel-wise breast density distribution and a single breast density percentage for the imaged breast. Training and testing data sets for the design and verification of the network were formulated from calibrated x-ray beam quality, imaging data with a step wedge phantom under a variety x-ray imaging techniques, and nominal breast densities of tissue equivalent materials. The network was trained using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based back-propagation learning method. Various thickness and glandular density phantom studies were performed with clinical x-ray techniques. Preliminary results showed that the neural network mapping is promising in accurately computing glandular density distribution and breast density percentage.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of TEM methods for LiFePO4/FePO4 phase mapping: spectroscopic techniques (EFTEM, STEM-EELS) and STEM diffraction techniques (ACOM-TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, X; Kobler, A; Wang, D; Chakravadhanula, V S K; Schlabach, S; Szabó, D V; Norby, P; Kübel, C

    2016-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used intensively in investigating battery materials, e.g. to obtain phase maps of partially (dis)charged (lithium) iron phosphate (LFP/FP), which is one of the most promising cathode material for next generation lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. Due to the weak interaction between Li atoms and fast electrons, mapping of the Li distribution is not straightforward. In this work, we revisited the issue of TEM measurements of Li distribution maps for LFP/FP. Different TEM techniques, including spectroscopic techniques (energy filtered (EF)TEM in the energy range from low-loss to core-loss) and a STEM diffraction technique (automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM)), were applied to map the lithiation of the same location in the same sample. This enabled a direct comparison of the results. The maps obtained by all methods showed excellent agreement with each other. Because of the strong difference in the imaging mechanisms, it proves the reliability of both the spectroscopic and STEM diffraction phase mapping. A comprehensive comparison of all methods is given in terms of information content, dose level, acquisition time and signal quality. The latter three are crucial for the design of in-situ experiments with beam sensitive Li-ion battery materials. Furthermore, we demonstrated the power of STEM diffraction (ACOM-STEM) providing additional crystallographic information, which can be analyzed to gain a deeper understanding of the LFP/FP interface properties such as statistical information on phase boundary orientation and misorientation between domains.

  4. Mapping Turnaround Times (TAT to a Generic Timeline: A Systematic Review of TAT Definitions in Clinical Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiemann Volker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing turnaround times can help to analyse workflows in hospital information systems. This paper presents a systematic review of literature concerning different turnaround time definitions. Our objectives were to collect relevant literature with respect to this kind of process times in hospitals and their respective domains. We then analysed the existing definitions and summarised them in an appropriate format. Methods Our search strategy was based on Pubmed queries and manual reviews of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if precise definitions of turnaround times were available. A generic timeline was designed through a consensus process to provide an overview of these definitions. Results More than 1000 articles were analysed and resulted in 122 papers. Of those, 162 turnaround time definitions in different clinical domains were identified. Starting and end points vary between these domains. To illustrate those turnaround time definitions, a generic timeline was constructed using preferred terms derived from the identified definitions. The consensus process resulted in the following 15 terms: admission, order, biopsy/examination, receipt of specimen in laboratory, procedure completion, interpretation, dictation, transcription, verification, report available, delivery, physician views report, treatment, discharge and discharge letter sent. Based on this analysis, several standard terms for turnaround time definitions are proposed. Conclusion Using turnaround times to benchmark clinical workflows is still difficult, because even within the same clinical domain many different definitions exist. Mapping of turnaround time definitions to a generic timeline is feasible.

  5. Myocardial T1 and T2 mapping: Techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Pan Ki; Hong, Yoo Jin; Im, Dong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in various medical fields related to cardiovascular diseases. Rapid technological innovations in magnetic resonance imaging in recent times have resulted in the development of new techniques for CMR imaging. T1 and T2 image mapping sequences enable the direct quantification of T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) values of the myocardium, leading to the progressive integration of these sequences into routine CMR settings. Currently, T1, T2, and ECV values are being recognized as not only robust biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but also predictive factors for treatment monitoring and prognosis. In this study, we have reviewed various T1 and T2 mapping sequence techniques and their clinical applications.

  6. Evaluation of a projection-domain lung nodule insertion technique in thoracic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi; Chen, Baiyu; Koo, Chi Wan; Takahashi, Edwin A.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Levin, David L.; Kuzo, Ronald S.; Viers, Lyndsay D.; Vincent Sheldon, Stephanie A.; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    Task-based assessment of computed tomography (CT) image quality requires a large number of cases with ground truth. Inserting lesions into existing cases to simulate positive cases is a promising alternative approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently-developed raw-data based lesion insertion technique in thoracic CT. Lung lesions were segmented from patient CT images, forward projected, and reinserted into the same patient CT projection data. In total, 32 nodules of various attenuations were segmented from 21 CT cases. Two experienced radiologists and 2 residents blinded to the process independently evaluated these inserted nodules in two sub-studies. First, the 32 inserted and the 32 original nodules were presented in a randomized order and each received a rating score from 1 to 10 (1=absolutely artificial to 10=absolutely realistic). Second, the inserted and the corresponding original lesions were presented side-by-side to each reader, who identified the inserted lesion and provided a confidence score (1=no confidence to 5=completely certain). For the randomized evaluation, discrimination of real versus artificial nodules was poor with areas under the receiver operative characteristic curves being 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.78), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46-0.68), and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54-0.69) for the 2 radiologists, 2 residents, and all 4 readers, respectively. For the side-by-side evaluation, although all 4 readers correctly identified inserted lesions in 103/128 pairs, the confidence score was moderate (2.6). Our projection-domain based lung nodule insertion technique provides a robust method to artificially generate clinical cases that prove to be difficult to differentiate from real cases.

  7. Arsenic risk mapping in Bangladesh: a simulation technique of cokriging estimation from regional count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Risk analysis with spatial interpolation methods from a regional database on to a continuous surface is of contemporary interest. Groundwater arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and its impact on human health has been one of the "biggest environmental health disasters" in current years. It is ironic that so many tubewells have been installed in recent times for pathogen-free drinking water but the water pumped is often contaminated with toxic levels of arsenic. This paper seeks to analyse the spatial pattern of arsenic risk by mapping composite "problem regions" in southwest Bangladesh. It also examines the cokriging interpolation method in analysing the suitability of isopleth maps for different risk areas. GIS-based data processing and spatial analysis were used for this research, along with state-of-the-art decision-making techniques. Apart from the GIS-based buffering and overlay mapping operations, a cokriging interpolation method was adopted because of its exact interpolation capacity. The paper presents an interpolation of regional estimates of arsenic data for spatial risk mapping that overcomes the areal bias problem for administrative boundaries. Moreover, the functionality of the cokriging method demonstrates the suitability of isopleth maps that are easy to read.

  8. Radon risk mapping in southern Belgium: an application of geostatistical and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zh, H C; Charlet, J M; Poffijn, A

    2001-05-14

    A data set of long-term radon measurements in approximately 2200 houses in southern Belgium has been collected in an on-going national radon survey. The spatial variation of indoor Rn concentrations is modelled by variograms. A radon distribution map is produced using the log-normal kriging technique. A GIS is used to digitise, process and integrate a variety of data, including geological maps, Rn concentrations associated with house locations and an administrative map, etc. It also allows evaluation of the relationships between various spatial data sets with the goal of producing radon risk maps. Based on geostatistical mapping and spatial analysis, we define three categories of risk areas: high risk, medium risk and low risk area. The correlation between radon concentrations and geological features is proved in this study. High and medium Rn risk zones are dominantly situated in bedrock from the Cambrian to Lower Devonian, although a few medium risk zones are within the Jurassic. It is evident that high-risk zones are related to a strongly folded and fractured context.

  9. Feature Specific Criminal Mapping using Data Mining Techniques and Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Mande

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lot of research is projected to map the criminal with that of crime and it is observed that there is still a huge increase in the crime rate due to the gap between the optimal usage of technologies and investigation. This has given scope for the development of new methodologies in the area of crime investigation using the techniques based on data mining, image processing, forensic, and social mining. In this paper, presents a model using new methodology for mapping the criminal with the crime. This model clusters the criminal data basing on the type crime. When a crime occurs, based on the eye witness specified features, the criminal is mapped. Here we propose a novel methodology that uses Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model to map the features specified by the eyewitness with that of the features of the criminal who have committed the same type of the crime, if the criminal is not mapped, the suspect table is checked and the reports are generated

  10. GIS-based statistical mapping technique for block-and-ash pyroclastic flow and surge hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiwijayanti, C.; Voight, B.; Hidayat, D.; Schilling, S.

    2008-12-01

    Assessments of pyroclastic flow (PF) hazards are commonly based on mapping of PF and surge deposits and estimations of inundation limits, and/or computer models of varying degrees of sophistication. In volcanic crises a PF hazard map may be sorely needed, but limited time, exposures, or safety aspects may preclude fieldwork, and insufficient time or baseline data may be available for reliable dynamic simulations. We have developed a statistically constrained simulation model for block-and-ash PFs to estimate potential areas of inundation by adapting methodology from Iverson et al. (1998) for lahars. The predictive equations for block-and-ash PFs are calibrated with data from many volcanoes and given by A = (0.05-0.1)V2/3, B = (35-40)V2/3 , where A is cross-sectional area of inundation, B is planimetric area and V is deposit volume. The proportionality coefficients were obtained from regression analyses and comparison of simulations to mapped deposits. The method embeds the predictive equations in a GIS program coupled with DEM topography, using the LAHARZ program of Schilling (1998). Although the method is objective and reproducible, any PF hazard zone so computed should be considered as an approximate guide only, due to uncertainties on coefficients applicable to individual PFs, DEM details, and release volumes. Gradational nested hazard maps produced by these simulations reflect in a sense these uncertainties. The model does not explicitly consider dynamic behavior, which can be important. Surge impacts must be extended beyond PF hazard zones and we have explored several approaches to do this. The method has been used to supply PF hazard maps in two crises: Merapi 2006; and Montserrat 2006- 2007. We have also compared our hazard maps to actual recent PF deposits and to maps generated by several other model techniques.

  11. Mapping land slide occurrence zones using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques in Kelantan state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Misbari, S.

    2017-05-01

    Integration of satellite remote sensing data and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques is one of the most applicable approach for landslide mapping and identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones in tropical environments. Yearly, several landslides occur during heavy monsoon rainfall in Kelantan river basin, Peninsular Malaysia. In this investigation, Landsat-8 and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) remote sensing data sets were integrated with GIS analysis for detect, map and characterize landslide occurrences during December 2014 flooding period in the Kelantan river basin. Landslides were determined by tracking changes in vegetation pixel data using Landsat-8 images that acquired before and after December 2014 flooding for the study area. The PALSAR-2 data were used for mapping of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments in the state of Kelantan. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was used for landslide susceptibility mapping. Several factors such as slope, aspect, soil, lithology, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from remote sensing satellite data and fieldwork to apply AHP approach. Two main outputs of this study were landslide inventory occurrences map during 2014 flooding episode and landslide susceptibility map for entire the Kelantan state. Modelled/predicted landslides with susceptible map generated prior and post flood episode, confirmed that intense rainfall in the Kelantan have contributed to weightage of numerous landslides with various sizes. It is concluded that precipitation is the most influential factor that bare to landslide event.

  12. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarulzaman Kamarudin; Syed Muhammad Mamduh; Ali Yeon Md. Shakaff; Ammar Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor wi...

  13. A technique on automatic land-use database reconstruction based on scanning land-use map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaojuan; GONG Huili; YIN Lianwang; SUN Yonghua; YANG Lingli; WANG Yanggang

    2006-01-01

    Although a land-cover database is very important to national land use including urban planning and land-use management, it is very laborious and time-consuming to build through digitization of paper land-use maps (1:10000) and data input by hand. Here we propose a new, high-level, automatic technique to build a land-use database, which has proved useful and practical in building a land-use database of Baotou City.

  14. Techniques for Mapping Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing Algorithms to Multi-GPU Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    are suited for threaded (parallel) execution, by labeling them as kernels using syntax specified by the GPU programming language (e.g., CUDA for an...Techniques for Mapping Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing Algorithms to Multi- GPU Clusters Eric Hayden, Mark Schmalz, William Chapman, Sanjay...Abstract - This paper presents a design for parallel processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data using multiple Graphics Processing Units ( GPUs ). Our

  15. Frequency and Spatial Domains Adaptive-based Enhancement Technique for Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Chaudhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low contrast and noisy image limits the amount of information conveyed to the user. With the proliferation of digital imagery and computer interface between man-and-machine, it is now viable to consider digital enhancement in the image before presenting it to the user, thus increasing the information throughput. With better contrast, target detection and discrimination can be improved. The paper presents a sequence of filtering operations in frequency and spatial domains to improve the quality of the thermal infrared (IR images. Basically, two filters – homomorphic filter followed by adaptive Gaussian filter are applied to improve the quality of the thermal IR images. We have systematically evaluated the algorithm on a variety of images and carefully compared it with the techniques presented in the literature. We performed an evaluation of three filter banks such as homomorphic, Gaussian 5×5 and the proposed method, and we have seen that the proposed method yields optimal PSNR for all the thermal images. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is efficient for enhancement of thermal IR images.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.451-457, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6873

  16. Domain Superposition Technique for Free Vibration Analysis of Textile Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile composites consist of interlaced tows, which are impregnated with a matrix material and then cured. The interlacing of the tows offers the potential for increased through-thickness strength compared to conventional laminated composites. However, one disadvantage of textile composites is the difficulty in predicting their performance due to the complex geometry of their internal architectures. Finite element analysis (FEA has become an effective means to predict the response of complex textile composite structures. When an attempt is made to perform a conventional FEA, one of the tough issues faced is how to deal with the topologically complex internal geometries. To overcome this difficult issue, a domain superposition technique (DST has been proposed to implement free vibration analysis of woven composite structures. The significant advantage of the DST over traditional FEA is that it does not need to directly deal with the likely degenerated resin-rich region, thus the DST model is much easier to establish. Numerical results show that DST predictions correlate excellently with traditional FEAs.

  17. Survey of modular ontology techniques and their applications in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Johnson, Thomas M; Chute, Christopher G

    2009-08-01

    In the past several years, various ontologies and terminologies such as the Gene Ontology have been developed to enable interoperability across multiple diverse medical information systems. They provide a standard way of representing terms and concepts thereby supporting easy transmission and interpretation of data for various applications. However, with their growing utilization, not only has the number of available ontologies increased considerably, but they are also becoming larger and more complex to manage. Toward this end, a growing body of work is emerging in the area of modular ontologies where the emphasis is on either extracting and managing "modules" of an ontology relevant to a particular application scenario (ontology decomposition) or developing them independently and integrating into a larger ontology (ontology composition). In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art approaches in modular ontologies focusing on techniques that are based on rigorous logical formalisms as well as well-studied graph theories. We analyze and compare how such approaches can be leveraged in developing tools and applications in the biomedical domain. We conclude by highlighting some of the limitations of the modular ontology formalisms and put forward additional requirements to steer their future development.

  18. Effective crop evapotranspiration measurement using time-domain reflectometry technique in a sub-humid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. K.; Panda, R. K.; Halder, Debjani

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for daily evapotranspiration estimation of peanut and maize crop in a sub-humid region. Four independent methods were used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc), namely, soil water balance budgeting approach, energy balance approach—(Bowen ratio), empirical methods approach, and Pan evaporation method. The soil water balance budgeting approach utilized the soil moisture measurement by gravimetric and TDR method. The empirical evapotranspiration methods such as combination approach (FAO-56 Penman-Monteith and Penman), temperature-based approach (Hargreaves-Samani), and radiation-based approach (Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Abetw) were used to estimate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The daily ETc determined by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Pan evaporation, and Bowen ratio were found to be at par with the ET values derived from the soil water balance budget; while the methods Abetw, Penman, and Hargreaves-Samani were not found to be ideal for the determination of ETc. The study illustrates the in situ applicability of the TDR method in order to make it possible for a user to choose the best way for the optimum water consumption for a given crop in a sub-humid region. The study suggests that the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Turc, and Priestley-Taylor can be used for the determination of crop ETc using TDR in comparison to soil water balance budget.

  19. Effective crop evapotranspiration measurement using time-domain reflectometry technique in a sub-humid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. K.; Panda, R. K.; Halder, Debjani

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for daily evapotranspiration estimation of peanut and maize crop in a sub-humid region. Four independent methods were used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc), namely, soil water balance budgeting approach, energy balance approach—(Bowen ratio), empirical methods approach, and Pan evaporation method. The soil water balance budgeting approach utilized the soil moisture measurement by gravimetric and TDR method. The empirical evapotranspiration methods such as combination approach (FAO-56 Penman-Monteith and Penman), temperature-based approach (Hargreaves-Samani), and radiation-based approach (Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Abetw) were used to estimate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The daily ETc determined by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Pan evaporation, and Bowen ratio were found to be at par with the ET values derived from the soil water balance budget; while the methods Abetw, Penman, and Hargreaves-Samani were not found to be ideal for the determination of ETc. The study illustrates the in situ applicability of the TDR method in order to make it possible for a user to choose the best way for the optimum water consumption for a given crop in a sub-humid region. The study suggests that the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Turc, and Priestley-Taylor can be used for the determination of crop ETc using TDR in comparison to soil water balance budget.

  20. Molecular Interaction Studies of Benzyl Alcohols with Methacrylates in Carbon Tetrachloride using Frequency Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric relaxation of benzyl alcohol substitutents (benzyl alcohol, m-methylbenzyl alcohol and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol with methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency domain (X-band technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (ε׳, dielectric loss factor (ε״ at Microwave frequency, static dielectric constant (ε0 and dielectric constant at infinite dilution (ε∞ at optical frequency have been determined. From the measured dielectric data, the relaxation time (t calculated using Higasi method and activation energies (∆Ft and ∆Fη have been determined. All the dielectric parameters that are vary with the substitutent change in benzyl alcohol andchain length of acrylic esters. Suggests that, the proton donating ability is varying with the substitution of benzyl alcohol and proton accepting ability is varying with the chain length of acrylic esters. The relaxation time and molar free energy activation of 1:1 molar ratio is greater than other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3 confirm that the existence of most likely 1:1 complex formation between the studied systems and also complex formation formed between free hydroxyl group of substituted benzyl alcohols and carbonyl group of acrylic esters (MMA and EMA.

  1. Direct Data Domain Sparsity-Based STAP Utilizing Subaperture Smoothing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaocheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel direct data domain (D3 sparsity-based space-time adaptive processing (STAP algorithm utilizing subaperture smoothing techniques for airborne radar applications. Different from either normal sparsity-based STAP or D3 sparsity-based STAP, the proposed algorithm firstly uses only the snapshot in the cell under test (CUT to generate multiple subsnapshots by exploiting the space-time structure of the steering vector and the uncorrelated nature of the components of the interference covariance matrix. Since the interference spectrum is sparse in the whole angle-Doppler plane, by employing a sparse regularization, the generated multiple subsnapshots are jointly used to recover the interference spectrum. The interference covariance matrix is then estimated from the interference spectrum, followed by the space-time filtering and the target detection. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the generalized forward/backward method, the conventional D3 least squares STAP algorithm, and the existing D3 sparsity-based STAP algorithm. Furthermore, compared with the normal sparsity-based STAP algorithm using multiple snapshots, the proposed algorithm can also avoid the performance degradation caused by discrete interferers merely appearing in the CUT.

  2. Mineral classification map using MF and SAM techniques: A case study in the Nohwa Island, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Sun; Yoon, Wang-Jung [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    The purpose of this study is to map pyprophyllite distribution at surface of the Nohwa deposit, Korea by using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) data. For this, combined Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), and Matched Filtering (MF) technique based on mathematical algorithm was applied. The regional distribution of high-grade and low-grade pyrophyllite in the Nohwa deposit area could be differentiated by this method. The results of this study show that ASTER data analysis using combination of SAM and MF techniques will assist in exploration of pyrophyllite at the exposed surface.

  3. A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data for mapping low level contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. E-mail: hka@iau.dtu.dk; Korsbech, U.; Bargholz, K.; Hovgaard, J

    1999-12-01

    A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data has been developed. It is based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method introduced by Hovgaard in 1997. The new technique opens for mapping of very low contamination levels. It is tested with data from Latvia where the remaining contamination from the 1986 Chernobyl accident together with fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests includes {sup 137}Cs at levels often well below 1 kBq/m{sup 2} equivalent surface contamination. The limiting factors for obtaining reliable results are radon in the air, spectrum stability and accurate altitude measurements.

  4. Phase-mapping technique for the evaluation of aortic valve stenosis by MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, G. [Medizinische Klinik 2, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Mueller, E. [Siemens Medical Engineering Group, Erlangen (Germany); Reynen, K. [Medizinische Klinik 2, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Wilke, N. [Siemens Medical Engineering Group, Erlangen (Germany); Bachmann, K. [Medizinische Klinik 2, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany)

    1992-08-01

    New MR-techniques for quantitative blood flow registration such as phase-mapping (a two-dimensional space-resolved technique with a time-averaged measurement of blood flow) or RACE (real-time acquisition and evaluation of blood flow in one-dimensional space projection) are available for the diagnosis of valvular heart disease. Initial results of grading aortic valve stenosis by these methods are shown in comparison to continuous wave Ultrasound-Doppler. Two groups of 15 patients were examined by RACE or phase-mapping, 12 respectively 8 of whom suffered from an aortic valve stenosis. The shape of blood flow profiles as well as grading of aortic valve stenosis show high concordance when comparing the results of MR and Doppler technique. Good reliability and practicability of the demonstrated MR-method are shown. With respect to the results of RACE and phase-mapping the development of an alternative and competing MR-method for the evaluation of valvular heart disease and shunt diagnostics seems possible. (orig.)

  5. A semi-quantitative technique for mapping potential aquifer productivity on the national scale: example of England and Wales (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Lewis, Melinda

    2015-12-01

    The development and validation of aquifer productivity and depth-to-source maps for England and Wales are described. Aquifer productivity maps can provide valuable support for the assessment, planning and management of groundwater and renewable heat energy resources. Aquifer productivity is often mapped using geostatistical interpolation techniques such as kriging, but these techniques tend to be unsuitable for mapping at the national scale due to the high data (and time) demands. A methodology is outlined for mapping aquifer productivity at the national scale using existing national-scale data sets. Pumping test data are used to characterise the potential borehole yields that different geological formations of varying lithologies and ages can provide. Based on this analysis and using expert knowledge, the corresponding map codes on the geological map are assigned to potential productivity classes. The subsurface (concealed) extent of aquifer units is mapped from geophysical data, and together with the attributed geological map, provide the bedrock-aquifer productivity map. Drilling and pumping costs can be an important consideration when evaluating the feasibility of developing a groundwater source. Thus, a map of the approximate depth to source is developed alongside the aquifer productivity map. The maps are validated using independent data sets, and map performance is compared against performance from maps derived by random and uniform attribution. The results show that the maps successfully predict potential productivity and approximate depth to the water source, although utility of the depth-to-source map could be improved by increasing the vertical discretisation at which depth intervals are mapped.

  6. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaz, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted;

    2012-01-01

    A direct current (DC) resistivity and time domaininduced polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissionedlandfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark,for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminateimportant geological units that control the hydrology ofthe surrounding.......Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometryof the buried waste body and key geological structures.In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depththat correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plumespreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandylayer rich...

  7. [May Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP) be relevant for homosexual women? Study among 147 gynaeco-logists involved in MAP techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintes, R; Darves-Bornoz, J-M

    2002-01-01

    The second part of the twentieth century has seen societal modifications as well as evolution of medical techniques allowing now thinking human procreation in terms of choices or even rights. Certain voices require sometimes Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP) for lesbians. Even though society did not allow such a possibility in France, it seemed interesting to question about it professionals actively involved in the use of MAP techniques. Through systematic internet queries, we obtained a list of one hundred private or public french medical institutions with a unit for the treatment of sterility. A telephone call to their secretary allowed us to individualize those doctors who did practice MAP. A sample of 147 medical doctors practicing MAP was then drawn. They were questioned with a clinical instrument including 20 ended-questions in order to assess their opinions on: homosexual women with a desire of a child; possibility for these clinicians to intervene with a donor insemination in such situations; developmental risk for such children. One hundred twenty five (85%) accepted to answer. Nine percent of these gynaecologists still consider homosexuality as pathological, and 10% as deviant - contrary to international classifications of mental disorders - and 5% deny good maternal abilities to homosexual women. Before the so-called french laws of bioethics in 1994, none of them had practiced a donor insemination for a lesbian couple, though 4% had realized some for single homosexual women. Two third of them do not agree opening donor insemination to homosexual women though for half of them, the anonymity of a donor is not perceived as prejudicial to the child. Eighty-seven percent of these gynaecologists think that a child brought up by homosexual parents is at risk for developmental disorder, the configuration supposed the most pathogenic being when the birth results from a donor insemination. The supposedly most important risk factors are thought to be the

  8. Mapping of landfills using time-domain spectral induced polarization data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazoty, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2012-01-01

    information from time-domain IP data. Thirteen IP/DC profiles were collected in the area, supplemented by el-log drilling for accurate correlation between the geophysics and the lithology. The data were inverted using a laterally constrained 1D inversion considering the full decay curves to retrieve the four...

  9. Mapping of NRAGE domains reveals clues to cell viability in BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochira, Jennifer A; Cowling, Rebecca A; Himmelfarb, Joshua S; Adams, Tamara L; Verdi, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic signaling (BMP) is a key pathway during neurogenesis and depends on many downstream intermediators to carry out its signaling. One such signaling pathway utilizes neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE protein (NRAGE), a member of the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family, to upregulate p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK)) in response to cellular stress and activate caspases which are critical in leading cells to death. NRAGE consists of two conserved MAGE homology domains separated by a unique hexapeptide repeat domain. Although we have previously implicated NRAGE in inducing apoptosis in neural progenitors and P19 cells, a model system for neural progenitors, its domains have yet to be explored in determining which one may be responsible for setting up the signaling for apoptosis. Here, we overexpressed a series of deletion mutations in P19 cells to show that only those with at least half of the repeat domain, activated p38(MAPK) and underwent apoptosis offering intriguing incite into NRAGE's contribution in BMP apoptotic signaling.

  10. Bioclimatic and vegetation mapping of a topographically complex oceanic island applying different interpolation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Otto, Rüdiger; del Arco Aguilar, Marcelino José

    2014-07-01

    Different spatial interpolation techniques have been applied to construct objective bioclimatic maps of La Palma, Canary Islands. Interpolation of climatic data on this topographically complex island with strong elevation and climatic gradients represents a challenge. Furthermore, meteorological stations are not evenly distributed over the island, with few stations at high elevations. We carried out spatial interpolations of the compensated thermicity index (Itc) and the annual ombrothermic Index (Io), in order to obtain appropriate bioclimatic maps by using automatic interpolation procedures, and to establish their relation to potential vegetation units for constructing a climatophilous potential natural vegetation map (CPNV). For this purpose, we used five interpolation techniques implemented in a GIS: inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), ordinary cokriging (OCK), multiple linear regression (MLR) and MLR followed by ordinary kriging of the regression residuals. Two topographic variables (elevation and aspect), derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), were included in OCK and MLR. The accuracy of the interpolation techniques was examined by the results of the error statistics of test data derived from comparison of the predicted and measured values. Best results for both bioclimatic indices were obtained with the MLR method with interpolation of the residuals showing the highest R2 of the regression between observed and predicted values and lowest values of root mean square errors. MLR with correction of interpolated residuals is an attractive interpolation method for bioclimatic mapping on this oceanic island since it permits one to fully account for easily available geographic information but also takes into account local variation of climatic data.

  11. Methods and Techniques for the Design and Implementation of Domain-Specific Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are programming language aimed at a particular problem domain, e.g. banking, database querying or website page lay-outs. Through the use of high-level concepts, a DSL raises the level of abstraction and expressive power of the programmer, and reduces the size of prog

  12. Methods and Techniques for the Design and Implementation of Domain-Specific Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are programming language aimed at a particular problem domain, e.g. banking, database querying or website page lay-outs. Through the use of high-level concepts, a DSL raises the level of abstraction and expressive power of the programmer, and reduces the size of prog

  13. Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Tongue, Thomas; Schulkin, Brian; Peralta, Xomalin; Rivest, Benjamin D.; Haywood, Eric C.; Roach, William P.

