WorldWideScience

Sample records for dog toxicity project

  1. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of continuous (22 hr/day), whole-body γ-irradiation in the pure-bred beagle dog. Dogs were exposed continuously until death at one of four different exposure rates ranging from 5 to 35 R/day. The study is still 2441 days (approximately 6.7 yr) of irradiation. The experiment has narrowed to the dogs receiving 5 R/day and the controls. A group of dogs receiving one of these relatively low daily exposure rates may exhibit remarkably varied responses, both in survival times in the γ field and in ultimate causes of death. The basis for these large differences in responses of individual dogs remains mostly unexplained, but is presumed to reside in their genetic composition. The composite result in the study, however, demonstrates an orderly, step-wise appearance of clinical end points resulting from radiation-induced damage to the blood-forming tissues. About one-half the dogs exposed continuously to 10 R/day develop bone marrow aplasia and die of anemia, while the other one-half develop bone marrow hyperplasias and die of malignancies, usually myelogenous leukemias. In dogs exposed at rates greater than 10 R/day, aplastic bone marrows predominate; while hyperplastic responses are the dominant cause of death at 5 R/day. Only among the most recent deaths of dogs exposed continuously to either 10 or 5 R/day, have there appeared terminal causes of death unrelated to hematopoietic injury. These causes (degenerative and/or inflammatory disease and cancers of tissue other than bone marrow) suggest that we are now beginning to define the combinations of exposure rate and time of exposure that allow expressions of damage by tissues outside the hematopoietic system. (U.S.)

  2. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Three related, but separate, studies are in progress. In the first, young adult beagles of both sexes are placed in the γ-ray field, to be kept there for duration of life at one of a number of daily exposure rates. In the second, young adult beagles are exposed in a similar fashion until they have accumulated predetermined amounts of total exposure ranging up to 4000 R, delivered at various daily exposure rates. They are then removed from the radiation field and kept for the rest of their lives to allow development of late effects attributable to radiation exposure. In the third study, pregnant beagles are irradiated, at one of four daily exposure rates, for all or part of their gestation periods, to produce an evaluation of the effects of continuous irradiation in the developing fetus. All of these studies are done by arranging dogs at various distances from a calibrated 60 Co γ-ray source, where they are irradiated during 22 hours of each day. The remaining 2 hours are used for animal care, maintenance, and clinical evaluation of the dogs. The combined results demonstrate that the cellular and organ systems of the dog respond predictably, and in a differential manner, depending on exposure rate. Exposure rates in excess of 17 R/day destroy the blood-cell producing elements of bone marrow and cause death, therefore, within 1 to 2 months. Minimally sublethal exposure rates to bone marrow (5-17 R/day), however, produce a very high (50-75 percent) incidence of anemia or myeloid leukemia. Furthermore, at exposure rates of 5 R/day or below, bone marrow appears to function in an essentially normal fashion, and causes of death appear, from preliminary data, to be related to degenerative disease and malignancies of other tissues

  3. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerman, J.M.; Brennan, P.C.; Chubb, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: protracted gamma-irradiation of young adult beagles; effect of radiation dose rate on the development of th reproductive and endocrine systems of fetal and young growing beagles; and cellular effects of myelosuppressive agents on hematopoietic tissue structure and function; mechanisms of leukemia induction

  4. Toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, C.E.; Brueckner, C.C.; Chism, J.P.; Kemp, D.C.; Prescott, J.S.; Smith, G.A.; Melich, D.H.; Oleas, N.; Polli, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., statins) are an important clinical option to lower cholesterol and treat co-morbidities. Atorvastatin is the most prescribed statin and has obtained generic status. We recently had a clinical development program evaluating a combination of atorvastatin with a GPR119 agonist as a treatment for dyslipidemia, where toxicological evaluations in dogs were completed. There were several challenges related to selecting doses for atorvastatin, including understanding the dose–exposure relationship from different drug forms used by the innovator in their general toxicology studies, bioanalytical assays that did not separate and quantify parent from metabolites, and high variability in the systemic exposures following oral dosing. The studies in this report characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in the dog for up to 13-weeks. Overall, there were no notable differences in the toxicokinetics of atorvastatin or the two active hydroxylated metabolites between the sexes at Week 13. However, systemic exposures were markedly lower at Week 13 compared to that observed at Week 4, suggesting induction of metabolism or reduced absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral dosing. Changes in laboratory chemistries included increased liver enzyme levels and lower cholesterol levels. Histopathologic evaluation revealed multifocal minimal to slight hemorrhages in the submucosa of the gallbladder; all findings were reversible. The information from these studies along with the existing clinical experience with atorvastatin can be used to design robust toxicology studies in dogs and reduce animal use. - Highlights: • Atorvastatin is given to reduce cholesterol and is available as a generic drug. • Co-dosing of multiple products to treat hypercholesterolemia is increasing. • This work characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs. • The toxicokinetics of two hydroxylated metabolites were

  5. Brunfelsia spp (yesterday, today, tomorrow) toxicity in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G

    2008-06-01

    Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants.

  6. Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in six dogs presenting for ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Angela N; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Tofflemire, Kyle L; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Whitley, David; Paulsen, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    To describe cases of suspected anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity manifesting with predominantly ocular signs. Six canine cases that presented to veterinary referral hospitals for ocular abnormalities and were diagnosed with suspected or confirmed anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion were reviewed for commonalities in presentation and outcome. Five dogs had unilateral ocular signs and one dog had bilateral manifestations. Signs included subconjunctival hemorrhage, exophthalmos, and commonly orbital pain without other significant physical examination findings. Prothrombin time was measured in 5 of 6 dogs and was prolonged in all. Partial thromboplastin time was measured in 4 of 6 dogs and was prolonged in all. Complete blood cell count and serum chemistry profiles demonstrated mild, if any, abnormalities. Five dogs had known anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, and rodenticide ingestion was suspected in 1 additional case based on clinical signs, clinical pathologic abnormalities, and response to treatment. Five of 6 cases were hospitalized overnight for plasma transfusions along with oral or injectable vitamin K1 , and all dogs were treated with oral vitamin K1 for 30 days. All dogs experienced complete resolution of clinical signs within 6 weeks of initiating treatment. Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity can present with predominantly ocular manifestations. Rodenticide ingestion should be considered in dogs with unilateral or bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage, exophthalmos, and orbital pain. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Military Dog Training Aids: Toxicity and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-10

    compound. Good ventilation and closed containers are essential in keeping the risk of accidental exposure or explosion at the minimum level. Keep away...hallucinations, tachycardia, arrhythymias, severe hypertension, cardiovascular collapse, cerebrovascular accidents and even death. In dogs, signs are delirium

  8. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected 226 Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected 226 Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested 226 Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with 226 Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion

  9. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  10. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCortinovis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek and chives, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants, products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  11. Hematologic changes associated with Adderall toxicity in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Angela; Russell, Karen E

    2008-06-01

    A 1-year-old intact male Boxer was presented to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center for emergency treatment following suspected ingestion of a large number of tablets of Adderall, a pharmaceutical amphetamine. The dog had a temperature of 41.7 degrees C, heart rate of 192 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 100 breaths per minute. The dog was anxious and agitated with bilaterally dilated pupils, and shortly thereafter became recumbent and incontinent. Initial CBC results included mild leukopenia and mild thrombocytopenia. The dog was not anemic (HCT 39.9%) and had only slight polychromasia, but had 48 nucleated RBCs/100 WBC (7500/microL). Moderate numbers of neutrophils had hypersegmented nuclei and several pyknotic cells were noted. The metarubricytosis persisted for approximately 56 hours while hypersegmentation and pyknotic cells were no longer found at 8 hours after presentation. The dog received supportive care and recovered uneventfully. We hypothesized that hyperpyrexia associated with Adderall toxicity resulted in inappropriate metarubricytosis due to damaged bone marrow endothelium, and resulted in hypersegmentation and pyknosis due to damaged or accelerated aging of neutrophils in peripheral blood. Metarubricytosis has been reported previously in dogs with heat-induced illness, such as heat stroke.

  12. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally ...

  13. Toxicity of policosanol in beagle dogs: one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, A R; Más, R; Noa, M; Hernández, C; Rodeiro, I; Gámez, R; García, M; Capote, A; Alemán, C L

    1994-08-01

    Policosanol is a new chemical entity composed of 8 higher aliphatic alcohols obtained from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), L. wax, whose cholesterol-lowering effects have been demonstrated in experimental models, healthy volunteers and patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. This study investigated the oral toxicity of policosanol administered for 52 weeks to beagle dogs. Twenty-four beagle dogs (12 males and 12 females) were distributed randomly in 3 experimental groups (4 animals/group): a control and 2 treated groups receiving policosanol at 30 and 180 mg/kg daily (7 days/week) by gavage. No mortality was observed in any group. Overall, policosanol was well tolerated throughout the study and no toxic symptoms were observed. All groups showed similar weight gain and food consumption. Lipid profile determinations showed that policosanol decreased total cholesterol by 20% approximately from 8 to 52 weeks. Cholesterol-lowering effects did not wear off during the study, thus demonstrating the persistence of the effectiveness. Triglycerides and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were not changed significantly. No blood biochemistry or histopathological disturbances attributable to treatment were observed. This study has shown that no drug-related toxicity was induced by policosanol administered up to 180 mg/kg/day for 52 weeks to beagle dogs. Since this dose is approximately 620 times higher than the maximal recommended therapeutic dose (20 mg/day) it indicates a good safety margin of this product.

  14. Subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study of α-cyclodextrin in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The oral toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was examined in a 13-week feeding study in which groups of Beagle dogs received α-CD in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, or 20% (4dogs/sex/group). No treatment-related changes were noted in behavior or appearance of the dogs and no

  15. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; Kusewitt, D.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi per kilogram body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi per kilogram body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Forty-three of the exposed dogs and 11 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three dogs died with pulmonary carcinomas and one dog died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma; these cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on three surviving exposed dogs and one surviving unexposed dog

  16. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Thirty-six of the exposed dogs and 7 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest activity levels died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas and three with pulmonary carcinomas and one with hepatic hemangiosarcoma that all appear related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on 10 surviving exposed dogs and six surviving unexposed dogs

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91 Y/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases

  18. Toxic myopathy in a dog associated with the presence of monensin in dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J S

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a case of toxic myopathy in a two year old sheltie dog with clinical signs of profound weakness, myoglobinuria, and muscle enzyme elevations. The clinical signs were likely related to the accidental inclusion of monensin sodium in the dog's food. This food was prepared by a small feed milling company that also prepares cattle and chicken rations. A change of dog food resulted in remission of the clinical signs.

  19. Toxic Myopathy in a Dog Associated with the Presence of Monensin in Dry Food

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a case of toxic myopathy in a two year old sheltie dog with clinical signs of profound weakness, myoglobinuria, and muscle enzyme elevations. The clinical signs were likely related to the accidental inclusion of monensin sodium in the dog's food. This food was prepared by a small feed milling company that also prepares cattle and chicken rations. A change of dog food resulted in remission of the clinical signs.

  20. Subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study of y-cyclodextrin in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, H.P.; Bär, A.

    1998-01-01

    The oral toxicity of γ-cyclodextrin (γ- CD) was examined in a 13-week feeding study in which four groups of four male and four female Beagle dogs received γ-CD in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, or 20%. No treatment-related changes were noted in behavior or appearance of the dogs

  1. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight was placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight was placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-six of the exposed dogs and four of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Nine 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2012 to 4115 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma, one a malignant lymphoma, one a melanosarcoma in the mouth and one heart base tumor. Two dogs died of renal failure 2663 and 4086 days after exposure. One dog died with autoimmune hemolytic anemia 3888 days after exposure and one died with congestive heart failure 4042 days after inhalation exposure. One control dog died of empyema, another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma, one died with congestive heart failure and one with malabsorption syndrome. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  2. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately 1 yr after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Five 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and another, a mast cell sarcoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure and one control dog died of empyema. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-one of the exposed dogs have died and two of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Seven 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one, a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma and one with a malignant lymphoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure, one control dog died of empyema and another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  4. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old beagle dogs is being investigated to provide information on possible age-related differences in the resulting long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose-only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 38 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 10 control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2375 days after inhalation of the 144 Ce. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 dogs that died during the first 943 days post-exposure and neoplastic disease in seven of the 15 dogs. However, only one of these tumors killed the dog. No hemangiosarcomas have been observed in this study, although they were a prominent finding in immature or young adult dogs exposed to 144 Ce. Observations are continuing on the four surviving 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs

  5. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of dogs to lung burdens of this fission product. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies of dogs exposed at approximately 3 months or 12 to 14 months of age. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 37 dogs have died or were euthanized 197 to 2375 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. The prominent findings were radiation pneumonitis in 19 dogs that died at early times with cumulative doses to lung of 20 000 to 74 000 rads and neoplastic disease in six of 14 dogs that died 943 days after exposure or later. Pulmonary tumors were found in four of these dogs. However, only one of these tumors killed the dog. No hemangiosarcomas have been observed in this study. This result is in contrast to the results with immature or young adult dogs exposed to 144 Ce. The difference may be a dose-related phenomenon since dogs which developed hemangiosarconomas had greater initial lung burdens of 144 Ce. Aged dogs with similar burdens died at earlier times with radiation pneumonitis. Observations are continuing on the five surviving 144 Ce-exposed and four control dogs

  6. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year old Beagle dogs is being investigated to provide possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose-only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 39 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 10 control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2375 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure and neoplastic disease in nine of the 16 dogs that died beyond 943 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in four of these dogs. Observations are continuing on the three surviving 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs

  7. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8 to 10.5 year-old Beagle dogs is being investigated to determine possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg (81-2800 kBq/kg) body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to non-radioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. All 144 Ce-exposed and control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2726 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure, and neoplastic disease in 13 of the 20 dogs that died beyond 904 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in five of these dogs. In contrast to the study with young adult dogs, in which pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were one of the prominent findings, all of these tumors were carcinomas. 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Toxicity, dosage, and efficacy of vinorelbine (Navelbine) in dogs with spontaneous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Valerie J; Burgess, Kristine E; Adams, William M; Vail, David M

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term adverse effects and determine a safe dosage for vinorelbine (Navelbine)--a new semisynthetic vinca alkaloid--in dogs with malignant tumors. Nineteen dogs were treated with vinorelbine as a 5-minute IV infusion every 7 days at starting dosages ranging from 10 to 20 mg/m2. The median number of treatments per dog was 7 (range, 1-11). The maximum tolerated dosage varied between 15 and 18 mg/m2, and a starting dosage of 15 mg/m2 is recommended. Neutropenia was the dose-limiting toxicity. Although efficacy was a secondary endpoint of this dosage-finding study, 2 dogs with metastatic bronchoalveolar carcinoma experienced a partial response for an overall response rate of 12.5% in 16 dogs with gross measurable disease. Three dogs with microscopic disease were treated (incompletely excised bronchoalveolar carcinoma or lymph node metastatic disease). Two died of pulmonary metastatic disease 113 and 196 days posttreatment, and 1 is still alive after at least 730 days. The well-tolerated toxicity profile and clinical activity observed in dogs with bronchoalveolar carcinoma warrants further investigation.

  9. The dog aging project: translational geroscience in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the basic biology of aging have identified several genetic and pharmacological interventions that appear to modulate the rate of aging in laboratory model organisms, but a barrier to further progress has been the challenge of moving beyond these laboratory discoveries to impact health and quality of life for people. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, offers a unique opportunity for surmounting this barrier in the near future. In particular, companion dogs share our environment and play an important role in improving the quality of life for millions of people. Here, we present a rationale for increasing the role of companion dogs as an animal model for both basic and clinical geroscience and describe complementary approaches and ongoing projects aimed at achieving this goal.

  10. The Dog Aging Project: Translational Geroscience in Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Creevy, Kate E.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the basic biology of aging have identified several genetic and pharmacological interventions that appear to modulate the rate of aging in laboratory model organisms, but a barrier to further progress has been the challenge of moving beyond these laboratory discoveries to impact health and quality of life for people. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, offers a unique opportunity for surmounting this barrier in the near future. In particular, companion dogs share our environment and play an important role in improving the quality of life for millions of people. Here we present a rationale for increasing the role of companion dogs as an animal model for both basic and clinical Geroscience and describe complementary approaches and ongoing projects aimed at achieving this goal. PMID:27143112

  11. Serum citrate as a peripheral indicator of fluoroacetate and fluorocitrate toxicity in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosakowski, T; Levin, A A

    1986-09-30

    The utility of serum citrate as a peripheral indicator of toxicity was tested as a possible investigational probe for compounds which inhibit citrate metabolism. Fluoroacetate (FA) and its putative toxic metabolite, fluorocitrate (FC), were given to rats and dogs in a series of studies. In rats, 3 mg/kg FA (po) caused a 46% depletion in heart ATP concentrations and a 15-fold increase in heart citrate concentrations. Both of these changes were significantly correlated with a fivefold elevation in serum citrate. In dogs, citrate accumulation was less pronounced (two-to threefold) in the heart and serum, and heart ATP concentrations were not significantly reduced. However, the time course of serum citrate elevations corresponded with the appearance of serious clinical signs and death. In range-finding studies with rats or dogs, serum citrate elevations were always observed in a dose-related pattern according to the dose of FA or FC administered. In contrast to FA, toxic doses of FC did not reduce heart ATP in either rats or dogs, and heart citrate accumulation was less marked than with FA. Both FA and FC produced significant hyperglycemia (twofold increase) in both rats and dogs and high correlations were established between serum glucose and serum citrate in both species. Serum total calcium was reduced (-18%) in dogs treated with FC (8 mg/kg, iv) and a strong inverse correlation to serum citrate was shown. This correlation is biologically meaningful in light of the known chelating effect of citrate on calcium. Clinical manifestations of tremors, tetany, and convulsions in FC-treated dogs were consistent with known symptoms of hypocalcemia. No decrease in total calcium was observed in rats treated with either FA or FC. Despite certain species differences in response to the two fluoro inhibitors, serum citrate levels were always reflective of nontoxic, toxic, or lethal doses.

  12. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hanika-Rebar, C.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles are being investigated in the Beagle dog to assess the biological consequences of release of 144 Ce in a relatively insoluble form such as might occur in certain types of nuclear accidents. The toxicity of inhaled 144 Ce is also of general interest since it is representative of intermediate-lived beta-emitting radionuclides. Two major studies with young adult dogs (12 to 14 months of age at exposure) are involved: (1) a metabolism and dosimetry study in which 24 dogs were serially sacrificed over an extended period of time, and (2) a longevity study with two series of dogs. Series I contains 15 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 11 to 210 μCi/kg body weight and three control dogs exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Series II contains 96 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to 66 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs exposed to nonradioactive, fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 51 dogs have died or were euthanized at 143 to 3280 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. The prominent findings were radiation pneumonitis in 17 dogs that died or were euthanized at 750 days or later. The cumulative radiation dose to the lung at time of death has ranged from 550 to 140,000 rads. Serial observations are continuing on the 60 survivors and 15 controls

  13. Subacute Toxicity of RDX and TNT in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-19

    observed. Renal microcalculi and bone marrow hemosiderosis are both encountered occasionally in random dog populations. The small group sizes, three per...microcalculi in the renal pelvis was higher in 4 the test animals, in particular, those treated with RDX. The incidence of hemosiderosis of the bone marrow was...microcalculi and of bone marrow hemosiderosis highly precarious. 10 June 1974 WALTER F. LOEB, V.M.D., Ph.D. I •LU BIONETICS Utton A-1 70 LITTON

  14. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hanika-Rebar, C.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles by 8- 10.5-year-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of older members of the human population to accidental inhalation of radioactive aerosols. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies of dogs exposed at approximately 3 months or 12 to 14 months of age. Six blocks of five female dogs each have been divided into four exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14, 28, and 57 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Six blocks of four male dogs each have been divided into three exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14, and 28 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Controls in each block were exposed to fused aluminosilicate particles containing stable cerium. Nineteen dogs with initial lung burdens ranging from 14 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and cumulative doses to lung of from 20,000 to 74,000 rads have died or were euthanized 197 to 1849 days after exposure with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Eight control dogs have died. Pulmonary retention of the inhaled 144 Ce was similar to that observed previously in dogs exposed at 18 to 22 months of age in a radiation dose pattern study. Serial observations are continuing on the nine surviving 144 Ce-exposed and four control dogs

  15. Green tea extract-induced lethal toxicity in fasted but not in nonfasted dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuei-Meng; Yao, Jiaqin; Boring, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Recent chronic toxicity studies performed on green tea extracts in fasted dogs have revealed some unique dose-limiting lethal liver, gastrointestinal, and renal toxicities. Key findings included necrosis of hepatic cells, gastrointestinal epithelia and renal tubules, atrophy of reproductive organs, atrophy and necrosis of hematopoietic tissues, and associated hematological changes. The polyphenol cachetins (a mixture of primarily epigallocatechin gallate [≥55%]; plus up to 10% each of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate) appeared to be the causative agents for the observed toxicities because they are the active ingredients of green tea extract studied. Conduct of the study in nonfasted dogs under the same testing conditions and dose levels showed unremarkable results. Assuming both studies were valid, at the identified no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of each study, systemic exposures (based on area under the curve [AUC]) were actually lower in fasted than nonfasted dogs, suggesting that fasting may have rendered the target organ systems potentially more vulnerable to the effects of green tea extract. The toxicity mechanisms that produced lethality are not known, but the results are scientifically intriguing. Because tea drinking has become more popular in the United States and abroad, the mode of action and site of action of green tea extract-induced lethal toxicities during fasting and the role of other phytochemical components of Folia Camellia sinensis (including nonpolyphenol fractions, which are often consumed when whole-leaf products are presented) warrant further investigation.

  16. Alleviating effects of artificial tear instillation on S-1-induced ocular toxicity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Shohei; Fujieda, Mitsuhiro; Hitotsumachi, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Morita, Fumio; Hakoi, Kazuo; Yasui, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    S-1 is an anticancer agent that consists of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. S-1 is used to treat metastatic and resectable gastric cancer. However, the extensive use of S-1 in clinical practice results in watery eyes, a serious clinical problem, which worsens patients' quality of life. Although repeated instillation of artificial tears is recommended, therapy or prophylaxis against S-1-induced ocular toxicity has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated the alleviating effects of repeated artificial tear instillation on S-1-induced ocular toxicity in dogs. Ten beagle dogs (5 males and 5 females) were orally administered 3 mg/kg/day of S-1 for up to 21 days. Five drops of artificial tears were instilled to the left eye, eight times daily, within 6 hr after S-1 administration. The mean cornea staining score tended to be low in the left eye with repeated artificial tear instillation. In 4 out of 10 dogs, the corneal staining score of the left eye was more than 2-fold lower than that of the right eye. The incidence of dogs indicating normal tear drainage increased and stenosed tear drainage decreased by repeated artificial tear instillation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that artificial tear instillation can alleviate corneal surface damage induced by S-1 in dogs.

  17. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Alex K; de Cock, Peter; Crincoli, Christine M; Means, Charlotte; Wismer, Tina; Pappas, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Published studies have shown that both of these compounds are well-tolerated in rodents. Their toxicity profiles differ when comparing canine safety data. Doses of xylitol as low as 0.15 g/kg-BW in dogs can result in life-threatening hypoglycemia and acute liver failure, whereas erythritol is well-tolerated in dogs with reported No Adverse Effect Levels upwards of 5 g/kg-BW/day in repeat-dose studies. While pivotal studies substantiating the safe use of erythritol in humans have been published, there are limited published studies to support the safe use of erythritol in dogs. Here we present the results of an acute oral and a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs. Given the potential health benefits of oral products formulated with erythritol and the data presented herein substantiating the safe use in dogs, erythritol can be safely used in products for canines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged beagle dogs. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hanika-Rebar, C.; Boecker, B.B.; Hobbs, C.H.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles by 8 to 10.5-year-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of older members of the human population to accidental inhalation of radioactive aerosols. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies of dogs exposed at approximately 3 months or 12 to 14 months of age. Six blocks of five female dogs each have been divided into four exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14, 28 and 57 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Six blocks of four male dogs each have been divided into three exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14 and 28 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Controls in each block were exposed to fused aluminosilicate particles containing stable cerium. Eighteen dogs with initial lung burdens ranging from 14 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and cumulative doses to lung of from 22,000 to 74,000 rads have died or were euthanized 197 to 1207 days after exposure with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis

  19. Toxicity studies on the radioprotective agent WR-2721 in CDF1 mice and beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, T.E.; Glaza, S.M.; Dickie, B.C.; Weltman, R.H.; Greenspun, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    WR-2721, S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid, is used extensively to protect normal cells during the irradiation of neoplastic cells. Dose levels for human radiotherapy are based on results obtained from laboratory animal lethality and toxicity studies. WR-2721 was administered intravenously to CDF1 mice and beagle dogs. Single dose lethality studies in mice showed the average 1/10 of the lethal dose, the median lethal dose and 9/10 the lethal dose to be 508 (1523 mg/m2), 589 (1766 mg/m2), and 682 mg/kg (2047 mg/m2), respectively. The lethal dose for female mice was lower than that for males. The 1/10 lethal dose in mice was slightly toxic to dogs; 1/10 of that dose was nontoxic. The lethal dose for dogs (6000 mg/m2) was higher than that for mice (2000 mg/m2). Clinical signs of toxicosis in the single-dose mouse toxicity study were evident in the 1st week following treatment and declined during the recovery period; signs of toxicosis were transient in dogs. Acute drug-induced pathologic changes included elevated BUN and SGOT levels, lymphoid necrosis, and renal tubular degeneration in mice. These changes were evident in the 1st week following treatment, but had dissipated by study termination. Generalized vascular changes (congestion, hemorrhage, and edema) and renal tubular degeneration occurred in treated dogs that had died or were killed moribund 7 days postinjection. These findings indicate sex-dependent and interspecies variation in the toxicity of WR-2721 with acute, but reversible, pathologic changes

  20. The toxicity of inhaled particles of 238PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of inhaled 238 PuO 2 in the dog. Inhalation was selected because it is the mostly likely route of human exposure in the event of an accidental airborne release. Of 166 dog in the study, 72 inhaled 1.5μm and 72 inhaled 3.0 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter particles of 238 PuO 2 . Another 24 dogs inhaled the aerosol vector without plutonium. The aerosol exposures resulted in initial pulmonary burdens ranging from 37 to 0.11 and 55.5 to 0.37 kBq of 238 Pu/kg body mass, of 1.5 μm and 3.0 μ, particles, respectively. The particles dissolved slowly resulting in translocation of the Pu to liver, bone and other sites. The dogs were observed for biological effects over their life span. Necropsies were performed at death, and tissues were examined microscopically. The principal late-occurring effects were tumors of the lung, skeleton, and liver. Risk factors estimated for these cancers were 2800 lung cancers/10 4 Gy, 800 liver cancers/10 4 Gy, and 6200 bone cancers/10 4 Gy for dogs. The potential hazard from 238 Pu to humans may include tumors of the lung, bone and liver because of the likelihood of similarity of the dose patterns for the two species. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Comparative acute toxicity of chlorocitrate and fluorocitrate in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosakowski, T; Levin, A A

    1987-06-15

    The high-dose effects of chlorocitrate [(-)-threo-chlorocitric acid] were compared in vivo to another halogenated citrate analog, and a well-known inhibitor of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fluorocitrate. The compounds were given iv to two dogs per sex per group, and a control group received an equimolar amount of citric acid. Chlorocitrate (100 mg/kg) showed TCA cycle inhibition as did fluorocitrate (8 mg/kg) in that both caused depletion of ATP and accumulation of citrate in the liver. Chlorocitrate was a significantly weaker inhibitor of citrate metabolism than fluorocitrate as evidenced by a substantially lower accumulation of serum citrate despite a much higher dose. Both halocitrates produced a similar diabetes-like syndrome (hyperglycemia, glycosuria) mediated by a significant hyperglucagonemia and slight hypoinsulinemia. Chlorocitrate was more potent in this effect and a much greater buildup of plasma lactate ensued (18- versus 3.7-fold increase), enough to explain lethality observed in earlier studies. In contrast, fluorocitrate produced a severe life-threatening hypocalcemia (-30%), and hypercalcuria was observed. This effect on calcium distribution was only minimal with chlorocitrate. Both halocitrates had a similar depressive effect on circulation as evidenced by hypothermia, bradycardia, and elongation of the QT-interval. These changes were considered to be the result of lactic acidosis and the ongoing ion imbalance since heart ATP levels were not depleted.

  2. Effects of reduced food intake on the parameters of toxicity evaluation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Junya; Izumi, Tomoko; Sunouchi, Mana; Arima, Kazunori; Tsutsumi, Shunsuke

    2015-08-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the variations in the toxicity parameters in experimental animals during the development of new drugs. Reduced food intake has been reported to have an impact on the toxicity parameters in rats; however, there are few reports of such studies in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of reduced food intake on the general toxicity parameters and their reversibility in dogs. Male beagle dogs were fed 300 g/day of diet for 12 weeks in the control group, and 150 g/day for the first 8 weeks and 200 g/day for the subsequent 4 weeks in the low feeding group. During the following 4-week recovery period, the amount of feeding was set at 300 g/day. There were no clinical changes in any of the dogs. The low feeding group showed a body weight loss of 9.0%, 16.7% and 14.3% relative to the pre-test values at Week 4, 8 and 12, respectively. The following changes from the pre-test values and/or the control group in the examined parameters were observed in this group: decreased heart rate, prolonged PR interval on the ECG, decreased leukocyte count, and increased serum free fatty acid and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Significant changes of these parameters were not observed any more during the recovery period. This fact supports biological or physiological reaction to reduced food intake. These results are considered to represent useful information for toxicologists to distinguish between the direct effects of drugs and the changes attributable to reduced food intake.

  3. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  4. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  5. Lovelace ITRI studies on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews 19 studies conducted by the Lovelace ITRI on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs. These studies provide information to estimate potential health effects in accidentally exposed people. Specific radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 90 Y, 91 Y, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu), chemical forms, and particle sizes were selected for study because they are abundant in nuclear operations and deliver a wide range of radiation dose patterns. Depending upon the aerosol, one or more of the following organs or tissues received the significant irradiation: lung, nasal cavity, lung-associated lymph nodes, whole body, liver, or skeleton, with the radiation dose delivered over durations of time ranging from a few days to several years. In eight studies monodisperse particles of either 238 PuO 2 or 239 PuO 2 were used to evaluate the influence of particle number and total dose on lung cancer induction. Most studies involved single, brief exposures of young adult dogs, but two studies used immature dogs, two used aged dogs, and two studies involved repeated brief exposures. For each aerosol two types of studies were conducted. One was used to evaluate the time course of retention of radioactivity in various tissues of the body for calculating radiation doses. The second was used to determine health effects in animals exposed to achieve different initial lung burdens and observed for the remainder of their life spans. Initial lung burdens were selected to produce early morbidity and mortality at the highest levels and an excess of late-occurring diseases such as cancer at the lowest levels. The latter dogs have had an excess incidence of cancer, especially of the lung, lung-associated lymph nodes, nasal cavity, skeleton, and liver. Relationships between radiation doses to various tissues and effects have been evaluated for individual studies

  6. Sub-chronic toxicity study of a novel herbal-based formulation (Semelil on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzamfar B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a novel herbal-based compound containing extract of Melilotus officinalis, was formulated for treatment of chronic wounds, especially diabetic foot ulcer. The purpose of this study was to investigate safety and toxicity effects of intramuscular administration of Semelil in dogs. "nPreliminary one-month study with Semelil was performed on 8 male and female dogs divided into 2 groups, test and control, four animals each. Semelil was administered intramuscularlyat a dose of 0.07 ml/kg body wt. once a day to the animals of the test group, while the control group received sterile saline. During experiments, general state of the animals including the dynamics of body weight changes, appetite, motor activity and behavior, hair condition, ECG parameters, rectal temperature of animals and data of hematological and biochemical tests were monitored for signs of toxicity and side-effects. Finally, morphology and histology analyses were performed using standard methods."nNo adverse health or toxicity effects were observed through the course of the study. No damaging consequences of Semelil injections on the functional state of main organs of the experimental animals were found. This observation gave a good evidence of a favorable safety profile compatible with potential therapeutic use of Semelil.

  7. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  8. Effects of reduced food intake for 4 weeks on physiological parameters in toxicity studies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Junya; Izumi, Tomoko; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Ban, Yoshiki; Takagi, Hironori; Sasaki, Minoru; Tsutsumi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to clarify the effects of reduced feeding on physiological parameters in dogs to enable appropriate evaluations of the safety and toxicity of test compounds. We measured alkaline phosphatase isozymes and the circulating blood volume, as well as clinical signs, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, organ weight, and histopathology, in male beagle dogs fed a diet consisting of 300 g/day or 150 g/day for 4 weeks. There were no abnormal clinical signs in any of the dogs. In the 150-g/day feeding group, a decreased alkaline phosphatase 3 suggesting effects on the bone and a decreased circulating blood volume associated with body weight loss were observed. Additionally, the following changes were also observed in the 150-g/day group: a decrease in body weight; hematologic changes including decreases in white blood cells, neutrophils, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocytes; blood chemical changes including decreases in aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and calcium and an increase in the creatinine at week 1 or thereafter; electrocardiographic changes including a decrease in the heart rate, a prolonged QRS duration and the occurrence of a second-degree atrioventricular block at week 3 or thereafter; and pathological changes including decreases in the weights of the liver and thymus, a decrease in hepatocyte rarefaction, and thymic atrophy. These results provide useful information for assessing the safety of compounds in toxicological studies, enabling direct treatment effects and secondary changes caused by decreased food intake to be distinguished.

  9. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Menchetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this ‘no-kill policy’ has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001. The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  10. Repeated sub-chronic oral toxicity study of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonglin; Wang, Yunzhi; Li, Yanshen; Han, Rui; Li, Chunmei; Xiao, Lin; Cho, Susan; Ma, Yukui; Fang, Chao; Lee, Albert W

    2017-06-01

    In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. In the mid-dose groups, transitional diarrhea was observed in the initial 1-2 weeks. In the high-dose groups, diarrhea and/or vomiting were observed episodically over the duration of treatment. However, they disappeared after XOS was withdrawn in the recovery period. Although there was a tendency toward less weight gain in the high-dose group animal group, this is typical in animals and humans fed non-digestible carbohydrates. This chronic toxicity study demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of XOS is 2500 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day. Based on body surface area (conversion factor of 0.54 for dogs to human), this corresponds to daily doses of 1350 mg/kg BW or 81-108 g XOS in human adults weighing 60-80 kg. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Dog Helper's Guide: Dog Project Group Activities Grades 3-12. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08169

    Science.gov (United States)

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This final guide in the series is designed to assist in one's role of helper for youth interested in the dog project. These learn-by-doing activities can be adapted for families, classrooms, dog project meetings, after school programs, camps or other settings. In this Helper's Guide, one will find helpful information about characteristics of…

  12. The Industrial Toxics Project: Targeting chemicals for environmental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    In September, 1990, the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency committed the Agency to a program of targeting chemicals for multi-media risk reduction activities through pollution prevention. The Industrial Toxics Project will place emphasis on obtaining voluntary commitments from industry to reduce releases of toxic chemicals to the air, water, and land with a goal of reducing releases nationwide by 33% by 1992 and 50% by 1995. An initial list of 18 chemicals have been selected based on recommendations from each Agency program. The chemicals selected are subject to reporting under the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Program which will provide the basis for tracking progress. The chemicals are characterized by high production volume, toxicity and releases and present the potential for significant risk reduction through pollution prevention. This presentation will discuss the focus and direction of this new initiative

  13. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  14. [Single dose toxicity studies of calcipotriol (MC903) in rats and dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, T; Tsuruta, M; Kitagaki, T; Ono, M; Shirakawa, K; Nagata, M; Konishi, R

    1996-07-01

    A single dose toxicity of calcipotriol (MC903), an anti-psoriasic agent, administered subcutaneously (s.c.) and percutaneously (p.c.) was studied in Slc:SD rats (s.c. and p.c.) and beagle dogs (s.c.). The LD50 values of MC903 were as follows: rats, 2.19 mg/kg in males and 2.51 mg/kg in females by s.c., and more than 15 mg/kg in both sexes by p.c.; dogs, more than 1.5 mg/kg in males by p.c. No sexual difference was noted in LD50 values of rats. Death of rats was observed from 1 to 3 days after administration by both routes. Dead animals showed decreases in body weight and locomotor activity, reddish tear, abnormal gait and dirty hair by both routes. Furthermore, dead animals administered by s.c. showed salivation, nasal discharge, piloerection, ptosis, diarrhea, urorrhea, nasal and vaginal bleeding, subnormal temperature, loose stool, cyanosis, irregular and deep respirations, clonic and tonic convulsions. Survival of rats showed similar signs to those of dead animals except for nasal discharge, nasal and vaginal bleeding, cyanosis, agonal respiration and convulsion. Discoloration of the kidney, white patch of the heart and a dilatation of the stomach wall were observed on macroscopic examinations. No mortalities were observed in dogs which showed vomiting, conjunctival congestion, circumoral and auricular reddenings, periblepharal purplish reddening, decreases in locomotor activity and defecation, emaciation, eye discharge, skin desquamation of treated area and an increase in respiration. On macroscopic examination, desquamation of the skin, reddening of the circumoral mucosa, pale gray yellow striations in renal tubules of the cortex and discoloration of the thyroid were observed. Histopathological findings revealed epidermal thickening with parakeratosis, fibrocytes, hypertrophy and hypersecretion of the sebaceous and sweat glands, formation of epitheloid glanulomas and infiltration of neutrophils in the subcutaneous tissues. Furthermore, moderate calcium

  15. Subchronic Toxicities of HZ1006, a Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Beagle Dogs and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs, such as vorinostat and panobinostat, have been shown to have active effects on many hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Hydroxamate-based (Hb HDACIs have very good toxicity profiles and are currently being tested in phases I and II clinical trials with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as bladder carcinoma. One of the Hb-HDACIs, HZ1006, has been demonstrated to be a promising drug for clinical use. The aim of our study was to determine the possible target of toxicity and to identify a non-toxic dose of HZ1006 for clinical use. In our studies, the repeated dosage toxicity of HZ1006 in Beagle dogs and Sprague Dawley (SD rats was identified. Dogs and rats received HZ1006 orally (0–80 and 0–120 mg/kg/day, respectively on a continuous daily dosing agenda for 28 days following a 14-day dosage-free period. HZ1006’s NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level by daily oral administration for dogs and rats was 5 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, respectively, and the minimum toxic dose was 20 and 120 mg/kg, respectively. All the side effects indicated that the digestive tract, the male reproductive tract, the respiratory tract and the hematological systems might be HZ1006 toxic targets in humans. HZ1006 could be a good candidate or a safe succedaneum to other existing HDACIs for the treatment of some solid tumor and hematologic malignancies.

