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Sample records for dnp

  1. EPR spectroscopy at DNP conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, J.; Goertz, St.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.

    2004-01-01

    In terms of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) studies and systematic target material research it is crucial to know the EPR lineshape of the DNP relevant paramagnetic centers. Therefore in Bochum an EPR spectrometer has been implemented into the 4 He evaporation DNP facility in order to perform EPR studies at DNP conditions (B=2.5 T, T=1 K). The spectrometer hardware and performance as well as first results are presented

  2. DNP Communication Function with RTDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Saleem, Arshad

    2010-01-01

    A simulation case is implemented on RSCAD for testing their communication. The case has two binary status points (mapped to DNP binary input objects 1 & 2) and two binary control points (mapped to DNP binary output objects 10 and controlled via DNP objects 12). There is also one analog status poi...

  3. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Russian roulette with unlicensed fat-burner drug 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): evidence from a multidisciplinary study of the internet, bodybuilding supplements and DNP users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petróczi, Andrea; Ocampo, Jorge A Vela; Shah, Iltaf; Jenkinson, Carl; New, Rachael; James, Ricky A; Taylor, Glenn; Naughton, Declan P

    2015-10-14

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) poses serious health-risks to humans. The aims of this three-stage multidisciplinary project were, for the first time, to assess the risks to the general public from fraudulent sale of or adulteration/contamination with DNP; and to investigate motives, reasons and risk-management among DNP-user bodybuilders and avid exercisers. Using multiple search-engines and guidance for Internet research, online retailers and bodybuilding forums/blogs were systematically explored for availability of DNP, advice offered on DNP use and user profiles. Ninety-eight pre-workout and weight-loss supplements were purchased and analysed for DNP using liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Psychosocial variables were captured in an international sample of 35 DNP users (26.06 ± 6.10 years, 94.3 % male) with an anonymous, semi-qualitative self-reported survey. Although an industrial chemical, evidence from the Internet showed that DNP is sold 'as is', in capsules or tablets to suit human consumption, and is used 'uncut'. Analytical results confirmed that DNP is not on the supplement market disguised under fictitious supplement names, but infrequently was present as contaminant in some supplements (14/98) at low concentration (<100mcg/kg). Users make conscious and 'informed' decisions about DNP; are well-prepared for the side-effects and show nonchalant attitude toward self-experimentation with DNP. Steps are often taken to ensure that DNP is genuine. Personal experience with performance- and appearance enhancing substances appears to be a gateway to DNP. Advice on DNP and experiences are shared online. The significant discrepancy between the normative perception and the actual visibility suggests that DNP use is-contrary to the Internet accounts-a highly concealed and lonesome activity in real life. Positive experiences with the expected weight-loss prevail over the negative experiences from side effects (all but two users considered using DNP again) and help

  5. Herramientas DNP3 pentesting para redes de infraestructura critica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un conjunto de herramientas de software que son capaces de realizar actividades Pentesting en la infraestructura crítica del sector eléctrico mediante el protocolo DNP3. Las herramientas son capaces de comprobar la capacidad de los controles de seguridad cibernética en el interior del perímetro de la red para evitar cualquier comando sensible falsificado pueda llegar a cualquier controlador de subestación

  6. Transmission Line for 258 GHz Gyrotron DNP Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdashov, Alexandr A.; Belousov, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexey V.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Korchagin, Vyacheslav V.; Kornishin, Sergey Yu.; Tai, Evgeny M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design and test results of the transmission line for liquid-state (LS) and solid-state (SS) DNP spectrometers with the second-harmonic 258.6 GHz gyrotron at the Institute of the Biophysical Chemistry Center of Goethe University (Frankfurt). The 13-meter line includes a mode converter, HE11 waveguides, 4 mitre bends, a variable polarizer-attenuator, directional couplers, a water-flow calorimeter and a mechanical switch. A microwave power of about 15 W was obtained in the pure HE11 mode at the spectrometer inputs.

  7. Building skills in organizational and systems changes: a DNP-FNP clinical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Christine; Johnson, Gail

    2015-04-13

    DNP-prepared nurse practitioner leaders play a pivotal role in organizational change and quality improvement consistent with the IHI Triple Aim: improving quality of care, health of populations, and reducing cost. A DNP-FNP curriculum is described, designed to build students' leadership competencies for systems change in healthcare settings.

  8. Cutaneous drug toxicity from 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): Case report and histological description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Patricia; Wood, Benjamin; Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad

    2015-11-01

    The use of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) has regained popularity as a weight loss aid in the last two decades due to increased marketing to bodybuilders and the increasing availability of this banned substance via the Internet. 2,4-DNP is a drug of narrow therapeutic index and toxicity results in hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnoea and possible cardiac arrest and death. Skin toxicity from 2,4-DNP has not been reported since the 1930s. We report a case of a 21-year-old bodybuilding enthusiast who presented with a toxic exanthem after taking 2,4-DNP, and describe the first skin biopsy findings in a case of 2,4-DNP toxicity. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. From Metacognition to Practice Cognition: The DNP e-Portfolio to Promote Integrated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kelley M; DesLauriers, Patricia; Horvath, Catherine H; Slota, Margaret; Farley, Jean Nelson

    2017-08-01

    Educating Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students for an increasingly complex health care environment requires novel applications of learning concepts and technology. A deliberate and thoughtful process is required to integrate concepts of the DNP program into practice paradigm changes to subsequently improve students' abilities to innovate solutions to complex practice problems. The authors constructed or participated in electronic portfolio development inspired by theories of metacognition and integrated learning. The objective was to develop DNP student's reflection, integration of concepts, and technological capabilities to foster the deliberative competencies related to the DNP Essentials and the foundations of the DNP program. The pedagogical process demonstrates how e-portfolios adapted into the doctoral-level curriculum for DNP students can address the Essentials and foster the development of metacognitive capabilities, which translates into practice changes. The authors suggest that this pedagogical approach has the potential to optimize reflective and deliberative competencies among DNP students. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):497-500.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Communication Test for ‘MatrikonOPC Server for SCADA DNP 3’ with RTDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae; Saleem, Arshad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the communication test for ‘MatrikonOPC server for SCADA DNP 3’ with RTDS is to verify the data exchange between the ‘MatrikonOPC server for SCADA DNP 3’ and the RTDS using the DNP 3 protocol.The communication test is part of the work for the ‘Wind in Øresund’ project. The objective...... of the ‘Wind in Øresund’ project is to build a demonstration and education system of power system operation and control with a RTDS and a SCADA system....

  11. Radioimmunoassay of class-specific antibodies (RIACA): chicken antibodies to DNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljanen, M.K.; Granfors, K.; Toivanen, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunological method for the quantitation of class-specific antibodies has been developed. The method allows the quantitation of nanogram per ml concentrations of IgG and IgM-anti-DNP antibodies without any physical or chemical pretreatment of the sample. DNP was coupled covalently to a cyanogen bromide activated paper disk with the augmentation of lysine molecule. Anti-DNP antibodies were allowed to react with the coupled DNP and then quantitated by their capacity to bind 125 I-labelled anti-chicken-μ or anti-chicken-γ. The inter-assay variation coefficients ranged from 8.1 to 14.7% and the mean standard deviations of duplicate determinations were about 11%. The combination of this method with the exact immunoradiometric quantitation of the total serum IgM and IgG, and with an immunoabsorption technique, makes it possible to quantitate class-specific antibodies on weight units

  12. DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Pinon, Arthur C; Emsley, Lyndon; Rossini, Aaron J

    2017-11-28

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has become a valuable tool for the characterization of both pure and formulated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, NMR generally suffers from poor sensitivity that often restricts NMR experiments to nuclei with favorable properties, concentrated samples, and acquisition of one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectra. Here, we review how dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be applied to routinely enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments by one to two orders of magnitude for both pure and formulated APIs. Sample preparation protocols for relayed DNP experiments and experiments on directly doped APIs are detailed. Numerical spin diffusion models illustrate the dependence of relayed DNP enhancements on the relaxation properties and particle size of the solids and can be used for particle size determination when the other factors are known. We then describe the advanced solid-state NMR experiments that have been enabled by DNP and how they provide unique insight into the molecular and macroscopic structure of APIs. For example, with large sensitivity gains provided by DNP, natural isotopic abundance, 13 C- 13 C double-quantum single-quantum homonuclear correlation NMR spectra of pure APIs can be routinely acquired. DNP also enables solid-state NMR experiments with unreceptive quadrupolar nuclei such as 2 H, 14 N, and 35 Cl that are commonly found in APIs. Applications of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy for the molecular level characterization of low API load formulations such as commercial tablets and amorphous solid dispersions are described. Future perspectives for DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR experiments on APIs are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Efficient DNP NMR of Membrane Proteins: Sample Preparation Protocols, Sensitivity, and Radical Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu Y.; Lee, Myungwoon; Wang, Tuo; Sergeyev, Ivan V.; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Although dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has dramatically enhanced solid-state NMR spectral sensitivities of many synthetic materials and some biological macromolecules, recent studies of membrane-protein DNP using exogenously doped paramagnetic radicals as polarizing agents have reported varied and sometimes surprisingly limited enhancement factors. This motivated us to carry out a systematic evaluation of sample preparation protocols for optimizing the sensitivity of DNP NMR spectra of membrane-bound peptides and proteins at cryogenic temperatures of ~110 K. We show that mixing the radical with the membrane by direct titration instead of centrifugation gives a significant boost to DNP enhancement. We quantify the relative sensitivity enhancement between AMUPol and TOTAPOL, two commonly used radicals, and between deuterated and protonated lipid membranes. AMUPol shows ~4 fold higher sensitivity enhancement than TOTAPOL, while deuterated lipid membrane does not give net higher sensitivity for the membrane peptides than protonated membrane. Overall, a ~100 fold enhancement between the microwave-on and microwave-off spectra can be achieved on lipid-rich membranes containing conformationally disordered peptides, and absolute sensitivity gains of 105–160 can be obtained between low-temperature DNP spectra and high-temperature non-DNP spectra. We also measured the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of lipid signals by TOTAPOL and AMUPol, to determine the depths of these two radicals in the lipid bilayer. Our data indicate a bimodal distribution of both radicals, a surface-bound fraction and a membrane-bound fraction where the nitroxides lie at ~10 Å from the membrane surface. TOTAPOL appears to have a higher membrane-embedded fraction than AMUPol. These results should be useful for membrane-protein solid-state NMR studies under DNP conditions and provide insights into how biradicals interact with phospholipid membranes. PMID:26873390

  14. Efficient DNP NMR of membrane proteins: sample preparation protocols, sensitivity, and radical location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Shu Y.; Lee, Myungwoon; Wang, Tuo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Sergeyev, Ivan V. [Bruker Biospin (United States); Hong, Mei, E-mail: meihong@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Although dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has dramatically enhanced solid-state NMR spectral sensitivities of many synthetic materials and some biological macromolecules, recent studies of membrane-protein DNP using exogenously doped paramagnetic radicals as polarizing agents have reported varied and sometimes surprisingly limited enhancement factors. This motivated us to carry out a systematic evaluation of sample preparation protocols for optimizing the sensitivity of DNP NMR spectra of membrane-bound peptides and proteins at cryogenic temperatures of ~110 K. We show that mixing the radical with the membrane by direct titration instead of centrifugation gives a significant boost to DNP enhancement. We quantify the relative sensitivity enhancement between AMUPol and TOTAPOL, two commonly used radicals, and between deuterated and protonated lipid membranes. AMUPol shows ~fourfold higher sensitivity enhancement than TOTAPOL, while deuterated lipid membrane does not give net higher sensitivity for the membrane peptides than protonated membrane. Overall, a ~100 fold enhancement between the microwave-on and microwave-off spectra can be achieved on lipid-rich membranes containing conformationally disordered peptides, and absolute sensitivity gains of 105–160 can be obtained between low-temperature DNP spectra and high-temperature non-DNP spectra. We also measured the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of lipid signals by TOTAPOL and AMUPol, to determine the depths of these two radicals in the lipid bilayer. Our data indicate a bimodal distribution of both radicals, a surface-bound fraction and a membrane-bound fraction where the nitroxides lie at ~10 Å from the membrane surface. TOTAPOL appears to have a higher membrane-embedded fraction than AMUPol. These results should be useful for membrane-protein solid-state NMR studies under DNP conditions and provide insights into how biradicals interact with phospholipid membranes.

  15. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Pascal; Mance, Deni; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baldus, Marc; Lange, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  16. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Pascal [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Mance, Deni [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Chevelkov, Veniamin [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany); Baldus, Marc [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Lange, Adam, E-mail: alange@fmp-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  17. Strategic innovation between PhD and DNP programs: Collaboration, collegiality, and shared resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joellen; Rayman, Kathleen; Diffenderfer, Sandra; Stidham, April

    2016-01-01

    At least 111 schools and colleges of nursing across the nation provide both PhD and DNP programs (AACN, 2014a). Collaboration between nurses with doctoral preparation as researchers (PhD) and practitioners (DNP) has been recommended as essential to further the profession; that collaboration can begin during the educational process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of successful DNP and PhD program collaboration, and to share the results of that collaboration in an educational setting. Faculty set strategic goals to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of both new DNP and existing PhD programs. The goals were to promote collaboration and complementarity between the programs through careful capstone and dissertation differentiation, complementary residency activities, joint courses and inter-professional experiences; promote collegiality in a blended on-line learning environment through shared orientation and intensive on-campus sessions; and maximize resources in program delivery through a supportive organizational structure, equal access to technology support, and shared faculty responsibilities as appropriate to terminal degrees. Successes such as student and faculty accomplishments, and challenges such as managing class size and workload, are described. Collaboration, collegiality and the sharing of resources have strengthened and enriched both programs and contributed to the success of students, faculty. These innovative program strategies can provide a solid foundation for DNP and PhD collaboration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 64694 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 33E; DNP IMS America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 33E; DNP IMS America Corporation (Thermal Transfer Ribbon Printer..., grantee of FTZ 33, has requested an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority on behalf of DNP IMS...-6636, 2/10/2010) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and the Board's...

  19. Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nicol, David M [UNIV OF IL; Jin, Dong [UNIV OF IL

    2010-12-16

    The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data aggregator. The DNP3 communication between control center and data aggregator is asynchronous with the DNP3 communication between data aggregator and relays; this leads to the possibility of completely filling a data aggregator's buffer of pending events, when a relay is compromised or spoofed and sends overly many (false) events to the data aggregator. This paper investigates how a real-world SCADA device responds to event buffer flooding. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is developed for understanding this. The DTMC model is validated by a Moebius simulation model and data collected on real SCADA testbed.

  20. Characterization and optimization of the visualization performance of continuous flow overhauser DNP hyperpolarized water MRI: Inversion recovery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Maxim; Krummenacker, Jan; Denysenkov, Vasyl; Gerz, Kathrin; Prisner, Thomas; Schreiber, Laura Maria

    2016-03-01

    Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) allows the production of liquid hyperpolarized substrate inside the MRI magnet bore as well as its administration in continuous flow mode to acquire MR images with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. We implemented inversion recovery preparation in order to improve contrast-to-noise ratio and to quantify the overall imaging performance of Overhauser DNP-enhanced MRI. The negative enhancement created by DNP in combination with inversion recovery (IR) preparation allows canceling selectively the signal originated from Boltzmann magnetization and visualizing only hyperpolarized fluid. The theoretical model describing gain of MR image intensity produced by steady-state continuous flow DNP hyperpolarized magnetization was established and proved experimentally. A precise quantification of signal originated purely from DNP hyperpolarization was achieved. A temperature effect on longitudinal relaxation had to be taken into account to fit experimental results with numerical prediction. Using properly adjusted IR preparation, the complete zeroing of thermal background magnetization was achieved, providing an essential increase of contrast-to-noise ratio of DNP-hyperpolarized water images. To quantify and optimize the steady-state conditions for MRI with continuous flow DNP, an approach similar to that incorporating transient-state thermal magnetization equilibrium in spoiled fast field echo imaging sequences can be used. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enhancement of cadmium bioremediation by endophytic bacterium Bacillus sp. L14 using industrially used metabolic inhibitors (DCC or DNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shenglian; Xiao Xiao; Xi Qiang; Wan Yong; Chen Liang; Zeng Guangming; Liu Chengbin; Guo Hanjun; Chen Jueliang

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediations of cadmium by endophytic bacterium (EB) L14 (Bacillus sp.) in the presence of industrially used metabolic inhibitors (DCC or DNP) were investigated. In the presence of DCC or DNP, the biomass population of EB L14 was greatly inhibited. However, the cadmium removal of EB L14 increased from 73.6% (in the absence of DCC or DNP) to 93.7% and 80.8%, respectively. The analysis of total and intracellular cadmium concentrations during 24 h of incubation indicated that this enhanced cadmium removal was the inhibition effect of DCC or DNP on the cations export resistance system of EB L14. This unique property strongly indicated the superiority of this endophyte for practical application in cadmium bioremediation in the presence of industrially used metabolic inhibitors.

  2. Effects of DNP on the cell surface properties of marine bacteria and its implication for adhesion to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Nishad, K.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The effect of 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on extracelluar polysaccharides (EPS), cell surface charge, and hydrophobicity of six marine bacterial cultures was studied, and its influence on attachment of these bacteria to glass and polystyrene...

  3. Preparation and LSC standardization of ''89 Sr (DNP) using the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Arcos Merino, J.M. Los; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89 Sr, is described. The chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima-Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of ''89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using Hisafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.38%. (Author)

  4. EPR and DNP Properties of Certain Novel Single Electron Contrast Agents Intended for Oximetric Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, J. H.; Laursen, I; Leunbach, I.

    1998-01-01

    Parameters of relevance to oximetry with Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) have been measured for three single electron contrast agents of the triphenylmethyl type. The single electron contrast agents are stable and water soluble. Magnetic resonance properties of the agents have been...... examined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 9.5 mT in water, isotonic saline, plasma, and blood at 23 and 37°C. The relaxivities of the agents are about 0.2–0.4 mM−1s−1and the DNP enhancements extrapolate close...... to the dipolar limit. The agents have a single, narrow EPR line, which is analyzed as a Voigt function. The linewidth is measured as a function of the agent concentration and the oxygen concentration. The concentration broadenings are about 1–3 μT/mM and the Lorentzian linewidths at infinite dilution are less...

  5. Preparation and LSC Standardization of ''89Sr (DNP) Using the CIEMAT/NIST Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89Sr, is described, the chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima- Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of 89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using HiSafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0,38%. (Author) 10 refs

  6. The NNP/DNP shortage: transforming neonatal nurse practitioners into DNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Jana L; Kenner, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) represent a high-demand specialty practice that is especially targeted for US secondary and tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). NNPs make primary decisions about the caregiving of high-risk newborns at the time of admission, throughout hospitalization, at transfer, and at discharge that require an advanced knowledge base in neonatology as well as NICU clinical experience. NNPs prepared at the master's level are currently in very short supply, with some estimates suggesting that for each NNP who graduates, there are 80 positions open across the country. Even with the present shortage, due to the high cost of NNP education, NNP programs are diminishing and those that are remaining are not graduating a sufficient number of new NNPs each year to keep up with the demand. To add to the basic shortage problem, in 2004 the American Association of Colleges of Nursing decided that by 2015, the terminal degree for all nurse practitioners should move from the master's degree to the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree. That decision added a minimum of 12 months of full-time education to the advanced education requirements for nurse practitioners. What impact will the decision to require a DNP degree have on NNP specialty practice? Will even more NNP programs close because of faculty shortages of NNPs prepared at the DNP level? If a worse shortage occurs in the number of NNPs prepared to practice in NICUs, will physician assistants or other nonphysician clinicians who meet the need for advanced neonatal care providers replace NNPs? What steps, if any, can nursing take to ensure that NNP specialty practice is still needed and survives after supplementing the DNP requirement to NNP education?

  7. Water accessibility in a membrane-inserting peptide comparing Overhauser DNP and pulse EPR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Takuya F., E-mail: takuya.segawa@alumni.ethz.ch; Doppelbauer, Maximilian; Garbuio, Luca; Doll, Andrin; Polyhach, Yevhen O.; Jeschke, Gunnar, E-mail: gjeschke@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-21

    Water accessibility is a key parameter for the understanding of the structure of biomolecules, especially membrane proteins. Several experimental techniques based on the combination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling are currently available. Among those, we compare relaxation time measurements and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments using pulse EPR with Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at X-band frequency and a magnetic field of 0.33 T. Overhauser DNP transfers the electron spin polarization to nuclear spins via cross-relaxation. The change in the intensity of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of H{sub 2}O at a Larmor frequency of 14 MHz under a continuous-wave microwave irradiation of the nitroxide spin label contains information on the water accessibility of the labeled site. As a model system for a membrane protein, we use the hydrophobic α-helical peptide WALP23 in unilamellar liposomes of DOPC. Water accessibility measurements with all techniques are conducted for eight peptides with different spin label positions and low radical concentrations (10–20 μM). Consistently in all experiments, the water accessibility appears to be very low, even for labels positioned near the end of the helix. The best profile is obtained by Overhauser DNP, which is the only technique that succeeds in discriminating neighboring positions in WALP23. Since the concentration of the spin-labeled peptides varied, we normalized the DNP parameter ϵ, being the relative change of the NMR intensity, by the electron spin concentration, which was determined from a continuous-wave EPR spectrum.

  8. An Academic-Practice Partnership to Advance DNP Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Patricia B; Williams, Tracy E

    During the past decade, the growth of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs in the United States has been phenomenal, with most focusing on the preparation of advanced practice registered nurses. Simultaneously, academic-practice partnerships have been a frequent subject of discussion for nursing's leading academic, administrative, and practice organizations. Numerous reports about academic-practice partnerships concerning aspects of baccalaureate nursing education exist, but partnership accounts for DNP programs are essentially nonexistent. The purpose of this article is to describe the initial phase of an academic-practice partnership between a multisystem health care organization and a college of nursing in a public land-grant university in the southeastern United States. The 7-year partnership agreement between Norton Healthcare and the University of Kentucky College of Nursing was designed to prepare 5 cohorts of 20 to 30 baccalaureate-prepared staff nurses as DNP graduates for advanced practice registered nurse eligibility. The description of partnering institution characteristics frames an emphasis on elements of the partnership proposal, contractual agreement, and partner responsibilities along with the logic model evaluation plan. Lessons learned include the importance of proposals and contracts to sustain the partnership, frequent communication to build trust, and strategic analysis for rapid response to challenging situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling DNP3 Traffic Characteristics of Field Devices in SCADA Systems of the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Cheng, Liang [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Chuah, Mooi Choo [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    In the generation, transmission, and distribution sectors of the smart grid, intelligence of field devices is realized by programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Many smart-grid subsystems are essentially cyber-physical energy systems (CPES): For instance, the power system process (i.e., the physical part) within a substation is monitored and controlled by a SCADA network with hosts running miscellaneous applications (i.e., the cyber part). To study the interactions between the cyber and physical components of a CPES, several co-simulation platforms have been proposed. However, the network simulators/emulators of these platforms do not include a detailed traffic model that takes into account the impacts of the execution model of PLCs on traffic characteristics. As a result, network traces generated by co-simulation only reveal the impacts of the physical process on the contents of the traffic generated by SCADA hosts, whereas the distinction between PLCs and computing nodes (e.g., a hardened computer running a process visualization application) has been overlooked. To generate realistic network traces using co-simulation for the design and evaluation of applications relying on accurate traffic profiles, it is necessary to establish a traffic model for PLCs. In this work, we propose a parameterized model for PLCs that can be incorporated into existing co-simulation platforms. We focus on the DNP3 subsystem of slave PLCs, which automates the processing of packets from the DNP3 master. To validate our approach, we extract model parameters from both the configuration and network traces of real PLCs. Simulated network traces are generated and compared against those from PLCs. Our evaluation shows that our proposed model captures the essential traffic characteristics of DNP3 slave PLCs, which can be used to extend existing co-simulation platforms and gain further insights into the behaviors of CPES.

  10. 1H DNP at 1.4 T of Water Doped with a Triarylmethyl-Based Radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Robert A.; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Recently a triarylmethyl-based (TAM) radical has been developed for research in biological and other aqueous systems, and in low magnetic fields, 10 mT or less, large 1H dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancements have been reported. In this paper the DNP properties of this radical have been...... perpendicular to the electric component of the microwave field. It was found that with this probe the temperature increase in the sample after 4 s of microwave irradiation with an incident power of 10 W was only 16°C. For the investigations, 10 mM of the TAM radical was dissolved in deionized, but not degassed...... than the largest high-resolution magnet available to date. It is concluded that DNP MRM in this field, which corresponds to a standard microwave frequency of 9 GHz, has the potential to significantly increase the sensitivity in NMR and MRI experiments of small aqueous samples doped with the TAM radical....

  11. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Prieto, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14 C O 2 assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs

  12. The Effect of Intermolecular Halogen Bond on 19F DNP Enhancement in 1, 4-Diiodotetrafluorobenzene/4-OH-TEMPO Supramolecular Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Shan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Halogen bond, as hydrogen bond, is a non-covalent bond. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP technique has been used previously to study hydrogen bonds-mediated intermolecular interactions. However, no study has been carried out so far to study the halogen bond-mediated intermolecular interactions with DNP. In this work, 19F DNP polarization efficiency of the halogen bonds existing in supramolecular assembling by 4-OH-TEMPO and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene (DITFB was studied on a home-made DNP system. The formation of intermolecular halogen bonds appeared to increase 19F DNP polarization efficiency, suggesting that the spin-spin interactions among electrons were weakened by the halogen bonds, resulting in an increased T2e and a larger saturation factor.

  13. A Parametric Study on the Immunomodulatory Effects of Electroacupuncture in DNP-KLH Immunized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Kwang Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of low frequency electroacupuncture (EA and high frequency EA at acupoint ST36 on the production of IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines in BALB/c mice that had been immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet protein (DNP-KLH, as well as to investigate the difference in the immunomodulatory effects exerted by EA stimulations at acupoint ST36 and at a non-acupoint (tail. Female BALB/c mice were divided into seven groups: normal (no treatments, IM (immunization only, ST36-PA (IM + plain acupuncture at ST36, ST36-LEA (IM + low frequency (1 Hz EA at ST36, ST36-HEA (IM + high frequency (120 Hz EA at ST36, NA-LEA (IM + low frequency (1 Hz EA at non-acupoint and NA-HEA (IM + high frequency (120 Hz EA at non-acupoint. EA stimulation was performed daily for two weeks, and total IgE, DNP-KLH specific IgE, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels were measured at the end of the experiment. The results of this study showed that the IgE and IL-4 levels were significantly suppressed in the ST36-LEA and ST36-HEA groups, but not in the NA-LEA and NA-HEA groups. However, there was little difference in the immunomodulatory effects observed in the ST36-LEA and ST36-HEA groups. Taken together, these results suggest that EA stimulation-induced immunomodulation is not frequency dependent, but that it is acupoint specific.

  14. Preparation and LSC Standardization of ''89Sr (DNP) Using the CIEMAT/NIST Method; Preparacion del ''89Sr(DNP) y calibracion por centelleo liquido, mediante el metodo CIEMAT/NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-07-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89Sr, is described, the chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima- Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of 89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using HiSafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0,38%. (Author) 10 refs.

  15. Isolation of a high malic and low acetic acid-producing sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain screened from respiratory inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shingo; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi; Nakayama, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant sake yeast strains by UV mutagenesis. Among the DNP-resistant mutants, we focused on strains exhibiting high malic acid and low acetic acid production. The improved organic acid composition is unlikely to be under the control of enzyme activities related to malic and acetic acid synthesis pathways. Instead, low mitochondrial activity was observed in DNP-resistant mutants, indicating that the excess pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is not metabolized in the mitochondria but converted to malic acid in the cytosol. In addition, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the DNP-resistant strains was higher than that of the parental strain K901. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio together with the low mitochondrial activity alter the organic acid composition because malic acid synthesis requires NADH, while acetic acid uses NAD(+). Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of INH, DNP, 2, 4-D and CMU on the sugar content of the barley and maize leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, P.

    1979-01-01

    1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solution was absorbed by barley and maize roots during 24 and 48 hours in dark or light conditioners in order to determine the best conditions for the obtention of labelled sugars with high specific activity. Results show that the highest specific activity was obtained in maize plants treated with DNP for 24 hours in dark conditions. (Author) 51 refs

  17. UTAUT2 Based Predictions of Factors Influencing the Technology Acceptance of Phablets by DNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart mobile devices have emerged during the past decade and have become one of the most dominant consumer electronic products. Therefore, exploring and understanding the factors which can influence the acceptance of novel mobile technology have become the essential task for the vendors and distributors of mobile devices. The Phablets, integrated smart devices combining the functionality and characteristics of both tablet PCs and smart phones, have gradually become possible alternatives for smart phones. Therefore, predicting factors which can influence the acceptance of Phablets have become indispensable for designing, manufacturing, and marketing of such mobile devices. However, such predictions are not easy. Meanwhile, very few researches tried to study related issues. Consequently, the authors aim to explore and predict the intentions to use and use behaviors of Phablets. The second generation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2 is introduced as a theoretic basis. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL based Network Process (DNP will be used to construct the analytic framework. In light of the analytic results, the causal relationships being derived by the DEMATEL demonstrate the direct influence of the habit on other dimensions. Also, based on the influence weights being derived, the use intention, hedonic motivation, and performance expectancy are the most important dimensions. The analytic results can serve as a basis for concept developments, marketing strategy definitions, and new product designs of the future Phablets. The proposed analytic framework can also be used for predicting and analyzing consumers’ preferences toward future mobile devices.