    2010-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is increasingly being used in biomedical imaging and spectroscopy applications. These techniques show tremendous promise to provide new sophisticated tools for the improved detection of skin cancer. However, despite recent efforts to develop these applications, few studies have been conducted to characterize the optical properties of skin at THz frequencies. Such information is required to better understand THz-tissue interactions, and is critical for determining the feasibility of proposed applications. In this study, we have developed and tested a THz time-domain spectroscopy system. We used this system to acquire the optical properties for fresh and frozen/thawed excised porcine skin from 0.1 to 2.0 THz. Results show that the index of refraction (n) for both frozen and fresh skin decreases with frequency. For frozen skin, n equals 2.5 at 0.1 THz and 2.0 at 2.0 THz, and for fresh skin equals 2.0 at 0.1 THz and 1.7 at 2.0 THz. Values for the absorption coefficient (μa) increase with frequency for both frozen and fresh skin. Frozen skin exhibits μa values equal to 56 cm-1 at 0.1 THz and 550 cm-1 at 2.0 THz, whereas fresh skin exhibits values of 56 cm-1 at 0.1 THz and 300 cm-1 at 2.0 THz. Assuming the optical penetration depth (δ) is inversely proportional to μa (absorption-dominated interactions), THz radiation has limited δ in skin (200 μm at 0.1 THz to 40 μm at 2.0 THz). These results suggest that applications exploiting THz radiation show the most promise for investigating superficial tissues.

  14. The Tofts model in frequency domain: fast and robust determination of pharmacokinetic maps for dynamic contrast enhancement MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajuvalli, Nithin N.; Chikkemenahally, Dharmendra Kumar K.; Nayak, Krupa N.; Bhosale, Manoj G.; Geethanath, Sairam

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a well-established method for non-invasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of pathologies through administration of intravenous contrast agent. Quantification of pharmacokinetic (PK) maps can be achieved through application of compartmental models relevant to the pathophysiology of the tissue under interrogation. The determination of PK parameters involves fitting of time-concentration data to these models. In this work, the Tofts model in frequency domain (TM-FD) is applied to a weakly vascularized tissue such as the breast. It is derived as a convolution-free model from the conventional Tofts model in the time domain (TM-TD). This reduces the dimensionality of the curve-fitting problem from two to one. The approaches of TM-FD and TM-TD were applied to two kinds of in silico phantoms and six in vivo breast DCE data sets with and without the addition of noise. The results showed that computational time taken to estimate PK maps using TM-FD was 16-25% less than with TM-TD. Normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) calculation and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to validate robustness and accuracy of the TM-FD and TM-TD approaches. These compared with ground truth values in the case of phantom studies for four different temporal resolutions. Results showed that NRMSE values for TM-FD were significantly lower than those of TM-TD as validated by a paired t-test along with reduced computational time. This approach therefore enables online evaluation of PK maps by radiologists in a clinical setting, aiding in the evaluation of 3D and/or increased coverage of the tissue of interest.

  15. Erasing the Milky Way: new cleaning technique applied to GBT intensity mapping data

    CERN Document Server

    Wolz, L; Abdalla, F B; Anderson, C M; Chang, T -C; Li, Y -C; Masui, K W; Switzer, E; Pen, U -L; Voytek, T C; Yadav, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the first application of a new foreground removal pipeline to the current leading HI intensity mapping dataset, obtained by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We study the 15hr and 1hr field data of the GBT observations previously presented in Masui et al. (2013) and Switzer et al. (2013) covering about 41 square degrees at 0.6 < z < 1.0 which overlaps with the WiggleZ galaxy survey employed for the cross-correlation with the maps. In the presented pipeline, we subtract the Galactic foreground continuum and the point source contaminations using an independent component analysis technique (fastica) and develop a description for a Fourier-based optimal weighting estimator to compute the temperature power spectrum of the intensity maps and cross-correlation with the galaxy survey data. We show that fastica is a reliable tool to subtract diffuse and point-source emission by using the non-Gaussian nature of their probability functions. The power spectra of the intensity maps and the cross-correlation...

  16. Making Accurate Topographic Maps of the Schoolyard Using Ideas and Techniques Learned and Adapted from Multi-beam Sonar Mapping of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, S. I.; Roberts, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Having participated in a University of Rhode Island Project Armada expedition to join the University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Oceanographic Studies in making multi-beam sonar contour maps of the Arctic Ocean floor, I was able to bring the principles learned from this trip to my earth science high school students and create a project in our "mapping the earth" unit. Students learn basic surveying techniques and create authentic, accurately detailed topographic maps of the schoolyard. Models of their maps are then constructed of either Styrofoam or wood which enables them to make the transition from a 2-dimensional map to a 3-dimensional representation. Even though our maps are created using sticks, line levels, compasses and GPS, the scientific concepts of using location and elevation data to draw contour lines are identical to those used in underwater mapping. Once the students understand the science in mapping and creating contour maps to scale on graph paper by hand, they are able to easily relate this knowledge to what I was doing onboard ship using multi-beam sonar and computer mapping programs. We would like to share with you the lab and techniques that we have developed to make this activity possible with minimal materials and simple technology. As a background extension, it is also possible to replicate sonar measurements using an aquarium, food coloring, and a surface grid to map the topography of a teacher created landscape on the aquarium bottom. Earth Science students using simple tools to accurately map the topography of the school grounds

  17. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarulzaman Kamarudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS. The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect’s depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  18. Novel techniques of real-time blood flow and functional mapping: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Kyousuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Masato; Tamura, Yukie; Anei, Ryogo; Kapeller, Christoph; Hayashi, Hideaki; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches to intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgery. One approach is related to fluorescent phenomena and the other is related to oscillatory neuronal activity. We developed novel techniques to visualize blood flow (BF) conditions in real time, based on indocyanine green videography (ICG-VG) and the electrophysiological phenomenon of high gamma activity (HGA). We investigated the use of ICG-VG in four patients with moyamoya disease and two with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and we investigated the use of real-time HGA mapping in four patients with brain tumors who underwent lesion resection with awake craniotomy. Real-time data processing of ICG-VG was based on perfusion imaging, which generated parameters including arrival time (AT), mean transit time (MTT), and BF of brain surface vessels. During awake craniotomy, we analyzed the frequency components of brain oscillation and performed real-time HGA mapping to identify functional areas. Processed results were projected on a wireless monitor linked to the operating microscope. After revascularization for moyamoya disease, AT and BF were significantly shortened and increased, respectively, suggesting hyperperfusion. Real-time fusion images on the wireless monitor provided anatomical, BF, and functional information simultaneously, and allowed the resection of AVMs under the microscope. Real-time HGA mapping during awake craniotomy rapidly indicated the eloquent areas of motor and language function and significantly shortened the operation time. These novel techniques, which we introduced might improve the reliability of intraoperative monitoring and enable the development of rational and objective surgical strategies.

  19. Performance analysis of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-12-05

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  20. Block and parallel modelling of broad domain nonlinear continuous mapping based on NN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guowei; Tu Xuyan; Wang Shoujue

    2006-01-01

    The necessity of the use of the block and parallel modeling of the nonlinear continuous mappings with NN is firstly expounded quantitatively. Then, a practical approach for the block and parallel modeling of the nonlinear continuous mappings with NN is proposed. Finally, an example indicating that the method raised in this paper can be realized by suitable existed software is given. The results of the experiment of the model discussed on the 3-D Mexican straw hat indicate that the block and parallel modeling based on NN is more precise and faster in computation than the direct ones and it is obviously a concrete example and the development of the large-scale general model established by Tu Xuyan.

  1. A Multilevel Secure MapReduce Framework for Cross-Domain Information Sharing in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    analyze data at different security classifications • Topics - Apache Hadoop framework - MLS-aware Hadoop Distributed File System • Concept of...subprojects: - Hadoop Distributed File System, Hadoop MapReduce • Support distributed computing on massive data sets on clusters of commodity computers...Reduce) Apache Hadoop 3 GSAW 2013 Hadoop Architecture 4 GSAW 2013 Name Node Job Tracker Task Tracker Task Tracker Client HDFS

  2. Application of time-domain electromagnetic method in mapping saltwater intrusion of a coastal alluvial aquifer, North Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Abdalla, Osman

    2015-04-01

    One-third of the population of Oman depends on the groundwater extracted from the alluvium deposits located along the coast of the Gulf of Oman. However, groundwater depletion and seawater intrusion constitute major challenges along the coastal water accumulations in Oman. The objective of this study is to locate the extent of seawater intrusion and to map the shallow alluvial aquifer in the region, where water accumulates from the rain or the flooding at AlKhod dam. In order to assess the effect of groundwater infiltration, which recharges the aquifer and fights the seawater invasion, a quantitative approach for the groundwater quality and distribution is required to provide reasonable knowledge on the spatial distribution of the aquifers, their thickness and the type of sediments. When groundwater wells and their subsurface geologic and electrical logs are not available or not deep enough, surface geophysical surveys can be considered due to their low cost and short acquisition time. The application of time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method in Al-Khod area, Oman has proven to be a successful tool in mapping the fresh/saline water interface and for locating the depth of fresh water aquifer. The depths and inland extents of the saline zone were mapped along three N-S TDEM profiles. The depths to the freshwater table and saline interface calculated from TDEM closely match the available well data.

  3. Mapping the nature of mantle domains in Western and Central Europe based on clinopyroxene and spinel chemistry: Evidence for mantle modification during an extensional cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Müntener, O.; Manatschal, G.; Bauville, A.; Karner, G.; Johnson, C.

    2016-12-01

    Systematic differences in mineral composition of mantle peridotites are observed in ophiolites and peridotitic bodies from the Alpine Tethys, the Pyrenean domain, the Dinarides and Hellenides, and the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margins. These differences can be understood in the context of the evolution of rifted margins and allow the identification of 3 major mantle domains: an inherited domain, a refertilized domain and a depleted domain. Most clinopyroxene from the inherited domain equilibrated in the spinel peridotite field and are too enriched in Na2O and Al2O3 to be residues of syn-rift melting. Clinopyroxene from the refertilized domain partially equilibrated with plagioclase and display lower Na2O and Al2O3, and elevated Cr2O3 contents. The refertilized domain is a hybrid zone, which locally preserves remnants from the inherited domain and overlapping chemical compositions. Depleted domains with clinopyroxene similar to abyssal peridotites are rare and Nd-isotopic studies indicate that they represent ancient periods of melting unrelated to the opening of the Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic basins of the Alpine Tethys and southern North Atlantic. In many studied sections of mantle rocks in exposed ophiolites a systematic spatial distribution of the different domains with respect to the evolution of rifted margins can be identified. This new approach integrates observations from exposed and drilled mantle rocks and proposes that the mantle lithosphere evolved and was modified during an extensional cycle from post-orogenic collapse through several periods of rifting to seafloor spreading. The defined chemical and petrological characteristics of mantle domains based on clinopyroxene and spinel compositions are compiled on present-day and paleogeographic maps of Western and Central Europe. These maps show that the observed distribution of mantle domains are linked to processes related to late post-Variscan extension, rift evolution and refertilization associated

  4. Current techniques for high-resolution mapping of behavioral circuits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanantharajah, Lovesha; Zhang, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Understanding behavior requires unraveling the mysteries of neurons, glia, and their extensive connectivity. Drosophila has emerged as an excellent organism for studying the neural basis of behavior. This can be largely attributed to the extensive effort of the fly community to develop numerous sophisticated genetic tools for visualizing, mapping, and manipulating behavioral circuits. Here, we attempt to highlight some of the new reagents, techniques and approaches available for dissecting behavioral circuits in Drosophila. We focus on detailing intersectional strategies such as the Flippase-induced intersectional Gal80/Gal4 repression (FINGR), because of the tremendous potential they possess for mapping the minimal number of cells required for a particular behavior. The logic and strategies outlined in this review should have broad applications for other genetic model organisms.

  5. Robust Optimization of Thermal Aspects of Friction Stir Welding Using Manifold Mapping Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Lahaye, Domenico; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize a friction stir welding process taking robustness into account. The optimization problems are formulated with the goal of obtaining desired mean responses while reducing the variance of the response. We restrict ourselves to a thermal model of the process...... and use the manifold mapping technique to solve the optimization problems using a fast analytical coarse and an expensive accurate fine model. The statistics of the response are calculated using Taylor expansions and are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the use of manifold...... mapping reduces the number of fine model evaluations required and that the Taylor expansion approach gives good results when compared to Monte Carlo simulations....

  6. Erasing the Milky Way: New Cleaning Technique Applied to GBT Intensity Mapping Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, L.; Blake, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Anderson, C. J.; Chang, T.-C.; Li, Y.-C.; Masi, K.W.; Switzer, E.; Pen, U.-L.; Voytek, T. C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the first application of a new foreground removal pipeline to the current leading HI intensity mapping dataset, obtained by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We study the 15- and 1-h field data of the GBT observations previously presented in Masui et al. (2013) and Switzer et al. (2013), covering about 41 square degrees at 0.6 less than z is less than 1.0, for which cross-correlations may be measured with the galaxy distribution of the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. In the presented pipeline, we subtract the Galactic foreground continuum and the point source contamination using an independent component analysis technique (fastica), and develop a Fourier-based optimal estimator to compute the temperature power spectrum of the intensity maps and cross-correlation with the galaxy survey data. We show that fastica is a reliable tool to subtract diffuse and point-source emission through the non-Gaussian nature of their probability distributions. The temperature power spectra of the intensity maps is dominated by instrumental noise on small scales which fastica, as a conservative sub-traction technique of non-Gaussian signals, can not mitigate. However, we determine similar GBT-WiggleZ cross-correlation measurements to those obtained by the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method, and confirm that foreground subtraction with fastica is robust against 21cm signal loss, as seen by the converged amplitude of these cross-correlation measurements. We conclude that SVD and fastica are complementary methods to investigate the foregrounds and noise systematics present in intensity mapping datasets.

  7. Distributed acoustic mapping based on interferometry of phase optical time-domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Wang, Chen; Shang, Ying; Liu, Xiaohui; Peng, Gangding

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the design and characterization of a distributed optical fiber sensing system based on Michelson interferometer of the phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (φ-OTDR) for acoustic measurement. Phase, amplitude, frequency response and location information can be directly obtained at the same time by using the passive 3×3 coupler demodulation. In order to simulate sound profiles of seismic or hydroacoustic imaging, experiments on detection of multiple piezoelectric transducers (PZT) are carried out. The result shows that our system can well demodulate different acoustic sources with different intensities.

  8. Controlled source time-domain electromagnetic methods for seafloor electric conductivity mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical studies of some controlled-source electromagnetic methods, especially the horizontal coaxial magnetic dipole-dipole and horizontal collinear electric dipole-dipole electromagnetic methods, which are capable of accuratelymeasuring the relatively low conductivity of the seafioor were reviewed. Marine electromagnetic instrumentations, espe-cially the time-domain horizontal magnetic dipole-dipole system and horizontal electric dipole-dipole system which havebeen designed and constructed in the Geophysics Division of the University of Toronto, were provided with applications togootechnical studies on the shelf and deep ocean surveys near the mid-ocean ridges

  9. Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique for identifying nonlinear structural elements from frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zheng, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and general Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique is proposed for identifying the parameters or the mathematical model of a nonlinear structural element with steady-state primary harmonic frequency response functions (FRFs). The Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness is defined as the complex ratio between the internal force and the displacement response of unknown element. Obtained with the test data of responses' frequencies and amplitudes, the real and imaginary part of Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness are plotted as discrete points in a three dimensional space over the displacement amplitude and the frequency, which are called the real and the imaginary Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness map, respectively. These points will form a repeatable surface as the Equivalent Dynamic stiffness is only a function of the corresponding data as derived in the paper. The mathematical model of the unknown element can then be obtained by surface-fitting these points with special functions selected by priori knowledge of the nonlinear type or with ordinary polynomials if the type of nonlinearity is not pre-known. An important merit of this technique is its capability of dealing with strong nonlinearities owning complicated frequency response behaviors such as jumps and breaks in resonance curves. In addition, this technique could also greatly simplify the test procedure. Besides there is no need to pre-identify the underlying linear parameters, the method uses the measured data of excitation forces and responses without requiring a strict control of the excitation force during the test. The proposed technique is demonstrated and validated with four classical single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) numerical examples and one experimental example. An application of this technique for identification of nonlinearity from multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems is also illustrated.

  10. Frequency domain analysis and synthesis of lumped parameter systems using nonlinear least squares techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Lumped parametric system models are simplified and computationally advantageous in the frequency domain of linear systems. Nonlinear least squares computer program finds the least square best estimate for any number of parameters in an arbitrarily complicated model.

  11. Genetically engineered fusion of MAP-1 and factor H domains 1-5 generates a potent dual upstream inhibitor of both the lectin and alternative complement pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmaj, Mie Anemone; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Hein, Estrid; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Garred, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Inhibition of the complement cascade has emerged as an option for treatment of a range of diseases. Mannose-binding lectin/ficolin/collectin-associated protein (MAP-1) is a pattern recognition molecule (PRM)-associated inhibitor of the lectin pathway. The central regulator of the alternative pathway (AP) is complement factor H (FH). Our aim was to design a dual upstream inhibitor of both human lectin and APs by fusing MAP-1 with a part of FH. There were 2 different recombinant chimeric proteins comprising full-length human MAP-1 and the first 5 N-terminal domains of human FH designed. The FH domains were orientated either in the N- or C-terminal part of MAP-1. The complement inhibition potential in human serum was assessed. Both chimeric constructs displayed the characteristics of the native molecules and bound to the PRMs with an EC50 of ∼ 2 nM. However, when added to serum diluted 1:4 in a solid-phase functional assay, only the first 5 N-terminal domains of complement FH fused to the C-terminal part of full-length MAP-1 chimeric construct were able to combine inhibition of lectin and AP activation with an half maximal inhibitory concentration of ∼ 100 and 20 nM, respectively. No effect was seen on the classical pathway. Fusion of MAP-1 with FH domains represents a novel therapeutic approach for selective targeting upstream and central complement activation at sites of inflammation.

  12. Characterization of a seeded pulsed molecular beam using the velocity map imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietard, Aude; Poisson, Lionel; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Gaveau, Marc-André

    2016-11-01

    An experimental study has been performed to characterize the density and the velocity distribution in a pulsed molecular beam generated by a source associating a pulsed valve and an oven placed just downstream. In its operating mode, the flow is alternatively in a supersonic and effusive regime. The Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) technique associated with laser ionization allows measuring the velocity distribution and the density of molecules as a function of time during the expansion. It gives us a very precise insight into the structure of the molecule bunch, and therefore into the nature of the expansion from which the molecular beam is extracted.

  13. Robust Optimization of Thermal Aspects of Friction Stir Welding Using Manifold Mapping Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Lahaye, Domenico; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher;

    2008-01-01

    and use the manifold mapping technique to solve the optimization problems using a fast analytical coarse and an expensive accurate fine model. The statistics of the response are calculated using Taylor expansions and are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the use of manifold......The aim of this paper is to optimize a friction stir welding process taking robustness into account. The optimization problems are formulated with the goal of obtaining desired mean responses while reducing the variance of the response. We restrict ourselves to a thermal model of the process...

  14. Evaluation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Luminance Mapping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inanici, Mehlika; Galvin, Jim

    2004-12-30

    The potential, limitations, and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique is evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes are taken with a Nikon 5400 digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function is computationally derived using the Photosphere software, and is used to fuse the multiple photographs into HDR images. The vignetting effect and point spread function of the camera and lens system is determined. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  15. Revisiting the time domain induced polarization technique, from linearization to inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Oldenburg, D.

    2015-12-01

    The induced polarization (IP) technique has been successful in mineral exploration, particularly for finding disseminated sulphide or porphyry deposits, but also in helping solve geotechnical and environmental problems. Electrical induced polarization (EIP) surveys use grounded electrodes and take measurements of the electric field while the current is both "on" and "off". Currently, 2D and 3D inversions of EIP data are generally carried out by first finding a background conductivity from the asymptotic "on-time" measurements. The DC resistivity problem is then linearized about that conductivity to obtain a linear relationship between the off-time data and the "pseudo-chargeability". The distribution of pseudo-chargeability in the earth is then interpreted within the context of the initial geoscience problem pursued. Despite its success, the current EIP implementation does have challenges. A fundamental assumption, that there is no electromagnetic induction (EM) effect, breaks down when the background is conductive. This is especially problematic in regions having conductive overburden. EM induction complicates, and sometimes overwhelms, the IP signal. To ameliorate this effect, we estimate the inductive signal, subtract it from the "off-time" data and invert the resultant IP data using the linearized formulation. We carefully examine the conditions under which this works. We also investigate the potential alterations to the linearized sensitivity function that are needed to allow a linearized inversion to be carried out. Inversions of EIP data recover a "chargeability" but this is not a uniquely defined quantity. There are multiple definitions of this property because there are a diverse number of ways in which an IP datum is defined. In time domain IP surveys, the data might be mV/V or a time-integrated voltage with units of ms. In reality however, data from an EIP survey have many time channels and each one can be inverted separately to produce a chargeability

  16. Retarded potentials and time domain boundary integral equations a road map

    CERN Document Server

    Sayas, Francisco-Javier

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a thorough and self-contained exposition of the mathematics of time-domain boundary integral equations associated to the wave equation, including applications to scattering of acoustic and elastic waves. The book offers two different approaches for the analysis of these integral equations, including a systematic treatment of their numerical discretization using Galerkin (Boundary Element) methods in the space variables and Convolution Quadrature in the time variable. The first approach follows classical work started in the late eighties, based on Laplace transforms estimates. This approach has been refined and made more accessible by tailoring the necessary mathematical tools, avoiding an excess of generality. A second approach contains a novel point of view that the author and some of his collaborators have been developing in recent years, using the semigroup theory of evolution equations to obtain improved results. The extension to electromagnetic waves is explained in one of the appendices...

  17. The creation of a digital soil map for Cyprus using decision-tree classification techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Corrado; Zomeni, Zomenia; Bruggeman, Adriana; Noller, Joy; Zissimos, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Considering the increasing threats soil are experiencing especially in semi-arid, Mediterranean environments like Cyprus (erosion, contamination, sealing and salinisation), producing a high resolution, reliable soil map is essential for further soil conservation studies. This study aims to create a 1:50.000 soil map covering the area under the direct control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study consists of two major steps. The first is the creation of a raster database of predictive variables selected according to the scorpan formula (McBratney et al., 2003). It is of particular interest the possibility of using, as soil properties, data coming from three older island-wide soil maps and the recently published geochemical atlas of Cyprus (Cohen et al., 2011). Ten highly characterizing elements were selected and used as predictors in the present study. For the other factors usual variables were used: temperature and aridity index for climate; total loss on ignition, vegetation and forestry types maps for organic matter; the DEM and related relief derivatives (slope, aspect, curvature, landscape units); bedrock, surficial geology and geomorphology (Noller, 2009) for parent material and age; and a sub-watershed map to better bound location related to parent material sources. In the second step, the digital soil map is created using the Random Forests package in R. Random Forests is a decision tree classification technique where many trees, instead of a single one, are developed and compared to increase the stability and the reliability of the prediction. The model is trained and verified on areas where a 1:25.000 published soil maps obtained from field work is available and then it is applied for predictive mapping to the other areas. Preliminary results obtained in a small area in the plain around the city of Lefkosia, where eight different soil classes are present, show very good capacities of the method. The Ramdom Forest approach leads to reproduce soil

  18. Robust biological parametric mapping: an improved technique for multimodal brain image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2011-03-01

    Mapping the quantitative relationship between structure and function in the human brain is an important and challenging problem. Numerous volumetric, surface, region of interest and voxelwise image processing techniques have been developed to statistically assess potential correlations between imaging and non-imaging metrics. Recently, biological parametric mapping has extended the widely popular statistical parametric approach to enable application of the general linear model to multiple image modalities (both for regressors and regressands) along with scalar valued observations. This approach offers great promise for direct, voxelwise assessment of structural and functional relationships with multiple imaging modalities. However, as presented, the biological parametric mapping approach is not robust to outliers and may lead to invalid inferences (e.g., artifactual low p-values) due to slight mis-registration or variation in anatomy between subjects. To enable widespread application of this approach, we introduce robust regression and robust inference in the neuroimaging context of application of the general linear model. Through simulation and empirical studies, we demonstrate that our robust approach reduces sensitivity to outliers without substantial degradation in power. The robust approach and associated software package provides a reliable way to quantitatively assess voxelwise correlations between structural and functional neuroimaging modalities.

  19. Using GIS Mapping to Target Public Health Interventions: Examining Birth Outcomes Across GIS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O

    2017-08-01

    With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.

  20. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategies. Nevertheless, water resources in Saudi Arabia are under stress and groundwater levels are depleted rapidly due to heavy abstraction that may exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases due to high evaporation rates. The excess use of irrigational water leads to severe soil salinity problems. Applications of remote sensing technique in agricultural practices became widely distinctive and cover multidisciplinary principal interests on both local and regional levels. The most important remote sensing applications in agricultural practices are vegetation indices which are related to vegetation and water especially in an arid environment. Soil salinity mapping in an arid ecosystem using remote sensing data is a demanding task. Several soil salinity indices were implemented and evaluated to detect soil salinity effectively and quantitatively. Thematic maps of soil salinity were satisfactorily produced and assessed.

  1. Mixed first- and second-order transport method using domain decomposition techniques for reactor core calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, E.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA Cadarache, CEA/DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC/LEPH, 13 - Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the last developments made on a domain decomposition method applied to reactor core calculations. In this method, two kind of balance equation with two different numerical methods dealing with two different unknowns are coupled. In the first part the two balance transport equations (first order and second order one) are presented with the corresponding following numerical methods: Variational Nodal Method and Discrete Ordinate Nodal Method. In the second part, the Multi-Method/Multi-Domain algorithm is introduced by applying the Schwarz domain decomposition to the multigroup eigenvalue problem of the transport equation. The resulting algorithm is then provided. The projection operators used to coupled the two methods are detailed in the last part of the paper. Finally some preliminary numerical applications on benchmarks are given showing encouraging results. (authors)

  2. Contact-Free Mapping of Electronic Transport Phenomena of Polar Domains in SrMnO3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaab, J.; Krug, I. P.; Doǧanay, H.; Hackl, J.; Gottlob, D. M.; Khan, M. I.; Nemšák, S.; Maurel, L.; Langenberg, E.; Algarabel, P. A.; Pardo, J. A.; Schneider, C. M.; Meier, D.

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution mapping of electronic transport phenomena plays an increasingly important role for the characterization of ferroic domains and their functionality. At present, spatially resolved electronic transport data are commonly gained from local two-point measurements, collected in line-by-line scans with a conducting nanosized probe. Here, we introduce an innovative experimental approach based on low-energy electron microscopy. As a model case, we study polar domains of varying conductance in strained SrMnO3 . By a direct comparison with conductive atomic force and electrostatic force microscopy, we reveal that the applied low-energy electron-microscopy experiment can be considered as an inverse I (V ) measurement, providing access to the local electronic conductance with nanoscale resolution and short data-acquisition times in the order of 10 - 102 ms . Low-energy electrons thus hold yet unexplored application opportunities as a minimal-invasive probe for local electronic transport phenomena, opening a promising route towards spatially resolved, high-throughput sampling at the nanoscale.

  3. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

  4. Accounting for the definition domain of the forward map in traveltime tomography—application to the inversion of prismatic reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Maud; Lailly, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    Traveltime tomography aims at recovering an earth model from the traveltimes associated with some seismic events. Traveltime tomography appears as a strange problem in which the forward modelling operator may be non-defined or multivalued. Although important work has been devoted to the solution of the latter difficulty, the possible non-definition of the forward map has not yet been investigated. However, this pathology is a major problem when events with complex kinematics are to be inverted. This leads us to propose a new algorithm to overcome the difficulty. In this algorithm the inverse problem is, by construction, restricted to the definition domain of the forward map and is based on a reformulation of the forward problem. Our formalism is described in the context of the inversion of a specific multiple reflection, namely the prismatic reflection. Yet the philosophy of our approach is quite general and could be transposed to the inversion of events with arbitrary kinematics. The effectiveness of our method is illustrated through a simple synthetic experiment in which we invert a prismatic reflection for the delineation of an overhanging salt flank.

  5. Disulfide mapping reveals the domain swapping as the crucial process of the structural conversion of prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner-Bratkovič, Iva; Jerala, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are infectious conformational diseases. Despite the determination of many native prion protein (PrP) structures and in vitro production of infectious prions from recombinant PrP the structural background of PrP conversion remains the largest unsolved problem. The aggregated state of PrP (Sc) makes it inaccessible to high resolution techniques, therefore indirect methods have to be used to investigate the conversion process. We engineered disulfide bridges into the structured domain of PrP in order to determine the secondary structure elements that remain conserved upon conversion. Rather surprisingly, introduction of disulfides into each or both of the subdomains B1-H1-B2 and H2-H3 of the C-terminal globular domain retained the robust ability to convert into fibrils with increased content of β-structure, indistinguishable from the wild-type PrP. On the other hand disulfide bridges tethering the two subdomains completely prevented conversion, while their reduction reversed their conversion ability. The same conversion propensity was replicated also in prion infected cell lines. Experiments with combinations of engineered cysteine residues further support that domain swapping, centered on the B2-H2 loop, previously associated to species barrier, leads to PrP swapped dimers as the building block of prion fibrils.