  16. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Studies to determine the effects of age at exposure on metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 have been initiated in aged beagle dogs (8.0 to 10.5 years of age at exposure). Beagle dogs have been exposed to 1.5 μm AD particles of 239 PuO 2 resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.03 to 0.76 μCi/kg body weight. Dogs exposed to the aerosol diluent serve as controls. There were four blocks exposed in the past year, one of males and three of female dogs. Nine dogs died during the year. Seven of these had radiation pneumonitis and two died of nonradiation induced diseases. The surviving dogs are as long as 538 days after exposure. There are three blocks of male dogs planned for exposure in the next 12 months

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles in beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of 90 Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs have continued during the past year to define the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90 Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90 Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. These 124 dogs were assigned to the longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly to achieve lung burdens of approximately 1.5 to 12 μCi/kg and assigned for sacrifice at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the longevity dogs, 33 dogs having initial lung burdens of 16 to 94 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 2373 days after exposure. Thirty-one dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung or heart between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The remaining exposed dogs and controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1022 to 2803 days after exposure

  18. Assessment of oral toxicity and safety of pentamethylchromanol (PMCol), a potential chemopreventative agent, in rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeblad, Matthew; Kapetanovic, Izet M.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Detrisac, Carol J.; Dinger, Nancy; Mankovskaya, Irina; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    2,2,5,7,8-Pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMCol) was administered by gavage in rats for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 100, 500, and 2000 mg/kg/day. PMCol administration induced decreases in body weight gains and food consumption, hepatotoxicity (increased TBILI, ALB, ALT, TP; increased relative liver weights; increased T4 and TSH), nephrotoxicity (increased BUN and BUN/CREAT, histopathology lesions), effect on lipid metabolism (increased CHOL), anemia, increase in WBC counts (total and differential), coagulation (FBGN↑and PT↓) and hyperkeratosis of the nonglandular stomach in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group (in one or both sexes). In the 500 mg/kg/day dose group, toxicity was seen to a lesser extent. In the 100 mg/kg/day dose group, only increased CHOL (females) was observed. To assess the toxicity of PMCol in male dogs it was administered orally by capsule administration for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg/day (four male dogs/dose group). PMCol treatment at 800 mg/kg/day resulted in pronounced toxicity to the male dogs. Target organs of toxicity were liver and thymus. Treatment at 200 mg/kg/day resulted in toxicity consistent with slight adverse effect on the liver only. The results of the safety pharmacology study indicate that doses of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg administered orally did not have an effect on the QT interval, blood pressures and body temperatures following dosing over a 24-h recording period. Under the conditions of this study, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for daily oral administration of PMCol by gavage for 28 days to male rats was 100 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg in male dogs. In female rats, the NOAEL was not established due to statistically significant and biologically meaningful increases in CHOL level seen in the 100 mg/kg/day dose group. The results of these studies indicated that administration of PMCol at higher dose levels resulted in severe toxicity in dogs and moderate toxicity in rats, however, administration at

  19. Intravenous and Subcutaneous Toxicity and Absorption Kinetics in Mice and Dogs of the Antileishmanial Triterpene Saponin PX-6518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Maes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous (IV and subcutaneous (SC toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and a single low-dose wash-out study at 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg SC and IV with follow-up until day 35 after treatment were performed in mice. Beagle dogs received three escalating doses of maesabalide-III and -IV at weekly intervals (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg IV and maesabalide-III was also dosed SC at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg. Endpoint measurements included clinical, hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Pathology and toxicokinetic studies were performed on the dogs. Whereas the neutrophils and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in the high-dose wash-out mouse study, these parameters did not change in the low-dose wash-out study. The dogs were far more susceptible than mice to liver toxicity (hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes and developed a painful inflammatory reaction at the SC injection site. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a non dose-linear systemic availability with plasma concentrations above the antileishmanial IC50 after only a single dose at 0.01 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg SC. Related to the long half-life (T1/2 71–91 h after SC dosing, repeated dosing at weekly intervals may result in drug accumulation and enhanced toxicity. It was decided not to pursue further drug development for PX-6518 because of the hepatotoxic risk.

  20. Toxicity of 239PuO2 inhaled by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles is being studied in aged Beagle dogs (8.0-10.5 yr of age at exposure). Forty-eight dogs inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 mm to achieve graded levels of initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranging from 0.02-0.66 μCi 239 Pu/kg body weight (0.75-24 kBq/kg). Twelve other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent only. All forty-eight exposed dogs have died, including two in the past year. The twelve control dogs have also died, including one in the past year. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been the primary causes of death in these aged dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . (author)

  1. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those observed in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 and 12 controls. The lung burdens in the plutonium-exposed dogs ranged from 0.00030 to 0.80 μCi/kg body weight. During the past year, two dogs died from causes apparently unrelated to radiation effects. With a median time on study of 700 days, there have not yet been any deaths related to α irradiation of the lung, even though 11 dogs have cumulative lung doses greater than 1000 rad

  2. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those observed in dogs exposed to a similar aerosol as young or aged adults. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 and 12 controls. The lung burdens of the plutonium-exposed dogs ranged from 0.00030 to 0.80 μCi/kg body weight (0.011-30 kBq/kg). No dogs died during this year. Seven dogs were diagnosed as having developing lung disease, mainly fibrosis, and one had a developing lung tumor. With 20 dogs having estimated cumulative radiation doses in excess of 1000 rad (10 Gy), the biological response of the dogs exposed as juveniles appears to be less than that seen in mature dogs. However, major uncertainties still exist in the current estimations of radiation dose, particularly regarding the local distribution of alpha radiation dose. 1 reference, 4 figures, 1 table

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 90SrCl2 in Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 90 SrCl 2 in the Beagle dog are being studied to provide a basis for assessing the consequences of inhaling 90 Sr such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to aerosols containing 90 Sr resulting in initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 μCi 90 Sr/kg body weight. To date, 60 90 Sr-exposed dogs have died or have been euthanized, six during the first 31 days after inhalation of 90 Sr with bone marrow aplasia and 54 between 585 and 5109 days after inhalation of 90 Sr. The latter group includes 32 dogs with bone-related neoplasms, two with upper respiratory tract carcinomas and five dogs with various diseases of the lower respiratory tract and heart. The other 15 dogs and diseases in organs that received little or no radiation dose, such as the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract and the central nervous system. The skeletons of the dogs dying with bone-related neoplasms received initial radiation dose rates of 3.2 to 55 rads/day and cumulative doses to death of 2800 to 22 000 rads. Fourteen control dogs have died or been euthanized, two during the last year with mammary carcinoma and intestinal lymphosarcoma. Serial observations are continuing on the six surviving 90 Sr dogs and six controls

  4. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90 Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90 Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90 Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90 Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  5. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3 months old) were exposed once by inhalation to an aerosol of 144 Ce incorporated in fused aluminosilicate particles. The influence of this age on the dose-response relationships is being compared to that of 13-month-old and 8 to 10.5-year-old dogs. This study involves 49 dogs that received graded initial lung burdens from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg (0.15 to 5200 kBq/kg) body weight and five control dogs. To date, 23 of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs and three of the controls have died. Dogs with the highest initial lung burdens of 144 Ce died during the first 4 months with radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and congestive heart failure. Pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the primary finding in dogs that died at 1.5 to 2 years after exposure. Deaths beyond that time have been due primarily to extrapulmonary hemangiosarcomas. Observations are continuing on the surviving 26 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs at 8.0 to 12.2 years after exposure. 2 figures, 1 table

  6. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles are being investigated in the beagle dog to assess the long-term biological consequences of release of relatively insoluble aerosol forms of 144 Ce that could occur in nuclear accidents. The effects resulting from the relatively protracted radiation dose patterns to the lung from this form of 144 Ce are being compared with effects of other radiation dose patterns to the lung. One hundred eleven dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to 210 μCi/kg body weight and 15 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 65 144 Ce-exposed and 2 control dogs have died or were euthanized at 143 to 4578 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 17 dogs that died at early times and neoplastic disease in 39 of the 48 dogs that died 750 days or later. Observations are continuing on the 46 144 Ce-exposed and 13 control dogs remaining alive at this time, at least 3337 days after exposure

  7. Anisocoria in the dog provoked by a toxic contact with an ornamental plant: Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Philippe; Clerc, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    We report an unusual case of anisocoria in the dog provoked by Datura stramonium, and an experimental clinical assay to reproduce the anisocoria using simple contact with part of the plant in four healthy dogs. Any part of the D. stramonium plant produced anisocoria following simple contact with the eye.

  8. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in Beagle dogs. XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.; Redman, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of intravenously administered 137 CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biologic consequences of exposure to 137 Cs that might occur in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposures produced by 137 Cs are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. Fifty-four of the dogs that were injected with 237 CsCl have died, as have eight control dogs; four exposed and two control dogs died during the past year. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving four control dogs

  9. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of 144 Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 μCi/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 144 Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  10. Toxicity of inhaled 90SrCl2 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R. K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 90 SrCl 2 in the Beagle dog are continuing in an effort to provide a basis for assessing the consequences of inhaling 90 Sr such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to aerosols containing 90 Sr resulting in initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 μCi 90 Sr/kg body weight. Forty-eight of these dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Twenty-five unexposed dogs serve as controls. The long-term retained burden (LTRB) in these dogs ranged from 1 to 120 μCi 90 Sr/kg. Twenty-four dogs with a mean LTRB of 38 μCi 90 Sr/kg have been assigned to a sacrifice study. Two of these dogs and one control dog were sacrificed at five days, one month and one year after inhalation of 90 Sr. To date, 51 90 Sr-exposed dogs have died or have been euthanized, six during the first 31 days after inhalation of 90 Sr with bone marrow aplasia and 45 between 585 and 4236 days after inhalation of 90 Sr. The latter group includes 12 dogs with bone-related hemangiosarcomas, 16 with osteosarcomas, three with fibrosarcomas, three with osteochondrosarcomas, one with osteochondrofibrosarcoma, two with leukemia, one with a baso-squamous carcinoma of the skull, one with a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla, one with a squamous cell carcinoma of the frontal sinus, one with a hemangiosarcoma of the heart, one with a myxosarcoma of the skull, one with transitional cell carcinoma, one with bronchioalveolar carcinoma, one with an epileptic seizure, one with pneumonia, one with cerebellar hemorrhage and three with a malabsorption syndrome

  11. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of 90 Sr and 226 Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90 Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90 Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226 Ra. Although administration of 90 Sr and 226 Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90 Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90 Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  12. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of 90 Sr and 226 Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90 Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90 Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226 Ra. Although administration of 90 Sr and 226 Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90 Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90 Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  13. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in the beagle dog. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustgarten, C.S.; Hobbs, C.H.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.; Redman, H.C.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of intravenously administered 137 CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biologic consequences of exposure to 137 Cs such as might occur in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposure produced by 137 Cs are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. Sixty-six dogs were entered into the study; 6 with a mean initial 137 Cs body burden of 3780 μCi/kg, and 5 groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial 137 Cs body burdens of 2820, 1940, 1420, 970, and 0 μCi/kg. All six of the highest level dogs died 19 to 33 days post-injection with cumulative whole-body doses of 950 to 1400 rads. Three dogs in the 2820 μCi/kg level died at 24 to 27 days post-injection with cumulative whole-body doses of 860 to 910 rads. One dog in the 2820 μCi/kg level and one dog in the 1940 μCi/kg level died at 77 and 81 days after injection with cumulative whole-body doses of 1300 to 1400 rads. These early deaths were attributed to severe bone marrow damage which was reflected in an early dose related pancytopenia. A dog injected with 1900 μCi/ 137 Cs/kg died 693 days post-injection with necropsy findings attributed to shock. A dog injected with 2800 μCi/kg died 1594 days post-injection with aspiration pneumonia and a dog with 2900 μCi/kg was euthanized 1704 days post-injection with severe arthritis. A control dog died 647 days after initiation of the study with clinicopathological manifestations of auto-immune hemolytic anemia. Forty 137 Cs dogs and 11 controls are surviving at 2047 to 2301 days after being placed on experiment. The surviving 137 Cs dogs had initial body burdens that ranged from 880 to 3000 μCi/kg and received cumulative whole-body doses of 550 to 2200 rads. Serial observations are continuing on all survivors. (U.S.)

  14. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanika-Rebar, C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (approx. = 3 months of age at exposure) have been exposed by inhalation to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to compare the resulting patterns of metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects with those seen in dogs exposed at 12 and 14 months of age and at 8 to 10.5 years of age. Five blocks of longevity animals, each consisting of 10 exposed dogs and one control, are currently being studied. The initial lung burdens of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs range from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Three dogs with initial lung burdens of 73 to 120 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 66 to 121 days after exposure with pulmonary injury and congestive heart failure. One dog with an initial lung burden of 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 91 days after exposure with severe radiation pneumonitis and minimal pulmonary fibrosis and another dog whose initial lung burden was 70 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 511 days after exposure with pulmonary injury that was mainly fibrotic in nature. Four dogs with initial lung burdens of 52 to 79 μCi/kg body weight had primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas and died between 618 and 738 days, with cumulative average absorbed beta doses to lung of 23,000 to 31,000 rads. Two of these dogs, 1027S and 1024D, died within the past year. One dog with an initial lung burden of 28 μCi/kg body weight was euthanized at 1227 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the mediastinum. Within the past year, Dog 627S, with an initial lung burden of 48 μCi/kg body weight, died 1732 days after exposure with hemangiosarcoma primary in the liver or spleen. A dog with an initial lung burden of 12 μCi/kg body weight died from epilepsy at 1520 days after exposure. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving 37 exposed and five control dogs

  15. Toxicity of inhaled 90Y in fused clay particles in beagle dogs. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, C.H.; Chiffelle, T.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Jones, R.K.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 90 Y in fused clay in the Beagle dog are being continued to assess the consequences of inhalation of an energetic beta emitter that has a short effective half-life in the lung. A radiation dose pattern study in which 12 dogs were sacrificed in pairs at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 days post-inhalation exposure has been completed. A longevity study in which 89 dogs have been exposed to 90 Y fused clay with initial lung burdens ranging from 80 to 5200 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused clay is in progress. The 90 Y was retained in lung with a half-life similar to its physical half-life (64 hours) and with only small quantities translocated to tracheobronchial lymph nodes, skeleton, and liver. The infinite radiation doses to lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, skeleton, and liver for an initial lung burden of 100 μCi 90 Y/kg of body weight were estimated to be 1600, 170, 0.54, and 0.38 rads, respectively. Thirty-eight of 39 dogs with doses to lung from 9300 to 70,000 rads have died at 7.5 to 903 days post-exposure. The one surviving dog in this dose range has radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis at 1316 days post-exposure. All the dogs that died had radiation pneumonitis. The dog that died at 903 days post-exposure with a dose to lung of 11,000 rads also had 2 small pulmonary adenomas. Fifty exposed dogs with doses to lung of 1300 to 7900 rads are surviving with no significant abnormalities at 1278 to 1834 days post-exposure and will be studied for the remainder of their lifespan. (U.S.)

  16. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Merickel, B.S.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the resulting patterns of deposition, retention, dosimetry and biological effects from a single inhalation exposure to a relatively insoluble form of a beta-emitting radionuclide with a relatively long physical half-life is being investigated. Immature Beagle dogs (3 months of age) have been exposed once, by inhalation, to an aerosol of 144 Ce incorporated in fused aluminosilicate particles. Eighteen of these dogs were serially sacrificed to study the patterns of deposition, retention and dosimetry and the remaining 49 dogs received graded initial lung burdens that ranged from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and are being observed over their life span for study of the resulting long-term biological effects. Five control dogs are also included in this study. To date, 13 of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs in the longevity study and none of the controls have died. Dogs with the highest initial lung burdens of 144 Ce died first (during the first 4 months) with radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis and congestive heart failure. Pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the primary finding in dogs that died at 1.5 to 2 years after exposure. Deaths beyond that time have primarily involved extrapulmonary hemangiosarcomas. One dog, 627B, with an initial lung burden of 24 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died during the past year at 2341 days after exposure with a widely disseminated hemangiosarcoma showing heavy involvement of the liver and skin. Observations are continuing on the surviving 36 144 Ce-exposed and five control dogs

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr fused clay particles in beagle dogs. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of 90 Sr in fused clay particles in Beagle dogs have continued with a view toward defining the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a relatively insoluble form. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused montmorillonite clay particles labeled with 90 Sr to achieve graded initial lung burdens (ILB) of 3.7 to 94 μCi/kg body weight; 12 control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused clay particles. These 84 dogs were assigned to the 90 Sr fused clay longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly (AMAD 1.9 to 2.5 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.6 to 2.0) and assigned for sacrifice (Series II) at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the 72 longevity dogs, 32 dogs having ILBs of 29 to 94 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 477 days post-exposure. Fourteen dogs with ILBs of 15 to 36 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 34,000 to 68,000 rads have died from primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas between 644 and 1214 days post-exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma, another epidermoid carcinoma of the lung and a third, a squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity. The remaining 26 exposed dogs and 12 controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1070 to 1707 days post-exposure. Dogs in the sacrifice series have been sacrificed to 1536 days post-exposure. (U.S.)

  18. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the biological effects of 90 Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs are being conducted to define the biological consequences of inhaling this radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90 Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90 Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 34 dogs having initial lung burdens of 8.9 to 94 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 33,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis between 159 and 2596 days after exposure. Twenty-nine dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung, heart or mediastinum between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. During the past year one dog was euthanized 2753 days after exposure (34,000 rads lung dose) as a result of an hemangiosarcoma which developed in a rib and spread widely. Another dog died 2830 days after exposure (35,000 rads lung dose) with a squamous cell carcinoma in the lung. An additional dog was euthanized 2636 days after exposure (12,000 rads lung dose) with widespread hemangiosarcoma of unknown origin. The remaining 36 exposed dogs and 18 controls are surviving at 1387 to 3168 days after exposure

  19. Toxicity of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Lustgarten, C.S.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 144 CeCl 3 in the Beagle dog are continuing to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of inhaling 144 Ce such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Studies on the tissue distribution of inhaled 144 CeCl 3 have shown that the 144 Ce deposited in lung is translocated at a moderately rapid rate to liver and skeleton and that significant radiation doses are accumulated by all three organs. Fifty-five dogs that inhaled 144 CeCl 3 and 15 control dogs were placed in a longevity study and are being observed for their lifespan. The 144 Ce dogs had long-term retained burdens with values ranging from 20 to 2900 μCi. Thirty-one of the dogs exposed to 144 CeCl 3 have died; 8 at 21 to 44 days after inhalation with signs attributed to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia; 2 at 138 and 144 days with radiation pneumonitis; 3 at 309 to 874 days with hepatic necrosis; 1 at 510 days with marrow aplasia; 1 at 375 days with pulmonary fibrosis; and 16 at 799 to 3081 days, most with neoplasms or myeloproliferative disorders. In this last group, 1 dog had an osteosarcoma, 3 had squamous cell carcinomas of the maxilla, 2 of the latter also having primary pulmonary neoplasms, 5 had hemangiosarcomas of the liver, 1 had a hemangiosarcoma of the nasal cavity, 2 had myelogenous leukemia, 1 had myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, 1 had spinal cord ependymomas, and 2 did not have neoplasms. One of these had severe myelomalacia and the other diffuse hepatic lipidosis with severe degeneration. Two controls died; 1 with a thyroid carcinoma and 1 with aspiration pneumonia. Serial observations are continuing on the 24 surviving 144 CeCl 3 dogs and 13 control dogs. (U.S.)

  20. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  1. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  2. Toxicity of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebar, A.H.; Merickel, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 144 CeCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being conducted to assess the biological consequences of inhaling 144 Ce such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Studies on the organ distribution of inhaled 144 CeCl 3 have shown that the 144 Ce deposited in the lung is translocated at a moderately rapid rate to liver and skeleton and that significant radiation doses are accumulated by all three organs. Fifty-five dogs that inhaled 144 CeCl 3 and 15 control dogs are being observed for their life span. The 144 Ce dogs have long-term retained burdens with values ranging from 20 to 2900 μCi. Forty-five of the dogs exposed to 144 CeCl 3 have died; eight from 21 to 44 days after inhalation with severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia; two at 138 and 144 days with radiation pneumonitis; three from 309 to 874 days with hepatic necrosis; one at 510 days with marrow aplasia; one at 375 days with pulmonary fibrosis; and 30 from 799 to 4085 days, most with neoplasms or myeloproliferative disorders. In this last group, one dog had an osteosarcoma, five had squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal cavity (two also having primary pulmonary neoplasms), six had hemangiosarcomas of the liver, one had a hemangiosarcoma of the nasal cavity, two had myelogenous leukemia, one had myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, one had spinal cord ependymomas, one had a malignant melanoma (also an ependymoma) and two had mammary adenocarcinomas. Three dogs had primary pulmonary neoplasms including two with bronchogenic adenocarcinomas and one with an adenoma. Seven did not have malignant neoplasms. Two of these had severe myelomalacia, one had pulmonary edema, three had congestive heart failure and one had diffuse hepatic lipidosis with severe hepatic degeneration

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 144CeCl3 in Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merickel, B.S.; Rebar, A.H.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 144 CeCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being conducted to assess the biological consequences of inhaling 144 Ce such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Studies on the organ distribution of inhaled 144 CeCl 3 have shown that the 144 Ce deposited in the lung is translocated at a moderately rapid rate to liver and skeleton and that significant radiation doses are accumulated by all three organs. Fifty-five dogs that inhaled 144 CeCl 3 and 15 control dogs are being observed for their life span. The 144 Ce-exposed dogs had long-term retained burdens that ranged from 2.6 to 360 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Forty-eight of the dogs exposed to 144 CeCl 3 have died; eight from 21 to 44 days after inhalation with severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia; two at 138 and 144 days with radiation pneumonitis; three from 309 to 874 days with hepatic necrosis; one at 510 days with bone marrow aplasia; one at 375 days with pulmonary fibrosis; and 33 from 799 to 4474 days, most with neoplasms or myeloproliferative disorders. Seven did not have malignant neoplasms; two of these had severe myelomalacia, one had pulmonary edema, three had congestive heart failure and one had diffuse hepatic lipidosis with severe hepatic degeneration. Five controls have died, one with a thyroid carcinoma, one with aspiration pneumonia, one with renal amyloidosis, one because of accidental asphyxiation and one with spinal cord degeneration. Serial observations are continuing on the nine surviving exposed dogs and ten control dogs

  4. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Challenges arise in the propulsion systems for the new exploration architecture. The currently operational and proven storable hypergolic systems raise toxicity...

  5. Dose rate-dependent marrow toxicity of TBI in dogs and marrow sparing effect at high dose rate by dose fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storb, R; Raff, R F; Graham, T; Appelbaum, F R; Deeg, H J; Schuening, F G; Sale, G; Seidel, K

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the marrow toxicity of 200 and 300 cGy total-body irradiation (TBI) delivered at 10 and 60 cGy/min, respectively, in dogs not rescued by marrow transplant. Additionally, we compared toxicities after 300 cGy fractionated TBI (100 cGy fractions) to that after single-dose TBI at 10 and 60 cGy/min. Marrow toxicities were assessed on the basis of peripheral blood cell count changes and mortality from radiation-induced pancytopenia. TBI doses studied were just below the dose at which all dogs die despite optimal support. Specifically, 18 dogs were given single doses of 200 cGy TBI, delivered at either 10 (n=13) or 60 (n=5) cGy/min. Thirty-one dogs received 300 cGy TBI at 10 cGy/min, delivered as either single doses (n=21) or three fractions of 100 cGy each (n=10). Seventeen dogs were given 300 cGy TBI at 60 cGy/min, administered either as single doses (n=5) or three fractions of 100 cGy each (n=10). Within the limitations of the experimental design, three conclusions were drawn: 1) with 200 and 300 cGy single-dose TBI, an increase of dose rate from 10 to 60 cGy/min, respectively, caused significant increases in marrow toxicity; 2) at 60 cGy/min, dose fractionation resulted in a significant decrease in marrow toxicities, whereas such a protective effect was not seen at 10 cGy/min; and 3) with fractionated TBI, no significant differences in marrow toxicity were seen between dogs irradiated at 60 and 10 cGy/min. The reduced effectiveness of TBI when a dose of 300 cGy was divided into three fractions of 100 cGy or when dose rate was reduced from 60 cGy/min to 10 cGy/min was consistent with models of radiation toxicity that allow for repair of sublethal injury in DNA.

  6. Managing air toxics: Status of EPRI's PISCES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, W.; Levin, L.; Miller, M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants (1). This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  7. Unilateral Subconjunctival and Retrobulbar Hemorrhage Secondary to Brodifacoum Toxicity in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia E. Kuhn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for an acute onset of bleeding around the left eye. Mild exophthalmos and massive subconjunctival hemorrhage on the globe and nictitating membrane were present in the left eye. Retrobulbar hemorrhage was suspected, and pain was implied on opening of the mouth because the patient resisted and vocalized. No other abnormalities were found on ophthalmic or physical examination. Further questioning of the owner confirmed potential brodifacoum ingestion, and prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were both markedly elevated. Treatment with oral vitamin K1 was implemented, and the subconjunctival hemorrhage was significantly improved within a few days of instituting treatment. All clinical signs of coagulopathy were completely resolved within 4 weeks of presentation. Coagulopathy secondary to brodifacoum ingestion can manifest as severe unilateral bulbar and nictitating membrane subconjunctival hemorrhage and exophthalmos due to retrobulbar hemorrhage without other clinical signs.

  8. Preliminary report of toxicity following 3D radiation therapy for prostate cancer on 3DOG/RTOG 9406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Purdy, James A.; Winter, Kathryn; Roach, Mack; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Sandler, Howard M.; Markoe, Arnold M.; Ritter, Mark A.; Russell, Kenneth J.; Sailer, Scott; Harms, William B.; Perez, Carlos A.; Wilder, Richard B.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Cox, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective Phase I dose escalation study was conducted to determine the maximally-tolerated radiation dose in men treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) for localized prostate cancer. This is a preliminary report of toxicity encountered on the 3DOG/RTOG 9406 study. Methods and Materials: Each participating institution was required to implement data exchange with the RTOG 3D quality assurance (QA) center at Washington University in St. Louis. 3D CRT capabilities were strictly defined within the study protocol. Patients were registered according to three stratification groups: Group 1 patients had clinically organ-confined disease (T1,2) with a calculated risk of seminal vesicle invasion of < 15%. Group 2 patients had clinical T1,2 disease with risk of SV invasion ≥ 15%. Group 3 (G3) patients had clinical local extension of tumor beyond the prostate capsule (T3). All patients were treated with 3D techniques with minimum doses prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). The PTV margins were 5-10 mm around the prostate for patients in Group 1 and 5-10 mm around the prostate and SV for Group 2. After 55.8 Gy, the PTV was reduced in Group 2 patients to 5-10 mm around the prostate only. Minimum prescription dose began at 68.4 Gy (level I) and was escalated to 73.8 Gy (level II) and subsequently to 79.2 Gy (level III). This report describes the acute and late toxicity encountered in Group 1 and 2 patients treated to the first two study dose levels. Data from RTOG 7506 and 7706 allowed calculation of the expected probability of observing a ≥ grade 3 late effect more than 120 days after the start of treatment. RTOG toxicity scores were used. Results: Between August 23, 1994 and July 2, 1997, 304 Group 1 and 2 cases were registered; 288 cases were analyzable for toxicity. Acute toxicity was low, with 53-54% of Group 1 patients having either no or grade 1 toxicity at dose levels I and II, respectively. Sixty-two percent of Group

  9. Identification and characterization of toxicity of contaminants in pet food leading to an outbreak of renal toxicity in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Roy L M; Motlagh, Safa; Quijano, Mike; Cambron, R Thomas; Baker, Timothy R; Pullen, Aletha M; Regg, Brian T; Bigalow-Kern, Adrienne S; Vennard, Thomas; Fix, Andrew; Reimschuessel, Renate; Overmann, Gary; Shan, Yuching; Daston, George P

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes research relating to the major recall of pet food that occurred in Spring 2007 in North America. Clinical observations of acute renal failure in cats and dogs were associated with consumption of wet pet food produced by a contract manufacturer producing for a large number of companies. The affected lots of food had been formulated with wheat gluten originating from China. Pet food and gluten were analyzed for contaminants using several configurations of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS), which revealed a number of simple triazine compounds, principally melamine and cyanuric acid, with lower concentrations of ammeline, ammelide, ureidomelamine, and N-methylmelamine. Melamine and cyanuric acid, have been tested and do not produce acute renal toxicity. Some of the triazines have poor solubility, as does the compound melamine cyanurate. Pathological evaluation of cats and dogs that had died from the acute renal failure indicated the presence of crystals in kidney tubules. We hypothesized that these crystals were composed of the poorly soluble triazines, a melamine-cyanuric acid complex, or a combination. Sprague dawley rats were given up to 100 mg/kg ammeline or ammelide alone, a mixture of melamine and cyanuric acid (400/400 mg/kg/day), or a mixture of all four compounds (400 mg/kg/day melamine, 40 mg/kg/day of the others). Neither ammeline nor ammelide alone produced any renal effects, but the mixtures produced significant renal damage and crystals in nephrons. HPLC-MS/MS confirmed the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid in the kidney. Infrared microspectroscopy on individual crystals from rat or cat (donated material from a veterinary clinic) kidneys confirmed that they were melamine-cyanuric acid cocrystals. Crystals from contaminated gluten produced comparable spectra. These results establish the causal link between the contaminated gluten and the adverse effects and provide a mechanistic explanation

  10. Intra-articular administration of lidocaine plus adrenaline in dogs: Pharmacokinetic profile and evaluation of toxicity in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, A; Chiaradia, E; della Rocca, G; Mancini, F; Galarini, R; Giusepponi, D; De Monte, V; Cagnardi, P; Marenzoni, M L; Bufalari, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of intra-articular (IA) lidocaine plus adrenaline for improving peri-operative analgesia in anaesthetized dogs undergoing arthroscopy of the elbow. A solution of lidocaine (L) 1.98% plus adrenaline 1:100.000 was administered via the IA route and its safety evaluated in terms of cardio-, neuro-, and chondro-toxicity. No bradycardia or hypotension was recorded from induction to the last observational time point. Signs of toxicity of the nervous system could have been masked by the general anaesthesia but lidocaine concentrations detected in the blood were lower than those thought to be capable of producing toxicity. The assessment of in vitro chondrotoxicity showed a dose- and time-dependent effect of lidocaine on the viability of articular cells. Adrenaline appeared to reduce the chondrotoxicity of 1% lidocaine, following an exposure of up to 30 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The tail wags the dog: managing large telescope construction projects with lagging requirements and creeping scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In a perfect world, large telescopes would be developed and built in logical, sequential order. First, scientific requirements would be agreed upon, vetted, and fully developed. From these, instrument designers would define their own subsystem requirements and specifications, and then flesh out preliminary designs. This in turn would then allow optic designers to specify lens and mirror requirements, which would permit telescope mounts and drives to be designed. Finally, software and safety systems, enclosures and domes, buildings, foundations, and infrastructures would be specified and developed. Unfortunately, the order of most large telescope projects is the opposite of this sequence. We don't live in a perfect world. Scientists usually don't want to commit to operational requirements until late in the design process, instrument designers frequently change and update their designs due to improving filter and camera technologies, and mount and optics engineers seem to live by the words "more" and "better" throughout their own design processes. Amplifying this is the fact that site construction of buildings and domes are usually the earliest critical path items on the schedule, and are often subject to lengthy permitting and environmental processes. These facility and support items therefore must quickly get underway, often before operational requirements are fully considered. Mirrors and mounts also have very long lead times for fabrication, which in turn necessitates that they are specified and purchased early. All of these factors can result in expensive and time-consuming change orders when requirements are finalized and/or shift late in the process. This paper discusses some of these issues encountered on large, multi-year construction projects. It also presents some techniques and ideas to minimize these effects on schedule and cost. Included is a discussion on the role of Interface Control Documents (ICDs), the importance (and danger) of making big

  12. The ChemScreen project to design a pragmatic alternative approachto predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, B.; Wedebye, E.B.; Dietrich, D.R.; Jaworska, J.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Paune, E.; Schwarz, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid testing strategies for reproductive toxicity testing, avoiding animal use.The EU Framework program 7 project ChemScreen aimed to fill this gap in a pragmatic manner prefer-ably using validated existing tools and place them in an innovative alternative testing

  13. Canada's toxic tar sands : the most destructive project on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.; Price, M. [Environmental Defence, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    This document addressed the environmental problems associated with tar sands development in Alberta, with particular reference to toxicity problems associated with global warming and the impending destruction of the boreal forest. The authors cautioned that the tar sand projects are highly destructive, leaving downstream toxics equivalent to that of a massive slow motion oil spill that has the potential to poison people. Negligent oversights by the government regarding the impact of tar sands development were also discussed, with reference to toxics on site; toxics downwind; and toxics down the pipe. The report also provided information on the future of tar sands development and global warming in Canada. It included a discussion of reverse alchemy; Canada's failed climate politics; a tar sands tax; and taking responsibility. Last, the report addressed toxic enforcement, including the Fisheries Act; Canadian Environmental Protection Act; Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; and Alberta law. It was concluded that while it is a stretch to believe the tar sands can truly be sustainable, there is a great deal that can be done to clean it up. The authors recommended that new tar sands approvals should wait until certain reform elements are implemented, such as passing a real carbon cap; using dry tailings; requiring wildlife offsets; cleaning up refineries and upgraders; ensuring Aboriginal control and benefit; and having regulation and independent monitoring. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Novel Pharmaceutical Strontium Malonate Influence on Calcium and Strontium Adsorption by Dog Femur and by Dog Teeth in a Four-Week Toxicity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Christgau, Stephan; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    Strontium is known to have a positive effect on bone by concomitantly increasing bone formation while decreasing bone resorption thereby providing a sustained skeletal benefit. Strontium malonate is being developed as a novel orally available pharmaceutical for the treatment and prevention...... of osteoporosis. As part of this development the compound was administered in doses of 0 (placebo), 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day to beagle dogs for a period of 4 weeks. We measured the incorporation of strontium in bone, marrow and teeth in this study. Analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... showed that administration of strontium malonate caused a significant increase in the strontium contents of all three kinds of tissue. Bone samples showed an approximately 80 fold increase in strontium content in the dogs treated with 300 mg/kg/day compared to placebo. The higher dose groups showed only...