  18. Cell Type Preference of a Novel Human Derived Cell-Permeable Peptide dNP2 and TAT in Murine Splenic Immune Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangho Lim

    Full Text Available Cell-permeable peptides (CPPs have been widely studied as an attractive drug delivery system to deliver therapeutic macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein into cells. However, its clinical application is still limited and controversial due to the lack of a complete understanding of delivery efficiency in target cells. Previously we identified and characterized the novel and superior CPP, named dNP2, and here we comparatively analyzed intracellular delivery efficiency of dNP2 and TAT in various immune cells of mouse spleen to demonstrate their cell type preference. dNP2- or TAT-conjugated fluorescent proteins were most efficiently taken up by phagocytic cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages while little protein uptake was seen by lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, and NK cells. Interestingly CD8+ lymphoid dendritic cells and CD62LloCD44hi memory like T cell subsets showed significantly better uptake efficiency in vitro and in vivo relative to other dendritic cells or T cells, respectively. In addition, activated macrophages, T cells, and B cells took up the proteins more efficiently relative to when in the resting state. Importantly, only dNP2, not TAT, shows significant intracellular protein delivery efficiency in vivo. Collectively, this study provides important information regarding heterogeneous intracellular delivery efficiency of CPPs such as dNP2 and TAT with cell type preference in the spleen needed for its application in phagocytic cells or activated immune cells.

  19. Proton polarization above 70% by DNP using photo-excited triplet states, a first step towards a broadband neutron spin filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, T.R.; Niketic, N.; Brandt, B. van den; Filges, U.; Panzner, T.; Rantsiou, E.; Wenckebach, W.Th.; Hautle, P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of polarized protons as neutron spin filter is an attractive alternative to the well established neutron polarization techniques, as the large, spin-dependent neutron scattering cross-section for protons is useful up to the sub-MeV region. Employing optically excited triplet states for the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the protons relieves the stringent requirements of classical DNP schemes, i.e low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, making technically simpler systems with open geometries possible. Using triplet DNP a record polarization of 71% has been achieved in a pentacene doped naphthalene single crystal at a field of 0.36 T using a simple helium flow cryostat for cooling. Furthermore, by placing the polarized crystal in a neutron optics focus and de-focus scheme, the actual sample cross-section could be increased by a factor 35 corresponding to an effective spin filter cross-section of 18×18mm 2

  20. Proton polarization above 70% by DNP using photo-excited triplet states, a first step towards a broadband neutron spin filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, T.R. [Laboratory for Developments and Methods (LDM), Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic Imaging, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niketic, N.; Brandt, B. van den; Filges, U.; Panzner, T.; Rantsiou, E.; Wenckebach, W.Th. [Laboratory for Developments and Methods (LDM), Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hautle, P., E-mail: patrick.hautle@psi.ch [Laboratory for Developments and Methods (LDM), Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-08-01

    The use of polarized protons as neutron spin filter is an attractive alternative to the well established neutron polarization techniques, as the large, spin-dependent neutron scattering cross-section for protons is useful up to the sub-MeV region. Employing optically excited triplet states for the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the protons relieves the stringent requirements of classical DNP schemes, i.e low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, making technically simpler systems with open geometries possible. Using triplet DNP a record polarization of 71% has been achieved in a pentacene doped naphthalene single crystal at a field of 0.36 T using a simple helium flow cryostat for cooling. Furthermore, by placing the polarized crystal in a neutron optics focus and de-focus scheme, the actual sample cross-section could be increased by a factor 35 corresponding to an effective spin filter cross-section of 18×18mm{sup 2}.

  1. Would You Use It With a Seal of Approval? Important Attributes of 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP as a Hypothetical Pharmaceutical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Bleasdale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP is an effective but highly dangerous fat burner, not licensed for human consumption. Death cases reported for 2,4-DNP overdose, particularly among young adults, have raised concerns about the ineffective regulatory control, lack of education and risks associated with impurity, and the unknown concentration of 2,4-DNP purchased on the Internet.MethodsUsing a sequential mixed method design and based on a hypothetical scenario as if 2,4-DNP was a licensed pharmaceutical drug, first we conducted a qualitative study to explore what product attributes people consider when buying a weight-loss aid. Focus group interviews with six females and three males (mean age = 21.6 ± 1.8 years were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis. Sixteen attributes were identified for the Best–Worst Scale (BWS in the quantitative survey with 106 participants (64% female, mean age = 27.1 ± 11.9 years, focusing on 2,4-DNP. Demographics, weight satisfaction, and risk for eating disorder data were collected.ResultsIn contrast to experienced users such as bodybuilders, our study participants approached 2,4-DNP cautiously. Attributes of 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical weight-loss drug comprised a range of desirable and avoidable features. Of the 16 selected attributes, BWS suggested that long-term side effects were the most and branding was the least important attribute. Effectiveness and short-term side effects were also essential. Those in the >25 year group showed least concerns for legality. Neutral BWS scores for cost, treatment, degree of lifestyle changes required, and specificity required for the hypothetical weight-loss drug to be effective were likely caused by disagreement about their importance among the participants, not indifference.ConclusionWith advances in research, 2,4-DNP as a pharmaceutical drug in the future for treating neurodegenerative diseases and potentially for

  2. Would You Use It With a Seal of Approval? Important Attributes of 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as a Hypothetical Pharmaceutical Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasdale, Emma E; Thrower, Sam N; Petróczi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is an effective but highly dangerous fat burner, not licensed for human consumption. Death cases reported for 2,4-DNP overdose, particularly among young adults, have raised concerns about the ineffective regulatory control, lack of education and risks associated with impurity, and the unknown concentration of 2,4-DNP purchased on the Internet. Using a sequential mixed method design and based on a hypothetical scenario as if 2,4-DNP was a licensed pharmaceutical drug, first we conducted a qualitative study to explore what product attributes people consider when buying a weight-loss aid. Focus group interviews with six females and three males (mean age = 21.6 ± 1.8 years) were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis. Sixteen attributes were identified for the Best-Worst Scale (BWS) in the quantitative survey with 106 participants (64% female, mean age = 27.1 ± 11.9 years), focusing on 2,4-DNP. Demographics, weight satisfaction, and risk for eating disorder data were collected. In contrast to experienced users such as bodybuilders, our study participants approached 2,4-DNP cautiously. Attributes of 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical weight-loss drug comprised a range of desirable and avoidable features. Of the 16 selected attributes, BWS suggested that long-term side effects were the most and branding was the least important attribute. Effectiveness and short-term side effects were also essential. Those in the >25 year group showed least concerns for legality. Neutral BWS scores for cost, treatment, degree of lifestyle changes required, and specificity required for the hypothetical weight-loss drug to be effective were likely caused by disagreement about their importance among the participants, not indifference. With advances in research, 2,4-DNP as a pharmaceutical drug in the future for treating neurodegenerative diseases and potentially for weight loss is not inconceivable. Caution is

  3. dNP2-ctCTLA-4 inhibits German cockroach extract-induced allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness via inhibition of Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sangho; Ho Sohn, Jung; Koo, Ja-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won; Choi, Je-Min

    2017-08-04

    German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model. The intranasal delivery efficiency of the dNP2-dTomato protein to the lungs was higher in GCE-induced asthmatic lung parenchymal cells compared to the sham cells. Intranasal administration of the dNP2-ctCTLA-4 protein inhibited airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced airway inflammation and remodeling, including goblet cell metaplasia and collagen deposition around the bronchi. The number of infiltrated cells, including eosinophils, and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-γ in the lungs were significantly reduced, presumably owing to inhibition of Th2 differentiation. However, intranasal administration of CTLA4-Ig did not inhibit airway inflammation. These results collectively suggest that dNP2-ctCTLA-4 is an efficient intranasally applicable candidate biologic for treating allergic asthma.

  4. Design, Synthesis and DFT/DNP Modeling Study of New 2-Amino-5-arylazothiazole Derivatives as Potential Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraa Abu-Melha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 2-amino-5-arylazothiazole derivatives has been designed and synthesized in 61–78% yields and screened as potential antibacterial drug candidates against the Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The geometry of the title compounds were being studied using the Material Studio package and semi-core pseudopods calculations (dspp were performed with the double numerica basis sets plus polarization functional (DNP to predict the properties of materials using the hybrid FT/B3LYP method. Modeling calculations, especially the (EH-EL difference and the energetic parameters revealed that some of the title compounds may be promising tools for further research work and the activity is structure dependent.

  5. Insight into the Supramolecular Architecture of Intact Diatom Biosilica from DNP-Supported Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantschke, Anne; Koers, Eline; Mance, Deni; Weingarth, Markus; Brunner, Eike; Baldus, Marc

    2015-12-07

    Diatom biosilica is an inorganic/organic hybrid with interesting properties. The molecular architecture of the organic material at the atomic and nanometer scale has so far remained unknown, in particular for intact biosilica. A DNP-supported ssNMR approach assisted by microscopy, MS, and MD simulations was applied to study the structural organization of intact biosilica. For the first time, the secondary structure elements of tightly biosilica-associated native proteins in diatom biosilica were characterized in situ. Our data suggest that these proteins are rich in a limited set of amino acids and adopt a mixture of random-coil and β-strand conformations. Furthermore, biosilica-associated long-chain polyamines and carbohydrates were characterized, thereby leading to a model for the supramolecular organization of intact biosilica. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Melanoma Vaccine--AVAX Technologies: DNP-VACC, M-Vax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Adis CommentsAVAX Technologies is developing a therapeutic melanoma vaccine [M-Vax, DNP-VACC] consisting of autologous tumour cells conjugated to a highly immunogenic hapten, dinitrophenyl, which makes the cancer cells more easily recognised by the immune system. AVAX licensed the autologous cell vaccine technology (AC Vaccine) from Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, USA, where it was originally developed. M-Vax was launched in Australia in the first half of 2000, but was withdrawn from this market in September 2002 due to financial constraints faced by the company and its need to focus its resources on initiatives that provide the greatest return. Although AVAX applied for Federal Government price reimbursement in Australia through the Medical Services Advisory Committee during 2001, the vaccine is not reimbursed in Australia. Obtaining Federal Government reimbursement was a step AVAX considered essential for the success of the M-Vax. AVAX has not ruled out re-entering the Australian market again at a later date. AVAX will now concentrate on gaining approval in the US and Europe. M-Vax has received orphan drug designation from the US FDA. M-Vax is in preregistration in Germany, Japan and The Netherlands for treatment of stage III melanoma. In September 1999, the company announced that it expected to market M-Vax for treatment of stage III melanoma in Germany, Japan and the Netherlands. This announcement came after AVAX's continuing dialogue with senior regulatory authorities in several pharmaceutical markets. The commercial availability of M-Vax in Germany, Japan and The Netherlands will be subject to meeting certain requirements specified by the regulatory agency in each country. Phase II data have been submitted for regulatory approval in these countries; phase III data may not be required because the vaccine contains autologous tumour cells. This was the case with the Australian approval of M-Vax, which was on the basis of data from phase II trials

  7. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 4-D y CMU) sobre la actividad fotosintetica de plantular de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; Prieto, M P

    1979-07-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs.

  8. Programación de un sistema de adquisición de datos utilizando el sistema embebido DNP/1110; Programming of a data acquisition system using the embedded system dil/netpc DNP/1110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josnier Ramos Guardarrama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta una alternativa económica de un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD basado en el kit dedesarrollo DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, el cual esta formado por un microcontrolador de INTEL SA-1110 StrongARM quetrabaja a 206 MHz y que tiene incorporado un controlador de Ethernet que permite desarrollar aplicaciones con el usode la red. El sistema embebido dispone de un sistema operativo Linux, kernel versión 2.4.18. Como parte del diseñose incorporan de forma compacta los elementos necesarios para que el SAD sea capaz de muestrear ocho señalescapturadas simultáneamente. De particular interés resulta la programación, presentándose dos variantes de solución:cuando se ejecuta la aplicación con un software que corre en el área de usuario y cuando el control se logra con unmódulo del sistema operativo específico para el trabajo del SAD. El sistema está soportado por la integración desoftware libre y propietario.  This work focuses on an economic alternative for developing a data acquisition system (DAS which is made up forThe DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, which provides a very compact Intel 206 MHz SA-1110 StrongARM-based low powerembedded controller with TCP/IP stack and web server for high-speed embedded networking applications. Theembedded system has an operating system Linux, kernel version 2.4.18. The built data acquisition system has thenecessary elements to take charge of governing the sampling process of eight signals. Of particular interest it is theprogramming, being presented two solution variants: when the application is executed with software that it runs inuser's area and when the control is achieved with a specific build module of the operating system for the work of theDAS.. The system is supported by the integration of free software and property software.

  9. Programación de un sistema de adquisición de datos utilizando el sistema embebido DNP/1110;Programming of a data acquisition system using the embedded system dil/netpc DNP/1110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josnier Ramos - Guardarrama,et al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta una alternativa económica de un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD basado en el kit de desarrollo DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, el cual esta formado por un microcontrolador de INTEL SA-1110 StrongARM que trabaja a 206 MHz y que tiene incorporado un controlador de Ethernet que permite desarrollar aplicaciones con el uso de la red. El sistema embebido dispone de un sistema operativo Linux, kernel versión 2.4.18. Como parte del diseño se incorporan de forma compacta los elementos necesarios para que el SAD sea capaz de muestrear ocho señales capturadas simultáneamente. De particular interés resulta la programación, presentándose dos variantes de solución: cuando se ejecuta la aplicación con un software que corre en el área de usuario y cuando el control se logra con un módulo del sistema operativo específico para el trabajo del SAD. El sistema está soportado por la integración de software libre y propietario.This work focuses on an economic alternative for developing a data acquisition system (DAS which is made up for The DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, which provides a very compact Intel 206 MHz SA-1110 StrongARM-based low power embedded controller with TCP/IP stack and web server for high-speed embedded networking applications. The embedded system has an operating system Linux, kernel version 2.4.18. The built data acquisition system has the necessary elements to take charge of governing the sampling process of eight signals. Of particular interest it is the programming, being presented two solution variants: when the application is executed with software that it runs in user's area and when the control is achieved with a specific build module of the operating system for the work of the DAS.. The system is supported by the integration of free software and property software.

  10. Real-Time DNP NMR Observations of Acetic Acid Uptake, Intracellular Acidification, and of Consequences for Glycolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Rose; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde Hauge

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and upshot in vivo: Straightforward methods that permit the real-time observation of organic acid influx, intracellular acidification, and concomitant effects on cellular-reaction networks are crucial for improved bioprocess monitoring and control (see scheme). Herein, dynamic nuclear pola...... polarization (DNP) NMR is used to observe acetate influx, ensuing intracellular acidification and the metabolic consequences on alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis in living cells....

  11. Effects of INH, DNP, 2, 4-D and CMU on the sugar content of the barley and maize leaves; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 3-D y CMU) sobre el contenido en azucares de hohas de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; Sancho, P

    1979-07-01

    1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solution was absorbed by barley and maize roots during 24 and 48 hours in dark or light conditioners in order to determine the best conditions. for the obtention of labelled sugars with high specific activity. Results show that the highest specific activity was obtained In maize plants treated with DNP for 24 hours in dark conditions. (Author) 51 refs.

  12. Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d 15, Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic, 3,4 -Dinitropyrazole (DNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Assay 1 0.259 0.278 Assay 2 0.299 6.3 CD54 and CD86 expression in response to DNP exposure of THP -1 cells Three independent tests were...2 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15, April 2016 Toxicology Directorate Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic 3,4...report. 17-05-2016 Technical Report March 2016-April 2016 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15 Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel

  13. Measurement of 14N quadrupole couplings in biomolecular solids using indirect-detection 14N solid-state NMR with DNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, J A; Haies, I; Lelli, M; Rossini, A J; Kuprov, I; Carravetta, M; Williamson, P T F

    2017-11-07

    The quadrupolar interaction experienced by the spin-1 14 N nucleus is known to be extremely sensitive to local structure and dynamics. Furthermore, the 14 N isotope is 99.6% naturally abundant, making it an attractive target for characterisation of nitrogen-rich biological molecules by solid-state NMR. In this study, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used in conjunction with indirect 14 N detected solid-state NMR experiments to simultaneously characterise the quadrupolar interaction at multiple 14 N sites in the backbone of the microcrystalline protein, GB3. Considerable variation in the quadrupolar interaction (>700 kHz) is observed throughout the protein backbone. The distribution in quadrupolar interactions observed reports on the variation in local backbone conformation and subtle differences in hydrogen-bonding; demonstrating a new route to the structural and dynamic analysis of biomolecules.

  14. Excitation-energy dependence of the resonant Auger transitions to the 4p4(1D)np (n=5,6) states across the 3d3/2-15p and 3d5/2-16p resonances in Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankari, A.; Alitalo, S.; Nikkinen, J.; Kivimaeki, A.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Fritzsche, S.

    2007-01-01

    The energy dependencies of the intensities and angular distribution parameters β of the resonant Auger final states 4p 4 ( 1 D)np (n=5,6) of Kr were determined experimentally in the excitation-energy region of the overlapping 3d 3/2 -1 5p and 3d 5/2 -1 6p resonances. The experimental results were compared with the outcome of multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Combining experimental and calculated results allowed us to study interference effects between the direct and several resonant channels that populate the 4p 4 ( 1 D)np states. The inclusion of the direct channel was crucial in order to reproduce the observed energy behavior of the angular distribution parameters. It was also important to take into account experimentally observed shake transitions

  15. DNP NMR of carbohydrate converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    intermediate, however, this evidence is based on mutant of X-ray crystallography and simulations. As the natural substrate lactose does not have any quaternary carbon with long T1, the unnatural substrate o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside was used (figure 1) as the quaternarypositions have T1 relaxations...... of ca. 15 s instead of hydrolysis of this substrate can be seen in figure 2, and another use of this substrate is for optimizing the conditions for a labelled substrate (figure 1), which would further increase the signal and allow monitoring of the carbohydrate...

  16. Determinação de efedrinas em urina por cromatografia em fase gasosa (CG/DNP para o controle da dopagem no esporte Gas chromatographic method for the determination of ephedrines in urine for doping control purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodrigues Garcia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Efedrinas são aminas simpatomiméticas componentes de diversas especialidades farmacêuticas, utilizadas no tratamento de doenças respiratórias devido à sua ação descongestionante e broncodilatora. Atualmente, diversos produtos comercializados como suplementos nutricionais contêm efedrinas e são amplamente utilizados no meio esportivo, com o objetivo de facilitar a queima de gorduras e melhorar o desempenho. Entretanto, o uso indiscriminado destas substâncias pode acarretar série de efeitos tóxicos como hipertensão, taquicardia, cefaléia e tremores. Devido à sua ação psicoestimulante, foram incluídas na lista de substâncias proibidas nas atividades esportivas pelo Comitê Olímpico Internacional (COI e estabelecidas concentrações na urina para o controle da dopagem (efedrina e metilefedrina: 10 µg/mL. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a validação de um método para quantificação de efedrinas, por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a detetor de nitrogênio/fósforo (CG/DNP, em amostras de urina com a finalidade de controle da dopagem. O método consistiu em extração líquido-líquido e posterior derivação das efedrinas com anidrido trifluoroacético, e demonstrou ser simples e prático, apresentando linearidade nas faixas de concentração estudadas. Amostras de urina de voluntários que relataram uso de efedrinas foram submetidas à análise pelo método proposto.Ephedrines are sympathomimetic amines present in many pharmaceutical preparations used in the treatment of respiratory diseases due to their actions against broncospasm and congestion. Nowadays, several products sold as nutritional supplements contain ephedrines and are widely used in a diverse range of sports as weight loss aids and enhancement of athletic performance. However, the abuse of ephedrines may lead to a number of adverse effects including hypertension, headache, tachycardia and seizure. Due to their CNS stimulating action, ephedrines are

  17. Large dose hyperpolarized water with dissolution-DNP at high magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Bowen, Sean; Rybalko, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    was polarized and dissolved in a fluid path compatible with clinical polarizers. The volume of hyperpolarized water produced by this method enables angiography and perfusion measurements in large animals, as well as NMR experiments for studies of e.g. proton exchange and polarization transfer to other nuclei....

  18. The DNP/MPH Dual Degree: An Innovative Graduate Education Program for Advanced Public Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kathy; Harpin, Scott; Steinke, Geraldine; Stember, Marilyn; Krajicek, Marilyn

    2017-03-01

    Strong professional priorities, evolving Affordable Care Act requirements, and a significantly limited public health nursing workforce prompted the University of Colorado College of Nursing to collaborate with the School of Public Health to implement one of the first Doctor of Nursing Practice/Master of Public Health dual degree programs in the nation. Federal grant funding supported the development, implementation, and evaluation of this unique post-baccalaureate dual degree program, for which there were no roadmaps, models, or best practices to follow. Several key issues emerged that serve as lessons learned in creating a new, novel higher education pathway for Advanced Public Health Nursing. This paper highlights two of those: (1) marketing, admission, and matriculation across two programs, and (2) enhancing curricula through distance coursework and interprofessional education. When collaboration with a school of public health is possible, the Doctor of Nursing Practice/Master of Public Health dual degree is an efficient way to prepare public health nurses' with the highest level of public health knowledge, practice, and leadership expertise. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Chappuis, Quentin; Bornet, Aurélien; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (ΔEPolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR), is illustrated for various pairs of (13)C spins (I, S) in acetate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New vector/scalar Overhauser DNP magnetometers POS-4 for magnetic observatories and directional oil drilling support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapunov V.A., Denisov A.Y., Saveliev D.V., Soloviev A.A., Khomutov S.Y., Borodin P.B., Narkhov E.D., Sergeev A.V., Shirokov A.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers same results of the research directed at developing an absolute vector proton magnetometer POS-4 based on the switching bias magnetic fields methods. Due to the high absolute precision and stability magnetometer POS-4 found application not only for observatories and to directional drilling support of oi and gas well. Also we discuss the some basic errors of measurements and discuss the long-term experience in the testing of magnetic observatories ART and PARATUNKA.

  1. Discovery of Intermediates of lacZ β-Galactosidase Catalyzed Hydrolysis Using dDNP NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Ø.

    2018-01-01

    Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization, the sensitivity of single scan solution state 13C NMR can be improved up to 4 orders of magnitude. In this study, the enzyme lacZ β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli was subjected to hyperpolarized substrate, and previously unknown reaction...

  2. Discovery of Intermediates of lacZ beta-Galactosidase Catalyzed Hydrolysis Using dDNP NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    2018-01-01

    Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization, the sensitivity of single scan solution state C-13 NMR can be improved up to 4 orders of magnitude. In this study, the enzyme lacZ beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli was subjected to hyperpolarized substrate, and previously unknown reaction...

  3. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR).

    OpenAIRE

    Vuichoud , Basile; Milani , Jonas; Chappuis , Quentin; Bornet , Aurélien; Bodenhausen , Geoffrey; Jannin , Sami

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (Delta E < kT) is violated for the nuclear Zeeman interaction Delta E = gamma B(0)h/(2 pi) of most isotopes. Provided that, after rapid dissolution and transfer to an NMR or MRI system, the hyperpolarized molecules contain at least two nuclear spins I and S with a scalar coupling J(IS), the polarization of spin I (short for 'inve...

  4. The effect of temperature on the mucosal IgM antibody response to DNP-KLH in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath immersion remains a practical route for immunizing against disease in channel catfish; however research efforts in this area have revealed variable results when activating mucosal Ab responses with different antigens. This is likely due to a number of factors including the individual species, ...

  5. Strategy-aligned fuzzy approach for market segment evaluation and selection: a modular decision support system by dynamic network process (DNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Nasrabadi, Ali; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimnejad, Sadoullah

    2013-05-01

    In competitive markets, market segmentation is a critical point of business, and it can be used as a generic strategy. In each segment, strategies lead companies to their targets; thus, segment selection and the application of the appropriate strategies over time are very important to achieve successful business. This paper aims to model a strategy-aligned fuzzy approach to market segment evaluation and selection. A modular decision support system (DSS) is developed to select an optimum segment with its appropriate strategies. The suggested DSS has two main modules. The first one is SPACE matrix which indicates the risk of each segment. Also, it determines the long-term strategies. The second module finds the most preferred segment-strategies over time. Dynamic network process is applied to prioritize segment-strategies according to five competitive force factors. There is vagueness in pairwise comparisons, and this vagueness has been modeled using fuzzy concepts. To clarify, an example is illustrated by a case study in Iran's coffee market. The results show that success possibility of segments could be different, and choosing the best ones could help companies to be sure in developing their business. Moreover, changing the priority of strategies over time indicates the importance of long-term planning. This fact has been supported by a case study on strategic priority difference in short- and long-term consideration.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of chromatin and its fragments formed in the rat thymus during postirradiation autolysis and under the influence of DNA-ase and protease on DNP preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaeva, N.V.; Vodolazskaya, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    It has been shown that the thymus chromatin degradation 2-8 hr after irradiation is followed by its cross-splitting and accumulation of several types of fragments differing in the degree of DNA association with the protein. Participation of proteases in the formation of fragments is hardly probable. Acid DNAase is involved in the autolysis perhaps in his maximum later 6 hr after irradiation

  7. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200 GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Leavesley, Alisa; Lund, Alicia; Kaminker, Ilia; Han, Songi

    2016-03-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at higher magnetic fields (>3 T) and cryogenic temperatures (∼2-90 K) has gained enormous interest and seen major technological advances as an NMR signal enhancing technique. Still, the current state of the art DNP operation is not at a state at which sample and freezing conditions can be rationally chosen and the DNP performance predicted a priori, but relies on purely empirical approaches. An important step towards rational optimization of DNP conditions is to have access to DNP instrumental capabilities to diagnose DNP performance and elucidate DNP mechanisms. The desired diagnoses include the measurement of the "DNP power curve", i.e. the microwave (MW) power dependence of DNP enhancement, the "DNP spectrum", i.e. the MW frequency dependence of DNP enhancement, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, and the saturation and spectral diffusion properties of the EPR spectrum upon prolonged MW irradiation typical of continuous wave (CW) DNP, as well as various electron and nuclear spin relaxation parameters. Even basic measurements of these DNP parameters require versatile instrumentation at high magnetic fields not commercially available to date. In this article, we describe the detailed design of such a DNP instrument, powered by a solid-state MW source that is tunable between 193 and 201 GHz and outputs up to 140 mW of MW power. The quality and pathway of the transmitted and reflected MWs is controlled by a quasi-optics (QO) bridge and a corrugated waveguide, where the latter couples the MW from an open-space QO bridge to the sample located inside the superconducting magnet and vice versa. Crucially, the versatility of the solid-state MW source enables the automated acquisition of frequency swept DNP spectra, DNP power curves, the diagnosis of MW power and transmission, and frequency swept continuous wave (CW) and pulsed EPR experiments. The flexibility of the DNP instrument centered around the QO MW

  8. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Leavesley, Alisa; Lund, Alicia; Kaminker, Ilia; Han, Songi

    2016-03-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at higher magnetic fields (>3T) and cryogenic temperatures (∼ 2-90K) has gained enormous interest and seen major technological advances as an NMR signal enhancing technique. Still, the current state of the art DNP operation is not at a state at which sample and freezing conditions can be rationally chosen and the DNP performance predicted a priori, but relies on purely empirical approaches. An important step towards rational optimization of DNP conditions is to have access to DNP instrumental capabilities to diagnose DNP performance and elucidate DNP mechanisms. The desired diagnoses include the measurement of the "DNP power curve", i.e. the microwave (MW) power dependence of DNP enhancement, the "DNP spectrum", i.e. the MW frequency dependence of DNP enhancement, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, and the saturation and spectral diffusion properties of the EPR spectrum upon prolonged MW irradiation typical of continuous wave (CW) DNP, as well as various electron and nuclear spin relaxation parameters. Even basic measurements of these DNP parameters require versatile instrumentation at high magnetic fields not commercially available to date. In this article, we describe the detailed design of such a DNP instrument, powered by a solid-state MW source that is tunable between 193 and 201 GHz and outputs up to 140 mW of MW power. The quality and pathway of the transmitted and reflected MWs is controlled by a quasi-optics (QO) bridge and a corrugated waveguide, where the latter couples the MW from an open-space QO bridge to the sample located inside the superconducting magnet and vice versa. Crucially, the versatility of the solid-state MW source enables the automated acquisition of frequency swept DNP spectra, DNP power curves, the diagnosis of MW power and transmission, and frequency swept continuous wave (CW) and pulsed EPR experiments. The flexibility of the DNP instrument centered around the QO MW

  9. Intestinal absorption of dinitrophenyl-lysine and effect of immunization with dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Fumio; Shimura, Junko; Shimazaki, Shigeki; Hosoya, Norimasa

    1983-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of dinitrophenyl-lysine (DNP-lys) was studied with a special interest on the role of the immune system in the absorption of small molecules which are recognized as nonself. [ 3 H]-DNP- lys was rapidly absorbed by ligated intestinal loops in situ via a saturable and unique route. When [ 3 H]-DNP-lys was preincubated with the immume serum obtained from rats immunized with dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA), the [ 3 H]-DNP-lys absorption was depressed. The absorption of [ 3 H]-DNP-lys in DNP-BSA-immunized rats was depressed compared to the control. The results obtained suggest that the immune system play a role in avoiding the absorption of small molecules with antigenicity. (author)

  10. N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine--mediated heat-shock protein 70-2 expression is involved in metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengke Peng

    Full Text Available N,N'-Dinitrosopiperazine (DNP is invovled in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC development and metastasis, and it shows organ specificity to the nasopharyngeal epithelium. Herein, we demonstrate that DNP induces heat-shock protein (HSP 70-2 expression in NPC cells (6-10B at a non-cytotoxic concentration. DNP induced HSP70-2 expression in a dose- and time- dependent manner, but showed no effect on other HSP70 family members. Furthermore, DNP also increased HSP70-2 RNA transcription through directly binding to the hypoxia-responsive elements (HRE and heat shock elements (HSE located in the HSP70-2 promoter. DNP-mediated HSP70-2 expression might act through enhancing the transcription of HSP70-2 RNA. Importantly, DNP induced motility and invasion of 6-10B cells dose- and time-dependently, and DNP-mediated NPC metastasis was confirmed in nude mice, which showed high HSP70-2 expression in the metastatic tumor tissue. However, the motility and invasion of NPC cells that were stably transfected using short interfering RNA against HSP70-2 could not effectively induce DNP. These results indicate that DNP induces HSP70-2 expression through increasing HSP70-2 transcription, increases the motility and invasion of cells, and promotes NPC tumor metastasis. Therefore, DNP mediated HSP70-2 expression may be an important factor of NPC-high metastasis.