  6. Mapping the lithotypes using the in-situ measurement of time domain induced polarization: El-log

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    This study presents a novel application of the El-log-drilling technique for measurement while drilling of the DC, time domain IP and gamma log. In addition pore water samples can be taken at arbitrary levels. The technique itself is developed in Denmark and has been widely used in the field...... of ground water and environmental studies. The El-log drilling method yields detailed information on small changes in lithology, sediment chemistry and water quality and with data comparable to what can be obtained in the laboratory. . We collected the data at a landfill site located near Grindsted...... in the southern part of Denmark. The purpose of the study was 1) to obtain a direct correlation between the undisturbed geophysical logs and surface measurements, 2) correlation of IP parameters to lithology and grain size distribution and 3) to investigate any correlation with effluent and IP parameters. We...

  7. Using Computer-Aided Content Analysis to Map a Research Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Fisk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Content analysis is a powerful tool for investigating attitudes expressed in naturally occurring language data. It is a useful tool to help researchers develop an understanding of a specific research field through identifying how particular issues or topics have been conceptualized or where fieldwork can be limited or prohibitive. This is especially true for research on postconflict reconstruction, where large-scale quantitative surveying or metareviews of the literature can be prohibitive. The present study provides a case study of how a particular content analysis software program—Leximancer—was used to map factors associated with institutional legitimacy in postconflict societies. The case of Timor-Leste is used as an example. We examine texts at three levels of discourse: at the academic, official, and primary levels. Results indicate differing perspectives on legitimacy at each level of discourse. This article offers a snapshot of a potential method for understanding how particular topics are conceptualized within a specific research field and can thus help in the development of evaluation methods or data collection instruments.

  8. Fra Angelico’s painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated with terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) the well-known Lamentation over the dead Christ panel painting (San Marco Museum, Florence) painted by Fra Giovanni Angelico within 1436 and 1441. The investigation provided a better understanding of the construction and gilding te...

  9. Probing the Free Energy Landscape of the FBP28 WW Domain Using Multiple Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periole, Xavier; Allen, Lucy R.; Tamiola, Kamil; Mark, Alan E.; Paci, Emanuele

    2009-01-01

    The free-energy landscape of a small protein, the FBP 28 WW domain, has been explored using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with alternative descriptions of the molecule. The molecular models used range from coarse-grained to all-atom with either an implicit or explicit treatment of the solvent.

  10. Discrete Analytic Domains: a New Technique for Groundwater Flow Modeling in Layered, Anisotropic, and Heterogeneous Aquifer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    A new technique for modeling groundwater flow with analytic solutions is presented. It allows modeling of layered aquifer systems with complex heterogeneity and anisotropy. As with previous AEM techniques, flow in each layer is modeled with two-dimensional analytic solutions, there is high accuracy and resolution, the domain is not discretized into grid blocks or elements, and the modeled area can easily be altered and expanded in the midst of the modeling process. This method differs from previous Analytic Element Method (AEM) techniques by allowing general anisotropy conditions in the aquifer. The flow field is broken into discrete polygonal domains, each with its own definition of isotropic or anisotropic aquifer parameters. An advantage of this approach is that the anisotropy orientation and ratio can differ from one domain to another, a capability not possible with the "infinite domain" of previous AEM formulations. With this approach, the potential and discharge vector functions at a point are the sum of contributions from elements within or on the boundary of the domain containing the point. Unlike previous AEM schemes, elements beyond the domain boundary don't contribute to these functions. Once a solution is in hand, less computation is required to evaluate heads and discharges because fewer elements contribute to the equations. This computational efficiency could prove a significant advantage in large regional models and in solute transport models that use a flow model's velocity field. This technique allows multiple aquifer layers to be stacked vertically, and it has the novel ability to have more layers in the area of interest than in distant areas. This feature can save significant computation and input effort by concentrating layering detail only where it is needed and warranted by data. The boundary conditions at line element boundaries are approximated, including the continuity of flow and head across heterogeneity boundaries. By using high

  11. NMR mapping of RANTES surfaces interacting with CCR5 using linked extracellular domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Einat; Kessler, Naama; Zherdev, Yuri; Noah, Eran; Scherf, Tali; Ding, Fa-Xiang; Rabinovich, Svetlana; Arshava, Boris; Kurbatska, Victoria; Leonciks, Ainars; Tsimanis, Alexander; Rosen, Osnat; Naider, Fred; Anglister, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    Chemokines constitute a large family of small proteins that regulate leukocyte trafficking to the site of inflammation by binding to specific cell-surface receptors belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The interactions between N-terminal (Nt-) peptides of these GPCRs and chemokines have been studied extensively using NMR spectroscopy. However, because of the lower affinities of peptides representing the three extracellular loops (ECLs) of chemokine receptors to their respective chemokine ligands, information concerning these interactions is scarce. To overcome the low affinity of ECL peptides to chemokines, we linked two or three CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) extracellular domains using either biosynthesis in Escherichia coli or chemical synthesis. Using such chimeras, CCR5 binding to RANTES was followed using (1)H-(15)N-HSQC spectra to monitor titration of the chemokine with peptides corresponding to the extracellular surface of the receptor. Nt-CCR5 and ECL2 were found to be the major contributors to CCR5 binding to RANTES, creating an almost closed ring around this protein by interacting with opposing faces of the chemokine. A RANTES positively charged surface involved in Nt-CCR5 binding resembles the positively charged surface in HIV-1 gp120 formed by the C4 and the base of the third variable loop of gp120 (V3). The opposing surface on RANTES, composed primarily of β2-β3 hairpin residues, binds ECL2 and was found to be analogous to a surface in the crown of the gp120 V3. The chemical and biosynthetic approaches for linking GPCR surface regions discussed herein should be widely applicable to the investigation of interactions of extracellular segments of chemokine receptors with their respective ligands.

  12. Data repeatability and acquisition techniques for Time-Domain Spectral Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaz, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted;

    2013-01-01

    A direct current (DC) resistivity and time domaininduced polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissionedlandfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark,for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminateimportant geological units that control the hydrology ofthe surroundin...

  13. State-of-the-art soft computing techniques in image steganography domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanizan Shaker; Din, Roshidi; Samad, Hafiza Abdul; Yaacub, Mohd Hanafizah; Murad, Roslinda; Rukhiyah, A.; Sabdri, Noor Maizatulshima

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews major works of soft computing (SC) techniques in image steganography and watermarking in the last ten years, focusing on three main SC techniques, which are neural network, genetic algorithm, and fuzzy logic. The findings suggests that all these works applied SC techniques either during pre-processing, embedding or extracting stages or more than one of these stages. Therefore, the presence of SC techniques with their diverse approaches and strengths can help researchers in future work to attain excellent quality of image information hiding that comprises both imperceptibility and robustness.

  14. Modal identification using the frequency-scale domain decomposition technique of ambient vibration responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thien-Phu; Argoul, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new modal identification method of ambient vibration responses. The application of the singular value decomposition to continuous wavelet transform of power spectral density matrix gives singular values and singular vectors in frequency-scale domain. Analytical development shows a direct relation between local maxima in frequency-scale representation of singular values and modal parameters. This relation is then carried on for the identification of modal parameters via a complete practical procedure. The main novelties of this work involve the new formulation in frequency-scale domain and the capacity for the identification of modal parameters without the step of ridges extraction in comparison with previous wavelet-based modal identification methods.

  15. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Okkyung Choi; Hanyoung Jung; Seungbin Moon

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advert...

  16. ONTOLOGY EXTRACTION FOR AGRICULTURE DOMAIN IN MARATHI LANGUAGE USING NLP TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Dalvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontology is defined as shared specification of conceptual vocabulary used for formulating knowledge-level theories about a domain of discourse. Dataset is created by manually collecting information about different diseases related to crops. Ontology modeling is used for knowledge representation of various domains. India is an agricultural based economic country. Majority of Indian population relies on farming but the technologies are sparsely used for the aid of farmers. Ontology based modeling for agricultural knowledge can change this scenario. The farmers can understand it easily in their native language. We proposed a system which will model and extract knowledge in Marathi language. In this paper, we review various existing agriculture ontology’s along with some of Natural Language Processing (NLP models. Model ontology for agriculture domain system aims to retrieve relevant answers to the farmer’s query. We explored Rule-Based and Conditional Random Fields based models for Ontology extraction. The extraction methods and preprocessing phases of proposed system is discussed.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

  18. Mapping air pollution using Earth observation techniques for cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, Athos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Sarris, Apostolos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-08-01

    Air pollutants, together with climatic parameters, are of major importance for the deterioration of cultural heritage monuments. Atmospheric pollution is widely recognized as one of the major anthropogenic threats to architectural cultural heritage, in particular when associated with water absorption phenomena. Atmospheric particle deposition on surfaces of Monuments (of cultural heritage interest) may cause an aesthetic impact induced by a series of chemical reactions. Therefore there is a need for systematic monitoring and mapping of air pollution for areas where important archaeological sites and monuments are found. observation techniques, such as the use of satellite image for the retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), are ideal for this purpose. In this paper, all important monuments of the Paphos District, listed by the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus, have been mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Several recent (2012) MODIS satellite images (both Aqua and Terra) have been used to extract the AOT values in this area. Multi-temporal analysis was performed to identify areas of high risk where AOT values are considered to be high. In situ observations have been also carried out to verify the results.

  19. Application of the lamp mapping technique for overlap function for Raman lidar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N; Sakai, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the lidar water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) is corrected for overlap using data from another instrument, such as a radiosonde. Here we introduce a new experimental method to determine the overlap function using the lamp mapping technique (LMT), which relies on the lidar optics and detection system. The LMT discussed here involves a standard halogen lamp being scanned over the aperture of a Raman lidar telescope in synchronization with the lidar detection system [Appl. Opt.50, 4622 (2011)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.50.004622, Appl. Opt.53, 8538 (2014)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.53.008535]. In this paper, we show results for a LMT-determined overlap function for individual channels, as well as a WVMR overlap function. We found that the LMT-determined WVMR overlap functions deviate within 5% of the traditional radiosonde-determined overlap.

  20. MAPPING GLAUCONITE UNITES WITH USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES IN NORTH EAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmadirouhani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM, band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  1. Mapping of thermal injury in biologic tissues using quantitative pathologic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.

    1999-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative pathologic techniques can be used for (1) mapping of thermal injury, (2) comparisons lesion sizes and configurations for different instruments or heating sources and (3) comparisons of treatment effects. Concentric zones of thermal damage form around a single volume heat source. The boundaries between some of these zones are distinct and measurable. Depending on the energy deposition, heating times and tissue type, the zones can include the following beginning at the hotter center and progressing to the cooler periphery: (1) tissue ablation, (2) carbonization, (3) tissue water vaporization, (4) structural protein denaturation (thermal coagulation), (5) vital enzyme protein denaturation, (6) cell membrane disruption, (7) hemorrhage, hemostasis and hyperhemia, (8) tissue necrosis and (9) wound organization and healing.

  2. Thermal Diffusivity of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel Determined by the Time Domain Photoacoustic Piezoelectric Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Binxing; Wang, Yafei; Gao, Chunming; Sun, Qiming; Wang, Pinghuai

    2015-06-01

    The thermal diffusivity of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (CLF-1), which is recognized as the primary candidate structural material for the test blanket module of the international thermal-nuclear experimental reactor, has been studied by the time-domain (TD) photoacoustic piezoelectric (PAPE) technique. The TD PAPE model based on a simplified thermoelastic theory under square-wave modulated laser excitation is presented, relating the TD PAPE signal to the modulation frequency, thermal diffusivity, and other material parameters. Thermal diffusivities of reference samples such as copper and nickel were measured and analyzed, by which the validity of the technique is verified. The thermal diffusivity of the CLF-1 sample was measured to be , which is at a medium level among the ordinary steel materials ( to and has decent heat-dissipation ability. The results show that the TD PAPE technique can provide a fast and economic way for the investigation of the thermophysical properties of fusion reactor structural materials.

  3. Mapping and functional characterisation of a CTCF-dependent insulator element at the 3' border of the murine Scl transcriptional domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Follows

    Full Text Available The Scl gene encodes a transcription factor essential for haematopoietic development. Scl transcription is regulated by a panel of cis-elements spread over 55 kb with the most distal 3' element being located downstream of the neighbouring gene Map17, which is co-regulated with Scl in haematopoietic cells. The Scl/Map17 domain is flanked upstream by the ubiquitously expressed Sil gene and downstream by a cluster of Cyp genes active in liver, but the mechanisms responsible for delineating the domain boundaries remain unclear. Here we report identification of a DNaseI hypersensitive site at the 3' end of the Scl/Map17 domain and 45 kb downstream of the Scl transcription start site. This element is located at the boundary of active and inactive chromatin, does not function as a classical tissue-specific enhancer, binds CTCF and is both necessary and sufficient for insulator function in haematopoietic cells in vitro. Moreover, in a transgenic reporter assay, tissue-specific expression of the Scl promoter in brain was increased by incorporation of 350 bp flanking fragments from the +45 element. Our data suggests that the +45 region functions as a boundary element that separates the Scl/Map17 and Cyp transcriptional domains, and raise the possibility that this element may be useful for improving tissue-specific expression of transgenic constructs.

  4. Big-Data Processing Techniques and Their Challenges in Transport Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aftab Ahmed Chandio; Nikos Tziritas; ChengZhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamentals of cloud computing and current big⁃data key technologies. We categorize big⁃da⁃ta processing as batch⁃based, stream⁃based, graph⁃based, DAG⁃based, interactive⁃based, or visual⁃based according to the processing technique. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of various big⁃data cloud processing techniques in order to help the big⁃data community select the appropri⁃ate processing technique. We also provide big data research challenges and future directions in aspect to transportation management systems.

  5. The use of Time Domain Electromagnetic method and Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding to map groundwater salinity in the Barotse sub-basin, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongo, M.; Wibroe, J.; Staal-Thomsen, K.; Moses, M.; Nyambe, I. A.; Larsen, F.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    This paper describes the results from the application of two geophysical exploration techniques, Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) and Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) that have proved effective in mapping groundwater salinity variations within the sedimentary formations of the Barotse sub basin in the Western Province of Zambia. TDEM was used to map groundwater salinity variations on a regional scale, whereas CVES was used at the local scale to investigate freshwater-saltwater distribution in an ephemeral river valley. On a regional scale, salt water occurrence was shown to be present mainly on the south-eastern portions of the basin, which are situated in a rift that forms a tripe junction with the East African Rift Valley. The general geophysical model indicates an aquifer with saline water with a thickness of about 40 m with resistivity variations less than 35 Ωm (more than 500 mg/l of Cl - based on a formation factor of 5), overlain by an unconfined freshwater aquifer of about 10 m thickness with resistivities in excess of 70 Ωm (i.e. less than 250 mg/l of Cl - based on a formation factor of 5). The origin of the saline water is hypothesized to be related to the evapo-concentration of salts in interdune deposits, which were subsequently buried due to dune migration about 32 to 4 thousands of years ago or kilo annums (ka). The occurrence of saline groundwater could also possibly be linked to evaporation of a former Lake Paleo Makgadikgadi, an extensive endorheic lake system that once covered large parts of Southern Africa. Locally, a thin freshwater aquifer was observed in an ephemeral river valley, indicating recent recharge of river water into a pre-existing saline environment.

  6. Regionalization of local geomorphometric derivations for geological mapping in the sedimentary domain of central Amazônia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima

    2017-03-01

    regionalization process improved the potential of local geomorphometric data for updating and revision of geological maps and for guiding future surveys in the sedimentary domain of Amazônia.

  7. Numerical Time-Domain Modeling of Lamb Wave Propagation Using Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Rappel; Aghil Yousefi-Koma; Jalil Jamali; Ako Bahari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of lamb wave propagation in a homogenous steel plate using elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) as well as its validation with analytical results. Lamb wave method is a long range inspection technique which is considered to have unique future in the field of structural health monitoring. One of the main problems facing the lamb wave method is how to choose the most appropriate frequency to generate the waves for adequate transmission capab...

  8. Adaptive, multi-domain techniques for two-phase flow computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzgoren, Eray

    Computations of immiscible two-phase flows deal with interfaces that may move and/or deform in response to the dynamics within the flow field. As interfaces move, one needs to compute the new shapes and the associated geometric information (such as curvatures, normals, and projected areas/volumes) as part of the solution. The present study employs the immersed boundary method (IBM), which uses marker points to track the interface location and continuous interface methods to model interfacial conditions. The large transport property jumps across the interface, and the considerations of the mechanism including convection, diffusion, pressure, body force and surface tension create multiple time/length scales. The resulting computational stiffness and moving boundaries make numerical simulations computationally expensive in three-dimensions, even when the computations are performed on adaptively refined 3D Cartesian grids that efficiently resolve the length scales. A domain decomposition method and a partitioning strategy for adaptively refined grids are developed to enable parallel computing capabilities. Specifically, the approach consists of multilevel additive Schwarz method for domain decomposition, and Hilbert space filling curve ordering for partitioning. The issues related to load balancing, communication and computation, convergence rate of the iterative solver in regard to grid size and the number of sub-domains and interface shape deformation, are studied. Moreover, interfacial representation using marker points is extended to model complex solid geometries for single and two-phase flows. Developed model is validated using a benchmark test case, flow over a cylinder. Furthermore, overall algorithm is employed to further investigate steady and unsteady behavior of the liquid plug problem. Finally, capability of handling two-phase flow simulations in complex solid geometries is demonstrated by studying the effect of bifurcation point on the liquid plug, which

  9. Methylation-sensitive linking libraries enhance gene-enriched sequencing of complex genomes and map DNA methylation domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Arvind K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many plant genomes are resistant to whole-genome assembly due to an abundance of repetitive sequence, leading to the development of gene-rich sequencing techniques. Two such techniques are hypomethylated partial restriction (HMPR and methylation spanning linker libraries (MSLL. These libraries differ from other gene-rich datasets in having larger insert sizes, and the MSLL clones are designed to provide reads localized to "epigenetic boundaries" where methylation begins or ends. Results A large-scale study in maize generated 40,299 HMPR sequences and 80,723 MSLL sequences, including MSLL clones exceeding 100 kb. The paired end reads of MSLL and HMPR clones were shown to be effective in linking existing gene-rich sequences into scaffolds. In addition, it was shown that the MSLL clones can be used for anchoring these scaffolds to a BAC-based physical map. The MSLL end reads effectively identified epigenetic boundaries, as indicated by their preferential alignment to regions upstream and downstream from annotated genes. The ability to precisely map long stretches of fully methylated DNA sequence is a unique outcome of MSLL analysis, and was also shown to provide evidence for errors in gene identification. MSLL clones were observed to be significantly more repeat-rich in their interiors than in their end reads, confirming the correlation between methylation and retroelement content. Both MSLL and HMPR reads were found to be substantially gene-enriched, with the SalI MSLL libraries being the most highly enriched (31% align to an EST contig, while the HMPR clones exhibited exceptional depletion of repetitive DNA (to ~11%. These two techniques were compared with other gene-enrichment methods, and shown to be complementary. Conclusion MSLL technology provides an unparalleled approach for mapping the epigenetic status of repetitive blocks and for identifying sequences mis-identified as genes. Although the types and natures of

  10. A Way to Understand Various Patterns of Data Mining Techniques for Selected Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kanak Saxena

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This has much in common with traditional work in statistics and machine learning. However, there are important new issues which arise because of the sheer size of the data. One of the important problem in data mining is the Classification-rule learning which involves finding rules that partition given data into predefined classes. In the data mining domain where millions of records and a large number of attributes are involved, the execution time of existing algorithms can become prohibitive, particularly in interactive applications.

  11. Interpolation scheme for fictitious domain techniques and topology optimization of finite strain elastic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on interpolation schemes for fictitious domain and topology optimization approaches with structures undergoing large displacements. Numerical instability in the finite element simulations can often be observed, due to excessive distortion in low stiffness regions. A new...... for a challenging test geometry as well as for topology optimization of minimum compliance and compliant mechanisms. The effect of combining the proposed interpolation scheme with different hyperelastic material models is investigated as well. Numerical results show that the proposed approach alleviates...... the problems in the low stiffness regions and for the simulated cases, results in stable topology optimization of structures undergoing large displacements. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  12. Application of Geologic Mapping Techniques and Autonomous Feature Detection to Future Exploration of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, M. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P. H.; Lin, Y.; Greeley, R.; Saripalli, S.; Bell, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Europa's extremely young surface age, evidence for extensive resurfacing, and indications of a sub-surface ocean elevate its astrobiological potential for habitable environments and make it a compelling focus for study. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step in understanding the history of the satellite and for identifying areas relevant for exploration. I have produced a 1:15M scale global geologic map of Europa which represents a proportionate distribution of four unit types and associated features: plains, linea, chaos, and crater materials. Mapping techniques differ somewhat from other planetary maps but do provide a method to establish stratigraphic markers and to illustrate the surface history through four periods of formation as a function of framework lineament cross-cutting relationships. Correlations of observed features on Europa with Earth analogs enforce a multi-process theory for formation rather than the typical reliance on the principle of parsimony. Lenticulae and microchaos are genetically similar and most likely form by diapirism. Platy and blocky chaos units, endmembers of archetypical chaos, are best explained by brine mobilization. Ridges account for the majority of lineaments and may form by a number of methods indicative of local conditions; most form by either tidal pumping or shear heating. The variety of morphologies exhibited by bands indicates that multiple formation mechanisms apply once fracturing of the brittle surface over a ductile subsurface is initiated. Mapping results support the interpretation that Europa's shell has thickened over time resulting in changes in the style and intensity of deformation. Mapping serves as an index for change detection and classification, aids in pre-encounter targeting, and supports the selection of potential landing sites. Highest priority target areas are those which indicate geophysical activity by the presence of volcanic plumes, outgassing, or

  13. Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry for fast detection of dynamic strain incorporating double-edge technique

    CERN Document Server

    Shangguan, Mingjia; Xia, Haiyun; Qiu, Jiawei; Shentu, Guoliang; Dou, Xiankang; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-wei

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a direct detection BOTDR is demonstrated for distributed dynamic strain sensing incorporating double-edge technique, time-division multiplexing technique and upconversion technique. The double edges are realized by using the transmission curve and reflection curve of an all-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). Benefiting from the low loss of the fiber at, the time-division multiplexing technique is performed to realize the double-edge technique by using only a single-channel FPI and only one piece of a detector. In order to detect the weak spontaneous Brillouin backscattering signal efficiently, a fiber-coupled upconversion detector is adopted to upconvert the backscattering signal at 1548.1 nm to 863 nm, which is detected by a Si-APD finally. In the experiment, dynamic strain disturbance up to 1.9m{\\epsilon} over 1.5 km of polarization maintaining fiber is detected at a sampling rate of 30 Hz. An accuracy of 30{\\mu}{\\epsilon} and spatial resolution of 0.6 m is realized.

  14. Mapping the structural and dynamical features of multiple p53 DNA binding domains: insights into loop 1 intrinsic dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Lukman

    Full Text Available The transcription factor p53 regulates cellular integrity in response to stress. p53 is mutated in more than half of cancerous cells, with a majority of the mutations localized to the DNA binding domain (DBD. In order to map the structural and dynamical features of the DBD, we carried out multiple copy molecular dynamics simulations (totaling 0.8 μs. Simulations show the loop 1 to be the most dynamic element among the DNA-contacting loops (loops 1-3. Loop 1 occupies two major conformational states: extended and recessed; the former but not the latter displays correlations in atomic fluctuations with those of loop 2 (~24 Å apart. Since loop 1 binds to the major groove whereas loop 2 binds to the minor groove of DNA, our results begin to provide some insight into the possible mechanism underpinning the cooperative nature of DBD binding to DNA. We propose (1 a novel mechanism underlying the dynamics of loop 1 and the possible tread-milling of p53 on DNA and (2 possible mutations on loop 1 residues to restore the transcriptional activity of an oncogenic mutation at a distant site.

  15. Numerical Time-Domain Modeling of Lamb Wave Propagation Using Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Rappel

    2014-01-01

    integration technique (EFIT as well as its validation with analytical results. Lamb wave method is a long range inspection technique which is considered to have unique future in the field of structural health monitoring. One of the main problems facing the lamb wave method is how to choose the most appropriate frequency to generate the waves for adequate transmission capable of properly propagating in the material, interfering with defects/damages, and being received in good conditions. Modern simulation tools based on numerical methods such as finite integration technique (FIT, finite element method (FEM, and boundary element method (BEM may be used for modeling. In this paper, two sets of simulation are performed. In the first set, group velocities of lamb wave in a steel plate are obtained numerically. Results are then compared with analytical results to validate the simulation. In the second set, EFIT is employed to study fundamental symmetric mode interaction with a surface braking defect.

  16. Investigating path loss characteristics of UWB signals in vacancy indoor environment based on time-domain technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang; Zhang Naitong

    2006-01-01

    The path loss analysis model based on 5 rays in vacancy indoor environment is proposed. The relationship between multipath overlapping and the path loss is analyzed mathematically. Time-domain technique is introduced to compute reflection coefficient in a very short time interval. A 5 rays path loss calculation method, which is satisfactory accurate, is developed. 5 typical environments are involved to analyze and generalize the common path loss characteristics in vacancy indoor environment. The simulation result shows that the path loss can be characterized as 3 zones with different path loss exponent as distance between transmitter and receiver increasing.

  17. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active......; range, 0-9). Clinical applicability (85%) and attention grabbers (85%) were the 2 most common teaching techniques. Thirty-eight percent of the sessions defined learning objectives, and one-third of sessions engaged in active learning. The overall survey response rate equaled 42%, and passive sessions...... learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5...

  18. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  19. Correlation technique and least square support vector machine combine for frequency domain based ECG beat classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Saibal; Chatterjee, Amitava; Munshi, Sugata

    2010-12-01

    The present work proposes the development of an automated medical diagnostic tool that can classify ECG beats. This is considered an important problem as accurate, timely detection of cardiac arrhythmia can help to provide proper medical attention to cure/reduce the ailment. The proposed scheme utilizes a cross-correlation based approach where the cross-spectral density information in frequency domain is used to extract suitable features. A least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier is developed utilizing the features so that the ECG beats are classified into three categories: normal beats, PVC beats and other beats. This three-class classification scheme is developed utilizing a small training dataset and tested with an enormous testing dataset to show the generalization capability of the scheme. The scheme, when employed for 40 files in the MIT/BIH arrhythmia database, could produce high classification accuracy in the range 95.51-96.12% and could outperform several competing algorithms.

  20. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  1. Security techniques for prevention of rank manipulation in social tagging services including robotic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Jung, Hanyoung; Moon, Seungbin

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  2. Magnetic force microscopy: advanced technique for the observation of magnetic domains; La microscopia de fuerzas magneticas: una tecnica avanzada para la observacion de dominios magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenjo, A.; Garcia, J. M.; Vazquez, M.

    2001-07-01

    An overview on the Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM, as an advanced technique to observe magnetic domains and walls is displayed. Basic concepts are first introduced on the domain structure formation as well as on other techniques to observe magnetic domains. Afterwards, the MFM instrumentation is described making also an emphasis in micro magnetic consideration to interpret the images. Finally, a set of selected advanced magnetic materials with different domain structures is chosen to show the wide possibilities of this techniques to characterise the surface magnetic behaviour. The domain structure of materials as commercial magnetic recording media, thin films and multilayers, amorphous micro tubes, nanocrystalline ribbons, perovskites or magnetic nano wires is shown. (Author) 16 refs.