  15. GMP-grade α-TEA lysine salt: a 28-Day oral toxicity and toxicokinetic study with a 28-Day recovery period in Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrouahen, Bella S.; Hahn, Tobias; Alderman, Zefora; Curti, Brendan; Urba, Walter; Akporiaye, Emmanuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (α-TEA) is a semi-synthetic derivative of naturally occurring vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) that can be delivered via an oral route. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that α-TEA is a potent anti-tumor agent with a safe toxicity profile in mice. We report a comprehensive study to evaluate the toxokinetics of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade α-TEA in dogs after daily oral administration for 28 days, followed by a 28-day recovery period. Male and female beagle dogs received capsules of α-TEA Lysine Salt at doses of 100, 300, 1500 mg/kg/day. α-TEA plasma levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass spectrometric detection. During the treatment, animals were observe for clinical signs, food consumption, body weight, and subjected to ophthalmoscopic, and electrocardiographic assessments. At the end of the dosing period, blood was taken and toxicokinetic analyses and histopathology assessments were performed when animals were necropsied. Our findings showed that there was no α-TEA-related mortality or moribundity. At the highest dose, increases in white blood cells and fibrinogen levels were observed. These levels returned to normal at the end of the recovery period. Histopathological evaluation of major organs revealed no significant lesions related to α-TEA-treatment. We demonstrate that for designing clinical trials in patients, the highest non-severely toxic dose (HNSTD) of α-TEA is 1500 mg/kg/day in Beagle dogs and this data informed the design of dose-escalation studies of α-TEA in patients with advanced cancer

  16. Additives for reducing the toxicity of respirable crystalline silica. SILIFE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Eliseo; López-Lilao, Ana; Escrig, Alberto; Jesus Ibáñez, Maria; Bonvicini, Guliana; Creutzenberg, Otto; Ziemann, Christina

    2017-10-01

    Prolonged inhalation of crystalline silica particles has long been known to cause lung inflammation and development of the granulomatous and a fibrogenic lung disease known as silicosis. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) in the form of quartz and cristobalite from occupational sources as carcinogenic for humans (category 1). In this regard, numerous studies suggest that the toxicity of quartz is conditioned by the surface chemistry of the quartz particles and by the density and abundance of silanol groups. Blocking these groups to avoid their interaction with cellular membranes would theoretically be possible in order to reduce or even to eliminate the toxic effect. In this regard, the main contribution of the presented research is the development of detoxifying processes based on coating technologies at industrial scale, since the previous studies reported on literature were carried out at lab scale. The results obtained in two European projects showed that the wet method to obtain quartz surface coatings (SILICOAT project) allows a good efficiency in inhibiting the silica toxicity, and the preliminary results obtained in an ongoing project (SILIFE) suggest that the developed dry method to coat quartz surface is also very promising. The development of both coating technologies (wet and a dry) should allow these coating technologies to be applied to a high variety of industrial activities in which quartz is processed. For this reason, a lot of end-users of quartz powders will be potentially benefited from a reduced risk associated to the exposure to RCS.

  17. Analysis of explosion-induced releases of toxic materials at an environmental restoration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.G.; Moon, W.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to 1988, a variety of materials were buried on the US DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Records of the disposal operations are incomplete and toxic materials may have been placed adjacent to potential explosives. One of the safety concerns in conducting an environmental restoration project at the burial sites, is the possibility of an explosion which could release toxic materials to the atmosphere. A safety analysis examined the consequences of such releases by first postulating an upper bound for the strength of an explosive. A correlation, developed by Steindler and Seefeldt of Argonne National Laboratory, was then used to estimate the amount and particle-size distribution of the material that could become airborne from the explosion. The estimated amount of airborne material was the source term in an atmospheric dispersion model which was used to calculate infinite-time, concentration-time integrals and 5-minute, time- weighted average concentrations at locations down-wind from the explosion. The dispersion model includes particle deposition as a function of particle-size distribution class. The concentration-time integrals and average concentrations were compared to published guidelines to assess the consequences of an accidental explosion

  18. Understanding toxicity at the watershed scale : design of the Syncrude Sandhill Fen watershed research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wytrykush, C.

    2010-01-01

    Fens are peat-accumulating wetlands with a water table consisting of mineral-rich ground or surface water. This study discussed the construction of a fen-type reclaimed wetland constructed in a post-mining oil sands landscape. Syncrude Canada's Sandhill fen watershed project represents the first attempt at constructing a fen wetland in the oil sands region. The wetland and its watershed will be constructed on a soft tailings deposit. The design basis for the fen and watershed was developed by a team of researchers and scientists. The aim of the fen design was to control the salinity caused by tailings consolidation and seepage over time. Methods of mitigating potentially toxic effects from salinity were discussed.

  19. Characterization of federated oil fractions used for the PTAC project to study the petroleum fraction-specific toxicity to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Jokuty, P.; Fingas, M.; Sigouin, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada (PTAC) and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) launched an important research project for the oil and gas industry entitled A Fraction-Specific Toxicity and Derivation of Recommended Soil Quality Guidelines for Crude Oil in Agricultural Soils. The objective was to generate useful and relevant data that could be used to develop soil quality guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbon residuals in agricultural soils. The oil used in the study was Federated crude oil which was fractionated into four fractions using a distillation method. The fraction-based approach was used to support ecologically-relevant, risk-based, soil quality criteria for the protection of environmental health. This paper presented the nominal carbon number and boiling point ranges of these fractions and described the distillation procedures for producing the fractions from the Federated crude oil. The paper also presented the detailed chemical characterization results of each distillation fraction. The toxicity of the crude oil mixture to plants and soil invertebrates was also assessed using standardized toxicity tests. Tests were also conducted to assess the toxicity of fractions of the crude oil and the toxic interactions of the fractions responsible for a significant proportion of the toxicity. Phase 2 of the project was designed to determine if hydrocarbon residuals exceeding 1000 μg/g and weathered for short or long periods of time, posed an ecotoxicological risk or impaired soil physical, chemical and biological properties such that productivity of the agricultural soils was compromised. The objectives of phase 2 were to amend differently textured soils in field plots at sites with fresh crude oil and to monitor their toxicity to terrestrial organisms using laboratory-based ecotoxicity tests. The study showed that because of the nature of the chemical composition of hydrocarbons (such as boiling points, nominal carbon range

  20. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  1. Portable Sensor for Rapid In Situ Measurement of Trace Toxic Metals in Water Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a sensor to detect select trace toxic heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in water is proposed. Using an automatic side-stream sampling technique,...

  2. Recipes for Semantic Web Dog Food — The ESWC and ISWC Metadata Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Knud; Heath, Tom; Handschuh, Siegfried; Domingue, John

    Semantic Web conferences such as ESWC and ISWC offer prime opportunities to test and showcase semantic technologies. Conference metadata about people, papers and talks is diverse in nature and neither too small to be uninteresting or too big to be unmanageable. Many metadata-related challenges that may arise in the Semantic Web at large are also present here. Metadata must be generated from sources which are often unstructured and hard to process, and may originate from many different players, therefore suitable workflows must be established. Moreover, the generated metadata must use appropriate formats and vocabularies, and be served in a way that is consistent with the principles of linked data. This paper reports on the metadata efforts from ESWC and ISWC, identifies specific issues and barriers encountered during the projects, and discusses how these were approached. Recommendations are made as to how these may be addressed in the future, and we discuss how these solutions may generalize to metadata production for the Semantic Web at large.

  3. Aspects of inhaled DTPA toxicity in the rat, hamster and beagle dog and treatment effectiveness for excorporation of Pu from the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Lund, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Busch, R.H.; Hackett, P.L.; Willard, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    After inhaling 1 to 4 HD (human dose equivalents, i.e., 1 g calcium trisodium N,N-bis (2-bis(carboxymethyl)amino) ethyl) glycinate/70 kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA rats and hamsters developed a transitory vesicular emphysema. This was not found in animals sacrificed later than 3 weeks after the last exposure. Dogs were anesthetised and administered Ca-DTPA aerosols via an intratracheal catheter for 30 min/day for 5 days. The average dose/exposure was 4 HD. One week following the last exposure, 3/4 treated dogs and 0/2 dogs exposed to saline aerosols showed enlargement and submucosal lymphoid follicles in the pyloric region of the stomach; this was not present in dogs sacrificed at 4, 8 or 18 weeks postexposure. Epithelial atypia in the alveolar lining was noted in 5/16 dogs inhaling Ca-DTPA and in 1/8 dogs exposed to saline aerosols, and may or may not be treatment-related. Rats receiving 1.2 μCi 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 intramuscularly were treated promptly with 1.2 HD inhaled or intraperitoneally injected Ca-DTPA. The two methods of Ca-DTPA administration gave statistically identical Pu excorporation. Similar treatments initiated 8 months following the Pu injection also showed no effect of administration route. These experiments and implications for the safety and efficacy of inhaled Ca-DTPA as treatment for transuranic incorporations in man are discussed

  4. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of first year, December 16, 1989--December 15, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1990-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  5. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Progress report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  7. Does Adipose-derived Stromal Cell Adjuvant Therapy for Fragmented Medial Coronoid Process in Dogs Influence Outcome? A Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Kiefer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study was to identify adverse events associated with multiple intra-articular injections of adipose stromal cell (ASC therapy and secondarily to objectively assess the therapeutic effect of ASC therapy for treatment of fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP in dogs when used as an adjuvant to standard of care (SOC treatment. Background: Preliminary trials assessing autologous ASC therapy to treat osteoarthritis indicate a positive impact on clinical signs, but assessment of donated, allogeneic ASC therapy is lacking.Evidentiary value: This prospective, randomised, controlled trial in dogs (n=30 provides objective evidence for clinical practitioners regarding ASC therapy in a naturally occurring osteoarthritic disease model.Methods: Dogs diagnosed with FMCP and osteoarthritis were enrolled. All dogs had arthroscopic fragment removal and proximal ulnar osteotomy (PUO and were assigned into three groups (n=10/group: 1 control group with no further treatment beyond the PUO and fragment removal (SOC, 2 PUO + autologous ASCs and 3 PUO+ allogeneic ASCs. Each dog had force platform gait analysis, Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI questionnaires, and delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scores prior to and six months after therapeutic intervention.Results: No serious adverse events were reported in any participant. 3/10 dogs in the control group, 3/10 autologous ASC group and 7/10 allogeneic ASC group participants were assessed as successful outcomes.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary safety data for the use of intra-articular allogeneic ASC therapy to treat osteoarthritis, and justification for larger clinical studies.Application: Clinical practitioners considering ASC therapy within their practice are provided with additional evidence of autologous ASC therapy for osteoarthritis. Researchers committed to developing and generating effective ASC therapies are provided with safety

  8. The toxic effects of cigarette additives. Philip Morris' project mix reconsidered: an analysis of documents released through litigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S Wertz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations.We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as "Project MIX." Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001. These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect.The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The results demonstrate that toxins in

  9. The toxic effects of cigarette additives. Philip Morris' project mix reconsidered: an analysis of documents released through litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Marcia S; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as "Project MIX." Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The results demonstrate that toxins in cigarette smoke

  10. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  11. Radiation toxicity studies in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Carnes, B.A.; Duggal, K.

    1985-01-01

    These studies provide data that identify tissue sensitivities, target organs, disease processes, life shortening values, and mortality rates that result from continuous and terminated exposures to whole-body radiations and relate them to various total doses and dose rates. The data from protracted exposures given at rates between 3.8 and 26.3 cGys per day show that the life shortening and numbers of fatal tumors are determined by total dose when the irradiation is terminated at total doses between 450 and 3000 cGys. 4 refs

  12. Prevalence. Ascice. faotic dogs.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    reproduction. body weight evaluation and other existing ph}siological and pathological condn1ons. REFERE:\\CES. Datong. P. G. (2003). Seasonal Prevalence of Ascites in Dogs. '\\atonal Diploma project in. Animal I lealth and production Technology. FCAHPT. I'\\\\ RI. Vom .. Plateau State Pp 1-. 28. Gourley. I. M., and Vasseur ...

  13. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D'Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n ≥ 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27±1 deg C, RH ≥ 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC 50 ) and 9991 ppm (LC 99 ) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  14. Determination of the Chronic Mammalian Toxicological Effects of TNT. Twenty-Six Week Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) in the Beagle Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Hemosiderosis In histocytes or Kupffer cells of the liver was seen for one female at 2 mg/kg/day (trace) and for all animals at 8 or 32 mg/kg/day, except for... hemosiderosis appeared to be related to the administration of 2, 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; the results at 0.5 mg/kg/day were equivocal. Five of ten dogs In the high...0 0 0 1 0 6 1 SPLEEN: Congestion 2 0 0 0 1 2 6 5 6 2 Hemosiderosis 1 0 2 3 2 3 6 4 5 5 Erythropoiesis 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 1 SMALL INTESTINE: Membranous

  15. The eTOX data-sharing project to advance in silico drug-induced toxicity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Montserrat; Briggs, Katharine; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Pognan, François; Marc, Philippe; Kleinöder, Thomas; Schwab, Christof H; Pastor, Manuel; Wichard, Jörg; Sanz, Ferran

    2014-11-14

    The high-quality in vivo preclinical safety data produced by the pharmaceutical industry during drug development, which follows numerous strict guidelines, are mostly not available in the public domain. These safety data are sometimes published as a condensed summary for the few compounds that reach the market, but the majority of studies are never made public and are often difficult to access in an automated way, even sometimes within the owning company itself. It is evident from many academic and industrial examples, that useful data mining and model development requires large and representative data sets and careful curation of the collected data. In 2010, under the auspices of the Innovative Medicines Initiative, the eTOX project started with the objective of extracting and sharing preclinical study data from paper or pdf archives of toxicology departments of the 13 participating pharmaceutical companies and using such data for establishing a detailed, well-curated database, which could then serve as source for read-across approaches (early assessment of the potential toxicity of a drug candidate by comparison of similar structure and/or effects) and training of predictive models. The paper describes the efforts undertaken to allow effective data sharing intellectual property (IP) protection and set up of adequate controlled vocabularies) and to establish the database (currently with over 4000 studies contributed by the pharma companies corresponding to more than 1400 compounds). In addition, the status of predictive models building and some specific features of the eTOX predictive system (eTOXsys) are presented as decision support knowledge-based tools for drug development process at an early stage.

  16. The eTOX Data-Sharing Project to Advance in Silico Drug-Induced Toxicity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Cases

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high-quality in vivo preclinical safety data produced by the pharmaceutical industry during drug development, which follows numerous strict guidelines, are mostly not available in the public domain. These safety data are sometimes published as a condensed summary for the few compounds that reach the market, but the majority of studies are never made public and are often difficult to access in an automated way, even sometimes within the owning company itself. It is evident from many academic and industrial examples, that useful data mining and model development requires large and representative data sets and careful curation of the collected data. In 2010, under the auspices of the Innovative Medicines Initiative, the eTOX project started with the objective of extracting and sharing preclinical study data from paper or pdf archives of toxicology departments of the 13 participating pharmaceutical companies and using such data for establishing a detailed, well-curated database, which could then serve as source for read-across approaches (early assessment of the potential toxicity of a drug candidate by comparison of similar structure and/or effects and training of predictive models. The paper describes the efforts undertaken to allow effective data sharing intellectual property (IP protection and set up of adequate controlled vocabularies and to establish the database (currently with over 4000 studies contributed by the pharma companies corresponding to more than 1400 compounds. In addition, the status of predictive models building and some specific features of the eTOX predictive system (eTOXsys are presented as decision support knowledge-based tools for drug development process at an early stage.

  17. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  18. QSAR pre-screen of 70,983 substances for genotoxic carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity in the EU FP7 project ChemScreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the EU FP7 project ChemScreen, which was completed by the end of 2013, was to generate alternative testing methods for reproductive toxicity under REACH. If found adequate, QSARs can be applied in REACH as a replacement for animal tests. As no testing for reproductive effects should...... be performed in REACH on known genotoxic carcinogens or germ cell mutagens with appropriate risk management measures implemented, a QSAR pre-screen for genotoxic carcinogenicity, germ cell mutagenicity and (limited) developmental toxicity was included in the project. Predictions for estrogenic and anti......-androgenic activity (in vitro) were also included in the pre-screen. The prediction set comprised 70,983 of the 143,835 chemicals REACH pre-registered chemicals, for which structural information was found and was suitable for the applied QSAR models. The prediction set was run through 16 models and decision...

  19. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin...

  20. Lung toxicity after radiation in childhood: Results of the International Project on Prospective Analysis of Radiotoxicity in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Gerhild; Eich, Hans-Theodor; Matuschek, Christiane; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Meyer, Frank; Martinsson, Ulla; Nilsson, Kristina; Kristensen, Ingrid; Vordermark, Dirk; Willich, Normann; Christiansen, Hans; Koch, Raphael; Steinmann, Diana

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the evaluation of acute and late toxicities of the lung in children and adolescents after irradiation in terms of dose-volume effects. Irradiated children and adolescents in Germany have prospectively been documented since 2001 in the "Registry for the Evaluation of Side-Effects after Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK)"; in Sweden since 2008 in the RADTOX registry. Up to April 2012, 1,392 children were recruited from RiSK, and up to June 2013, 485 from the RADTOX-registry. Of these patients, 295 were irradiated to the lung. Information about acute toxicity was available for 228 patients. 179 patients have been documented concerning late toxicity (≥grade 1: n = 28). The acute toxicity rate was noticeably higher in children irradiated with 5-20Gy (p < 0.05). In the univariate analysis, a shorter time until late toxicity was noticeably associated with irradiation with 5-15Gy (p < 0.05). Acute and late toxicities appear to be correlated with higher irradiation volumes and low doses. Our data indicate that similar to the situation in adult patients, V5, V10, V15 and V20 should be kept as low as possible (e.g., at least V5 < 50%, V10 and V15 < 35% and V20 < 30%) in children and adolescents to lower the risk of toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Naohito; Nomizo, Toru; Takashima, Satoshi; Matsubara, Tatsuya; Tokuda, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin concentration 2 hr after D-allulose administration. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activities showed a mild increase between 12 and 48 hr after D-allulose administration. These data suggested that a single oral dose of D-allulose does not show severe toxicity in dogs.

  2. QSAR screening of 70,983 REACH substances for genotoxic carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity in the ChemScreen project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    The ChemScreen project aimed to develop a screening system for reproductive toxicity based on alternative methods. QSARs can, if adequate, contribute to the evaluation of chemical substances under REACH and may in some cases be applied instead of experimental testing to fill data gaps for informa......The ChemScreen project aimed to develop a screening system for reproductive toxicity based on alternative methods. QSARs can, if adequate, contribute to the evaluation of chemical substances under REACH and may in some cases be applied instead of experimental testing to fill data gaps...... for information requirements. As no testing for reproductive effects should be performed in REACH on known genotoxic carcinogens or germ cell mutagens with appropriate risk management measures implemented, a QSAR pre-screen for 70,983 REACH substances was performed. Sixteen models and three decision algorithms...... were used to reach overall predictions of substances with potential effects with the following result: 6.5% genotoxic carcinogens, 16.3% mutagens, 11.5% developmental toxicants. These results are similar to findings in earlier QSAR and experimental studies of chemical inventories, and illustrate how...

  3. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    accordance with the effective law. The present work evaluated the subchronic toxicity of the CDE in dogs of indefinite pedigree. Data showed an increase of alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST levels, which may indicate transitory hepatotoxicity.

  4. Toxicity of inhaled 238PuO2 in Beagle dogs: A. Monodisperse 1.5 μm AMAD particles. B. Monodisperse 3.0 μm particles. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Diel, J.H.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of 238 PuO 2 that resulted in graded levels of 238 Pu in the lung. All dogs are being studied for their life span. One hundred and thirty-seven dogs that had initial lung burdens ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 μCi 238 Pu/kg body weight (0.37 to 56 kBq/kg) have died, 8 with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, 8 with lung tumors, 88 with bone tumors, 10 with liver tumors, and 25 of miscellaneous causes. Eighteen control dogs have died. Observations are being continued on 8 exposed and 6 control dogs alive at 4577-5274 days after exposure. (author)

  5. Dose escalation study to evaluate safety, tolerability and efficacy of intravenous etoposide phosphate administration in 27 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyé, Pierre; Serres, François; Marescaux, Laurent; Hordeaux, Juliette; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Gomes, Bruno; Tierny, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Comparative oncology has shown that naturally occurring canine cancers are of valuable and translatable interest for the understanding of human cancer biology and the characterization of new therapies. This work was part of a comparative oncology project assessing a new, clinical-stage topoisomerase II inhibitor and comparing it with etoposide in dogs with spontaneous lymphoma with the objective to translate findings from dogs to humans. Etoposide is a topoisomerase II inhibitor widely used in various humans' solid and hematopoietic cancer, but little data is available concerning its potential antitumor efficacy in dogs. Etoposide phosphate is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide which is expected to be better tolerated in dogs. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety, the tolerability and the efficacy of intravenous etoposide phosphate in dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Seven dose levels were evaluated in a traditional 3+3 phase I design. Twenty-seven owned-dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma were enrolled and treated with three cycles of etoposide phosphate IV injections every 2 weeks. Adverse effects were graded according to the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group criteria. A complete end-staging was realized 45 days after inclusion. The maximal tolerated dose was 300 mg/m2. At this dose level, the overall response rate was 83.3% (n = 6, 3 PR and 2 CR). Only a moderate reversible gastrointestinal toxicity, no severe myelotoxicity and no hypersensitivity reaction were reported at this dose level. Beyond the characterization of etoposide clinical efficacy in dogs, this study underlined the clinical and therapeutic homologies between dog and human lymphomas.

  6. "Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studyi...

  7. Lowland copperhead (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation causing severe neuromuscular paralysis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L V; Indrawirawan, Y H

    2017-06-01

    A case of lowland copperhead snake (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation in a dog is described. The dog developed severe and prolonged neuromuscular paralysis, including ventilatory failure. The dog was treated successfully with antivenom, intravenous fluids and mechanical ventilation. The toxic components of lowland copperhead snake venom are reviewed. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Ugarte, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats (Felis catus) maintain greater blood Se concentrations compared with dogs (Canis familiaris) and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 μg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to

  9. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  10. Dog Bite Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog Bite Emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  11. Everyday behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Eken Asp, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The absolute majority of dogs are kept as companion animals. Dogs kept as family pets are frequently exposed to noisy and crowded environments, and often have to interact with unfamiliar dogs and humans. In Sweden, we have a long history of recording behaviour in dogs on a large scale. The Swedish Working Dog Association (SBK) has, since 1989, carried out a standardized behavioural test called Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA). Results from the DMA can be condensed into five personality traits: ...

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  13. Isoniazid toxicosis in dogs: 137 cases (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Dustin R; Lee, Justine A; Wismer, Tina A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Murtaugh, Robert J

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To establish the minimum toxic dose of isoniazid in dogs, characterize the clinical signs and outcomes for dogs following isoniazid ingestion, and determine whether IV administration of pyridoxine to dogs with isoniazid toxicosis is protective against death. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 137 dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. PROCEDURES The electronic database of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center was reviewed from January 2004 through December 2014 to identify dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. For each dog identified, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, estimated dose of isoniazid ingested, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome. Follow-up communication with pet owners or primary care veterinarians was performed when necessary to obtain missing information. RESULTS Clinical signs of isoniazid toxicosis were observed in 134 of 137 (98%) dogs and included seizures (n = 104), CNS signs without seizures (94), and gastrointestinal (41), cardiovascular (19), urogenital (4), and respiratory (1) abnormalities. Of the 87 dogs for which the outcome was available, 61 survived, 18 died, and 8 were euthanized. Probability of survival was positively associated with body weight and IV administration of pyridoxine and negatively associated with dose of isoniazid ingested and presence of seizures. Dogs that received pyridoxine IV were 29 times as likely to survive as dogs that did not receive pyridoxine IV. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated rapid diagnosis of isoniazid toxicosis and prompt treatment of affected dogs with pyridoxine and other supportive care were imperative for achieving a successful outcome.

  14. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12μCi. Nineteen of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu haved died during the first 7-1/2 yr after exposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; their body burdens at death ranged from 0.7 to 10μCi. Chronic lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2

  15. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleis, Stephanie E; Rizzo, Scott A; Phillips, Jeffery C; LeBlanc, Amy K

    2011-09-01

    A dog with lymphosarcoma was evaluated for vomiting, lethargy, and abdominal pain 48 h after treatment with L-asparaginase. Based on drug administration, clinical signs, bloodwork, and elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, L-asparaginase-associated pancreatitis was diagnosed. This is an acknowledged toxicity; however, its pathophysiology and incidence rate in veterinary patients are unknown and sparsely documented.

  16. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  17. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  18. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M.; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  19. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ''major'' sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ''an ample margin of safety,'' the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country's economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern

  20. Corneal dermoid in two laboratory beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikiri, K; Ozaki, K; Maeda, H; Narama, I

    1994-07-01

    Two male laboratory beagle dogs used in toxicity studies, one 7 months old and the other 9 months old, showed the evidence of corneal dermoid. Grossly, the dermoid was observed in both cases as hair growth from the cornea. In one case, the hairs had been removed from the cornea, but regrowth was observed about 70 days later. Histopathologically, melanocytes, melanin granules, hairs, hair bulbs, adipose tissue and sebaceous and sweat glands were observed in the corneal epithelium and propria. According to the information obtained from 4 breeders, the incidence of corneal dermoid was extremely rare in laboratory beagle dogs.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP): results from intoxication cases within the STRIDA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Franzén, Lisa; Bäckberg, Matilda; Signell, Patrick; Helander, Anders

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) of different chemical classes have become available through marketing and sale over the Internet. This report from the Swedish STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in a series of intoxications involving the stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), a potent dopamine re-uptake inhibitor, over a 4-year period. Observational case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS presenting to hospitals in Sweden from 2012 to 2015. In the STRIDA project, blood and urine samples are collected from intoxicated patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS or unknown drugs presenting to hospitals over the country. Analysis of NPS is performed by mass spectrometry multicomponent methods. Clinical data are collected when caregivers consult the Swedish Poisons Information Centre (PIC), and retrieved from medical records. The severity of poisoning is graded retrospectively using the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS). The inclusion criteria for this study included absence of other stimulants than α-PVP. During the 4-year study period, 23 intoxications were originally coded as "α-PVP related" out of a total 3743 NPS-related inquiries (0.6%) at the PIC. The present study covered 42 analytically confirmed cases in which α-PVP was the only stimulant detected. The age range of patients was 20-58 (median 32) years, of which 79% were males. The α-PVP concentration in serum was 4.0-606 (median 64; n = 42) ng/mL and 2.0-41,294 (median 1782; n = 25) ng/mL in urine. There was no statistically significant association between the serum α-PVP concentration and urinary α-PVP/creatinine ratio in 25 cases, where both sets of data were available. In 14/42 (33%) cases, α-PVP was the only psychoactive substance identified. In the remaining cases, additional substances comprised opioids, benzodiazepines, and ethanol. The main clinical manifestations

  2. Circovirus in Dogs FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Tools for K-12 Educators Circovirus in Dogs FAQ November 22, 2013 Update November 22, 2013: ... information. Canine circovirus infections have been documented in dogs with vomiting and diarrhea. The distribution of the ...

  3. Be your dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Be Your Dog is about establishing relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner. This saw participants and their dogs attend workshops over two consecutive weekends to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection. This included learning strategies for dog and human to ‘be’ equals with each other. A concluding public event was staged at KARST (Plymouth) following the workshops on 6 November 2016 where all participants, human and dog, performed as collaborators. This proj...

  4. Which dogs bite?

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, P

    1991-01-01

    Young children (less than 11 years old) are a particular risk group for dog bites. Dog bites commonly occur from the family pet. Alsatian or alsatian mixes are the biggest group in the study causing dog bites. Alsations are a popular breed. By comparison Retrievers (Labrador and Golden), also a popular breed, caused few bites.

  5. Dogs as a Model for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Heather L; Fenger, Joelle M; London, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers in client-owned dogs closely recapitulate their human counterparts with respect to clinical presentation, histological features, molecular profiles, and response and resistance to therapy, as well as the evolution of drug-resistant metastases. In several instances the incorporation of dogs with cancer into the preclinical development path of cancer therapeutics has influenced outcome by helping to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics relationships, dose/regimen, expected clinical toxicities, and ultimately the potential for biologic activity. As our understanding regarding the molecular drivers of canine cancers has improved, unique opportunities have emerged to leverage this spontaneous model to better guide cancer drug development so that therapies likely to fail are eliminated earlier and therapies with true potential are optimized prior to human studies. Both pets and people benefit from this approach, as it provides dogs with access to cutting-edge cancer treatments and helps to insure that people are given treatments more likely to succeed.

  6. GENDER INFLUENCE ON SNIFFING BEHAVIOR IN DOGS

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Šedivá; Petr Řezáč; Eva Jeřábková

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine sniffing behavior in male and female dogs in open places. It was observed 468 dogs. Female dogs more often sniffed the head of another dog than male dogs. Male dogs more frequently sniffed the backside of another dog than female dogs. Female dogs more often sniffed the belly of another dog than male dogs. Further research is needed to understand the dog’s sniffing behavior on walks.

  7. Cognitive Aging in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Durga; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia

    2018-01-01

    A decline in the physical or mental health of older dogs can be a challenge for the owners, whose relationship with their dog is compromised by the cognitive and behavioral changes in their dogs. Although dog owners tend to consider many physiological and behavioral changes in old dogs as part of the normal aging process, it is important to differentiate between normal aging and pathologic aging, since behavioral changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare in old dogs. Most reviews on cognitive aging in dogs have focused on translational approaches to human Alzheimer's disease; from a practical perspective, however, understanding normal cognitive aging in pet dogs and screening cognitively affected dogs are important in their own right. Here we review the literature on different cognitive functions that decline during aging, signs of cognitive dysfunction, screening methods, and preventive measures for age-related cognitive decline. Moreover, we discuss the drawbacks of using questionnaires as subjective measures of aging and propose the development of objective methods to distinguish normal cognitive aging from severe cognitive dysfunction. We suggest that multi-targeted approaches that combine owner-evaluated questionnaires with neuropsychological tests can be most effective in screening cognitively affected dogs from normally aging dogs. Regarding preventive measures, we conclude that combinations of dietary intervention and behavioral enrichment may be more beneficial than single-pathway manipulations in delaying cognitive aging or retaining various cognitive functions during aging. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010) in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak, Sandra M; Selting, Kim A; Decedue, Charles J; Henry, Carolyn J; Tate, Deborah; Howell, Jahna; Bilof, K James; Kim, Dae Y

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m(2), and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1), 100% (dog 2), or 200% (dog 3) with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m(2). Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m(2). Grade 1-2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen) toxicity was noted. CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting dosage for a Phase I/II trial in tumor-bearing dogs is 80 mg/m(2).

  9. Dogs catch human yawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  10. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  11. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  12. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Aflatoxin status of some commercial dry dog foods in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifeoluwa

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... High performance liquid chromatography was used for separation and quantification of ... Key words: Aflatoxins, dog, contamination, Nigeria, toxicity. INTRODUCTION. Contamination of pet food ... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on each batch of the different brands of dog food according to the ...

  14. Toxic Synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances made by the body's immune system to fight the infection. Toxic synovitis can happen at any age, but is most common in kids between 3 and 8 years old. It's also more common in boys. Sometimes toxic ...

  15. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, Helga R; Ørnsrud, Robin; Knutsen, Helle K; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2016-07-25

    Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to dogs, may contain lead particles. The aim of this study was to assess potential health effects of feeding dogs such trimmings. Lead ingestion most commonly causes gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, although renal, skeletal, haematological, cardiovascular and biochemical effects have also been reported. Experimental data indicate that a daily dose of around 1 mg lead as lead acetate/kg body weight for ten days may be considered as a Lowest Observed Effect Level in dogs. Acute toxicity documentation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates 300 mg/kg body weight as the lowest dose of lead acetate causing death in dogs after oral ingestion. Our assessment suggests that dogs fed trimmings of lead-shot game may be affected by the amounts of lead present, and that even deadly exposure could occasionally occur. The intestinal absorption of lead from bullets was assumed to be 10-80 % of that of lead acetate, reflecting both the variability in particle size and uncertainty about the bioavailability of metallic lead in dogs. Despite data gaps, this study indicates that feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game may represent a risk of lead intoxication. More research is needed to assess the exact consequences, if lead-based bullets are still to be used. Meanwhile, we recommend that trimmings close to the wound channel should be made inaccessible to dogs, as well as to other domestic or wild animals.

  16. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools for K-12 Educators Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers CC by Tomwsulcer Whether you’re walking ... routes or durations may need to be altered. Dog bites Always be careful when walking a dog ...

  17. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  18. "Like owner, like dog": correlation between the owner's attachment profile and the owner-dog bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's "strange situation". The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations.

  19. "Like owner, like dog": correlation between the owner's attachment profile and the owner-dog bond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Siniscalchi

    Full Text Available During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's "strange situation". The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations.

  20. Rescuing Dogs in the Frederick Community | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many Frederick National Lab employees have a favorite cause to which they volunteer a significant amount of time. For Dianna Kelly, IT program manager/scientific program analyst, Office of Scientific Operations, and Courtney Kennedy, associate technical project manager, Business Enterprise Systems, that cause is dog rescue.

  1. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations.

  2. Facial Dog Attack Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2013-01-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to succe...

  3. Military Working Dog Procurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-14

    1998 and 1999 showed that the Europeans did not have an advantage in the selection of their dogs . Officials of the 341st TRS offered two possible...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited MILITARY WORKING DOG PROCUREMENTS Report No. D-2000-102 March 14...A . Report Title: Military Working Dog Procurements B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet: 03/28/99 C. Report’s Point of Contact: (Name

  4. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of 137 Cs are important to understand because 137 Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy

  5. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  6. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. David Williams, Heather Hewitt. Abstract. This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs ...

  7. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  8. [Raising fighting dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, W

    1990-04-01

    Some experience is reported, referring to court trials of accidents involving members of the so-called "fighting dog" breeds. Analysis of the situation makes obvious that many breeders and owners of these or similar dogs demonstrate an irresponsible attitude, thereby fostering breed standards which should be corrected. A future solution of this problem and of others could only be brought about by a law, which would regulate companion animal breeding and ownership. A ban on special breeds or their integration into a "Dangerous animals act" seems for now to be feasible for breeds only which are explicitly standard-bred for aggressiveness against man. Responsible dog breeding and ownership is postulated in order to avoid a growing aversion against dogs in society, which certainly contributed to the stagnation of the dog population in the FRG during the last years.

  9. Investigating factors affecting the body temperature of dogs competing in cross country (canicross) races in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, AJ; Hall, EJ

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of people are running with their dogs, particularly in harness through the sport canicross. Whilst canicross races are typically held in the winter months, some human centred events are encouraging running with dogs in summer months, potentially putting dogs at risk of heat related injuries, including heatstroke. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of ambient conditions and running speed on post-race temperature of canicross dogs in the UK, and investigat...

  10. The promise of dog cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Ra, Kihae; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Setyawan, Erif Maha Nugraha; Lee, Seok Hee; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2017-01-01

    Dog cloning as a concept is no longer infeasible. Starting with Snuppy, the first cloned dog in the world, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been continuously developed and used for diverse purposes. In this article we summarise the current method for SCNT, the normality of cloned dogs and the application of dog cloning not only for personal reasons, but also for public purposes.

  11. Owned and Unowned Dog Population Estimation, Dog Management and Dog Bites to Inform Rabies Prevention and Response on Lombok Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I. Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  12. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in Beagle dogs. A. Monodisperse 0.75 μm AD particles. B. Monodisperse 1.5 μm AD particles. C. Monodisperse 3.0 μm AD particles. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Pickrell, J.A.; Boecker, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 have been initiated in Beagle dogs. To obtain information on the relative importance of homogeneity of radiation doses to the lung, dogs have been exposed to particles of monodisperse aerosols (sigma/sub g/ 239 PuO 2 ; 40 dogs to the 0.75 μm AD particles, 72 dogs to the 1.5 μm AD particles and 60 dogs to the 3.0 μm AD particles. The exposures have resulted in graded ILB's, which range from 0.0002 to 2.6 μCi/kg body weight. Twenty-nine dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent and serve as controls. Five dogs have died 336 to 561 days after exposure in the 1.5 μm AD study. Four dogs have died 116 to 589 days after exposure in the 3.0 μm AD study. These dogs had radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis at death. The remaining dogs have survived up to 634 days after exposure. It is anticipated that the other dogs planned for these studies will be exposed over the next 12 months

  13. Do dogs provide information helpfully?

    OpenAIRE

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. Howeve...

  14. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  15. Skill in expert dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S

    2007-09-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers.