  11. Dinitrosopiperazine-Mediated Phosphorylated-Proteins Are Involved in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP with organ specificity for nasopharyngeal epithelium, is involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC metastasis, though its mechanism is unclear. To reveal the pathogenesis of DNP-induced metastasis, immunoprecipitation was used to identify DNP-mediated phosphoproteins. DNP-mediated NPC cell line (6-10B motility and invasion was confirmed. Twenty-six phosphoproteins were increased at least 1.5-fold following DNP exposure. Changes in the expression levels of selected phosphoproteins were verified by Western-blotting analysis. DNP treatment altered the phosphorylation of ezrin (threonine 567, vimentin (serine 55, stathmin (serine 25 and STAT3 (serine 727. Furthermore, it was shown that DNP-dependent metastasis is mediated in part through ezrin at threonine 567, as DNP-mediated metastasis was decreased when threonine 567 of ezrin was mutated. Strikingly, NPC metastatic tumors exhibited a higher expression of phosphorylated-ezrin at threonine 567 than the primary tumors. These findings provide novel insight into DNP-induced NPC metastasis and may contribute to a better understanding of the metastatic mechanisms of NPC tumors.

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_003454 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . ... nucleatum ATCC 25586] ... Length = 155 ... Query: 21 ... EKDIVITFNGIYGYEKQLRFIDEKLAEDGYSVVNIQY...PTVDDKIVEMTDKYIVPTIDEQV 80 ... EKDIVITFNGIYGYEKQLRFIDEKLAEDGYSVVNIQYPTVDDK...IVEMTDKYIVPTIDEQV Sbjct: 1 ... EKDIVITFNGIYGYEKQLRFIDEKLAEDGYSVVNIQYPTVDDKIVEMTDKYIVPTIDEQV 60 ... Query: 141 DNP

  13. Chief nursing officers' perceptions of the Doctorate of Nursing Practice degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Michelle L; Stanton, Marietta P

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives practice in a business environment, which requires a skill set that has traditionally not been included in advanced nursing curriculum. The Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP) essentials are designed to address this gap in education while maintaining the focus on advanced nursing practice and executive management competency. Current literature supports the appropriateness of the DNP with practice focus areas of advanced practice specialties and nursing leadership. Although certification and educational bodies, and some professional nursing organizations, have embraced the DNP as the terminal degree for non-research-focused nurses, there remains a gap in the literature in regards to the perceptions of validity of the DNP for nurse executives. The purpose of this capstone project was to investigate the perceptions of practicing chief nursing officers (CNOs) in the acute care setting regarding the application of the DNP degree for nurse leaders. Utilizing an online survey, specific perceptions investigated included application and appropriateness of the DNP in a business-based practice model and managing daily nursing operations. CNOs practicing in the acute care setting differed on their responses regarding whether the DNP should be the recommended or the required degree in CNO development programs. CNOs with tenure responded more positively to the perception that the DNP curricula contains advanced nursing knowledge content appropriate to nurse executive practice. Practicing CNOs in the acute care setting do perceive the DNP as an appropriate degree option for nurse executive roles at aggregate, system, and organizational levels. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microwave-gated dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornet, Aurélien; Pinon, Arthur; Jhajharia, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) has become a method of choice to enhance signals in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Recently, we have proposed to combine cross-polarization (CP) with D-DNP to provide high polarization P((13)C) in short build-up times. In this paper, we show...

  15. HUMORAL IMMUNE-RESPONSE TO 2,4-DINITROPHENYL KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN IN ANTIGEN-FREE, GERM-FREE AND CONVENTIONAL BALB/C MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, NA; PLOPLIS, VA

    The B cell immune response to 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) keyhole limpet hemocyanin was compared in antigen-free, germ-free and conventional BALB/c mice. The numbers of total and of DNP-specific IgM-, IgG- and IgA-secreting cells in the spleen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent plaque assays

  16. Just Care: Learning from and with Graduate Students in a Doctor of Nursing Practice Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquet, Elizabeth; Kazer, Meredith; Manister, Nancy; Lucas, Owen; Shaw, Michael; Madaffari, Valerie; Gannett, Cinthia

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Fairfield University, a Jesuit Carnegie Masters Level 1 University located in the Northeast, established its first doctoral-level program: the Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP). In a developing program such as the DNP, some of the most pressing concerns of current rhetoric and writing in the disciplines align and interact with the…

  17. A Comparison of the Democratic Security Policy in Colombia and Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    program. Republica de Colombia. Departamento Nacional de Planeacion , Porgrama de Desarrollo Alternativo, Documento CONPES 2734-DNP-UDA-UJS, Bogotá...Ministry of Defense, 2003. Republica de Colombia. “Departmento Nacional de Planeacion , Porgrama de Desarrollo Alternativo, Documento CONPES 2734-DNP

  18. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Douglas G.; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic peptide which lowers blood pressure via vasodilation. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) removes natriuretic peptides from the circulation, but whether DNP interacts with human NPR-C directly is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNP binds to NPR-C. ANP, BNP, CNP, and the NPR-C ligands AP-811 and cANP(4-23) displaced [ 125 I]-ANP from NPR-C with pM-to-nM K i values. DNP displaced [ 125 I]-ANP from NPR-C with nM potency, which represents the first direct demonstration of binding of DNP to human NPR-C. DNP showed high pM affinity for the GC-A receptor and no affinity for GC-B (K i > 1000 nM). DNP was nearly 10-fold more potent than ANP at stimulating cGMP production in GC-A expressing cells. Blockade of NPR-C might represent a novel therapeutic approach in augmenting the known beneficial actions of DNP in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure

  19. Analysis of protein oxidation in serum of fetal and newborn piglets and the influence of iron dextran on induction of protein carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were employed to evaluate serum biomarkers associated with protein oxidative stress and damage, to determine potential sources of metabolic stress in baby pigs. Protein carbonyls in serum were converted to dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatives with DNP-hydrazine, precipitated with TCA, extracted i...

  20. Role of p73 Dinucleotide Polymorphism in Prostate Cancer and p73 Protein Isoform Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Michael Carastro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Molecular markers for prostate cancer (PCa risks are currently lacking. Here we address the potential association of a dinucleotide polymorphism (DNP in exon 2 of the p73 gene with PCa risk/progression and discern any disruption of p73 protein isoforms levels in cells harboring a p73 DNP allele. Methods. We investigated the association between p73 DNP genotype and PCa risk/aggressiveness and survival by fitting logistic regression models in 1,292 incident cases and 682 controls. Results. Although we detected no association between p73 DNP and PCa risk, a significant inverse relationship between p73 DNP and PCa aggressiveness (AT/AT + GC/AT versus GC/GC, OR = 0.55, 95%Cl = 0.31–0.99 was detected. Also, p73 DNP is marginally associated with overall death (dominant model, HR = 0.76, 95%Cl = 0.57–1.00, P=0.053 as well as PCa specific death (HR = 0.69, 95%Cl = 0.45–1.06, P=0.09. Western blot analyses for p73 protein isoforms indicate that cells heterozygous for the p73 DNP have lower levels of ∆Np73 relative to TAp73 (P<0.001. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with an association between p73 DNP and low risk for PCa aggressiveness by increasing the expressed TAp73/∆Np73 protein isoform ratio.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF AFFINITY IN SERUM SAMPLES OF ANTIGEN-FREE, GERM-FREE AND CONVENTIONAL MICE AFTER HYPERIMMUNIZATION WITH 2,4-DINITROPHENYL KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN, USING SURFACE-PLASMON RESONANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAKKER, R; LASONDER, E; BOS, NA

    We previously investigated the primary and secondary responses and hyperimmunization to the T cell-dependent antigen 2,4-dinitrophenyl keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH) in antigen-free (AF), germ-free (GF) and conventional (CV) mice. Both the absolute and relative numbers of DNP-specific

  2. Efficiencies of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Gabapentin in the Management of Peripheral Neuropathy: Diabetic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Daoud, Eitedal M; El Gendy, Aliaa; Mourad, Hagar H; Mannaa, Fathia A; Saber, Maha M

    2018-03-12

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the highly occurred complication of diabetes mellitus; it has been defined as an event of peripheral nerve dysfunction characterized by pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and paraesthesia. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of neuropathy in diabetic rats. The used animals were divided into the following groups: negative control, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats with peripheral neuropathy (DNP) and DNP treated with gabapentin or with LLLT. Behavioral tests were carried out through hotplate test for the determination of pain sensations and the Morris water maze test for spatial reference memory evaluation. Blood samples were collected at the end of treatment for biochemical determinations. In the current study, the latency of hind-paw lick decreased significantly when DNP are treated with gabapentin or LLLT. The Morris water maze test showed that LLLT treatment improved memory that deteriorated in DNP more than gabapentin do. The results of the biochemical study revealed that LLLT could not affect the level of beta-endorphin that decreased in DNP but significantly decreased S100B that rose in DNP. PGE2 and cytokines IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α showed significant increase in DNP compared with control group. The gabapentin administration or LLLT application significantly reversed the levels of the mentioned markers towards the normal values of the controls. Levels of serum MDA and nitric oxide increased significantly in the DNP but rGSH showed significant decrease. These markers were improved significantly when the DNP were treated with gabapentin or LLLT. The treatment with gabapentin or LLLT significantly decreased the raised level in total cholesterol in DNP but could not decrease the elevated level of triglycerides, while LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in DNP treated with gabapentin but not affected by LLLT. Values of serum alanine

  3. Bis-gadolinium complexes for solid effect and cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Monu; Corzilius, Bjoern [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie und Biomolekulares Magnetresonanzzentrum (BMRZ) (Germany); Qi, Mian; Godt, Adelheid [Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Centrum fuer Molekulare Materialien (CM2), Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany)

    2017-04-03

    High-spin complexes act as polarizing agents (PAs) for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy and feature promising aspects towards biomolecular DNP. We present a study on bis(Gd-chelate)s which enable cross effect (CE) DNP owing to spatial confinement of two dipolar-coupled electron spins. Their well-defined Gd..Gd distances in the range of 1.2-3.4 nm allowed us to elucidate the Gd..Gd distance dependence of the DNP mechanism and NMR signal enhancement. We found that Gd..Gd distances above 2.1 nm result in solid effect DNP while distances between 1.2 and 2.1 nm enable CE for {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N nuclear spins. We compare 263 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with the obtained DNP field profiles and discuss possible CE matching conditions within the high-spin system and the influence of dipolar broadening of the EPR signal. Our findings foster the understanding of the CE mechanism and the design of high-spin PAs for specific applications of DNP. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization at 9.4 T with a 30 mW microwave source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can provide large signal enhancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by transfer of polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. We discuss several aspects of DNP experiments at 9.4 T (400 MHz resonant frequency for (1)H, 264 GHz for electron spins in organic radicals) in the 7-80K temperature range, using a 30 mW, frequency-tunable microwave source and a quasi-optical microwave bridge for polarization control and low-loss microwave transmission. In experiments on frozen glycerol/water doped with nitroxide radicals, DNP signal enhancements up to a factor of 80 are observed (relative to (1)H NMR signals with thermal equilibrium spin polarization). The largest sensitivity enhancements are observed with a new triradical dopant, DOTOPA-TEMPO. Field modulation with a 10 G root-mean-squared amplitude during DNP increases the nuclear spin polarizations by up to 135%. Dependencies of (1)H NMR signal amplitudes, nuclear spin relaxation times, and DNP build-up times on the dopant and its concentration, temperature, microwave power, and modulation frequency are reported and discussed. The benefits of low-temperature DNP can be dramatic: the (1)H spin polarization is increased approximately 1000-fold at 7 K with DNP, relative to thermal polarization at 80K. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-Temperature Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at 9.4 Tesla With a 30 Milliwatt Microwave Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can provide large signal enhancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by transfer of polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. We discuss several aspects of DNP experiments at 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz resonant frequency for 1H, 264 GHz for electron spins in organic radicals) in the 7–80 K temperature range, using a 30 mW, frequency-tunable microwave source and a quasi-optical microwave bridge for polarization control and low-loss microwave transmission. In experiments on frozen glycerol/water doped with nitroxide radicals, DNP signal enhancements up to a factor of 80 are observed (relative to 1H NMR signals with thermal equilibrium spin polarization). The largest sensitivity enhancements are observed with a new triradical dopant, DOTOPA-TEMPO. Field modulation with a 10 G root-mean-squared amplitude during DNP increases the nuclear spin polarizations by up to 135%. Dependencies of 1H NMR signal amplitudes, nuclear spin relaxation times, and DNP build-up times on the dopant and its concentration, temperature, microwave power, and modulation frequency are reported and discussed. The benefits of low-temperature DNP can be dramatic: the 1H spin polarization is increased approximately 1000-fold at 7 K with DNP, relative to thermal polarization at 80 K. PMID:20392658

  6. The evolution of a doctor of nursing practice capstone process: programmatic revisions to improve the quality of student projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F; Raterink, Ginger

    2013-01-01

    The past several years have seen explosive growth in the number of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree programs offered by colleges of nursing in the United States. Through a process of trial and error since 2005, the faculty at the University of Colorado, College of Nursing, have revised the course structure and procedures related to the DNP capstone project to improve the quality and usefulness of these student projects. Efforts have focused on educating and involving all nursing faculty in the DNP capstone process, distinguishing between competencies for our PhD and DNP projects, clearly aligning the DNP capstone project with quality improvement methods rather than with research, working with our campus institutional review board to clarify regulatory review requirements for quality improvement studies, developing a review committee to oversee DNP students' projects, and structuring our sequential course requirements to encourage students' professional presentations and publications. Our current capstone process reflects 7 years of iterative work, which we summarize in this article in hopes that it will help institutions currently in the process of developing a DNP program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Approaches to a markedly increased sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay for thyrotropin-releasing hormone by derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, T J; Klootwijk, W [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Internal Medicine 3 and Clinical Endocrinology

    1981-04-03

    Studies on the specificity of the antisera obtained suggested that the sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay for TRH may be increased substantially by prior conversion of the hormone into dinitrophenylene derivatives. To test this possibility, several TRH-Dnp derivatives were prepared by reaction of TRH with equimolar amounts of 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene yielding N/sup im/-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)TRH. This intermediate was reacted with ammonia, histamine, tyramine or N/sup ..cap alpha../-acetyl-lysine methyl ester (N/sup ..cap alpha../Ac-LysOMe) to yield the respective unsubstituted and N-substituted N/sup im/-(5-amino-2,4-dinitrophenyl)TRH derivatives: TRH-Dnp-NH/sub 2/, TRH-Dnp-histamine, TRH-Dnp-tyramine and TRH-Dnp-N/sup ..cap alpha../Ac-Lys-OMe. N/sup im/-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl)TRH was prepared similarly by reaction of TRH with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The products were isolated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and were found to be pure by HPLC and thin-layer chromatography using several solvent systems. TRH-Dnp-histamine and TRH-Dnp-tyramine were labelled with /sup 125/I using the chloramine-T method. The labelled products were purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromography on SP-Sephadex and adsorption chromatography on Sephadex LH-20, respectively, and were found by HPLC to be pure.

  8. Utilizing Team Debate to Increase Student Abilities for Mentoring and Critical Appraisal of Global Health Care in Doctor of Nursing Practice Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Naomi; Farnum, Karen; Beauchesne, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although graduates of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs are expected to demonstrate competence in advanced clinical scholarship, mentoring, and leadership, little is published about how team debate on a global health care topic supports DNP student learning and skill development. This article reports on an illuminative evaluation of DNP student learning experiences of team debate in the context of a 2-week international school program in Ireland. A focused illuminative evaluation approach involving a cohort of seven DNP students, who had participated in an international school team debate, was used. Data were collected using a Web-based qualitative questionnaire designed to elicit in-depth reflective accounts of DNP students' learning experiences. Content analysis revealed that team debate on a global health care topic enhanced learning in relation to fostering critical thinking and critical appraisal skills; encouraging teamwork; providing opportunities for mentoring, relationship building, and socialization into profession; and, from the DNP student perspective, increasing knowledge and global understanding of health care. This evaluation provides insights for nurse educators into the benefits of introducing team debate as a group activity to enhancing scholarly inquiry and mentoring skills of DNP students. Further research to evaluate team debate in other nurse education programs is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of motion on dynamic nuclear polarization: A new theoretical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffino, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is a magnetic resonance technique which uses two different radiation sources: a radiofrequency field and microwave field to radiate nuclei and electrons, respectively. The DNP experiment probes the nature of the interaction between nuclei and electrons. The maximum of the resonance signal from the nucleus is plotted as a function of microwave frequency for the case of the microwaves on and off. The DNP signal is the ratio of these two signals and is termed the enhancement of the nuclear signal. This thesis considers the theory of the DNP signal based on the density matrix formulation of the Stochastic Liouville Equation, which incorporates the spin-spin interactions, spin-field interactions and a stochastic dynamics process which modulates these interactions. The case of one electron coupled to one spin one-half nucleus is considered. Such a formulation has never been developed. The thesis demonstrates that previous partial theories have attempted to incorporate dynamics have been incorrect. This theoretical development demonstrates, for the first time, how dynamics affects the DNP lineshapes. This theory predicts that DNP spectra change smoothly from the no motion to the fast motion region, and reproduces the known analytic answers in both the no-motion and the fast-motion limit. The most important observation of the results is that a DNP signal for a motional rate in the intermediate motional region looks like a superposition of a no-motion and fast-motion signal

  10. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization and other magnetic ideas at EPFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Wang, Shutao; Mammoli, Daniele; Buratto, Roberto; Salvi, Nicola; Segaw, Takuya F; Vitzthum, Veronika; Miéville, Pascal; Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Perez-Linde, Angel J; Carnevale, Diego; Jannin, Sami; Caporinia, Marc; Ulzega, Simone; Rey, Martial; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can provide a wealth of information, it often suffers from a lack of sensitivity. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) provides a way to increase the polarization and hence the signal intensities in NMR spectra by transferring the favourable electron spin polarization of paramagnetic centres to the surrounding nuclear spins through appropriate microwave irradiation. In our group at EPFL, two complementary DNP techniques are under investigation: the combination of DNP with magic angle spinning at temperatures near 100 K ('MAS-DNP'), and the combination of DNP at 1.2 K with rapid heating followed by the transfer of the sample to a high-resolution magnet ('dissolution DNP'). Recent applications of MAS-DNP to surfaces, as well as new developments of magnetization transfer of (1)H to (13)C at 1.2 K prior to dissolution will illustrate the work performed in our group. A second part of the paper will give an overview of some 'non-enhanced' activities of our laboratory in liquid- and solid-state NMR.

  11. Carprofen-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of the colonic mucosa of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Lynne A; McConnico, Rebecca S; Morgan, Timothy W; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Hosgood, Giselle

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 μg/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure.

  12. The ethics curriculum for doctor of nursing practice programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold; Smith, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    Ethical questions dealt with by nurses who have Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees include traditional bioethical questions, but also business and legal ethics. Doctorally prepared nurses are increasingly in positions to make ethical decisions rather than to respond to decisions made by others. The traditional master's-degree advanced practice nursing curriculum does not address the extended expertise and decision-making skills needed by DNP practitioners as they face these new types of ethical dilemmas. We propose that a curricular framework that addresses clinical, research, business, and legal ethics is needed by all DNP students.

  13. Frozen Acrylamide Gels as Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Matrices.

    KAUST Repository

    Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Berruyer, Pierrick; Gajan, David; Basset, Jean-Marie; Lesage, Anne; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier; Emsley, Lyndon

    2017-01-01

    We show that aqueous acrylamide gels can be used to provide dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancements of around 200 at 9.4 T and 100 K. The enhancements are shown to increase with cross linker concentration and low concentrations of the AMUPol biradical. We show that this DNP matrix can be used in situations where conventional incipient wetness methods fail, such as to obtain DNP surface enhanced NMR spectra from inorganic nanoparticles. In particular, we obtain 113Cd spectra from CdTe-COOH NPs in minutes. The spectra clearly indicate a highly-disordered cadmium rich surface.

  14. Doctor of Nursing Practice: The Role of the Advanced Practice Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Deborah Kirk; Polancich, Shea

    2015-11-01

    To explore the evolution and emerging roles of the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Advanced Practice Nurse (APN). Published peer reviewed literature, cancer-related professional resources, and Web-based resources. The DNP education has prepared the APN for process improvement initiatives, providing quality care, and evidence-based practice translation, which are critical with the emerging trends in this complex health care environment. DNP-prepared APNs have the opportunity to impact oncology care across the cancer trajectory, in various settings, and in various innovative roles as entrepreneurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frozen Acrylamide Gels as Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Matrices.

    KAUST Repository

    Viger-Gravel, Jasmine

    2017-05-24

    We show that aqueous acrylamide gels can be used to provide dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancements of around 200 at 9.4 T and 100 K. The enhancements are shown to increase with cross linker concentration and low concentrations of the AMUPol biradical. We show that this DNP matrix can be used in situations where conventional incipient wetness methods fail, such as to obtain DNP surface enhanced NMR spectra from inorganic nanoparticles. In particular, we obtain 113Cd spectra from CdTe-COOH NPs in minutes. The spectra clearly indicate a highly-disordered cadmium rich surface.

  16. Choroidal thickness alterations in diabetic nephropathy patients with early or no diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasarac, Can; Yigit, Yavuz; Sengul, Erkan; Sakalar, Yildirim Beyazit

    2018-04-01

    To assess changes in choroidal thickness (CT) in diabetes patients with and without diabetic nephropathy using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Thirty-five type 2 diabetes patients with a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DNP) in nephrology department and 35 type 2 diabetes patients without nephropathy (non-DNP) were included in our prospective study consecutively. The control group comprised 34 healthy individuals. CT measurements were recorded under the fovea and at 1500 µm from the foveal center in the nasal and temporal sides. The study parameters also included age, refractive error, axial length, intraocular pressure, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria amount. The subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness was noted to be thinner in patients with DNP compared with non-DNP and normal subjects (p diabetic patients when diabetic nephropathy accompanies diabetes mellitus.

  17. Polarisation properties of irradiated ammonia (NH3 and ND3) at 1 K and 25 kG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riechert, H.

    1982-11-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) of irradiated ammonia was examined in some detail at 1 K and 25 kG. In continuation of earlier studies conducted in Bonn, it was attempted to gain information about the prevailing mechanism of DNP in this material. Therefore the frequency dependence of DNP in NH 3 , of deuterons and unsubstituted protons in ND 3 , as well as the polarising time tau and the relaxation time T 1 in NH 3 were measured. Also the shape of the deuteron polarisation signal observed in ND 3 is discussed. The polarisation measurements in ND 3 rule out the equal spin temperature (EST) behaviour of proton and deuteron DNP that is observed in most of the currently used target materials. It is attempted to explain the observations with a differential solid state effect model. Results of calculations for NH 3 and ND 3 incorporating the measured EPR-spectra are presented. (orig.)

  18. Recommendations for Creating a Resource Management System to Support the Colombian Army in a New Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    World Military and Social Expenditures. 1991. 4. Republica de Colombia, Departamento Nacional de Planeacion , Documento DNP-2570-UIP-MinHacienda...Center, The Planning. Programmina and Budgeting System (PPBS), Technical Report, 1991. Departamento Nacional de Planeacion de Colombia, Plan ouinuenal

  19. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  20. Using implementation science as the core of the doctor of nursing practice inquiry project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    New knowledge in health care needs to be implemented for continuous practice improvement. Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs are designed to increase clinical practice knowledge and leadership skills of graduates. This article describes an implementation science course developed in a DNP program focused on advancing graduates' capacity for health systems leadership. Curriculum and course development are presented, and the course is mapped to depict how the course objectives and assignments were aligned with DNP Essentials. Course modules with rational are described, and examples of how students implemented assignments are provided. The challenges of integrating this course into the life of the school are discussed as well as steps taken to develop faculty for this capstone learning experience. This article describes a model of using implementation science to provide DNP students an experience in designing and managing an evidence-based practice change project. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decomposition of nuclear chromatin of the rat thymus within the postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodolazskaya, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    Fractional composition of DNP histones and of salt extracts of the thymus of rats has been studied 2 to 8 hours after γ-irradiation with 600r (Co 60 ). Simultaneously, histones/DNA ratio has been determined in the nucleoprotein and in its salt-soluble fragments after fractionation of the salt extracts on phosphatecellulose. It has been shown that 2 to 4 hours following the exposure, the histone/DNA ratio in DNP preparations does not vary from the control. Subsequently, however, it slightly decreases. It has been found that the postirradiation DNP decomposition is accompanied by the formation of fragments which, in addition to a free DNA, comprise complexes with the decreased and increased histone/DNA ratio as compared to the original DNP

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  3. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  4. Dynamic nuclear polarization of nucleic acid with endogenously bound manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, Patricia; Kaushik, Monu; Richter, Diane; Vogel, Marc; Suess, Beatrix; Corzilius, Björn

    2015-01-01

    We report the direct dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of 13 C nuclei of a uniformly [ 13 C, 15 N]-labeled, paramagnetic full-length hammerhead ribozyme (HHRz) complex with Mn 2+ where the enhanced polarization is fully provided by the endogenously bound metal ion and no exogenous polarizing agent is added. A 13 C enhancement factor of ε = 8 was observed by intra-complex DNP at 9.4 T. In contrast, “conventional” indirect and direct DNP experiments were performed using AMUPol as polarizing agent where we obtained a 1 H enhancement factor of ε ≈ 250. Comparison with the diamagnetic (Mg 2+ ) HHRz complex shows that the presence of Mn 2+ only marginally influences the (DNP-enhanced) NMR properties of the RNA. Furthermore two-dimensional correlation spectra ( 15 N– 13 C and 13 C– 13 C) reveal structural inhomogeneity in the frozen, amorphous state indicating the coexistence of several conformational states. These demonstrations of intra-complex DNP using an endogenous metal ion as well as DNP-enhanced MAS NMR of RNA in general yield important information for the development of new methods in structural biology

  5. Activated microglia in the spinal cord underlies diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Couture, Réjean; Hong, Yanguo

    2014-04-05

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common chronic medical condition. Approximately 30% of diabetic patients develop neuropathic pain, manifested as spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Hyperglycemia induces metabolic changes in peripheral tissues and enhances oxidative stress in nerve fibers. The damages and subsequent reactive inflammation affect structural properties of Schwann cells and axons leading to the release of neuropoietic mediators, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-nociceptive mediators. Therefore, diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) shares some histological features and underlying mechanisms with traumatic neuropathy. DNP displays, however, other distinct features; for instance, sensory input to the spinal cord decreases rather than increasing in diabetic patients. Consequently, development of central sensitization in DNP involves mechanisms that are distinct from traumatic neuropathic pain. In DNP, the contribution of spinal cord microglia activation to central sensitization and pain processes is emerging as a new concept. Besides inflammation in the periphery, hyperglycemia and the resulting production of reactive oxygen species affect the local microenvironment in the spinal cord. All these alterations could trigger resting and sessile microglia to the activated phenotype. In turn, microglia synthesize and release pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroactive molecules capable of inducing hyperactivity of spinal nociceptive neurons. Hence, it is imperative to elucidate glial mechanisms underlying DNP for the development of effective therapeutic agents. The present review highlights the recent developments regarding the contribution of spinal microglia as compelling target for the treatment of DNP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic nuclear polarization of nucleic acid with endogenously bound manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenk, Patricia [University of Tübingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center and Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy (Germany); Kaushik, Monu; Richter, Diane [Goethe University, Institute of Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry und Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ) (Germany); Vogel, Marc; Suess, Beatrix [Technical University Darmstadt, Department of Biology (Germany); Corzilius, Björn, E-mail: corzilius@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University, Institute of Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry und Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ) (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    We report the direct dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of {sup 13}C nuclei of a uniformly [{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N]-labeled, paramagnetic full-length hammerhead ribozyme (HHRz) complex with Mn{sup 2+} where the enhanced polarization is fully provided by the endogenously bound metal ion and no exogenous polarizing agent is added. A {sup 13}C enhancement factor of ε = 8 was observed by intra-complex DNP at 9.4 T. In contrast, “conventional” indirect and direct DNP experiments were performed using AMUPol as polarizing agent where we obtained a {sup 1}H enhancement factor of ε ≈ 250. Comparison with the diamagnetic (Mg{sup 2+}) HHRz complex shows that the presence of Mn{sup 2+} only marginally influences the (DNP-enhanced) NMR properties of the RNA. Furthermore two-dimensional correlation spectra ({sup 15}N–{sup 13}C and {sup 13}C–{sup 13}C) reveal structural inhomogeneity in the frozen, amorphous state indicating the coexistence of several conformational states. These demonstrations of intra-complex DNP using an endogenous metal ion as well as DNP-enhanced MAS NMR of RNA in general yield important information for the development of new methods in structural biology.