  3. Comparison of the Biological Impacts of the Fluoride Compounds by Graphical Risk Visualization Map Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Kan; Kono, Rei; Ueno, Takaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Dote, Tomotaro; Yokoyama, Hirotaka; Kono, Koichi; Tamaki, Junko

    2015-09-01

    Various fluoride compounds are widely used in industry. The present risk assessment study was conducted using a series of inorganic binary fluorides of the type XFn, where X(n) = Na(+), K(+), Li(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Al(3+), Nd(3+), La(3+), Ce(3+), Sm(3+), Gd(3+), Y(3+), Yb(2+), and Zn(2+). The aqueous solutions of these salts were orally administrated to 16 experimental groups (one for each of the salts tested). The levels of fluoride, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cumulative 24-h urine samples and creatinine clearance were measured to assess possible acute renal damages. The levels of fluoride, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were also determined in serum samples to assess possible acute hepatic damages. The results reveal that sodium fluoride (NaF), potassium fluoride (KF), and zinc fluoride tetrahydrate (ZnF2 (.)4H2O) can carry the fluoride ion into the bloodstream and that it is excreted via urine more readily than the other compounds tested. These fluorides were assigned the highest risk impact factor. Most of the rare earth fluorides are insoluble in water while those groups 2 and 13 of the periodic table are slightly soluble, so that they do not have a significant negative risk. These findings suggest that the biological impact of fluoride depends on the accompanying counter ion and its solubility. The risk map obtained in the present study shows that the graphical visualization map technique employed is a valuable new tool to assess the toxicological risk of chemical compounds.

  4. Image-based continental shelf habitat mapping using novel automated data extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Jan; Friedman, Ariell; Steinberg, Daniel; Barrett, Neville; Williams, Alan; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2012-08-01

    We automatically mapped the distribution of temperate continental shelf rocky reef habitats with a high degree of confidence using colour, texture, rugosity and patchiness features extracted from images in conjunction with machine-learning algorithms. This demonstrated the potential of novel automation routines to expedite the complex and time-consuming process of seabed mapping. The random forests ensemble classifier outperformed other tree-based algorithms and also offered some valuable built-in model performance assessment tools. Habitat prediction using random forests performed most accurately when all 26 image-derived predictors were included in the model. This produced an overall habitat prediction accuracy of 84% (with a kappa statistic of 0.793) when compared to nine distinct habitat classes assigned by a human annotator. Predictions for three habitat classes were all within the 95% confidence intervals, indicating close agreement between observed and predicted habitat classes. Misclassified images were mostly unevenly, partially or insufficiently illuminated and came mostly from rugged terrains and during the autonomous underwater vehicle's obstacle avoidance manoeuvres. The remaining misclassified images were wrongly or inconsistently labelled by the human annotator. This study demonstrates the suitability of autonomous underwater vehicles to effectively sample benthic habitats and the ability of automated data handling techniques to extract and reliably process large volumes of seabed image data. Our methods for image feature extraction and classification are repeatable, cost-effective and well suited to studies that require non-extractive and/or co-located sampling, e.g. in marine reserves and for monitoring the recovery from physical impacts, e.g. from bottom fishing activities. The methods are transferable to other continental shelf areas and to other disciplines such as seabed geology.

  5. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopical technique to monitor cocrystal formation between piracetam and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Xia, Yi; Zhang, Huili; Hong, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Far-infrared vibrational absorption of cocrystal formation between 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) and piracetam compounds under solvent evaporation and grinding methods have been investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at room temperature. The experimental results show large difference among absorption spectra of the formed cocrystals and the involved individual parent molecules in 0.20-1.50 THz region, which probably originated from the intra-molecular and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds due to the presence of two hydroxyl groups in 2,5-DHBA and amide moieties in piracetam compound. The THz absorption spectra of two formed cocrystals with different methods are almost identical. With grinding method, the reaction process can be monitored directly from both time-domain and frequency-domain spectra using THz-TDS technique. The results indicate that THz-TDS technology can absolutely offer us a high potential method to identify and characterize the formed cocrystals, and also provide the rich information about their reaction dynamic process involving two or more molecular crystals in situ to better know the corresponding reaction mechanism in pharmaceutical fields.

  6. Comparing and Reconciling Traditional Field and Photogeologic Mapping Techniques: Lessons from the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Eppler, D. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Janoiko, B.; Whitson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cartographic products and - specifically - geologic maps provide critical assistance for establishing physical and temporal frameworks of planetary surfaces. The technical methods that result in the creation of geologic maps vary depending on how observations are made as well as the overall intent of the final products [1-3]. These methods tend to follow a common linear work flow, including the identification and delineation of spatially and temporally discrete materials (units), the documentation of their primary (emplacement) and secondary (erosional) characteristics, analysis of the relative and absolute age relationships between these materials, and the collation of observations and interpretations into an objective map product. The "objectivity" of a map is critical cross comparison with overlapping maps and topical studies as well as its relevance to scientific posterity. However, the "accuracy" and "correctness" of a geologic map is very subject to debate. This can be evidenced by comparison of existing geologic maps at various scales, particularly those compiled through field- and remote-based mapped efforts. Our study focuses on comparing the fidelity of (1) "Apollo-style" geologic investigations, where typically non-geologist crew members follow static traverse routes established through pre-mission planning, and (2) "traditional" field-based investigations, where geologists are given free rein to observe without preplanned routes. This abstract summarizes the regional geology wherein our study was conducted, presents the geologic map created from traditional field mapping techniques, and offers basic insights into how geologic maps created from different tactics can be reconciled in support of exploratory missions. Additional abstracts [4-6] from this study discuss various exploration and science results of these efforts.

  7. Application de techniques de commande avancées dans le domaine automobile.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The work achieved in this PhD thesis is dedicated to applications of advanced control methodologies to problems currently faced in the automotive field. Three main areas of investigation were successively considered, using advanced techniques such as H infinity LTI and q-LPV design procedures, dynamic feedback linearization, retuning of controllers, in particular PI-type, and optimization of filters required by the H infinity design procedure:* Trajectory control of automotive vehicle. A cont...

  8. Enhancement of SAR images using fuzzy shrinkage technique in curvelet domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHIVAKUMARA SWAMY PURANIK MATH; VANI KALIYAPERUMAL

    2017-09-01

    The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are mainly affected by speckle noise. Speckle degrades the features in the image and reduces the ability of a human observer to resolve fine detail, hence despeckling is very much required for SAR images. This paper presents speckle noise reduction in SAR images using a combination of curvelet and fuzzy logic technique to restore speckle-affected images. This method overcomes the limitation of discontinuity in hard threshold and permanent deviation in soft threshold. First, it decomposes noise image into different frequency scales using curvelet transform, and then applies the fuzzy shrinking technique to high-frequency coefficients to restore noise-contaminated coefficients. The proposed method does not use threshold approach only by proper selection of shrinking parameter the speckle in SAR image is suppressed. The experiment is carried out on different resolutions of RISAT-1 SAR images, and results are compared with the existing filtering algorithms in terms of noise mean variance (NMV), mean square difference (MSD), equal number of looks (ENL), noise standard deviation (NSD) and speckle suppression index (SSI). A comparison of the results shows that the proposed technique suppresses noise significantly, preserves the details of the image and improves the visual quality of the image

  9. Mapping Tamarix: New techniques for field measurements, spatial modeling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.

    peak growing months. These studies demonstrate that new techniques can further our understanding of tamarisk's impacts on ecosystem processes, predict potential distribution and new invasions, and improve our ability to detect occurrence using remote sensing techniques. Collectively, the results of my studies may increase our ability to map tamarisk distributions and better quantify its impacts over multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  10. A Method of Surrogate Model Construction which Leverages Lower-Fidelity Information using Space Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    errors found using the polynomial response surrogate (LS PRM ) overlaid on the data from the space-mapped (SM) surrogate...nonlinear space-mapped surrogate responses, with the least-squares PRM surrogate response plotted for comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 42...Percent error comparison between the least-squares space-mapping and the PRM surrogate models derived from samples in the second dataset

  11. Visible Watermarking Technique for MPEG-2 Downsampling Transcoding in the DCT Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-gang; CAI An-ni

    2005-01-01

    To locate the right places for embedding watermark signals, and to set the proper streng-th of the embedded watermark signal are two critical problems for obtaining a robust and transpar-ent watermark in color images. In this paper, a DCT domain visible watermarking scheme based on the luminance and texture features and alligned with transcoding from MPEG-2 to MPEG-1 is proposed. In this scheme, the location of the visible watermark is chosen at the block with minimum number of nonzero DCT coefficients in the I-frames. When embedding the visible watermark(such as video DC image) into the unmarked original image,the embedding factors are determined with the local luminance feature and texture features of the original image and watemark image by utilizing DC and 3AC coefficients only. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme not only provides good fidelity and robustness against MPEG-2 downscaling transcoding,but also achieves a low Computational complexity.

  12. A simple technique for morphological measurement of cerebral arterial circle variations using public domain software (Osiris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Saeed; Dadmehr, Majid; Eftekhar, Behzad; McConnell, Douglas J; Ganji, Sarah; Azari, Hassan; Kamali-Ardakani, Shahab; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a straightforward method to measure the dimensions and identify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle using the general-purpose software program Osiris. This user-friendly and portable program displays, manipulates, and analyzes medical digital images, and it has the capability to determine morphometric properties of selected blood vessels (or other anatomical structures) in humans and animals. To ascertain morphometric variations in the cerebral arterial circle, 132 brains of recently deceased fetuses, infants, and adults were dissected. The dissection procedure was first digitized, and then the dimensions were measured with Osiris software. Measurements of each vessel's length and external diameters were used to identify and classify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle. The most commonly observed anatomical variations were uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery. This study demonstrates that public domain software can be used to measure and classify cerebral arterial circle vessels. This method could be extended to examine other anatomical regions or to study other animals. Additionally, knowledge of variations within the circle could be applied clinically to enhance diagnostic and treatment specificity.

  13. Pseudo-Spectrum Time Domain and Time Reversal Mirror technique using in Microwave-induced Thermo-Acoustic Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Induced Thermo-Acoustic Tomograp- phy (MITAT has attracted more concerns in recent years in biomedical imaging field. It has both the high contrast of the microwave imaging and the high resolution of ultrasound imaging. As compared to optoacoustics, which uses instead a pulsed light for evoking optoacoustic response, thermo-aco- ustic imaging has the advantage of deeper tissue penetration, attaining the potential for wider clinical dissemination, especially for malignant tumors. In this paper, the induced thermo-acoustic wave propagating in a mimic biologic tissue is simulated by numeric method Pseudo-Spectrum Time Domain (PSTD. Due to the excellent performance in noise- depress and the stability for the fluctuation of the model parameters, Time Reversal Mirror (TRM imaging technique is studied computationally for the simulative received therm- o-acoustic signals. Some thermo-acoustic objects with differ- ent initial pressure distribution are designed and imaged by TRM technique to represent the complex biologic tissue case in a random media. The quality of images generated by TRM technique based on PSTD method hints the potential of the MITAT technique.

  14. Null test fourier domain alignment technique for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    Alignment technique for calibrating a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer involves three independent steps where the first two steps independently align the image points and pinholes in rotation and separation to a fixed reference coordinate system, e.g, CCD. Once the two sub-elements have been properly aligned to the reference in two parameters (separation and orientation), the third step is to align the two sub-element coordinate systems to each other in the two remaining parameters (x,y) using standard methods of locating the pinholes relative to some easy to find reference point.

  15. Robust structural damage detection and localization based on joint approximate diagonalization technique in frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shancheng; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristic deflection shapes (CDS’s) such as mode shapes and operational deflection shapes are highly sensitive to structural damage in beam- or plate-type structures. Nevertheless, they are vulnerable to measurement noise and could result in unacceptable identification errors. In order to increase the accuracy and noise robustness of damage identification based on CDS’s using vibration responses of random excitation, joint approximate diagonalization (JAD) technique and gapped smoothing method (GSM) are combined to form a sensitive and robust damage index (DI), which can simultaneously detect the existence of damage and localize its position. In addition, it is possible to apply this approach to damage identification of structures under ambient excitation. First, JAD method which is an essential technique of blind source separation is investigated to simultaneously diagonalize a set of power spectral density matrices corresponding to frequencies near a certain natural frequency to estimate a joint unitary diagonalizer. The columns of this joint diagonalizer contain dominant CDS’s. With the identified dominant CDS’s around different natural frequencies, GSM is used to extract damage features and a robust damage identification index is then proposed. Numerical and experimental examples of beams with cracks are used to verify the validity and noise robustness of JAD based CDS estimation and the proposed DI. Furthermore, damage identification using dominant CDS’s estimated by JAD method is demonstrated to be more accurate and noise robust than by the commonly used singular value decomposition method.

  16. Mapping Cropland in Smallholder-Dominated Savannas: Integrating Remote Sensing Techniques and Probabilistic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional smallholder farming systems dominate the savanna range countries of sub-Saharan Africa and provide the foundation for the region’s food security. Despite continued expansion of smallholder farming into the surrounding savanna landscapes, food insecurity in the region persists. Central to the monitoring of food security in these countries, and to understanding the processes behind it, are reliable, high-quality datasets of cultivated land. Remote sensing has been frequently used for this purpose but distinguishing crops under certain stages of growth from savanna woodlands has remained a major challenge. Yet, crop production in dryland ecosystems is most vulnerable to seasonal climate variability, amplifying the need for high quality products showing the distribution and extent of cropland. The key objective in this analysis is the development of a classification protocol for African savanna landscapes, emphasizing the delineation of cropland. We integrate remote sensing techniques with probabilistic modeling into an innovative workflow. We present summary results for this methodology applied to a land cover classification of Zambia’s Southern Province. Five primary land cover categories are classified for the study area, producing an overall map accuracy of 88.18%. Omission error within the cropland class is 12.11% and commission error 9.76%.

  17. Saturation of Alfvén modes in tokamak plasmas investigated by Hamiltonian mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, S.; Schneller, M.; Wang, X.; Di Troia, C.; Hayward-Schneider, T.; Fusco, V.; Vlad, G.; Fogaccia, G.

    2017-07-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of single toroidal number Alfvén eigenmodes destabilised by the the resonant interaction with fast ions is investigated, in tokamak equilibria, by means of Hamiltonian mapping techniques. The results obtained by two different simulation codes, XHMGC and HAGIS, are presented for n  =  2 Beta induced Alfvén eigenmodes and, respectively n  =  6 toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes. Simulations of the bump-on-tail instability performed by a 1-dimensional code, PIC1DP, are also analysed for comparison. As a general feature, modes saturate as the resonant-particle distribution function is flattened over the whole region where mode-particle power transfer can take place in the linear phase. Such region is limited by the narrowest of resonance width and mode width. In the former case, mode amplitude at saturation exhibits a quadratic scaling with the linear growth rate; in the latter case, the scaling is linear. These results are explained in terms of the approximate analytic solution of a nonlinear pendulum model. They are also used to prove that the radial width of the single poloidal harmonic sets an upper limit to the radial displacement of circulating fast ions produced by a single-toroidal-number gap mode in the large n limit, irrespectively of the possible existence of a large global mode structure formed by many harmonics.

  18. Analysis of resonant responses of split ring resonators using conformal mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, Scott G.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Lahiri, Basudev; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2007-05-01

    We report a novel method for modeling the resonant frequency response of infra-red light, in the range of 2 to 10 microns, reflected from metallic spilt ring resonators (SRRs) fabricated on a silicon substrate. The calculated positions of the TM and TE peaks are determined from the plasma frequency associated with the filling fraction of the metal array and the equivalent LC circuit defined by the SRR elements. The capacitance of the equivalent circuit is calculated using conformal mapping techniques to determine the co-planar capacitance associated with both the individual and the neighbouring elements. The inductance of the equivalent circuit is based on the self-inductance of the individual elements and the mutual inductance of the neighboring elements. The results obtained from the method are in good agreement with experimental results and simulation results obtained from a commercial FDTD simulation software package. The method allows the frequency response of a SRR to be readily calculated without complex computational methods and enables new designs to be optimised for a particular frequency response by tuning the LC circuit.

  19. Classification of a set of vectors using self-organizing map- and rule-based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ae, Tadashi; Okaniwa, Kaishirou; Nosaka, Kenzaburou

    2005-02-01

    There exist various objects, such as pictures, music, texts, etc., around our environment. We have a view for these objects by looking, reading or listening. Our view is concerned with our behaviors deeply, and is very important to understand our behaviors. We have a view for an object, and decide the next action (data selection, etc.) with our view. Such a series of actions constructs a sequence. Therefore, we propose a method which acquires a view as a vector from several words for a view, and apply the vector to sequence generation. We focus on sequences of the data of which a user selects from a multimedia database containing pictures, music, movie, etc... These data cannot be stereotyped because user's view for them changes by each user. Therefore, we represent the structure of the multimedia database as the vector representing user's view and the stereotyped vector, and acquire sequences containing the structure as elements. Such a vector can be classified by SOM (Self-Organizing Map). Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a method to generate sequences. Therefore, we use HMM of which a state corresponds to the representative vector of user's view, and acquire sequences containing the change of user's view. We call it Vector-state Markov Model (VMM). We introduce the rough set theory as a rule-base technique, which plays a role of classifying the sets of data such as the sets of "Tour".

  20. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal; Jitendra Vaish; Sahadev Kumar; Abhay Kumar Bharti

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from −1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050–1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  1. A numerical technique for linear elliptic partial differential equations in polygonal domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, P; Fokas, A S; Smitheman, S A

    2015-03-08

    Integral representations for the solution of linear elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) can be obtained using Green's theorem. However, these representations involve both the Dirichlet and the Neumann values on the boundary, and for a well-posed boundary-value problem (BVPs) one of these functions is unknown. A new transform method for solving BVPs for linear and integrable nonlinear PDEs usually referred to as the unified transform (or the Fokas transform) was introduced by the second author in the late Nineties. For linear elliptic PDEs, this method can be considered as the analogue of Green's function approach but now it is formulated in the complex Fourier plane instead of the physical plane. It employs two global relations also formulated in the Fourier plane which couple the Dirichlet and the Neumann boundary values. These relations can be used to characterize the unknown boundary values in terms of the given boundary data, yielding an elegant approach for determining the Dirichlet to Neumann map. The numerical implementation of the unified transform can be considered as the counterpart in the Fourier plane of the well-known boundary integral method which is formulated in the physical plane. For this implementation, one must choose (i) a suitable basis for expanding the unknown functions and (ii) an appropriate set of complex values, which we refer to as collocation points, at which to evaluate the global relations. Here, by employing a variety of examples we present simple guidelines of how the above choices can be made. Furthermore, we provide concrete rules for choosing the collocation points so that the condition number of the matrix of the associated linear system remains low.

  2. The Effect of Using the Story-Mapping Technique on Developing Tenth Grade Students' Short Story Writing Skills in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibnian, Salem Saleh Khalaf

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the effect of using the story-mapping technique on developing tenth grade students' short story writing skills in EFL. The study attempted to answer the following questions: (1) What are the short story writing skills needed for tenth grade students in EFL?; and (2) What is the effect of the using the…

  3. Use of Portfolio Assessment Technique in Teaching Map Sketching and Location in Secondary School Geography in Jos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugodulunwa, Christiana; Wakjissa, Sayita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of portfolio assessment technique in teaching map sketching and location in geography in Jos, Nigeria. It adopted a quasi-experimental design. Two schools were selected using a table of random numbers from a population of 51 schools in Jos South and assigned to each of experimental and control group. The…

  4. Blind image watermarking technique based on differential embedding in DWT and DCT domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoraira, Ali; Benmahammed, Khier; Boucenna, Noureddine

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new blind and robust image watermarking scheme based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). Two DCT-transformed sub-vectors are used to embed the bits of the watermark sequence in a differential manner. The original sub-vectors are obtained by the sub-sampling of the approximation coefficients of the DWT transform of the host image. During the extraction stage, the simple difference between the corresponding sub-vectors of the watermarked image, gives directly the embedded watermark sequence. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique successfully fulfills the requirement of imperceptibility and provides high robustness against a number of image-processing attacks, such as JPEG compression, noise adding, low-pass filtering, sharpening, and bit-plane removal. Our scheme exhibits also an acceptable to good performance against some geometrical attacks such as resizing and cropping.

  5. Optical double image encryption employing a pseudo image technique in the Fourier domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

    2014-06-01

    A novel optical encryption method is proposed involving double image encryption in which one image is introduced as the pseudo image while the other is the original object image. The Double Random Phase Encoding technique is used to encrypt both the pseudo and object images into complex images. A unique binary image is then employed to first generate the random phase key for the object image encryption and then to embed the encrypted object image into the encrypted pseudo image, which acts as host image. Both the second random phase mask used for encoding the pseudo image and the binary image act as encryption keys. If an attacker attempts to crack the random phase key and decrypt the original object image, the pseudo image will be obtained instead. Simulation results and robustness tests are performed which demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm.

  6. Time-domain radio pulses from particle showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime [Depto. de Fisica de Particulas and Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero-Wolf, Andres, E-mail: rw.andres@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Zas, Enrique [Depto. de Fisica de Particulas and Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-01-11

    The time-domain properties of the far-field coherent radio emission from electromagnetic showers are studied in depth. A purely time-domain technique for mapping the electromagnetic fields of charged tracks is developed. The method is applied to the ZHS shower code to produce electric fields. It is demonstrated that the technique is equivalent to the frequency domain methods used in the ZHS code and produces consistent results. In addition, a model for mapping the longitudinal charge profile of a shower to a time-domain electromagnetic field is developed. It is shown that the model is in good agreement to the results of shower simulation.

  7. Study of the mapping mechanism of ferroelectric domains with the scanning force microscope; Untersuchung der Abbildungsmechanismen ferroelektrischer Domaenen mit dem Rasterkraftmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungk, T.

    2006-12-15

    The piezo-force microscopy (PFM) allows the mapping of ferroelectric domains until the nanometer range. In spite of its simple function principle it was hitherto not completely understood. In ordser to develop the PFM further to a quantitative analysis method its methodical aspects were analyzed. It was shown that the fundamental mapping mechanism is based on the inverse piezo-effect. Different artefacts to be found in the literature could therefore be reduced to a measurement background. Furthermore the influence of the electrode geometry was analyzed. The width of doamin walls was systematically measured and simulated with a mode, whereby a maximal resolution of 17 nm was reached. By the development of a correction procedure for the exact detection of the forces acting on the spring-beam the lateral signals measured on domain walls could by newly interpreted. So the ''Lateral Electrostatic Force Microscopy'' was developed.

  8. Characterization of Deficiencies in the Frequency Domain Forced Response Analysis Technique for Supersonic Turbine Bladed Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Schmauch, Preston

    2012-01-01

    Turbine blades in rocket and jet engine turbomachinery experience enormous harmonic loading conditions. These loads result from the integer number of upstream and downstream stator vanes as well as the other turbine stages. Assessing the blade structural integrity is a complex task requiring an initial characterization of whether resonance is possible and then performing a forced response analysis if that condition is met. The standard technique for forced response analysis in rocket engine turbines is to decompose a computational fluid dynamics (CFD).generated flow field into its harmonic components, and to then perform a frequency response analysis at the problematic natural frequencies using cyclically symmetric structural dynamic models. Recent CFD analysis and water-flow testing at NASA/MSFC, though, indicates that this technique may miss substantial harmonic and non ]harmonic excitation sources that become present in complex flows. This complex content can only be captured by a CFD flow field encompassing at least an entire revolution. A substantial development effort to create a series of software programs to enable application of the 360 degree forcing function in a frequency response analysis on cyclic symmetric models has been completed (to be described in a future paper), but the question still remains whether the frequency response analysis itself is capable of capturing the excitation content sufficiently. Two studies comparing frequency response analysis with transient response analysis, therefore, of bladed-disks undergoing this complex flow environment have been performed. The first is of a bladed disk with each blade modeled by simple beam elements and the disk modeled with plates (using the finite element code MSC/NASTRAN). The focus of this model is to be representative of response of realistic bladed disks, and so the dimensions are roughly equivalent to the new J2X rocket engine 1st stage fuel pump turbine. The simplicity of the model allows

  9. Mapping of the mouse homolog of the human runt domain gene, AML2, to the distal region of mouse chromosome 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avraham, K.B.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. [National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    AML2 is a runt domain belonging to a group of transcription factors that appear to play a role in Drosophila embryogenesis and mammalian oncogenic transformation. AML2 maps to human chromosome 1p36, a region involved in the t(1;3)(p36;q21) translocation found in association with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myeloproliferative disease (MPD), and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Spatial Domain based Image Enhancement Techniques for Scanned Electron Microscope-SEM-images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Chanana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for efficiently processing and analyzing the information contained in digital images is a continuous challenge in order to apply image processing. Digital images are captured from different imaging media elements like cameras, scanned electron microscopes etc. While going through the imaging process, Images get distorted in various forms resulting in extreme dark or light areas. All these things lead to the loss of information. The goal in each case is to extract useful information. In that case, Image processing extracts useful information by applying various image enhancement and algorithms. In this paper, we have discussed a practical implementation of various enhancement methods for Scanned Electron Microscope (SEM images and their experimental results. SEM images lead to very dark and light areas in an image. While imaging the information in the front scene is not only the source of information but some scenes on the dark side can also have the useful information. Before processing any further we require to enhance such images and one of the enhancement techniques i.e. Histogram Statistics comes out to be an ideal approach.

  11. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortiz eArmbruster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic uptake of glutamate shapes extracellular neurotransmitter dynamics, receptor activation, and synaptogenesis. During development, glutamate transport becomes more robust. How neonatal brain insult affects the functional maturation of glutamate transport remains unanswered. Neonatal brain insult can lead to developmental delays, cognitive losses, and epilepsy; the disruption of glutamate transport is known to cause changes in synaptogenesis, receptor activation, and seizure. Using the neonatal freeze-lesion (FL model, we have investigated how insult affects the maturation of astrocytic glutamate transport. As lesioning occurs on the day of birth, a time when astrocytes are still functionally immature, this model is ideal for identifying changes in astrocyte maturation following insult. Reactive astrocytosis, astrocyte proliferation, and in vitro hyperexcitability are known to occur in this model. To probe astrocyte glutamate transport with better spatial precision we have developed a novel technique, Laser Scanning Astrocyte Mapping (LSAM, which combines glutamate transport current (TC recording from astrocytes with laser scanning glutamate photolysis. LSAM allows us to identify the area from which a single astrocyte can transport glutamate and to quantify spatial heterogeneity in the rate of glutamate clearance kinetics within that domain. Using LSAM, we report that cortical astrocytes have an increased glutamate-responsive area following FL and that TCs have faster decay times in distal, as compared to proximal processes. Furthermore, the developmental shift from GLAST- to GLT-1-dominated clearance is disrupted following FL. These findings introduce a novel method to probe astrocyte glutamate uptake and show that neonatal cortical FL disrupts the functional maturation of cortical astrocytes.

  12. Finite-difference time-domain-based optical microscopy simulation of dispersive media facilitates the development of optical imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Capoglu, Ilker; Li, Yue; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Chandler, John; Spicer, Graham; Subramanian, Hariharan; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    Combining finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods and modeling of optical microscopy modalities, we previously developed an open-source software package called Angora, which is essentially a "microscope in a computer." However, the samples being simulated were limited to nondispersive media. Since media dispersions are common in biological samples (such as cells with staining and metallic biomarkers), we have further developed a module in Angora to simulate samples having complicated dispersion properties, thereby allowing the synthesis of microscope images of most biological samples. We first describe a method to integrate media dispersion into FDTD, and we validate the corresponding Angora dispersion module by applying Mie theory, as well as by experimentally imaging gold microspheres. Then, we demonstrate how Angora can facilitate the development of optical imaging techniques with a case study.

  13. Advanced demodulation technique for the extraction of tissue optical properties and structural orientation contrast in the spatial frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Kyle P.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a method for extracting spatial frequency information content from biological tissue, which is used to calculate tissue optical properties and determine tissue structural orientation. This demodulation method employs a two-dimensional Hilbert transform using a spiral phase function in Fourier space. The approach presented here allows for the determination of tissue optical properties using a single frame of data for each modulation frequency, increasing imaging speed by two to threefold versus conventional, three-phase spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). This new single-phase Hilbert transform approach recovers optical property and scattering orientation index values within 1% and 10% of three-phase SFDI, respectively. These results suggest that, using the Hilbert demodulation technique, SFDI data acquisition speed can be increased significantly while preserving data quality, which will help us move forward toward the implementation of a real-time SFDI platform.

  14. Fitting aerodynamic forces in the Laplace domain: An application of a nonlinear nongradient technique to multilevel constrained optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, S. H.; Adams, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which employs both linear and nonlinear methods in a multilevel optimization structure to best approximate generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces for arbitrary motion is described. Optimum selection of free parameters is made in a rational function approximation of the aerodynamic forces in the Laplace domain such that a best fit is obtained, in a least squares sense, to tabular data for purely oscillatory motion. The multilevel structure and the corresponding formulation of the objective models are presented which separate the reduction of the fit error into linear and nonlinear problems, thus enabling the use of linear methods where practical. Certain equality and inequality constraints that may be imposed are identified; a brief description of the nongradient, nonlinear optimizer which is used is given; and results which illustrate application of the method are presented.