  16. Glomerular Lipidosis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnken, Rebecca A; Amerman, Hayley; Brown, Cathy A; Furrow, Eva; Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E

    2017-09-01

    Glomerular lipidosis (GL) is characterized by dilated glomerular capillary loops containing lipid-laden cells (foam cells). Previously, GL was considered to be an incidental finding because affected dogs were typically not azotemic. However, the International Renal Interest Society staging system for canine chronic kidney disease has increased the awareness of other clinical parameters (eg, proteinuria and hypertension) that should be included in the assessment of renal function. As such, the aim of this study was to determine clinical abnormalities and concurrent renal lesions in dogs with GL. GL was identified in renal biopsies from 46 dogs evaluated by the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service. GL was the sole diagnosis in 5 of 46 cases (11%), all of which were proteinuric. All 5 dogs had at least 1 additional clinicopathologic abnormality consistent with renal disease, including hypertension (4), azotemia (3), and/or hypoalbuminemia (2). The remaining 41 dogs had GL in combination with other glomerular lesions, the most common being focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (16, 35%), lesions consistent with juvenile nephropathy (8, 17%), and glomerular amyloidosis (5, 11%). Overall, dogs with severe GL were younger than were those with mild GL ( P < .001). The percentage of glomeruli affected by GL differed by concurrent diagnoses ( P = .034), with the highest percentage of affected glomeruli in dogs with GL alone or those with concurrent juvenile nephropathy. These findings suggest that GL should be a recognized histologic phenotype of glomerular injury associated with clinical renal dysfunction and/or juvenile nephropathies.

  17. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  18. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in dogs, challenging diagnosis: Four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davitkov Darko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lymphangiectasia is an uncommon disease which can cause severe, chronic protein-losing enteropathy in dogs. Four dogs were presented at the Belgrade Clinic for Small Animals with clinical signs of chronic diarrhea, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. Abnormal physical examination findings included dehydration, signs of pain on abdominal palpation, and ascites. The most important clinicopathological findings were lymphopenia and hypoproteinemia with hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed intestinal abnormalities in all dogs. To establish an undoubted diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia, endoscopy and histopathology were conducted. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46002

  19. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík Pinc

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old. Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up, one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously.

  20. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  1. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  2. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  3. Jealousy in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Harris

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  4. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  5. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  6. Dog Bite Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    IF YOU are bitten • If your own dog bit you, confine it immediately and call your veterinarian to check your dog’s vaccination records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive ...

  7. Factors that contribute towards obesity in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jill; McBride, E. Anne; Redhead, Edward; Bishop, Felicity

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the strength of association between owner demographics, dog characteristics, owner attitude, owner-dog interactions and dog weight profiles in a random population of dog owners. In this correlation study, the variables were weight definition, as categorised by dog owners, dog and owner characteristics, food and exercise levels, owner attachment, owner attitude towards their dogs, and owner behaviour (owner-dog interaction). Respondents (n = 836) completed an on-line su...

  8. Xylitol toxicosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lisa A; Coleman, Adrienne E

    2012-03-01

    The sugar alcohol xylitol is a popular sweetener used in gums, candies, and baked goods. While xylitol has a wide margin of safety in people and most mammalian species, when ingested by dogs it is believed to stimulate excessive insulin secretion leading to severe hypoglycemia, potentially followed by acute hepatic failure and coagulopathies. Additional clinical findings may include thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. The prognosis for recovery in dogs that develop uncomplicated hypoglycemia is generally good with prompt and aggressive veterinary care.

  9. Nutrition of aging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Prevalence of Dog circovirus in healthy and diarrhoeic dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Michaela; Gruber, Achim D; Müller, Elisabeth

    2017-04-19

    In 2012, a Dog circovirus (DogCV) was discovered in the USA, which was followed by further descriptions of the virus in the USA, Italy and Germany. The present study is the first to examine the prevalence of DogCV in faeces of dogs from Germany and other European countries. Faecal samples from 184 dogs with diarrhoea and from 82 clinically healthy dogs (control group) were analysed for the presence of DogCV by PCR. Furthermore, the detection of parvovirus, coronavirus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium was performed in all samples. In the group of dogs with diarrhoea the prevalence of DogCV was 20.1% (37/184), in the healthy control group it was 7.3% (6/82). Therefore, the virus could be detected significantly more frequently in dogs with diarrhoea. The detection frequency of DogCV is comparable with those of the other tested pathogens. In approximately 50% of the DogCV-positive dogs, infections with other enteropathogenic organisms were diagnosed. The role of co-infection in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there appears to be an association between co-infection and disease severity. Evidence of DogCV in clinically healthy dogs appears important for the epidemiology and raises questions about its pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to clarify questions regarding the pathogenesis, causal relevance and possible interference by other diarrhoeal pathogens. Nevertheless, the results of this study are an important indication that DogCV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhoea.

  11. Pet dogs improve family functioning and reduce anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Hannah; Hall, Sophie; Hames, Annette; Hardiman, Jessica; Mills, Richard; Mills, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Hardiman*†, Richard Mills‡ , PAWS Project Team† and Daniel Mills* * University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences, Joseph Banks Laboratories, UK † Dogs for the Disables, Frances Hay Centre, Banbury, Oxfordshire, UK ‡ Research Autism, Adam House, London, UK ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence to suggest that dogs are beneficial for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in therapy sessions, and anecdotal reports suggest that dogs may have wi...

  12. Do dogs sense hypoglycaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K S; Roden, M; Müssig, K

    2016-07-01

    To summarize the current knowledge on the phenomenon of dogs, both trained and untrained, sensing hypoglycaemia and alerting their owners to it. Electronic databases were searched for all types of articles reporting on untrained or trained 'diabetes alert' dogs. Articles published up until December 2014 in the English or German language were included. Several case reports and observational studies provide evidence that animals can perform at a level above that attributable to chance, and may reliably detect low diurnal as well as nocturnal hypoglycaemic episodes. Behavioural changes in untrained dogs were reported during 38-100% of hypoglycaemic events experienced by their owners. The sensitivity and specificity of the performance of trained diabetes alert dogs sensing hypoglycaemia ranged from 22 to 100% and 71 to 90%, respectively. Additionally, 75-81% of patients with diabetes who owned a trained dog reported a subsequent improvement in their quality of life. Nevertheless, the available data are limited and heterogeneous because they rely on low patient numbers and survey-based studies prone to recall bias. Further research is needed to confirm the preliminary data on the reliability and mechanism underlying the dogs' abilities to detect hypoglycaemia, and its impact on patient outcomes. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  13. Response and toxicity of photodynamic therapy for canine bladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, E.R.; Dunstan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was to determine PDT efficacy and tolerance (both short term and long term) in dogs with spontaneously occurring transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All patients were T2-T3, N x , M o . 27 dogs were given Photofrin II at 3.0 mg/kg IV, and 72 hours later doses of 632 nm light from 5-25 J/cm 2 . In 25/27 dogs, PDT resulted in complete remission of stranguria, hematuria and pollackiuria within one week of treatment. Gross hematuria increased in 7 dogs for the first 2 days following treatment, but then disappeared completely. Duration of clinical remission varied from 5-25 weeks after single treatment, within a median duration of 10 weeks. Doses of light from 5-10 J/cm 2 were well tolerated, with only mild toxicity for 1-3 days. Moderate toxicity showed in some dogs given 10-15 J/cm 2 . In all dogs given 25 J/cm 2 and 46% of those given 15 J/cm 2 , severe abdominal cramping, fecal incontinence, perforations and sepsis was seen. A second PDT treatment of 10-15 J/cm 2 following recurrence of clinical signs was administered to 9 dogs, without an increase in toxicity beyond that seen following the first treatment. Median duration of this second remission was 8 weeks, with a range of 5-12 weeks. 4-5 multiple PDT treatments were given to 4 dogs without any clinical symptoms of decreased bladder function. Each treatment produced an additional remission of variable length. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids specifically remote static pulse systems on the welfare of domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jonathan; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel; Casey, Rachel; Blackwell, Emily; Van Driel, Katja; Lines, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed the welfare of dogs trained with pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse collar systems (e-collars). Previous work has focused on a very limited number of devices in a very limited range of contexts and the evidence of the impact of such devices on dog's overall quality of life is inconclusive. Project AW1402 aimed to assess the physical characteristics of the e-collars and the physiological, behavioural and psychological consequences of their use in dog trai...

  15. Impact of Toceranib/Piroxicam/Cyclophosphamide Maintenance Therapy on Outcome of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma following Amputation and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Cheryl A; Gardner, Heather L; Mathie, Tamra; Stingle, Nicole; Portela, Roberta; Pennell, Michael L; Clifford, Craig A; Rosenberg, Mona P; Vail, David M; Williams, Laurel E; Cronin, Kim L; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Borgatti, Antonella; Henry, Carolyn J; Bailey, Dennis B; Locke, Jennifer; Northrup, Nicole C; Crawford-Jakubiak, Martin; Gill, Virginia L; Klein, Mary K; Ruslander, David M; Thamm, Doug H; Phillips, Brenda; Post, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy. This was a randomized, prospective clinical trial in which dogs with OSA free of gross metastatic disease (n = 126) received carboplatin chemotherapy (4 doses) following amputation. On study entry, dogs were randomized to receive piroxicam/cyclophosphamide with or without toceranib (n = 63 each) after completing chemotherapy. Patient demographics were not significantly different between both groups. During or immediately following carboplatin chemotherapy, 32 dogs (n = 13 toceranib; n = 19 control) developed metastatic disease, and 13 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Following carboplatin chemotherapy, 81 dogs (n = 46 toceranib; n = 35 control) received the metronomic treatment; 35 dogs (n = 20 toceranib; n = 15 control) developed metastatic disease during the maintenance therapy, and 26 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Nine toceranib-treated and 11 control dogs completed the study without evidence of metastatic disease 1-year following amputation. Toceranib-treated dogs experienced more episodes of diarrhea, neutropenia and weight loss than control dogs, although these toxicities were low-grade and typically resolved with supportive care. More toceranib-treated dogs (n = 8) were removed from the study for therapy-associated adverse events compared to control dogs (n = 1). The median DFI for control and toceranib treated dogs was 215 and 233 days, respectively (p = 0.274); the median OS for control and toceranib treated dogs was 242 and 318 days, respectively (p = 0.08). The one year survival rate for control dogs was 35% compared to 38% for dogs receiving toceranib. The addition of toceranib to metronomic piroxicam

  16. Impact of Toceranib/Piroxicam/Cyclophosphamide Maintenance Therapy on Outcome of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma following Amputation and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI and overall survival (OS in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy.This was a randomized, prospective clinical trial in which dogs with OSA free of gross metastatic disease (n = 126 received carboplatin chemotherapy (4 doses following amputation. On study entry, dogs were randomized to receive piroxicam/cyclophosphamide with or without toceranib (n = 63 each after completing chemotherapy. Patient demographics were not significantly different between both groups. During or immediately following carboplatin chemotherapy, 32 dogs (n = 13 toceranib; n = 19 control developed metastatic disease, and 13 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Following carboplatin chemotherapy, 81 dogs (n = 46 toceranib; n = 35 control received the metronomic treatment; 35 dogs (n = 20 toceranib; n = 15 control developed metastatic disease during the maintenance therapy, and 26 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Nine toceranib-treated and 11 control dogs completed the study without evidence of metastatic disease 1-year following amputation. Toceranib-treated dogs experienced more episodes of diarrhea, neutropenia and weight loss than control dogs, although these toxicities were low-grade and typically resolved with supportive care. More toceranib-treated dogs (n = 8 were removed from the study for therapy-associated adverse events compared to control dogs (n = 1. The median DFI for control and toceranib treated dogs was 215 and 233 days, respectively (p = 0.274; the median OS for control and toceranib treated dogs was 242 and 318 days, respectively (p = 0.08. The one year survival rate for control dogs was 35% compared to 38% for dogs receiving toceranib.The addition of toceranib to metronomic

  17. Study of the dog population and the rabies control activities in the Mirigama area of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, H C; Wandeler, A I; Neuenschwander, B E; Harischandra, L P; Meslin, F X

    2000-02-25

    The national health authorities of Sri Lanka have adopted a combined strategy of rabies vaccination and stray dog removal to control endemic dog rabies. Despite the control efforts, an increase of animal and human rabies cases has occurred since 1994. As a consequence, a project to evaluate the national rabies control program has been started and a study focussing on the dog population and rabies control activities in a limited area of Mirigama was conducted. Information on canine abundance and the accessibility of dogs for rabies vaccination was obtained by a household survey, vaccination of dogs against rabies at several vaccination points, collar-marking, and transect line recapture. The number of unvaccinated dogs was estimated by using Bayesian methodology. The estimated number of dogs per square kilometre was 87 (95% credibility interval: 80, 93) for owned dogs and 108 (100, 116) for owned and ownerless dogs. Coverage after the immunisation campaign was 57.6% (53.3, 61.9%) if vaccination at the vaccination points was considered and 66% (60.4, 72.0%) if recently provided vaccination by private veterinarians was also taken into account. The proportion of households with at least one dog vaccinated varied between 59.1 and 94.2% within the catchment area of the different vaccination points. Unvaccinated dogs were puppies (12%), ownerless dogs (57%), and owned dogs, which were not presented for vaccination (31%). In order to improve the rabies immunisation coverage among dogs and to achieve complete elimination of rabies it was recommended that the 95% catchment area of each vaccination point be assessed, the distribution of vaccination points in the vaccination area be redefined if necessary, a system for the vaccination of dogs missing the vaccination campaign for dog owner-specific reasons be established, and an inexpensive marking system be used for vaccinated dogs.

  18. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  19. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs.

  20. Health care of hunting dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Kosić Ljubica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunters about dangers which both humans and hunting dogs are exposed to, evaluation of preventive measures implementation in dogs by hunters, the prevalence of certain infections in dogs and determination of health risk for dogs and people related to hunting. This paper shows the results of a survey conducted among hunters with the objective to perceive their awareness of medical risks that hunters and hunting dogs could possibly be exposed to during hunting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084

  1. Understanding the relationship between dog ownership and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, H; Trapp, G; Lauritsen, C; Wright, K; Giles-Corti, B

    2013-10-01

    Dog ownership is a catalyst for physical activity in adults. Given 50-70% of Australian households with children have a dog, dog-facilitated physical activity may be an effective way to increase physical activity and decrease child obesity. We hypothesized that children with a family dog walk more, are more physically active and are more likely to achieve recommended levels of weekly physical activity compared with children who do not have a dog. Cross-sectional data from the Western Australian TRravel, Environment, and Kids project (TREK) were analyzed for 1218 children aged 10-12 years. Individual and environment factors, child physical activity, walking, screen use, sedentary behaviour and dog ownership status was collected from child and parent questionnaires. Children's height and weight were measured. Approximately 60% of children had a family dog. Dog ownership was associated with, on average, 29 more minutes of walking and 142 more minutes of physical activity per week (P ≤ 0.01). After adjustment, children with a dog were 49% more likely to achieve the recommended level of weekly physical activity (420 min) and 32% more likely to have walked in their neighbourhood in the last week, compared with non-dog owners (P ≤ 0.05). These relationships varied by gender. Dog ownership was not associated with screen use or weight status. Dog ownership was associated with walking and physical activity, but not screen use or weight status. Within dog-owning families, the promotion of walking and active play with a dog may be a strategy to increase children's physical activity. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog bites, parasite levels and dog

  3. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports.

  4. Dog Craniometry : a Cadaveric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andreis, M.E.; Di Giancamillo, M.; Faustini, M.; Veronesi, M.C.; Modina, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of canine head differs greatly among breeds, so that they have been categorized in 3 groups (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic) based on craniometric measurements. However, several dog breeds are still unclassified, and skull measurements, often analyzed in adult dogs, are rarely studied in dog puppies. The aim of this work is to clarify whether dog puppies can be classified as dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic and brachycephalic. The skulls of spontaneously dead...

  5. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz

    2006-03-01

    accordance with the effective law. The present work evaluated the subchronic toxicity of the CDE in dogs of indefinite pedigree. Data showed an increase of alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST levels, which may indicate transitory hepatotoxicity

  6. Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R A; Pugh, R N

    2002-06-01

    Dogs are the source of a wide range of zoonotic infections that pose a significant threat to human health. This is particularly the case for immunocompromised people, although there are few robust studies that determine immunosuppression as a risk factor for transmission of zoonoses from dogs to humans. An increasing proportion of human society is immunodeficient, principally through the advent of HIV infection and through more people, particularly the expanding elderly group, being subjected to immunosuppressive agents. This is happening at a time when more such people are capitalizing on the acknowledged benefits of dog ownership, making for a potentially dangerous mix. Enteric pathogens (for example, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium species, that may be canine derived) are a frequent risk to the health of immunocompromised persons. Veterinarians and physicians can be criticised for not communicating with each other, and for not providing adequate risk assessment to pet owners. There is scope for voluntary groups to provide information and support for the immunosuppressed who wish to keep their dogs. Key recommendations are to maintain a clean personal environment and intact mucocutaneous barriers. Public health professionals could help rectify the current communications gap between veterinary and medical staff and so facilitate in the appropriate management of dog-owning immunocompromised people.

  7. Investigation of blood lead concentrations in dogs living in Flint, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Daniel K; Kaneene, John B; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Daniels, Barbara L; Mejia-Abreu, Hilda; Frank, Nancy A; Buchweitz, John P

    2017-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To measure blood lead concentrations (BLCs) in dogs living in Flint, Mich, following a declared water crisis and to assess potential associations of BLCs with demographic data, water sources, and clinical signs in these dogs. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 284 dogs residing in Flint, Mich (test population), and 47 dogs residing in East Lansing, Mich (control population), and immediately adjacent areas. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected at free screening clinics in Flint (test population) and at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Medical Center (control population). Owners of test population dogs completed questionnaires providing demographic and clinical information. Hematologic evaluations were performed; BLCs were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. RESULTS 4 of 284 test population dogs had BLCs > 50 ppb; an additional 20 had BLCs > 20 ppb. Overall, BLCs of test population dogs were higher than those of control dogs. Within the test population, young dogs (≤ 2 years of age) had higher BLCs than old dogs (≥ 6 years of age). Only 7.2% of test population dogs were drinking unfiltered tap water at the time of screening; however, dogs that had been receiving filtered or bottled water for ≤ 3 months before screening had higher BLCs than did those that received such water for > 3 months. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Taken together, findings suggested that the impact of the Flint water crisis extended to companion animals. Results highlighted the importance of maintaining awareness of lead exposure and considering both human and animal well-being in cases of environmental toxicant exposures.

  8. Automatic behavior sensing for a bomb-detecting dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Nans, Adam; Talke, Kurt; Candela, Paul; Everett, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    Bomb-detecting dogs are trained to detect explosives through their sense of smell and often perform a specific behavior to indicate a possible bomb detection. This behavior is noticed by the dog handler, who confirms the probable explosives, determines the location, and forwards the information to an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team. To improve the speed and accuracy of this process and better integrate it with the EOD team's robotic explosive disposal operation, SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific has designed and prototyped an electronic dog collar that automatically tracks the dog's location and attitude, detects the indicative behavior, and records the data. To account for the differences between dogs, a 5-minute training routine can be executed before the mission to establish initial values for the k-mean clustering algorithm that classifies a specific dog's behavior. The recorded data include GPS location of the suspected bomb, the path the dog took to approach this location, and a video clip covering the detection event. The dog handler reviews and confirms the data before it is packaged up and forwarded on to the EOD team. The EOD team uses the video clip to better identify the type of bomb and for awareness of the surrounding environment before they arrive at the scene. Before the robotic neutralization operation commences at the site, the location and path data (which are supplied in a format understandable by the next-generation EOD robots—the Advanced EOD Robotic System) can be loaded into the robotic controller to automatically guide the robot to the bomb site. This paper describes the project with emphasis on the dog-collar hardware, behavior-classification software, and feasibility testing.

  9. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  10. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  11. Effect of BCNU combined with total body irradiation or cyclophosphamide on survival of dogs after autologous marrow grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, A.H.G.; English, D.

    1979-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either: (1) 750 rad total body irradiation; (2) BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg IV 48 hours prior to 750 rad total body irradiation; or (3) BCNU 4 mg/kg IV plus cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg IV. Results showed that of 11 dogs who received 750 rad total body irradiation and did not receive cryopreserved autologous bone marrow cells, none survived, compared to an 88% survival (31 of 35 dogs) after 750 rad total body irradiation if the dogs received stored autologous bone marrow cells. However, when the dogs were treated with BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg prior to 750 rad total body irradiation the survival rate, despite infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, dropped to 25% (3 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 2 mg/kg, and 17% (2 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 4 mg/kg. This effect did not seem to be due to direct serum inhibition of hemopoietic cell proliferation since serum obtained at various intervals after BCNU administrations failed to inhibit CFU growth in vitro. The dogs died from hemorrhage and infection; at autopsy there was hemorrhagic pneumonitis and intestinal ulcerations with petechial hemorrhages, suggesting that the combination of BCNU and total body irradiation may have synergistic toxicity on the canine gastro-intestinal tract. When BCNU was combined with cyclophosphamide, reversal of marrow toxicity occurred in 54% (6 of 11 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells compared to no survival (0 of 8 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells. Thus while autologous bone marrow grafts are useful for reversal of marrow toxicity due to many therapeutic protocols, such grafts alone may not provide protection against toxicity due to the combination of high dosage BCNU and total body irradiation

  12. Degenerative myelopathy in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolovski Goran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the chronic progressive disorders of the spinal cord in dogs is the degenerative myelopathy (DM. The most predisposed age in dog is 5 to 14 years, while rarely noted in younger, there is no gender predisposition. This disorder most commonly appears in dogs of the German shepherd breed, but it can appear in other breeds too. The main changes about this disease are degeneration of the myelin, especially in the thoracic-lumbar segments of the spinal cord and the dorsal nerve roots. The progression of the disease is slow and can last months to years. Undoubtedly, diagnosis is made by examinations of the CSF and establishing elevated level of protein segments.

  13. Photodynamic therapy with motexafin lutetium for rectal cancer: a preclinical model in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H M; Smelstoys, J A; Davis, G J; Kapatkin, A S; Del Piero, F; Reineke, E; Wang, H; Zhu, T C; Busch, T M; Yodh, A G; Hahn, S M

    2006-10-01

    Local recurrence of rectal cancer remains a significant clinical problem despite multi-modality therapy. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment which generates tumor kill through the production of singlet oxygen in cells containing a photosensitizing drug when exposed to laser light of a specific wavelength. PDT is a promising modality for prevention of local recurrence of rectal cancer for several reasons: tumor cells may selectively retain photosensitizer at higher levels than normal tissues, the pelvis after mesorectal excision is a fixed space amenable to intra-operative illumination, and PDT can generate toxicity in tissues up to 1 cm thick. This study evaluated the safety, tissue penetration of 730 nm light, normal tissue toxicity and surgical outcome in a dog model of rectal resection after motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy. Ten mixed breed dogs were used. Eight dogs underwent proctectomy and low rectal end to end stapled anastomosis. Six dogs received the photosensitizing agent motexafin lutetium (MLu, Pharmacyclics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) of 2 mg/kg preoperatively and underwent subsequent pelvic illumination of the transected distal rectum of 730 nm light with light doses ranging from 0.5 J/cm(2) to 10 J/cm(2) three hours after drug delivery. Two dogs received light, but no drug, and underwent proctectomy and low-rectal stapled anastomosis. Two dogs underwent midline laparotomy and pelvic illumination. Light penetration in tissues was determined for small bowel, rectum, pelvic sidewall, and skin. Clinical outcomes were recorded. Animals were sacrificed at 14 days and histological evaluation was performed. All dogs recovered uneventfully. No dog suffered an anastomotic leak. Severe tissue toxicity was not seen. Histological findings at necropsy revealed mild enteritis in all dogs. The excitation light penetration depths were 0.46 +/- 0.18, 0.46 +/- 0.15, and 0.69 +/- 0.39 cm, respectively, for rectum, small bowel, and peritoneum in

  14. The Three-Bite Technique: A Novel Method of Dog Ear Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jaber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The closure of any circular or asymmetric wound can result in puckering or an excess of tissue known as a 'dog ear'. Understanding the mechanism of dog ear formation is a fundamental requirement necessary to facilitate an appropriate treatment. Many solutions have been reported in the literature, but in all cases, the correction entails the extension of the scar and the sacrifice of the dermal plexus. Here, we propose a novel technique of dog ear correction by using a three-bite suture that sequentially pierces the deep fascial plane and each dog ear's margin, thus allowing for flattening the dog ear by anchoring the over-projecting tissue to the deep plane. The three-bite technique proved to be a fast, easy, and versatile method of immediate dog ear correction without extending the scar, while maintaining a full and complete local skin blood supply.

  15. The risk of liver tumors in dogs and man from radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.G.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Life-span studies in progress using beagle dogs that inhaled relatively soluble or relatively insoluble forms of radionuclides will provide information from which we may project the risk to humans for liver cancer from inhaled radioactive material. Twenty-two liver tumors have been observed in dogs exposed to beta-emitting radionuclides, mainly 144 Ce, and one liver tumor in a dog exposed to 238 Pu. Two liver cancers were also observed in control dogs. The risk of liver cancer in dogs that inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides was calculated to be 90 liver cancers per million rads. The risk of liver cancers in dogs in our studies and in studies at the University of Utah, when compared to the incidence of liver tumors in humans exposed to Thorotrast, suggest that the risk of liver cancer from an inhaled beta-emitting radionuclide in people is about 30 liver cancers per million person-rads. 19 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Age-related changes in skin color and histologic features of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T; Doi, K

    1994-04-01

    Age-related changes in skin color and histologic features of hairless descendants of Mexican Hairless dogs were investigated and compared with those of haired descendants of Mexican Hairless dogs and Beagles. According to age, dogs studied were allotted to 4 groups: 0 to 2 weeks, 4 to 5 months, 1 to 1.5 years, and 3 to 4 years old. Skin color, histologic features, and numbers of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-positive melanocytes were examined. The luminance values measured, using a spectrophotometer, decreased with advancing age up to 1.5 years, but they increased again at 3 to 4 years in hairless dogs. The number of DOPA-positive melanocytes in hairless dogs decreased with advancing age, whereas there were no DOPA-positive melanocytes in haired dogs and Beagles. Histologically, the epidermis of newborn hairless pups was thick. The border between the epidermis and dermis was wavy, and epidermal ingrowths were found projecting into the dermis. As hairless dogs grew older, the epidermis became thinner and flatter. Although numbers of hair follicles and sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands were apparently fewer in hairless dogs than in haired dogs and Beagles, these structures were detected at least up to 4 years of age. On the other hand, haired dogs and Beagles had a thin epidermis at birth and aging had little effect on their epidermal structures. The dermis of hairless dogs contained fewer mast cells than did that of haired dogs and Beagles.

  17. Ninety-day oral toxicity studies on two genetically modified maize MON810 varieties in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeljenkova, D.; Ambrusova, K.; Bartusova, M.; Kebis, A.; Kovriznych, J.; Krivosikova, Z.; Kuricova, M.; Liskova, A.; Rollerova, E.; Spustova, V.; Szabova, E.; Tulinska, J.; Wimmerova, S.; Levkut, M.; Revajova, V.; Sevcikova, Z.; Schmidt, K.; Schmidtke, J.; Paz, La J.L.; Corujo, M.; Pia, M.; Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.; Sharbati, J.; Hanish, C.; Einspanier, R.; Adel-Patient, K.; Wal, J.M.; Spök, A.; Pöting, A.; Kohl, C.; Wilhelm, R.; Schiemann, J.; Steinberg, P.

    2014-01-01

    The GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence (GRACE; www.grace-fp7.eu) project is funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE is to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in

  18. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... and their coverage in LCIA methods. Section 4 provides an overview of the main LCIA methods available to address human toxicological impacts. Section 5 presents the range of variation of factor across chemicals, the main sources of uncertainty and good interpretation practice of results from human toxicity...... all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty...

  19. Studying toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  20. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Co-ordinated research project on use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studying human health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of the Co-ordinated research project is to provide a scientific basis for better assessment of selected pollutants in the food chain with a view to elucidating their impacts on human health and nutrition. Results of this study will enhance the existing body of knowledge and can be used to develop preventive strategies. Specific objectve: To determine the extent to which toxic element levels in food are affected by surrounding industrial activities and to assess potential human exposure from the consumption of such foodstuffs. EXPECTED RESEARCH OUTPUTS (RESULTS): Harmonized protocols and procedures for sampling and analyses; ? Compiled results for toxic element levels and their average daily dietary intake (ADDI) / dietary intake; Evaluated toxic element exposure levels based on biological indicators (where applicable); Publications of the study results in an IAEA TECDOC, and in peer-reviewed journals by participants. ACTION PLAN (ACTIVITIES) a. Core research activities: 1 Identification of the study areas and population groups. 2 Collection of information on food consumption patterns of the population groups under study (e.g. through questionnaires). 3 Development of harmonized protocols and validation of analytical methodologies in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. 4 Collection and analysis of food samples, and estimation of the dietary intake. 5 Collection and analysis of biological indicators where applicable. 6 Evaluation of possible relationships between human exposures and biological indicators for the pollutants studied. 4b. Supplementary activities: ? Speciation studies of pollutants. ? Comparison of present and previous data on relevant parameters. ? Possible production and distribution of laboratory intercomparison samples. 7. Recommendations for nuclear analytical techniques ? Nuclear analytical technique (NAT) such as INAA, PIXE, PIGE, XRF should be the primary technique of analysis; Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA

  2. Evaluation of cisplatin combined with piroxicam for the treatment of oral malignant melanoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Pedro A; Murry, Daryl J; Bennett, Peter F; Glickman, Nita W; Snyder, Paul W; Merkel, Brenna L; Schlittler, Deborah L; Mutsaers, Anthony J; Thomas, Rose M; Knapp, Deborah W

    2004-02-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin administered with piroxicam, the antitumor activity and toxicity of cisplatin combined with piroxicam in dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the effects of piroxicam on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in dogs with tumors. Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. 25 dogs. Dogs were treated with a combination of cisplatin (escalating dose with 6 hours of diuresis with saline [0.9% NaCI] solution) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg 10.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The initial cisplatin dose (50 mg/m2) was increased by 5 mg/m2 until the MTD was reached. Tumor stage and size were determined at 6-week intervals during treatment. The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were determined in dogs receiving a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam during the clinical trial and dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone. 11 dogs with OMM and 9 dogs with SCC were included in the clinical trial. The MTD of cisplatin when administered in combination with piroxicam was 50 mg/m2. Tumor remission occurred in 5 of 9 dogs with SCC and 2 of 11 dogs with OMM. The most common abnormality observed was renal toxicosis. Clearance of cisplatin in dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone was not significantly different from that in dogs treated with a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam. Cisplatin administered in combination with piroxicam had antitumor activity against OMM and SCC. The level of toxicity was acceptable, although renal function must be monitored carefully.

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in Beagle dogs: A. Monodisperse 0.75-μm AMAD particles. B. Monodisperse 1.5-μm AMAD particles. C. Monodisperse 3.0--μm AMAD particles. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed to monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 of 0.75, 1.5, or 30 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) to obtain information on the relative importance of homogeneity of alpha irradiation doses to the lung in producing biological effects. The dogs' initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranged from 0.0002-2.0 μCi (0.0074 to 74 kBq) 239 Pu/kg of body mass. Thirty-six dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent as controls. Forty-two of 48 dogs exposed to 0.75 μm AMAD particles have died; 67 of 96 have died in the study involving 1.5 μm AMAD particles; and 62 of 72 have died in the study involving the 3.0 μm AMAD particles. Seven of 36 control dogs have died. Most dogs exposed to 239 Pu that have failed to survive have died with radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis and/or lung cancer. Surviving dogs have lived up to 4300 days after exposure. The data obtained to date indicate that the degree of uniformity of dose to the lung does not significantly modify the risk of lung cancer. (author)

  4. Identifying an outcome measure to assess the impact of Mobility Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Suzie; Rewi, Dallas; Channon, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Mobility Dogs® trains dogs to work with people with physical disabilities to increase independence, confidence, self-esteem and participation. Mobility Dogs® seeks to critically evaluate and improve its services as it grows. This study aimed to identify and implement a standardised outcome measure into practice at Mobility Dogs®. Based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and guided by a steering group of key stakeholders, a three-phase approach was developed to identify and assess an outcome measure. The steering group highlighted the organisation's specific needs, selected participation as the assessment domain and identified core utility requirements of the measure. A comprehensive review of evidence was undertaken to identify and rank potential measures according to the specified needs. Of the seven participation outcome measures that met inclusion criteria, the three highest ranked measures were critically evaluated by the steering group to determine suitability against the organisation's needs. The Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) was selected for implementation into practice at Mobility Dogs®. Use of the IPA is an important first step for Mobility Dogs® to test the benefits of trained service dogs. This process could be replicated by other service dog organisations to identify outcome measures to assess their own services. Implications for Rehabilitation Service dogs (such as Mobility Dogs® in New Zealand) assist people living with physical impairments by performing tasks, however there is limited evidence on outcomes. The process for selecting an appropriate outcome measure for Mobility Dogs® involving partnership between Mobility Dogs® personnel and academics was an effective way to steer the project by determining important properties of the measure, before a search of the literature was undertaken. While the IPA was selected as the most appropriate outcome measure for use at Mobility Dogs®, it was the process that

  5. Assessment of a prognostic model, PSA metrics and toxicities in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer using data from Project Data Sphere (PDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert J.; Abdallah, Kald; Pintilie, Melania; Joshua, Anthony M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Prognostic models in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may have clinical utility. Using data from PDS, we aimed to 1) validate a contemporary prognostic model (Templeton et al., 2014) 2) evaluate prognostic impact of concomitant medications and PSA decrease 3) evaluate factors associated with docetaxel toxicity. Methods We accessed data on 2,449 mCRPC patients in PDS. The existing model was validated with a continuous risk score, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and corresponding time-dependent Area under the Curve (tAUC). The prognostic effects of concomitant medications and PSA response were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. One year tAUC was calculated for multivariable prognostic model optimized to our data. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess associations with grade 3/4 adverse events (G3/4 AE) at baseline and after cycle 1 of treatment. Results Despite limitations of the PDS data set, the existing model was validated; one year AUC, was 0.68 (95% CI 95% CI, .66 to .71) to 0.78 (95%CI, .74 to .81) depending on the subset of datasets used. A new model was constructed with an AUC of .74 (.72 to .77). Concomitant medications low molecular weight heparin and warfarin were associated with poorer survival, Metformin and Cox2 inhibitors were associated with better outcome. PSA response was associated with survival, the effect of which was greatest early in follow-up. Age was associated with baseline risk of G3/4 AE. The odds of experiencing G3/4 AE later on in treatment were significantly greater for subjects who experienced a G3/4 AE in their first cycle (OR 3.53, 95% CI 2.53–4.91, p < .0001). Conclusion Despite heterogeneous data collection protocols, PDS provides access to large datasets for novel outcomes analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate its utility for validating existing models and novel model generation including the utility of concomitant medications in

  6. In vitro toxicity of particulate matter (PM collected at different sites in the Netherlands is associated with PM composition, size fraction and oxidative potential - the RAPTES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebret Erik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient particulate matter (PM exposure is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To what extent such effects are different for PM obtained from different sources or locations is still unclear. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected at different sites in the Netherlands in relation to PM composition and oxidative potential. Method PM was sampled at eight sites: three traffic sites, an underground train station, as well as a harbor, farm, steelworks, and urban background location. Coarse (2.5-10 μm, fine (2. Following overnight incubation, MTT-reduction activity (a measure of metabolic activity and the release of pro-inflammatory markers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, TNF-α; Interleukin-6, IL-6; Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-2, MIP-2 were measured. The oxidative potential and the endotoxin content of each PM sample were determined in a DTT- and LAL-assay respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the cellular responses and PM characteristics: concentration, site, size fraction, oxidative potential and endotoxin content. Results Most PM samples induced a concentration-dependent decrease in MTT-reduction activity and an increase in pro-inflammatory markers with the exception of the urban background and stop & go traffic samples. Fine and qUF samples of traffic locations, characterized by a high concentration of elemental and organic carbon, induced the highest pro-inflammatory activity. The pro-inflammatory response to coarse samples was associated with the endotoxin level, which was found to increase dramatically during a three-day sample concentration procedure in the laboratory. The underground samples, characterized by a high content of transition metals, showed the largest decrease in MTT-reduction activity. PM size fraction was not related to MTT-reduction activity, whereas there was a statistically significant

  7. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  8. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flóra Szánthó

    Full Text Available Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591 and from Germany (N = 2283 were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners

  9. Investigation into knowledge about dogs, dog ownership and the behavior of dog owners living in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brengelmann, Nathaly

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find out the level of knowledge of dog owners living in Germany; covering various aspects of dog handling, which personal and social circumstances have influence on this, and in which areas and which groups of people possible knowledge gaps exist. For this purpose, a multiple choice test was developed. This contained eight subject areas: “man-dog-relationship”, “puppy purchase and raising”, “learning behavior and training”, “dog behavior”, “keeping”, “dog and th...