  7. Multiple metabolic hits converge on CD36 as novel mediator of tubular epithelial apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Susztak

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DNP is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of kidney failure. While DNP manifests with albuminuria and diabetic glomerulopathy, its progression correlates best with tubular epithelial degeneration (TED and interstitial fibrosis. However, mechanisms leading to TED in DNP remain poorly understood.We found that expression of scavenger receptor CD36 coincided with proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC apoptosis and TED specifically in human DNP. High glucose stimulated cell surface expression of CD36 in PTECs. CD36 expression was necessary and sufficient to mediate PTEC apoptosis induced by glycated albumins (AGE-BSA and CML-BSA and free fatty acid palmitate through sequential activation of src kinase, and proapoptotic p38 MAPK and caspase 3. In contrast, paucity of expression of CD36 in PTECs in diabetic mice with diabetic glomerulopathy was associated with normal tubular epithelium and the absence of tubular apoptosis. Mouse PTECs lacked CD36 and were resistant to AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis. Recombinant expression of CD36 in mouse PTECs conferred susceptibility to AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis.Our findings suggest a novel role for CD36 as an essential mediator of proximal tubular apoptosis in human DNP. Because CD36 expression was induced by glucose in PTECs, and because increased CD36 mediated AGE-BSA-, CML-BSA-, and palmitate-induced PTEC apoptosis, we propose a two-step metabolic hit model for TED, a hallmark of progression in DNP.

  8. Functional antigen binding by the defective B cells of CBA/N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, H; Merchant, B; Lizzio, E F; Inman, J K

    1982-01-01

    CBA/N mice have an X-linked B cell defect which prevents them from responding to nonmitogenic thymic independent (TI-2) antigens such as dinitrophenylated DNP-Ficoll (1,2). The F1 male progeny of CBA/N female mice express the same defect. Spleen cell suspensions from such defective mice (CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 males) could not respond to DNP-Ficoll following in vitro immunization and subsequent transfer into irradiated, syngeneic, F1 male recipients as expected. In contrast, normal CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 female spleen cells could respond and effect a "rescue"; they mounted strong plaque-forming cell responses 7 days after in vitro exposure to DNP-Ficoll and subsequent transfer into irradiated F1 male recipients. Defective F1 male spleen cells, however, could bind significant quantities of 125I-DNP-Ficoll after in vitro exposure. Extensive washing of these spleen cells could not reverse this binding. Such DNP-Ficoll-exposed and washed F1 male spleen cells could, after transfer, aid normal untreated F1 female cells in their rescue function. The defective F1 male spleen cells could convey immunogenic quantities of DNP-Ficoll to the "rescuing" F1 female cells. Mitomycin treatment of F1 male cells did not interfere with their conveyor function. Goat anti-mouse mu serum impeded the passive antigen conveyor function of defective F1 male cells as did prior exposure to high concentrations of free DNP hapten. Our data support the view that the B cell defect of CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 male mice does not relate to antigen binding, but rather to an inability to be effectively triggered by certain cell-bound polymeric antigens.

  9. Being in control? A thematic content analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with 2,4-dinitrophenol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Neha Prasad; Vargo, Elisabeth Julie; Petróczi, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound with multiple industrial purposes. Currently unlicensed for human consumption, it is used by the gym-going population for drastic, short-term body fat loss. Nonetheless, physiological mechanisms can lead to potentially fatal hyperthermia. Reported fatal incidents have caused concern and highlighted the need for intervention. Understanding decision-making leading to 2,4-DNP use alongside the perceived outgroup attitudes is vital to forming effective harm minimisation policies targeting current and potential users. First-hand accounts from this elusive population are scarce. Fourteen novel and experienced users (13 male, 1 female) were recruited via "snowballing" techniques. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, comprising 28 questions. Thematic content analysis was conducted using 37 codes. Four characteristic themes emerged: 1. Users considered the Internet to be a crucial multifunctional resource directly impacting their 2,4-DNP use. 2. Users "respected" 2,4-DNP, proactively taking harm reduction measures. 3. Attitudinal polarisation towards 2,4-DNP within the gym-going community was consistent in all accounts. 4. Users perceived outgroup populations to have inherently negative attitudes towards their use. These themes fell under the all-encompassing theme of "being in control". For the first time, this study offers a rich detail of attitudes toward 2,4-DNP use by giving a collective voice to users. The element of control over every aspect of the users' life appears to be a significant contributor to the successful risk-management of 2,4-DNP use. In the absence of an established safe upper limit and effective regulatory control, education is critical to harm minimisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR at 187 GHz/284 MHz using an Extended Interaction Klystron amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Thomas F; Dannatt, Hugh R W; Barrow, Nathan S; Watts, Anthony; Brown, Steven P; Newton, Mark E; Dupree, Ray

    2016-04-01

    A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer which uses a 187 GHz (corresponding to (1)H NMR frequency of 284 MHz) Extended Interaction Klystron (EIK) amplifier as the microwave source is briefly described. Its performance is demonstrated for a biomolecule (bacteriorhodopsin), a pharmaceutical, and surface functionalised silica. The EIK is very compact and easily incorporated into an existing spectrometer. The bandwidth of the amplifier is sufficient that it obviates the need for a sweepable magnetic field, once set, for all commonly used radicals. The variable power (CW or pulsed) output from the EIK is transmitted to the DNP-NMR probe using a quasi-optic system with a high power isolator and a corrugated waveguide which feeds the microwaves into the DNP-NMR probe. Curved mirrors inside the probe project the microwaves down the axis of the MAS rotor, giving a very efficient system such that maximum DNP enhancement is achieved with less than 3 W output from the microwave source. The DNP-NMR probe operates with a sample temperature down to 90K whilst spinning at 8 kHz. Significant enhancements, in excess of 100 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane (bR in PM), are shown along with spectra which are enhanced by ≈25 with respect to room temperature, for both the pharmaceutical furosemide and surface functionalised silica. These enhancements allow hitherto prohibitively time consuming experiments to be undertaken. The power at which the DNP enhancement in bR in PM saturates does not change significantly between 90K and 170 K even though the enhancement drops by a factor of ≈11. As the DNP build up time decreases by a factor 3 over this temperature range, the reduction in T1n is presumably a significant contribution to the drop in enhancement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Free Radical Imaging Using In Vivo Dynamic Nuclear Polarization-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Hideo; Hyodo, Fuminori

    2015-01-01

    Redox reactions that generate free radical intermediates are essential to metabolic processes, and their intermediates can produce reactive oxygen species, which may promote diseases related to oxidative stress. The development of an in vivo electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and its imaging enables us noninvasive and direct measurement of in vivo free radical reactions in living organisms. The dynamic nuclear polarization magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI), also called PEDRI or OMRI, is also a new imaging method for observing free radical species in vivo. The spatiotemporal resolution of free radical imaging with DNP-MRI is comparable with that in MRI, and each of the radical species can be distinguished in the spectroscopic images by changing the frequency or magnetic field of ESR irradiation. Several kinds of stable nitroxyl radicals were used as spin probes to detect in vivo redox reactions. The signal decay of nitroxyl probes, which is determined with in vivo DNP-MRI, reflects the redox status under oxidative stress, and the signal decay is suppressed by prior administration of antioxidants. In addition, DNP-MRI can also visualize various intermediate free radicals from the intrinsic redox molecules. This noninvasive method, in vivo DNP-MRI, could become a useful tool for investigating the mechanism of oxidative injuries in animal disease models and the in vivo effects of antioxidant drugs. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal performance enhancement in nanofluids containing diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaqing; Yu Wei; Li Yang

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluids, nanoparticle suspensions prepared by dispersing nanoscale particles in a base fluid, have been gaining interest lately due to their potential to greatly outperform traditional thermal transport liquids. Diamond has the highest thermal transport capacity in nature and diamond particles are often used as filler in mixtures for upgrading the performance of a matrix. It is reasonable to expect that the addition of diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) would lead to thermal performance enhancement in a base fluid. In this study, homogeneous and stable nanofluids composed of DNPs as the inclusions and a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as base fluid have been prepared. Acid mixtures of perchloric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid were employed to purify and tailor the DNPs to eliminate impurities and to enhance their dispersibilty. Ultrasound and the alkalinity of solution are beneficial to the deaggregation of the soft DNP aggregations. The thermal conductivity enhancement of the DNP nanofluids increases with DNP loading and the thermal conductivity enhancement is more than 18.0% for a nanofluid at a DNP volume fraction of 0.02. Viscosity measurements show that the DNP nanofluids demonstrate Newtonian behaviour, and the viscosity significantly decreases with temperature. With increasing volume fraction of DNPs, the convective heat transfer coefficient increases first, and then decreases with a further increase in the volume fraction of DNPs. The nanofluid with a volume fraction of 0.005 has optimal overall thermal performance.

  13. Evaluation of Baffle Fixes Film up Flow Sludge Blanket Filtration (BFUSBF System in Treatment of Wastewaters from Phenol and 2,4-Dinitrophenol Using Daphnia Magna Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Ghannadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol and nitrophenol are common compounds found in different types of industrial wastewater known as serious threats to human health and natural environment. In this study, Daphnia magna was used to evaluate the effectiveness of "baffle fixes film up flow sludge blanket filtration" (BFUSBF system in elimination of phenolic compounds from water. Methods: D. magna cultures were used as toxicity index of phenol and 2,4-DNP mixtures after treatment by a pilot BFUSBF system which consisted of baffle in anoxic section and biofilm in aerobic sections. Initial concentrations were 312 mg/L phenol and 288 mg/L 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP. Results: Bioassay tests showed that D. magna was influenced by the toxicity of phenol and 2,4 DNP mixtures. The comparison between the toxicity of initial phenol and 2,4-DNP mixtures and the output toxic unit (TU derived from BFUSBF treatment system showed that the TU of the effluent from BFUSBF reactor was much lower than that of the solution that entered the reactor. Conclusion: Based on the acute toxicity test, BFUSBF process could reduce phenol and 2,4-DNP in aqueous solutions. Therefore, it is possible to use BFUSBF process as an appropriate treatment option for wastewaters containing phenolic compounds.

  14. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Expression of reductases in continuous mammal cell cultures and its significance for the activation of nitroaromatics shown for the example of 1.6 dinitropyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, U.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of the work was to establish the metabolism of 1,3- and 1,6-DNP in intact cells. This gave rise to the following questions. What metabolites are formed in cell lines with different enzyme outfits? What influence does the induction of P450 have on the metabolism of the two nitroaromates? Does the metabolism found in the different test cell lines permit any conclusions as to the activating mechanism of 1,6- and 1,3-DNP. In the second part these test cell lines were studied with respect to the expression of the reductases that might be involved in the metabolism of aromates. The following questions were of focal interest: Are cytochrome reductase, DT diaphorase and xanthine-oxidase expressed in the cell lines? If so, to what extent? Can these enzymes be induced in the test cell lines? In the last part the enzymes that reduce 1,6-DNP to gene-toxic products were identified. This required clarifying the following: What role do the above-mentioned reductases play in the activation of 1,6-DNP in individual cell lines? Are there other enzymes responsible for the activation of 1,6-DNP? (MG) [de

  16. Many-body kinetics of dynamic nuclear polarization by the cross effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabanov, A.; Wiśniewski, D.; Raimondi, F.; Lesanovsky, I.; Köckenberger, W.

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is an out-of-equilibrium method for generating nonthermal spin polarization which provides large signal enhancements in modern diagnostic methods based on nuclear magnetic resonance. A particular instance is cross-effect DNP, which involves the interaction of two coupled electrons with the nuclear spin ensemble. Here we develop a theory for this important DNP mechanism and show that the nonequilibrium nuclear polarization buildup is effectively driven by three-body incoherent Markovian dissipative processes involving simultaneous state changes of two electrons and one nucleus. We identify different parameter regimes for effective polarization transfer and discuss under which conditions the polarization dynamics can be simulated by classical kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Our theoretical approach allows simulations of the polarization dynamics on an individual spin level for ensembles consisting of hundreds of nuclear spins. The insight obtained by these simulations can be used to find optimal experimental conditions for cross-effect DNP and to design tailored radical systems that provide optimal DNP efficiency.

  17. Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Zuo, Shu-Rong; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-04-10

    Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent.

  18. Effect of Schizonepeta tenuifolia extract on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, T Y; Jeong, H J; Jun, S M; Chae, H J; Kim, H R; Baek, S H; Kim, H M

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (STAE) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. STAE inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in rats dose-dependently. STAE also inhibited plasma histamine levels induced by compound 48/80. STAE inhibited local allergic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. In addition, STAE does-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. However, STAE had a significant enhancing effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production from RPMC. These results indicate that STAE inhibits immediate-type hypersensitivity and suggest that STAE can selectively activate the TNF-alpha production from RPMC.

  19. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  20. Academic and Institutional Review Board Collaboration to Ensure Ethical Conduct of Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jan M; Conley, Virginia; Williams, Janet K; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Countryman, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Navigating the regulations to protect human subjects and private health information for Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) projects can be a formidable task for students, faculty, and the institutional review board (IRB). Key stakeholders from the University of Iowa College of Nursing and the Human Subjects Office developed a standardized process for DNP students to follow, using a decision algorithm, a student orientation to the human subjects review process conducted by faculty and IRB chairs and staff, and a brief Human Subjects Research Determination form. Over 2 years, 109 students completed the process, and 96.3% of their projects were deemed not to be human subjects research. Every student submitted documentation of adherence to the standardized process. Less time was spent by students, faculty, and the IRB in preparing and processing review requests. The interprofessional collaboration resulted in a streamlined process for the timely review of DNP projects. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Instrumentation for cryogenic magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization using 90L of liquid nitrogen per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Brice J; Pahng, Seong Ho; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L; Rand, Peter W; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Choi, Eric J; Barnes, Alexander B

    2017-10-01

    Cryogenic sample temperatures can enhance NMR sensitivity by extending spin relaxation times to improve dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and by increasing Boltzmann spin polarization. We have developed an efficient heat exchanger with a liquid nitrogen consumption rate of only 90L per day to perform magic-angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 85K. In this heat exchanger implementation, cold exhaust gas from the NMR probe is returned to the outer portion of a counterflow coil within an intermediate cooling stage to improve cooling efficiency of the spinning and variable temperature gases. The heat exchange within the counterflow coil is calculated with computational fluid dynamics to optimize the heat transfer. Experimental results using the novel counterflow heat exchanger demonstrate MAS DNP signal enhancements of 328±3 at 81±2K, and 276±4 at 105±2K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of oxidised proteins in the matrix of rice leaf mitochondria by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Askerlund, P.; Bykova, N.V.

    2004-01-01

    .2 mM CuSO4 for 10 min at room temperature). The oxidised proteins in both samples were tagged with dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP), which forms a covalent bond with carbonyl groups. The DNP-tagged proteins were immunoprecipitated using anti-DNP antibodies and digested with trypsin. The mixture...... of peptides was analysed by nano-HPLC coupled online to an ESI-Quad-TOF mass spectrometer. The peptides were separated by stepwise ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse phase chromatography (2D-LC), and analysed by MS/MS. Proteins were identified by un-interpreted fragment ion database searches...... blots showed that neither the isolation of mitochondria, nor their subfractionation introduced carbonyl groups. We therefore conclude that a number of proteins are oxidised in the matrix of rice leaf mitochondria in vivo and further identify a group of proteins that are particularly susceptible to mild...

  3. Dynamic nuclear polarization by frequency modulation of a tunable gyrotron of 260GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dongyoung; Soundararajan, Murari; Cuanillon, Philippe; Braunmueller, Falk; Alberti, Stefano; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) signal intensity is obtained with a tunable gyrotron producing frequency modulation around 260GHz at power levels less than 1W. The sweep rate of frequency modulation can reach 14kHz, and its amplitude is fixed at 50MHz. In water/glycerol glassy ice doped with 40mM TEMPOL, the relative increase in the DNP enhancement was obtained as a function of frequency-sweep rate for several temperatures. A 68 % increase was obtained at 15K, thus giving a DNP enhancement of about 80. By employing λ/4 and λ/8 polarizer mirrors, we transformed the polarization of the microwave beam from linear to circular, and achieved an increase in the enhancement by a factor of about 66% for a given power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. E-Mentoring for Doctor of Nursing Practice Students: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robin; Birk, Stefanie B; Sherman, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The growing number of online Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs, steady attrition rates, and shortage of faculty created an opportunity to explore the use of distance-mediated mentoring. Twenty first-year DNP Nursing Leadership students were matched with DNP-prepared mentors in a formalized e-mentoring program. The Ideal Mentor Scale was used to determine what students desired most from the mentoring relationship in addition to midpoint and end-of-program surveys. Quantitative analysis revealed mentors and mentees found the relationship to be beneficial (p mentors (92%) noted the program supplied adequate resources, and the majority of students would recommend the program. Having a mentor leads to both mentor- and mentee-perceived benefits. Recommendations include continuing to seek ways to improve the communication and commitment between the mentor and mentee in order to receive reciprocal program benefits. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(8):458-462.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. 2,4-Dinitrophenol: A threat to Chinese body-conscious groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chih Hencher Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP, a yellowish compound, has historically been used in the manufacture of dyes, explosives, and fungicides. As it uncouples mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, the compound was also used as an antiobesity agent early in the past century. The compound was subsequently banned by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1938 due to its potentially fatal adverse effects, including hyperthermia, cataract, agranulocytosis, hepatoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity. However, the popularity of 2,4-DNP as a slimming aid has appeared to increase again in recent years. The Hong Kong Hospital Authority Toxicology Reference Laboratory recently confirmed two cases of self-administered 2,4-DNP with different clinical presentations to hospitals in the area. Here we describe those two cases, in an attempt to underscore the potential of misuse of this substance by body-conscious groups among the Chinese population.

  6. Beware the yellow slimming pill: fatal 2,4-dinitrophenol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holborow, Alexander; Purnell, Richard M; Wong, Jenny Frederina

    2016-04-04

    An industrial chemical, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), has found use as a weight loss drug. It is extremely toxic in overdose and has a narrow therapeutic window with significant interindividual variability in metabolism. The rise in internet-based sales and distribution of this drug has seen an increased incidence of both accidental and intentional overdose presenting to emergency departments across the UK. No antidote currently exists and overdose is often fatal despite management based on current recommendations. We report a case of intentional overdose of DNP in a young man and discuss the current treatment guidelines. The case highlights the need for an increased awareness among frontline medical staff of the effects of DNP poisoning and questions the need for a more aggressive approach in the management of acute toxicity. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. The Doctor of Nursing Practice: defining the next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the previous articles in this special issue of the Journal of Nursing Education that are based on the Committee on Institutional Cooperation's Dean's Conference on the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) and to identify areas of consensus, as well as areas of controversy. Areas of consensus include the high level of interest in DNP programs and the intent to expand the role of the advanced practice nurse to population health, policy, and leadership. Areas of controversy include the nature of the DNP product, the definition of clinical experiences, the nature of the capstone project, the outcomes of these new practitioners, and the impact on schools. Suggestions for achieving higher levels of consensus, including the need for respective, inclusive dialogue, are provided. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Reactive surface organometallic complexes observed using dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva; Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Samantaray, Manoja; Hamzaoui, Bilel; Gurinov, Andrei; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gajan, David; Lesage, Anne; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.

  9. The immunological properties of haptens coupled to thymus-independent carrier molecules. IV. The IgG response to dinitrophenylated Ficoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, G G; Phillips, J M; Humphrey, J H; Dresser, D W; Cross, A M

    1976-06-01

    Dinitrophenylated polysucrose (DNP-Ficoll) elicits T cell-independent IgM anti-DNP antibody formation in mice. This antigen also elicits a heterogeneous IgG1 and IgG2 anti-DNP response, which is operationally as T-independent as the IgM response. However, a concomitant graft-versus-host reaction markedly enhances the IgG response (allogeneic effect). These results confirm those of others, indicating that a certain proportion of the precursors of IgG-producing cells can be triggered by some T-independent antigens. However, our results suggest that even with such antigens optimal triggering of IgG precursors requires T cell help.

  10. Environmental conditions influence the plant functional diversity effect on potential denitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana E Sutton-Grier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait diversity (or functional diversity, (FD and its interactions with natural levels of variability of soil properties, on a microbial process, denitrification potential (DNP. We demonstrated that FD significantly affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may depend on environmental factors such as resource availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine how natural levels of environmental variability impact the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning.

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.; Ceroke, P.J.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J.H.; Fruianu, M.; Belford, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon chars have been synthesized in our laboratory from a variety of starting materials, by means of a highly controlled pyrolysis technique. These chars exhibit electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line shapes which change with the local oxygen concentration in a reproducible and stable fashion; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the 1 H nuclear spin population in conjunction with electron Zeeman pumping. Low-frequency EPR, DNP and DNP-enhanced MRI all show promise as oximetry methods when used with carbon chars. (author)

  12. Reactive surface organometallic complexes observed using dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.

  13. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  14. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  15. Risk of Damage to the Somatic Innervation of the Penis during the AdVanceProcedure: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogewoning, Cornelis R C; Elzevier, Henk W; Pelger, Rob C M; Bekker, Milou D; DeRuiter, Marco C

    2015-08-01

    One of the methods to treat post radical prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence is the AdVance (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA) male sling procedure. During this procedure, the somatic innervation of the penis may be at risk for injury. Six AdVance procedures were performed in six donated bodies at the Anatomy and Embryology Department of the Leiden University Medical Centre. The pelves were dissected and the shortest distance between the sling and the dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) was documented. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relation between the AdVance male sling and penile nerves based on the dissection of six adult male pelves. The AdVance male sling procedure was conducted in six donated male bodies. After placement, the pelves were dissected and the shortest distance between sling and the DNP was documented. The main outcome measure was the distance between the AdVance male sling and the DNP. The mean distance of the sling to the DNP was 4.1 mm and was found situated directly next to the nerve (distance 0 mm) in 4 out of 12 (33%) hemipelves. The distance of the sling to the obturator neurovascular bundle was 30 mm or more in all six bodies. Damage to the DNP caused by the AdVance male sling procedure appears to be an extremely rare complication, which has not been described in current literature. The proximity of the AdVance to the DNP could, however, pose a risk that should be taken into consideration by physicians and patients when opting for surgery. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Peptide conjugated polymeric nanoparticles as a carrier for targeted delivery of docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhari, Hitesh; Pooja, Deep; Shrivastava, Shweta; V G M, Naidu; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research work was to develop Bombesin peptide (BBN) conjugated, docetaxel loaded nanocarrier for the treatment of breast cancer. Docetaxel loaded nanoparticles (DNP) were prepared by solvent evaporation method using sodium cholate as surfactant. BBN was conjugated to DNP surface through covalent bonding. Both DNP and BBN conjugated DNP (BDNP) were characterized by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. The particle diameter and zeta potential of BDNP were 136±3.95 nm and -10.8±2.7 mV, respectively. The change in surface charge and FTIR studies confirmed the formation of amide linkage between BBN and DNP. AFM analysis showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shapes. In nanoparticles, docetaxel was present in its amorphous form as confirmed by DSC and PXRD analysis and was stable during the thermal studies. The formulations showed the sustained release of DTX over the period of 120 h. During cellular toxicity assay in gastrin releasing peptide receptor positive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), BDNP were found to be 12 times more toxic than pure DTX and Taxotere. The IC50 value for DTX, Taxotere, DNP and BDNP was >375, >375, 142.23 and 35.53 ng/ml, respectively. The above studies showed that Bombesin conjugated nanocarrier system could be a promising carrier for active targeting of anticancer drugs in GRP receptor over expressing cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aged dominant negative p38α MAPK mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in adult-neurogenesis and context discrimination fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, IbDanelo; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Wu, Ping; McGrath, Erica L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Wakamiya, Maki; Papaconstantinou, John; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-03-30

    A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38α AF/+ ) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38α AF/+ ) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38α AF/+ mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates. Aging is the major risk factor for non-inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD); environmental and genetic risk factors that accelerate the senescence phenotype are thought to contribute to an individual's relative risk. In the present study, we evaluated aged DN-p38α AF/+ and wildtype littermates in a series of behavioral paradigms to test if p38α mutant mice exhibit altered baseline abnormalities in neurological reflexes, locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent cognitive decline. While aged DN-p38α AF/+ and wildtype littermates appear equal in all tested baseline neurological and behavioral parameters, DN-p38α AF/+ exhibit superior context discrimination fear conditioning. Context discrimination is a cognitive task that is supported by proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Consistent with enhanced context discrimination in aged DN-p38α AF/+ , we discovered enhanced production of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of DN-p38α AF/+ mice compared to wildtype littermates. Our findings support the notion that p38α inhibition has therapeutic utility in aging diseases that affect cognition, such as AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.

    2004-01-01

    A method to generate strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed, using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a temperature of 1.2K, and at a field of 3.354T, corresponding to an electron spin resonance frequency of 94GHz. Trityl radicals are used to directly polarize 13C...... and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use...

  19. Verdazyl-ribose: A new radical for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Le, Thanh-Ngoc; Changcoco, Victor; Brook, David J R

    2018-04-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4 T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample. Under non-spinning conditions, verdazyl-ribose provides roughly 2× larger 13 C cross-polarized (CP) NMR signal than the nitroxide, with similar polarization buildup times, at both 29 K and 76 K. With MAS at 7 kHz and 1.5 W microwave power, the verdazyl-ribose does not provide as much DNP as the nitroxide, with the verdazyl providing less NMR signal and a longer polarization buildup time. When the microwave power is decreased to 30 mW with 5 kHz MAS, the two types of radical are comparable, with the verdazyl-doped sample having a larger NMR signal which compensates for its longer polarization buildup time. We also present electron spin relaxation measurements at Q-band (1.2 T) and ESR lineshapes at 1.2 and 9.4 T. Most notably, the verdazyl radical has a longer T 1e than the nitroxide (9.9 ms and 1.3 ms, respectively, at 50 K and 1.2 T). The verdazyl electron spin lineshape is significantly affected by the hyperfine coupling to four 14 N nuclei, even at 9.4 T. We also describe 3000-spin calculations to illustrate the DNP potential of possible radical pairs: verdazyl-verdazyl, verdazyl-nitroxide, or nitroxide-nitroxide pairs. These calculations suggest that the verdazyl radical at 9.4 T has a narrower linewidth than optimal for cross-effect DNP using verdazyl-verdazyl pairs. Because of the hyperfine coupling contribution to the electron spin linewidth, this implies that DNP using the verdazyl

  20. Dynamic proton polarisation on polymers in solution: creating contrast in neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinten, M.G.D. van der

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) as an alternative or additional method to create contrast in neutron small angle scattering has been investigated with emphasis on the study of polymers in solution. The need for high polarisations imposes specific requirements on the sample and its environment. Vitreous beads have been used as samples. Nuclear relaxation times show that they contain dissolved air. Parasitic scattering from the solvent is observed, probably arising from nanometer air bubbles. DNP is shown to be useful, in particular for samples that consist of mixtures of hydrogen-free and hydrogen-rich molecules, where the different molecules can be highlighted by changing the polarisation. ((orig.))