  15. Effectiveness of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry-A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhanraj Kalyanasundaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. Objective: To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using experimental study design among sixth semester MBBS students (n = 64 at a medical college in Puducherry, India. One group (n = 32 followed the text reading method and another group (n = 32 followed the mind mapping technique to learn the same passage given to them. The knowledge about the topic was assessed using a pre designed questionnaire at baseline, day 0 and day 7. The knowledge gain is the primary outcome variable and is compared between two groups. The feedback regarding the teaching methods was obtained from the participants. Results: Mean knowledge score in the text group was lesser than the mind map group at baseline (2.6 Vs 3.5; p = 0.08. On Day 0, the mean score in text group was slightly lesser than the mind map group (8.7 Vs 9.0; p = 0.26. On Day 7, the mean score in mind map group is significantly more than the text group (8.9 Vs 8.5; p = 0.03. Conclusion: The mind mapping technique is an innovative and effective method in remembering things better than the routine way of reading texts.

  16. Estimating Fractional Shrub Cover Using Simulated EnMAP Data: A Comparison of Three Machine Learning Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Schwieder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interventions in natural and semi-natural ecosystems often lead to substantial changes in their functioning and may ultimately threaten ecosystem service provision. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor these changes in order to understand their impacts and to support management decisions that help ensuring sustainability. Remote sensing has proven to be a valuable tool for these purposes, and especially hyperspectral sensors are expected to provide valuable data for quantitative characterization of land change processes. In this study, simulated EnMAP data were used for mapping shrub cover fractions along a gradient of shrub encroachment, in a study region in southern Portugal. We compared three machine learning regression techniques: Support Vector Regression (SVR; Random Forest Regression (RF; and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR. Additionally, we compared the influence of training sample size on the prediction performance. All techniques showed reasonably good results when trained with large samples, while SVR always outperformed the other algorithms. The best model was applied to produce a fractional shrub cover map for the whole study area. The predicted patterns revealed a gradient of shrub cover between regions affected by special agricultural management schemes for nature protection and areas without land use incentives. Our results highlight the value of EnMAP data in combination with machine learning regression techniques for monitoring gradual land change processes.

  17. Mapping hydrogeophysical structures with time--domain electromagnetic methods: Resolving small-scale details with large loops and three--component measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C. J.; Li, Y.; Nabighian, M.

    2004-12-01

    One of the outstanding problems in managing water resources in geologically complex aquifers is to develop improved techniques for mapping compartmentalization due to faulting. And although the role of faults in aquifer dynamics can vary considerably, knowledge of their location is key to understanding aquifer recharge and developing a sensible model for predicting aquifer response due to anthropogenic loads. We have explored the application of time--domain electromagnetic methods for mapping shallow aquifer faults on the western flanks of the Estancia Basin, central New Mexico. The field site is underlain by massive Pennsylvanian limestones (Madera Group) subsequently faulted by Laramide tectonics of the Ancestral Rockies and Neogene extension of the Rio Grande Rift. Two experimental configurations were deployed: a large 50 × 40 m transmitter loop with receiver stations located on a 5 m grid over the loop's interior; and an azimuthal survey consisting of a smaller fixed transmitter with receiver stations at ˜2 m intervals along a 30 m radius circle centered on the transmitter. Three--component transients of magnetic field due to a fast linear ramp--off in the transmitter were recorded at each station. As a rapid reconnaisance tool, the azimuthal experiment is well--suited for identification of subsurface fault planes since symmetry constraints require a vanishing azimuthal ̂ φ component of magnetic field when the electrical strike, or fault plane, lies in the ̂ φ direction. However, each of the experimental configurations revealed that the site's electrical structure is far more three--dimensional than previously believed and is not dominated by the response of a previously identified fault plane. Instead, we have observed spatially coherent transient signals which may indicate compartmentalization over length scales as small as a few tens of meters. Sections of this work were performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multi--program laboratory

  18. Word-Sense Disambiguation for Ontology Mapping: Concept Disambiguation using Virtual Documents and Information Retrieval Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadd, Frederik C.; Roos, Nico

    2015-01-01

    ? 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Ontology mapping is a crucial task for the facilitation of information exchange and data integration. A mapping system can use a variety of similarity measures to determine concept correspondences. This paper proposes the integration of word-sense disambigua

  19. Computational study of three dimensional viscous flow through a turbine cascade using a multi-domain spectral technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Earl W.; Tan, Choon S.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous flow through a planar turbine cascade is numerically simulated by direct solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow dependence in the spanwise direction is represented by direct expansion in Chebyshev polynomials, while the discretization on planes parallel to the endwalls is accomplished using the spectral element method. Elemental mapping from the physical to the computational space uses an algebraic mapping technique. A fractional time stepping method that consists of an explicit nonlinear convective step, an implicit pressure correction step, and an implicit viscous step is used to advance the Navier-Stokes equations forward in time. Results computed at moderate Reynolds numbers show a three dimensional endwall flow separation, a midspan separation of the blade suction surface boundary layer, and other three-dimensional features such as the presence of a saddle point flow in the endwall region. In addition, the computed skin friction lines are shown to be orthogonal to the surface vorticity lines, demonstrating the accuracy achievable in the present method.

  20. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A VISUALIZATION TEST OF MENTAL MODELS WITH THE COGNITIVE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui NASSREDDINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.

  1. Soil Moisture Mapping in an Arid Area Using a Land Unit Area (LUA Sampling Approach and Geostatistical Interpolation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Gharechelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM plays a key role in many environmental processes and has a high spatial and temporal variability. Collecting sample SM data through field surveys (e.g., for validation of remote sensing-derived products can be very expensive and time consuming if a study area is large, and producing accurate SM maps from the sample point data is a difficult task as well. In this study, geospatial processing techniques are used to combine several geo-environmental layers relevant to SM (soil, geology, rainfall, land cover, etc. into a land unit area (LUA map, which delineates regions with relatively homogeneous geological/geomorphological, land use/land cover, and climate characteristics. This LUA map is used to guide the collection of sample SM data in the field, and the field data is finally spatially interpolated to create a wall-to-wall map of SM in the study area (Garmsar, Iran. The main goal of this research is to create a SM map in an arid area, using a land unit area (LUA approach to obtain the most appropriate sample locations for collecting SM field data. Several environmental GIS layers, which have an impact on SM, were combined to generate a LUA map, and then field surveying was done in each class of the LUA map. A SM map was produced based on LUA, remote sensing data indexes, and spatial interpolation of the field survey sample data. The several interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, kriging, and co-kriging were evaluated for generating SM maps from the sample data. The produced maps were compared to each other and validated using ground truth data. The results show that the LUA approach is a reasonable method to create the homogenous field to introduce a representative sample for field soil surveying. The geostatistical SM map achieved adequate accuracy; however, trend analysis and distribution of the soil sample point locations within the LUA types should be further investigated to achieve even better results. Co

  2. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  3. Analysis of terrain map matching using multisensing techniques for applications to autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lance; Shen, C. N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping. Skylines can be extracted from the range-finding measurements and modelled from the global map, and are represented in parametric, cylindrical form with azimuth angle as the independent variable. The three translational parameters of the vantage point are determined with a three-dimensional matching of these two sets of skylines.

  4. Calibration of time domain reflectometry technique using undisturbed soil samples from humid tropical soils of volcanic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, A. M.; Grauel, W. T.; Keller, M.; Veldkamp, E.

    1997-06-01

    Time domain reflectrometry (TDR) is used to measure the apparent dielectric number (Ka) in soils. We studied two soil types (Humitropept and Hapludand) of low bulk density (about 0.7 Mg m-3 at 0.05 m to 0.8 Mg m-3 at 0.3 m depth) and high organic matter content (about 7% at 0.05 m to 4% at 0.3 m depth). Soils are located in a humid tropical environment (average annual soil water content is 0.51 to 0.58 m3 m-3). For calibration, undisturbed soil blocks, with a TDR probe installed in the center, were saturated and then allowed to dry by evaporation. Volumetric water content was calculated from measured Ka values and from gravimetric measurements. Because we used undisturbed soil samples, our calibration accounts for the natural heterogeneity in soils. We tested the suitability of various calibration functions relating Ka to soil water content for our soils. TDR technique underestimated the actual soil water content by 0.05-0.15 m3m-3, when using the widely applied Topp calibration function. A three-phase mixing model with a geometry parameter, α=0.47, fit our data best. We consider mixing models to be a robust approach for calibration of TDR technique on various soils.

  5. Combining Gabor and Talbot bands techniques to enhance the sensitivity with depth in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, Adrian; Marques, Manuel J.; Bouchal, Petr; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to show how to favorably mix two e_ects to improve the sensitivity with depth in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT): Talbot bands (TB) and Gabor-based fusion (GF) technique. TB operation is achieved by directing the two beams, from the object arm and from the reference arm in the OCT interferometer, along parallel separate paths towards the spectrometer. By changing the lateral gap between the two beams in their path towards the spectrometer, the position for the maximum sensitivity versus the optical path difference in the interferometer is adjusted. For five values of the focus position, the gap between the two beams is readjusted to reach maximum sensitivity. Then, similar to the procedure employed in the GF technique, a composite image is formed by edging together the parts of the five images that exhibited maximum brightness. The combined procedure, TB/GF is examined for four different values of the beam diameters of the two beams. Also we demonstrate volumetric FD-OCT images with mirror term attenuation and sensitivity profile shifted towards higher OPD values by applying a Talbot bands configuration.

  6. An automated technique for detailed ?-FTIR mapping of diamond and spectral deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dan; Griffin, Bill; O'Neill, Craig; O'Reilly, Suzanne; Pearson, Norman; Handley, Heather

    2010-05-01

    other commonly found defects and impurities. Whether these are intrinsic defects like platelets, extrinsic defects like hydrogen or boron atoms, or inclusions of minerals or fluids. Recent technological developments in the field of spectroscopy allow detailed μ-FTIR analysis to be performed rapidly in an automated fashion. The Nicolet iN10 microscope has an integrated design that maximises signal throughput and allows spectra to be collected with greater efficiency than is possible with conventional μ-FTIR spectrometer-microscope systems. Combining this with a computer controlled x-y stage allows for the automated measuring of several thousand spectra in only a few hours. This affords us the ability to record 2D IR maps of diamond plates with minimal effort, but has created the need for an automated technique to process the large quantities of IR spectra and obtain quantitative data from them. We will present new software routines that can process large batches of IR spectra, including baselining, conversion to absorption coefficient, and deconvolution to identify and quantify the various nitrogen components. Possible sources of error in each step of the process will be highlighted so that the data produced can be critically assessed. The end result will be the production of various false colour 2D maps that show the distribution of nitrogen concentrations and aggregation states, as well as other identifiable components.

  7. Thermal mapping of mountain slopes on Mars by application of a Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Marta; Mège, Daniel; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Ciazela, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    Thermal inertia (P) is an important property of geologic surfaces that essentially describes the resistance to temperature (T) change as heat is added. Most remote sensing data describe the surface only. P is a volume property that is sensitive to the composition of the subsurface, down to a depth reached by the diurnal heating wave. As direct measurement of P is not possible on Mars, thermal inertia models (Fergason et al., 2006) and deductive methods (the Apparent Thermal Inertia: ATI and Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia: DATI) are used to estimate it. ATI is computed as (1 - A) / (Tday - Tnight), where A is albedo. Due to the lack of the thermal daytime images with maximum land surface temperature (LST) and nighttime images with minimum LST in Valles Marineris region, the ATI method is difficult to apply. Instead, we have explored the DATI technique (Sabol et al., 2006). DATI is calculated based on shorter time (t) intervals with a high |ΔT/Δt| gradient (in the morning or in the afternoon) and is proportional to the day/night temperature difference (ATI), and hence P. Mars, which exhibits exceptionally high |ΔT/Δt| gradients due to the lack of vegetation and thin atmosphere, is especially suitable for the DATI approach. Here we present a new deductive method for high-resolution differential apparent thermal inertia (DATI) mapping for areas of highly contrasted relief (e.g., Valles Marineris). Contrary to the thermal inertia models, our method takes local relief characteristics (slopes and aspects) into account. This is crucial as topography highly influences A and ΔT measurements. In spite of the different approach, DATI values in the flat areas are in the same range as the values obtained by Fergason et al. (2006). They provide, however, more accurate information for geological interpretations of hilly or mountainous terrains. Sabol, D. E., Gillespie, A. R., McDonald, E., and Danilina, I., 2006. Differential Thermal Inertia of Geological Surfaces. In

  8. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewunruen, S., E-mail: sakdirat.kaewunruen@transport.nsw.gov.au [NSW, Transport, Sydney (Australia); Ishida, M., E-mail: ishida-mk@n-koei.jp [Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Railway Div., Railway Engineering Dept., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each

  9. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  10. Seabed habitat mapping techniques: an overview of the performance of various systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. PANDIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seabed mapping has become vital for effective management of marine resources. An important role in moving towards ecosystem based management is played by the defining and understanding of the relationships among marine habitat characteristics, species distribution and human activities. Mapping seabed characteristics by means of remote acoustic sensing, using seabed seismic profiling, sidescan sonar, or echo-sounder based classification systems, is becoming of increasing importance. This paper gives a brief overview of existing marine habitat mapping technologies and their recent developments. In singlebeam echo-sounders, using multiple frequencies will be useful in classifying the seabed. It must be observed that the resolution of a sidescan sonar with narrower along-track beam width and higher range sampling rates will be better than a multi-beam echo-sounder, although the specifications of the newer systems are much improved. Airborne LIDAR bathymetry is very useful for shallow water seabed mapping, particularly in challenging rocky areas vulnerable for ship-based mapping operations. Seabed maps are essential in any case for siting of bottom mounted energy devices. The utmost care should be taken at all stages of the classification process, such as input data, control of interfering factors, seabed acoustic attributes, classification methods and ground-truth observations.

  11. Using mind mapping techniques for rapid qualitative data analysis in public participation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Allen, Jilla; Owen-Smith, Vicci

    2010-12-01

    In a health service environment where timescales for patient participation in service design are short and resources scarce, a balance needs to be achieved between research rigour and the timeliness and utility of the findings of patient participation processes. To develop a pragmatic mind mapping approach to managing the qualitative data from patient participation processes. While this article draws on experience of using mind maps in a variety of participation processes, a single example is used to illustrate the approach. In this example mind maps were created during the course of patient participation focus groups. Two group discussions were also transcribed verbatim to allow comparison of the rapid mind mapping approach with traditional thematic analysis of qualitative data. The illustrative example formed part of a local alcohol service review which included consultation with local alcohol service users, their families and staff groups. The mind mapping approach provided a pleasing graphical format for representing the key themes raised during the focus groups. It helped stimulate and galvanize discussion and keep it on track, enhanced transparency and group ownership of the data analysis process, allowed a rapid dynamic between data collection and feedback, and was considerably faster than traditional methods for the analysis of focus groups, while resulting in similar broad themes. This study suggests that the use of a mind mapping approach to managing qualitative data can provide a pragmatic resolution of the tension between limited resources and quality in patient participation processes. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Using a Concept Mapping Tool with a Photograph Association Technique (CoMPAT) to Elicit Children's Ideas about Microbial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny; Grace, Marcus

    2010-03-01

    Concept mapping is a technique used to provide a visual representation of an individual's ideas about a concept or set of related concepts. This paper describes a concept mapping tool using a photograph association technique (CoMPAT) that is considered to be a novel way of eliciting children's ideas. What children at 11 years of age know about particular concepts related to microbial activity is presented and discussed in relation to the effectiveness of CoMPAT as a tool to draw out their ideas. It is proposed that this tool could be used to explore ideas about this and other science concepts from children in other age groups, and where language may be a barrier to participation.

  13. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (problem. As spatial databases evolve these 3D models should be readily importable into the database.

  14. Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Wiens, Roger; Stepinski, Tom; Forni, Olivier; Clegg, Samuel; Maurice, Sylvestre; Chemcam Team

    2011-02-01

    ChemCam is a remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument that will arrive on Mars in 2012, on-board the Mars Science Laboratory Rover. The LIBS technique is crucial to accurately identify samples and quantify elemental abundances at various distances from the rover. In this study, we compare different linear and nonlinear multivariate techniques to visualize and discriminate clusters in two dimensions (2D) from the data obtained with ChemCam. We have used principal components analysis (PCA) and independent components analysis (ICA) for the linear tools and compared them with the nonlinear Sammon's map projection technique. We demonstrate that the Sammon's map gives the best 2D representation of the data set, with optimization values from 2.8% to 4.3% (0% is a perfect representation), together with an entropy value of 0.81 for the purity of the clustering analysis. The linear 2D projections result in three (ICA) and five times (PCA) more stress, and their clustering purity is more than twice higher with entropy values about 1.8. We show that the Sammon's map algorithm is faster and gives a slightly better representation of the data set if the initial conditions are taken from the ICA projection rather than the PCA projection. We conclude that the nonlinear Sammon's map projection is the best technique for combining data visualization and clustering assessment of the ChemCam LIBS data in 2D. PCA and ICA projections on more dimensions would improve on these numbers at the cost of the intuitive interpretation of the 2D projection by a human operator.

  15. Removal of non aqueous phase liquid liquid (NAPL) from a loam soil monitored by time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    comegna, alessandro; coppola, Antonio; dragonetti, giovanna; ajeel, ali; saeed, ali; sommella, angelo

    2016-04-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are compounds with low or no solubility with water. These compounds, due to the several human activities, can be accidentally introduced in the soil system and thus constitute a serious geo-environmental problem, given the toxicity level and the high mobility. The remediation of contaminated soil sites requires knowledge of the contaminant distribution in the soil profile and groundwater. Methods commonly used to characterize contaminated sites are coring, soil sampling and the installation of monitoring wells for the collection of groundwater samples. The main objective of the present research is to explore the potential application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique in order to evaluate the effect of contaminant removal in a loam soil, initially contaminated with NAPL and then flushed with different washing solutions. The experimental setup consist of: i) a Techtronix cable tester; ii) a three-wire TDR probe with wave guides 14.5 cm long inserted vertically into the soil samples; iii) a testing cell of 8 cm in diameter and 15 cm high; iv) a peristaltic pump for upward injection of washing solution. In laboratory, soil samples were oven dried at 105°C and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Known quantities of soil and NAPL (corn oil, a non-volatile and non-toxic organic compound) were mixed in order to obtain soil samples with different degrees of contamination. Once a soil sample was prepared, it was repacked into a plastic cylinder and then placed into the testing cell. An upward injection of washing solution was supplied to the contaminated sample with a rate q=1.5 cm3/min, which corresponds to a darcian velocity v=6.0 cm/h. The out coming fluid, from the soil column was collected, then the washing solution and oil was separated. Finally both the amount of oil that was remediated and the dielectric permittivity (measured via TDR) of the contaminated soil sample were recorded. Data collected were employed to implement a

  16. Efficient water table evolution discretization using domain transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, W. M.; Balbarini, Nicola; Binning, Philip John

    2017-01-01

    Domain transformation methods are useful techniques for solving problems on non-stationary domains. In this work, we consider the evolution of the water table in an unconfined aquifer. This nonlinear, time-dependent problem is greatly simplified by using a mapping from the physical domain to a re...... to a reference domain and is then further reduced to a single, (nonlinear) partial differential equation. We show well-posedness of the approach and propose a stable and convergent discretization scheme. Numerical results are presented supporting the theory.......Domain transformation methods are useful techniques for solving problems on non-stationary domains. In this work, we consider the evolution of the water table in an unconfined aquifer. This nonlinear, time-dependent problem is greatly simplified by using a mapping from the physical domain...

  17. Color image encryption by using Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform domain and two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli

    2015-12-01

    A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  18. Axial T2* mapping in intervertebral discs: a new technique for assessment of intervertebral disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Sven; Quirbach, Sebastian; Krause, Fabian G.; Benneker, Lorin M. [Inselspital, Berne University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Berne (Switzerland); Mamisch, Tallal C. [Inselspital, Berne University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Werlen, Stefan [Clinic Sonnenhof, Department of Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    To demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2* mapping of intervertebral discs (IVDs) regarding the detection and grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting. Ninety-three patients suffering from lumbar spine problems were examined using standard MRI protocols including an axial T2* mapping protocol. All discs were classified morphologically and grouped as ''healthy'' or ''abnormal''. Differences between groups were analysed regarding to the specific T2* pattern at different regions of interest (ROIs). Healthy intervertebral discs revealed a distinct cross-sectional T2* value profile: T2* values were significantly lower in the annulus fibrosus compared with the nucleus pulposus (P = 0.01). In abnormal IVDs, T2* values were significantly lower, especially towards the centre of the disc representing the expected decreased water content of the nucleus (P = 0.01). In herniated discs, ROIs within the nucleus pulposus and ROIs covering the annulus fibrosus showed decreased T2* values. Axial T2* mapping is effective to detect early stages of degenerative disc disease. There is a potential benefit of axial T2* mapping as a diagnostic tool, allowing the quantitative assessment of intervertebral disc degeneration. circle Axial T2* mapping effective in detecting early degenerative disc disease. (orig.)

  19. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

  20. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5-question written survey rating the session. The most common primary instructional methods were computer slides-based classroom lectures (66%), workshops (15%), simulations (5%), and journal club (5%). The number of teaching techniques used per formal teaching session averaged 5.31 (SD, 1.92; median, 5; range, 0-9). Clinical applicability (85%) and attention grabbers (85%) were the 2 most common teaching techniques. Thirty-eight percent of the sessions defined learning objectives, and one-third of sessions engaged in active learning. The overall survey response rate equaled 42%, and passive sessions had a mean score of 8.44 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.2) compared with a mean score of 8.63 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.1) for active sessions (P = 0.63). Slides-based classroom lectures were the most common instructional method, and faculty used an average of 5 known teaching techniques per formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high.

  1. Mapping snow avalanche risk using GIS technique and 3D modeling in Ceahlau Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covasnianu, A.; Grigoras, I. R.; State, L. E.; Balin, D.; Hogas, S.; Balin, I.

    2009-04-01

    This study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign and on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:5.000 scale) of the Ceahlau mountain area in Romanian Carpathians in order to address the snow avalanche risk management, surveying and monitoring. Thus we considered the slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness derived from a high resolute numerical terrain model (31 km2 at 1: 5.000 scale resulted in a spatial resolution of 3 m by the help of Topo to Raster tool). These parameters were classified according to a model applied into Tatra Mountains and used over Ceahlau Massive. The results were adapted and interpreted considering to the European Avalanche Hazard Scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Natural Park Ceahlau. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

  2. Indirect ultrasonication for protein quantification and peptide mass mapping through mass spectrometry-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, R J; Lodeiro, C; Reboiro-Jato, M; Glez-Peña, D; Fdez-Riverola, F; Capelo, J L

    2010-07-15

    We report in this work a fast protocol for protein quantification and for peptide mass mapping that rely on (18)O isotopic labeling through the decoupling procedure. It is demonstrated that the purity and source of trypsin do not compromise the labeling degree and efficiency of the decoupled labeling reaction, and that the pH of the labeling reaction is a critical factor to obtain a significant (18)O double labeling. We also show that the same calibration curve can be used for MALDI protein quantification during several days maintaining a reasonable accuracy, thus simplifying the handling of the quantification process. In addition we demonstrate that (18)O isotopic labeling through the decoupling procedure can be successfully used to elaborate peptide mass maps. BSA was successfully quantified using the same calibration curve in different days and plasma from a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, was used to elaborate the peptide mass maps. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of metastasis-associated proteins in a human tumor metastasis model using the mass-mapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreunin, Paweena; Urquidi, Virginia; Lubman, David M; Goodison, Steve

    2005-01-01

    For most cancer cell types, the acquisition of metastatic ability leads to clinically incurable disease. The identification of molecules whose expression is specifically correlated with the metastatic spread of cancer would facilitate the design of therapeutic interventions to inhibit this lethal process. In order to facilitate metastasis gene discovery we have previously characterized a pair of monoclonal cell lines from the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435 that have different metastatic phenotypes in immune-compromised mice. In this study, serum-free conditioned media was collected from the cultured monoclonal cell lines and a mass mapping technique was applied in order to profile a component of each cell line proteome. We utilized chromatofocusing in the first dimension to obtain a high resolution separation based on protein pI, and nonporous silica reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used for the second dimension. Selected proteins were identified on the basis of electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS) intact protein mapping and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) peptide mass fingerprinting. Using this approach we were able to map over 400 proteins and plot them as a 2-D map of pI versus accurate Mr. This was performed over a pI range of 4.0–6.2, and a mass range of 6–80 kDa. ESI-TOF MS data and further analysis using MALDI-TOF MS confirmed and identified 27 differentially expressed proteins. Proteins associated with the metastatic phenotype included osteopontin and extracellular matrix protein 1, whereas the matrix metalloproteinase-1 and annexin 1 proteins were associated with the non-metastatic phenotype. These findings demonstrate that the mass mapping technique is a powerful tool for the detection and identification of proteins in complex biological samples and which are specifically associated with a cellular phenotype. PMID:15352249

  4. Erasing the Milky Way: new cleaning technique applied to GBT intensity mapping data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, L.; Blake, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Anderson, C. J.; Chang, T.-C.; Li, Y.-C.; Masui, K. W.; Switzer, E.; Pen, U.-L.; Voytek, T. C.; Yadav, J.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first application of a new foreground removal pipeline to the current leading H I intensity mapping data set, obtained by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We study the 15- and 1-h-field data of the GBT observations previously presented in Mausui et al. and Switzer et al., covering about 41 deg2 at 0.6 SVD) method, and confirm that foreground subtraction with FASTICA is robust against 21 cm signal loss, as seen by the converged amplitude of these cross-correlation measurements. We conclude that SVD and FASTICA are complementary methods to investigate the foregrounds and noise systematics present in intensity mapping data sets.

  5. Constructive techniques for zeros of monotone mappings in certain Banach spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, C; Sow, T M M; Djitte, N; Chidume, C E

    2015-01-01

    Let E be a 2-uniformly convex real Banach space with uniformly Gâteaux differentiable norm, and [Formula: see text] its dual space. Let [Formula: see text] be a bounded strongly monotone mapping such that [Formula: see text] For given [Formula: see text] let [Formula: see text] be generated by the algorithm: [Formula: see text]where J is the normalized duality mapping from E into [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is a real sequence in (0, 1) satisfying suitable conditions. Then it is proved that [Formula: see text] converges strongly to the unique point [Formula: see text] Finally, our theorems are applied to the convex minimization problem.

  6. Technique of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair can be modified to successfully repair large defects in patients with loss of domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghai, Mercedeh; Ramshaw, Bruce J; Smith, C Daniel; Fearing, Nicole; Bachman, Sharon; Ramaswamy, Archana

    2009-03-01

    Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) can be challenging in patients with large abdominal wall defects and loss of domain (LOD). When hernia contents are reduced, the pneumoperitoneum preferentially fills the sac, leaving no space for mesh manipulation. This study presents a modification for LVHR in LOD patients, as well as outcomes for a series of patients. Between September 2002 and August 2004, 10 patients with large ventral hernias and LOD underwent attempts at LVHR. The technique is modified by placing additional trocars to allow for fixation from above the mesh. Patient data were harvested from a prospective database and analyzed. All hernias were recurrent in nature. Mean defect size was 626 cm(2), requiring 1 to 4 pieces of sutured Gore Dualmesh for a tension-free repair. Three patients' procedures were aborted after adhesiolysis, with concerns about missed enterotomies. All 3 underwent delayed mesh placement within the same hospitalization. Only 2 were successful. The third patient had significant bowel edema precluding mesh placement. Two patients were converted to open repairs (Rives-Stoppa and component separation). There were no mortalities, but there were 2 major complications: inferior vena cava thrombosis and transient abdominal compartment syndrome. In follow-up (7.7 months) there were 2 recurrences secondary to excision of infected mesh. It is possible to obtain a successful LVHR in patients with large defects and LOD. The technique is complex and is modified to allow for mesh fixation from above the mesh. Frequent change in patient positioning allows for visualization below the fascial defect.