  10. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  11. Neosporosis in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  12. Metaldehyde poisoning in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaldehyde is an active substance used for extermination of slugs and snail population. This paper presents the very first case of metaldehyde intentional poisoning of dogs in Serbia. Three-year-old and a six-year-old Swiss white shepard dogs were poisoned. The owner noticed frequent defecation, skeletal muscles spasms and impossibility to put any weight on their back extremities. The vomit of the younger dog was made of green-turquoise colored gut content. Twenty minutes after the onset of the first clinical symptoms dogs died. Macroscopic examination showed congestion of lungs, in the liver and intestines, as well as chemorage in the pancreas, bladder and intestines. Nonspecific pathological lesions were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, gut, intestines and brain. Pathohistological examination showed dystrophic changes and necrosis in kidneys, brain and intestines. According to anamnestic data, clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic examination as well as characteristic smell of gut content, one could say that metaldehyde poisoning is the case. Toxicological analysis of gut content samples was performed by using gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Used diagnostic methodology and gut content toxicology results obtained was the base for crime case according to article 269. Republic of Serbia Crime law.

  13. Advances in neuroscience imply that harmful experiments in dogs are unethical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Shiranee

    2018-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) of fully awake and unrestrained dog ’volunteers' has been proven an effective tool to understand the neural circuitry and functioning of the canine brain. Although every dog owner would vouch that dogs are perceptive, cognitive, intuitive and capable of positive emotions/empathy, as indeed substantiated by ethological studies for some time, neurological investigations now corroborate this. These studies show that there exists a striking similarity between dogs and humans in the functioning of the caudate nucleus (associated with pleasure and emotion), and dogs experience positive emotions, empathic-like responses and demonstrate human bonding which, some scientists claim, may be at least comparable with human children. There exists an area analogous to the ’voice area' in the canine brain, enabling dogs to comprehend and respond to emotional cues/valence in human voices, and evidence of a region in the temporal cortex of dogs involved in the processing of faces, as also observed in humans and monkeys. We therefore contend that using dogs in invasive and/or harmful research, and toxicity testing, cannot be ethically justifiable. PMID:28739639

  14. Advances in neuroscience imply that harmful experiments in dogs are unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod; Pereira, Shiranee

    2018-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) of fully awake and unrestrained dog 'volunteers' has been proven an effective tool to understand the neural circuitry and functioning of the canine brain. Although every dog owner would vouch that dogs are perceptive, cognitive, intuitive and capable of positive emotions/empathy, as indeed substantiated by ethological studies for some time, neurological investigations now corroborate this. These studies show that there exists a striking similarity between dogs and humans in the functioning of the caudate nucleus (associated with pleasure and emotion), and dogs experience positive emotions, empathic-like responses and demonstrate human bonding which, some scientists claim, may be at least comparable with human children. There exists an area analogous to the 'voice area' in the canine brain, enabling dogs to comprehend and respond to emotional cues/valence in human voices, and evidence of a region in the temporal cortex of dogs involved in the processing of faces, as also observed in humans and monkeys. We therefore contend that using dogs in invasive and/or harmful research, and toxicity testing, cannot be ethically justifiable. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiwa, Nina; Bailey, Jarrod; Clausing, Peter; Daneshian, Mardas; Eileraas, Marianne; Farkas, Sándor; Gyertyán, István; Hubrecht, Robert; Kobel, Werner; Krummenacher, Goran; Leist, Marcel; Lohi, Hannes; Miklósi, Adám; Ohl, Frauke; Olejniczak, Klaus; Schmitt, Georg; Sinnett-Smith, Patrick; Smith, David; Wagner, Kristina; Yager, James D; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Dogs are sometimes referred to as "man's best friend" and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea that the intrinsic value of all animals is the same, and that also several other animal species are used in biomedical research and toxicology. This aspect and many others are discussed in an introductory chapter dealing with ethical considerations on the use of dogs as laboratory animals. The report gives an overview on the use of dogs in biomedical research, safety assessment and the drug developmental process and reflects the discussion on the use of dogs as second (non-rodent)species in toxicity testing. Approximately 20,000 dogs are used in scientific procedures in Europe every year, and their distinct genetic, physiological and behavioral characteristics may support their use as models for e.g. behavioral analysis and genetic research. Advances in the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of experiments using dogs) are described, potential opportunities are discussed and recommendations for further progress in this area are made.

  16. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  17. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  18. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baldev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Results Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. Conclusions The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  19. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Lex R; Reece, John F; Wright, Rachel; Jaisinghani, Rajan; Singh, Baldev; Hiby, Elly F

    2011-08-11

    Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC) projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  20. Mitral stenosis in 15 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Ware, W.A.; Bonagura, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Mitral stenosis was diagnosed in 15 young to middle-aged dogs. There were 5 Newfoundlands and 4 bull terriers affected, suggesting a breed predisposition for this disorder. Clinical signs included cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and syncope. Soft left apical diastolic murmurs were heard only in 4 dogs, whereas 8 dogs had systolic murmurs characteristic of mitral regurgitation. Left atrial enlargement was the most prominent radiographic feature. Left-sided congestive heart failure was detected by radiographs in 11 dogs within 1 year of diagnosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities varied among dogs and included atrial and ventricular enlargement, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Abnormalities on M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms included abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve characterized by decreased leaflet separation, valve doming, concordant motion of the parietal mitral valve leaflet, and a decreased E-to-F slope. Increased mitral valve inflow velocities and prolonged pressure half-times were detected by Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization, performed in 8 dogs, documented a diastolic pressure gradient between the left atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Necropsy showed mitral stenosis caused by thickened, fused mitral valve leaflets in 5 dogs and a supramitral ring in another dog. The outcome in affected dogs was poor; 9 of 15 dogs were euthanatized or died by 2 1/2 years of age

  1. Enhanced therapeutic effect of APAVAC immunotherapy in combination with dose-intense chemotherapy in dogs with advanced indolent B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, L; Stefanello, D; Sabattini, S; Comazzi, S; Riondato, F; Laganga, P; Frayssinet, P; Pizzoni, S; Rouquet, N; Aresu, L

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to compare time to progression (TTP), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and safety of an autologous vaccine (consisting of hydroxyapatite ceramic powder and Heat Shock Proteins purified from the dogs' tumors, HSPPCs-HA) plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in dogs with newly diagnosed, clinically advanced, histologically confirmed, multicentric indolent B-cell lymphoma. The vaccine was prepared from dogs' resected lymph nodes and administered as an intradermal injection. Forty-five client-owned dogs were enrolled: 20 dogs were treated with dose-intense chemotherapy, and 25 received concurrent immunotherapy. Both treatment arms were well tolerated, with no exacerbated toxicity in dogs also receiving the vaccine. TTP was significantly longer for dogs treated with chemo-immunotherapy versus those receiving chemotherapy only (median, 209 versus 85 days, respectively, P=0.015). LSS was not significantly different between groups: dogs treated with chemo-immunotherapy had a median survival of 349 days, and those treated with chemotherapy only had a median survival of 200 days (P=0.173). Among vaccinated dogs, those mounting an immune response had a significantly longer TTP and LSS than those with no detectable response (P=0.012 and P=0.003, respectively). Collectively these results demonstrate that vaccination with HSPPCs-HA may produce clinical benefits with no increased toxicity, thereby providing a strategy for enhancing chemotherapy in dogs with advanced indolent lymphoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dog and owner characteristics affecting the dog-owner relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between companion dogs and their owners has important impact on the effect of life for both dog and owner. Identifying factors that affect the dogeowner relationship will assist the understanding of how the successful relationship is achieved and how the less...... successful relationship is mended, with potential benefits for the welfare of both species. In the present study, we investigated the effect of several dog and owner characteristics, including the personality of the dog, on the dogeowner relationship as measured by the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale...... linear regressions: 1 for each of the 3 subscales of the MDORS. Overall, the variables investigated only predicted a small proportion of the variance in MDORS scores, and owner characteristics appeared to influence the dogeowner relationship more than dog personality traits did. We found that children...

  3. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  4. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  5. Dog and owner characteristics affecting the dog-owner relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between companion dogs and their owners has important impact on the effect of life for both dog and owner. Identifying factors that affect the dogeowner relationship will assist the understanding of how the successful relationship is achieved and how the less succes...... in the family and using the dog only for company were negatively associated with the owners’ perception of the relationship with their dogs. The only dog characteristics to predict the dogeowner relationship were fearfulness and fear-related behavior problems....... successful relationship is mended, with potential benefits for the welfare of both species. In the present study, we investigated the effect of several dog and owner characteristics, including the personality of the dog, on the dogeowner relationship as measured by the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale...... linear regressions: 1 for each of the 3 subscales of the MDORS. Overall, the variables investigated only predicted a small proportion of the variance in MDORS scores, and owner characteristics appeared to influence the dogeowner relationship more than dog personality traits did. We found that children...

  6. Salivary cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger-Riggenbach, B; Boretti, F S; Quante, S; Schellenberg, S; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of salivary cortisol is a useful diagnostic test for hypercortisolism (HC) in humans. To determine whether measurement of salivary cortisol concentration is a practical alternative to plasma cortisol to diagnose HC, to validate the use of salivary cortisol, and to examine the effect of time of day and sampling location on salivary cortisol. Thirty healthy dogs and 6 dogs with HC. Prospective, observational clinical trial including healthy volunteer dogs and dogs newly diagnosed with HC. Salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured with an immunoassay analyzer. Intra- and interassay variability, linearity, and correlation between salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were determined. The required 300 microL of saliva could not be obtained in 88/326 samples from healthy dogs and in 15/30 samples from dogs with HC. The intra-assay variability for measurement of salivary cortisol was 5-17.7%, the interassay variability 8.5 and 17.3%, and the observed to expected ratio 89-125%. The correlation (r) between salivary and plasma cortisol was 0.98. The time of day and location of collection did not affect salivary cortisol concentrations. Dogs with HC had significantly higher salivary cortisol values than healthy dogs (10.2 +/- 7.3 nmol/L versus 1.54 +/- 0.97 nmol/L; P cortisol in dogs. However, a broad clinical application of the method seems limited, because of the large sample volume required.

  7. Technical Project Planning (TPP) Process. Engineer Manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This Engineer Manual (EM) describes the Technical Project Planning (TPP) process for identifying project objectives and designing data collection programs at hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites...

  8. Primary renal neoplasia of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jeffrey N; Henry, Carolyn J; Turnquist, Susan E; Tyler, Jeff W; Liptak, Julius M; Rizzo, Scott A; Sfiligoi, Gabriella; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Annette N; Jackson, Tarraca

    2006-01-01

    Primary renal tumors are diagnosed uncommonly in dogs. Signs and survival will differ among different categories of primary renal tumors. Data were collected from the medical records of 82 dogs with primary renal tumors diagnosed by examination of tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy, needle aspiration, surgery, or at postmortem examination. This was a multi-institutional, retrospective study. Forty-nine dogs had carcinomas, 28 had sarcomas, and 5 had nephroblastomas. The dogs were geriatric (mean 8.1 years; range: 1-17) with a weight of 24.9 kg (range: 4.5-80). Tumors occurred with equal frequency in each kidney with 4% occurring bilaterally. Initial signs included one or more of hematuria, inappetance, lethargy. weight loss, or a palpable abdominal mass. Pain was reported more frequently in dogs with sarcomas (5/28). The most common hematologic abnormalities were neutrophilia (22/63), anemia (21/64), and thrombocytopenia (6/68). Polycythemia was present in 3 dogs and resolved with treatment. Hematuria (28/49), pyuria (26/49), proteinuria (24/50), and isosthenuria (20/56) were the most frequently observed abnormalities on urinalysis. Pulmonary metastases were noted on thoracic radiographs in 16% of dogs at diagnosis. Seventy-seven percent of dogs had metastatic disease at the time of death. Median survival for dogs with carcinomas was 16 months (range 0-59 months), for dogs with sarcomas 9 months (range 0-70 months), and for dogs with nephroblastomas 6 months (range 0-6 months). Primary renal tumors in dogs are generally highly malignant with surgery being the only treatment that improves survival.

  9. Glycogenolysis in the fasting dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, J J; de Koster, P

    1983-01-01

    Glycogen concentrations were determined in liver-biopsy specimens which were taken from four dogs during five consecutive days of fasting. It was found that maximal depletion of liver glycogen occurred between the second and the third day. Starvation-induced glycogenolysis was much slower in the dog than in men and rats. Fuel fluxes are discussed and it is tentatively concluded that in the fasting dog larger amounts of glycerol are available for gluconeogenesis than in other species.

  10. Miastenia gravis diagnostic in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Suraniti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Miastenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disease caused by auto antibodies. Early Clinical and biochemical diagnosis and treatment is demanded in the assurementof quality and time of life in all dogs. In this study we describe the conventional diagnosis methods and therapy in 32 dogs with suspected myasthenia gravis and propose the administration of bromide of piridostigmin as another use full diagnosis method in dogs.

  11. Health care of hunting dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...

  12. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  13. Schrödinger's dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Alves Monteiro, Luiz

    2009-09-01

    As I am sure everyone will know, a hot dog is a popular snack consisting of a cooked sausage in a soft bun. The name of this sandwich originates from the fact that in the 18th century some people suspected that sausages were made of dog meat. This may sound strange, but as I have learned, the true nature of the humble hot dog may be stranger still.

  14. Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Associated with Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...

  15. "... Formanden dog det dobbelte"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, hvorvidt den traditionsbestemte honorargrundsætning i aktieselskaber ”... formanden dog det dobbelte” gennemsyrer både ret- og pligtsiden for formanden, således at forstå, at ikke blot rettighedssiden med retten til honorar og andre goder forøges for en formand, men også...... næppe er urimeligt at genbruge talemåden ”... formanden dog det dobbelte”, her forstået som: en generelt øget ansvarsrisiko, uanset om dette udspringer af ansvarsstandarden, af den bevismæssige nærhed ved beslutningerne eller en kombination af begge disse faktorer. Artiklen foretager en gennemgang af de...

  16. One-year oral toxicity study on a genetically modified maize MON810 variety in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljenková, Dagmar; Aláčová, Radka; Ondrejková, Júlia; Ambrušová, Katarína; Bartušová, Mária; Kebis, Anton; Kovrižnych, Jevgenij; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa; Černák, Martin; Krivošíková, Zora; Kuricová, Miroslava; Líšková, Aurélia; Spustová, Viera; Tulinská, Jana; Levkut, Mikuláš; Révajová, Viera; Ševčíková, Zuzana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Paul; La Paz, Jose Luis; Corujo, Maria; Pla, Maria; Kleter, Gijs A; Kok, Esther J; Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Einspanier, Ralf; Adel-Patient, Karine; Spök, Armin; Pöting, Annette; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The GRACE (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project was funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE was to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM) maize in order to comparatively evaluate their use in GM plant risk assessment. In the present study, the results of a 1-year feeding trial with a GM maize MON810 variety, its near-isogenic non-GM comparator and an additional conventional maize variety are presented. The feeding trials were performed by taking into account the guidance for such studies published by the EFSA Scientific Committee in 2011 and the OECD Test Guideline 452. The results obtained show that the MON810 maize at a level of up to 33 % in the diet did not induce adverse effects in male and female Wistar Han RCC rats after a chronic exposure.

  17. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ralph P; Tobias, Karen M

    2009-05-01

    Laryngeal paralysis is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in older, large-breed dogs and is likely associated with a generalized polyneuropathy in most animals. Surgical therapy is frequently indicated, and UAL is currently the recommended treatment. Respiratory signs significantly improve in most patients after surgery; however, postoperative complication rates can be high, and patients have a lifelong risk of developing respiratory tract disease.

  18. Noise Phobia in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangle

    Full Text Available Fear of thunderstorms and other forms of noise phobia are common problems in dogs. Administering medications along with changing the pet’s environment, and using behavior modification techniques can help ease the fear. Above all, do not give your pet any attention or reward when he is showing signs of fear; this will only reinforce the fearful behavior. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 351-352

  19. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pet...

  20. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  2. Determination of toxic elements in Malaysian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, Z.; Wood, A.K.H.; Mahmood, C.S.; Hamzah, S.

    1988-01-01

    This project is concentrating on the analysis of toxic elements content in seafoods including fishes, mussel, squid and prawn. Samples were collected from various places throughout Malay Peninsular. Samples were prepared according to RCA research protocol - nuclear techniques for toxic element in foodstuffs. Techniques used for elemental analysis were neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical) and anodic stripping voltametry. (author). 9 refs, 9 tabs

  3. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  4. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the dog P2X7 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, S; Cusdin, F S; Fonfria, E; Goodwin, J A; Reeves, J; Lappin, S C; Chambers, L; Walter, D S; Clay, W C; Michel, A D

    2009-11-01

    Human and rodent P2X7 receptors exhibit differences in their sensitivity to antagonists. In this study we have cloned and characterized the dog P2X7 receptor to determine if its antagonist sensitivity more closely resembles the human or rodent orthologues. A cDNA encoding the dog P2X7 receptor was isolated from a dog heart cDNA library, expressed in U-2 OS cells using the BacMam viral expression system and characterized in electrophysiological, ethidium accumulation and radioligand binding studies. Native P2X7 receptors were examined by measuring ATP-stimulated interleukin-1beta release in dog and human whole blood. The dog P2X7 receptor was 595 amino acids long and exhibited high homology (>70%) to the human and rodent orthologues although it contained an additional threonine at position 284 and an amino acid deletion at position 538. ATP possessed low millimolar potency at dog P2X7 receptors. 2'-&3'-O-(4benzoylbenzoyl) ATP had slightly higher potency but was a partial agonist. Dog P2X7 receptors possessed relatively high affinity for a number of selective antagonists of the human P2X7 receptor although there were some differences in potency between the species. Compound affinities in human and dog blood exhibited a similar rank order of potency as observed in studies on the recombinant receptor although absolute potency was considerably lower. Dog recombinant and native P2X7 receptors display a number of pharmacological similarities to the human P2X7 receptor. Thus, dog may be a suitable species for assessing target-related toxicity of antagonists intended for evaluation in the clinic.

  5. Recovery of brodifacoum in vomitus following induction of emesis in dogs that had ingested rodenticide bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, K H; Willson, E K; Collett, M G; Booth, L H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the benefit of inducing emesis in dogs that have ingested rodenticide bait containing brodifacoum (BDF), by determining the amount of BDF in bait recovered from the vomitus relative to the estimated amount consumed. Between 2014 and 2015 samples of vomitus from seven dogs that ingested rodenticide baits containing BDF were submitted by veterinarians in New Zealand. All seven dogs had been given apomorphine by the veterinarian and vomited within 1 hour of ingesting the bait. Some or all of the bait particles were retrieved from each sample and were analysed for concentrations of BDF using HPLC. Based on estimations of the mass of bait consumed, the concentration of BDF stated on the product label, and the estimated mass of bait in the vomitus of each dog, the amount of BDF in the vomited bait was calculated as a percentage of the amount ingested. For five dogs an estimation of the mass of bait ingested was provided by the submitting veterinarian. For these dogs the estimated percentage of BDF in the bait retrieved from the vomitus was between 10-77%. All dogs were well after discharge but only one dog returned for further testing. This dog had a normal prothrombin time 3 days after ingestion. The induction of emesis within 1 hour of ingestion can be a useful tool in reducing the exposure of dogs to a toxic dose of BDF. The BDF was not fully absorbed within 1 hour of ingestion suggesting that the early induction of emesis can remove bait containing BDF before it can be fully absorbed.

  6. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  7. Mobile source air toxics mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In accordance with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Interim Guidance Update on Mobile Source Air Toxic Analysis in NEPA Documents (September 30, 2009), transportation projects subject to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) mus...

  8. Severe lamotrigine toxicosis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawyer D

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Sawyer, Kathryn Gates Emergency and Critical Care Department, Advanced Critical Care and Emergency Specialty Services, Culver City, CA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to describe a case of severe lamotrigine toxicosis in a dog, which was successfully treated using minimal medical interventions. Case summary: A 7-month-old male, intact, Labrador mix was evaluated because of acute onset of vomiting, rigidity, and dull mentation after ingesting lamotrigine tablets. The estimated oral dose that had been ingested was 278 mg/kg (611.6 mg/lb. Physical examination was unremarkable other than abnormalities noted in the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Neurological examination revealed dull mentation, vertical nystagmus, four-legged extensor limb rigidity, and alligator rolling. Cardiovascular examination revealed pale pink mucous membranes and multifocal ventricular tachycardia. Intravenous (IV fluids were started at three times maintenance (180 mL/kg/day. Methocarbamol (100 mg/kg [220 mg/lb], rectally and lidocaine (2 mg/kg [4.4 mg/lb, IV] were administered. Twenty-four and seventy-two hours after presentation, the dog was clinically normal with no ventricular tachycardia being noted. Conclusion: Lamotrigine (6-[2,3-dichlorophenyl]-1,2,4-triazine-3,5-diamine is an anticonvulsant medication used in humans, which inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels. The clinical success of this case suggests that administration of only methocarbamol for the neurologic effects and lidocaine for the arrhythmias, as well as supportive IV fluid therapy, could be a successful treatment strategy for dogs, even with severe lamotrigine toxicosis. Keywords: arrhythmia, toxicity, multifocal ventricular tachycardia, poison

  9. Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse systems, on the welfare of domestic dogs: field study of dogs in training

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Mills, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The project had a single aim, namely to assess the impact of use of remote static pulse electric training aids (e-collars) during the training of dogs in comparison to dogs referred for similar behavioural problems but without e-collar training. The specific objective was to use appropriate behavioural and physiological measures to make inferences about the welfare of subjects including their aversion and anxiety during and following training. A secondary objective was to evaluate the efficac...

  10. Detection of indoxyl sulfate levels in dogs and cats suffering from naturally occurring kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, F P; Hsieh, M J; Chou, C C; Hsu, W L; Lee, Y J

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uraemic toxin, has been found to accumulate in the serum of people with renal diseases and is associated with free radical induction, nephrotoxicity cardiovascular toxicity, and osteoblast cytotoxicity. Although IS has been studied in humans and in experimental models, the role of IS in dogs and cats with kidney disease has not been investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography system was applied to detect plasma IS concentrations in non-azotaemic animals (63 dogs, 16 cats) and in animals with renal azotaemia (66 dogs, 69 cats). The IS levels of azotaemic animals were significantly higher (P dogs; median [IQR] 21 (18.9) mg/L vs. 14.8 (12.3) mg/L for cats). The IS level was significantly correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Dogs with acute kidney injury had significantly higher IS levels (P dogs and cats. The IS concentration is directly related to loss of renal function. Further studies are necessary to determine whether measurement of IS provides any additional diagnostic or prognostic information in dogs and cats with kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does exercise and the stress of clinical examination influence endothelial function in dogs with mitral regurgitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Sophia Gry; Pedersen, Henrik Duelund; Holte, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    to indicate endothelial function. As in man with heart failure, mitral regurgitation (MR) associated with mitral valve prolapse in dogs, has been found to be associated with a decreased plasma concentation of NOx early in the course of heart failure. Correction of such endothelial dysfunction in human...... subjects is regarded as being an important therapeutic target.An aim of this PhD project is to investigate the involvement of NO in mitral valve disease and explain possible reasons for the decrease in NOx seen in connection with MR.When dogs are examined under clinic conditions there is an inevitable...... amount of stress and agitation, which may affect the cardiovascular system and endothelial function. Plasma NOx measured in dogs with MR in their home environment was similar to that of dogs without MR which were measured in the clinic. However, the same dogs with MR showed a significant decrease...

  12. Cerebral cuterebrosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartin, E A; Hendrix, C M; Dillehay, D L; Nicholls, B

    1986-11-15

    A second instar Cuterebra larva was found in the thickened meninges of a 6-week-old female Doberman Pinscher at necropsy. The dog appeared blind and had chewing fits before death. Cerebral cuterebrosis in the dog is uncommon. This report briefly discusses the pathogenesis of the condition.

  13. DEMODECOSIS IN A DOG 133

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Most pet owners have a close relationship with their dogs and often spend ... Dogs with localized form of demodecosis develop alopecic areas around the eyelids, lips, mouth and front limb giving the animal a characteristic moth-eaten appearance (7). ... of pododemodecosis affecting the paws (7, 8). Diagnosis is by deep ...

  14. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  15. Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....

  16. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  17. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.

  18. A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around

  19. A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around human dwellings

  20. Dietary 135-fold cholecalciferol supplementation severely disturbs the endochondral ossification in growing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tryfonidou, M.A.; Holl, M.S.; Stevenhagen, J.J.; Buurman, C.J.; Deluca, H.F.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of excessive non-toxic dietary Vitamin D3 supplementation on Ca homeostasis with specific effects on endochondral ossification and skeletal remodeling were investigated in a group of growing Great Dane dogs supplemented with cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3; HVitD) versus a control group

  1. Risk of Peripheral Nerve Disease in Military Working Dogs Deployed in Operations Desert Shield/Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    the spinal cord. Braund notes that dogs tend to be more resistant than cats to the neurotoxic effects of these exposures. Neurologic Toxicants in...activity, that is specifically used for demodex and scabies mite infections. Methoprene, is an insect growth regulator, used in conjunction with other

  2. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ralić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred.

  3. Sarcocystiosis in dogs in several regions of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Obrenović Sonja; Katić-Radivojević Sofija P.; Stanković B.; Bacić Dragan

    2003-01-01

    The results of an investigation related to Sarcocystis spp. infection of dogs in Serbia are presented in this paper, for the first time after 25 years. In order to investigate the prevalence of sarcocystiosis in dogs, 448 dogs were examined. Considering feeding and living conditions, the dogs were divided in to 5 categories (city dogs - 100, village dogs - 188, dogs from a shelter - 54, military dog farm - 42 and dogs from private kennels - 64). Considering age, they were divided in to four g...

  4. Hepatotoxicity to dogs of horse meat contaminated with indospicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, M P; Kelly, W R; McEwan, D; Williams, O J; Cameron, R

    1988-11-01

    An outbreak of liver disease which killed more than 30 dogs at Alice Springs was associated with feeding meat from horses, some of which had developed Indigofera linnaei poisoning (Birdsville horse disease). Affected livers were small, nodular and yellow. There was associated jaundice, ascites, elevation of alanine aminotransferase levels in serum, a tendency to bleed, and signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Histologically, livers showed periacinar necrosis, collapse and haemorrhage, with severe swelling, vacuolation and cholestasis in remaining hepatocytes. Indospicine, a toxic amino acid found in the genus Indigofera, was detected in samples of suspect horsemeat. Experimental feeding of horsemeat containing 16 mg indospicine/kg for 32 days produced periacinar necrosis and hepatocellular swelling in 2 dogs, although neither died nor showed clinical illness. In another experiment, intakes of as little as 0.13 mg indospicine/kg bodyweight/day for 70 days produced periacinar liver lesions, and indospicine concentrations in serum, muscle and liver rose during this period to 3.9, 7.9 and 17.5 mg/kg, respectively. It was concluded that meat from horses grazing I. linnaei can be hepatotoxic for dogs, and that this toxicity may be related to its indospicine content.

  5. When You Meet a Dog Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrey, Pauline

    1994-01-01

    Tips are offered for use in an encounter with a dog guide and its blind owner. Tips include approaching the person from the right side, not taking hold of the dog guide's harness, not offering food to the dog guide, and not petting the dog guide without the owner's permission. (JDD)

  6. Who Let the Dogs Out? Communicating First Nations Perspectives on a Canine Veterinary Intervention Through Digital Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; McKenzie, Christina; Okemow, Crystal; Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Beatch, Heather; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Dog-related human injuries affect public safety and animal welfare, and occur more frequently in rural, remote, and Indigenous communities than in urban centres in Canada. Little work has been done to identify the perspectives of those people most heavily affected by this issue or to report successful dog management programs. This project was undertaken by veterinarians and public health workers with the goal of documenting First Nations perspectives on dogs, and educating other rural health workers about introducing animal management services to Indigenous communities. We recruited 10-14 residents and healthcare workers from three First Nations to take dog-related photos in their communities and participate in group interviews during the summer of 2014. Audiovisual data were synthesised into four digital stories exploring the following aspects of participant relationships with community dogs: (1) Spay/neuter clinics; (2) Role of the dog (past and present); (3) Human-animal bond; and (4) Healthy dogs as a part of healthy communities. These videos document changes in dog husbandry behaviour, new acceptance of spay/neuter, three-way knowledge transfer between residents, researchers, and policy makers, and an overall desire to sustain the positive outcomes of the pilot dog management project. This work highlights cultural beliefs and success strategies that might guide other programs providing veterinary services in First Nations communities.

  7. Conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.S.; Turek, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Miller, P.; Mehta, M.P.; Forrest, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy provides a unique means of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a novel treatment unit, which merges features of a linear accelerator with a helical CT scanner. Thanks to the CT imaging capacity, targeted regions can be visualized prior to, during, or immediately after each treatment. Such image-guidance through megavoltage CT will allow the realization and refinement of the concept of adaptive radiotherapy - the reconstruction of the actually delivered daily dose (as opposed to planned dose) accompanied by prescription adjustments when appropriate. In addition to this unique feature, helical tomotherapy promises further improvements in the specific avoidance of critical normal structures, i.e. conformal avoidance, the counterpart of conformal therapy. The first definitive treatment protocol using helical tomotherapy is presently underway for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors. In general, such tumors can be treated with conventional external beam radiation therapy but at the cost of severe ocular toxicity due to the anatomy of the canine head. These are readily measurable toxicities and are almost universal in incidence; therefore, the canine nasopharyngeal tumor presents an ideal model to assess the ability to conformally avoid critical structures. It is hoped that conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy will improve tumor control via dose-escalation while reducing ocular toxicity in these veterinary patients. A total of 10 fractions are scheduled for these patients; the first 3 dogs have all received at least 7 fractions delivered via helical tomotherapy. Although preliminary, the first 3 dogs treated have not shown any evidence of ocular toxicity in this ongoing study

  8. Some similarities of radium and plutonium toxicity in the beagle and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Mays, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The value of many toxicity studies, involving various experimental animals, is contingent on how reliably the data can be related to man. An equation has been proposed for extrapolating the Pu syndrome from dog studies to man. It employs the extensive human radium experience and a plutonium-radium toxicity ratio in the dog. The validity of this method is contingent on similar target tissues for both Pu and Ra and approximately equal RBE's for Pu relative to Ra in both man and the dog. Thus, although the radiosensitivity might be significantly different, the endpoints within a given tissue in man and the animal model must necessarily be comparative. The degree of parallelism in the radium-induced syndromes of man and the beagle are examined in order to assess the practicability of estimating Pu risk in man through use of a Pu-Ra toxicity ratio in the beagles

  9. Public Perceptions of Service Dogs, Emotional Support Dogs, and Therapy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Hellyer, Peter; Cheung, Louana; Kogan, Lori

    2017-06-15

    As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public's understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses. Results suggest widespread misconceptions about definitions, rules, regulations, and rights associated with each type of assistance dog. In general, service dogs are more likely to be perceived as helping with a legitimate need, and their access to public spaces is viewed favorably. While there are some concerns about the legitimacy and necessary access rights for emotional support dogs, members of the public correctly identified the roles and rights of therapy dogs. Despite the media's focus on abuses and false representation of these dogs, most participants reported feeling the majority of people are not taking advantage of the system.

  10. Rabies Vaccination Targets for Stray Dog Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tiffany; Davis, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray or neighborhood dogs that are too wary of humans to be held are a more problematic population to vaccinate. Here, we present a method to estimate vaccination targets for stray dogs when the dog populati...

  11. Pattern of breathing in brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, T C; Kurpershoek, C

    1986-10-01

    The pattern of breathing was assessed in 19 brachycephalic dogs, using tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL) analysis. Fifteen dogs had TBFVL consistent with a fixed-type upper airway obstruction, whereas 4 dogs had a TBFVL indicative of a nonfixed upper airway obstruction. The dogs did not have a TBFVL shape the same as that considered normal for healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops from brachycephalic dogs that were considered to have a normal respiratory tract (n = 11) were similar to those of dogs with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction (n = 8). Respiration was monitored continuously for short periods (20 to 50 minutes) in 3 brachycephalic dogs resting in a cage in a quiet, darkened laboratory; 2 of these dogs had periodic breathing patterns characterized by multiple episodes of alternating hypopnea and arousal. Brachycephalic dogs may be at risk for the development of disordered breathing during sleep.

  12. Comparison of two classification protocols in the evaluation of elbow dysplasia in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.; Busato, A.; Baumgartner, D.; Fluckiger, M.; Weber, U.T.

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of elbow disease based solely on arthrosis (ARTH) score was compared with a protocol using a combination of ARTH score plus a score for primary lesions (ED score). The population of dogs studied included 425 Bernese mountain dogs and 22 dogs of other breeds. The overall agreement between the two systems was high. However, 12 per cent of ARTH-score negative cases were positive using the ED score. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.005). The female:male ratio of the dogs missed using the ARTH score was 2:1. The proportion of dogs affected with arthrosis increased with age, male dogs being affected more frequently. The development of arthrosis depends not only on age and breed, but probably also on gender. Thus, screening for elbow dysplasia should be based on at least two radiographic projections, including arthrosis and primary lesions. As the vast majority of dogs in this study were Bernese mountain dogs, conclusions are valid only for this breed

  13. Genome Analysis of the Domestic Dog (Korean Jindo) by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Dae-Soo; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Yoon, Byoung-Ha; Kang, Aram; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Jong-Joo; Ha, Ji-Hong; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kim, Aeri; Kim, Min-Young; Park, Kun-Hyang; Lee, Kang Seon; Park, Hong-Seog

    2012-01-01

    Although pioneering sequencing projects have shed light on the boxer and poodle genomes, a number of challenges need to be met before the sequencing and annotation of the dog genome can be considered complete. Here, we present the DNA sequence of the Jindo dog genome, sequenced to 45-fold average coverage using Illumina massively parallel sequencing technology. A comparison of the sequence to the reference boxer genome led to the identification of 4 675 437 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, including 3 346 058 novel SNPs), 71 642 indels and 8131 structural variations. Of these, 339 non-synonymous SNPs and 3 indels are located within coding sequences (CDS). In particular, 3 non-synonymous SNPs and a 26-bp deletion occur in the TCOF1 locus, implying that the difference observed in cranial facial morphology between Jindo and boxer dogs might be influenced by those variations. Through the annotation of the Jindo olfactory receptor gene family, we found 2 unique olfactory receptor genes and 236 olfactory receptor genes harbouring non-synonymous homozygous SNPs that are likely to affect smelling capability. In addition, we determined the DNA sequence of the Jindo dog mitochondrial genome and identified Jindo dog-specific mtDNA genotypes. This Jindo genome data upgrade our understanding of dog genomic architecture and will be a very valuable resource for investigating not only dog genetics and genomics but also human and dog disease genetics and comparative genomics. PMID:22474061

  14. Genome analysis of the domestic dog (Korean Jindo) by massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Dae-Soo; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Yoon, Byoung-Ha; Kang, Aram; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Jong-Joo; Ha, Ji-Hong; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kim, Aeri; Kim, Min-Young; Park, Kun-Hyang; Lee, Kang Seon; Park, Hong-Seog

    2012-06-01

    Although pioneering sequencing projects have shed light on the boxer and poodle genomes, a number of challenges need to be met before the sequencing and annotation of the dog genome can be considered complete. Here, we present the DNA sequence of the Jindo dog genome, sequenced to 45-fold average coverage using Illumina massively parallel sequencing technology. A comparison of the sequence to the reference boxer genome led to the identification of 4 675 437 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, including 3 346 058 novel SNPs), 71 642 indels and 8131 structural variations. Of these, 339 non-synonymous SNPs and 3 indels are located within coding sequences (CDS). In particular, 3 non-synonymous SNPs and a 26-bp deletion occur in the TCOF1 locus, implying that the difference observed in cranial facial morphology between Jindo and boxer dogs might be influenced by those variations. Through the annotation of the Jindo olfactory receptor gene family, we found 2 unique olfactory receptor genes and 236 olfactory receptor genes harbouring non-synonymous homozygous SNPs that are likely to affect smelling capability. In addition, we determined the DNA sequence of the Jindo dog mitochondrial genome and identified Jindo dog-specific mtDNA genotypes. This Jindo genome data upgrade our understanding of dog genomic architecture and will be a very valuable resource for investigating not only dog genetics and genomics but also human and dog disease genetics and comparative genomics.

  15. Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…

  16. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  17. Social rearing environment influences dog behavioral development

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Naomi D.; Craigon, Peter J.; Blythe, Simon A.; England, Gary C.W.; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Early life experiences are known to influence behavior later in life. In dogs, environmental influences of early home rearing could be exploited to improve the chances of developing adult behavior most suited to the adult environment. For working dog organizations, such as Guide Dogs, suitable adult behavior is important to ensure that dogs can fulfill their role as guides for people with visual impairment. Here, we test the hypothesis that dogs' home rearing environment will influence behavi...