  1. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Tadashi; Naka, Sadahiro; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Kanai, Yasukazu; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11)C-Donepezil (DNP) and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. The distribution of (11)C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g). A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11)C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq). The whole-body distribution of the (11)C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume) by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11)C-DNP in the body (following the liver) (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3), respectively), indicating that the distribution of (11)C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach) (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively), indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11)C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11)C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  2. An improved autoradiographic technique for the detection of antibody-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic technique for the detection of antibody-forming cells has been developed for the assay of anti-DNP responses. The lymphoid cell suspension to be assayed was allowed to sediment on to a glass slide coated with DNP-conjugated gelatin to which the secreted antibody bound during subsequent incubation. The bound antibody and its Ig class was revealed by a second incubation using 125 I-anti-immunoglobulin reagents followed by autoradiography. Studies on the sensitivity and specificity of the method are presented and its advantages over other techniques described. The technique should be readily applicable to other haptens

  3. Verdazyl-ribose: A new radical for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Le, Thanh-Ngoc; Changcoco, Victor; Brook, David J. R.

    2018-04-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4 T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample. Under non-spinning conditions, verdazyl-ribose provides roughly 2× larger 13C cross-polarized (CP) NMR signal than the nitroxide, with similar polarization buildup times, at both 29 K and 76 K. With MAS at 7 kHz and 1.5 W microwave power, the verdazyl-ribose does not provide as much DNP as the nitroxide, with the verdazyl providing less NMR signal and a longer polarization buildup time. When the microwave power is decreased to 30 mW with 5 kHz MAS, the two types of radical are comparable, with the verdazyl-doped sample having a larger NMR signal which compensates for its longer polarization buildup time. We also present electron spin relaxation measurements at Q-band (1.2 T) and ESR lineshapes at 1.2 and 9.4 T. Most notably, the verdazyl radical has a longer T1e than the nitroxide (9.9 ms and 1.3 ms, respectively, at 50 K and 1.2 T). The verdazyl electron spin lineshape is significantly affected by the hyperfine coupling to four 14N nuclei, even at 9.4 T. We also describe 3000-spin calculations to illustrate the DNP potential of possible radical pairs: verdazyl-verdazyl, verdazyl-nitroxide, or nitroxide-nitroxide pairs. These calculations suggest that the verdazyl radical at 9.4 T has a narrower linewidth than optimal for cross-effect DNP using verdazyl-verdazyl pairs. Because of the hyperfine coupling contribution to the electron spin linewidth, this implies that DNP using the verdazyl radical would improve at lower

  4. Strategic Planning and Doctor Of Nursing Practice Education: Developing Today's and Tomorrow's Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nancy L; Garrison, Kenneth F; Brown, Mary-Michael; Pintz, Christine; Bocchino, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning and thinking skills are essential for today's nurse leaders. Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs provide an opportunity for developing effective nurse strategists. A well-designed strategy course can stimulate intellectual growth at all levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Discussion forums in online education provide new opportunities for rich interaction among peers en route to development of well-informed strategic plans. An interprofessional perspective adds a rich and vital aspect to doctoral nursing education and it serves to inform strategic plan development. A roadmap for teaching strategic planning to current and future nursing leaders will guide the integration of essential content into DNP programs.

  5. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Watabe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11C-Donepezil (DNP and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. METHODS: The distribution of (11C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g. A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq. The whole-body distribution of the (11C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. RESULTS: The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11C-DNP in the body (following the liver (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3, respectively, indicating that the distribution of (11C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively, indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  6. Flexibility and conformational change of IgG molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, Y.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-12-01

    The dynamic behaviour of pig anti-Dnp-immunoglobulin (IgG) investigated by the neutron spin echo technique gave evidence of internal motion of a biological macromolecule. It is suggested that this motion belongs to the wobbling of the Fab parts of the investigated IgG molecule around its so called hinge region. (author)

  7. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases in mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada-Reisch, Ann

    2004-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of mitochondrial disorders, manifested by a decreased mtDNA copy number and respiratory chain dysfunction. Primary MDS are inherited autosomally and may affect a single organ or multiple tissues. Mutated mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinases; deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) and thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), were associated with the hepatocerebral and myopathic forms of MDS respectively. dGK and TK2 are key enzymes in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage pathway, providing the mitochondria with deoxyribonucleotides (dNP) essential for mtDNA synthesis. Although the mitochondrial dNP pool is physically separated from the cytosolic one, dNP's may still be imported through specific transport. Non-replicating tissues, where cytosolic dNP supply is down regulated, are thus particularly vulnerable to dGK and TK2 deficiency. The overlapping substrate specificity of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) may explain the relative sparing of muscle in dGK deficiency, while low basal TK2 activity render this tissue susceptible to TK2 deficiency. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms of mtDNA depletion due to dGK and TK2 deficiencies remain to be determined, though recent findings confirm that it is attributed to imbalanced dNTP pools.

  8. Real-time cardiac metabolism assessed with hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate in a large-animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Frijia, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution-DNP) for magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a novel technique for noninvasive studies of the metabolic fate of biomolecules in vivo. Since acetate is the most abundant extra- and intracellular short-chain fat...

  9. An approach to clinical data management for the doctor of nursing practice curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Martha; Terhaar, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Strong data management skills are essential to doctor of nursing practice (DNP) education and necessary for DNP practice. Completion of the DNP scholarly project requires application of these skills to understand and address a complex practice, process, or systems problem; develop, implement, and monitor an innovative evidence-based intervention to address that problem; and evaluate the outcomes. The purposes of this paper were to describe the demand and context for clinical data management (CDM) within the DNP curriculum; provide an overview of CDM content; describe the process for content delivery; propose a set of course objectives; and describe initial successes and challenges. A two-pronged approach of consultation and a CDM course were developed. Students who participated in this approach were more likely to create and implement an evaluation plan; apply techniques for data cleansing and manipulation; apply concepts of sample size determination using power analysis; use exploratory data analysis techniques to understand population attributes and sampling bias; apply techniques to adjust for bias; apply statistical significance testing; and present project results in a meaningful way. On the basis of this evaluation, CDM has evolved from an elective to a required course integrated in a thread that crosses the entire curriculum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Restoring Penis Sensation in Patients With Low Spinal Cord Lesions: The Role of the Remaining Function of the Dorsal Nerve in a Unilateral or Bilateral TOMAX Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgoor, Max L. E.; Braakhekke, Jan P.; Kon, Moshe; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The recently developed TOMAX-procedure restores unilateral genital sensation, improving sexual health in men with a low spinal lesion (LSL). It connects one dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) to the intact ipsilateral ilioinguinal nerve. We proposed bilateral neurotization for full sensation of

  11. Resonance-inclined optical nuclear spin polarization of liquids in diamond structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of molecules in a solution at room temperature has the potential to revolutionize nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The prevalent methods for achieving DNP in solutions are typically most effective in the regime of small interaction correlation times between the electron and nuclear spins, limiting the size of accessible molecules. To solve this limitation, we design a mechanism for DNP in the liquid phase that is applicable for large interaction correlation times. Importantly, while this mechanism makes use of a resonance condition similar to solid-state DNP, the polarization transfer is robust to a relatively large detuning from the resonance due to molecular motion. We combine this scheme with optically polarized nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in nanodiamonds to design a setup that employs optical pumping and is therefore not limited by room temperature electron thermal polarization. We illustrate numerically the effectiveness of the model in a flow cell containing nanodiamonds immobilized in a hydrogel, polarizing flowing water molecules 4700-fold above thermal polarization in a magnetic field of 0.35 T, in volumes detectable by current NMR scanners.

  12. Effects of curcumin on TTX-R sodium currents of dorsal root ganglion neurons in type 2 diabetic rats with diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Shen, Lu-Lu; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Li, Jun; Cao, Hong

    2015-09-25

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic status and shows no signs of abatement. Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is generally considered to be one of the most common complications of T2DM, which is also recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. As one kind of peripheral neuropathic pain, DNP manifests typical chronic neuralgia symptoms, including hyperalgesia, allodynia, autotomy, and so on. The injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is considered as the first stage of the sensory pathway impairment, whose neurons display increased frequency of action potential generation and increased spontaneous activities. These are mainly due to the changed properties of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and the increased sodium currents, especially TTX-R sodium currents. Curcumin, one of the most important phytochemicals from turmeric, has been demonstrated to effectively prevent and/or ameliorate diabetic mellitus and its complications including DNP. The present study demonstrates that the TTX-R sodium currents of small-sized DRG neurons isolated from DNP rats are significantly increased. Such abnormality can be efficaciously ameliorated by curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Zonal down-regulation and redistribution of the multidrug resistance protein 2 during bile duct ligation in rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusma, C. C.; Kothe, M. J.; Bakker, C. T.; Bosma, P. J.; van Bokhoven, I.; van Marle, J.; Bolder, U.; Tytgat, G. N.; Oude Elferink, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied regulation of the multidrug resistance protein 2 (mrp2) during bile duct ligation (BDL) in the rat. In hepatocytes isolated after 16, 48, and 72 hours of BDL, mrp2-mediated dinitrophenyl-glutathione (DNP-GS) transport was decreased to 65%, 33%, and 33% of control values,

  14. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  15. Adaptation to a Curriculum Delivered via iPad: The Challenge of Being Early Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Melissa; Bauer, Melanie; Hopgood, Daniel; Beery, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    This convergent mixed methods study was designed to examine the skills and attitudes toward using an iPad to deliver nursing curriculum and enhance active learning strategies for sophomore Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) and Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students at a Midwestern university. Quantitative data were collected using an…

  16. Delta-cyclodextrin as novel chiral probe for enantiomeric separation by electromigration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistuba, Dorothee; Bogdanski, Anja; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2006-01-01

    Native d-CD has been employed as chiral selector in CE and MEKC. To investigate the potential of the enantiodiscriminating properties of d-CD, negatively charged 5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalene-sulfonyl (dansyl)-, 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)- and FMOC-derivatives of several amino acids, 1,1’-binaphthyl-2...

  17. A 282 GHz Probe for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    Introduction In DNP, microwave irradiation of a sample facilitates the transfer of spin polarization from electrons tonuclei. One of the way to improve the DNP enhancement is to transfer microwave power from the mm-wave source tothe sample more effectively. Several methods and techniques to effic......Introduction In DNP, microwave irradiation of a sample facilitates the transfer of spin polarization from electrons tonuclei. One of the way to improve the DNP enhancement is to transfer microwave power from the mm-wave source tothe sample more effectively. Several methods and techniques......: microwave can with RF coil; the rest of the probe consists of a waveguide, sample tube and coaxial transmission line. The probe is designed to study cylindrical samples with diameter - 9 mm, and height – 2-20 mm. An RF coil which is housed in cylindrical Macor coil form (dielectric with ε=5.64 and tangent δ...... is 0.0025) surrounds the sample. The RF coil has a saddle form and was madeout of two current loops run on opposite sides of a cylinder (in parallel). Material of the coil is copper wire with diameterequal to 0.7 mm. Coil dimensions are: diameter - 13 mm; height - 22.0 mm. The self resonant frequency...

  18. Cluster formation restricts dynamic nuclear polarization of xenon in solid mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzma, N. N.; Pourfathi, M.; Kara, H.

    2012-01-01

    During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 1.5 K and 5 T, Xe-129 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a homogeneous xenon/1-propanol/trityl-radical solid mixture exhibit a single peak, broadened by H-1 neighbors. A second peak appears upon annealing for several hours at 125 K. Its...

  19. Overhauser effects in insulating solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Can, T. V.; Caporini, M. A.; Mentink-Vigier, F.; Corzilius, B.; Walish, J. J.; Rosay, M.; Maas, W. E.; Baldus, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410864; Vega, S.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    We report magic angle spinning, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at magnetic fields of 9.4 T, 14.1 T, and 18.8 T using the narrow line polarizing agents 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) dispersed in polystyrene, and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) and trityl OX063 in glassy

  20. A novel MR contrast agent for angiography and perfusion: Hyperpolarized water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh

    , hyperpolarized by dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (d-DNP), can be applied as an MRI contrast agent for angiography and perfusion. The first part of the project focuses on development of a protocol for production of large samples of hyperpolarized protons in D2O. The samples are polarized and dissolved...

  1. Influence of PUVA and UVB radiation on delayed hypersensitivity in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morison, W.L.; Parrish, J.A.; Woehler, M.E.; Krugler, J.I.; Bloch, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure of guinea pigs to UVA (320--400 nm) radiation following administration of 8-methoxypsoralen by gavage (referred to by the acronym, PUVA) or exposure to UVB (290--320 nm) radiation, produced suppression of the cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction at the site of exposure to radiation and at distant nonexposed sites. In these experiments, the animals were immunized by injection of dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma-globulin (DNP-BGG) in complete Freund's adjuvant and delayed hypersensitivity responses were provoked by intradermal injections of DNP-BGG, DNP and BGG on the flanks. Exposure to erythemogenic doses of either PUVA or UVB radiation for 7 days prior to immunization and for the 7 days between immunization and challenge (total period of radiation: 14 days) produced inhibiton of responses to each of the test substances. In addition, treatment with erythemogenic doses of PUVA either for 7 days prior to immunization or during the interval between immunization and challenge with DNP-BGG, inhibited the delayed hypersensitivity responses at the site of irradiation and at a nonexposed site. These findings suggest that in vivo exposure to nonionizing radiation leads to both local and systemic alteration of certain immune responses

  2. Quantitative dynamic nuclear polarization‐NMR on blood plasma for assays of drug metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Mathilde Hauge; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille Rose

    2011-01-01

    ‐scan 13C DNP‐NMR. An internal standard is used for the accurate quantification of drug and metabolite. Comparison of quantitative DNP‐NMR data with an established analytical method (liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry) yields a Pearson correlation coefficient r of 0.99. Notably, all DNP...

  3. Simulation and Advanced Practice Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Dawn I.

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study compared changes in level of confidence resulting from participation in simulation or traditional instructional methods for BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) to DNP (Doctor of Nursing Practice) students in a nurse practitioner course when they entered the clinical practicum. Simulation has been used in many disciplines…

  4. Evaluation of uptake and systemicity of 14C - fosthiazate in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Srivastava, Anjana; Kumar, Surendra; Srivastava, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nematodes are round worm species that are found in almost all habitats. Beneficial species are usually referred to free living nematodes, other nematode species are parasitic and harmful to plants, animals and humans. Soil provides an excellent habitat for nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes may live within plant roots or inhabit in the rhizosphere. The percent yield loss due to root knot nematodes in vegetable crops has been studied under All India Co-ordinated Research Project (Nematodes). The fosthiazate is a new compound incorporated in the market. The uptake and systemicity of fosthiazate in intact tomato plants was studied through 14 C-labeled fosthiazate in presence and absence of DNP. It was found that fosthiazate function as a systemic nematicide in tomato, the accumulation rate of fosthiazate was found higher in roots and shoots part upto 15 hrs. uptake period and after that accumulation slowly becomes saturated in the absence of DNP. In the presence of DNP (10 -2 mM) the amount of fosthiazate in roots as well as shoots was found to be decreased with respect to the uptake time.There was more inhibition on the uptake of fosthiazate in shoots than roots by DNP. (author)

  5. Doctor of Professional Counseling: The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Cade, Rochelle; Locke, Don W.

    2012-01-01

    Professional doctorates have been established in the allied health professions by clinicians seeking the highest levels of independent practice. Allied health professional doctorates include nursing practice (DNP), occupational therapy (OTD), psychology (PsyD), social work (DSW), and marriage and family therapy (DMFT). Lessons learned from the…

  6. Colombia’s Resurrection: Alternative Development is the Key to Democratic Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    regional economic strength. This implies 73 Sesin. 74 Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP), Bases del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo “Hacia un...Estado Comunitario .” Page 54 (Web version). 38 that the government is willing to adopt more flexible

  7. Theory of coherent dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neder, Izhar; Rudner, Mark Spencer; Halperin, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    We consider the production of dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) in a two-electron double quantum dot, in which the electronic levels are repeatedly swept through a singlet-triplet avoided crossing. Our analysis helps to elucidate the intriguing interplay between electron-nuclear hyperfine...

  8. The influence of administrative leadership: an interview with Dr Karen S. Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Karen S; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated a commitment to patient care leadership and innovation in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Karen Hill, DNP, RN, NEA-BC, FACHE, FAAN, chief operating officer and chief nursing officer of Baptist Health in Lexington, Kentucky, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nursing Administration.

  9. Frequency-agile gyrotron for electron decoupling and pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Faith J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Albert, Brice J.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L.; Gao, Chukun; Golota, Natalie C.; Choi, Eric J.; Jagtap, Anil P.; Wittmann, Johannes J.; Eckardt, Michael; Harneit, Wolfgang; Corzilius, Björn; Th. Sigurdsson, Snorri; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2018-04-01

    We describe a frequency-agile gyrotron which can generate frequency-chirped microwave pulses. An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) within the NMR spectrometer controls the microwave frequency, enabling synchronized pulsed control of both electron and nuclear spins. We demonstrate that the acceleration of emitted electrons, and thus the microwave frequency, can be quickly changed by varying the anode voltage. This strategy results in much faster frequency response than can be achieved by changing the potential of the electron emitter, and does not require a custom triode electron gun. The gyrotron frequency can be swept with a rate of 20 MHz/μs over a 670 MHz bandwidth in a static magnetic field. We have already implemented time-domain electron decoupling with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) with this device. In this contribution, we show frequency-swept DNP enhancement profiles recorded without changing the NMR magnet or probe. The profile of endofullerenes exhibits a DNP profile with a <10 MHz linewidth, indicating that the device also has sufficient frequency stability, and therefore phase stability, to implement pulsed DNP mechanisms such as the frequency-swept solid effect. We describe schematics of the mechanical and vacuum construction of the device which includes a novel flanged sapphire window assembly. Finally, we discuss how commercially available continuous-wave gyrotrons can potentially be converted into similar frequency-agile high-power microwave sources.

  10. Stable isotope-resolved analysis with quantitative dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Mathilde Hauge; Yigit, Demet; Frahm, Anne Birk

    2018-01-01

    Metabolite profiles and their isotopomer distributions can be studied non-invasively in complex mixtures with NMR. The advent of dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (dDNP) and isotope enrichment add sensitivity and resolution to such met-abolic studies. Metabolic pathways and networks can be...

  11. Investigating the Tolerance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Cultivars to Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers in Khorassan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the tolerance of tomato cultivars to Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers., an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and 3 replications in mazrae Nemoune Astan Quds Razavi in Mashhad, Iran, 2012. Treatment were 11 varieties (Peto early CH, Sterling (Karon, Khorram, Petorak, DNP 3005, PS 6515, SPEEDY, IDEN, VADI STAR, FIRINZEH and DNP 3001 which were transplanted in the field along with broomrape. Sampling was done at two stages: 1- after appearance and establishment of broomrape on tomato root where the dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and tomato dry weight were measured and 2- at the end of growing season where tomato fruit weight and its yield were determined. Result indicated that Sterling and Khorram cultivars did have the least broomrape dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and while produced highest plant dry weight, fruit and yield as compared to the other cultivars. Thus, may be considered as tolerant cultivars. Petorak and DNP 3001 on the other hand, presented the most broomrape dry weight, stem number and node number on tomato root. However, Petorak, Peto early CH and FIRINZEH cultivars produced the least plant weight, fruit and yield and thus, they can be called the sensitive cultivars. DNP 3001 being highly attacked by broomrape produced increased fruit yield and therefore compensated its ill effects.

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarkson, R B; Odintsov, B M; Ceroke, P J

    1998-01-01

    ; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the nuclear spin population...

  13. NMR of insensitive nuclei enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Pascal; Jannin, Sami; Helm, Lothar; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Despite the powerful spectroscopic information it provides, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy suffers from a lack of sensitivity, especially when dealing with nuclei other than protons. Even though NMR can be applied in a straightforward manner when dealing with abundant protons of organic molecules, it is very challenging to address biomolecules in low concentration and/or many other nuclei of the periodic table that do not provide as intense signals as protons. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is an important technique that provides a way to dramatically increase signal intensities in NMR. It consists in transferring the very high electron spin polarization of paramagnetic centers (usually at low temperature) to the surrounding nuclear spins with appropriate microwave irradiation. DNP can lead to an enhancement of the nuclear spin polarization by up to four orders of magnitude. We present in this article some basic concepts of DNP, describe the DNP apparatus at EPFL, and illustrate the interest of the technique for chemical applications by reporting recent measurements of the kinetics of complexation of 89Y by the DOTAM ligand.

  14. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Drymaria cordata (Linn.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, D. cordata produced significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent inhibition of temperature elevation in the 2,4-DNP and yeast-induced hyperthermia models with ... that the aqueous whole plant extract of Drymaria cordata possesses analgesic and antipyretic properties mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms.

  15. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ,10-dihalo compounds) and their triplet formation. T Nakayama, K Ibuki and K Hamanoue ... Electron-nuclear cross-relaxation effect on the photochemical reaction of benzaldehyde as studied by CIDNP and DNP Y Yamakage,. Q Meng, S S Ali, ...

  16. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation for enhancing citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jianhua; Cao, Zhanglei; Wang, Yajun; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Depei

    2015-01-16

    The spore germination rate and growth characteristics were compared between the citric acid high-yield strain Aspergillus niger CGMCC 5751 and A. niger ATCC 1015 in media containing antimycin A or DNP. We inferred that differences in citric acid yield might be due to differences in energy metabolism between these strains. To explore the impact of energy metabolism on citric acid production, the changes in intracellular ATP, NADH and NADH/NAD+ were measured at various fermentation stages. In addition, the effects of antimycin A or DNP on energy metabolism and citric acid production was investigated by CGMCC 5751. By comparing the spore germination rate and the extent of growth on PDA plates containing antimycin A or DNP, CGMCC 5751 was shown to be more sensitive to antimycin A than ATCC 1015. The substrate-level phosphorylation of CGMCC 5751 was greater than that of ATCC 1015 on PDA plates with DNP. DNP at tested concentrations had no apparent effect on the growth of CGMCC 5751. There were no apparent effects on the mycelial morphology, the growth of mycelial pellets or the dry cell mass when 0.2 mg L(-1) antimycin A or 0.1 mg L(-1) DNP was added to medium at the 24-h time point. The concentrations of intracellular ATP, NADH and NADH/NAD+ of CGMCC 5751 were notably lower than those of ATCC 1015 at several fermentation stages. Moreover, at 96 h of fermentation, the citric acid production of CGMCC 5751 reached up to 151.67 g L(-1) and 135.78 g L(-1) by adding 0.2 mg L(-1) antimycin A or 0.1 mg L(-1) DNP, respectively, at the 24-h time point of fermentation. Thus, the citric acid production of CGMCC 5751 was increased by 19.89% and 7.32%, respectively. The concentrations of intracellular ATP, NADH and NADH/NAD+ of the citric acid high-yield strain CGMCC 5751 were notably lower than those of ATCC 1015. The excessive ATP has a strong inhibitory effect on citric acid accumulation by A. niger. Increasing NADH oxidation and appropriately reducing the concentration of

  17. Sex pheromone in the moth Heliothis virescens is produced as a mixture of two pools: de novo and via precursor storage in glycerolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Casas, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Most species of moths use a female-produced volatile sex pheromone, typically produced via de novo fatty acid synthesis in a specialized gland, for communication among mates. While de novo biosynthesis of pheromone (DNP) is rapid, suggesting transient precursor acids, substantial amounts of pheromone precursor (and other) acids are stored, predominantly in triacylglycerols in the pheromone gland. Whether these stored acids are converted to pheromone later or not has been the subject of some debate. Using a tracer/tracee approach, in which we fed female Heliothis virescens U- 13 C-glucose, we were able to distinguish two pools of pheromone, in which precursors were temporally separated (after and before feeding on labeled glucose): DNP synthesized from a mixed tracer/tracee acetyl CoA pool after feeding, and pheromone made from precursor acids primarily synthesized before feeding, which we call recycled precursor fat pheromone (RPP). DNP titer varied from high (during scotophase) to low (photophase) and with presence/absence of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), in accord with native pheromone titer previously observed. By contrast, RPP was constant throughout the photoperiod and did not change with PBAN presence/absence. The amount of RPP (6.3-10.3 ng/female) was typically much lower than that of DNP, especially during the scotophase (peak DNP, 105 ng/female). We propose an integral role for stored fats in pheromone biosynthesis, in which they are hydrolyzed and re-esterified throughout the photoperiod, with a small proportion of liberated precursor acyl CoAs being converted to pheromone. During the sexually active period, release of PBAN results in increased flux of glucose (from trehalose) and hydrolyzed acids entering the mitochondria, producing acetyl CoA precursor for de novo fat and pheromone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel design for centrifugal counter-current chromatography: VI. Ellipsoid column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongyu; Yang, Yi; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    A novel ellipsoid column was designed for centrifugal counter-current chromatography. Performance of the ellipsoid column with a capacity of 3.4 mL was examined with three different solvent systems composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, v/v) (BAW), hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1 M HCl (1:1:1:1, v/v) (HEMH), and 12.5% (w/w) PEG1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate in water (PEG-DPP) each with suitable test samples. In dipeptide separation with BAW system, both stationary phase retention (Sf) and peak resolution (Rs) of the ellipsoid column were much higher at 0° column angle (column axis parallel to the centrifugal force) than at 90° column angle (column axis perpendicular to the centrifugal force), where elution with the lower phase at a low flow rate produced the best separation yielding Rs at 2.02 with 27.8% Sf at a flow rate of 0.07 ml/min. In the DNP-amino acid separation with HEMW system, the best results were obtained at a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min with 31.6% Sf yielding high Rs values at 2.16 between DNP-DL-glu and DNP-β-ala peaks and 1.81 between DNP-β-ala and DNP-L-ala peaks. In protein separation with PEG-DPP system, lysozyme and myolobin were resolved at Rs of 1.08 at a flow rate of 0.03 ml/min with 38.9% Sf. Most of those Rs values exceed those obtained from the figure-8 column under similar experimental conditions previously reported.

  19. Therapeutic potential of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on ageing induced damage in dorsal nerve of the penis and its implication on erectile function: an experimental study using albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppan, Prakash; Muhammed, Ibrahim; Mohanraj, Karthik Ganesh; Lakshmanan, Ganesh; Premavathy, Dinesh; Muthu, Sakthi Jothi; Wungmarong Shimray, Khayinmi; Sathyanathan, Sathya Bharathy

    2018-02-15

    To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Mucuna pruriens on damaged dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) in aged rat in relation to penile erection. The rats were divided into four groups Young (3 months), Aged (24 - 28 months), Aged + M. pruriens, and Young + M. pruriens (200 mg/kg b.w/60 days) and were subjected to the hypophysial - gonadal axis, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and penile reflex. DNP sections were stained with nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NaDPH) diaphorase, androgen receptor (AR), and osmium tetroxide. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining, electron microscopy(EM) and histometric analyses were done. Significant disturbance in hypophysial - gonadal axis was noted in aged rat. With reduced number of myelinated fibers, diameter, vacuolization, indentation of the myelin sheath, and degeneration. nNOS and its cofactor (NaDPH diaphorase) were reduced in aged rat DNP. NCV was slow in aged rats and concomitant poor penile reflex was also noted. AR showed reduced expression in aged rat DNP when compared to young and control groups. TUNEL positive cells were increased in aged rat DNP. These pathological changes were remarkably reduced or recovered in M. pruriens treated aged rats. The results indicate a multi-factorial therapeutic activity in penile innervations towards sustaining the penile erection in the presence of the extract in aged rats and justifying the claim of traditional usage.

  20. A quasi-optical and corrugated waveguide microwave transmission system for simultaneous dynamic nuclear polarization NMR on two separate 14.1 T spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N.; Pike, Kevin J.; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R.; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 μL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes).

  1. Contribution of tryptophan residues to the combining site of a monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl spin-label antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglister, J.; Bond, M.W.; Frey, T.; Leahy, D.; Levitt, M.; McConnell, H.M.; Rule, G.S.; Tomasello, J.; Whittaker, M.

    1987-01-01

    Two Fab fragments of the monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl (DNP) spin-label antibody AN02 were prepared by recombination of specifically deuterated heavy and light chains. In the recombinant H(I)L(II) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the heavy chain. In the recombinant H(II)L(I) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the light chain. Saturation of three resonances of H(I)L(II), assigned to tryptophan protons of the light chain, resulted in magnetization transfer to the aromatic proton at position 6 of the DNP ring and to the CH2 protons of the glycines linked to the DNP in a diamagnetic hapten (DNP-DG). Saturation of three resonances of H(II)L(I) assigned to tryptophan protons of the heavy chain resulted in magnetization transfer to the CH2 protons of the glycines in DNP-DG. From the dependence of the magnetization transfer on the irradiation time, the cross relaxation rates between the involved protons were estimated. The inferred distances between these protons of the hapten and certain tryptophan protons are 3-4 A. It is concluded that in the combining site of AN02 there is one tryptophan from the light chain and one tryptophan from the heavy chain that are very near the hapten. When all tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated and all tryptophan aromatic protons were deuterated except for the protons at positions 2 and 5, titration of the Fab fragments with variable amounts of paramagnetic hapten showed that one proton from the light chain tryptophan is near (less than 7 A) the unpaired electron and that three other protons are significantly closer than 15 A

  2. Contribution of tryptophan residues to the combining site of a monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl spin-label antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglister, J.; Bond, M.W.; Frey, T.; Leahy, D.; Levitt, M.; McConnell, H.M.; Rule, G.S.; Tomasello, J.; Whittaker, M.