  7. Energy-efficient optical network units for OFDM PON based on time-domain interleaved OFDM technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Lipeng; Su, Yikai

    2014-06-02

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical network units (ONUs) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical networks (OFDM PONs) by using time-domain interleaved OFDM (TI-OFDM) technique. In a conventional OFDM PON, each ONU has to process the complete downstream broadcast OFDM signal with a high sampling rate and a large FFT size to retrieve its required data, even if it employs a portion of OFDM subcarriers. However, in our scheme, the ONU only needs to sample and process one data group from the downlink TI-OFDM signal, effectively reducing the sampling rate and the FFT size of the ONU. Thus, the energy efficiency of ONUs in OFDM PONs can be greatly improved. A proof-of-concept experiment is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Compared to the conventional OFDM PON, our proposal can save 17.1% and 26.7% energy consumption of ONUs by halving and quartering the sampling rate and the FFT size of ONUs with the use of the TI-OFDM technology.

  8. Classification of cancer cell lines using an automated two-dimensional liquid mapping method with hierarchical clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen R; Shedden, Kerby A; Barder, Timothy J; Lubman, David M

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional liquid mapping method was used to map the protein expression of eight ovarian serous carcinoma cell lines and three immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Maps were produced using pI as the separation parameter in the first dimension and hydrophobicity based upon reversed-phase HPLC separation in the second dimension. The method can be reproducibly used to produce protein expression maps over a pH range from 4.0 to 8.5. A dynamic programming method was used to correct for minor shifts in peaks during the HPLC gradient between sample runs. The resulting corrected maps can then be compared using hierarchical clustering to produce dendrograms indicating the relationship between different cell lines. It was found that several of the ovarian surface epithelial cell lines clustered together, whereas specific groups of serous carcinoma cell lines clustered with each other. Although there is limited information on the current biology of these cell lines, it was shown that the protein expression of certain cell lines is closely related to each other. Other cell lines, including one ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line, two endometrioid carcinoma cell lines, and three breast epithelial cell lines, were also mapped for comparison to show that their protein profiles cluster differently than the serous samples and to study how they cluster relative to each other. In addition, comparisons can be made between proteins differentially expressed between cell lines that may serve as markers of ovarian serous carcinomas. The automation of the method allows reproducible comparison of many samples, and the use of differential analysis limits the number of proteins that might require further analysis by mass spectrometry techniques.

  9. Ionic Current Mapping Techniques and Applications to Aluminum-Copper Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, H. S.; Jeffcoate, C. S.; Missert, N. A.; Barbour, J. C.

    1999-10-17

    Measurements have been made of the aluminum/metal galvanic couple. A wide range of geometries were investigated varying the areas of anodic and cathodic surfaces and employing specially designed galvanic cells with crevices. In situ ionic current density mapping was used to monitor galvanic corrosion and currents flowing between separated metals was measured.

  10. Creating High-Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes Using IM-CRDS and IRMS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Since the development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), the applications of water isotope analysis have been increasing. Here, we present a new protocol to create high-resolution maps of leaf water isotopes 18O and 2H. We use the Picarro induction module (IM-CRDS) combined with an isotope analyzer (L2130-i) to sample up to 25 locations in one half of each leaf. Each sampling location corresponds to four samples (6 mm outside diameter punched-holes) punched next to each other. In the induction module, an induction coil heats a metal holder containing the leaf sample. The sample will release water vapor that is then sent to the isotope analyzer. The IM-CRDS allows us to significantly reduce the sample size and therefore increase the sample density, compared to the traditional cryogenic extraction method. Using spatial analysis tools, we create high-resolution spatial maps of each isotope as well as d-excess maps. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The isotopic composition of the extracted water is compared to the average composition calculated from the maps and used for calibration. We present applications of this protocol to the analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution of foliar uptake in Colocasia esculenta under laboratory conditions.

  11. Towards a Rigorous Formulation of the Space Mapping Technique for Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the Space Mapping (SM) approach to engineering design optimization. We attempt here a theoretical justification of methods that have already proven efficient in solving practical problems, especially in the RF and microwave area. A formal definition of optimization algorithms...

  12. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details.

  13. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  14. Multivariate correlation analysis technique based on euclidean distance map for network traffic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Qing, Sihan; Susilo, Willy; Wang, Guilin; Liu, Dongmei

    2011-01-01

    The quality of feature has significant impact on the performance of detection techniques used for Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The features that fail to provide accurate characterization for network traffic records make the techniques suffer from low accuracy in detection. Although researches hav

  15. Tropical Cyclone Vulnerability Mapping Using Geospatial Techniques: Application to a Coastal Upazila in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A. A.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Childs, I.

    2015-12-01

    Cyclones are one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. Globally, many coastal regions are vulnerable to different categories cyclones. In Bangladesh, disasters from tropical cyclones are annual occurrences in coastal areas. The intensity and extent of damage due to tropical cyclones are very high. An appropriate mapping approach is essential for producing detail vulnerability assessments to deliver useful information for reducing the impacts of cyclones on people, property and environment. The present study developed and tested a vulnerability mapping approach for tropical cyclone impacts in Sarankhola upazila a 151 km2 local government area located in coastal Bangladesh. The study applied the approach by integrating remote sensing, field data and multi-criteria evaluation at regional scales covering Bangladesh to tropical cyclones.

  16. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to pr...

  17. Domain mapping of the retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase gamma-subunit. Function of the domains encoded by the three exons of the gamma-subunit gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, D J; Hurt, D; Oppert, B; Cunnick, J

    1992-02-01

    Retinal rod-outer-segment phosphodiesterase (PDE) is a heterotetramer consisting of two similar, but not identical, catalytic subunits (alpha and beta) and two identical inhibitory subunits (gamma 2). Previously, we have reported that the site of PDE alpha/beta interaction with PDE gamma is located within residues 54-87 [Cunnick, Hurt, Oppert, Sakamoto & Takemoto (1990) Biochem. J. 271, 721-727]. The site for PDE gamma interaction with transducin alpha (T alpha) was found to encompass residues 24-45 of PDE gamma [Morrison, Cunnick, Oppert & Takemoto (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 11671-11681]. In order to identify binding sites and other functional domains of PDE gamma, the three peptides which are encoded by the three exons of the PDE gamma gene were synthesized chemically. These exons encode for residues 1-49, 50-62 and 63-87 of bovine PDE gamma [Piriev, Purishko, Khramtsov & Lipkin (1990) Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 315, 229-230]. The peptide encompassing residues 63-87 was inhibitory in a PDE assay, whereas peptides 1-49 and 50-62 had no effect. However, both peptides 1-49 and 63-87 bound to PDE alpha/beta in a solid-phase binding assay. Only peptide 1-49 bound to T alpha.GTP[S] (GTP[S] is guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate). These data confirm that the inhibitory region of PDE gamma is encoded by exon 3 (residues 63-87), whereas a separate binding site for PDE alpha/beta and for T alpha.GTP[S] is encoded by exon 1 (residues 1-49). To study further the structure-function relationship of PDE gamma, this entire protein and two mutants were chemically synthesized. One mutant (-CT) lacked residues 78-87, whereas another replaced tyrosine-84 with glycine (TYR-84). Whereas the synthetic PDE gamma inhibited PDE alpha/beta catalytic activity, the -CT and TVR-84 mutants did not. All three synthetic proteins bound to both PDE alpha/beta and and T alpha.GTP[S]. These data confirm the presence of an alternative binding site on PDE gamma and demonstrate the importance of tyrosine

  18. High-resolution mapping, modeling, and evolution of subsurface geomorphology using ground-penetrating radar techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.

    data over an area under study. The gap between sample locations are to be either simulated or manipulated through various statistical methods. Under such conditions, mapping of the area may not yield the reality of the subsurface features in between... continuous profiles along with 200 MHz antenna and measuring wheel. Some times for confirmation, 400 MHz antenna was also used. GPR system was initialized in the field so that the ground reality, related to geo-electrical conditions of the field...

  19. Quantifying Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Mapping Using Streamflow Ensembles and Multiple Hydraulic Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.

  20. Log Mining Based on Hadoop’s Map and Reduce Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Pandit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world of cloud and grid computing Virtual Database Technology (VDB is one of the effective solutions for integration of data from heterogeneous sources. Hadoop is a large-scale distributed batchprocessing infrastructure and also designed to efficiently distribute large amounts of work across a set of machines. Hadoop is an implementation of Map Reduce. This paper proposes application forinauguration of new branch of pizza in particular area according to hits from customers. In this paper we will take the log files for the particular website which will be stored on web mining server. These data will be passed on to the cloud server for region wise distribution on the virtual servers. Mapping and reduction will be done on these region wise data. The final output is then sent back to the server and client. This paper utilizes the parallel and distributed processing capability of Hadoop Map Reduce for handling heterogeneous query execution on large datasets. So Virtual Database Engine built on top of this will result in effective high performance distributed data integration

  1. Mosquito habitat and dengue risk potential in Kenya: alternative methods to traditional risk mapping techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Attaway

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks, epidemics and endemic conditions make dengue a disease that has emerged as a major threat in tropical and sub-tropical countries over the past 30 years. Dengue fever creates a growing burden for public health systems and has the potential to affect over 40% of the world population. The problem being investigated is to identify the highest and lowest areas of dengue risk. This paper presents “Similarity Search”, a geospatial analysis aimed at identifying these locations with- in Kenya. Similarity Search develops a risk map by combining environmental susceptibility analysis and geographical infor- mation systems, and then compares areas with dengue prevalence to all other locations. Kenya has had outbreaks of dengue during the past 3 years, and we identified areas with the highest susceptibility to dengue infection using bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat as input to the model. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the reported dengue epi- demic cases obtained from the open source reporting ProMED and Government news reports from 1982-2013 confirmed the high-risk locations that were used as the Similarity Search presence cells. Developing the risk model based upon the bio- climatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat increased the efficiency and effectiveness of the dengue fever risk mapping process.

  2. Mapping and evaluation of snow avalanche risk using GIS technique in Rodnei National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covǎsnianu, Adrian; Grigoraş, Ioan-Rǎducu; Covǎsnianu, Liliana-Elena; Iordache, Iulian; Balin, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    The study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign, on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:25.000 scale and updated with ASTER mission) of the Rodnei National Park area (Romanian Carpathians) with a focus on snow avalanche risk survey. Parameters taken into account were slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness resulted from a high resolute numerical terrain model obtained by ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) mission. The resulted digital surface model with a spatial resolution of 10 m covered a total area of 187 square kilometers and was improved by the help of Topo to Raster tool. All these parameters were calibrated after a model applied onto Tatra Massive and also Ceahlău Mountain. The results were adapted and interpreted in accordance with European avalanche hazard scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Rodnei Natural Park. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

  3. Mosquito habitat and dengue risk potential in Kenya: alternative methods to traditional risk mapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaway, David F; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Falconer, Allan; Manca, Germana; Rosenshein Bennett, Lauren; Waters, Nigel M

    2014-11-01

    Outbreaks, epidemics and endemic conditions make dengue a disease that has emerged as a major threat in tropical and sub-tropical countries over the past 30 years. Dengue fever creates a growing burden for public health systems and has the potential to affect over 40% of the world population. The problem being investigated is to identify the highest and lowest areas of dengue risk. This paper presents "Similarity Search", a geospatial analysis aimed at identifying these locations within Kenya. Similarity Search develops a risk map by combining environmental susceptibility analysis and geographical information systems, and then compares areas with dengue prevalence to all other locations. Kenya has had outbreaks of dengue during the past 3 years, and we identified areas with the highest susceptibility to dengue infection using bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat as input to the model. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the reported dengue epidemic cases obtained from the open source reporting ProMED and Government news reports from 1982-2013 confirmed the high-risk locations that were used as the Similarity Search presence cells. Developing the risk model based upon the bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat increased the efficiency and effectiveness of the dengue fever risk mapping process.

  4. A Comparative Study of Mapping Domains and Input Spaces%映射域与输入空间的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Conceptual blending Theory are two main theories of cognitive linguis- tics. Mapping domains and input spaces are the key elements of them respectively. By illustrating the differences and similarities of mapping domains and input spaces, this paper tentatively proposes that Conceptual Metaphor Theory is the base of Conceptual blending Theory. Meanwhile the latter is the former's development. These two theories are es- sentially complementary and interactive.%概念隐喻理论和概念整合理论是认知语言学的两大主要理论,映射域和输入空间分别是这两个理论的核心要素。通过对映射域和输入空间异同的比较,揭示了两者的实质性差异和内在联系,以论证概念隐喻理论是概念整合理论的研究基础,后者是前者的拓展,两者之间具有互补性和交互性。

  5. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE: a transaminase involved in the biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) from Serratia sp. FS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiangdi; Ran, Tingting; Han, Ning; Gao, Yanyan; He, Jianhua; Tang, Lin; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu

    2014-04-25

    Prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment synthesized by Serratia and some other microbes through a bifurcated biosynthesis pathway, MBC (4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde) and MAP (2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole) are synthesized separately and then condensed by PigC to form prodigiosin. MAP is synthesized sequentially by PigD, PigE and PigB. PigE catalyzes the transamination of an amino group to the aldehyde group of 3-acetyloctanal, resulting in an aminoketone, which spontaneously cyclizes to form H2MAP. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE which involved in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin precursor MAP for the first time to a resolution of 2.3Å with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The monomer of PigE catalytic domain is composed of three domains with PLP as cofactor: a small N-terminal domain connecting the catalytic domain with the front part of PigE, a large PLP-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. The residues from both monomers build the PLP binding site at the interface of the dimer which resembles the other PLP-dependent enzymes. Structural comparison of PigE with Thermus thermophilus AcOAT showed a higher hydrophobic and smaller active site of PigE, these differences may be the reason for substrate specificity.

  6. Elemental X-ray mapping of agglutinated foraminifer tests: a non- destructive technique for determining compositional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeau, R.F.; Reynolds, Leslie A.; Poag, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The composition of agglutinated foraminiferal tests vary remarkably in response to local substrate characteristics, physiochemical properties of the water column and species- dependant selectivity of test components. We have employed a technique that combines a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer system to identify major and minor elemental constituents of agglutinated foraminiferal walls. As a sample is bombarded with a beam of high energy electrons, X-rays are generated that are characteristic of the elements present. As a result, X- ray density maps can be produced for each of several elements present in the tests of agglutinated foraminifers. -Authors

  7. An evaluation of image based techniques for wildfire detection and fuel mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbert, Dustin W.

    Few events can cause the catastrophic impact to ecology, infrastructure, and human safety of a wildland fire along the wildland urban interface. The suppression of natural wildland fires over the past decade has caused a buildup of dry, dead surface fuels: a condition that, coupled with the right weather conditions, can cause large destructive wildfires that are capable of threatening both ancient tree stands and manmade infrastructure. Firefighters use fire danger models to determine staffing needs on high fire risk days; however models are only as effective as the spatial and temporal density of their observations. OKFIRE, an Oklahoma initiative created by a partnership between Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma, has proven that fire danger assessments close to the fire - both geographically and temporally - can give firefighters a significant increase in their situational awareness while fighting a wildland fire. This paper investigates several possible solutions for a small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which could gather information useful for detecting ground fires and constructing fire danger maps. Multiple fire detection and fuel mapping programs utilize satellites, manned aircraft, and large UAS equipped with hyperspectral sensors to gather useful information. Their success provides convincing proof of the utility that could be gained from low-altitude UAS gathering information at the exact time and place firefighters and land managers are interested in. Close proximity, both geographically and operationally, to the end can reduce latency times below what could ever be possible with satellite observation. This paper expands on recent advances in computer vision, photogrammetry, and infrared and color imagery to develop a framework for a next-generation UAS which can assess fire danger and aid firefighters in real time as they observe, contain, or extinguish wildland fires. It also investigates the impact information gained by this

  8. Village Level Tsunami Threat Maps for Tamil Nadu, SE Coast of India: Numerical Modeling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    MP, J.; Kulangara Madham Subrahmanian, D.; V, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami (IOT) devastated several countries of North Indian Ocean. India is one of the worst affected countries after Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In India, Tamil Nadu suffered maximum with fatalities exceeding 8,000 people. Historical records show that tsunami has invaded the shores of Tamil Nadu in the past and has made people realize that the tsunami threat looms over Tamil Nadu and it is necessary to evolve strategies for tsunami threat management. The IOT has brought to light that tsunami inundation and runup varied within short distances and for the disaster management for tsunami, large scale maps showing areas that are likely to be affected by future tsunami are identified. Therefore threat assessment for six villages including Mamallapuram (also called Mahabalipuram) which is famous for its rock-cut temples, from the northern part of Tamil Nadu state of India has been carried out and threat maps categorizing the coast into areas of different degree of threat are prepared. The threat was assessed by numerical modeling using TUNAMI N2 code considering different tsunamigenic sources along the Andaman - Sumatra trench. While GEBCO and C-Map data was used for bathymetry and for land elevation data was generated by RTK - GPS survey for a distance of 1 km from shore and SRTM for the inland areas. The model results show that in addition to the Sumatra source which generated the IOT in 2004, earthquakes originating in Car Nicobar and North Andaman can inflict more damage. The North Andaman source can generate a massive tsunami and an earthquake of magnitude more than Mw 9 can not only affect Tamil Nadu but also entire south east coast of India. The runup water level is used to demarcate the tsunami threat zones in the villages using GIS.

  9. Conformal mapping technique for two-dimensional porous media and jet impingement heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.

    1974-01-01

    Transpiration cooling and liquid metals both provide highly effective heat transfer. Using Darcy's law in porous media and the inviscid approximation for liquid metals, the local fluid velocity in these flows equals the gradient of a potential. The energy equation and flow region are simplified when transformed into potential plane coordinates. In these coordinates, the present problems are reduced to heat conduction solutions which are mapped into the physical geometry. Results are obtained for a porous region with simultaneously prescribed surface temperature and heat flux, heat transfer in a two-dimensional porous bed, and heat transfer for two liquid metal slot jets impinging on a heated plate.

  10. Mapping of unfolding states of integral helical membrane proteins by GPS-NMR and scattering techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calcutta, Antonello; Jessen, Christian Moestrup; Behrens, Manja Annette;

    2012-01-01

    Membrane proteins are vital for biological function, and their action is governed by structural properties critically depending on their interactions with the membranes. This has motivated considerable interest in studies of membrane protein folding and unfolding. Here the structural changes...... induced by unfolding of an integral membrane protein, namely TFE-induced unfolding of KcsA solubilized by the n-dodecyl ß-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactant is investigated by the recently introduced GPS-NMR (Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR) (Malmendal et al., PlosONE 5, e10262 (2010...

  11. Conformational Entropic Maps of Functional Coupling Domains in GPCR Activation: A Case Study of β2 Adrenergic Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fan; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    Enthalpic and entropic changes during GPCR activation are poorly understood. Based on the recent solved structures, researchers in the GPCR structural biology field have proposed several 'local activating switches' that consisted of a few number of conserved residues, but have long ignored the collective dynamical effect (conformational entropy) of a domain composed of an ensemble of residues. A new paradigm has been proposed recently that a GPCR can be viewed as a composition of several func...

  12. Diagrams and Relational Maps: The Use of Graphic Elicitation Techniques with Interviewing for Data Collection, Analysis, and Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Copeland PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic elicitation techniques, which ask research participants to provide visual data representing personal understandings of concepts, experiences, beliefs, or behaviors, can be especially useful in helping participants to express complex or abstract ideas or opinions. The benefits and drawbacks of using graphic elicitation techniques for data collection, data analysis, and data display in qualitative research studies are analyzed using examples from a research study that employed data matrices and relational maps in conjunction with semi-structured interviews. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the use of these combined techniques for data collection facilitates triangulation and helps to establish internal consistency of data, thereby increasing the trustworthiness of the interpretation of that data and lending support to validity and reliability claims. Findings support the notion that graphic elicitation techniques can be highly useful in qualitative research studies at the data collection, the data analysis, and the data reporting stages. For example, this study found that graphic elicitation techniques are especially useful for eliciting data related to emotions and emotional experiences.

  13. Hyperspectral Imagery for Mapping Disease Infection in Oil Palm PlantationUsing Vegetation Indices and Red Edge Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Z.M. Shafri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Large scale plantation of oil palm trees requires on-time detection of diseases as the ganoderma basal stem rot disease was present in more than 50% of the oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: To deal with this problem, airborne hyperspectral imagery offers a better solution in order to detect and map the oil palm trees that were affected by the disease on time. Airborne hyperspectral can provide data on user requirement and has the capability of acquiring data in narrow and contiguous spectral bands which makes it possible to discriminate between healthy and diseased plants better compared to multispectral imagery. By using vegetation indices and red edge techniques, the condition of oil palm trees could be determined accurately. Results: Generally, all of these techniques showed better results as they could give accuracy between 73 and 84%. The highest accuracy was achieved by using Lagrangian interpolation technique with 84% of overall accuracy. Conclusions/Recommendations: The red edge based techniques were more effective than vegetation indices in detecting Ganoderma-infected oil palm trees plantation since there were three out of four techniques that could yield high accuracy results.

  14. Mapping alpha-helical induced folding within the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein by site-directed spin-labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Valérie; Rouger, Sabrina; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Liquière, Elodie; Strancar, Janez; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Fournel, André; Longhi, Sonia

    2008-12-01

    Using site-directed spin-labeling EPR spectroscopy, we mapped the region of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of measles virus nucleoprotein (N(TAIL)) that undergoes induced folding. In addition to four spin-labeled N(TAIL) variants (S407C, S488C, L496C, and V517C) (Morin et al. (2006), J Phys Chem 110: 20596-20608), 10 new single-site cysteine variants were designed, purified from E. coli, and spin-labeled. These 14 spin-labeled variants enabled us to map in detail the gain of rigidity of N(TAIL) in the presence of either the secondary structure stabilizer 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol or the C-terminal domain X (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Different regions of N(TAIL) were shown to contribute to a different extent to the binding to XD, while the mobility of the spin labels grafted at positions 407 and 460 was unaffected upon addition of XD; that of the spin labels grafted within the 488-502 and the 505-522 regions was severely and moderately reduced, respectively. Furthermore, EPR experiments in the presence of 30% sucrose allowed us to precisely map to residues 488-502, the N(TAIL) region undergoing alpha-helical folding. The mobility of the 488-502 region was found to be restrained even in the absence of the partner, a behavior that could be accounted for by the existence of a transiently populated folded state. Finally, we show that the restrained motion of the 505-522 region upon binding to XD is due to the alpha-helical transition occurring within the 488-502 region and not to a direct interaction with XD.

  15. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-11-01

    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to provide insights as to the limits and potentials of the technique in detecting different kinds of underdrawings and paint layers. Constituent layers, construction techniques, and anomalies were identified and localized by interpreting the extracted THz dielectric stratigraphy.

  16. Mapping of the ligand-binding site on the b' domain of human PDI: interaction with peptide ligands and the x-linker region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Lee J; Sidhu, Ateesh; Wallis, A Katrine; Ruddock, Lloyd W; Freedman, Robert B; Howard, Mark J; Williamson, Richard A

    2009-09-25

    PDI (protein disulfide-isomerase) catalyses the formation of native disulfide bonds of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. PDI consists of four thioredoxin-like domains, of which two contain redox-active catalytic sites (a and a'), and two do not (b and b'). The b' domain is primarily responsible for substrate binding, although the nature and specificity of the substrate-binding site is still poorly understood. In the present study, we show that the b' domain of human PDI is in conformational exchange, but that its structure is stabilized by the addition of peptide ligands or by binding the x-linker region. The location of the ligand-binding site in b' was mapped by NMR chemical shift perturbation and found to consist primarily of residues from the core beta-sheet and alpha-helices 1 and 3. This site is where the x-linker region binds in the X-ray structure of b'x and we show that peptide ligands can compete with x binding at this site. The finding that x binds in the principal ligand-binding site of b' further supports the hypothesis that x functions to gate access to this site and so modulates PDI activity.

  17. Conformational entropic maps of functional coupling domains in GPCR activation: A case study with beta2 adrenergic receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William, III; Dougherty, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Entropic effect in GPCR activation is poorly understood. Based on the recent solved structures, researchers in the GPCR structural biology field have proposed several ``local activating switches'' that consisted of a few number of conserved residues, but have long ignored the collective dynamical effect (conformational entropy) of a domain comprised of an ensemble of residues. A new paradigm has been proposed recently that a GPCR can be viewed as a composition of several functional coupling domains, each of which undergoes order-to-disorder or disorder-to-order transitions upon activation. Here we identified and studied these functional coupling domains by comparing the local entropy changes of each residue between the inactive and active states of the β2 adrenergic receptor from computational simulation. We found that agonist and G-protein binding increases the heterogeneity of the entropy distribution in the receptor. This new activation paradigm and computational entropy analysis scheme provides novel ways to design functionally modified mutant and identify new allosteric sites for GPCRs. The authors thank NIH and Sanofi for funding this project.

  18. Nanoscale structural and functional mapping of nacre by scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xilong; Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2013-12-01

    Nacre has received great attention due to its nanoscale hierarchical structure and extraordinary mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the nanoscale piezoelectric properties of nacre have also been investigated but the structure-function relationship has never been addressed. In this work, firstly we realized quantitative nanomechanical mapping of nacre of a green abalone using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM). The modulus of the mineral tablets is determined to be ~80 GPa and that of the organic biopolymer no more than 23 GPa, and the organic-inorganic interface width is determined to be about 34 ± 9 nm. Then, we conducted both AFAM and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) mapping in the same scanning area to explore the correlations between the nanomechanical and piezoelectric properties. The PFM testing shows that the organic biopolymer exhibits a significantly stronger piezoresponse than the mineral tablets, and they permeate each other, which is very difficult to reproduce in artificial materials. Finally, the phase hysteresis loops and amplitude butterfly loops were also observed using switching spectroscopy PFM, implying that nacre may also be a bio-ferroelectric material. The obtained nanoscale structural and functional properties of nacre could be very helpful in understanding its deformation mechanism and designing biomimetic materials of extraordinary properties.

  19. Three-dimensional compositional mapping using double-pulse micro-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, R.; Grifoni, E.; Gufoni, S.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Macro, N.; Menichetti, L.; Pagnotta, S.; Poggialini, F.; Schiavo, C.; Palleschi, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this communication, we present the development of the first double-pulse micro-LIBS (DP-μLIBS) instrument for three-dimensional compositional mapping of materials. The system allows for high-resolution three-dimensional scanning of materials; its advantages with respect to conventional single-pulse micro-LIBS systems are described and discussed. As a test example, we analyzed three Euro coins to show the performances of the system on homogeneous samples (20 Eurocents), heterogeneous samples (1 Euro) and layered samples (5 Eurocents). DP-μLIBS cannot provide isotopic information and has, typically, limits of detection for the elements of interest much higher with respect to Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). However, when the isotopic information and the extreme sensitivity to trace elements is not be necessary, the results obtained show that DP-μLIBS can be a viable alternative to LA-ICP-MS for the acquisition of high resolution three-dimensional compositional maps.

  20. HIGH-RESOLUTION DEBRIS FLOW VOLUME MAPPING WITH UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS (UAS AND PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Adams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  1. Nanoscale structural and functional mapping of nacre by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xilong; Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2013-11-01

    Nacre has received great attention due to its nanoscale hierarchical structure and extraordinary mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the nanoscale piezoelectric properties of nacre have also been investigated but the structure-function relationship has never been addressed. In this work, firstly we realized quantitative nanomechanical mapping of nacre of a green abalone using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM). The modulus of the mineral tablets is determined to be ~80 GPa and that of the organic biopolymer no more than 23 GPa, and the organic-inorganic interface width is determined to be about 34 +/- 9 nm. Then, we conducted both AFAM and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) mapping in the same scanning area to explore the correlations between the nanomechanical and piezoelectric properties. The PFM testing shows that the organic biopolymer exhibits a significantly stronger piezoresponse than the mineral tablets, and they permeate each other, which is very difficult to reproduce in artificial materials. Finally, the phase hysteresis loops and amplitude butterfly loops were also observed using switching spectroscopy PFM, implying that nacre may also be a bio-ferroelectric material. The obtained nanoscale structural and functional properties of nacre could be very helpful in understanding its deformation mechanism and designing biomimetic materials of extraordinary properties.