  18. Factors associated with daily walking of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Christian, Hayley E; Christley, Robert M

    2015-05-19

    Regular physical activity is beneficial to the health of both people and animals. The role of regular exercise undertaken together, such as dog walking, is a public health interest of mutual benefit. Exploration of barriers and incentives to regular dog walking by owners is now required so that effective interventions to promote it can be designed. This study explored a well-characterised cross-sectional dataset of 276 dogs and owners from Cheshire, UK, for evidence of factors associated with the dog being walked once or more per day. Factors independently associated with daily walking included: number of dogs owned (multiple (vs. single) dogs negatively associated); size (medium and possibly large dogs (vs. small) positively associated); and number of people in the household (more people negatively associated). Furthermore, a number of factors related to the dog-owner relationship and the dog's behaviour were associated with daily walking, including: having acquired the dog for a hobby (positively associated); dog lying on furniture (positively associated); dog lying on laps (negatively associated); growling at household members (negatively associated); and playing chase games with the dog (negatively associated). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the strength and nature of the human-dog relationship incentivises dog walking, and that behavioural and demographic factors may affect dog walking via this mechanism. Future studies need to investigate how dog demographic and behavioural factors, plus owner behavioural factors and perceptions of the dog, influence the dog-human relationship in respect to the perceived support and motivation a dog can provide for walking.

  19. Rabies Vaccination Targets for Stray Dog Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tiffany; Davis, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray or neighborhood dogs that are too wary of humans to be held are a more problematic population to vaccinate. Here, we present a method to estimate vaccination targets for stray dogs when the dog population is made up of stray, free-roaming, and confined dogs, where the latter two types are considered to have an identifiable owner. The control effort required for stray dogs is determined by the type-reproduction number, T1, the number of stray dogs infected by one rabid stray dog either directly or via any chain of infection involving owned dogs. Like the basic reproduction number R0 for single host populations, T1 determines the vaccination effort required to control the spread of disease when control is targeted at one host type, and there is a mix of host types. The application of T1 to rabies in mixed populations of stray and owned dogs is novel. We show that the outcome is sensitive to the vaccination coverage in the owned dog population, such that if vaccination rates of owned dogs were too low then no control effort targeting stray dogs is able to control or eliminate rabies. The required vaccination level also depends on the composition of the dog population, where a high proportion of either stray or free-roaming dogs implies unrealistically high vaccination levels are required to prevent rabies. We find that the required control effort is less sensitive to continuous culling that increases the death rate of stray dogs than to changes in the carrying capacity of the stray dog population. PMID:28451589

  20. Rabies Vaccination Targets for Stray Dog Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tiffany; Davis, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray or neighborhood dogs that are too wary of humans to be held are a more problematic population to vaccinate. Here, we present a method to estimate vaccination targets for stray dogs when the dog population is made up of stray, free-roaming, and confined dogs, where the latter two types are considered to have an identifiable owner. The control effort required for stray dogs is determined by the type-reproduction number, T 1 , the number of stray dogs infected by one rabid stray dog either directly or via any chain of infection involving owned dogs. Like the basic reproduction number R 0 for single host populations, T 1 determines the vaccination effort required to control the spread of disease when control is targeted at one host type, and there is a mix of host types. The application of T 1 to rabies in mixed populations of stray and owned dogs is novel. We show that the outcome is sensitive to the vaccination coverage in the owned dog population, such that if vaccination rates of owned dogs were too low then no control effort targeting stray dogs is able to control or eliminate rabies. The required vaccination level also depends on the composition of the dog population, where a high proportion of either stray or free-roaming dogs implies unrealistically high vaccination levels are required to prevent rabies. We find that the required control effort is less sensitive to continuous culling that increases the death rate of stray dogs than to changes in the carrying capacity of the stray dog population.

  1. Examining dog-human play: the characteristics, affect, and vocalizations of a unique interspecific interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Alexandra; Hecht, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing interest in research on the interaction between humans and dogs, only a very few research projects focus on the routines between dogs and their owners. In this study, we investigated one such routine: dog-human play. Dyadic interspecific play is known to be a common interaction between owner and charge, but the details of what counts as play have not been thoroughly researched. Similarly, though people represent that "play" is pleasurable, no study has yet undertaken to determine whether different forms of play are associated with different affective states. Thus, we aimed to generate an inventory of the forms of dyadic play, the vocalizations within play, and to investigate the relationship of affect to elements of play. Via a global citizen science project, we solicited videotapes of dog-human play sessions from dog owners. We coded 187 play bouts via frame-by-frame video playback. We then assessed the relationship between various intra-bout variables and owner affect (positive or neutral) during play (dog affect was overwhelmingly positive). Amount of physical contact ("touch"), level of activity of owner ("movement"), and physical closeness of dog-owner dyad ("proximity") were highly correlated with positive affect. Owner vocalizations were found to contain different elements in positive- and neutral-affect play. One novel category of play, "tease", was found. We conclude that not all play is created equal: the experience of play to the owner participant is strongly related to a few identifiable characteristics of the interaction.

  2. "She's a dog at the end of the day": Guide dog owners' perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigon, Peter J; Hobson-West, Pru; England, Gary C W; Whelan, Chantelle; Lethbridge, Emma; Asher, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners) obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles of the guide dog

  3. "She's a dog at the end of the day": Guide dog owners' perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Craigon

    Full Text Available A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles

  4. Epidemiology of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Disease Diagnosis in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Frances E; Meeson, Richard L; Brodbelt, Dave C; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; O'Neill, Dan G

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in dogs and to describe the management of such cases attending primary-care veterinary practices. Historical cohort with a nested case-control study. Nine hundred and fifty-three dogs diagnosed with CCL disease from 171,522 dogs attending 97 primary-care practices in England. Medical records of dogs attending practices participating in the VetCompass project that met selection criteria were assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to evaluate association of possible risk factors with diagnosis of CCL disease. The prevalence of CCL disease diagnosis was estimated at 0.56% (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.59). Compared with crossbred dogs, Rottweilers, West Highland White Terriers, Golden Retrievers, Yorkshire Terriers, and Staffordshire Bull Terriers showed increased odds of CCL disease diagnosis while Cocker Spaniels showed reduced odds. Increasing bodyweight within breeds was associated with increased odds of diagnosis. Dogs aged over 3 years had increased odds of diagnosis compared with dogs aged less than 3 years. Neutered females had 2.1 times the odds of diagnosis compared with entire females. Insured dogs had 4 times the odds of diagnosis compared with uninsured dogs. Two-thirds of cases were managed surgically, with insured and heavier dogs more frequently undergoing surgery. Overall, 21% of cases were referred, with referral more frequent in heavier and insured dogs. Referred dogs more frequently had surgery and an osteotomy procedure. Breed predispositions and demographic factors associated with diagnosis and case management of CCL disease in dogs identified in this study can be used to help direct future research and management strategies. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Potential for cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhusin, M E; Burghardt, R C; Ruglia, J N; Willingham, L A; Liu, L; Shin, T; Howe, L M; Kraemer, D C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether nuclear transplantation could be used to clone a dog using donor nucleus cells collected from an adult female. Fibroblasts obtained from skin biopsies were fused with enucleated bovine or canine oocytes. The resulting cloned embryos were cultured in vitro to monitor embryonic development. A proportion of the resulting embryos was transferred into surrogate bitches for development to term. When canine oocytes were used as recipient ova for canine fibroblasts, 23% of the resulting embryos cleaved at least once after culture in vitro. Five cloned embryos were transferred into three synchronized recipient bitches, but no pregnancies resulted. When bovine oocytes were used as recipinets for canine fibroblasts, 38% cleaved to the two- to four-cell stage and 43% cleaved to the eight- to 16-cell stage. Forty-seven of these embryos were transferred into four recipient females, resulting in a single conceptus that ceased development at about day 20 of gestation. The desire for cloned dogs is considerable and will undoubtedly incite the development of successful methods for cloning companion animals. However, significant investment into additional research is required, especially in the areas of in vitro maturation of oocytes and control of the oestrous cycle of bitches.

  6. Dog and cat bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  7. The biological effects of 224Ra injected into dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Lloyd, R.D.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of injected 224 Ra in the dog. Radium-224 is a short-lived isotope of radium with a half-life of 3.62 d. When administered parenterally, it deposits on bone surfaces; because of its short half-life, most of its energy is deposited on bone surfaces, in a manner similar to plutonium. The experimental design included a comparison to the exposed human population. Instead of using a single injection of 224 Ra, groups were included in which dogs were injected once, 10 times, or 50 times. This design provided groups that could be compared to the multiple injections often used in people for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

  8. The association between dog ownership or dog walking and fitness or weight status in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, C.; Boddy, L. M.; Stratton, G.; German, A. J.; Gaskell, R. M.; Coyne, K. P.; Bundred, P.; McCune, S.; Dawson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health benefits of dog walking are established in adults: dog owners are on average more physically active, and those walking their dogs regularly have lower weight status than those who do not. However, there has been little research on children. Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between dog ownership or dog walking and childhood fitness or weight status. Methods A survey of pet ownership and involvement in dog walking was combined with fitness and wei...

  9. A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around human dwellings and are associated with one or various households. At present, village dogs in the Global South are a concern for (inter)national  organizations and individuals, such as tourists. Concerns ar...

  10. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Self-disclosure with dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Wilday, Aislinn

    2016-01-01

    There exists an abundance of literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership and the health benefits of self-disclosure however, there has been no research into the potential health benefits of self-disclosure to dogs. This thesis addresses that gap in the literature. Among the literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership there is often a focus on the benefits to people with clinical conditions or living in care facilities – much less investigated are the benefits to ‘normally-fun...

  12. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Miller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  13. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855

  14. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2–3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  15. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, June H; Whitehead, Zandri; Van Wilpe, Erna

    2016-11-09

    Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2-3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  16. Nonverbal Communication and Human–Dog Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...

  17. Overweight dogs exercise less frequently and for shorter periods: results of a large online survey of dog owners from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Blackwell, Emily; Evans, Mark; Westgarth, Carri

    2017-01-01

    Canine obesity is now the number one health concern in dogs worldwide. Regular physical activity can improve health, and owners are advised to exercise their dogs on a regular basis. However, limited information exists about associations between overweight status of dogs and walking activity. An online survey was conducted between June and August in 2014, coinciding with the broadcast of a national UK television programme, exploring dog behaviour. Information gathered included signalment, overweight status, and owner-reported information on duration and frequency of dog walking. The University of Liverpool Ethics Committee approved the project, and owners consented to data use. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations between overweight status and dog walking activity. Data were available from 11 154 adult dogs, and 1801 (16·1 %) of these were reported as overweight by their owners. Dogs reported to be overweight dogs were more likely to be neutered ( P  < 0·0001) and older ( P  < 0·0001). Various breeds were over-represented including beagle, Cavalier King Charles spaniel, golden retriever, Labrador retriever and pug ( P  < 0·0001 for all). Both frequency and duration of walking were negatively associated with overweight status ( P  < 0·0001 for both). On multiple regression analysis, duration and frequency were independently and negatively associated with the odds of being overweight, along with a range of other factors including age, neuter status and breed. This study has identified associations between overweight status and exercise. In the future, studies should determine the reason for this association, and whether changes in walking activity can influence weight status.

  18. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series.

  19. Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Courtney H; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Yeomans, Stephen M; Hoffmann, Karon L; Moore, Antony S

    2016-11-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated. CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.

  20. Ureteral diverticula in two dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, S.; Van Alstine, W.G.; Adams, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    We describe ureteral diverticula in two dogs and briefly review the related literature. The diagnosis of this condition is radiographic and based on the excretory urographic observation of multiple ureteral outpouchings. Pathologically, ureteral transitional cell hyperplasia and mucinous metaplasia result in submucosal proliferation of the urothelium and the formation of crypts and small cysts. Ureteral diverticulosis in humans is associated with an increased risk of urothelial malignancies, such as transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Clinically, both dogs were older, small breed neutered females. Both had a history of chronic urinary obstruction. One dog died during surgery to remove an adrenal mass, and the other was euthanized at the owner's request because of an inoperable bladder neoplasm. Histopathologic diagnosis of ureteral lesions confirmed the radiographic diagnosis of ureteral diverticula in both dogs

  1. Mushroom poisoning in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, M A

    1979-03-01

    The false morel (Gyromitra esculenta), a mushroom responsible for occasional fatalities in man, caused a fatal hemolytic episode in a ten week old dog. The clinical symptoms observed and the gross and histopathological findings, are discussed.

  2. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... a tumor on an adrenal gland. Symptoms of Cushing's Disease Cushing's disease typically occurs in middle-aged to ...

  3. Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors.

  4. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwankong, N.

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLS) is now recognized as a significant cause of caudal lumbar pain and pelvic limb lameness in dogs. The condition includes lumbosacral intervertebral disc degeneration and protrusion, spondylosis deformans, sclerosis of the vertebral end plates, osteoarthrosis of

  5. Cyanide poisoning deaths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.

  6. Precipitation, Climate Change, and Parasitism of Prairie Dogs by Fleas that Transmit Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A; Hoogland, John L

    2017-08-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that can reduce the fitness of vertebrate hosts. Laboratory populations of fleas decline under dry conditions, implying that populations of fleas will also decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. If precipitation and hence vegetative production are reduced, however, then herbivorous hosts might suffer declines in body condition and have weakened defenses against fleas, so that fleas will increase in abundance. We tested these competing hypotheses using information from 23 yr of research on 3 species of colonial prairie dogs in the western United States: Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni, 1989-1994), Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens, 1996-2005), and white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus, 2006-2012). For all 3 species, flea-counts per individual varied inversely with the number of days in the prior growing season with >10 mm of precipitation, an index of the number of precipitation events that might have caused a substantial, prolonged increase in soil moisture and vegetative production. Flea-counts per Utah prairie dog also varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the prior growing season. Furthermore, flea-counts per Gunnison's and white-tailed prairie dog varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the just-completed January and February. These results complement research on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) and might have important ramifications for plague, a bacterial disease transmitted by fleas that devastates populations of prairie dogs. In particular, our results might help to explain why, at some colonies, epizootics of plague, which can kill >95% of prairie dogs, are more likely to occur during or shortly after periods of reduced precipitation. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of droughts in the grasslands of western North America. If so, then climate change might affect the occurrence of plague epizootics

  7. Use of epothilone B (patupilone) in refractory lymphoma and advanced solid tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, V; Geigy, C; Grosse, N; McSheehy, P; Rohrer Bley, C

    2013-01-01

    The epothilones are microtubule-stabilizing agents with promising antitumor effect in refractory and metastatic tumors in humans. The toxicity profile is considered more favorable than in taxanes. The safety of epothilone B (patupilone) has not been evaluated in tumor-bearing dogs. To evaluate the inhibition of proliferation in canine tumor cells after patupilone treatment. To assess toxicity profile and maximally tolerated dose of patupilone in dogs with refractory tumors. Twenty client-owned dogs with various malignancies. Prospective clinical study. The inhibition of proliferation was assessed with a proliferation assay in vitro in canine hemangiosarcoma and lymphoma cell lines. Dogs received patupilone IV once a week for 2 treatments (= 1 treatment cycle). Dose was escalated with 3 dogs per cohort and 20% increments. Adverse effects were graded according to the VCOG-CTCAE v1.0. Both canine cell lines were sensitive to patupilone with approximately 50% decrease in proliferative activity at 0.2-1 nM. In vivo, dose-limiting adverse effects occurred at 3.3 mg/m(2); main adverse effects were diarrhea, anorexia, vomiting, and nausea. Neither neutropenia nor peripheral neuropathy was observed. Maximally tolerated dose for 2 patupilone administrations once weekly IV is 2.76 mg/m(2). Three per 11 dogs receiving more than 1 treatment cycle showed partial remission in the short period of observation. Canine tumor cells show inhibition of proliferation to patupilone in vitro. Clinically, a dose of 2.76 mg/m(2) IV is well tolerated in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  9. Fear and aggression in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunova Krasimira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the concepts of fear, phobia and aggression in dogs were precisely defined, as well as their underlying causes. The behavioural activities specific for these conditions were indicated. The accompanying symptoms were consistently explained. The causes that the development of pathological fear leads to aggression in dogs as well as the ex various therapy options depending on the clinical signs were presented.

  10. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  11. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Diel, J.H.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, or 244 Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  13. Buster-Jangle Shot Dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.

    1987-01-01

    Shot Dog of the Buster-Jangle Series used a device which had a high-explosive configuration virtually identical to that of the Nagasaki bomb, though with different fissionable components. Dog was detonated at a height of 431.9 m with the mean atmospheric conditions between burst and ground being dry air density 1.027 mg/cc and atmospheric moisture density 0.006 mg/cc. The ground was taken to be that of Nevada test site (NTS) area 9 with a water content of 8% by weight. The yield of the weapon was 21 kt. Results shown here for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog have been scaled from those calculated for Ranger Shot Fox. The design features and burst geometries of the two devices were deemed sufficiently similar to make this substitution in the absence of a radiation leakage spectrum calculated explicitly for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog. However, while the relative atmospheric contents of the two shots were very similar, Shot Fox took place in air of approximately 10% greater density than Shot Dog. Thus, scaled calculated results could not be obtained to compare with the three closest measurement points at Shot Dog

  14. Extramedullary spinal cysts in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Mark L; Platt, Simon R; Garosi, Laurent S

    2014-08-01

    To (1) synthesize the terminology used to classify extramedullary spinal cysts in dogs to clarify some of the commonly reported misconceptions, and (2) propose a classification scheme to limit confusion with terminology. Literature review. An online bibliographic search was performed in January 2013 for articles relating to extramedullary spinal cysts in dogs using PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov/) and Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com/) databases. Only peer-reviewed clinical literature describing cystic lesions pertaining to the spinal cord and associated structures was included. From 1962 to 2013, 42 articles were identified; 25 (95 dogs) reported meningeal cysts, 10 (24 dogs) described 60 extradural cysts, 3 reports (18 dogs) described discal cysts or acute compressive hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusions (HNPE). Spinal cysts were categorized by location based on cross-sectional imaging as meningeal or extradural non-meningeal. Sub-classification was then performed based on surgical findings and pathology. Meningeal cysts included arachnoid diverticulae and Tarlov (perineural) cysts. Extradural non-meningeal cysts included intraspinal cysts of the vertebral joints, ligaments and discs. Discal cysts also fit this category and have been reported extensively in humans but appear rare in dogs. Extramedullary spinal cysts should be first classified according to location with a sub-classification according to pathologic and surgical findings. Previous canine cases of discal cysts appear to represent a different disease entity and the term acute compressive HNPE is therefore preferred. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Mechlorethamine, vincristine, melphalan and prednisone (MOMP) for the treatment of relapsed lymphoma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, A R; Schleis, S E; Smrkovski, O A; Lee, J; Smith, A N; Phillips, J C

    2015-12-01

    Eighty-eight dogs with relapsed lymphoma were treated with the MOMP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, melphalan and prednisone) protocol on a 28-day treatment cycle. The overall response rate (ORR) to the MOMP protocol was 51.1% for a median of 56 days (range 7-858 days). Twelve percent of dogs experienced a complete response for a median of 81 days (range 42-274 days) and 38.6% experienced a partial response for a median of 49 days (range 7-858 days). Dogs with T-cell lymphoma had an ORR of 55% for a median of 60 days (range 49-858 days) while those with B-cell lymphoma had an ORR of 57% for a median of 81 days (range 7-274 days) (P = 0.783). The overall survival time for all dogs was 183 days (range 17-974 days). Fifty-four percent of dogs experienced toxicity with the majority classified as grade I. The MOMP protocol seems well-tolerated and is an option for dogs with relapsed lymphoma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Risk factors for treatment-related adverse events in cancer-bearing dogs receiving piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstadt, L R; Moore, G E; Childress, M O

    2017-12-01

    Piroxicam has antitumour effects in dogs with cancer, although side effects may limit its use. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively identify factors predisposing cancer-bearing dogs to adverse events (AEs) following piroxicam therapy. Medical records of dogs presented to the Purdue Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed, and 137 dogs met the criteria for study inclusion. Toxic effects of piroxicam in these dogs were graded according to an established system. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the extent to which certain factors affected the risk for AEs. Age [odds ratio (OR) 1.250, P = 0.009; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.057-1.479] and concurrent use of gastroprotectant medications (OR 2.612, P = 0.025; 95% CI 1.127-6.056) significantly increased the risk for gastrointestinal AEs. The results of this study may help inform the risk versus benefit calculation for clinicians considering the use of piroxicam to treat dogs with cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Leukocyte and platelet changes following low-dose lipopolysaccharide administration in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, B; Fry, M M; LeBlanc, C J; Rohrbach, B W

    2011-02-01

    Effects of low-dose LPS (0.1 μg/kg i.v.) on leukocyte and platelet parameters measured using an Advia 120 hematology analyzer were investigated. Five dogs received a saline sham treatment prior to LPS, and blood was collected before and 3, 6, and 24 h post-treatment. LPS-treated dogs had mild neutrophil toxic change and increased neutrophil bands at 3 and 6 h. Compared to saline-treated controls, total leukocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts of LPS-treated dogs were significantly decreased at 3 h and increased at 24 h. Compared to baseline, total leukocyte counts of LPS-treated dogs were significantly decreased at 3 h and increased at 24 h. Mean platelet volume was significantly increased and mean platelet component concentration was decreased at 3 h compared to baseline. Platelet count was significantly decreased at 3 and 6 h; plateletcrit did not change significantly. High dosage is not required in order to detect LPS-mediated hematologic effects in dogs. Low-dose LPS administration causes significant changes in leukocyte and platelet indices in dogs without causing severe clinical signs or death. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Service Dogs in the Perioperative Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L

    2017-04-01

    Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding local attitudes towards dogs in villages surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    village life. Of individuals with dogs (N=148), 8.1% of respondents reported using their dog for hunting, and 41.2% reported that their dog had killed at least one .... creased predation and declining habitat quality. Dogs may pose a great threat to Madagascar's endemic primates as dog owners use dogs for hunting wildlife, ...

  20. Investigating factors affecting the body temperature of dogs competing in cross country (canicross) races in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anne J; Hall, Emily J

    2018-02-01

    Increasing numbers of people are running with their dogs, particularly in harness through the sport canicross. Whilst canicross races are typically held in the winter months, some human centred events are encouraging running with dogs in summer months, potentially putting dogs at risk of heat related injuries, including heatstroke. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of ambient conditions and running speed on post-race temperature of canicross dogs in the UK, and investigate the potential risk of heatstroke to canicross racing dogs. The effects of canine characteristics (e.g. gender, coat colour) were explored in order to identify factors that could increase the risk of exercise-induced hyperthermia (defined as body temperature exceeding the upper normal limit of 38.8°C).108 dogs were recruited from 10 race days, where ambient conditions ranged from - 5 to 11°C measured as universal thermal comfort index (UTCI). 281 post race tympanic membrane temperatures were recorded, ranging from 37.0-42.5°C. There was a weak correlation between speed and post-race temperature (r = 0.269, P coated dogs (χ(2) = 8.234, P = 0.014), were significantly more likely to finish the race with a temperature exceeding 40.6°C. Prolonged elevati°n of body temperature above this temperature is likely to cause heatstroke. At every race dogs exceeded this critical temperature, with 10.7% (n = 30) of the overall study population exceeding this temperature throughout the study period. The results suggest male dogs, dark coloured dogs, and increased speed of running all increase the risk of heatstroke in racing canicross dogs. Further research is required to investigate the impact of environmental conditions on post-race cooling, to better understand safe running conditions for dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  2. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-09-05

    The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human ratio of 1:7. The mean age of dogs was estimated at 1.73 years; the age pyramid indicated high birth and mortality rates at the first year of age with an estimated cumulative mortality of 78% at the third year of age and expected life span of 2.75 years. In spite of the high mortality, a growth projection simulation suggested that the population has potential to grow in a logarithmic scale over the years. The estimated parameters can be further applied in models to maximize the impact and minimize financial inputs of visceral leishmaniasis control measures.

  3. Use of dogs as indicators of metal exposure in rural and urban habitats in NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Alonso, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain)]. E-mail: mlalonso@usc.es; Miranda, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Ciencias Clinicas Veterinarias, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Garcia-Partida, P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Patologia Animal II, Facultad de Veterinaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cantero, F. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Hernandez, J. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Benedito, J.L. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    Many different species have been used in environmental biomonitoring studies in diverse habitats including forest, farmland, and urban and sub-urban areas. However, there is little information on domestic animals living in rural or urban habitats and exposed to the same pollutants as the human population. In this connection, pets could prove to be good indicators of human metal exposure since they closely share the same environment as their owners, and are therefore exposed, at least in part, to the same pollutants. The present study investigated toxic metal exposure in dogs in NW Spain and compared metal exposures between dogs from rural and urban habitats, considering the influence of diet, sex and age. Samples of liver and kidney from 57 male and female dogs, aged between 6 months and 18 years, were collected after euthanasia at veterinary clinics. Samples were acid-digested and metal concentrations determined by ICP-MS. Geometric mean concentrations of metals in the liver and kidney ({mu}g/kg wet weight) were 12.6 and 15.9 for arsenic, 58.0 and 175 for cadmium, 32.7 and 53.4 for mercury, and 57.7 and 23.1 respectively. Hepatic lead concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in dogs fed commercial diets than dogs fed home-made feed (32%) or a mixture of commercial and home-made feeds (95%). Mercury concentrations in the kidney were significantly higher (3-fold, p < 0.05) in dogs from urban areas than in dogs from rural areas. Cadmium levels in kidney were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in females (67%) and increased with age (p < 0.001). Although no human samples were obtained in this study and no direct correlations between dogs and human metal exposure have been conducted, given our results pets could be suggested as surrogate indicators of human metal exposure.

  4. Use of dogs as indicators of metal exposure in rural and urban habitats in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Alonso, M.; Miranda, M.; Garcia-Partida, P.; Cantero, F.; Hernandez, J.; Benedito, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many different species have been used in environmental biomonitoring studies in diverse habitats including forest, farmland, and urban and sub-urban areas. However, there is little information on domestic animals living in rural or urban habitats and exposed to the same pollutants as the human population. In this connection, pets could prove to be good indicators of human metal exposure since they closely share the same environment as their owners, and are therefore exposed, at least in part, to the same pollutants. The present study investigated toxic metal exposure in dogs in NW Spain and compared metal exposures between dogs from rural and urban habitats, considering the influence of diet, sex and age. Samples of liver and kidney from 57 male and female dogs, aged between 6 months and 18 years, were collected after euthanasia at veterinary clinics. Samples were acid-digested and metal concentrations determined by ICP-MS. Geometric mean concentrations of metals in the liver and kidney (μg/kg wet weight) were 12.6 and 15.9 for arsenic, 58.0 and 175 for cadmium, 32.7 and 53.4 for mercury, and 57.7 and 23.1 respectively. Hepatic lead concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in dogs fed commercial diets than dogs fed home-made feed (32%) or a mixture of commercial and home-made feeds (95%). Mercury concentrations in the kidney were significantly higher (3-fold, p < 0.05) in dogs from urban areas than in dogs from rural areas. Cadmium levels in kidney were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in females (67%) and increased with age (p < 0.001). Although no human samples were obtained in this study and no direct correlations between dogs and human metal exposure have been conducted, given our results pets could be suggested as surrogate indicators of human metal exposure

  5. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  6. Encouraging physical activity through dog walking: why don't some owners walk with their dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    To identify factors associated with owners not walking with their dog. Dog owners (n=629) taking part in the RESIDE study, Perth, Western Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2005-06 that included items about the dog, dog-owner relationship, dog walking and intrapersonal and environmental factors associated with dog walking. Physical activity data were also collected using NPAQ. Overall, 23% of dog owners did not walk with their dog. More dog walkers achieved 150 min of physical activity/week than owners who did not walk with their dog (72% vs. 44%, p<0.001). Not walking with a dog was significantly more likely in owners who did not perceive that their dog provided motivation (OR 9.60, 95% CI: 4.37, 21.08) or social support (OR 10.84, 95% CI: 5.15, 22.80) to walk, independent of other well-known correlates of physical activity. There would be a significant impact on community physical activity levels if owners who do not walk with their dog could be persuaded to begin dog walking. Understanding the factors that discourage or facilitate owners to walk with their dog will assist in tailoring interventions designed to encourage both the uptake and maintenance of regular dog walking.

  7. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  8. Harmonizing human exposure and toxicity characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, O.; McKone, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    The UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has launched a project to provide global guidance and build consensus on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators. Human health effects from exposure to toxic chemicals was selected as impact category due to high relevance of human toxicity...... and harmonizing human toxicity characterization in LCIA. Building on initial work for the far-field and indoor air environments, and combining it with latest work on near-field consumer and occupational exposure assessment, dose-response and severity data, we aim at providing revised guidance on the development...... and use of impact factors for toxic chemicals. We propose to couple fate processes in consumer and occupational environments with existing environmental compartments and processes via a consistent and mass balance-based set of transfer fractions to quantify overall aggregated exposure to toxic substances...

  9. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  10. Dog craniometry: a cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Andreis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of canine head differs greatly among breeds, so that they have been categorized in 3 groups (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic based on craniometric measurements. However, several dog breeds are still unclassified, and skull measurements, often analyzed in adult dogs, are rarely studied in dog puppies. The aim of this work is to clarify whether dog puppies can be classified as dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic and brachycephalic. The skulls of spontaneously dead dog puppies aged 0 to 57 days were studied by using the following anatomic and radiographic measurements and indices: Skull Length, Cranial Length, Facial Length, Cranial Width, Skull Width, Cranial Index (CI, Skull Index (SI; radiographic Condylobasal Length, S-index and Facial Index were added. A new index, the modified-Skull Index, was created. Pearson test, ANOVA and neural nets were used in the statistical analysis. 173 dogs from 36 breeds were included in the study. Anatomic and radiographic CI and SI were significantly correlated (p<0,05. Almost all the anatomic and radiographic measurement significantly differed between brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds (p<0,05, while dolichocephalic breeds showed intermediate features. The new modified skull index was significantly different among the three classes (p<0,05. The neural nets allowed to classify three previously unclassified breeds. With this work it was proved that many breeds can be classified as brachycephalic, mesaticephalic or dolichocephalic as early as up to 2 months after birth, and some previously unclassified breeds were also classified. A new useful craniometric index was introduced. Finally, cadavers proved to be a very good model for dog craniometric studies.

  11. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  12. Relapse and gastrointestinal toxicity associated with radiotherapy treatment in stage I seminoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Quezada Bautista

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Radiotherapy continues to be the treatment of choice in patients with early stage seminoma, with a low probability of relapse and acceptable gastrointestinal toxicity. There is no difference in relapse or gastrointestinal toxicity associated with the different radiation techniques in patients with stage I seminoma, therefore the modified dog-leg technique is recommended as the field of irradiation is already reduced without a negative impact on relapse.

  13. Prevalence of Brown Dog Tick ( Rhipicephalus Sanguineus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    79.69%) and young dogs (73.02%) were the least infested animals. The relatively high prevalence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the present study suggested that dogs in Lokoja metropolis were of veterinary and public health significance ...

  14. Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll pigments, nutrients and other parameters as part of the ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine project (NODC Accession 0064309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The subproject described here is one of several components of ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine, a multi-PI,...

  15. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-09-09 to 1979-11-19 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  16. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1979-08-30 to 1981-09-21 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  17. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-06-02 to 1979-06-02 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2, 1978...

  18. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Charlotte E; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Havstad, Suzanne L; Zoratti, Edward M; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs.

  19. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be caused by toxins produced by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated ... syndrome. The syndrome can also be caused by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria. Risk factors Toxic shock syndrome can ...

  20. Toxic hemolytic anemias.

    OpenAIRE

    ZEMANOVÁ, Vendula

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with toxic hemolytic anemias which are often unheeded. There are described laboratory signs of hemolytic anemias, their dividing into the various groups and it focuses mainly to toxic and drug-related hemolytic anemias and their causations.

  1. How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Christian, Hayley E

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are major threats to population health. A considerable proportion of people own dogs, and there is good evidence that dog ownership is associated with higher levels of physical activity. However not all owners walk their dogs regularly. This paper comprehensively reviews the evidence for correlates of dog walking so that effective interventions may be designed to increase the physical activity of dog owners. Methods Published findings fro...

  2. Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Aaron L.; Schwebel, David C.; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach ...

  3. How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Christian, Hayley E

    2014-08-20

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are major threats to population health. A considerable proportion of people own dogs, and there is good evidence that dog ownership is associated with higher levels of physical activity. However not all owners walk their dogs regularly. This paper comprehensively reviews the evidence for correlates of dog walking so that effective interventions may be designed to increase the physical activity of dog owners. Published findings from 1990-2012 in both the human and veterinary literature were collated and reviewed for evidence of factors associated with objective and self-reported measures of dog walking behaviour, or reported perceptions about dog walking. Study designs included cross-sectional observational, trials and qualitative interviews. There is good evidence that the strength of the dog-owner relationship, through a sense of obligation to walk the dog, and the perceived support and motivation a dog provides for walking, is strongly associated with increased walking. The perceived exercise requirements of the dog may also be a modifiable point for intervention. In addition, access to suitable walking areas with dog supportive features that fulfil dog needs such as off-leash exercise, and that also encourage human social interaction, may be incentivising. Current evidence suggests that dog walking may be most effectively encouraged through targeting the dog-owner relationship and by providing dog-supportive physical environments. More research is required to investigate the influence of individual owner and dog factors on 'intention' to walk the dog as well as the influence of human social interaction whilst walking a dog. The effects of policy and cultural practices relating to dog ownership and walking should also be investigated. Future studies must be of a higher quality methodological design, including accounting for the effects of confounding between variables, and longitudinal designs and testing of

  4. Factors associated with dog ownership and contact with dogs in a UK community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskell Rosalind M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are popular pets in many countries. Identifying differences between those who own dogs or have contact with dogs, and those who do not, is useful to those interested in the human-animal bond, human health and for provision of veterinary services. This census-based, epidemiological study aimed to investigate factors associated with dog ownership and contact with dogs, in a semi-rural community of 1278 households in Cheshire, UK. Results Twenty-four percent of households were identified as dog-owning and 52% owned a pet of some type. Multivariable logistic regression suggested that households were more likely to own a dog if they had more occupants (five or more; if they had an adult female household member; or if they owned a horse. The age structure of the households was also associated with dog ownership, with households containing older children (between six and 19 years of age and young adults (between 20 and 29 years of age, more likely to own dogs. We also found that dog owning households were more likely to be multi-dog households than single-dog if they also owned a cat or a bird, or if the household contained a person of 20–29 years old. Dog owners reported increased contact with dogs, other than their own, compared to those that did not own dogs and this contact appeared to be mainly through walking. Conclusion Some household types are more likely to own a dog than others. This study supports the suggestion that dogs are more common in families who have older children (6–19 years, as has been generally observed in other countries. Dog owners are also more likely to have contact with dogs other than their own, compared with those not owning a dog.

  5. Safety and tolerability of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil fumarate in a real life setting: Data from surveillance cohort long-term toxicity antiretrovirals/antivirals (SCOLTA project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Squillace

    Full Text Available The study aim was to evaluate the impact on Liver and Kidney toxicity of the single tablet regimen Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART experienced or naïve patients.Patients initiating EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF were enrolled in the SCOLTA project, a multicenter observational study reporting grade 3-4 Adverse Events in subjects beginning new antiretroviral drug regimens. In this analysis, patients were evaluated at T0 (baseline, T1 (six months and at T2 (twelve months.A total of 329 patients were enrolled, and 280 (85.1% of these had at least one follow-up visit. Median observation time was 11 months (IQR 7.0-15.5. Two hundred and two patients (72.1% were ART experienced and 78 (27.9% ART naive. Prevalence of HCV-co-infection was 21.4%. At T1, we observed a significant decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, both in experienced and naive patients (mean change from T0-7.5 ± 12.8 ml/min, -15.5 ± 17.8 ml/min, respectively, p = 0.0005, which was confirmed at T2 (mean change from T0-8.2 ± 15.8 ml/min, -17.6 ± 19.4 ml/min, respectively, p = 0.001. Regarding aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT grade 1-2 modifications, no significant differences were observed between experienced and naïve subjects, but an increased prevalence of abnormal liver function test was observed in patients with chronic HCV infection (p<0.001.A significant decline in eGFR was observed in patients initiating EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF in the first 6 months, with no significant worsening occurring at 12 months vs. 6 months of therapy. Patients with chronic HCV infection were at higher risk to develop abnormal liver tests.