    1987-09-22

    Two Fab fragments of the monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl (DNP) spin-label antibody AN02 were prepared by recombination of specifically deuterated heavy and light chains. In the recombinant H(I)L(II) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the heavy chain. In the recombinant H(II)L(I) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the light chain. Saturation of three resonances of H(I)L(II), assigned to tryptophan protons of the light chain, resulted in magnetization transfer to the aromatic proton at position 6 of the DNP ring and to the CH2 protons of the glycines linked to the DNP in a diamagnetic hapten (DNP-DG). Saturation of three resonances of H(II)L(I) assigned to tryptophan protons of the heavy chain resulted in magnetization transfer to the CH2 protons of the glycines in DNP-DG. From the dependence of the magnetization transfer on the irradiation time, the cross relaxation rates between the involved protons were estimated. The inferred distances between these protons of the hapten and certain tryptophan protons are 3-4 A. It is concluded that in the combining site of AN02 there is one tryptophan from the light chain and one tryptophan from the heavy chain that are very near the hapten. When all tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated and all tryptophan aromatic protons were deuterated except for the protons at positions 2 and 5, titration of the Fab fragments with variable amounts of paramagnetic hapten showed that one proton from the light chain tryptophan is near (less than 7 A) the unpaired electron and that three other protons are significantly closer than 15 A.

  3. Internalized insulin-receptor complexes are unidirectionally translocated to chloroquine-sensitive degradative sites. Dependence on metabolic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhanu, P.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin receptors on the surface of isolated rat adipocytes were photoaffinity labeled at 12 degrees C with the iodinated photoreactive insulin analogue, 125I-B2 (2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin, and the pathways in the intracellular processing of the labeled receptors were studied at 37 degrees C. During 37 degrees C incubations, the labeled 440-kDa insulin receptors were continuously internalized (as assessed by trypsin inaccessibility) and degraded such that up to 50% of the initially labeled receptors were lost by 120 min. Metabolic poisons (0.125-0.75 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 1-10 mM NaF), which led to dose-dependent depletion of adipocyte ATP pools, inhibited receptor loss, and caused up to 3-fold increase in intracellular receptor accumulation. This effect was due to inhibition of intracellular receptor degradation, and there was no apparent effect of the metabolic poisons on initial internalization of the receptors. Following maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled insulin receptors in the presence of NaF or DNP, removal of these agents resulted in a subsequent, time-dependent degradation of the accumulated receptors. However, when the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine (0.2 mM), was added immediately following removal of the metabolic poisons, further degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors was prevented, suggesting that the chloroquine-sensitive degradation of insulin receptors occurs distal to the site of inhibition by NaF or DNP. To confirm this, maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled receptors was first allowed to occur in the presence of chloroquine and the cells were then washed and reincubated in chloroquine-free media in the absence or presence of NaF or DNP. Under these conditions, degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors continued to occur, and NaF or DNP failed to block the degradation

  4. Increasing frequency of severe clinical toxicity after use of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the UK: a report from the National Poisons Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamour, Ashraf; George, Nathan; Gwynnette, David; Cooper, Gillian; Lupton, David; Eddleston, Michael; Thompson, John Paul; Vale, John Allister; Thanacoody, Harry Krishna Ruben; Hill, Simon; Thomas, Simon Hugh Lynton

    2015-05-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) increases energy consumption by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. Although not licensed as a medicine, it is sometimes used by 'body sculptors' and for weight loss as a 'fat burning' agent. This research was performed to characterise patterns of presentation, clinical features and outcomes of patients reported to the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) in the UK after exposure to DNP. NPIS telephone enquiry records and user sessions for TOXBASE, the NPIS online information database, related to DNP, were reviewed from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013. Of the 30 separate systemic exposures to DNP reported by telephone to NPIS during the study period (27 males, 3 females, with a median age of 23.5 years), there were 3 during 2007-2011 (inclusive), 5 during 2012 and 22 during 2013. TOXBASE user sessions also increased sharply from 6 in 2011 to 35 in 2012 and 331 in 2013. The modes of exposure reported in telephone enquiries were chronic (n=2), acute (n=12) and subacute (n=16). Commonly reported clinical features were fever (47%), tachycardia (43%), sweating (37%), nausea or vomiting (27%), skin discolouration or rash (23%), breathing difficulties (23%), abdominal pain (23%), agitation (13%) and headache (13%). There were five (17%, 95% CI 6.9% to 34%) fatalities, four involving acute overdose. The study indicates a substantial recent increase in clinical presentations with toxicity caused by exposure to DNP in the UK with an associated high mortality. Further steps are needed to warn potential users of the severe and sometimes fatal toxicity that may occur after exposure to this compound. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. A quasi-optical and corrugated waveguide microwave transmission system for simultaneous dynamic nuclear polarization NMR on two separate 14.1 T spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N; Pike, Kevin J; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13 C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31 P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 µL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of electroacupuncture at 2 and 100 Hz on rat type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia-related protein expression in the dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fen; Wei, Jun-Jun; Shou, Sheng-Yun; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Jiang, Yong-Liang

    To investigate the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at 2 and 100 Hz on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and on the expressions of the P2X3 receptor and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Rat type 2 DNP was induced by a high calorie and high sugar diet fed for 7 weeks, plus a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) after 5 weeks. EA at 2 and 100 Hz was carried out once every day after 7 weeks for 7 consecutive days. Body weight, serum fasting insulin (FINS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured. The expressions of L4-L6 DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP were assessed by immunofluorescence. Type 2 DNP was successfully induced as shown by the increased body weight, FINS, and FBG, as well as the reduced ISI and PWL. Expressions of P2X3 receptors and CGRP in L4-L6 DRGs increased. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz relieved type 2 DNP, but the analgesic effect of EA was stronger at 2 Hz. P2X3 receptor expression decreased in L4-L6 DRGs following EA at 2 Hz and in L5 and L6 DRGs following EA at 100 Hz. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz down-regulated CGRP overexpression in L4-L6 DRGs. These findings indicate that EA at 2 Hz is a good option for the management of type 2 DNP. The EA effect may be related to its down-regulation of the overexpressions of the DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP in this condition.

  7. Quantum mechanical aspects of dynamical neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, T.; Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic Neutron Polarization (DNP) is a concept which allows to achieve complete polarization of slow neutrons, virtually without any loss of intensity. There the neutrons pass through a combination of a static and a rotating magnetic field in resonance, like in a standard NMR apparatus. Depending on their initial spin state, they end up with different kinetic energies and therefore different velocity. In a succeeding magnetic precession field this distinction causes a different total precession angle. Tuning the field strength can lead to a final state where two original anti-parallel spin states are aligned parallel and hence to polarization. The goal of this work is to describe the quantum mechanical aspects of DNP and to work out the differences to the semi-classical treatment. We show by quantum mechanical means, that the concept works and DNP is feasible, indeed. Therefore, we have to take a closer look to the behavior of neutron wave functions in magnetic fields. In the first Section we consider a monochromatic continuous beam. The more realistic case of a pulsed, polychromatic beam requires a time-dependent field configuration and will be treated in the second Section. In particular the spatial separation of the spin up- and down-states is considered, because it causes an effect of polarization damping so that one cannot achieve a fully polarized final state. This effect is not predicted by the semi-classical treatment of DNP. However, this reduction of polarization is very small and can be neglected in realistic DNP-setups

  8. A peripheral component interconnect express-based scalable and highly integrated pulsed spectrometer for solution state dynamic nuclear polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yugui; Liu, Chaoyang, E-mail: chyliu@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Magnet Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jiwen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili [State Key Laboratory of Magnet Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Magnet Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2015-08-15

    High sensitivity, high data rates, fast pulses, and accurate synchronization all represent challenges for modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, which make any expansion or adaptation of these devices to new techniques and experiments difficult. Here, we present a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe)-based highly integrated distributed digital architecture pulsed spectrometer that is implemented with electron and nucleus double resonances and is scalable specifically for broad dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancement applications, including DNP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging (DNP-MRS/MRI). The distributed modularized architecture can implement more transceiver channels flexibly to meet a variety of MRS/MRI instrumentation needs. The proposed PCIe bus with high data rates can significantly improve data transmission efficiency and communication reliability and allow precise control of pulse sequences. An external high speed double data rate memory chip is used to store acquired data and pulse sequence elements, which greatly accelerates the execution of the pulse sequence, reduces the TR (time of repetition) interval, and improves the accuracy of TR in imaging sequences. Using clock phase-shift technology, we can produce digital pulses accurately with high timing resolution of 1 ns and narrow widths of 4 ns to control the microwave pulses required by pulsed DNP and ensure overall system synchronization. The proposed spectrometer is proved to be both feasible and reliable by observation of a maximum signal enhancement factor of approximately −170 for {sup 1}H, and a high quality water image was successfully obtained by DNP-enhanced spin-echo {sup 1}H MRI at 0.35 T.

  9. Short-term Outcomes following Concussion in the NFL: An 11-year Retrospective Study of Player Release Rate and Financial Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Prem; Navarro, Sergio Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to assess the short-term outcomes among National Football League (NFL) players following concussion in terms of: (1) DNP protocol activation, (2) release rate at one and three years, and (3) mean salary reduction. A secondary goal of the study was to stratify the post-concussive release rate by franchise and player position. Methods: NFL player transaction records and publicly available weekly injury reports from August 2005 to January 2016 for NFL players were analyzed. All players immediately sustaining recorded concussions were evaluated for a change to inactive or do-not-play (DNP) status. The one-year and three-year release rate following concussion was defined as any player transitioning to inactivation, retirement, free agency, or any failure to return for a successive season on the same team’s active roster after one or three years from the initial concussion. Student’s t-test was used to compare release rates between non-concussed and concussed players at one and three years. Mean salary reduction per year following concussion was calculated using publicly available player contracts. Additionally, franchise-level and position-based analyses of the release rate were performed. Results: Of the total 5,451 NFL players retrospectively analyzed over the 11-year period, 373 sustained publicly reported concussions resulting in DNP protocol activation. The release rate of the post-concussive versus non-concussive player was 26% vs. 20% at 1 year (pfranchise to release an athlete following concussion within one and three years. Table 1 reports a position-based analysis in terms of concussion rate, mean salary reduction, and NFL career longevity. Conclusion: Our retrospective study demonstrates that NFL concussions resulting in DNP protocol activation leads to a statistically greater release rate among concussed NFL players than non-concussed players. Released players suffered reduction in year-over-year accumulated

  10. Antigen-decorated shell cross-linked nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and antibody interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joralemon, Maisie J; Smith, Norah L; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara; Wooley, Karen L

    2005-01-01

    Antigen-decorated shell cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticles (SCKs) were synthesized and studied as multivalent nanoscale surfaces from which antibody-binding units were presented in a manner that was designed to approach virus particle surfaces. The SCK nanostructures were fabricated with control over the number of antigenic groups, from mixed micellization of amphiphilic diblock copolymer building blocks that contained either an antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl) or an ethylpropionate group at the hydrophilic alpha-chain terminus. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate and methyl acrylate sequentially from either a 2,4-dinitrophenyl-functionalized initiator or ethyl 2-bromopropionate, followed by selective removal of the tert-butyl groups to afford 2,4-dinitrophenyl-poly(acrylic acid)60-b-poly(methyl acrylate)60 (DNP-PAA(60)-b-PMA60) and poly(acrylic acid)70-b-poly(methyl acrylate) (PAA70-b-PMA70). Micelles were assembled via addition of water to THF solutions of the polymers in 0:1, 1:1, and 1:0 molar ratios of DNP-PAA60-b-PMA60 to PAA70-b-PMA70, followed by dialysis against water. The acrylic acid groups of the micelle coronas were partially cross-linked (nominally 50%) with 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), in the presence of 1-(3'-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide methiodide. Following extensive dialysis against water, the 0%, 50%, and 100% dinitrophenylated shell cross-linked nanoparticles (DNP-SCKs) were characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies, and analytical ultracentrifugation (AU). The surface accessibility and bioavailability of the DNP units upon the DNP-SCKs were investigated by performing quenching titrations of fluorescein-labeled IgE antibody in solution and degranulation of Ig

  11. Spin filtering neutrons with a proton target dynamically polarized using photo-excited triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Brandt, B. van den; Eichhorn, T.R.; Hautle, P.; Wenckebach, W.Th.

    2012-01-01

    In a test of principle a neutron spin filter has been built, which is based on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using photo-excited triplet states. This DNP method has advantages over classical concepts as the requirements for cryogenic equipment and magnets are much relaxed: the spin filter is operated in a field of 0.3 T at a temperature of about 100 K and has performed reliably over periods of several weeks. The neutron beam was also used to analyze the polarization of the target employed as a spin filter. We obtained an independent measurement of the proton spin polarization of ∼0.13 in good agreement with the value determined with NMR. Moreover, the neutron beam was used to measure the proton spin polarization as a function of position in the naphthalene sample. The polarization was found to be homogeneous, even at low laser power, in contradiction to existing models describing the photo-excitation process.

  12. Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik, E-mail: jhar@elektro.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); GE Healthcare, Park Alle 295, Brøndby (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more broadband than commercially available windows, which are usually optimized for single band operation. It is demonstrated that high-density polyethylene with urethane adhesive can be used as a low loss microwave vacuum window in multiband DNP systems. The overall assembly performance and dimensions are found using full-wave simulations. The practical aspects of the window implementation in the waveguide are discussed. To verify the design and simulation results, the window is tested experimentally at the three frequencies of interest.

  13. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  14. Post-Electrophoretic Identification of Oxidized Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Craig C; Talent, John M; Malakowsky, Christina A

    1999-01-01

    The oxidative modification of proteins has been shown to play a major role in a number of human diseases. However, the ability to identify specific proteins that are most susceptible to oxidative modifications is difficult. Separation of proteins using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) offers the analytical potential for the recovery, amino acid sequencing, and identification of thousands of individual proteins from cells and tissues. We have developed a method to allow underivatized proteins to be electroblotted onto PVDF membranes before derivatization and staining. Since both the protein and oxidation proteins are quantifiable, the specific oxidation index of each protein can be determined. The optimal sequence and conditions for the staining process are (a) electrophoresis, (b) electroblotting onto PVDF membranes, (c) derivatization of carbonyls with 2,4-DNP, (d) immunostaining with anti DNP antibody, and (e) protein staining with colloidal gold. PMID:12734585

  15. Study of a number of biochemical indices of the blood and tissue of dogs after prolonged gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Praslichka, T.; Mishurova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Malatova, Z.; Akhunov, A. A.; Markelov, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    The glucose content in blood and the lipid content in serum and tissues of dogs exposed to chronic radiation for 3 and 5 years were studied. In tissues of these animals, the concentration of soluble DNA and DNA contained in DNP was studied in the spleen, lymph node (deep cervical node) and bone marrow of thigh bones. Results indicate that chronic gamma irradiation significantly changes concentrations of glucose in the blood, and that of several lipids in serum and tissues. A reduction in the concentration of DNP in tested organs reflects changes in the relative number of cells with various nuclear cytoplasmic ratios; most pronounced changes in biochemical indices occur in dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation in doses of 125 rad per year.

  16. Electron spin resonance and its implication on the maximum nuclear polarization of deuterated solid target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, J.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.

    2006-01-01

    ESR spectroscopy is an important tool in polarized solid target material research, since it allows us to study the paramagnetic centers, which are used for the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The polarization behavior of the different target materials is strongly affected by the properties of these centers, which are added to the diamagnetic materials by chemical doping or irradiation. In particular, the ESR linewidth of the paramagnetic centers is a very important parameter, especially concerning the deuterated target materials. In this paper, the results of the first precise ESR measurements of the deuterated target materials at a DNP-relevant magnetic field of 2.5 T are presented. Moreover, these results allowed us to experimentally study the correlation between ESR linewidth and maximum deuteron polarization, as given by the spin-temperature theory

  17. Development of an institutional review board preapproval process for Doctor of Nursing Practice students: process and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanton, Sarah L; Taylor, Holly A; Terhaar, Mary

    2013-01-01

    As Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs proliferate, effective collaboration with institutional review boards (IRBs) is important to protect human subjects. It is particularly important that faculty and students recognize which DNP students' projects should be considered as "human subjects research" or "quality improvement." The former require IRB review, whereas the latter may be eligible for expedited review or may be considered exempt. We report outcomes following implementation of a combination of didactic training, one-to-one consultation, and a decision support protocol to improve preparation for and collaboration with the IRB at a large university. In the first year of using this protocol, 53% of projects were deemed human subjects research and received IRB review. The other 47% were deemed quality improvement projects and did not require IRB review. We offer our experience as an approach for teaching students how to protect the subjects included in their quality improvement activities. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Binding of polycyclic and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to specific fractions of rat lung chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.E.; Akkaraju, S.

    1988-01-01

    Binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) to rat lung nuclei was investigated. Following carcinogen exposure, nuclei were fractionated into active chromatin, nuclear matrix, low salt, and high salt fractions. Preferential binding to active chromatin and nuclear matrix fractions was observed for benzo(a)pyrene (BP), 6-nitro benzo(a)pyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene (1,6-DNP), and 1-nitropyrene. Incubation of nuclei with BP, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE), and 1,6-DNP showed that the selective binding was dependent upon the concentration of chemical with less selectivity at higher concentrations. This study shows that NPAH should be considered as another class of compounds that may exert their biological effects by binding to selected regions of chromatin that are involved in DNA replication and translation. (author)

  19. Aggregation of fragmented chromatin associated with the appearance of products of its nuclease treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanenkov, V.V.; Mironov, N.M.; Kupriyanova, E.I.; Shapot, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated cell nuclei were incubated with nucleases, and then the chromatin was extracted with a low-salt buffer. When degradation of the nuclear chromatin DNase I or micrococcal nuclease is intensified, solubilization of the deoxyribonucleoprotein (DNP) in low-salt buffer at first increases, reaching a maximum in the case of hydrolysis of 2-4% of the nuclear DNA, but after intensive treatment with nucleases, it decreases sharply. Soluble fragmented chromatin is aggregated during treatment with DNase I. The addition of exogenous products of nuclease treatment of isolated nuclei to a preparation of gelatinous chromatin induces its aggregation. Pretreatment of nuclear chromatin with RNase prevents the solubilization of DNP by solutions with low ionic strength. Certain experimental data obtained using rigorous nuclease treatment are discussed; for their interpretation it is necessary to consider the effect of aggregation of fragmented chromatin by products of its nuclease degradation

  20. Preparation of Pillar[5]arene-Based [2]Rotaxanes by a Stopper-Exchange Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierengarten, Iwona; Meichsner, Eric; Holler, Michel; Pieper, Pauline; Deschenaux, Robert; Delavaux-Nicot, Béatrice; Nierengarten, Jean-François

    2018-01-02

    A pillar[5]arene-containing rotaxane building block bearing exchangeable stoppers has been prepared in multigram scale quantities with high yields from the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with the inclusion complex resulting from the association of dodecanedioyl chloride with 1,4-diethoxypillar[5]arene. Stopper exchange reactions have been achieved by treatment of the resulting DNP diester with various amines through an addition-elimination mechanism preventing the unthreading of the axle component during the reaction and thus preserving the [2]rotaxane structures. The resulting diamide [2]rotaxane derivatives have thus been obtained in good to excellent yields. Importantly, [2]rotaxanes difficult or impossible to prepare by direct introduction of the two stoppers in a single synthetic step are now easily available. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Homogeneous antibodies in lethally irradiated and autologous bone marrow reconstituted Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, P. Van Den; Radl, J.; Loewenberg, B.; Swart, A.C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Ten Rhesus monkeys were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow. During the restoration period, the animals were immunized with DNP-Rhesus albumin and IgA1lambda-10S human paraprotein. One or more transient homogenous immunoglobulin components appeared in sera of all experimental monkeys. In four animals, these homogeneous immunoglobulins were shown to be specific antibodies against DNP-Rhesus albumin. They gradually became as heterogeneous as those in control monkeys which were immunized but not irradiated and transplanted. The onset of the specific antibody response after immunization was slightly delayed in the experimental group. On determining the time necessary to reach normalization of the overall immunoglobulin levels and the normal heterogeneity of the immunoglobulin spectrum, it was found to be more than 1 year in most of the animals. (author)

  2. Voices of chief nursing executives informing a doctor of nursing practice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Jennifer L; Meek, Julie; Ebright, Patricia

    The purpose of this article is to describe the business case framework used to guide doctor of nursing practice (DNP) program enhancements and to discuss methods used to gain chief nurse executives' (CNEs) perspectives for desired curricular and experiential content for doctor of nursing practice nurses in health care system executive roles. Principal results of CNE interview responses were closely aligned to the knowledge, skills and/or attitudes identified by the national leadership organizations. Major conclusions of this article are that curriculum change should include increased emphasis on leadership, implementation science, and translation of evidence into practice methods. Business, information and technology management, policy, and health care law content would also need to be re-balanced to facilitate DNP graduates' health care system level practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THz-waves channeling in a monolithic saddle-coil for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macor, A.; de Rijk, E.; Annino, G.; Alberti, S.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    2011-10-01

    A saddle coil manufactured by electric discharge machining (EDM) from a solid piece of copper has recently been realized at EPFL for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments (DNP-NMR) at 9.4 T. The corresponding electromagnetic behavior of radio-frequency (400 MHz) and THz (263 GHz) waves were studied by numerical simulation in various measurement configurations. Moreover, we present an experimental method by which the results of the THz-wave numerical modeling are validated. On the basis of the good agreement between numerical and experimental results, we conducted by numerical simulation a systematic analysis on the influence of the coil geometry and of the sample properties on the THz-wave field, which is crucial in view of the optimization of DNP-NMR in solids.

  4. RECOMBINATION OF ANTIBODY POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS IN THE PRESENCE OF ANTIGEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Henry; Mannik, Mart

    1964-01-01

    Conditions were developed by which the separated H and L chains of gamma2 globulins recombined to form four-chained molecules in good yields. In the absence of antigen, anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP) H chains randomly reassociated with a mixture of antibody and non-specific gamma2 globulin L chains. In the presence of a specific hapten, however, the antibody H chains preferentially interacted with the anti-DNP L chains. Antibody H chain-antibody L chain recombinants formed in the presence of hapten were more active than the corresponding recombinants formed in the absence of hapten. Speculations are made regarding the possible mechanisms and biological significance of these effects. PMID:14247718

  5. Innovación en hidrocarburos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benavides Estévez-Bretón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta parte del Proyecto DNP- Uniandes sobre Clusters en la industria minero energética. El análisis se centrará en la innovación en hidrocarburos: primero, el planteamiento básico; segundo, los retos y oportunidades, y tercero, las líneas de acción en las que Colombia puede trabajar.//This article presents a fragment of the DNP- Uniandes project on Clusters in the energy mining industry. Specifically, the analysis focuses on innovation in hydrocarbons, starting with the project's basic approach. Next, it exposes the challenges and opportunities present in the Colombian context. Finally, it discusses the lines of action within which Colombia will move forward.

  6. Non-Topotactic Transformation of Silicate Nanolayers into Mesostructured MFI Zeolite Frameworks During Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Zachariah J; Messinger, Robert J; Na, Kyungsu; Seo, Yongbeom; Ryoo, Ryong; Chmelka, Bradley F

    2017-05-02

    Mesostructured MFI zeolite nanosheets are established to crystallize non-topotactically through a nanolayered silicate intermediate during hydrothermal synthesis. Solid-state 2D NMR analyses, with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), provide direct evidence of shared covalent 29 Si-O- 29 Si bonds between intermediate nanolayered silicate moieties and the crystallizing MFI zeolite nanosheet framework. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of mannose functionalized dendrimeric nanoparticles for targeted delivery to macrophages: use of this platform to modulate atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Yuan, Quan; Bie, Jinghua; Wallace, Ryan L; Yannie, Paul J; Wang, Jing; Lancina, Michael G; Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu; Korzun, William; Yang, Hu; Ghosh, Shobha

    2018-03-01

    Dysfunctional macrophages underlie the development of several diseases including atherosclerosis where accumulation of cholesteryl esters and persistent inflammation are 2 of the critical macrophage processes that regulate the progression as well as stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Ligand-dependent activation of liver-x-receptor (LXR) not only enhances mobilization of stored cholesteryl ester but also exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated via trans-repression of proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B. However, increased hepatic lipogenesis by systemic administration of LXR ligands (LXR-L) has precluded their therapeutic use. The objective of the present study was to devise a strategy to selectively deliver LXR-L to atherosclerotic plaque-associated macrophages while limiting hepatic uptake. Mannose-functionalized dendrimeric nanoparticles (mDNP) were synthesized to facilitate active uptake via the mannose receptor expressed exclusively by macrophages using polyamidoamine dendrimer. Terminal amine groups were used to conjugate mannose and LXR-L T091317 via polyethylene glycol spacers. mDNP-LXR-L was effectively taken up by macrophages (and not by hepatocytes), increased expression of LXR target genes (ABCA1/ABCG1), and enhanced cholesterol efflux. When administered intravenously to LDLR-/- mice with established plaques, significant accumulation of fluorescently labeled mDNP-LXR-L was seen in atherosclerotic plaque-associated macrophages. Four weekly injections of mDNP-LXR-L led to significant reduction in atherosclerotic plaque progression, plaque necrosis, and plaque inflammation as assessed by expression of nuclear factor kappa B target gene matrix metalloproteinase 9; no increase in hepatic lipogenic genes or plasma lipids was observed. These studies validate the development of a macrophage-specific delivery platform for the delivery of anti-atherosclerotic agents directly to the plaque-associated macrophages to attenuate plaque

  8. Degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, chemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a persistent organic contaminant with high toxicity and very low biodegradability has been investigated using combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and chemical/advanced oxidation. The cavitating conditions have been generated using orifice plate as a cavitating device. Initially, the optimization of basic operating parameters have been done by performing experiments over varying inlet pressure (over the range of 3-6 bar), temperature (30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C) and solution pH (over the range of 3-11). Subsequently, combined treatment strategies have been investigated for process intensification of the degradation process. The effect of HC combined with chemical oxidation processes such as hydrogen peroxide (HC/H2O2), ferrous activated persulfate (HC/Na2S2O8/FeSO4) and HC coupled with advanced oxidation processes such as conventional Fenton (HC/FeSO4/H2O2), advanced Fenton (HC/Fe/H2O2) and Fenton-like process (HC/CuO/H2O2) on the extent of degradation of DNP have also been investigated at optimized conditions of pH 4, temperature of 35 °C and inlet pressure of 4 bar. Kinetic study revealed that degradation of DNP fitted first order kinetics for all the approaches under investigation. Complete degradation with maximum rate of DNP degradation has been observed for the combined HC/Fenton process. The energy consumption analysis for hydrodynamic cavitation based process has been done on the basis of cavitational yield. Degradation intermediates have also been identified and quantified in the current work. The synergistic index calculated for all the combined processes indicates HC/Fenton process is more feasible than the combination of HC with other Fenton like processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetics of neptunim(6) reduction by hydroxylamine in chloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Stepanova, E.S.; Krot, N.N.

    1975-01-01

    Stoichiometry and kinetics of neptunium (6) reaction with hydroxylamine is studied by spectrophotometric method at the ionic strength equal to unity and at 20-30 deg C. The reaction obeys the equation: -d[Np(6)]/dt = k 0 [Np(6)][NH 3 OH + ]/[H + ]sup(0.74), where k 0 = 2.6 M -1 min -1 at 25 deg C. Possible mechanism of the process includes two steps

  10. Evaluation of Baffle Fixes Film up Flow Sludge Blanket Filtration (BFUSBF) System in Treatment of Wastewaters from Phenol and 2,4-Dinitrophenol Using Daphnia Magna Bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Ghannadzadeh; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Abbas Rezaee; Fatemeh Eftekharian; Ali Koolivand

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phenol and nitrophenol are common compounds found in different types of industrial wastewater known as serious threats to human health and natural environment. In this study, Daphnia magna was used to evaluate the effectiveness of "baffle fixes film up flow sludge blanket filtration" (BFUSBF) system in elimination of phenolic compounds from water. Methods: D. magna cultures were used as toxicity index of phenol and 2,4-DNP mixtures after treatment by a pilot BFUSBF system which...

  11. Rational Design of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Against Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    induced fluorescence Da, kDa Dalton, Kilodalton DMPS 2, 3-dimercaptopropanesulfonate DMSO Dimethylsulfoxide Dnp 2, 4-dinitrophenol DRDC Defence...high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) experiment. H1R3 was dissolved in 10% DMSO / 0.1...separation of peptides. A linear solvent gradient was used in the HPLC separation at an initial condition of 5% acetonitrile in 0.1% TFA/water, up to

  12. Tunable 13C/1H dual channel matching circuit for dynamic nuclear polarization system with cross-polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report initial results of design and practical implementation of tuning and matching circuit to estimate a performance of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a magnetic field of 6.7 T. It is shown that developed circuit for signal observation is compact, easy to make and provides....... Measurement results with a tuning and matching circuit prototype are presented including obtained spectra (13C and 1H) and estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio....