  2. Measurements of effective non-rainfall in soil with the use of time-domain reflectometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna, Anna; Kafarski, Marcin; Wilczek, Andrzej; Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    The non-rainfall vectors are fog, dew, hoarfrost and vapour adsorption directly from the atmosphere. The measurements of the amount of water supplied to the soil due to their temporary existence are essential, because in dry areas such water uptake can exceed that of rainfall. Although several devices and methods were proposed for estimating the effective non-rainfall input into the soil, the measurement standard has not yet been established. This is mainly due to obstacles in measuring small water additions to the medium, problems with taking readings in actual soil samples and atmospheric disturbances during their course in natural environment. There still exists the need for automated devices capable of measuring water deposition on real-world soil surfaces, whose resolution is high enough to measure the non-rainfall intensity and increase rate, which are usually very low. In order to achieve the desirable resolution and accuracy of the effective non-rainfall measurements the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique was employed. The TDR sensor designed and made especially for the purpose was an untypical waveguide. It consisted of a base made of laminate covered with copper, which served as a bottom of a cuboidal open container in which the examined materials were placed, and a copper signal wire placed on the top of the container. The wire adhered along its entire length to the tested material in order to eliminate the formation of air gaps between the two, what enhanced the accuracy of the measurements. The tested porous materials were glass beads, rinsed sand and three soil samples, which were collected in south-eastern Poland. The diameter ranges of their constituent particles were measured with the use of the laser diffraction technique. The sensor filled with the wetted material was placed on a scale and connected to the TDR meter. The automated readings of mass and TDR time were collected simultaneously every minute. The TDR time was correlated with the

  3. Comparison of VTEC from ground-based space geodetic techniques based on ray-traced mapping factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Alizadeh, M. Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Deng, Zhiguo; Zus, Florian; Etemadfard, M. Hossein

    2016-07-01

    For the derivation of vertical total electron content (VTEC) from slant total electron content (STEC), usually a standard approach is used based on mapping functions that assume a single-layer model of the ionosphere (e.g. IERS Conventions 2010). In our study we test the standard approach against a recently developed alternative which is based on station specific ray-traced mapping factors. For the evaluation of this new mapping concept, we compute VTEC at selected Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) stations using the dispersive delays and the corresponding formal errors obtained by observing extra-galactic radio sources at two radio frequencies in S- and X-bands by the permanent geodetic/astrometric program organized by the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). Additionally, by applying synchronous sampling and a consistent analysis configuration, we determine VTEC at Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) antennas using GPS (Global Positioning System) and/or GLONASS (Globalnaja nawigazionnaja sputnikowaja Sistema) observations provided by the IGS (International GNSS Service) that are operated in the vicinity of the VLBI antennas. We compare the VTEC time series obtained by the individual techniques over a period of about twenty years and describe their characteristics qualitatively and statistically. The length of the time series allows us to assess the long-term climatology of ionospheric VTEC during the last twenty years.

  4. Making sense of crowdsourced observations: Data fusion techniques for real-time mapping of urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    With an ever-increasing amount of environmental observations available through crowdsourcing, one of the major emerging challenges is how to best make sense of the vast amount of collected observations and how to provide citizens and other end-users with a relevant value-added product. Regarding air quality, a high-density network of low-cost sensors provided by crowdsourcing has significant potential for improving spatial mapping in general and in urban areas in particular. However, most datasets of observations made within a crowdsourcing framework contain substantial data gaps and the observations are generally point measurements, which are only representative of a relatively small area. This poses a significant challenge for mapping applications. One way to overcome these issues is to combine the crowdsourced data with spatially continuous data from a model. We present a novel data fusion-based technique for combining real-time crowdsourced observations with model output that allows to provide highly detailed, up-to-date maps of urban air quality. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project is deploying a dense network of low-cost sensors measuring air quality in eight cities around Europe. These crowdsourced observations are used for mapping urban quality in real-time by fusing them with data obtained from statistical or deterministic air quality models. Data fusion techniques allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The data fusion

  5. Osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum: lesion size and pattern analysis using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography and mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexkens, Rens; Oosterhoff, Jacobien H; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Doornberg, Job N; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Eygendaal, Denise; Oh, Luke S

    2017-09-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the reliability of a quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography (Q3DCT) technique for measurement of the capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) surface area, to analyze OCD distribution using a mapping technique, and to investigate associations between Q3DCT lesion quantification and demographic characteristics and/or clinical examination findings. We identified patients with capitellar OCD who presented to our orthopedic sports medicine practice between January 2001 and January 2016 and who had undergone a preoperative computed tomography scan (slice thickness ≤1.25 mm). A total of 17 patients with a median age of 15 years (range, 12-23 years) were included in this study. Three-dimensional polygon models were reconstructed after osseous structures were marked in 3 planes. Surface areas of the OCD lesion as well as the capitellum were measured. Observer agreement was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Heat maps were created to visualize OCD distribution. Measurements of the OCD surface area showed almost perfect intraobserver agreement (ICC, 0.99; confidence interval [CI], 0.98-0.99) and interobserver agreement (ICC, 0.93; CI, 0.86-0.97). Measurements of the capitellar surface area also showed almost perfect intraobserver agreement (ICC, 0.97;CI, 0.91-0.99) and interobserver agreement (ICC, 0.86; CI, 0.46-0.96). The median OCD surface area was 101 mm(2) (range, 49-217 mm(2)). On the basis of OCD heat mapping, the posterolateral zone of the capitellum was most frequently affected. OCDs in which the lateral wall was involved were associated with larger lesion size (P = .041), longer duration of symptoms (P = .030), and worse elbow extension (P = .013). The ability to quantify the capitellar OCD surface area and lesion location in a reliable manner using Q3DCT and a mapping technique should be considered when detailed knowledge of lesion size and location is desired

  6. Inspection of calandria front area of Wolsung NPP using technique of mapping thermal infrared image into CCD image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Seung Ho [Advance Robotics Teams, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-15

    This paper describes the enhanced inspection performance of a thermal infrared camera for monitoring abnormal conditions of calandria reactor area of Wolsung nuclear power plant. Thermal infrared camera have poor image qualities compared to commercial CCD cameras, as in contrast, brightness, and resolution. To compensate the poor image quality problems associated with the thermal infrared camera, the technique of mapping thermal infrared image into real ccd image is proposed. The mobile robot KAEROT/m2, loaded with sensor head system at the mast, is entered to monitor leakage of heavy water and thermal abnormality of the calandria reactor area in overhaul period. The sensor head system is composed of thermal infrared camera and ccd camera in parallel. When thermal abnormality on observation points and areas of calandria reactor area is occurred, unusual hot image taken from thermal infrared camera is superimposed on real CCD image. In this inspection experiment, more accurate positions of thermal abnormalities on calandria reactor area can be estimated by using technique of mapping thermal infrared image into CCD image, which include characters arranged in MPOQ order.

  7. Detection of terrain indices related to soil salinity and mapping salt-affected soils using remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki Fourati, Hela; Bouaziz, Moncef; Benzina, Mourad; Bouaziz, Samir

    2017-04-01

    Traditional surveying methods of soil properties over landscapes are dramatically cost and time-consuming. Thus, remote sensing is a proper choice for monitoring environmental problem. This research aims to study the effect of environmental factors on soil salinity and to map the spatial distribution of this salinity over the southern east part of Tunisia by means of remote sensing and geostatistical techniques. For this purpose, we used Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data to depict geomorphological parameters: elevation, slope, plan curvature (PLC), profile curvature (PRC), and aspect. Pearson correlation between these parameters and soil electrical conductivity (ECsoil) showed that mainly slope and elevation affect the concentration of salt in soil. Moreover, spectral analysis illustrated the high potential of short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands to identify saline soils. To map soil salinity in southern Tunisia, ordinary kriging (OK), minimum distance (MD) classification, and simple regression (SR) were used. The findings showed that ordinary kriging technique provides the most reliable performances to identify and classify saline soils over the study area with a root mean square error of 1.83 and mean error of 0.018.

  8. Mapping patient safety: A large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Van Eck, N.J.; Waltman, L.; Jansen, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview

  9. Joint Application Mapping/Interconnect Synthesis Techniques for Embedded Chip-Scale Multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    information on this or any other computing topic, please visit our Digital Library at www.computer.org/publications/ dlib . 112 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2005 ...is advanta- geous because it allows us to leverage a large library of useful scheduling techniques. The feasibility/flexibility framework, introduced

  10. TESTING THE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT SPATIAL INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUES ON MAPPING SHORT DATASERIES OF PRECIPITATION PROPRETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COJOCARU ŞTEFANA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available patial interpolation, in the context of spatial analysis, can be defined as the derivation of new data from already known information, a technique frequently used to predict and quantify spatial variation of a certain property or parameter. In this study we compared the performance of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, Ordinary Kriging and Natural Neighbor techniques, applied in spatial interpolation of precipitation parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. These techniques are often used when the area of interest is relatively small and the sampled locations are regularly spaced. The methods were tested on data collected in Iasi city (Romania between March – May 2013. Spatial modeling was performed on a small dataset, consisting of 7 sample locations and 13 different known values of each analyzed parameter. The precision of the techniques used is directly dependent on sample density as well as data variation, greater fluctuations in values between locations causing a decrease in the accuracy of the methods used. To validate the results and reveal the best method of interpolating rainfall characteristics, leave-one – out cross-validation approach was used. Comparing residues between the known values and the estimated values of pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids, it was revealed that Natural Neighbor stands out as generating the smallest residues for pH and electrical conductivity, whereas IDW presents the smallest error in interpolating total dissolved solids (the parameter with the highest fluctuations in value.

  11. Amplified fragment length polymorphism: an adept technique for genome mapping, genetic differentiation, and intraspecific variation in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awanish; Misra, Pragya; Dube, Anuradha

    2013-02-01

    With the advent of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genetic markers are now accessible for all organisms, including parasites. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a PCR-based marker for the rapid screening of genetic diversity and intraspecific variation. It is a potent fingerprinting technique for genomic DNAs of any origin or complexity and rapidly generates a number of highly replicable markers that allow high-resolution genotyping. AFLPs are convenient and reliable in comparison to other markers like random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and simple sequence repeat in terms of time and cost efficiency, reproducibility, and resolution as it does not require template DNA sequencing. In addition, AFLP essentially probes the entire genome at random, without prior sequence knowledge. So, AFLP markers have emerged as an advance type of genetic marker with broad application in genomic mapping, population genetics, and DNA fingerprinting and are ideally suited as screening tool for molecular markers linked with biological and clinical traits. This review describes the AFLP procedure and its applications and overview in the fingerprinting of a genome, which has been currently used in parasite genome research. We outline the AFLP procedure adapted for Leishmania genome study and discuss the benefits of AFLPs for assessing genetic variation and genome mapping over other existing molecular techniques. We highlight the possible use of AFLPs as genetic markers with its broad application in parasitological research because it allows random screening of the entire genome for linkage with genetic and clinical properties of the parasite. In this review, we have taken a pragmatic approach on the study of AFLP for genome mapping and polymorphism in protozoan parasites and conclude that AFLP is a very useful tool.

  12. Exploring NoC Mapping Strategies: An Energy and Timing Aware Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Marcon, Cesar; Moraes, Fernando; Susin, Altamiro; Reis, Igor; Hessel, Fabiano

    2011-01-01

    Complex applications implemented as Systems on Chip (SoCs) demand extensive use of system level modeling and validation. Their implementation gathers a large number of complex IP cores and advanced interconnection schemes, such as hierarchical bus architectures or networks on chip (NoCs). Modeling applications involves capturing its computation and communication characteristics. Previously proposed communication weighted models (CWM) consider only the application communication aspects. This work proposes a communication dependence and computation model (CDCM) that can simultaneously consider both aspects of an application. It presents a solution to the problem of mapping applications on regular NoCs while considering execution time and energy consumption. The use of CDCM is shown to provide estimated average reductions of 40% in execution time, and 20% in energy consumption, for current technologies.

  13. Probes Vacillating and Mapping Technique at Testing Micro-area Sheet Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly elaborated the basic concepts of the probe vacillated at testing a large silicon wafer with square four point probe equipment. The importance of the micro-area’s sheet resistance is discussed and the basic principles of four point probe measurement technology are analyzed. Some factors that affect the measurement accuracy are studied, and interference can be avoided while measuring and analyzing the impact on square four point probe measurement by probe vacillate. The calculation formula of the square micro-area probe measurement is deduced when probes vacillated discretionarily. An experiment was made with a small wafer sample and accurate resistivity was gotten. The electrical resistivity is tested for another silicon wafer by a square four point probe equipment. Color Mapping graphics was designed for displaying  the micro-area resistance.

  14. A model of Cross Language Retrieval for IT domain papers through a map of ACM Computing Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Sauvaget, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a concept model, and the associated tool to help advanced learners to find adapted bibliography. The purpose is the use of an IT representation as educational research software for newcomers in research. We use an ontology based on the ACM's Computing Classification System in order to find scientific articles directly related to the new researcher's domain without any formal request. An ontology translation in French is automatically proposed and can be based on Web 2.0 enhanced by a community of users. A visualization and navigation model is proposed to make it more accessible and examples are given to show the interface of our tool: Ontology Navigator.

  15. Spatial pattern of soil and soybean crop: an assessment using digital mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Franco, Mauricio; Cordoba, Mariano; Costa, Jose Luis; Aparicio, Virginia; Domenech, Marisa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among spatial patterns of soil properties and soybean crop. The study was carried out in three provinces of Argentina: (i) Buenos Aires (BA), (ii) Entre Rios (ER) and (iii) Cordoba (COR). In each province, 2 agricultural fields were selected. Ancillary information related to soil forming factors in each field was gathered, for example apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), NDVI and yield maps. We used principal component spatial analysis (MULTISPATI-PCA) to delimit zones for soil type by field. To zonal validation, 4 sampling sites were located in which we collected soil samples, grain yield and soybean crop quality. Random Forest (RF) was used to determine the importance of soil properties over soybean crop properties. For comparing soil properties in each zone between fields, a mix lineal model and ANOVA were adjusted. Our results suggest that MULTISPATI-PCA was efficient to delimit zones for soil type. Relationships between soil properties and crop yield were examined and understood. However, it did not occur with crop quality patterns. Topography did not prove to be an accurate indicator of spatial pattern relations of soil properties and crop, whereas ECa, yield maps and NDVI proved to be effective indicators. Grains m-2 and NDVI were affected homogeneously and were showed spatial correspondence according to soil limitations. Percentage of protein did not show spatial correspondence with delimitated zones in saline soils, particularly in ER. In such fields, Om and pH were important for percentage of protein. It was evidenced that a direct relation exists between complex relationship of soil and crop properties and soil degradation.

  16. Metaphorical motion in mathematical reasoning: further evidence for pre-motor implementation of structure mapping in abstract domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2013-08-01

    The theory of computation and category theory both employ arrow-based notations that suggest that the basic metaphor "state changes are like motions" plays a fundamental role in all mathematical reasoning involving formal manipulations. If this is correct, structure-mapping inferences implemented by the pre-motor action planning system can be expected to be involved in solving any mathematics problems not solvable by table lookups and number line manipulations alone. Available functional imaging studies of multi-digit arithmetic, algebra, geometry and calculus problem solving are consistent with this expectation.

  17. Epitope mapping by a Wnt-blocking antibody: evidence of the Wnt binding domain in heparan sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide known to modulate many important biological processes, including Wnt signaling. However, the biochemical interaction between HS and Wnt molecules is not well characterized largely due to the lack of suitable methods. To determine the Wnt binding domain in HS, we used a Wnt signaling-inhibitory antibody (HS20) and a panel of synthetic HS oligosaccharides with distinct lengths and sulfation modifications. We found that the binding of HS20 to heparan sulfate required sulfation at both the C2 position (2-O-sulfation) and C6 position (6-O-sulfation). The oligosaccharides with the greatest competitive effect for HS20 binding were between six and eight saccharide residues in length. Additionally, a four residue-long oligosaccharide could also be recognized by HS20 if an additional 3-O-sulfation modification was present. Furthermore, similar oligosaccharides with 2-O, 6-O and 3-O-sulfations showed inhibition for Wnt activation. These results have revealed that HS20 and Wnt recognize a HS structure containing IdoA2S and GlcNS6S, and that the 3-O-sulfation in GlcNS6S3S significantly enhances the binding of both HS20 and Wnt. This study provides the evidence for identifying the Wnt binding domain in HS and suggests a therapeutic approach to target the interaction of Wnt and HS in cancer and other diseases. PMID:27185050

  18. OTDM-to-WDM Conversion Based on Time-to-Frequency Mapping by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    a dispersive medium followed by phase modulation; the latter being achieved by a four-wave mixing process with linearly chirped pump pulses. Both numerical and experimental investigations of the OTDM-to-WDM conversion technique are carried out. Experimental validations are performed on......This paper reports on the utilization of the timedomain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) data tributaries into dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) channels. The OFT is implemented by using...

  19. Soil salinity mapping and hydrological drought indices assessment in arid environments based on remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-03-01

    Vegetation indices are mostly described as crop water derivatives. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the oldest remote sensing applications that is widely used to evaluate crop vigor directly and crop water relationships indirectly. Recently, several NDVI derivatives were exclusively used to assess crop water relationships. Four hydrological drought indices are examined in the current research study. The water supply vegetation index (WSVI), the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), the moisture stress index (MSI) and the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) are implemented in the current study as an indirect tool to map the effect of different soil salinity levels on crop water stress in arid environments. In arid environments, such as Saudi Arabia, water resources are under pressure, especially groundwater levels. Groundwater wells are rapidly depleted due to the heavy abstraction of the reserved water. Heavy abstractions of groundwater, which exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases, are powered by high evaporation rates in the designated study area because of the long days of extremely hot summer. Landsat 8 OLI data were extensively used in the current research to obtain several vegetation indices in response to soil salinity in Wadi ad-Dawasir. Principal component analyses (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses are complementary tools used to understand the regression pattern of the hydrological drought indices in the designated study area.

  20. Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Using GIS Techniques in Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludare Hakeem Adedeji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal characteristics of traffic related air pollutants (CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 in Ijebu-ode, Nigeria were determined using replicate portable gas detectors (Land Duo Multi Gas Monitor at selected road junctions, motor garages and markets. Mapping of different concentration of air pollutants was carried out using kriging type of interpolation method in GIS environment. Concentration of CO ranges from 4.8 ppm at Erinlu/Molipa Roundabout to 137ppm on Sagamu/Ore Expressway. Concentrations of NO2  range from 100-662 ppb with overall average value (OAV of 299.8 ppb, while concentration of nitrogen oxide (NO ranges between 67-302 ppb and OAV of 166.23 ppb. SO2 had concentration ranging between 38-245 ppb and an OAV of 139.07 ppb all of which are above standard ambient air quality standards. AQI indicated very unhealthy air quality in most areas which calls for the need to establish and strengthen the health-based standard for air pollutants.

  1. The origins of the Selden map of China: scientific analysis of the painting materials and techniques using a holistic approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kogou, Sotiria; Neate, Sarah; Coveney, Clare; Miles, Amanda; Boocock, David; Burgio, Lucia; Cheung, Chi Shing; Liang, Haida

    2016-01-01

    Since the ‘rediscovery’ of the Selden map of China, an early seventeenth century map of Asia, in the Bodleian Library in Oxford, the importance of the map in our understanding of globalisation in the early seventeenth...

  2. Mapping element distributions in plant tissues using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Erica; de Jonge, Martin D; Kopittke, Peter M; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is allowing substantial advances in several disciplines of plant science by allowing the in situ examination of elements within plant tissues. Continual improvements in detector speed, sensitivity, and resolution are increasing the diversity of questions that can be addressed using this technique, including the in situ analysis of elements (such as nutrients or toxicants) within fresh and hydrated tissues. Here, we describe the general principles for designing and conducting experiments for the examination of elemental distributions in plant material using micro-XRF.

  3. Mapping coral reefs using consumer-grade drones and structure from motion photogrammetry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Collin, Antoine; Harris, Daniel; Ferse, Sebastian; Bejarano, Sonia; Parravicini, Valeriano; Hench, James L.; Rovere, Alessio

    2017-03-01

    We propose a novel technique to measure the small-scale three-dimensional features of a shallow-water coral reef using a small drone equipped with a consumer-grade camera, a handheld GPS and structure from motion (SfM) algorithms. We used a GoPro HERO4 with a modified lens mounted on a DJI Phantom 2 drone (maximum total take-off weight coral reefs. We discuss the utility of such data to monitor temporal changes in topographic complexity of reefs and associated biological processes.

  4. Processing and inversion of commercial helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data for environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J.E., Podgorski; Auken, Esben; Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence

    2013-01-01

    -to-line amplitude factors in the inversion process. The final inverted model was very different from that generated from the original data provided by the contractor. For example, the average resistivity of the thick surface layer decreased from 1800 to 30Ωm, the depths to the layer boundaries were reduced by 15...... contaminated by transmitter currents, noise in late time gates, and amplitude shifts between adjacent flights that appeared as artificial lineations in maps of the data and horizontal slices extracted from inversion models. Multiple processing steps were required to address these issues. Contaminated early...... accurate ground-based TEM measurements. After editing and calibration, application of a quasi-3D spatially constrained inversion scheme significantly reduced the artificial lineations. Residual lineations were effectively eliminated after incorporating the transmitter and receiver altitudes and line...

  5. Photo-irradiation paradigm: Mapping a remarkable facile technique used for advanced drug, gene and cell delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohamed A; Younes, Husam M

    2015-11-10

    Undoubtedly, the progression of photo-irradiation technique has provided a smart engineering tool for the state-of-the-art biomaterials that guide the biomedical and therapeutic domains for promoting the modern pharmaceutical industry. Many investigators had exploited such a potential technique to create/ameliorate numerous pharmaceutical carriers. These carriers show promising applications that vary from small drug to therapeutic protein delivery and from gene to living cell encapsulation design. Harmony between the properties of precisely engineered precursors and the formed network structure broadens the investigator's intellect for both brilliant creations and effective applications. As well, controlling photo-curing at the formulation level, through manipulating the absorption of light stimuli, photoinitiator system and photo-responsive precursor, facilitates the exploration of novel distinctive biomaterials. Discussion of utilizing different photo-curing procedures in designing/formulation of different pharmaceutical carriers is the main emphasis of this review. In addition, recent applications of these intelligent techniques in targeted, controlled, and sustained drug delivery with understanding of photo-irradiation concept and mechanism are illustrated.

  6. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  7. Redox and speciation mapping of rock thin sections using high spatial resolution full-field imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, V.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.; Beraldin, O.; Heymes, T.; Lewin, E.

    2009-04-01

    Because of their complex genesis, natural rocks are the most often heterogeneous systems, with various scale-level heterogeneities for both chemistry and structure. In the last decade, the dramatic improvements of hyperspectral imaging techniques provided new tools for accurate material characterisation. Most of these micro- and nano- analytical techniques rely on scanning instruments, which offer high spatial resolution but suffer from long acquisition times imposing practical limits on the field of view. Conversely, full-field imaging techniques rely on a fast parallel acquisition but have limited resolution. Although soft X-ray full-field microscopes based on Fresnel zone plates are commonly used for high resolution imaging, its combination with spectroscopy is challenging and 2D chemical mapping still difficult. For harder X-rays, lensless X-ray microscope based on simple propagation geometry is easier and can be readily used for 2D spectro-microscopy. A full-field experimental setup was optimized at the ESRF-ID21 beamline to image iron redox and speciation distributions in rocks thin sections. The setup comprises a Si111 or Si220 (E = 0.4 eV) monochromator, a special sample stage and a sensitive camera associated with a brand new GGG:Eu light conversion scintillator and high magnification visible light optics. The pixel size ranges from 1.6 to 0.16 m according to the optic used. This instrument was used to analyse phyllosilicates and oxides of metamorphic sediments coming from the Aspromonte nappes-pile in Calabria. Iron chemical state distributions were derived - from images of 1000 Ã- 2000 Ã- 30 m3 rock thin sections - by subtraction of absorption images above and below the Fe K-edge. Using an automatic stitching reconstruction, a wide field image (4Ã-3 mm2 with a 1 m2 resolution for a total of about 12 millions pixels) of Fetotal elemental distribution was produced. Moreover, -XANES analyses (more than 1 million individual -XANES spectra) were performed

  8. A comparison of two-dimensional techniques for converting magnetocardiogram maps into effective current source distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, K; Kandori, A; Miyashita, T; Sekihara, K; Tsukada, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for converting the pseudo two-dimensional current given by a current-arrow map (CAM) into the physical current. The physical current distribution is obtained by the optimal solution in a least mean square sense with Tikhonov regularization (LMSTR). In the current dipole simulation, the current pattern differences (ΔJ) between the results of the CAM and the LMSTR with several regularization parameters (α = 10(-1)-10(-15)) are calculated. In magnetocardiographic (MCG) analysis, the depth (z(d)) of a reconstruction plane is chosen by using the coordinates of the sinus node, which is estimated from MCG signals at the early p-wave. The ΔJs at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects are calculated. Furthermore, correlation coefficients and regression lines are also calculated from the current values of the CAM and the LMSTR during p-waves, QRS-complex, and T-waves of MCG signals. In the simulation, the ΔJs (α ≈ 10(-10)) had a minimal value. The ΔJs (α = 10(-10)) at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects also had minimal value. The correlation coefficients of the current values given by the CAM and the LMSTR (α = 10(-10)) were greater than 0.9. Furthermore, slopes (y) of the regression lines are correlated with the depth (z(d)) (r = -0.93). Consequently, the CAM value can be transformed into the LMSTR current value by multiplying it by the slope (y) obtained from the depth (z(d)). In conclusion, the result given by the CAM can be converted into an effective physical current distribution by using the depth (z(d)).

  9. Inverse analysis of temperature-time data with grossly different time scales using Beck`s second method and the Frankel-Keyhani whole-domain technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computational Physics and Engineering Div.; Frankel, J.I.; Keyhani, M.; Osborne, G.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Science

    1998-11-01

    In general, inverse heat conduction analysis utilizes the measured temperature history at one or more internal locations to estimate unknown boundary conditions, energy generation rates, or thermophysical properties. Analysis of these data using conventional numerical heat transfer techniques yields numerically unstable solutions; that is, small perturbations in the input data can produce large variations and instabilities in the output. Previous attempts to overcome this inherent instability have involved the utilization of future information and Tikhonov regularization techniques (Beck et al, 1985). In the 1970`s and 80`s, Beck and coworkers developed a family of techniques that overcome this obstacle by relating the surface property at any time in the transient to temperatures measured after that time in the transient (Beck, 1970, Beck et al, 1982). That is, future information is used to determine present conditions. For many purposes, these techniques are the standard analysis tools. An alternative approach has been developed recently by Frankel and Keyhani (1997). This approach utilizes a whole domain form in which the entire space-time domain of interest is simultaneously resolved; the traditional instability occurs only near the final time endpoint and can be excluded from the resulting solution. Rapid convergence and accurate results have been demonstrated using this approach. Two sets of time-temperature data have been analyzed using both of these techniques.

  10. A Microwave Technique for Mapping Ice Temperature in the Arctic Seasonal Sea Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Germain, Karen M.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    A technique for deriving ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone from passive microwave radiances has been developed. The algorithm operates on brightness temperatures derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and uses ice concentration and type from a previously developed thin ice algorithm to estimate the surface emissivity. Comparisons of the microwave derived temperatures with estimates derived from infrared imagery of the Bering Strait yield a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and an RMS difference of 2.1 K when coastal and cloud contaminated pixels are removed. SSM/I temperatures were also compared with a time series of air temperature observations from Gambell on St. Lawrence Island and from Point Barrow, AK weather stations. These comparisons indicate that the relationship between the air temperature and the ice temperature depends on ice type.

  11. Current and emerging techniques for contaminant mapping and data visualization at DNAPL sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wealthall, Gary; Durant, Neal; Grosen, Bernt

    Recent advances in the development of contaminant specific site investigation tools has significantly enhanced our ability to characterize the spatial architecture of DNAPL source zones in both sedimentary and fractured bedrock environments. The application of innovative site characterization...... methods will be discussed in the context of contaminant delineation, remediation design, technology verification and regulatory acceptance. We present a range of site investigation tools, based on the principle of combined lines of evidence and the premise that a single technique is not available to fully...... delineate DNAPL distribution in the subsurface. Key to this strategy is the selection of technologies with multiple scales of measurement and data quality, of which there are two main categories. The first category provides qualitative, dense spatial data, often with higher detection limits over a preset...

  12. Mobile Robot Localization: A Review of Probabilistic Map-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Manuel Malagon-Soldara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive review of current probabilistic developments used to calculate position by mobile robots in indoor environments. In this calculation, best known as localization, it is necessary to develop most of the tasks delegated to the mobile robot. It is then crucial that the methods used for position calculations be as precise as possible, and accurately represent the location of the robot within a given environment. The research community has devoted a considerable amount of time to provide solutions for the localization problem. Several methodologies have been proposed the most common of which are based in the Bayes rule. Other methodologies include the Kalman filter and the Monte Carlo localization filter wich will be addressed in next sections. The major contribution of this review rests in offering a wide array of techniques that researchers can choose. Therefore, method-sensor combinations and their main advantages are displayed.