  6. Experimental Chagas' disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Lana

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of experimental Chagas' disease in 64 out-bred young dogs. Twenty-nine animals were inoculated with the Be-62 and 35 with Be-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Twenty-six were infected with blood trypomastigotes by different inoculation routes and 38 with metacyclic trypomastigotes from the vector via the conjunctival route. Twenty of the 26 dogs infected with blood trypomastigotes were autopsied during the acute phase. Eleven died spontaneously and nine were sacrificed. Six remained alive until they died suddenly (two or were autopsied (four. Twelve of the 38 dogs infected with metacyclic trypomastigotes evolved naturally to the chronic phase and remained alive for 24-48 months. The parasitemia, clinical aspects and serology (IgM and IgG as well as electrocardiogram, hemogram and heart anatomo-histopathologic patterns of acute and chronic cardiac forms of Chagas' disease as seen in human infections, were reproduced. The most important finding is the reproductibility of diffuse fibrosing chronic chagasic cardiopathy in all dogs infected with Be-78 T. cruzi strain autopsied between the 90th and 864th days of infection. Thus, the dog can be considered as a suitable experimental model to study Chagas' disease according to the requisites of the World Health Organization (1984. Futhermore the animal is easily obtained and easy to handle and maintain in experimental laboratory conditions.

  7. Neosporosis and hammondiosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, M P; Ellis, J T; Dubey, J P

    2007-06-01

    The dog is a definitive host of the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, and in many parts of the world, infection is relatively common as determined by serology. Reported seroprevalences usually range from 0 to 20 per cent, however, reports of clinically affected dogs are infrequent. Affected dogs are generally less than six months old and predominantly have signs of an ascending hindleg paralysis, with the associated lesions of polyradiculoneuritis and granulomatous polymyositis. Although any organ may be affected, infections are more common in the central nervous system, muscles, lungs and skin. Ante-mortem diagnosis is difficult but serology and cytology can aid diagnosis. The diagnosis can be confirmed by histology, immunohistochemistry, the use of molecular techniques on biopsy material, or on post-mortem examination. Neospora caninum oocysts are rarely found in faeces and must be differentiated from oocysts of related coccidians such as Hammondia heydorni and Toxoplasma gondii. Hammondia heydorni can cause diarrrhoea in immunosuppressed dogs. Neosporosis should be suspected in young pups with an ascending paralysis of the hindlegs. Treatment with clindamycin and potentiated sulphonamides may be useful in cases where muscular atrophy and fibrosis are absent. Feeding of raw meat is a potential risk factor for infection of dogs and should be discouraged.

  8. Chemodectoma in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.J.; Bruyette, D.S.; Layton, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Tumors of the chemoreceptor organs are referred to as chemodectomas. Such tumors develop principally in the aortic and carotid bodies of animals. Aortic body tumors occur four times more frequently than do carotid body tumors. Brachycephalic breeds (e.g., boxers, Boston terriers, and English bulldogs) are over represented among reported cases of canine chemodectoma. Old male dogs are at greater risk of developing the condition. Tumors of the aortic body occur more often as single or multiple nodules in the pericardial sac near the base of the heart. Carotid body tumors arise near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery in the cranial cervical region. Clinical signs at presentation include signs of right-sided congestive heart failure (aortic body tumor) and the presence of a neck mass (carotid body tumor). In the absence of necropsy, definitive diagnosis is usually based on exploratory surgery and histopathology of surgically excised tissue. Currently, early surgical excision is the preferred treatment. Radiation therapy has been used in a limited number of cases. The prognosis for animals diagnosed with chemodectoma is guarded to fair

  9. Artificial Blood for Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-11-10

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain "blood" for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin-albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA 3 ), was synthesized as an artificial O 2 -carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O 2 -binding affinity was high (P 50  = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA 3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O 2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations.

  10. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  11. Rehabilitation and conditioning of sporting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David; Taylor, Robert

    2005-11-01

    Owners and trainers exercise sporting dogs to increase their fitness and optimize their conditioning and performance. Training is designed to in-crease strength, endurance, and agility and is sport-specific. Sporting dogs are susceptible to specific musculoskeletal injuries. The rehabilitation of sporting dogs after these injuries follows specific principles during the acute, subacute, and reconditioning periods.

  12. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  13. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. [41 FR 49488, Nov. 9, 1976. Redesignated at...

  14. So Your Child Wants a Dog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-27

    Our question this week is from a mom whose child is begging to get a dog. She's concerned that having a dog is unsafe because she's heard so much in the news about dog bites.  Created: 4/27/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing.   Date Released: 4/27/2009.

  15. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  16. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. We investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by ???70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  17. A retrospective analysis of the added value of 1-year dog studies in pesticide human health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Brenda; Mohr, Sara; Ramsingh, Deborah; Bhuller, Yadvinder

    2017-08-01

    The 1-year dog toxicity study is no longer required by certain pesticide regulatory jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union. Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) examined its current requirement for this study to determine if it could be refined or eliminated. A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the 1-year dog study on human health risk assessment. The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), a measure of the amount of a pesticide in food that can be ingested on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk, was the metric for this analysis. For 143 pesticides evaluated by the PMRA between 2008 and 2015, the supporting toxicology databases were examined to determine if other toxicology studies were protective of the findings in the 1-year dog study. When this criterion was not met, further investigation was undertaken to determine the potential impact of not having the 1-year dog study. For most of the pesticides, effect levels in the 1-year dog study were not substantially different from those in other toxicology studies, when considering factors such as dose-spacing and known experimental variability. The results of this analysis suggest that absence of the 1-year dog study would have minimal impact on the assessment of human health risk. Therefore, Health Canada's PMRA has removed the routine requirement for the 1-year dog study from its pesticide data requirements.

  18. An open-label phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trial of a single intravenous administration of gemcitabine in dogs with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, L; Finotello, R; Bonfanti, U; Dacasto, M; Beatrice, L; Pizzoni, S; Leone, V F; Balestra, G; Furlanello, T; Rohrer Bley, C; Aresu, L

    2015-01-01

    A broad range of gemcitabine dosages have been used in dogs. To determine maximally tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and preliminary antitumor activity of intravenous administration of gemcitabine in dogs with advanced solid tumors. Twenty-two client-owned dogs. Dogs with advanced cancer were prospectively enrolled in an open-label Phase 1 study of gemcitabine. Gemcitabine was administered as a 30-minute intravenous bolus starting at 800 mg/m(2), using escalation of 50 mg/m(2) increments with 3 dogs per dose level. MTD was established based on the number of dogs experiencing DLT assessed after 1 cycle. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicosis. Additional dogs were enrolled at MTD to better characterize tolerability, and to assess the extent and duration of gemcitabine excretion. Twenty-two dogs were treated at 4 dose levels, ranging from 800 to 950 mg/m(2). Neutropenia was identified as DLT. MTD was 900 mg/m(2). DLT consisting of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was observed at 950 mg/m(2) in 2 dogs. There were no nonhematologic DLTs. Twenty dogs received multiple doses, and none had evidence of severe toxicosis from any of their subsequent treatments. At 900 mg/m(2), 2 complete and 5 partial responses were observed in dogs with measurable tumors. The amount of gemcitabine excreted in urine decreased over time, and was undetectable after the first 24 hours. The recommended dose of gemcitabine for future Phase 2 studies is weekly 900 mg/m(2). In chemotherapy-naïve dogs with advanced solid tumor this dose level merits further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS AND IN DOGS WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Schur, David; Gaschen, Frédéric; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most frequent disease affecting the exocrine pancreas in dogs and reliable diagnostic techniques for predicting fatal complications are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves detection of tissue perfusion as well as organ lesion vascular pattern. Objectives of this prospective case control study were to compare perfusion characteristics and enhancement patterns of the pancreas in healthy dogs and dogs with pancreatitis using CEUS. Ten healthy dogs and eight dogs with pancreatitis were selected based on physical examination, abdominal ultrasound, and blood analysis findings. A CEUS study of the pancreas was performed for each dog and two observers who were aware of clinical status used advanced ultrasound quantification software to analyze time-intensity curves. Perfusion patterns were compared between healthy and affected dogs. In dogs with acute pancreatitis, mean pixel and peak intensity of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly higher than that of normal dogs (P = 0.05) in between 6 and 60 s (P = dogs with acute pancreatitis compared to healthy dogs. Wash-in rates were greater and had a consistently steeper slope to peak in dogs with pancreatitis as opposed to healthy dogs. All dogs with pancreatitis showed a decrease in pixel intensity 10-15 days after the initial examination (P = 0.011) and their times to peak values were prolonged compared to the initial exam. Findings from the current study supported the use of CEUS for diagnosing pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis, and disease monitoring following therapy in dogs. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Inhalation chemotherapy for macroscopic primary or metastatic lung tumors: proof of principle using dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, A E; Kurzman, I D; Forrest, L J; Bohling, C A; Stonerook, M; Placke, M E; Imondi, A R; Vail, D M

    1999-09-01

    This study represents part of an effort to determine the safety and efficacy of inhaled antineoplastic drugs, using pet dogs with spontaneously arising primary and metastatic lung cancers (including sarcoma, carcinoma, and malignant melanoma) as a model. Dogs received new formulations of either paclitaxel (PTX) or doxorubicin (DOX) by the inhalation route every 2 weeks using a specially designed aerosol device. Response was assessed radiographically using the indices of tumor nodule number and volume measurement of discrete pulmonary nodules. Dogs experiencing progressive disease after two consecutive treatments were crossed over to receive the alternate compound. In 24 dogs, 6 (25%) responses were noted including 5 partial responses (PR) and 1 complete response. These include 4 (22.2%) of 18 responses to DOX and 2 (13.3%) of 15 responses to PTX. Responses were noted with osteosarcoma (including three dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma that had failed prior systemic chemotherapy), liposarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. One dog with mammary carcinoma experienced a 47% reduction in volume after PTX inhalation, just shy of PR criteria. One dog with liposarcoma is experiencing a long-term (>12 months) stabilization of disease on PTX. To date, no systemic toxicities have been observed with either PTX or DOX inhalations. Local (pulmonary) toxicity was not observed with PTX; however, changes consistent with pneumonitis/fibrosis were observed in some dogs receiving DOX. Only one of these dogs showed clinical signs, which were responsive to steroid and antitussive therapy. These data represent "proof of principle" for the avoidance of systemic toxicity while delivering efficacious local drug levels by the inhalation route.

  2. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the s......The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge...... consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts...

  3. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diane; Yamamoto, Mariko; Willits, Neil H.; Hart, Lynette A.

    2018-01-01

    Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers’ mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS) data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog (n = 16), a volunteer’s trained therapy dog or the interviewer’s pet dog (n = 13/3), or no dog (n = 198). Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers’ stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 (p dog group as compared with the facility dog group (p dog users than no dog users (p dog users more consistently used dogs during interviews and conducted more interviews than therapy/pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported they had experienced heightened stress when they began their jobs; their high stress levels still persisted, indicating lower inherent coping skills and perhaps greater empathy among interviewers who later self-selected to work with therapy dogs. Results reveal extreme avoidant stress for interviewers witnessing children who are suffering and their differing coping approaches. PMID:29594160

  5. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diane; Yamamoto, Mariko; Willits, Neil H; Hart, Lynette A

    2018-01-01

    Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers' mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS) data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog ( n  = 16), a volunteer's trained therapy dog or the interviewer's pet dog ( n  = 13/3), or no dog ( n  = 198). Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers' stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 ( p  therapy dog group as compared with the facility dog group ( p  therapy dog users than no dog users ( p  dog users more consistently used dogs during interviews and conducted more interviews than therapy/pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported they had experienced heightened stress when they began their jobs; their high stress levels still persisted, indicating lower inherent coping skills and perhaps greater empathy among interviewers who later self-selected to work with therapy dogs. Results reveal extreme avoidant stress for interviewers witnessing children who are suffering and their differing coping approaches.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, G; Intorre, L; Franquelo, C; Cristòfol, C; Pérez, B; Martí, G; Arboix, M

    1998-11-01

    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of thiamphenicol (TAP) after IV and IM administration in dogs. 6 healthy 2- to 3-year-old male Beagles. IN a crossover design study, 3 dogs were given TAP IV, and 3 dogs were given TAP IM, each at a dosage of 40 mg/kg of body weight. Three weeks later, the same dogs were given a second dose by the opposite route. At preestablished times after TAP administration, blood samples were collected through a catheter placed in the cephalic vein, and TAP concentration was determined by use of a high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Kinetics of TAP administered IV were fitted by a biexponential equation with a rapid first disposition phase followed by a slower disposition phase. Elimination half-life was short (1.7+/-0.3 hours), volume of distribution at steady state was 0.66+/-0.05 L/kg, and plasma clearance was 5.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg. After IM administration, absorption was rapid. Peak plasma concentration (25.1+/-10.3 microg/ml) was reached about 45 minutes after drug administration. The apparent elimination half-life after IM administration (5.6+/-4.6 hours) was longer than that after IV administration probably because of the slow absorption rate from the muscle. Mean bioavailability after IM administration was 96+/-7%. The pharmacokinetic profile of TAP in dogs suggests that it may be therapeutically useful against susceptible microorganisms involved in the most common infections in dogs, such as tracheobronchitis, enterocolitis, mastitis, and urinary tract infections.

  7. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  8. PDD applied in the dog transmissible venereal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Raduan; Duarte, Janaina; Martin, Airton A.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2003-07-01

    The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) is a very common neoplasic disease in a free-roaming dogs which affects the extern genital and presenting resistance to conventional drugs that promote high toxicity. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is based in tumor cells irradiation after absorption of photosensitizer substance. At present, the protoporphirin IX (PP IX) has been explored in PDT due to be endogen, then it does not present toxicity effect. This substance can be obtained by exogenous way through aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) administration in patient. The aim of this work was establish the optimal conditions for PDD (Phodynamic Diagnosis) to irradiate the tumor after ALA administration through fluorescence spectroscopy to improve the results with PDT. In this research was studied the 5-ALA 20% absorption in TVT of vaginal and penial mucous of a female and a male dog, respectivaly. This drug was administrated topically and after 30 minutes the fluorescence spectra were collected in intervals of 15 minutes during 120 minutes. The results showed that the maximum peak of PP IX in the tumor was between 60 and 105 minutes after the ALA application. In conclusion, the optimum effect will be achieved irradiating the tumor tissue into this period.

  9. Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Rasmus

    by transcriptional profiling and to investigate cellular processes such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, cell cycle and DNA damage, which may be involved in carcinogenesis. For this purpose, Ag NP suspensions were prepared from a commercial powder or synthesized in-house. The Ag NPs were characterized...... in NP toxicity. But, to what degree and by which mechanism Ag NPs cause oxidative stress in cells is unresolved. The present PhD project set out to explore the cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of Ag NPs in vitro. In particular, the study aimed to assess the induction of cellular pathways...... to their anti-microbial properties, high electrical conductivity, and optical properties. Information about the mechanisms involved in the cytotoxicity of Ag NPs is important in order to evaluate the potential hazards posed by these particles. Several studies have suggested oxidative stress to play a major role...

  10. Fluorescein angiogram in diabetic dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Yasuda, K.; Iwata, H.; Nakayama, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Tomoda, I.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorescein angiography was carried out see retinal vascular changes of the ocular fundus in 4 spontaneously occurring diabetic dogs. In all 4 cases, several hypofluorescent areas were determined to be filling defects of the retinal capillary bed of the tapetal fundi during the arteriovenous phase. Around these hypofluorescent areas, many dots of hyperfluorescence were also observed to be microaneurysms. However, no leaking of fluorescein was detected during angiography. These findings of 4 diabetic dogs were similar to those reported in man with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

  11. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Vy Han; John R. Marshall

    2017-01-01

    History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...

  12. Nasopharyngeal turbinates in brachycephalic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Jennifer A; Kumar, M S A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Powers, Barbara E

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study reports the presence and incidence of nasal turbinates in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal turbinates) in a population of brachycephalic dogs and cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease. Medical records were reviewed for 53 brachycephalic dogs and 10 brachycephalic cats undergoing upper airway endoscopy. Nasopharyngeal turbinates were identified in 21% of brachycephalic animals, including 21% of dogs and 20% of cats. Pugs accounted for 32% of all dogs in the study population and 82% of dogs with nasopharyngeal turbinates. The presence of nasopharyngeal turbinates may play a role in upper airway obstruction in the brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  13. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  14. History of guide dog use by veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeier, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The first guide dog school was established in Germany during World War I to care for German soldiers blinded in that war. Other schools in Germany followed. Observation by an American at one of the schools led to the creation of the first guide dog school in the United States in 1929, "The Seeing Eye." Additional U.S. schools were opened during and after World War II. This article discusses the history of guide dog use by veterans, including the formation of the first guide dog schools in response to aiding blinded servicemen, and the involvement of federal agencies and guide dog schools in providing assistance to blinded veterans.

  15. Evaluation of quality of life in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessmann, A; Volk, H A; Parkin, T; Ortega, M; Anderson, T J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of epilepsy and its treatment on the quality of life (QoL) is considered an important part of treatment supervision in human epilepsy. To develop a list of key questions evaluating QoL in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and their carers. One hundred fifty-nine dogs with IE. Cross-sectional study. An online project questionnaire was developed containing 90 QoL-associated questions that were initially allocated to 14 themes representing specific areas associated with the treatment and care of an epileptic dog. Principal component analysis was applied with the aim of refining the questionnaire to the least number of questions representing useful themes without loss of descriptive value. Carers were recruited by paper mail, primary practices, and canine epilepsy websites. Data were acquired from January to November 2011. Principal component analysis removed 54 questions, leaving 7 themes with 36 questions with a minimum Cronbach's alpha value of 0.7 indicating a good internal consistency: "Seizure severity and frequency", "Adverse effects of antiepileptic drug (AED)", "Restrictions on the carer's life", "Frustrations over caring for a dog with IE", "Carer distaste of AED adverse effects", "Carer anxiety around the seizure event", "Perceptions on rectal diazepam use". Principal component analysis successfully reduced the number of questions without loss in descriptive value. The remaining questions correlate well with each other in capturing valuable details about aspects of QoL and represent valuable key questions (EpiQoL) in the assessment of QoL for the carers of dogs with IE. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs and raccoon dogs in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Min-Soo; Lee, Byung-Chun; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Lee, Chang-Woo; So, Byung-Jae; Dubey, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle, and dogs are its only known definitive host. Its seroprevalence among domestic urban and rural dogs and feral raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) in Korea was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by the neospora agglutination test (NAT), respectively. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 8.3% of urban dogs and in 21.6% of dogs at dairy farms. Antibody titers ranged from 1:50 to 1:400. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in six (23%) of 26 raccoon dogs. However, the potential role of raccoon dogs as a source of horizontal transmission of bovine neosporosis needs further investigation. The results of this study suggest that there is a close relationship between N. caninum infection among dairy farm dogs and cattle in Korea. This study reports for the first time upon the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in raccoon dogs in Korea. PMID:14699266

  17. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-09

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Impacts of Encouraging Dog Walking on Returns of Newly Adopted Dogs to a Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Lisa; Protopopova, Alexandra; Hooker, Steven P; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Wynne, Clive D L

    2017-01-01

    This study involved examining the ability of a postadoption intervention to reduce returns of newly adopted dogs to shelters by encouraging physical activity between adopters and their dogs. Guardians in the intervention group received emails with dog behavior and human activity advice as well as invitations to join weekly dog walks. Both the intervention and control groups completed surveys regarding outdoor activity with their dogs, their dog-walking habits, and perceptions of their dogs' behaviors. Adopter-dog pairs in the intervention group were not significantly more active than those in the control group, nor did they show a reduced incidence of returning their dogs. Guardians in both groups who reported higher obligation and self-efficacy in their dog walking were more active regardless of experimental condition; however, obligation, dog-walking self-efficacy, and perceptions about their dogs' on-leash behaviors did not predict rates of return to the shelter. These findings add to the understanding of shelter dog re-relinquishment and the effective utilization of resources postadoption, and they indicate further research is needed to address the complexities of this newly forming human-dog relationship.

  19. Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P Shepherd dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  20. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested.

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus in 13 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, T; Johansson Kreuger, S; Juberget, A; Bergström, A; Hedhammar, A

    2008-01-01

    There are few reports on the clinical appearance, prognosis, and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in dogs. To describe the clinical characteristics of GDM in dogs. Thirteen dogs with GDM. Retrospective study. Medical records were reviewed and owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information. Nordic Spitz breeds (11/13 dogs) were overrepresented in the case material. Diagnosis was established at a median of 50 days after mating (range, 32-64). Median glucose concentration at diagnosis was 340 mg/dL (18.9 mmol/L) (range, 203-587). One dog was euthanized at diagnosis, 5 bitches were treated with insulin until whelping, and in 7 dogs, pregnancy was terminated within 4 days of diagnosis. One dog died after surgery. Tight glycemic control was not achieved in any of the insulin-treated dogs during pregnancy. Diabetes mellitus (DM) resolved in 7 dogs at a median of 9 days after the end of their pregnancies and DM was permanent in 4 dogs. Puppy mortality was increased compared with offspring of healthy dams. This report suggests that GDM affects mainly middle-aged bitches in the 2nd half of pregnancy with a breed predisposition toward Nordic Spitz breeds. GDM may resolve within days to weeks after pregnancy has ended. Further research is needed to investigate optimal treatment regimens for dogs with GDM and risk factors for unsuccessful outcome.

  2. Trained dogs finding place in oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2008-01-15

    This article reported on the use of trained detector dogs to track down leaks in pipelines instead of using electronic methods. Detector Dog Services International has more than 20 years of experience in training dogs for police and security work around the world, including training dogs to pick up the scent of oil leaking from pipelines. Instead of using a chemical scent to help the dogs track in, the company trains its dogs to pick up on the scent of components in oil that make their way from a buried pipeline leak up to the surface. The compounds in the oil are used to train the dogs. The dog is trained to signal when the appropriate scent is picked up and is rewarded for finding the leak. A properly trained dog can cover a kilometre of pipeline in half an hour, and can typically cover 10 kilometres in a day's work. To date, the use of leak detection dogs in the oil industry has yet to be adopted on a regular basis. Although Detector Dog Services International has worked with Duke Energy near Fort St. John doing some leak detection work, the trend towards using costly high-tech equipment has continued.

  3. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  4. Haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, R; Adam, F

    2013-01-05

    We describe a case of zinc toxicity in a 14-month-old, female, neutered, Cavalier King Charles spaniel with a 48-hour history of haematochezia, icterus and collapse. Regenerative anaemia with a packed-cell volume of 7 per cent was seen. Prior to referral, radiography had revealed a gastric, metallic foreign body which was removed at exploratory laparotomy. On presentation, the dog was comatose, hypothermic and bradycardic - resuscitation was performed successfully, but the dog then displayed marked abdominal pain. The dog died 12 hours after presentation. At postmortem examination, the animal showed severe icterus. Both kidneys were diffusely dark red; the pancreas was diffusely pale and nodular. Histopathological examination revealed evidence of intravascular haemolysis with blood vessel lumens containing haemoglobin. The renal tubules also contained large amounts of intraluminal haemoglobin with haemoglobin crystals scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. The pancreas exhibited multifocal coagulative necrosis, surrounded by a neutrophil-dominated inflammatory infiltrate. Zinc levels were markedly increased above the normal reference range in both liver and kidney. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a case of acute zinc toxicity in a dog following ingestion of a metallic object which resulted in marked haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis.

  5. Risk of reduced animal welfare by permanent outdoor keeping of dogs and by use of dogs in long-distance sled dog racing

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) asks the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to assess the risk of reduced animal welfare in dogs kept permanently outdoors and dogs used for long-distance sled dog racing In Norway, sled dogs are often kept outdoors. This is also true for several farm- or hunting dogs. The NFSA asks VKM to assess the risk of reduced animal welfare when dogs are kept permanently outdoors. The NFSA will use the risk assessment as sci...

  6. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of antiemetic activities of alcoholic extract of grewia asiatica in experimental model dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqeen, Z.; Shail, T.; Rahman, A.U.; Saleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The fruits of Grewia asiatica were evaluated for the antiemetic activity in the experimental model dogs, whereas, acute oral toxicity test was carried out in mice and rats. Maximum oral dose of 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of crude alcoholic extract was found non toxic in mice and rats. Oral dose of crude alcoholic extract (120 mg/kg body weight) caused antiemetic effect in dogs in 3 h and controlled emesis centrally induced by Apomorphine (0.044 mg/kg body weight). This activity of G asiatica was comparable with standard commercial anti-emctic drugs like Maxolon (Metoclopramide) and Largactil tablets 10 mg (Chlorpromazine) of M/s. Aventis Pharma., Pakistan. (author)

  8. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  9. Ureterocolonic anastomosis in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.A.; Walter, M.C.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.; Bovee, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Ureterocolonic anastomosis was evaluated in 13 clinically normal dogs. Urinary continence was maintained after surgery, and the procedure was completed without technique errors in all but 2 dogs. Three dogs died within 5 weeks (2 of undetermined causes and 1 of aspiration pneumonia and neurologic disease), and 1 dog was euthanatized 4 months after surgery because of neurologic signs. Two healthy dogs were euthanatized 3 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Five dogs were euthanatized 6 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances developed in 4 dogs at various postoperative intervals. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 2 dogs with neurologic signs was increased. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 5 dogs without neurologic signs was within normal limits. All 5 dogs, in which metabolic acidosis was diagnosed, had high normal or above normal serum chloride concentration. Serum urea nitrogen values were increased after surgery because of colonic absorption of urea. Serum creatinine concentration was increased in 1 dog 6 months after surgery. Individual kidney glomerular filtration rate was reduced in 38% (3/8) of the kidneys from 4 other dogs at 6 months after surgery. Of 5 dogs euthanatized at 3 to 4 months after surgery, 4 had bilateral pyelitis, and 1 had unilateral pyelonephritis. Six months after surgery, pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 40% (4/10) of the kidneys from 5 dogs. The ureterocolonic anastomosis procedure is a salvage procedure that should allow complete cystectomy. However, variable degress of metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and neurologic disease may result

  10. Dog ecology and demography in Antananarivo, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratsitorahina Maherisoa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and a serious public health problem in developing countries. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study of dog ecology in the Antananarivo urban community in Madagascar. A questionnaire survey of 1541 households was conducted in Antananarivo from October 2007 to January 2008. The study addressed both owned and unowned dogs. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size of dog population, relationship between dogs and humans, rabies vaccination. Results Dog ownership was common, with 79.6 to 94.1% (mean 88.9% of households in the six arrondissements owning dogs. The mean owned dog to person ratio was 1 dog per 4.5 persons and differed between arrondissements (administrative districts, with ratios of 1:6.0 in the first arrondissement, 1:3.2 persons in the 2nd, 1:4.8 in the 3rd, 1:5.2 in the 4th, 1:5.6 in the 5th and 1:4.4 in the 6th arrondissement. Overall, there were more male dogs (61.3% and the male/female sex ratio was estimated to be 1.52; however, mature females were more likely than males to be unowned (OR: 1.93, CI 95%; 1.39 Conclusion Antananarivo has a higher density of dogs than many other urban areas in Africa. The dog population is unrestricted and inadequately vaccinated against rabies. This analysis of the dog population will enable targeted planning of rabies control efforts.

  11. Dog ecology and demography in Antananarivo, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rasambainarivo, Jhon H; Raharimanana, Soloherilala; Rakotonandrasana, Hary; Andriamiarisoa, Marie-Perle; Rakalomanana, Fidilalao A; Richard, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and a serious public health problem in developing countries. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids.This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study of dog ecology in the Antananarivo urban community in Madagascar.A questionnaire survey of 1541 households was conducted in Antananarivo from October 2007 to January 2008. The study addressed both owned and unowned dogs. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size of dog population, relationship between dogs and humans, rabies vaccination. Dog ownership was common, with 79.6 to 94.1% (mean 88.9%) of households in the six arrondissements owning dogs. The mean owned dog to person ratio was 1 dog per 4.5 persons and differed between arrondissements (administrative districts), with ratios of 1:6.0 in the first arrondissement, 1:3.2 persons in the 2nd, 1:4.8 in the 3rd, 1:5.2 in the 4th, 1:5.6 in the 5th and 1:4.4 in the 6th arrondissement. Overall, there were more male dogs (61.3%) and the male/female sex ratio was estimated to be 1.52; however, mature females were more likely than males to be unowned (OR: 1.93, CI 95%; 1.39density of dogs than many other urban areas in Africa. The dog population is unrestricted and inadequately vaccinated against rabies. This analysis of the dog population will enable targeted planning of rabies control efforts.

  12. DEPSCOR/97-98 Mechanisms and Biomonitoring of Toxicant-Induced Changes in Zinc Finger Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanas, Jay

    2002-01-01

    .... The goals of this project were to understand alterations in gene expression mechanisms induced by toxic chemicals and to develop biomonitoring assays for such toxicants helpful for risk assessment...

  13. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide in pet cats and dogs: Assessment of toxicological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena, E-mail: m.m.storelli@veterinaria.uniba.it [Pharmacological-Biological Department, Chemistry and Biochemistry Section, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy); Storelli, Arianna; Barone, Grazia [Pharmacological-Biological Department, Chemistry and Biochemistry Section, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy); Franchini, Delia [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DEOT), Division of Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    PCB and DDT concentrations were determined in the adipose tissue of cats and dogs from Southern Italy. In cats p,p'-DDE was the most abundant DDT component (95.0%), while in dogs these compounds were absent, except in two specimens. PCB concentrations were higher in cats (199.02 ng g{sup -1} lipid weight) than in dogs (41.61 ng g{sup -1} lipid weight). Also there were inter-specific differences in the contribution of the different congeners to PCBs, although PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 were the most representative congeners in both species. Animals from one location, Taranto City, had significantly elevated concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs compared to the other locations. Consequently the estimated mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs were higher in these animals (cats: 0.65 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight; dogs 0.29 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight) than in the other ones (cats: 0.12 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight; dogs: 0.001 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight).

  14. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide in pet cats and dogs: Assessment of toxicological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Storelli, Arianna; Barone, Grazia; Franchini, Delia

    2009-01-01

    PCB and DDT concentrations were determined in the adipose tissue of cats and dogs from Southern Italy. In cats p,p'-DDE was the most abundant DDT component (95.0%), while in dogs these compounds were absent, except in two specimens. PCB concentrations were higher in cats (199.02 ng g -1 lipid weight) than in dogs (41.61 ng g -1 lipid weight). Also there were inter-specific differences in the contribution of the different congeners to PCBs, although PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 were the most representative congeners in both species. Animals from one location, Taranto City, had significantly elevated concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs compared to the other locations. Consequently the estimated mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs were higher in these animals (cats: 0.65 pg g -1 lipid weight; dogs 0.29 pg g -1 lipid weight) than in the other ones (cats: 0.12 pg g -1 lipid weight; dogs: 0.001 pg g -1 lipid weight).

  15. Bronchography in dogs. Comparative study with two barium sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibaut, J.; Gallardo, P.; Vargas, L.; Deppe, R.; Born, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two solutions of barium sulphate, 60 and 30% w/v, were compared with the ''overflow'' Bronchographic method. Two groups of eight healthy adult does of both sexes, weighing 7 to 18 kg were used for the study. The dogs were anaesthetised with thiopentone sodium 2% (20 mg/kg iv). After intubation, each dog received contrast medium by a catheter connected to a syringe, in a 9 mi dose. Two series of two x-rays plates were taken in left lateral recumbent, 3 and 6 min after administering the contrast medium and in ventrodorsal projection, 30 sec. later. The x-ray plates obtained were analysed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines. Adverse reactions were controlled

  16. Van Giffen’s Dogs: Cranial Osteometry of Iron Age to Medieval Period Dogs from the Northern Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Scheele

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents biometric data from a collection of 488 dogs skulls originating from 58 (archaeological sites in the northern Netherlands dating from the Iron Age to the Medieval Period. The crania were originally collected and documented in the early 20th century by Prof. Albert Egges van Giffen, one of the pioneers of Dutch archaeology and archaeozoology. The ‘De honden van Van Giffen’ project has transcribed, translated and digitized the original handwritten records and tables, supplementing the information with new photographs of a selection of the specimens, and made the dataset openly accessible for researchers worldwide on easy.dans.knaw.nl. This dataset is an unparalleled treasure trove of canid osteometric data with sustainable reuse potential for research into dog domestication, the evolution of dog breeds, and cranial variability in canids.   Funding statement: Making the data digitally available in an open access environment was funded by the Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen (KNAW via Data Archiving and Network Services (DANS as a Kleine Data Projecten (KDP grant. The original data and facilities for carrying out the project were provided by the Groningen Institute of Archaeology of the University of Groningen.

  17. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than official...

  18. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Dog population and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    of dog movements constitute a great public health risk to human populations in terms of dog bites and rabies outbreaks. Keywords: Dog, Ecology, Nigeria, Rabies, Vaccination. Introduction. Dog population dynamics have major impacts on the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. An understanding of the domestic dog ...

  19. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified

  20. 77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... sense of purpose for the veteran in having to care for a living thing; an increased sense of self-esteem... defines the term and states that the definition therein applies ``[f]or the purposes of'' Sec. 17.148. In... with disabilities is controlled by 40 U.S.C. 3103, which states: ``Guide dogs or other service animals...

  1. Nasal capillariasis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Greiner, E.C.; Ackerman, N.; Woodard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    A five-year-old dog was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge. Nasal infection caused by Capillaria aerophila was diagnosed by identification of adult nematodes and eggs in the nasal flush sediment and by nasal biopsy samples and eggs in faecal flotations. Reinfection occurred following treatment with fenbendazole and ivermectin, probably because of a contaminated housing area

  2. Double contrast gastrography in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Peshin, P K; Nigam, J M

    1981-09-01

    For experimental evaluation of double contrast gastrography in 9 dogs, sodium iothalamate and air were used for positive and negative contrast, respectively, to delineate the gastric mucosa. The technic was simple and reasonably safe. Results were satisfactory when the stomach was empty, and appropriate volumes of contrast materials were evenly distributed.

  3. Oral Plasmacytoma in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargass, Indira; Bally, Alissa; Suepaul, Rod

    2017-12-14

    A 6-year-old male Pit bull mix dog presented for bleeding from the mouth persisting for five days. A clinical evaluation revealed a 2 × 3 cm soft tissue mandibular mass at the crown of the first premolar, as well as a non-regenerative anemia and hyperproteinemia. Cytologic and histopathologic evaluations of the mass were compatible with an oral plasmacytoma.

  4. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, Niklas

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  5. Retinal astrocytoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Keiichi; Kice, Nathan; Ota-Kuroki, Juri

    2017-09-01

    A miniature schnauzer dog presenting with hyphema and glaucoma of the right eye had a retinal neoplasm. Neoplastic cells stained positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and S-100 and largely negatively for oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 by immunohistochemistry. The clinical and histopathological features of canine retinal astrocytomas are discussed.