  13. Risk for Sporadic Breast Cancer in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    cervix , kidney and colon cancer ) and 1 large benign ovarian tumour (serous cystadenoma), DNp73 was specifically upregulated 3 to 78-fold in 10...solos, alliances and feuds among family members. This article is in press in Biochimica and Biophysica Acta Reviews on Cancer . Appendix: manuscript...role in carcinogenesis, no related genes were known for HPV -mediated cancers (23). However, the adenovirus E4orf6 20 years. In 1997, two novel family

  14. Prion Replication Elicits Cytopathic Changes in Differentiated Neurosphere Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Takenouchi, Takato; Imamura, Morikazu; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of prion-induced cytotoxicity remain largely obscure. Currently, only a few cell culture models have exhibited the cytopathic changes associated with prion infection. In this study, we introduced a cell culture model based on differentiated neurosphere cultures isolated from the brains of neonatal prion protein (PrP)-null mice and transgenic mice expressing murine PrP (dNP0 and dNP20 cultures). Upon exposure to mouse Chandler prions, dNP20 cultures supported the de novo formation of abnormal PrP and the resulting infectivity, as assessed by bioassays. Furthermore, this culture was susceptible to various prion strains, including mouse-adapted scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome prions. Importantly, a subset of the cells in the infected culture that was mainly composed of astrocyte lineage cells consistently displayed late-occurring, progressive signs of cytotoxicity as evidenced by morphological alterations, decreased cell viability, and increased lactate dehydrogenase release. These signs of cytotoxicity were not observed in infected dNP0 cultures, suggesting the requirement of endogenous PrP expression for prion-induced cytotoxicity. Degenerated cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein accumulated abnormal PrP and exhibited features of apoptotic death as assessed by active caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase nick-end staining. Furthermore, caspase inhibition provided partial protection from prion-mediated cell death. These results suggest that differentiated neurosphere cultures can provide an in vitro bioassay for mouse prions and permit the study of the molecular basis for prion-induced cytotoxicity at the cellular level. PMID:23740992

  15. Restoring penis sensation in patients with low spinal cord lesions: the role of the remaining function of the dorsal nerve in a unilateral or bilateral TOMAX procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgoor, Max L E; Braakhekke, Jan P; Kon, Moshe; De Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-04-01

    The recently developed TOMAX-procedure restores unilateral genital sensation, improving sexual health in men with a low spinal lesion (LSL). It connects one dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) to the intact ipsilateral ilioinguinal nerve. We proposed bilateral neurotization for full sensation of the glans but this entails cutting both DNPs, risking patients' erection/ejaculation ability. The objective was to select patients for a bilateral TOMAX-procedure by measuring remaining DNP function, and perform the first bilateral cases. In 30 LSL patients with no penile- but normal groin sensation selected for a unilateral TOMAX-procedure the integrity of the sacral-reflex-arc and DNP function was tested pre-operatively using bilateral needle electromyography (EMG)-bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) measurements, and an interview about reflex erections (RE) ability. In 13 spina bifida- and 17 spinal cord injury patients [median age 29.5 years (range 13-59 years), spinal lesion T12 (incomplete) to sacral], seven (23%) patients reported RE, four (57%) with intact BCR, and of nine (30%) patients with intact BCR, four reported RE (44%). Even patients with a LSL and no penile sensation can have signs of remaining DNP function, but cutting both DNPs to restore full glans sensation in a bilateral TOMAX-procedure might interfere with their RE/ejaculation. To avoid this risk, we propose a selecting-protocol for a unilateral- or bilateral procedure using RE and BCR measurements. Using this protocol, three patients were bilaterally operated with promising preliminary results. Full sensation of the glans could lead to further improvement in sexual function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic analysis of sunflower chlorophyll mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkina, E.V.; Guskov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    The method of getting the chlorophyll mutations in sunflower was developed by Y.D. Beletskii in 1969 with the use of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH). Certain concentrations of NMH are known to induce plastid mutations in growing seeds, and their yield depends on the duration of the exposure. The given work presented studies on the influence of rifampicin (R) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on the genetic activity NMH, as an inductor of plastid and nuclear mutations

  17. Using Standardized Patients to Teach Interprofessional Competencies to Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Patrick L; Scherer, Yvonne Krall; Hatton, Michael; Antonson, Donald; Austin-Ketch, Tammy; Campbell-Heider, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop, implement, and evaluate a novel interprofessional standardized patient exercise (ISPE) with oral-systemic and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) components. Dental students and doctor of nursing practice (DNP) students at one U.S. university participated in the simulation, which was primarily designed to test their teamwork skills. In spring 2014, DNP students worked in the dental clinics with dental students under the supervision of nursing and dental faculty members. To test the teamwork outcomes for both groups of students, a standardized patient (SP) scenario was designed to include multiple chronic medical diagnoses and an oral-systemic component. The exercise was filmed for later review. Outcomes measures included SP and student self-evaluations and faculty evaluation of student documentation. The primary outcome of interest from a dental standpoint was faculty evaluation of IPCP competencies derived from the Core Competencies of Interprofessional Collaborative Practice and were deemed to be observable by faculty when viewing the videotaped scenario. Eight teams of students participated with an SP trained in the scenario. Each team consisted of a DNP student, a fourth-year dental student, and a second-year dental student. All eligible students in the DNP class (n=20) and eight students from each dental class (approximately 110 each) participated. The results showed that the teams scored highest on the role/responsibilities subscale, indicating students were respectful of each other's roles and expertise and effectively engaged each other to develop strategies to meet the patient's needs. Scores on the three other subscales (values/ethics, interprofessional communication, and teams/teamwork) were also high. These findings appeared to support IPCP as a method to foster knowledge and respect for other roles and responsibilities, improve appreciation of teamwork, and encourage better communication among health

  18. Developing an Acquisition Strategy for the Colombian Navy’s New Strategic Surface Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    37 Departamento Nacional de Planeacion (2006), “Visión Colombia II Centenario: 2019.” Retrieved 14 May 2007 from http...40 Jefatura Oficina Planeacion A.R.C. (July 2006), Plan de Desarrollo 2007–2010, conference presented at Dirección General Marítima, Bogota...Departamento Nacional de Planeacion (2006). “Visión Colombia II Centenario: 2019”. Retrieved 14 May 2007 from http://www.dnp.gov.co/paginas_detalle.aspx?idp=888

  19. High-field Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization in silicon below the metal-insulator transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyev, Anatoly E; Cory, David G; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2011-04-21

    Single crystal silicon is an excellent system to explore dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), as it exhibits a continuum of properties from metallic to insulating as a function of doping concentration and temperature. At low doping concentrations DNP has been observed to occur via the solid effect, while at very high-doping concentrations an Overhauser mechanism is responsible. Here we report the hyperpolarization of (29)Si in n-doped silicon crystals, with doping concentrations in the range of (1-3) × 10(17) cm(-3). In this regime exchange interactions between donors become extremely important. The sign of the enhancement in our experiments and its frequency dependence suggest that the (29)Si spins are directly polarized by donor electrons via an Overhauser mechanism within exchange-coupled donor clusters. The exchange interaction between donors only needs to be larger than the silicon hyperfine interaction (typically much smaller than the donor hyperfine coupling) to enable this Overhauser mechanism. Nuclear polarization enhancement is observed for a range of donor clusters in which the exchange energy is comparable to the donor hyperfine interaction. The DNP dynamics are characterized by a single exponential time constant that depends on the microwave power, indicating that the Overhauser mechanism is a rate-limiting step. Since only about 2% of the silicon nuclei are located within 1 Bohr radius of the donor electron, nuclear spin diffusion is important in transferring the polarization to all the spins. However, the spin-diffusion time is much shorter than the Overhauser time due to the relatively weak silicon hyperfine coupling strength. In a 2.35 T magnetic field at 1.1 K, we observed a DNP enhancement of 244 ± 84 resulting in a silicon polarization of 10.4 ± 3.4% following 2 h of microwave irradiation.

  20. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-03-03

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design.

  1. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design. PMID:26950129

  2. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3 performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design.

  3. Experience of Soviet Medicine in a Great Patriotic War 1941-1945. Part 2 (Opyt Sovetskoy Meditsimy v Velikoy Otechestvennoy Voyne 1941-1945),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-15

    splints. First of all gave grounds to suspect break anamnesis and complaints of casualty. Anamsesis was always short: felt the strong blow into the hand...stage consisted of the rendering to the necessary aid and the rapid evacuation of casualty on DNP. Diagnosis was placed on the basis of anamnesis and... anamnesis , assembled in further stages, this gap/spacing was completed with the indication of Iccal anesthetization. The primary surgical prccessing of

  4. Produção de álcoois superiores por linhagens de Saccharomyces durante a fermentação alcoólica Production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces strains during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Gutierrez

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de álcoois superiores pelas leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A, Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 e levedura de panificação (Saccharomyces cerevisiae foi estudada em diversas condições de temperatura, concentração de sacarose, pH, fontes de nitrogênio e com inibidor 2-4 dinitrofenol (DNP. Em todas as condições estudadas, a levedura Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 apresentou a menor formação de álcoois superiores enquanto a levedura de panifícação apresentou os teores mais elevados. Com o aumento de temperatura e da concentração de sacarose ocorreu maior formação de álcool isoamílico pelas leveduras estudadas. Em pH 4,5 ocorreu menor produção de álcoois superiores do que em pH 3,0. Na presença do inibidor DNP ocorreu significativa redução (pThe production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A, Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 and baker's yeast (5. cerevisiae was studied under several temperature conditions, sucrose level, pH, nitrogen sources and with 2-4 dinitrophenol (DNP. The yeast IZ-1904 showed lower production of higher alcohols than other yeasts in all conditions studied. With the increase of temperature and higher level of sucrose an increase of isoamyl alcohol production was observed. A lower formation of higher alcohols was observed at pH 4.5 than at pH 3.0. With the addition of DNP occurred a significant reduction in isoamyl alcohol content. The yeasts did not show the sanie production of higher alcohols in relation to urea and ammonium sulfate.

  5. Physical Mechanism of the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in a Collisional Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-30

    8217 70Q SaCE .A-.D A> AT TN R~~ . WIL.IAMRS 01CI " CUT% 755O -řA ol2’ 4’TN E_."D-NP F. WIMItNITZ 01:y A’ ’N. LOGE 02CY ATTN D’E_,D).p C. MOAZED 0:2’ All% c

  6. Goethite promoted biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol under nitrate reduction condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Yue, Zhengbo; Wang, Jin; Chen, Tianhu; Qing, Chengsong

    2018-02-05

    Iron oxide may interact with other pollutants in the aquatic environments and further influence their toxicity, transport and fate. The current study was conducted to investigate the biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) in the presence of iron oxide of goethite under anoxic condition using nitrate as the electron acceptor. Experiment results showed that the degradation rate of 2,4-DNP was improved by goethite. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra analysis results showed that goethite promoted degradation and transformation of 2,4-diaminophenol and 2-amino-4-nitrophenol (2-nitro-4-aminophenol). Microbial community analysis results showed that the abundance of Actinobacteria, which have the potential ability to degrade PAHs, was increased when goethite was available. This might partially explain the higher degradation of 2,4-DNP. Furthermore, another bacterium of Desulfotomaculum reducens which could reduce soluble Fe(III) and nitrate was also increased. Results further confirmed that nanomaterials in the aquatic environment will influence the microbial community and further change the transformation process of toxic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Compact type-I coil planet centrifuge for counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Liu, Yongqiang; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-02-19

    A compact type-I coil planet centrifuge has been developed for performing counter-current chromatography. It has a revolution radius of 10 cm and a column holder height of 5 cm compared with 37 and 50 cm in the original prototype, respectively. The reduction in the revolution radius and column length permits application of higher revolution speed and more stable balancing of the rotor which leads us to learn more about its performance and the future potential of type-I coil planet centrifuge. The chromatographic performance of this apparatus was evaluated in terms of retention of the stationary phase (S(f)), peak resolution (R(s)), theoretical plate (N) and peak retention time (t(R)). The results of the experiment indicated that increasing the revolution speed slightly improved both the retention of the stationary phase and the peak resolution while the separation time is remarkably shortened to yield an excellent peak resolution at a revolution speed of 800 rpm. With a 12 ml capacity coiled column, DNP-DL-glu, DNP-beta-ala and DNP-l-ala were resolved at R(s) of 2.75 and 2.16 within 90 min at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. We believe that the compact type-I coil planet centrifuge has a high analytical potential. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Unsuitability of using the DNPH-coated solid sorbent cartridge for determination of airborne unsaturated carbonyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, K. F.; Liu, W. D.; Lee, S. C.; Dai, W. T.; Cao, J. J.; Ip, H. S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of aldehydes and ketones are typically conducted by derivatization using sorbent cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The collected samples are eluted with acetonitrile and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with an ultra-violet detector (HPLC/UV). This paper intends to examine artifacts about its suitability in identification of unsaturated carbonyls. Kinetic tests for acrolein, crotonaldehyde, methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) showed formations of carbonyl-DNP-hydrazone during sampling, which could further react with DNPH, resulting in undesired UV absorption products [e.g., carbonyl-DNP-hydrazone-DNPH (dimer) and 2(carbonyl-DNP-hydrazone)-DNPH (trimer)]. The dimerization and trimerization occurred for acrolein and MVK whereas only dimerization for crotonaldehyde and methacrolein. The polymerization products undoubtedly affect the integrity of the chromatogram, leading to misidentification and inaccurate quantification. Whether precautions taken during sampling and/or sample treatment could avoid or minimize this artifact has not been thoughtfully investigated. More often, such artifacts are usually overlooked by scientists when the data are reported.

  9. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization with helium-cooled samples and nitrogen-driven magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Prospects for sub-micron solid state nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2010-06-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with sub-micron voxel dimensions using a combination of low temperatures and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Experiments are performed on nitroxide-doped glycerol-water at 9.4 T and temperatures below 40 K, using a 30 mW tunable microwave source for DNP. With DNP at 7 K, a 0.5 microL sample yields a (1)H NMR signal-to-noise ratio of 770 in two scans with pulsed spin-lock detection and after 80 db signal attenuation. With reasonable extrapolations, we infer that (1)H NMR signals from 1 microm(3) voxel volumes should be readily detectable, and voxels as small as 0.03 microm(3) may eventually be detectable. Through homonuclear decoupling with a frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg spin echo technique, we obtain 830 Hz (1)H NMR linewidths at low temperatures, implying that pulsed field gradients equal to 0.4 G/d or less would be required during spatial encoding dimensions of an imaging sequence, where d is the resolution in each dimension.

  11. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  12. New Security Development and Trends to Secure the SCADA Sensors Automated Transmission during Critical Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern technology enhancements have been used worldwide to fulfill the requirements of the industrial sector, especially in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems as a part of industrial control systems (ICS. SCADA systems have gained popularity in industrial automations due to technology enhancements and connectivity with modern computer networks and/or protocols. The procurement of new technologies has made SCADA systems important and helpful to processing in oil lines, water treatment plants, and electricity generation and control stations. On the other hand, these systems have vulnerabilities like other traditional computer networks (or systems, especially when interconnected with open platforms. Many international organizations and researchers have proposed and deployed solutions for SCADA security enhancement, but most of these have been based on node-to-node security, without emphasizing critical sessions that are linked directly with industrial processing and automation. This study concerns SCADA security measures related to critical processing with specified sessions of automated polling, analyzing cryptography mechanisms and deploying the appropriate explicit inclusive security solution in a distributed network protocol version 3 (DNP3 stack, as part of a SCADA system. The bytes flow through the DNP3 stack with security computational bytes within specified critical intervals defined for polling. We took critical processing knowledge into account when designing a SCADA/DNP3 testbed and deploying a cryptography solution that did not affect communications.

  13. Reconceptualizing the core of nurse practitioner education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Mary E; Hart, Ann Marie; Conley, Virginia; Brown, Julie; Sherard, Pat; Clarke, Pamela N

    2009-01-01

    The movement to the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) is progressing rapidly with new programs emerging and curricular documents being developed. We argue that the implementation of the DNP is a good move for nursing, provided that we use the opportunity to reconceptualize the core of advanced practice nursing, especially nurse practitioner (NP) practice. Theory and research articles from nursing focused on advanced practice nursing, NPs, and doctoral education. The foundation of NP education is currently based essentially on borrowed or shared content in assessment, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. We argue that the heart and soul of nursing is in health promotion, both in healthy persons and in those dealing with chronic illness. Current master's programs do not prepare NPs to assume high-level practice focused on health promotion and disease management using the latest theoretical developments in health behavior change, behavioral sciences, exercise physiology, nutrition, and medical anthropology. Although these are touched upon in most NP programs, they do not represent the core science of NP education and need to be a critical part of any DNP program. Ultimately, our vision is for NP care to be consistently "different," yet just as essential as physician care, leading to positive outcomes in health promotion and disease management.

  14. Sequences of 12 monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl spin-label antibodies for NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, D.J.; Rule, G.S.; Whittaker, M.M.; McConnell, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies specific for a spin-labeled dinitrophenyl hapten (DNP-SL) have been produces for use in NMR studies. They have been named AN01 and ANO3-AN12. The stability constants for the association of these antibodies with DNP-SL and related haptens were measured by fluorescence quenching. cDNA clones coding for the heavy and light chains of each antibody and of an additional anti-DNP-SL monoclonal antibody, ANO2, have been isolated. The nucleic acid sequence of the 5' end of each clone has been determined, and the amino acid sequence of the variable regions of each antibody has been deduced from the cDNA sequence. The sequences are relatively heterogeneous, but both the heavy and the light chains of ANO1 and ANO3 are derived from the same variable-region gene families as those of the ANO2 antibody. ANO7 has a heavy chain that is related to that of ANO2, and ANO9 has a related light chain. ANO5 and ANO6 are unrelated to ANO2 but share virtually identical heavy and light chains. Preliminary NMR difference spectra comparing related antibodies show that sequence-specific assignment of resonances is possible. Such spectra also provide a measure of structural relatedness

  15. Thermosetting polymer for dynamic nuclear polarization: Solidification of an epoxy resin mixture including TEMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Yohei, E-mail: noda.yohei@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kumada, Takayuki [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Shamoto, Shin-ichi [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-03-11

    We investigated the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of typical thermosetting polymers (two-component type epoxy resins; Araldite{sup ®} Standard or Araldite{sup ®} Rapid) doped with a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) radical. The doping process was developed by carefully considering the decomposition of TEMPO during the solidification of the epoxy resin. The TEMPO electron spin in each two-component paste decayed slowly, which was favorable for our study. Furthermore, despite the dissolved TEMPO, the mixture of the two-component paste successfully solidified. With the resulting TEMPO-doped epoxy-resin samples, DNP experiments at 1.2 K and 3.35 T indicated a magnitude of a proton-spin polarization up to 39%. This polarization is similar to that (35%) obtained for TEMPO-doped polystyrene (PS), which is often used as a standard sample for DNP. To combine this solidification of TEMPO-including mixture with a resin-casting technique enables a creation of polymeric target materials with a precise and complex structure.

  16. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Kim, Suntae; Kim, Kangmin; Choi, Jae-Young; Cho, Younghwa; Lee, Keun-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3) design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack. PMID:26751443

  17. Dynamic nuclear polarization using frequency modulation at 3.34 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovav, Y; Feintuch, A; Vega, S; Goldfarb, D

    2014-01-01

    During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments polarization is transferred from unpaired electrons to their neighboring nuclear spins, resulting in dramatic enhancement of the NMR signals. While in most cases this is achieved by continuous wave (cw) irradiation applied to samples in fixed external magnetic fields, here we show that DNP enhancement of static samples can improve by modulating the microwave (MW) frequency at a constant field of 3.34 T. The efficiency of triangular shaped modulation is explored by monitoring the (1)H signal enhancement in frozen solutions containing different TEMPOL radical concentrations at different temperatures. The optimal modulation parameters are examined experimentally and under the most favorable conditions a threefold enhancement is obtained with respect to constant frequency DNP in samples with low radical concentrations. The results are interpreted using numerical simulations on small spin systems. In particular, it is shown experimentally and explained theoretically that: (i) The optimal modulation frequency is higher than the electron spin-lattice relaxation rate. (ii) The optimal modulation amplitude must be smaller than the nuclear Larmor frequency and the EPR line-width, as expected. (iii) The MW frequencies corresponding to the enhancement maxima and minima are shifted away from one another when using frequency modulation, relative to the constant frequency experiments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Academic-Practice Partnership Model to Grow and Sustain Advanced Practice Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy E; Howard, Patricia B

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this article were to describe the implementation of an academic-practice partnership for healthcare system workforce development and provide preliminary outcomes of the associated pilot study. The demand for cross-continuum healthcare delivery models necessitates creation of workforce development structures for advanced practice nursing. An academic-practice partnership specified enrollment of 5 cohorts of BSN staff nurses in a 3-year DNP program. Qualitative methods were used to explore pilot data at midpoint of cohort 1 student progression to determine learning outcomes and DNP projects with potential for impact on organization goals. Partnership implementation experiences indicate that contractual agreements and an established evaluation plan are keys to academic-practice partnership success. Pilot study findings suggest that curriculum core courses provide a foundation for designing DNP projects congruent with acute and primary care health system goals. Implementing an academic-practice partnership is a strategy for workforce development to increase retention of advanced practice nurses. Academic-practice partnerships can serve as a catalyst for a paradigm shift for changing models of care, thus enhancing workforce development succession planning for sustainable growth in healthcare systems.

  19. Diet pills and the cataract outbreak of 1935: reflections on the evolution of consumer protection legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cataracts in 1935 caused by dinitrophenol (DNP), the active ingredient of popular diet pills, highlighted the inability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent harmful drugs from entering the marketplace. Just two years earlier, the FDA used horrific images of ocular surface injury caused by cosmetics at the World's Fair in Chicago to garner public support for legislative reform. The FDA had to walk a fine line between a public awareness campaign and lobbying Congress while lawmakers debated the need for consumer protection. The cataract outbreak of 1935 was conspicuous in the medical literature during the height of New Deal legislation, but questions persist as to how much it affected passage of the proposed Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (of 1938). The legislation languished in committee for years. The cataract outbreak probably had little impact on the eventual outcome, but medical opinion concerning the safety of DNP may have contributed to the voluntary withdrawal of the diet drug from the market. We review the DNP cataract outbreak and examine it in context of the challenges facing regulatory reform at that time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid-State NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Bardet, Michel; De Paepe, Gael; Hediger, Sabine; Ayala, Isabel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool. (authors)

  1. Solid-state NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Ayala, Isabel; Bardet, Michel; De Paëpe, Gaël; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Hediger, Sabine

    2013-04-03

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool.

  2. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3 design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack.

  3. Parametric Cost Modeling of Space Missions Using the Develop New Projects (DMP) Implementation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Leigh; Hihn, Jairus; Roust, Kevin; Warfield, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a parametric cost model that has been built at JPL to estimate costs of future, deep space, robotic science missions. Due to the recent dramatic changes in JPL business practices brought about by an internal reengineering effort known as develop new products (DNP), high-level historic cost data is no longer considered analogous to future missions. Therefore, the historic data is of little value in forecasting costs for projects developed using the DNP process. This has lead to the development of an approach for obtaining expert opinion and also for combining actual data with expert opinion to provide a cost database for future missions. In addition, the DNP cost model has a maximum of objective cost drivers which reduces the likelihood of model input error. Version 2 is now under development which expands the model capabilities, links it more tightly with key design technical parameters, and is grounded in more rigorous statistical techniques. The challenges faced in building this model will be discussed, as well as it's background, development approach, status, validation, and future plans.

  4. Characterization of Chemical Exchange Using Relaxation Dispersion of Hyperpolarized Nuclear Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxiao; Kim, Yaewon; Hilty, Christian

    2017-09-05

    Chemical exchange phenomena are ubiquitous in macromolecules, which undergo conformational change or ligand complexation. NMR relaxation dispersion (RD) spectroscopy based on a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence is widely applied to identify the exchange and measure the lifetime of intermediate states on the millisecond time scale. Advances in hyperpolarization methods improve the applicability of NMR spectroscopy when rapid acquisitions or low concentrations are required, through an increase in signal strength by several orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of chemical exchange from a single aliquot of a ligand hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Transverse relaxation rates are measured simultaneously at different pulsing delays by dual-channel 19 F NMR spectroscopy. This two-point measurement is shown to allow the determination of the exchange term in the relaxation rate expression. For the ligand 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene-1-carboximidamide binding to the protein trypsin, the exchange term is found to be equal within error limits in neutral and acidic environments from D-DNP NMR spectroscopy, corresponding to a pre-equilibrium of trypsin deprotonation. This finding illustrates the capability for determination of binding mechanisms using D-DNP RD. Taking advantage of hyperpolarization, the ligand concentration in the exchange measurements can reach on the order of tens of μM and protein concentration can be below 1 μM, i.e., conditions typically accessible in drug discovery.

  5. Dynamic nuclear polarization of irradiated target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Polarized nucleon targets used in high energy physics experiments usually employ the method of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to polarize the protons or deuterons in an alcohol. DNP requires the presence of paramagnetic centers, which are customarily provided by a chemical dopant. These chemically doped targets have a relatively low polarizable nucleon content and suffer from loss of polarization when subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation. If the paramagnetic centers formed when the target is irradiated can be used in the DNP process, it becomes possible to produce targets using materials which have a relatively high polarizable nucleon content, but which are not easily doped by chemical means. Furthermore, the polarization of such targets may be much more radiation resistant. Dynamic nuclear polarization in ammonia, deuterated ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, methylamine, borane ammonia, butonal, ethane and lithium borohydride has been studied. These studies were conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the Yale-SLAC polarized target system. Results indicate that the use of ammonia and deuterated ammonia as polarized target materials would make significant increases in polarized target performance possible

  6. Effect of Nitrooxy Compounds with Different Molecular Structures on the Rumen Methanogenesis, Metabolic Profile, and Methanogenic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Meng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-08-01

    Rumen in vitro fermentation was used to evaluate the capacity of nitrooxy compounds to mitigate rumen methane production. The following three nitrooxy compounds, each with different molecular structures, were evaluated: 2,2-dimethyl-3-(nitrooxy) propanoic (DNP), N-[2-(Nitrooxy)ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxamide (NPD), and nitroglycerin (NG). All three compounds substantially decreased the total gas production, methane production, and the acetate:propionate ratio, while increasing hydrogen production. The growth of methanogens was specifically inhibited by all three compounds, without affecting the abundance of bacteria, anaerobic fungi, or protozoa. However, inhibition of methanogenesis required a much higher dose of DNP when compared to NPD or NG. Further investigations were conducted on NG to determine its effects on the methanogenic community. NG reduced the relative abundance of Methanomassiliicoccales, while increasing the relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera. Overall, the results suggested that all three of these nitrooxy compounds could specifically inhibit rumen methanogenesis, but NPD and NG were much more efficient than DNP at rumen methane mitigation.

  7. Dynamic nuclear-polarization studies of paramagnetic species in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, W.E.

    1982-07-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) was used to measure the electron spin lattice relaxation times, T 1 , of transition metal ions in aqueous solution. Saturation which is induced in the electron spin system is transferred to the solvent proton spins by dipole-dipole interactions. The change in the polarization of the proton spins is much larger than it is in the electron spins. The change in proton polarization is easily measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In one experimental arrangement the sample solution was continuously flowed through a microwave cavity to the NMR coil. The NMR was observed with a continuous wave NMR spectrometer. In a second arrangement the whole sample tube was moved from within the microwave cavity to the NMR coil in less than 40 ms by a blast of compressed air. The NMR was then observed with a pulse-Fourier-transform spectrometer. With the second arrangement a mean-square microwave magnetic field at the sample of more than 10 G 2 is obtainable with 14 W of microwave power. Measurements of DNP at 9 GHz were made on aqueous solutions of VO 2+ , Mn 2+ , Cr(CN) 6 3- , Cu 2+ and Cu(ethylenediamine) 2 (H 2 0) 2 2+ ions from 3 to 60 0 C. It was also possible to observe DNP on resolved proton resonances from mixed water-acetonitrile solutions of VO 2+ and Cr(CN) 6 3- ions

  8. Suppressive effects of anti-allergic agent suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on mouse splenocytes in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Kurokawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of IPD-1151T on the expression of costimulatory molecules, CD40, CD80 and CD86, were investigated in vivo using mice with allergic disorders. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with two doses of dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA at 1-week intervals. These mice then were treated intraperitoneally with 100μg/kg of IPD1151T once a day for 14 days, starting 7 days after the first immunization. On day 21, some mice were challenged intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA and the other mice were not challenged. All mice were autopsied on day 22 and assayed for immunoglobulin E, interleuken (IL-4 and IL-5 productions following DNP-OVA immunization. The intraperitoneal treatment with IPD-1151T strongly suppressed immunoglobulin E contents in serum, which were enhanced by DNA-OVA immunization. IPD-1151T also caused a decrease in both IL-4 and IL-5 levels in splenic lymphocytes. We next examined the influence of IPD1151T on co-stimulatory molecule expression on splenic lymphocytes. IPD-1151T caused suppression of CD40 and CD86 expression; however, the treatments did not affect CD80 expression.