  13. Mapping Proxy Sensitivity: A New Technique for Compositional Analysis of Cultured Biominerals and Inorganically Precipitated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; DePaolo, D. J.; DeYoreo, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral composition is controlled by a host of environmental factors during precipitation. To build accurate paleo-reconstructions we need to separate the impact of each parameter on proxy behavior and use these data to build a chemical-scale understanding of mineral growth. Biomineral culture and inorganic precipitation experiments, where growth parameters can be manipulated independently, are uniquely suited to calibrate proxies and probe mechanism. Culture and precipitation experiments often involve overgrowth of an initial material. For example, seed crystals are used to control mineralogy and avoid nucleation during inorganic precipitation, while culture experiments in marine organisms typically start with wild specimens. New growth corresponding to the experimental conditions must be resolved from the initial material. Separation is typically achieved using microanalysis, skeletal dissection, or estimates of the initial mass and composition. Each approach imposes limits on the accuracy, precision or types of materials that can be analyzed. Slow growth rates and complicated geometries can make these techniques especially challenging when applied to biominerals. We present a method of compositional analysis for use in biological culture and inorganic growth experiments that overcomes many of these challenges. This method relies on growth in a mixed element stable isotope spike, requires neither the initial mass nor the initial composition to be known, harnesses the precision and sensitivity of bulk analysis, and applies even when it is impossible to physically identify newly grown material. Error analysis suggests this method can significantly improve the precision of metal/calcium measurements in experimentally grown material compared to current methods. Furthermore, the method can isolate different events through time, separating, for example, the impact of day and night cycles on biomineral composition. We will present metal/calcium ratios measured using the

  14. Characterisation of Damaged Tubular Composites by Acoustic Emission, Thermal Diffusivity Mapping and TSR-RGB Projection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Neha; Lansiaux, Henri; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    An increase in the use of composite materials, owing to improved design and fabrication processes, has led to cost reductions in many industries. Resistance to corrosion, high specific strength, and stiffness are just a few of their many attractive properties. However, damage tolerance remains a major concern in the implementation of composites and uncertainty regarding component lifetimes can lead to over-design and under-use of such materials. A combination of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) have shown promise in improving confidence by enabling data collection in-situ and in real time. In this work, infrared thermography (IRT) is employed for NDE of tubular composite specimens before and after impact. Four samples are impacted with energies of 5 J, 7.5 J, and 10 J by an un-instrumented falling weight set-up. Acoustic emissions (AE) are monitored using bonded piezoelectric sensors during one of the four impact tests. IRT data is used to generate diffusivity and thermal depth mappings of each sample using the thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) red green blue (RGB) projection technique. Analysis of AE data alone for a 10 J impact suggest significant damage to the fibres and matrix; this is in good agreement with the generated thermal depth mappings for each sample, which indicate damage through multiple fibre layers. IRT and AE data are correlated and validated by optical micrographs taken along the cross section of damage.

  15. Scatterer size and concentration estimation technique based on a 3D acoustic impedance map from histologic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.

    2004-05-01

    Accurate estimates of scatterer parameters (size and acoustic concentration) are beneficial adjuncts to characterize disease from ultrasonic backscatterer measurements. An estimation technique was developed to obtain parameter estimates from the Fourier transform of the spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). A 3D impedance map (3DZM) is used to obtain the SAF of tissue. 3DZMs are obtained by aligning digitized light microscope images from histologic preparations of tissue. Estimates were obtained for simulated 3DZMs containing spherical scatterers randomly located: relative errors were less than 3%. Estimates were also obtained from a rat fibroadenoma and a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor (MMT). Tissues were fixed (10% neutral-buffered formalin), embedded in paraffin, serially sectioned and stained with H&E. 3DZM results were compared to estimates obtained independently against ultrasonic backscatter measurements. For the fibroadenoma and MMT, average scatterer diameters were 91 and 31.5 μm, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements yielded average scatterer diameters of 105 and 30 μm, respectively. The 3DZM estimation scheme showed results similar to those obtained by the independent ultrasonic measurements. The 3D impedance maps show promise as a powerful tool to characterize ultrasonic scattering sites of tissue. [Work supported by the University of Illinois Research Board.

  16. Proteomic analysis of estrogen response of premalignant human breast cells using a 2-D liquid separation/mass mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Kan; Lubman, David M; Miller, Fred R; Shekhar, Malthy P V; Gerard, Brigitte; Barder, Timothy J

    2006-07-01

    A 2-D liquid-phase separation method based on chromatofocusing and nonporous silica RP-HPLC followed by ESI-TOF-MS was used to analyze proteins in whole cell lysates from estrogen-treated and untreated premalignant, estrogen-responsive cell line MCF10AT1 cells. 2-D mass maps in the pH range 4.6-6.0 were generated with good correlation to theoretical M(r) values for intact proteins. Proteins were identified based on intact M(r), pI and PMF, or MS/MS sequencing. About 300 unique proteins were identified and 120 proteins in mass range 5-75 kDa were quantified upon treatment of estrogen. Around 40 proteins were found to be more highly expressed (>four-fold) and 17 were down-regulated (>four-fold) in treated cells. In our study, we found that many altered proteins have characteristics consistent with the development of a malignant phenotype. Some of them have a role in the ras pathway or play an important role in signal pathways. These changed proteins might be essential in the estrogen regulation mechanism. Our study highlights the use of the MCF10AT1 cell line to examine estrogen-induced changes in premalignant breast cells and the ability of the 2-D mass mapping technique to quantitatively study protein expression changes on a proteomic scale.

  17. A new technique for landslide mapping from a large-scale remote sensed image: A case study of Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for landslide mapping from large-scale Landsat8 images. The method introduces saliency enhancement to enhance the landslide regions, making the landslides salient objects in the image. Morphological operations are applied to the enhanced image to remove most background objects. Afterwards, digital elevation model is applied to further remove the ground objects of plain areas according to the height of landscape, since most landslides occur in mountainous areas. Final landslides are extracted by the proposal regions from selective search. The study area covers 2°x2°, making it more similar with practical cases, such as emergency response and landslide inventory mappings. The proposed method performs satisfactorily by detecting 99.1% of the landslides in the image, and obtains an overall accuracy of 99.8% in the landslides/background classification problem, which gets further validated in another Landsat8 image of a different site. The experiment shows that the proposed method is feasible for landslide detection from large-scale area, which may contribute to the further landslide-related research.

  18. Probability mapping of saline and sodic soils in the Harran plain using a non-linear kriging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Volkan Bilgili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Harran Plain, southeastern Turkey, soil salinisation causes land degradation threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. According to a recent survey, approximately 18000 ha area has been affected by soil salinity and sodicity at various levels. Determining the distribution of saline and sodic soils in the study area is the first step for effective management of these soils. Over 200 soil samples have been randomly selected across the plain and analyzed for selected soil salinity and sodicity variables in soil salinity laboratory. Indicator kriging (IK, a non-linear interpolation technique, was used to map the probability levels of occurrence of saline and sodic soils across the plain. The results of IK showed the probability distributions of risky areas under different types of soil salinity classes; nonsaline, saline, saline – sodic and sodic.

  19. Epitope mapping by epitope excision, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and peptide-panning techniques combined with in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Nicola; Mancini, Nicasio; Criscuolo, Elena; Cappelletti, Francesca; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The fine characterization of protective B cell epitopes plays a pivotal role in the development of novel vaccines. The development of epitope-based vaccines, in fact, cannot be possible without a clear definition of the antigenic regions involved in the binding between the protective antibody (Ab) and its molecular target. To achieve this result, different epitope-mapping approaches have been widely described (Clementi et al. Drug Discov Today 18(9-10):464-471, 2013). Nowadays, the best way to characterize an Ab bound region is still the resolution of Ab-antigen (Ag) co-crystal structure. Unfortunately, the crystallization approaches are not always feasible. However, different experimental strategies aimed to predict Ab-Ag interaction and followed by in silico analysis of the results may be good surrogate approaches to achieve this result. Here, we review few experimental techniques followed by the use of "basic" informatics tools for the analysis of the results.

  20. [Working hypothesis of simplified techniques for the first mapping of occupational hazards in handicrafts. Part two: physical and chemical risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montomoli, L; Di Leone, G; Aprea, M C; Sciarra, G; Pinto, I; Sartorelli, P

    2009-01-01

    Craft features a strong link with tradition which preserves and perpetuates techniques created and consolidated over time, in a particular historical, cultural and geographical situation. Italy is home to excellent craftsmanship: fashion, furniture, giftware, design. The framework law for the craft n. 433/1985 defines the craft business carried on by the craftsman for a predominant objective of producing goods, including semi-finished or services. The D.L.gs 81/2008 defines the manner in which the employer must conduct risk assessment in the workplace and process the risk assessment document. The aim of the study is to provide employers with a simple methodology that allows the drafting of the first mapping of hazards/dangers identificating risk sources in the working process. The developed methodology is expressed as a model of information gathering, which brings to a first overview of all major risk indicators that may arise in the craftsmanship.

  1. Modelling of high-frequency structure-borne sound transmission on FEM grids using the Discrete Flow Mapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Timo; Tanner, Gregor; Xie, Gang; Chappell, David; Bajars, Janis

    2016-09-01

    Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) combined with the Discrete Flow Mapping technique (DFM) has recently been introduced as a mesh-based high frequency method modelling structure borne sound for complex built-up structures. This has proven to enhance vibro-acoustic simulations considerably by making it possible to work directly on existing finite element meshes circumventing time-consuming and costly re-modelling strategies. In addition, DFM provides detailed spatial information about the vibrational energy distribution within a complex structure in the mid-to-high frequency range. We will present here progress in the development of the DEA method towards handling complex FEM-meshes including Rigid Body Elements. In addition, structure borne transmission paths due to spot welds are considered. We will present applications for a car floor structure.

  2. A Technique for Mapping Characteristic Lengths to Preserve Energy Dissipated via Strain Softening in a Multiscale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often advantageous to account for the microstructure of the material directly using multiscale modeling. For computational tractability, an idealized repeating unit cell (RUC) is used to capture all of the pertinent features of the microstructure. Typically, the RUC is dimensionless and depends only on the relative volume fractions of the different phases in the material. This works well for non-linear and inelastic behavior exhibiting a positive-definite constitutive response. Although, once the material exhibits strain softening, or localization, a mesh objective failure theories, such as smeared fracture theories, nodal and element enrichment theories (XFEM), cohesive elements or virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), can be utilized at the microscale, but the dimensions of the RUC must then be defined. One major challenge in multiscale progressive damage modeling is relating the characteristic lengths across the scales in order to preserve the energy that is dissipated via localization at the microscale. If there is no effort to relate the size of the macroscale element to the microscale RUC, then the energy that is dissipated will remain mesh dependent at the macroscale, even if it is regularized at the microscale. Here, a technique for mapping characteristic lengths across the scales is proposed. The RUC will be modeled using the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, and local failure in the matrix constituent subcells will be modeled using the crack band theory. The subcell characteristic lengths used in the crack band calculations will be mapped to the macroscale finite element in order to regularize the local energy in a manner consistent with the global length scale. Examples will be provided with and without the regularization, and they will be compared to a baseline case where the size and shape of the element and RUC are coincident (ensuring energy is preserved across the scales).

  3. Combining Observations in the Reflective Solar and Thermal Domains for Improved Mapping of Carbon, Water and Energy FLuxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Anderson, Martha; Kustas, Bill; Rodell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of integrating remotely sensed estimates of leaf chlorophyll (C(sub ab)) into a thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model that estimates land-surface CO2 and energy fluxes using an analytical, light-use-efficiency (LUE) based model of canopy resistance. Day to day variations in nominal LUE (LUE(sub n)) were assessed for a corn crop field in Maryland U.S.A. through model calibration with CO2 flux tower observations. The optimized daily LUE(sub n) values were then compared to estimates of C(sub ab) integrated from gridded maps of chlorophyll content weighted over the tower flux source area. Changes in Cab exhibited a curvilinear relationship with corresponding changes in daily calibrated LUE(sub n) values derived from the tower flux data, and hourly water, energy and carbon flux estimation accuracies from TSEB were significantly improved when using C(sub ab) for delineating spatio-temporal variations in LUE(sub n). The results demonstrate the synergy between thermal infrared and shortwave reflective wavebands in producing valuable remote sensing data for monitoring of carbon and water fluxes.

  4. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  5. A Multi-Resolution Multi-Temporal Technique for Detecting and Mapping Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandamudi L. Vijaykumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of rapid environment changes requires orbital sensors with high frequency of data acquisition to minimize cloud interference in the study of dynamic processes such as Amazon tropical deforestation. Moreover, a medium to high spatial resolution data is required due to the nature and complexity of variables involved in the process. In this paper we describe a multiresolution multitemporal technique to simulate Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The proposed method preserves the spectral resolution and increases the spatial resolution for mapping Amazon Rainfores deforestation using low computational resources. To evaluate this technique, sample images were acquired in the Amazon rainforest border (MODIS tile H12-V10 and ETM+/Landsat 7 path 227 row 68 for 17 July 2002 and 05 October 2002. The MODIS-based simulated ETM+ and the corresponding original ETM+ images were compared through a linear regression method. Additionally, the bootstrap technique was used to calculate the confidence interval for the model to estimate and to perform a sensibility analysis. Moreover, a Linear Spectral Mixing Model, which is the technique used for deforestation mapping in Program for Deforestation Assessment in the Brazilian Legal Amazonia (PRODES developed by National Institute for Space Research (INPE, was applied to analyze the differences in deforestation estimates. The results showed high correlations, with values between 0.70 and 0.94 (p < 0.05, student’s t test for all ETM+ bands, indicating a good assessment between simulated and observed data (p < 0.05, Z-test. Moreover, simulated image showed a good agreement with a reference image, originating commission errors of 1% of total area estimated as deforestation in a sample area test. Furthermore, approximately 6% or 70 km² of deforestation areas were missing in simulated image classification. Therefore

  6. Soil moisture assessed by digital mapping techniques and its field validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital techniques and tools can assist not only in the prediction of soil properties, such as soil moisture, but also in planning the use and management of areas for agriculture and, or, environmental purposes. In this sense, this work aimed to study wetness indexes methods, defining the spatial resolution and selecting the estimation method that best correlates with water content data measured in the field, evaluating even moisture at different soil depths and seasons. This study was developed in a landscape with strongly undulated relief and covered with Nitosols at the summit and upper middle third, and Argisols at the low middle third, ranging in altitude from 845 to 890 m, located in the southern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It were performed analyses of Pearson linear correlation between soil moisture determined in the field, at depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 100 cm and the water storage in 0-100 cm depth, and the topographic and SAGA wetness indexes, TWI and SWI, respectively, obtained from digital elevation models at different spatial resolutions. In most studied conditions, the TWI with resolution of 10 m provided better results, particularly for the dry season. In this study, only the depth of 100 cm resulted in a significant and positive correlation, suggesting that the moisture levels are suitable for water dynamic studies in the subsurface, assisting in studies of hydrological dynamics and planning the soil use and management, especially for perennial plants with deeper root systems.

  7. Visualizing Mars Using Virtual Reality: A State of the Art Mapping Technique Used on Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C.; Zbinden, E.; Blackmon, T.; Nguyen, L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an interactive terrain visualization system which rapidly generates and interactively displays photorealistic three-dimensional (3-D) models produced from stereo images. This product, first demonstrated in Mars Pathfinder, is interactive, 3-D, and can be viewed in an immersive display which qualifies it for the name Virtual Reality (VR). The use of this technology on Mars Pathfinder was the first use of VR for geologic analysis. A primary benefit of using VR to display geologic information is that it provides an improved perception of depth and spatial layout of the remote site. The VR aspect of the display allows an operator to move freely in the environment, unconstrained by the physical limitations of the perspective from which the data were acquired. Virtual Reality offers a way to archive and retrieve information in a way that is intuitively obvious. Combining VR models with stereo display systems can give the user a sense of presence at the remote location. The capability, to interactively perform measurements from within the VR model offers unprecedented ease in performing operations that are normally time consuming and difficult using other techniques. Thus, Virtual Reality can be a powerful a cartographic tool. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. The anti-CMS technique for genome-wide mapping of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Pastor, William A; Zepeda-Martínez, Jorge A; Rao, Anjana

    2012-10-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a recently discovered base in the mammalian genome, produced upon oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in a process catalyzed by TET proteins. The biological functions of 5hmC and further oxidation products of 5mC are under intense investigation, as they are likely intermediates in DNA demethylation pathways. Here we describe a novel protocol to profile 5hmC at a genome-wide scale. This approach is based on sodium bisulfite-mediated conversion of 5hmC to cytosine-5-methylenesulfonate (CMS); CMS-containing DNA fragments are then immunoprecipitated using a CMS-specific antiserum. The anti-CMS technique is highly specific with a low background, and is much less dependent on 5hmC density than anti-5hmC immunoprecipitation (IP). Moreover, it does not enrich for CA and CT repeats, as noted for 5hmC DNA IP using antibodies to 5hmC. The anti-CMS protocol takes 3 d to complete.

  9. Intersubject variability in the analysis of diffusion tensor images at the group level: fractional anisotropy mapping and fiber tracking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Unrath, Alexander; Riecker, Axel; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides comprehensive information about quantitative diffusion and connectivity in the human brain. Transformation into stereotactic standard space is a prerequisite for group studies and requires thorough data processing to preserve directional inter-dependencies. The objective of the present study was to optimize technical approaches for this preservation of quantitative and directional information during spatial normalization in data analyses at the group level. Different averaging methods for mean diffusion-weighted images containing DTI information were compared, i.e., region of interest-based fractional anisotropy (FA) mapping, fiber tracking (FT) and corresponding tractwise FA statistics (TFAS). The novel technique of intersubject FT that takes into account directional information of single data sets during the FT process was compared to standard FT techniques. Application of the methods was shown in the comparison of normal subjects and subjects with defined white matter pathology (alterations of the corpus callosum). Fiber tracking was applied to averaged data sets and showed similar results compared with FT on single subject data. The application of TFAS to averaged data showed averaged FA values around 0.4 for normal controls. The values were in the range of the standard deviation for averaged FA values for TFAS applied to single subject data. These results were independent of the applied averaging technique. A significant reduction of the averaged FA values was found in comparison to TFAS applied to data from subjects with defined white matter pathology (FA around 0.2). The applicability of FT techniques in the analysis of different subjects at the group level was demonstrated. Group comparisons as well as FT on group averaged data were shown to be feasible. The objective of this work was to identify the most appropriate method for intersubject averaging and group comparison which incorporates intersubject variability of

  10. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  11. Choroidal thickness maps from spectral domain and swept source optical coherence tomography: algorithmic versus ground truth annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Ana-Maria; Gerendas, Bianca S; Zhang, Li; Faatz, Henrik; Podkowinski, Dominika; Bogunovic, Hrvoje; Abramoff, Michael D; Hagmann, Michael; Leitner, Roland; Simader, Christian; Sonka, Milan; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to create a standardised protocol for choroidal thickness measurements and to determine whether choroidal thickness measurements made on images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and swept source (SS-) OCT from patients with healthy retina are interchangeable when performed manually or with an automatic algorithm. 36 grid cell measurements for choroidal thickness for each volumetric scan were obtained, which were measured for SD-OCT and SS-OCT with two methods on 18 eyes of healthy volunteers. Manual segmentation by experienced retinal graders from the Vienna Reading Center and automated segmentation on >6300 images of the choroid from both devices were statistically compared. Model-based comparison between SD-OCT/SS-OCT showed a systematic difference in choroidal thickness of 16.26±0.725 μm (pthickness of -0.68±0.513 μm (p=0.1833). The correlation coefficients for SD-OCT and SS-OCT measures within eyes were 0.975 for manual segmentation and 0.955 for automatic segmentation. Choroidal thickness measurements of SD-OCT and SS-OCT indicate that these two devices are interchangeable with a trend of choroidal thickness measurements being slightly thicker on SD-OCT with limited clinical relevance. Use of an automated algorithm to segment choroidal thickness was validated in healthy volunteers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. An oversampling technique for the multiscale finite volume method to simulate electromagnetic responses in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Luz Angelica Caudillo; Schwarzbach, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the computational cost of the simulation of electromagnetic responses in geophysical settings that involve highly heterogeneous media, we develop a multiscale finite volume method with oversampling for the quasi-static Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain. We assume a coarse mesh nested within a fine mesh that accurately discretizes the problem. For each coarse cell, we independently solve a local version of the original Maxwell's system subject to linear boundary conditions on an extended domain, which includes the coarse cell and a neighborhood of fine cells around it. The local Maxwell's system is solved using the fine mesh contained in the extended domain and the mimetic finite volume method. Next, these local solutions (basis functions) together with a weak-continuity condition are used to construct a coarse-mesh version of the global problem. The basis functions can be used to obtain the fine-mesh details from the solution of the coarse-mesh problem. Our approach leads to a sig...

  13. A novel contactless technique for thermal field mapping and thermal conductivity determination: two-laser Raman thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reparaz, J S; Chavez-Angel, E; Wagner, M R; Graczykowski, B; Gomis-Bresco, J; Alzina, F; Sotomayor Torres, C M

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel contactless technique for thermal conductivity determination and thermal field mapping based on creating a thermal distribution of phonons using a heating laser, while a second laser probes the local temperature through the spectral position of a Raman active mode. The spatial resolution can be as small as 300 nm, whereas its temperature accuracy is ±2 K. We validate this technique investigating the thermal properties of three free-standing single crystalline Si membranes with thickness of 250, 1000, and 2000 nm. We show that for two-dimensional materials such as free-standing membranes or thin films, and for small temperature gradients, the thermal field decays as T(r) ∝ ln(r) in the diffusive limit. The case of large temperature gradients within the membranes leads to an exponential decay of the thermal field, T ∝ exp[ - A·ln(r)]. The results demonstrate the full potential of this new contactless method for quantitative determination of thermal properties. The range of materials to which this method is applicable reaches far beyond the here demonstrated case of Si, as the only requirement is the presence of a Raman active mode.

  14. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  15. Numerical model calibration with the use of an observed sediment mobility mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javernick, Luke; Redolfi, Marco; Bertoldi, Walter

    2017-04-01

    2 mm) and ii) a novel time-lapse imagery technique used to identify areas of incipient motion. Using the numerical model Delft3D Flow, the experiments were simulated and observed incipient motion and modeled shear stress were compared to evaluate the model's ability to accurately predict sediment transport. Observed and model results were evaluated and compared, which identified a motion threshold and the ability to evaluate the model's performance. To quantify model performance, the ratios of correctly predicted areas divided by total area were calculated and produced a 75% inundation accuracy with a 71% incipient motion accuracy. Inundation accuracies are comparable to reported field studies of braided rivers with highly accurate topographic acquisition. Nevertheless, 75% inundation accuracy is less than ideal, and likely suffers from the complicated topography, shallow water depth (average 1 cm), and the corresponding model's inaccuracies that could derive from even subtle 2 mm elevation errors. As shear stress calculations are dependent upon inundation and depth, the sediment transport accuracies likely suffer from the same issues. Regardless, the sediment transport accuracies are very comparable to inundation accuracies, which is an encouraging result. Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship: River-HMV, 656917

  16. Fibre-tree network for water-surface ranging using an optical time-domain reflectometry technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiaki Yamabayashi; Tatsuya Yoshii; Masahiro Takanashi

    2014-01-01

    To monitor water level at long distance, a fibre-based time-domain reflectometry network is proposed. A collimator at each fibre end of a tree-type network retrieves 1.55 μm wavelength pulses that are reflected back from remote surfaces. Since this enables a power-supply-free sensor network with non-metal media, this system is expected to be less susceptible to lightning strikes and power cuts than conventional systems that use electrically powered sensors and metal cables. In the present Let...

  17. Lineament Mapping using Remote Sensing Techniques and Structural Geology for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Site Characterization in Central New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Melissa Maria

    2011-12-01

    This study identified lineaments from satellite images and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) utilizing image processing techniques that enhance variations in spectral and spatial reflectivity and topography. In flat-lying sedimentary sequences Lineaments are commonly surface expressions of tectonic fractures and faults in the bedrock, emphasized on the surface by topography, drainage, and vegetation - many can be identified by remotely sensed data. Knowledge of fault locations can prevent unsuitable site selection for CO2 sequestration where CO2 could migrate up fault systems. Lineament patterns also give insight into the fracture fabric of the region- an important consideration for CO2 sequestration. Various data sets, including multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat and ASTER) and DEMs, as well as geological data describing fractures, faults, and hydrology, were used to map and validate the lineament distribution in the study area. Linear features were enhanced with tonal, topographic and textural changes by digital image processing of the satellite imagery and DEMs. Lineaments were then extracted manually using ArcMap (ArcGIS 9.2 -- ESRI). Lineaments longer than 1 km were identified, digitized and stored in a geo-database together with attributes describing their length, orientation and other characteristics. Lineament categories included vegetation, drainage, and topography. Rose diagrams and statistics of length and number of lineaments in each 100 orientation bin were used to characterize the lineament distribution in each remotely sensed data set. The primary lineament orientations from both ASTER imagery and topography trended northeast and northwest in the study area of central New York State. These trends agreed with some of the EarthSat (1997) lineament sets from Landsat images and also corresponded to some published fracture and fault systems but do not reflect the most abundant sets.

  18. Mapping forested wetlands in the Great Zhan River Basin through integrating optical, radar, and topographical data classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, X D; Zang, S Y; Wu, C S; Li, W L

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the spatial extent of forested wetlands is essential to many studies including wetland functioning assessment, greenhouse gas flux estimation, and wildlife suitable habitat identification. For discriminating forested wetlands from their adjacent land cover types, researchers have resorted to image analysis techniques applied to numerous remotely sensed data. While with some success, there is still no consensus on the optimal approaches for mapping forested wetlands. To address this problem, we examined two machine learning approaches, random forest (RF) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, and applied these two approaches to the framework of pixel-based and object-based classifications. The RF and KNN algorithms were constructed using predictors derived from Landsat 8 imagery, Radarsat-2 advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and topographical indices. The results show that the objected-based classifications performed better than per-pixel classifications using the same algorithm (RF) in terms of overall accuracy and the difference of their kappa coefficients are statistically significant (pclassifications using the RF algorithm. As for the object-based image analysis, there were also statistically significant differences (palgorithms. The object-based classification using RF provided a more visually adequate distribution of interested land cover types, while the object classifications based on the KNN algorithm showed noticeably commissions for forested wetlands and omissions for agriculture land. This research proves that the object-based classification with RF using optical, radar, and topographical data improved the mapping accuracy of land covers and provided a feasible approach to discriminate the forested wetlands from the other land cover types in forestry area.

  19. Fibre-tree network for water-surface ranging using an optical time-domain reflectometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamabayashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To monitor water level at long distance, a fibre-based time-domain reflectometry network is proposed. A collimator at each fibre end of a tree-type network retrieves 1.55 μm wavelength pulses that are reflected back from remote surfaces. Since this enables a power-supply-free sensor network with non-metal media, this system is expected to be less susceptible to lightning strikes and power cuts than conventional systems that use electrically powered sensors and metal cables. In the present Letter, a successful simultaneous monitoring experiment of two water levels in the laboratory, as well as a trial for detecting a disturbed surface by beam-expanding is reported.

  20. Antibody binding site mapping of SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain by a combination of yeast surface display and phage peptide library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jingxue; Wen, Kun; Mou, Zhirong; Zou, Liyun; Che, Xiaoyan; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

    2009-12-01

    The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein plays an important role in viral infection, and is a potential major neutralizing determinant. In this study, three hybridoma cell lines secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against the RBD of the S protein were generated and their exact binding sites were identified. Using yeast surface display, the binding sites of these antibodies were defined to two linear regions on the RBD: S(337-360) and S(380-399). Using these monoclonal antibodies in phage peptide library screening identified 10 distinct mimotopes 12 amino acids in length. Sequence comparison between native epitopes and these mimotopes further confirmed the binding sites, and revealed key amino acid residues involved in antibody binding. None of these antibodies could neutralize the murine leukemia virus pseudotyped expressing the SARS-CoV spike protein (MLV/SARS-CoV). However, these mAbs could be useful in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV due to their exclusive reactivity with SARS-CoV. Furthermore, this study established a feasible platform for epitope mapping. Yeast surface display combined with phage peptide library screening provides a convenient strategy for the identification of epitope peptides from certain antigenic proteins.