  6. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314418059

    2011-01-01

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  7. Shoulder arthrodesis in 14 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Noel; Yeadon, Russell; Smith, Thomas J; Johnson, Jacqueline; Baltzer, Wendy I; Amils, Raquel; Farrell, Michael; Frost, Alasdair O; Frost, Alastair; Holsworth, Ian G

    2012-08-01

    To report surgical technique and clinical outcome of shoulder arthrodesis in dogs. Multicenter clinical case series. Dogs (n = 14). Shoulder arthrodesis featured craniolateral plate and screw application, with application of a 2nd plate and screws craniolaterally or caudolaterally in 5 shoulders. Implants included the locking string of pearls (SOP)™ plate in 7 shoulders. Subjective preoperative, 5-8 weeks postoperative, and 11-16 weeks postoperative clinical and radiographic findings were documented. Owner questionnaire evaluation of outcome was performed 6-20 months postoperatively. Mean angle of arthrodesis was 114° (range 102°-122°). Progression of arthrodesis was noted in 13/14 cases at both the 5-8 and 11-16 weeks postoperative radiographic assessments. Nine complications occurred in 7/14 dogs, graded as catastrophic in 2/9, major in 2/9, and minor in 5/9. Where morbidity was successfully managed, 11-16-week and 6-10-month postoperative limb function was positive on both veterinary and owner evaluations in almost all cases, and in several, functional lameness was considered sufficiently mild as to be imperceptible on subjective veterinary evaluation. Where present, limb circumduction was noted as the major feature of persistent lameness. Shoulder arthrodesis in dogs results in acceptable limb function and should be considered for the management of debilitating shoulder pathology despite a high incidence of complications. Application of the SOP plate to aid shoulder arthrodesis warrants further study. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. SlideDog / Siim Sein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sein, Siim

    2015-01-01

    SlideDog on multimeediumi esitluse tööriist, mis võimaldab ühendada PowerPointi esitlused, PDF-failid, Prezi esitlused, videoklipid, helifailid, veebilehed ja palju muud üheks sujuvaks esitluskogemuseks konverentsil, seminaril või muul üritusel

  9. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE INDEXING OF TOXICITY DATA ON ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standardized chemical structure annotation of public toxicity databases and information resources is playing an increasingly important role in the 'flattening' and integration of diverse sets of biological activity data on the Internet. This review discusses public initiatives that are accelerating the pace of this transformation, with particular reference to toxicology-related chemical information. Chemical content annotators, structure locator services, large structure/data aggregator web sites, structure browsers, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) International Chemical Identifier (InChI) codes, toxicity data models and public chemical/biological activity profiling initiatives are all playing a role in overcoming barriers to the integration of toxicity data, and are bringing researchers closer to the reality of a mineable chemical Semantic Web. An example of this integration of data is provided by the collaboration among researchers involved with the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) project, the Carcinogenic Potency Project, projects at the National Cancer Institute and the PubChem database. Standardizing chemical structure annotation of public toxicity databases

  10. Study of the Antitoxic Effect of Unithiol on Cystamine in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing Radiation with the Aid of Unithiol. Radiazionnaya biologia . Radioecologia, 34(3): 424-429, 1994. 15a. Grachev S.A., Sverdlov A.G., Nikianorova N.G...and Timoshenko S.I., Influence of Unithiol on Toxic Effects of Cvstamine in Dogs. Radiazionnaya biologia . Radioecologia, 1998. (in press when final...Protection Against Fission Neutrons Using Unithiol. Radiazionnaya biologia . Radioecologia, 1998. (in press when final document submitted to DSWA). 16

  11. Elements levels in dogs from "triangle of death" and different areas of Campania region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Silvi, Marina; Di Vaia, Roberto; Formigaro, Costanza; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    In the last twenty years, many concerns have raised in Campania region (Southern Italy) about illegal waste dumping and toxic waste and their possible adverse effects on health. Many human activities are considered to be important sources of environmental pollutants, elements among them. In this study, pet dogs were enrolled as environmental sentinels from three different areas of Campania, with a different degree of pollution, evaluating elements in blood and hair. The obtained data indicated that dogs from less polluted area were exposed to a hot spot of pollution, as only animals from one city (Sessa Aurunca) presented elements concentrations very close to toxic levels. When excluding these animals, the area proved to be the less contaminated. The present report confirm the higher degree of pollution of the most industrialized areas, and a certain concern originates from Cr, Ni and As, which are present as levels well above toxic thresholds. These data are indicative of a reduced pollution of the areas considered by Cd and Pb, but arise concern for Hg, As, Cr and Ni, which reach concentrations high enough to impact dogs and humans health, in term of acute (in the city of Sessa Aurunca) and chronic toxicity (i.e. reproduction impairment, endocrine disruption, immunosuppression). Additional studies are necessary to better define not only the precise distribution of hot spots of pollution, but also the real impact of such an exposure on the health of dogs, in term of endocrine balance and/or immune system activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol using cultured human, monkey, and dog cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Kyo

    2009-03-01

    The cytotoxicity of musty odor-emitting substances, geosmin (GM) and 2-methylisoborneol, at a concentration of 10 ng/L - 300 mg/L was investigated using cultured mammalian cells. These two compounds exhibited no cytotoxicity in either the colony-formation of human KB cells or WST-1 assays of human-, monkey-, and dog-derived cells. These results suggest that the maximum concentration (700 ng/L) of GM found in the water of Lake Shinji is not toxic.

  13. Megavoltage Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Degenerative Joint Disease in Dogs: Results of a Preliminary Experience in an Italian Radiotherapy Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rossi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a low-dose radiotherapy treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA. Inclusion criteria were dogs affected by OA of one or multiple joints, with lameness, previously treated with medical therapy and referred for radiotherapy because of chronic unresponsive pain. After suspension of medical therapy, dogs underwent external beam radiotherapy treatments delivered in three fractions of 2 Gy each. Four of these dogs had one (three dogs to four (one dog additional courses of radiation. Medical records were reviewed and follow-up information was collected by clinical recheck and owners interview. Twenty-five dogs matched the inclusion criteria; among them, 21 had one course of RT and 4 underwent multiple treatments, respectively 218, 266, 39, and 1,384 days after the first treatment. Clinical improvement was observed in 92% of patients with median benefit duration of 356 days after the first treatment, and 418 days after the second treatment. No side effects were recorded. In this group of patients, radiotherapy was effective, well tolerated, and repeatable, leading to an improvement of quality of life in dogs with degenerative joint disease unresponsive to medical treatments.

  14. Mechanisms of internal emitter skeletal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, W.S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to determine the mechanisms for the induction of skeletal cancers in dogs and man by α-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle. The role of microdistribution of radium-226 and plutonium-239, bone metabolism, bone cell turnover, and localized bone cell dosimetry in bone can induction will be determined. The osteogenic cell dose will be measured in dogs to develop better quantitative dose response information. Skeletal carcinogenesis models will be developed by correlating the local dosimetry, tumor site and incidence, age-dependent skeletal biology (bone morphometry, bone cell at risk, bone cell turnover, residence time and fate, remodeling rate, growth pattern and rate, hormonal influences, manipulation of bone cell populations of the bone modeling and remodeling systems, etc.). The authors will test the hypothesis that the frequency of osteosarcomas is proportional to the average dose delivered to cells at risk. They will also attempt to explain experimentally found toxicity ratios between volume- and bone surface-seeking radionuclides on the basis of radiation dose ratios

  15. Assistance dogs provide a useful behavioral model to enrich communicative skills of assistance robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Márta; Szakadát, Sára; Miklósi, Adám

    2013-01-01

    These studies are part of a project aiming to reveal relevant aspects of human-dog interactions, which could serve as a model to design successful human-robot interactions. Presently there are no successfully commercialized assistance robots, however, assistance dogs work efficiently as partners for persons with disabilities. In Study 1, we analyzed the cooperation of 32 assistance dog-owner dyads performing a carrying task. We revealed typical behavior sequences and also differences depending on the dyads' experiences and on whether the owner was a wheelchair user. In Study 2, we investigated dogs' responses to unforeseen difficulties during a retrieving task in two contexts. Dogs displayed specific communicative and displacement behaviors, and a strong commitment to execute the insoluble task. Questionnaire data from Study 3 confirmed that these behaviors could successfully attenuate owners' disappointment. Although owners anticipated the technical competence of future assistance robots to be moderate/high, they could not imagine robots as emotional companions, which negatively affected their acceptance ratings of future robotic assistants. We propose that assistance dogs' cooperative behaviors and problem solving strategies should inspire the development of the relevant functions and social behaviors of assistance robots with limited manual and verbal skills.

  16. Acute Phase Effect of Trichloroethylene Ingestion on Some Biological Markers in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TE) is an environmental toxic solvent hazardous to human and domestic animals and well known in the industrial sector. The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral TE plays a role in lipid oxidation and tissue damage. Fourteen dogs were treated with an oral toxic dose of 0.5 ml/kg T.E. The acute changes that occurred in creatine kimase (CK), malondialdehyte (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were investigated in blood sample...

  17. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuiman Matthew W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition

  18. Echocardiographic evaluation of dogs with dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Kenneth R; Bulmer, Barret J; Biller, David S

    2009-12-15

    To describe echocardiographic findings in dogs with dysautonomia. Prospective case series: 20 dogs with dysautonomia (13 confirmed during necropsy and 7 with results of antemortem testing [tear production, pilocarpine response test, atropine response test, and ID histamine response] supportive of the diagnosis). Dogs with dysautonomia were evaluated by use of echocardiography, and M-mode measurements were obtained on all dogs. A dobutamine response test was performed on 1 dog, starting at a rate of 1 microg/kg/min and doubling the rate every 15 minutes until fractional shortening (FS) increased to > 2 times the baseline value. Evidence of systolic dysfunction was detected in 17 of 20 dogs with dysautonomia, as determined on the basis of FS (median, 17.9%; range, 4.0% to 31.1%). Left ventricular internal dimension during diastole or left ventricular internal dimension during systole was enlarged in 4 of 20 and 14 of 20 dogs, respectively. Enlargement of the left atrium or aorta was identified in 3 of 15 and 1 of 15 dogs in which it was measured, respectively. Administration of dobutamine at a rate of 4 microg/kg/min resulted in dramatic improvement in FS (increase from 4% to 17%) in the 1 dog tested. Results suggested that echocardiographic evidence of diminished systolic function was common in dogs with dysautonomia. Whether the diminished function was a result of sympathetic denervation or myocardial hibernation was unclear, although myocardial hibernation was more likely.

  19. Personality of owners and their dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuša Klinar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to find association between the personality of owners and the personality of their dogs, assessed by their owners. Furthermore, we were interested in finding differences between dogs of different breeds. The sample included 661 owners (556 women and 105 men and an equal number of their dogs (332 females and 329 males. The participants filled in the Big Five Inventory and slightly adopted the Big Five Inventory for dogs. The results indicated statistically significant correlations between almost all owner's personality dimensions and personality dimensions of their dogs. Besides the influence of owners and their personalities on the dog's personality, a possible cause of these associations could be their misevaluation as they want their dogs to have some equal characteristics as they have. Analysis of the data also revealed significant differences in dimensions between breeds in three of four dogs' personalities. Results were partly in accordance with hypothesized differences which were based upon official descriptions of temperament of specific breeds. Despite the fact that the research confirms that owners can judge dog's personality with satisfactory levels of accuracy, it is necessary to account all limitations of measuring dogs' personality in interpreting the results.

  20. Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.

    2002-08-01

    Mine detection dogs have been found to be an effective method to locate buried landmines. The capabilities of the canine olfaction method are from a complex combination of training and inherent capacity of the dog for odor detection. The purpose of this effort was to explore the detection thresholds of a limited group of dogs that were trained specifically for landmine detection. Soils were contaminated with TNT and 2,4-DNT to develop chemical vapor standards to present to the dogs. Soils contained ultra trace levels of TNT and DNT, which produce extremely low vapor levels. Three groups of dogs were presented the headspace vapors from the contaminated soils in work environments for each dog group. One positive sample was placed among several that contained clean soils and, the location and vapor source (strength, type) was frequently changed. The detection thresholds for the dogs were determined from measured and extrapolated dilution of soil chemical residues and, estimated soil vapor values using phase partitioning relationships. The results showed significant variances in dog sensing thresholds, where some dogs could sense the lowest levels and others had trouble with even the highest source. The remarkable ultra-trace levels detectable by the dogs are consistent with the ultra-trace chemical residues derived from buried landmines; however, poor performance may go unnoticed without periodic challenge tests at levels consistent with performance requirements.

  1. Phase I evaluation of STA-1474, a prodrug of the novel HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib, in dogs with spontaneous cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The novel water soluble compound STA-1474 is metabolized to ganetespib (formerly STA-9090, a potent HSP90 inhibitor previously shown to kill canine tumor cell lines in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in the setting of murine xenografts. The purpose of the following study was to extend these observations and investigate the safety and efficacy of STA-1474 in dogs with spontaneous tumors.This was a Phase 1 trial in which dogs with spontaneous tumors received STA-1474 under one of three different dosing schemes. Pharmacokinetics, toxicities, biomarker changes, and tumor responses were assessed. Twenty-five dogs with a variety of cancers were enrolled. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal in nature consisting of diarrhea, vomiting, inappetence and lethargy. Upregulation of HSP70 protein expression was noted in both tumor specimens and PBMCs within 7 hours following drug administration. Measurable objective responses were observed in dogs with malignant mast cell disease (n = 3, osteosarcoma (n = 1, melanoma (n = 1 and thyroid carcinoma (n = 1, for a response rate of 24% (6/25. Stable disease (>10 weeks was seen in 3 dogs, for a resultant overall biological activity of 36% (9/25.This study provides evidence that STA-1474 exhibits biologic activity in a relevant large animal model of cancer. Given the similarities of canine and human cancers with respect to tumor biology and HSP90 activation, it is likely that STA-1474 and ganetespib will demonstrate comparable anti-cancer activity in human patients.

  2. Prevention of oxygen toxicity in divers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase in cultured cells exposed to hypoxia, and examines the effects of reoxygenating the hypoxic cells. The role of xanthine oxidase in the production of oxygen free radicals leading to tissue damage due to oxygen toxicity after reperfusion of hypoxic and ischaemic tissues is discussed. (UK)

  3. A question about the potential cardiac toxicity of escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2012-04-01

    Previous reviews have focused on the potential cardiac toxicity of the racemic drug citalopram (Celexa(®)). Evaluating the safety of escitalopram (Lexapro(®)) is an important issue to consider, since it is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. Escitalopram has a small effect on the QTc interval. A prolonged QTc was seen in 2% to 14% of escitalopram overdose cases, without serious cardiac sequelae. The QTc prolongation effect of citalopram in beagle dogs has been attributed to the minor metabolite racemic didemethylcitalopram (DDCT). Whether the escitalopram minor metabolite S-DDCT has this effect is not known. Concentrations of S-DDCT are lower than DDCT, but for a broad range of doses of escitalopram and citalopram, the S-DDCT and DDCT concentrations are well below the QTc prolonging concentrations reported in dogs. There is no strong evidence from human and animal studies that the cardiac safety of escitalopram is significantly superior to that of citalopram. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Dog Bite Rates and Biting Dog Breeds in Texas, 1995-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blocker, David

    2000-01-01

    .... The first aim of this study was to summarize descriptive characteristics of biting dogs and dog bite victims in Texas from 1995 through 1997 using the Texas Department of Health severe animal bite...

  5. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  6. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  8. Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Bartelds, H.; Weger, D. de

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data on the generation of toxic combustion products and to get more insight into the risks of fires in pesticide warehouses TNO performed the research project 'Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires'. The following research activities have been performed during

  9. Plant species responses to oil degradation and toxicity reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant species responses to oil degradation and toxicity reduction in soil. ... Abstract. A field project located at the Botanical garden of the University of Port Harcourt was designed to evaluate changes in contaminants concentration and toxicity during phytoremediation. Vegetated plots were established by planting different ...

  10. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). Methodology/Prin...

  11. Do dogs live in joint families? Understanding allo-parental care in free-ranging dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Manabi; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is an excellent example of altruistic cooperation in social groups. Domestic dogs have evolved from cooperatively hunting and breeding ancestors, but have adapted to a facultatively social scavenging lifestyle on streets, and solitary living in human homes. Pets typically breed and reproduce under human supervision, but free-ranging dogs can provide insights into the natural breeding biology of dogs. We conducted a five year long study on parental care of free-ranging dog...

  12. Consecutive CT-guided core needle tissue biopsy of lung lesions in the same dog at different phases of radiation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhongyuan; Deng, Sisi; Liang, Zhiwen; Wang, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    This project aimed to set up a Beagle dog model of radiation-induced lung injury in order to supply fresh lung tissue samples in the different injury phases for gene and protein research. Three dogs received 18 Gy X-ray irradiation in one fraction, another three dogs received 8 Gy in each of three fractions at weekly intervals, and one control dog was not irradiated. Acute pneumonitis was observed during the first 3 months after radiation, and chronic lung fibrosis was found during the next 4-12 months in all the dogs exposed to radiation. CT-guided core needle lung lesion biopsies were extracted from each dog five times over the course of 1 year. The dogs remained healthy after each biopsy, and 50-100 mg fresh lung lesion tissues were collected in each operation. The incidence of pneumothorax and hemoptysis was 20% and 2.8%, respectively, in the 35 tissue biopsies. A successful and stable radiation-induced lung injury dog model was established. Lung lesion tissue samples from dogs in acute stage, recovery stage and fibrosis stage were found to be sufficient to support cytology, genomics and proteomics research. This model safely supplied fresh tissue samples that would allow future researchers to more easily explore and develop treatments for radiation-induced lung injury. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  13. Volume balance and toxicity analysis for the cross lake bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    There were two overall objectives for this project: (1) to assess leakage from the bridge once repairs to the collection system were completed and (2) to investigate Microtox, a toxicity screening tool manufactured by Azur environmental, as a m...

  14. Infrared Thermography in Dogs with Mammary Tumors and Healthy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelski, M; Silva, D M; Leite, N C; Junior, D A; de Sousa, R S; Guérios, S D; Dornbusch, P T

    2015-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a painless, noninvasive, nonionizing diagnostic imaging exam used in human medicine as an auxiliary tool for breast cancer diagnosis in women. Define thermographic mean temperatures of healthy mammary glands and compare these temperatures with those of mammary glands with tumors in dogs. Fifty client-owned female dogs were evaluated, including 20 with histopathologically confirmed mammary tumor and 30 clinically healthy (control). A randomized study using infrared thermography analyzed each mammary gland of the animals from the control group and mammary glands with tumors from the tumor group, then the thermographic temperatures obtained were compared. Thermographic exam was performed in a temperature-controlled room with a cooled thermographic camera-Flir E-40 (Flir Systems(®) ) There was significantly a higher temperature in the caudal abdominal and inguinal mammary glands than the other glands in the healthy group (P < .05). Dogs with mammary tumors had significantly higher thermographic temperature compared with unaffected glands regardless of the tumor size and the location (P < .05). The technique seems to be able to assess for the presence of neoplasia within the mammary tissue in bitches. Further investigation is necessary to determine the impact of this technique when adopted clinically. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Serum Protein Electrophoresis in Dogs With Intestinal Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAZ, Alev AKDOĞAN; BAKIREL, Utku; GÖNÜL, Remzi; TAN, Hüseyin

    1999-01-01

    The serum of 66 dogs with intestinal parasites (showing gastrointestinal problems caused by taeniosis, coccidiosis, ancylostomosis, trichuriosis and ascarididosis) was examined by electrophoresis. There were 6 dogs with coccidiosis, 6 dogs with ancylostomosis, 6 dogs with trichuriosis, 24 dogs with taeniosis and 24 dogs with ascarididosis. After agar gel protein electorphoresis of the serum samples, ?1 globulin levels were significantly lower in the coccidiosis group than in the other grou...

  16. Best of friends? Investigating the dog-human relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are commonly referred to as man's best friend, but the main focus of this thesis was to investigate how the dog experiences the relationship. The first part of the thesis dealt with methodology currently used to assess the dog-human relationship: the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS). In one experiment, possible associations between the dog's bond to its owner (using the SSP) and the strength of the owner's relationship to the dog (...

  17. A comparative analysis of in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particles from combustion of 1st- and 2nd-generation biodiesel fuels in relation to their physicochemical properties-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankoff, Anna; Brzoska, Kamil; Czarnocka, Joanna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Lisowska, Halina; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Zuberek, Mariusz; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel. Our findings indicate that particulate emissions of each type of biodiesel fuel induce cytotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), decreased protein concentrations, intracellular ROS production, as well as increased expression of antioxidant genes and genes coding for DNA damage-response proteins. The different biodiesel blend percentages and biodiesel feedstocks led to marked differences in chemical composition of the emitted DEP. The different DEPs also displayed statistically significant differences in cytotoxicity in A549 and BEAS-2B cells, but the magnitude of these variations was limited. Overall, it seems that increasing biodiesel blend concentrations from the current 7 to 20% FAME, or substituting 1st-generation FAME biodiesel with 2nd-generation HVO biodiesel (at least below 20% blends), affects the in vitro toxicity of the emitted DEP to some extent, but the biological significance of this may be moderate.

  18. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W

    2010-06-19

    In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.

  19. Dog owners show experience-based viewing behaviour in judging dog face approachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Carla Jade; Houghton, Sarah; Guo, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Our prior visual experience plays a critical role in face perception. We show superior perceptual performance for differentiating conspecific (vs non-conspecific), own-race (vs other-race) and familiar (vs unfamiliar) faces. However, it remains unclear whether our experience with faces of other species would influence our gaze allocation for extracting salient facial information. In this eye-tracking study, we asked both dog owners and non-owners to judge the approachability of human, monkey and dog faces, and systematically compared their behavioural performance and gaze pattern associated with the task. Compared to non-owners, dog owners assessed dog faces with shorter time and fewer fixations, but gave higher approachability ratings. The gaze allocation within local facial features was also modulated by the ownership. The averaged proportion of the fixations and viewing time directed at the dog mouth region were significantly less for the dog owners, and more experienced dog owners tended to look more at the dog eyes, suggesting the adoption of a prior experience-based viewing behaviour for assessing dog approachability. No differences in behavioural performance and gaze pattern were observed between dog owners and non-owners when judging human and monkey faces, implying that the dog owner's experience-based gaze strategy for viewing dog faces was not transferable across faces of other species.

  20. Discrimination of human and dog faces and inversion responses in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Anaïs; Amadei, Eleonora; Ligout, Séverine; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Although domestic dogs can respond to many facial cues displayed by other dogs and humans, it remains unclear whether they can differentiate individual dogs or humans based on facial cues alone and, if so, whether they would demonstrate the face inversion effect, a behavioural hallmark commonly used in primates to differentiate face processing from object processing. In this study, we first established the applicability of the visual paired comparison (VPC or preferential looking) procedure for dogs using a simple object discrimination task with 2D pictures. The animals demonstrated a clear looking preference for novel objects when simultaneously presented with prior-exposed familiar objects. We then adopted this VPC procedure to assess their face discrimination and inversion responses. Dogs showed a deviation from random behaviour, indicating discrimination capability when inspecting upright dog faces, human faces and object images; but the pattern of viewing preference was dependent upon image category. They directed longer viewing time at novel (vs. familiar) human faces and objects, but not at dog faces, instead, a longer viewing time at familiar (vs. novel) dog faces was observed. No significant looking preference was detected for inverted images regardless of image category. Our results indicate that domestic dogs can use facial cues alone to differentiate individual dogs and humans and that they exhibit a non-specific inversion response. In addition, the discrimination response by dogs of human and dog faces appears to differ with the type of face involved.

  1. Transthoracic lung ultrasound in normal dogs and dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Pariaut, Romain; Pate, Julie; Saelinger, Carley; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 ± 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 ± 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P edema on radiographs. Findings from the current study supported the use of thoracic ultrasonography and detection of B lines as techniques for diagnosing cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  3. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  4. Stray dog trade fuelled by dog meat consumption as a risk factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies is a preventable zoonosis with the highest case fatality of any disease in the world. In the developing world, it is transmitted mainly by dog bites. In parts of southern Nigeria, dog meat is a delicacy. Objective: To highlight trade in stray dogs as a major risk factor for rabies in animals and humans in ...

  5. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  6. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  7. The Blue Dog: evaluation of an interactive software program to teach young children how to interact safely with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Davis, Aaron L; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Pre-post-randomized design evaluated The Blue Dog, a dog safety software program. 76 children aged 3.5-6 years completed 3 tasks to evaluate dog safety pre- and postintervention: (a) pictures (recognition of safe/risky behavior), (b) dollhouse (recall of safe behavior via simulated dollhouse scenarios), and (c) live dog (actual behavior with unfamiliar live dog). Following preintervention evaluation, children were randomly assigned to dog or fire safety conditions, each involving 3 weeks of home computer software use. Children using Blue Dog had greater change in recognition of risky dog situations than children learning fire safety. No between-group differences emerged in recall (dollhouse) or engagement (live-dog) in risky behavior. Families enjoyed using the software. Blue Dog taught children knowledge about safe engagement with dogs, but did not influence recall or implementation of safe behaviors. Dog bites represent a significant pediatric injury concern and continued development of effective interventions is needed.

  8. Factors associated with daily walking of dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Christian, Hayley E.; Christley, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity is beneficial to the health of both people and animals. The role of regular exercise undertaken together, such as dog walking, is a public health interest of mutual benefit. Exploration of barriers and incentives to regular dog walking by owners is now required so that effective interventions to promote it can be designed. This study explored a well-characterised cross-sectional dataset of 276 dogs and owners from Cheshire, UK, for evidence of factors asso...

  9. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures.

  10. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed.

  11. Blood lactate concentration in diabetic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Poliana; Gimenes, André M.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Mantovani, Matheus M.; Kanayama, Khadine K.; Simões, Denise M.N.; Schwartz, Denise S.

    2017-01-01

    Human diabetic patients may have increased lactate levels compared to non-diabetics. Despite the use of lactate levels in critical care assessment, information is lacking for diabetic dogs. Therefore, this prospective cross-sectional clinical study aimed to determine lactate concentrations in 75 diabetic dogs [25 newly diagnosed non-ketotic diabetics, 25 under insulin treatment, and 25 in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)], compared to 25 non-diabetic dogs. Lactate levels (mmol/L) were not differen...

  12. Plasma leptin concentration in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Naohito; Yamasaki, Miho; Takasu, Masaki; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Shibata, Haruki; Otsuka, Yoshihiko; Takashima, Satoshi; Ohba, Yasunori; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2010-06-01

    The plasma leptin concentration was evaluated in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Twenty normal and sixteen diabetic dogs were divided into nonobese and obese groups based on body condition score, respectively. The obese normal dogs had significantly higher plasma leptin concentrations than the nonobese normal dogs, whereas there was no significant difference between the nonobese and obese diabetic dogs. In addition, the plasma leptin concentration in the obese diabetic dogs was significantly lower than that in the obese normal dogs. In conclusion, the plasma leptin concentrations in the diabetic dogs were affected by factors other than adiposity.

  13. [Intraocular osteosarcoma in a dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, L; Schröder, S; Gralla, S; Goeck, D; Kramer, M; Ondreka, N

    2014-01-01

    The present case describes the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure of a dog with an intraocular osteosarcoma. According to the results of the diagnostic imaging studies, the tentative diagnosis of an intraocular neoplasm with perforation of the globe and orbital invasion of the tumour was made and an orbital exenteration was performed. The histopathological diagnosis of the extracted organ implied an intraocular, extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Seventy-seven days later the patient displayed an acute paraparesis. Clinical and diagnostic reevaluation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and the dog was euthanized at the owner's request. By means of MRI and necropsy, an additional axial osteosarcoma of the 6th lumbar vertebra and a malignant melanoma of the right tonsil were diagnosed.

  14. Primary hypoparathyroidism in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus do Amaral Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrinopathy reported in dogs, caused by a deficiency in the synthesis of parathyroid hormone (PTH. The lack of PTH causes hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, resulting in a series of neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Unlike most endocrinopathies, hypoparathyroidism is a disease in which the exogenous hormone replacement is not being viable, becoming the treatment a challenge. The present report aims to describe a case of primary hypoparathyroidism in a Schnauzer dog with seizures and neuromuscular disorders, and successful treatment employed, this being the first case, according to the literature, of hypoparathyroidism diagnosed in Brazil. The hypoparathyroidism should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of seizure. A complete neurological evaluation and determination of serum ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone are essential for the diagnosis of this disease. Early diagnosis may improve the quality of life of affected animals, since after the initiation of therapy, there is complete remission of clinical signs.

  15. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Merola

    Full Text Available Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  16. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  17. Dogs' Social Referencing towards Owners and Strangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

  18. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs.

  19. Mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Ingrid O; DeClementi, Camille; Guenther, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) toxicosis in a dog, including case management and successful outcome. A dog presented for vomiting, hematochezia, bradycardia, weakness, and ataxia, which did not improve with supportive treatment. Mountain laurel ingestion was identified as cause of clinical signs after gastrotomy was performed to remove stomach contents. Supportive treatment was continued and the dog made a full recovery. This report details a case of mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog, including management strategies and outcome, which has not been previously published in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  20. Are owners' reports of their dogs? ?guilty look? influenced by the dogs? action and evidence of the misdeed?

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoji?, Ljerka; Tkal?i?, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs? greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' ?guilt?, current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these ?guilty look? behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that ?guilty look? behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a ?fo...

  1. Anatomic Considerations on the Middle Ear in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explain some aspects of middle ear anatomy in dog. The study was conducted on five dog skulls (different ages from common, large size dogs. The skulls were processed by maceration and submitted to a treatment of mechanical cleaning with perhydrol. The temporal bone was collected first; the external wall was opened carefully to study the tympanic cavity. The ossicles were collected separately and subsequently described. From research carried promontory appears as an elongated projection that separates the oval window and round window. Vestibular window is oval or slightly ovoid shape of a hole, located dorso-medially to the promontory, which communicates with the middle ear vestibule. Cochlearia window appears as a round or circular hole located caudo-lateral to the promontory . it is blocked by a membrane called the tympanum secondary, cavity separating the ramp of the snail. In the ventro-oral cavity openings ductus faringo tympanicum. The osicules sound represented by hammer, anvil and stirrup are articulated with each other and form a chain as a link between the eardrum and vestibular window. Bones are driven by two muscles: the tensor muscle and muscle stirrup eardrum is very thin. osicules ear are relatively large and resemble those of humans. Lenticular bone is the lenticular process of the long arm of anvile.

  2. Training of a dog for the monitoring of Osmoderma eremita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mosconi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One aim of the MIPP Project (http://www.lifemipp.eu was to develop non-invasive monitoring methods for selected saproxylic beetles. In this paper, a method is proposed for monitoring the larvae of Osmoderma eremita in their natural habitat (i.e. hollow trees, using a conservation detection dog (CDD. Wood mould sampling (WMS, the standard method to detect hermit beetles and other saproxylic insects inside tree hollows, is time-consuming and exposes the target species and the whole saproxylic communities to some risks. In contrast, CDDs pose no risk to the species living inside trees while, at the same time, offer a powerful tool for surveying the insects. In this paper, the methods applied to train the dog are presented, together with the results for accuracy (the overall proportion of correct indications, sensitivity (the proportion of correct positive indications and specificity (the proportion of correct negative indications obtained once the CDD had been fully trained. Results are presented for nitrocellulose filters with the odour of the target species, for larvae living inside hollow trees, for frass and for the remains of adults. A comparison of the efficiency between CDD and WMS showed that employing the dog was much less time-consuming than WMS. The literature on training CDDs for nature conservation tasks, with particular reference to cases involving Coleoptera, was also reviewed.

  3. Sliding hiatal hernia in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    JOLANTA SPUŻAK; KRZYSZTOF KUBIAK; MARCIN JANKOWSKI; MACIEJ GRZEGORY; KAMILA GLIŃSKA-SUCHOCKA; JÓZEF NICPOŃ; VASYL VLIZLO; IGOR MAKSYMOVYCH

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sliding hiatal hernia is a disorder resulting from a displacement of the abdominal part of the oesophagus and/or a part of the stomach into the thoracic cavity through the oesophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. The disorder may be congenital or acquired. Congenital hernia follows disturbances in the embryonic development. In the literature the predisposition to congenital sliding hiatal hernia is observed in the dogs of shar-pei and chow-chow breeds. Pathogenesis of acquired slidin...

  4. Canine pancreatic-specific lipase concentrations in clinically healthy dogs and dogs with naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawby, D I; Whittemore, J C; Fecteau, K A

    2014-01-01

    Specificity of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) assays in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is unknown. Results of cPLI assays differ for clinically healthy dogs and dogs with HAC. Seventeen healthy dogs and 20 dogs with HAC diagnosed by ACTH stimulation test results without evidence of clinical pancreatitis. Dogs were enrolled between December 2009 and November 2010. Serum cPLI concentrations were determined by quantitative (Spec cPL test, SPEC) and semiquantitative (SNAP cPL test, SNAP) assays. Results were categorized as normal, equivocal, or abnormal (SPEC) or negative or positive (SNAP). Associations between group and cPLI were assessed using Fisher's exact test or the Mann-Whitney U-test. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were determined for SNAP and SPEC results. Significance was set at P dogs with HAC (491.1 μg/L) than in healthy dogs (75.2 μg/L), with more abnormal SPEC results in HAC dogs (P dogs with HAC (55%) than in healthy dogs (6%). SNAP and SPEC results were highly correlated (ρ = 0.85; P Dogs with HAC had higher SPEC concentrations and more positive SNAP results than clinically healthy dogs with normal ACTH stimulation test results. Specificity of SPEC and SNAP assays in HAC dogs without clinical pancreatitis were 65 and 45%, respectively. Pending further study, SNAP and SPEC results should be interpreted cautiously in dogs with HAC to avoid false diagnosis of concurrent pancreatitis. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  6. Fetal injury induced by Ca-DTPA in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    The chelating agent Ca-DTPA, used to remove plutonium from the body, has produced fetal deaths and deformities in mice and rats. Damage is caused by depletion of essential trace elements, particularly zinc and manganese. It is suggested that a relationship may exist between the daily amount of Ca-DTPA,per kg body weight needed,to produce fetal toxicity and the daily intake of dietary zinc per kg body weight, and that this relationship could be used to predict fetal toxicity thresholds in various species. Results of a study on beagles are presented. Ca-DTPA treatment at the dose levels used in human therapy did not produce any symptoms in the pregnant dams but the fetuses showed depressed birth weight, abnormal hair colour due to pigmentary deficiency, brain damage and neutropenia. Extrapolation from dogs to humans predicts a toxic fetal dose less that one sixth of the daily dosage presently used for an adult woman, and emphasizes the hazards of Ca-DTPA therapy during pregnancy. (author)

  7. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  8. ?She?s a dog at the end of the day?: Guide dog owners? perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog

    OpenAIRE

    Craigon, Peter J.; Hobson- West, Pru; England, Gary C. W.; Whelan, Chantelle; Lethbridge, Emma; Asher, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners...

  9. Comparative Inter-Species Pharmacokinetics of Phenoxyacetic Acid Herbicides and Related Organic Acids. Evidence that the Dog is Not a Relevant Species for Evaluation of Human Health Risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck

    2004-07-15

    Phenoxyacetic acids including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) are widely utilized organic acid herbicides that have undergone extensive toxicity and pharmacokinetic analyses. The dog is particularly susceptible to the toxicity of phenoxyacetic acids and related organic acids relative to other species. Active renal clearance mechanisms for organic acids are ubiquitous in mammalian species, and thus a likely mechanism responsible for the increased sensitivity of the dog to these agents is linked to a lower capacity to secrete organic acids from the kidney. Using published data describing the pharmacokinetics of phenoxyacetic and structurally related organic acids in a variety of species including humans, inter-species comparative pharmacokinetics were evaluated using allometic parameter scaling. For both 2,4-D and MCPA the dog plasma half-life (t1/2) and renal clearance (Clr; ml hr-1) rates did not scale as a function of body weight across species; whereas for all other species evaluated, including humans, these pharmacokinetic parameters reasonably scaled. This exceptional response in the dog is clearly illustrated by comparing the plasma t1/2 at comparable doses of 2,4-D and MCPA, across several species. At a dosage of 5 mg/kg, in dogs the plasma t1/2 for 2,4-D and MCPA were {approx}92 - 106 hr and 63 hr, respectively, which is substantially longer than in the rat ({approx}1 and 6 hr, respectively) or in humans (12 and 11 hr, respectively). This longer t1/2, and slower elimination in the dog, results in substantially higher body burdens of these organic acids, at comparable doses, relative to other species. Although these results indicate the important role of renal transport clearance mechanisms as determinants of the clearance and potential toxicity outcomes of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides across several species, other contributing mechanisms such as reabsorption from the renal tubules is highly likely. These

  10. Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

  11. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Toxic Shock Syndrome What's ... it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's had ...

  12. Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...

  13. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    of this thesis was to attain a better understanding of some of the factors related to the inter-action between humans and dogs. This aim was addressed by focusing on dog personality and hu-man social skills in relation to human-dog interaction. Two studies investigated dog personality and how it a) affects...... of dogs, and interaction with dogs. For the studies focusing on dog personality, the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA) was used to estimate the dogs’ personality traits. The DMA is a highly standardized test battery measuring the dogs’ behavioural reactions on a set of subtests. Using factor analysis...... it is possible to derive a set of underlying personality traits explaining the variance in the dogs’ behavioural reactions on the DMA. To measure the quality of the dog-owner relationship, the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale was used. This questionnaire assesses both positive and negative aspects of the dog...

  14. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses Part II. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    by Dr. Cheng-Chun Lee, Deputy Director, Biological Sciences Division, for Pharmacology and Toxicology with the asistance of Dr. Harry V. Ellis, I11...balance. Toxic signs seen in virtually all affected dogs included de- creased feed cunsumption, weight loss, yellow stain on and near hiud legs, ~i 1

  16. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Dog is a dog is a dog: Infant rule learning is not specific to language

    OpenAIRE

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Pollak, Seth D.; Seibel, Rebecca L.; Shkolnik, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Human infants possess powerful learning mechanisms used for the acquisition of language. To what extent are these mechanisms domain-specific? One well-known infant language learning mechanism is the ability to detect and generalize rule-like similarity patterns, such as ABA or ABB (Marcus et al., 1999). The results of three experiments demonstrate that 7-month-old infants can detect and generalize these same patterns when the elements consist of pictures of animals (dogs and cats). These find...

  18. Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

    2013-11-01

    Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities.

  19. Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness—were assessed via the parent-report Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children’s behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog.

  20. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Schoeman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8– 6.2 mmol/ . Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both. Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 % made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004. The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the ’diabetes of injury“ phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.