  9. Proanthocyanidin-rich Pinus radiata bark extract inhibits mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Song, Chang Ho; Mun, Sung Phil

    2018-02-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Pinus radiata bark extract exerts multiple biological effects and exhibits immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. However, its role in mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidin-rich water extract (PAWE) isolated from P. radiata bark on compound 48/80-induced or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions in vivo. In addition, we evaluated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of PAWE on mast cell activation, with a specific focus on histamine release, using rat peritoneal mast cells. PAWE attenuated compound 48/80-induced or anti-DNP IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reactions in mice, and it inhibited histamine release triggered by compound 48/80, ionophore A23187, or anti-DNP IgE in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Moreover, PAWE suppressed compound 48/80-elicited calcium uptake in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted a transient increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels. Together, these results suggest that proanthocyanidin-rich P. radiata bark extract effectively inhibits anaphylaxis-like reactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Die meganisme van sinkopname in blaarskyfies en wortelpunte van Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van As, J A

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of {sup 65}Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs.

  11. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  12. Sub-minute kinetics of human red cell fumarase: 1 H spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and 13 C rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Wright, Alan J; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Pileio, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Gabriele; Brindle, Kevin M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2018-03-01

    Fumarate is an important probe of metabolism in hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. It is used to detect the release of fumarase in cancer tissues, which is associated with necrosis and drug treatment. Nevertheless, there are limited reports describing the detailed kinetic studies of this enzyme in various cells and tissues. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the sub-minute kinetics of human red blood cell fumarase using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and to provide a quantitative description of the enzyme that is relevant to the use of fumarate as a probe of cell rupture. The fumarase reaction was studied using time courses of 1 H spin-echo and 13 C-NMR spectra. 1 H-NMR experiments showed that the fumarase reaction in hemolysates is sufficiently rapid to make its kinetics amenable to study in a period of approximately 3 min, a timescale characteristic of hyperpolarized 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. The rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (RD-DNP) technique was used to hyperpolarize [1,4- 13 C]fumarate, which was injected into concentrated hemolysates. The kinetic data were analyzed using recently developed FmR α analysis and modeling of the enzymatic reaction using Michaelis-Menten equations. In RD-DNP experiments, the decline in the 13 C-NMR signal from fumarate, and the concurrent rise and fall of that from malate, were captured with high spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, which allowed the robust quantification of fumarase kinetics. The kinetic parameters obtained indicate the potential contribution of hemolysis to the overall rate of the fumarase reaction when 13 C-NMR RD-DNP is used to detect necrosis in animal models of implanted tumors. The analytical procedures developed will be applicable to studies of other rapid enzymatic reactions using conventional and hyperpolarized substrate NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Design of a Heterotetravalent Synthetic Allergen That Reflects Epitope Heterogeneity and IgE Antibody Variability to Study Mast Cell Degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlogten, Michael W.; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This study describes the design of a heterotetravalent allergen (HtTA) as a multi-component experimental system that enables an integrative approach to study mast cell degranulation. The HtTA design allows presentation of two distinct haptens, each with a valency of two, thereby better reflecting the complexity of natural allergens by displaying epitope heterogeneity and IgE antibody variability. Using the HtTA design, synthetic allergens HtTA-1 and HtTA-2 were synthesized to model a combination of epitope/IgE affinities. HtTA-1 presented DNP and dansyl haptens (Kd = 22 and 54 nM for IgEDNP and IgEdansyl respectively), and HtTA-2 presented dansyl and the weak affinity DNP-Pro haptens (Kd = 550 nM for IgEDNP). Both HtTAs effectively induced degranulation when mast cells were primed with both IgEDNP and IgEdansyl antibodies. Interestingly, tetravalent DNP-Pro or bivalent dansyl were insufficient in stimulating a degranulation response, illustrating the significance of valency, affinity, and synergy in allergen-IgE interactions. Importantly, maximum degranulation with both HtTA-1 and HtTA-2 was observed when only 50% of the mast cell-bound IgEs were hapten specific (25% IgEdansyl + 25% IgEDNP). Taken together, this study establishes the HtTA system as a physiologically relevant experimental model and demonstrates its utility in elucidating critical mechanisms of mast cell degranulation. PMID:23050868

  14. The Keys to Success in Doctoral Studies: A Preimmersion Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salani, Deborah; Albuja, Laura Dean; Azaiza, Khitam

    2016-01-01

    This article will review an innovative on-line preimmersion course for a hybrid doctor of nursing practice (DNP) program and a traditional face-to-face doctor of philosophy nursing program. The doctoral candidates include both postbaccalaureate and postmaster's students. The authors of the preimmersion course developed and initiated the course in order to address various issues that have surfaced in discussions between students and faculty. Examples of common themes identified include writing skills, statistics, life-work-school balance, and navigating instructional technology. Doctoral studies may pose challenges to students studying nursing, in regard to academic rigor and experiencing on-line education for the first time, especially for students who have been out of school for an extended amount of time or are not accustomed to a nontraditional classroom; thus, having a preimmersion course established may facilitate a smooth transition to rigorous academic studies in a hybrid program. The course, which was developed and delivered through Blackboard, a learning management system, includes the following 9 preimmersion modules: academic strategies (learning styles, creating an effective PowerPoint presentation), library support (introduction to the university library, literature review tutorial, and citation styles), mindfulness, wellness, statistics essentials, writing express, DNP capstone, netiquette, and DNP/doctor of philosophy mentorship. Each module consists of various tools that may promote student success in specific courses and the programs in general. The purpose of designing the preimmersion course is to decrease attrition rates and increase success of the students. While the majority of students have succeeded in their coursework and been graduated from the program, the authors of this article found that many students struggled with the work, life, and school balance. Future work will include the evaluation of results from graduate students enrolled in

  15. Nanoparticle-Encapsulated Curcumin Inhibits Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Involving the P2Y12 Receptor in the Dorsal Root Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy results in diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP. Satellite glial cells (SGCs enwrap the neuronal soma in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. The purinergic 2 (P2 Y12 receptor is expressed on SGCs in the DRG. SGC activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DNP. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Because curcumin has poor metabolic stability in vivo and low bioavailability, nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin was used to improve its targeting and bioavailability. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on DNP mediated by the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the rat DRG. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy increased the expression levels of the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the DRG and enhanced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM. Up-regulation of the P2Y12 receptor in SGCs in the DRG increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Up-regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and connexin43 (Cx43 resulted in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with DM. The nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin decreased up-regulated IL-1β and Cx43 expression and reduced levels of phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt in the DRG of rats with DM. The up-regulation of P2Y12 on SGCs and the up-regulation of the IL-1β and Cx43 in the DRG indicated the activation of SGCs in the DRG. The nano-curcumin treatment inhibited the activation of SGCs accompanied by its anti-inflammatory effect to decrease the up-regulated CGRP expression in the DRG neurons. Therefore, the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin treatment decreased the up-regulation of the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the DRG and decreased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with DM.

  16. Structure of Lipid Nanoparticles Containing siRNA or mRNA by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization-Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Schantz, Anna; Pinon, Arthur C; Rossini, Aaron J; Schantz, Staffan; Emsley, Lyndon

    2018-02-22

    Here, we show how dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR spectroscopy experiments permit the atomic level structural characterization of loaded and empty lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). The LNPs used here were synthesized by the microfluidic mixing technique and are composed of ionizable cationic lipid (DLin-MC3-DMA), a phospholipid (distearoylphosphatidylcholine, DSPC), cholesterol, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (dimyristoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DMPE)-PEG 2000), as well as encapsulated cargoes that are either phosphorothioated siRNA (50 or 100%) or mRNA. We show that LNPs form physically stable complexes with bioactive drug siRNA for a period of 94 days. Relayed DNP experiments are performed to study 1 H- 1 H spin diffusion and to determine the spatial location of the various components of the LNP by studying the average enhancement factors as a function of polarization time. We observe a striking feature of LNPs in the presence and in the absence of encapsulating siRNA or mRNA by comparing our experimental results to numerical spin-diffusion modeling. We observe that LNPs form a layered structure, and we detect that DSPC and DMPE-PEG 2000 lipids form a surface rich layer in the presence (or absence) of the cargoes and that the cholesterol and ionizable cationic lipid are embedded in the core. Furthermore, relayed DNP 31 P solid-state NMR experiments allow the location of the cargo encapsulated in the LNPs to be determined. On the basis of the results, we propose a new structural model for the LNPs that features a homogeneous core with a tendency for layering of DSPC and DMPE-PEG at the surface.

  17. Acidic environment augments FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Yosuke, E-mail: m08702012@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara (Japan); Ishizuka, Tamotsu [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Tobo, Masayuki [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Tsurumaki, Hiroaki [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Aoki, Haruka; Mogi, Chihiro [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Yatomi, Masakiyo; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Sato, Koichi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Hisada, Takeshi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Dobashi, Kunio [Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Maebashi (Japan); Yamada, Masanobu [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Although blood pH is maintained in a narrow range of around pH 7.4 in living organisms, inflammatory loci are characterized by acidic conditions. Mast cells tend to reside close to the surface of the body in areas such as the mucosa and skin where they may be exposed to exogenous acids, and they play an important role in immune responses. However, little is known about the effects of extracellular acidification on the functions of mast cell. Here, we found that extracellular acidification increased the dinitrophenyl-conjugated human serum albumin (DNP-HSA)-induced production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-13 in MC/9 cells or bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells sensitized with anti-DNP IgE. Extracellular acidification also inhibited migration of MC/9 cells toward DNP-HSA. In addition, acidic pH stimulated antigen-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt). These findings suggest that extracellular acidification augmented antigen/IgE-induced and FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells, and that this was associated with the enhancement of p38 MAPK and Akt activation. - Highlights: • Antigen-induced IL-6 and IL-13 production was augmented by acidic pH in mast cells. • Acidic pH-induced actions were associated with activation of p38 MAPK and Akt. • Inhibition of p38 MAPK and Akt attenuated cytokine responses to acidic pH. • Acidic pH effects are not attributable to actions of known proton-sensing GPCRs.

  18. Genomic and transcriptomic comparison of allergen and silver nanoparticle-induced mast cell degranulation reveals novel non-immunoglobulin E mediated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica; Alsaleh, Nasser; Mendoza, Ryan P; Persaud, Indushekhar; Bauer, Alison K; Saba, Laura; Brown, Jared M

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells represent a crucial cell type in host defense; however, maladaptive responses are contributing factors in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) results in mast cell degranulation via a non-immunoglobulin E (IgE) mechanism. In this study, we utilized a systems biology approach to identify novel genetic factors playing a role in AgNP-induced mast cell degranulation compared to the classical activation by antigen-mediated FcεRI crosslinking. Mast cell degranulation was assessed in bone marrow-derived mast cells isolated from 23 strains of mice following exposure to AgNPs or FcεRI crosslinking with dinitrophenyl (DNP). Utilizing strain-dependent mast cell degranulation, an association mapping study identified 3 chromosomal regions that were significantly associated with mast cell degranulation by AgNP and one non-overlapping region associated with DNP-mediated degranulation. Two of the AgNP-associated regions correspond to genes previously reported to be associated with allergic disorders (Trac2 on chromosome 1 and Traf6 on chromosome 2) and an uncharacterized gene identified on chromosome 1 (Fam126b). In conjunction, RNA-sequencing performed on mast cells from the high and low responder strains revealed 3754 and 34 differentially expressed genes that were unique to DNP and AgNP exposures, respectively. Select candidate genes include Ptger4, a gene encoding a G-protein coupled receptor in addition to a multifunctional adaptor protein, Txnip, that may be driving mast cell degranulation by AgNP. Taken together, we identified novel genes that have not been previously shown to play a role in nanoparticle-mediated mast cell activation. With further functional evaluation in the future, these genes may be potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of non-IgE mediated mast cell-linked disorders.

  19. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van As, J.A.

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of 65 Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs

  20. Liquid-State 13C Polarization of 30% through Photoinduced Nonpersistent Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzi, Andrea; Karlsson, Magnus; Petersen, Jan Raagaard

    2018-01-01

    of the nuclear spin polarizationtogether with the constraint of having to polarize the spins nearthe MRI magnet. As recently demonstrated, the employment of UV-inducednonpersistent radicals represents an elegant solution to tacklingthese drawbacks. Nevertheless, since its introduction, the spreadof the technique......-radical technique. Under optimal conditions,it was possible to produce up to 60 mM radical in less than 5 minand reach maximum DNP enhancement with a buildup time constant ofapproximately 25 min at 6.7 T and 1 K, resulting in 30% 13C liquid-state polarization....

  1. Anti-allergic activity of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA) via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell activation and inhibition of passive systemic anaphylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Ji Wei; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Md Hashim, Nur Fariesha [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 (Malaysia); Ng, Chean Hui; Shaari, Khozirah [Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43300 (Malaysia); Tham, Chau Ling, E-mail: chauling@upm.edu.my [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 (Malaysia)

    2017-03-15

    tHGA, a geranyl acetophenone compound originally isolated from a local shrub called Melicope ptelefolia, has been previously reported to prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma by targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis. Mast cells are immune effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including asthma by releasing cysteinyl leukotrienes. The anti-asthmatic properties of tHGA could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation. As mast cell degranulation is an important event in allergic responses, this study aimed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of tHGA in cellular and animal models of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. For in vitro model of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, DNP-IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells were pre-treated with tHGA before challenged with DNP-BSA to induce degranulation. For IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, Sprague Dawley rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of DNP-IgE before challenged with DNP-BSA. Both in vitro and in vivo models showed that tHGA significantly inhibited the release of preformed mediators (β-hexosaminidase and histamine) as well as de novo mediators (interleukin-4, tumour necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4}). Pre-treatment of tHGA also prevented IgE-challenged RBL-2H3 cells and peritoneal mast cells from undergoing morphological changes associated with mast cell degranulation. These findings indicate that tHGA possesses potent anti-allergic activity via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and inhibition of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, tHGA may have the potential to be developed as a mast cell stabilizer for the treatment of allergic diseases in the future. - Highlights: • The in vitro and in vivo mast cell stabilizing effects of tHGA were examined. • tHGA counteracts the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast

  2. An optimized method for the measurement of acetaldehyde by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangying; Rubin, Emanuel; Anni, Helen

    2012-03-01

    Acetaldehyde is produced during ethanol metabolism predominantly in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase and rapidly eliminated by oxidation to acetate via aldehyde dehydrogenase. Assessment of circulating acetaldehyde levels in biological matrices is performed by headspace gas chromatography and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). We have developed an optimized method for the measurement of acetaldehyde by RP-HPLC in hepatoma cell culture medium, blood, and plasma. After sample deproteinization, acetaldehyde was derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The reaction was optimized for pH, amount of derivatization reagent, time, and temperature. Extraction methods of the acetaldehyde-hydrazone (AcH-DNP) stable derivative and product stability studies were carried out. Acetaldehyde was identified by its retention time in comparison with AcH-DNP standard, using a new chromatography gradient program, and quantitated based on external reference standards and standard addition calibration curves in the presence and absence of ethanol. Derivatization of acetaldehyde was performed at pH 4.0 with an 80-fold molar excess of DNPH. The reaction was completed in 40 minutes at ambient temperature, and the product was stable for 2 days. A clear separation of AcH-DNP from DNPH was obtained with a new 11-minute chromatography program. Acetaldehyde detection was linear up to 80 μM. The recovery of acetaldehyde was >88% in culture media and >78% in plasma. We quantitatively determined the ethanol-derived acetaldehyde in hepatoma cells, rat blood and plasma with a detection limit around 3 μM. The accuracy of the method was volume (70 μl) plasma sampling. An optimized method for the quantitative determination of acetaldehyde in biological systems was developed using derivatization with DNPH, followed by a short RP-HPLC separation of AcH-DNP. The method has an extended linear range, is reproducible and applicable to small-volume sampling of culture

  3. Evaluation of a Field-Portable DNA Microarray Platform and Nucleic Acid Amplification Strategies for the Detection of Arboviruses, Arthropods, and Bloodmeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    heparin was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI). Goat and horse whole blood was provided by our Veterinary Medicine Division (USAMRIID, Fort...quinquefasciatus (10) BA House NA Human Culex Th9-0122 Ae. aegypti (1) BA House DENV-3 DNP Aedes Th9-0164 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (24) LT Farm JEV NA...Culex Th9-0167 Ae. albopictus (1) LT Farm NA NA Aedes Th9-0175 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (25) LT Farm JEV NA Culex Th9-0235 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (25) BA

  4. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  5. Etnic discrimination and income in San Andrés Island, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yabrudy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This document examines, bases on the analysis of observable characteristics, if an income gapexists between the raizal population and non raizal population of San Andres Island. For thispurpose, the information of the SISBEN II survey for the year 2004, compelled by the NationalPlanning Department (DNP, Spanish acronym is used. The methodological strategy uses quantileregressions to determine the existence of pay gaps throughout the distribution of income. Theresults suggest that being raizal has a negative impact on income for the lower quantiles. However,this difference vanishes as income increases, becoming positive at higher levels.

  6. Tools and Methods for Hardening Communication Security of Energy Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Shrirang [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Lin, Yow-Jian [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Ghosh, Abhrajit [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Samtani, Sunil [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Kang, Jaewon [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Siegell, Bruce [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Kaul, Vikram [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Unger, John [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); De Bruet, Andre [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Martinez, Catherine [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Vermeulen, Gerald [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Rasche, Galen [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Sternfeld, Scott [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Berthier, Robin [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bobba, Rakesh [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Campbell, Roy [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Sanders, Williams [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This document summarizes the research and development work the TT Government Solutions (TTGS), d.b.a. Applied Communication Sciences (ACS), team performed for the Department of Energy Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program. It addresses the challenges in protecting critical grid control and data communication, including the identification of vulnerabilities and deficiencies of communication protocols commonly used in energy delivery systems (e.g., ICCP, DNP3, C37.118, C12.22), as well as the development of effective means to detect and prevent the exploitation of such vulnerabilities and deficiencies.

  7. A critical examination of developments in nursing doctoral education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaké Ketefian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graduate nursing education in the United States is undergoing major transformations, as a result of factors both within nursing and in the larger society.OBJECTIVE: In this paper the authors examine the trends and factors that are influencing the changes, especially in doctoral education, for both nurse scientist and advanced practice preparation.CONCLUSION: The paper provides a background that serves as context, it gives an overview of the PhD and the DNP degrees, focusing on the recent changes and identifying the most compelling issues and concerns, ending with a series of recommendations.

  8. Effect of isospin degree of freedom on transverse momentum spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Sukhjit; Swati

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom, incident energy as well as system mass on the behavior of transverse momentum spectra, dN/p t dp t , of neutrons and protons. We find that most of the nucleons suffer soft collisions. The effect of isospin degree of freedom on transverse spectra diminishes with the increase in the incident energy. In Fermi energy region, transverse momentum spectra of both protons and neutrons show sensitivity toward the density dependence of symmetry energy. (author)

  9. Anti-allergic activity of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA) via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell activation and inhibition of passive systemic anaphylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ji Wei; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Md Hashim, Nur Fariesha; Ng, Chean Hui; Shaari, Khozirah; Tham, Chau Ling

    2017-01-01

    tHGA, a geranyl acetophenone compound originally isolated from a local shrub called Melicope ptelefolia, has been previously reported to prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma by targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis. Mast cells are immune effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including asthma by releasing cysteinyl leukotrienes. The anti-asthmatic properties of tHGA could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation. As mast cell degranulation is an important event in allergic responses, this study aimed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of tHGA in cellular and animal models of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. For in vitro model of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, DNP-IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells were pre-treated with tHGA before challenged with DNP-BSA to induce degranulation. For IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, Sprague Dawley rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of DNP-IgE before challenged with DNP-BSA. Both in vitro and in vivo models showed that tHGA significantly inhibited the release of preformed mediators (β-hexosaminidase and histamine) as well as de novo mediators (interleukin-4, tumour necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin D 2 and leukotriene C 4 ). Pre-treatment of tHGA also prevented IgE-challenged RBL-2H3 cells and peritoneal mast cells from undergoing morphological changes associated with mast cell degranulation. These findings indicate that tHGA possesses potent anti-allergic activity via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and inhibition of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, tHGA may have the potential to be developed as a mast cell stabilizer for the treatment of allergic diseases in the future. - Highlights: • The in vitro and in vivo mast cell stabilizing effects of tHGA were examined. • tHGA counteracts the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells. • t

  10. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-05-07

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).

  11. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.)

  12. A modern history of psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the progression of developments in psychiatric-mental health nursing from the 1960s to the present. The 1960s were a time of shortage of psychiatric APRNs, with legislation expanding the availability of mental health services. We find ourselves in a similar time with 7 million new health insurance enrollees, because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The expansion of health insurance coverage comes at a time when some colleges of nursing are closing master's programs in psychiatric-mental health, in lieu of the DNP mandate from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Is history repeating itself? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The electron-spin--nuclear-spin interaction studied by polarized neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhrmann, Heinrich B

    2007-11-01

    Dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) is mediated by the dipolar interaction of paramagnetic centres with nuclear spins. This process is most likely to occur near paramagnetic centres at an angle close to 45 degrees with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. The resulting distribution of polarized nuclear spins leads to an anisotropy of the polarized neutron scattering pattern, even with randomly oriented radical molecules. The corresponding cross section of polarized coherent neutron scattering in terms of a multipole expansion is derived for radical molecules in solution. An application using data of time-resolved polarized neutron scattering from an organic chromium(V) molecule is tested.

  14. Real-time monitoring of drug-induced changes in the stomach acidity of living rats using improved pH-sensitive nitroxides and low-field EPR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapenko, Dmitrii I.; Foster, Margaret A.; Lurie, David J.; Kirilyuk, Igor A.; Hutchison, James M. S.; Grigor'ev, Igor A.; Bagryanskaya, Elena G.; Khramtsov, Valery V.

    2006-09-01

    New improved pH-sensitive nitroxides were applied for in vivo studies. An increased stability of the probes towards reduction was achieved by the introduction of the bulky ethyl groups in the vicinity of the paramagnetic N sbnd O fragment. In addition, the range of pH sensitivity of the approach was extended by the synthesis of probes with two ionizable groups, and, therefore, with two p Ka values. Stability towards reduction and spectral characteristics of the three new probes were determined in vitro using 290 MHz radiofrequency (RF)- and X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), longitudinally detected EPR (LODEPR), and field-cycled dynamic nuclear polarization (FC-DNP) techniques. The newly synthesized probe, 4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-pyridine-4-yl-2,5,5-triethyl-2,5-dihydro-1 H-imidazol-oxyl, was found to be the most appropriate for the application in the stomach due to both higher stability and convenient pH sensitivity range from pH 1.8 to 6. LODEPR, FC-DNP and proton-electron double resonance imaging (PEDRI) techniques were used to detect the nitroxide localization and acidity in the rat stomach. Improved probe characteristics allowed us to follow in vivo the drug-induced perturbation in the stomach acidity and its normalization afterwards during 1 h or longer period of time. The results show the applicability of the techniques for monitoring drug pharmacology and disease in the living animals.

  15. Chemoselective Hydrogenation with Supported Organoplatinum(IV) Catalyst on Zn(II)-Modified Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Ferrandon, Magali [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Sohn, Hyuntae [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Yang, Dali [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Liu, Cong [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne [Energy Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Perras, Frédéric A. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50010, United States; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50010, United States; Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, 2416 Pammel Drive, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States; Stair, Peter C. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Delferro, Massimiliano [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-22

    Well-defined organoplatinum(IV) sites were grafted on a Zn(II)-modified SiO2 support via surface organometallic chemistry in toluene at room temperature. Solid-state spectroscopies including XAS, DRIFTS, DRUV-Vis, and solid-state (SS)NMR enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), as well as TPR-H2 and TEM techniques revealed highly dispersed (methylcyclopentadi-enyl)methylplatinum(IV) sites on the surface ((MeCp)PtMe/Zn/SiO2, 1). In addition, computational modelling suggests that the surface reaction of (MeCp)PtMe3 with Zn(II)-modified SiO2 support is thermodynamically favorable (ΔG = -12.4 kcal/mol), likely due to the increased acidity of the hydroxyl group, as confirmed by NH3-TPD and DNP-enhanced 17O{1H} SSNMR. In situ DRIFTS and XAS hydrogenation experiments reveal the formation of a surface Pt(IV)-H upon hydrogenolysis of Pt-Me groups. The heterogenized organoplatinum(IV)-H sites catalyze the selective partial hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to butenes (up to 95%) and the reduction of nitrobenzene derivatives to anilines (up to 100%) with excellent tolerance of reduction-sensitive func-tional groups (olefin, carbonyl, nitrile, halogens) under mild reaction conditions.

  16. A molecular dynamics study of components of the ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract inside human acetylcholinesterase: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuya, Teobaldo; Baptista, Leonardo; Celmar Costa França, Tanos

    2017-11-23

    Components of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts have been described as potential new drug candidates against Alzheimer disease (AD), able to interact with several molecular targets related to the AD treatment. However, there are very few theoretical studies in the literature on the possible mechanisms of action by which these compounds can work as potential anti-AD drugs. For this reason, we performed here docking, molecular dynamic simulations and mmpbsa calculations on four components of ginger extracts former reported as active inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (HssAChE), and compared our results to the known HssAChE inhibitor and commercial drug in use against AD, donepezil (DNP). Our findings points to two among the compounds studied: (E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-on and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3- ethoxyphenyl) heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate, as promising new HssAChE inhibitors that could be as effective as DNP. We also mapped the binding of the studied compounds in the different binding pockets inside HssAChE and established the preferred interactions to be favored in the design of new and more efficient inhibitors.

  17. Bioproducts for Sludge Reduction in Activated Sludge Systems Treating Oil Refinery Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V.M.F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioproducts that change the cellular metabolism and reduce microbial growth without affecting the organic matter removal is very promising for reducing the amount of sludge in wastewater treatment systems. In this study, two bioproducts were evaluated and compared with a well-known chemical (2,4-DiNitroPhenol – DNP in activated sludge treating petroleum refinery wastewater. In batch experiments, 10 mg/L of DNP, 0.8 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Folic Acid (FA and 10 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Stress Proteins (SP led to 30.6%, 43.2% and 29.8% lower disposal of total solids, respectively. Operating on a continuous regimen, the addition of 10 mg/L of the bioproduct based on SP led to 45.7% lower disposal for 50 days. In all cases, no loss of efficiency in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was observed.

  18. Assessment of muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly people with diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Azevedo Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective : To assess muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with diabetic neuropathy (DNP. Methods : 50 elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (NPD participated in this study. Risk of falling was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Fear of falling was assessed by means of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I. Muscle mass was assessed by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA and Janssen's equation. Subjects were divided into two groups: one with a history of falls in the six months before study enrollment (G1 and the other without history of falls (G2. Results : There were statistically significant differences between G1 and G2 regarding lean body mass (p < 0.05, risk of falls as measured by the BBS (p < 0.01, and fear of falling as measured by the FES-I (p < 0.01. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the BBS and BIA (r = 0.45 and p < 0.01, showing that the greater the lean body mass, the lower the risk of falling. Conclusions : We found an association between lean mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with DNP and a history of falls from own height.

  19. Studies to enhance the hyperpolarization level in PHIP-SAH-produced C13-pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Eleonora; Carrera, Carla; Aime, Silvio; Reineri, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    The use of [1-13C]pyruvate, hyperpolarized by dissolution-Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (d-DNP), in in vivo metabolic studies has developed quickly, thanks to the imaging probe's diagnostic relevance. Nevertheless, the cost of a d-DNP polarizer is quite high and the speed of hyperpolarization process is relatively slow, meaning that its use is limited to few research laboratories. ParaHydrogen Induced Polarization Side Arm Hydrogenation (PHIP-SAH) (Reineri et al., 2015) is a cost effective and easy-to-handle method that produces 13C-MR hyperpolarization in [1-13C]pyruvate and other metabolites. This work aims to identify the main determinants of the hyperpolarization levels observed in C13-pyruvate using this method. By dissecting the various steps of the PHIP-SAH procedure, it has been possible to assess the role of several experimental parameters whose optimization must be pursued if this method is to be made suitable for future translational steps. The search for possible solutions has led to improvements in the polarization of sodium [1-13C]pyruvate from 2% to 5%. Moreover, these results suggest that observed polarization levels could be increased considerably by an automatized procedure which would reduce the time required for the work-up passages that are currently carried out manually. The results reported herein mean that the attainment of polarization levels suitable for the metabolic imaging applications of these hyperpolarized substrates show significant promise.

  20. Impacts of climate change under CMIP5 RCP scenarios on the streamflow in the Dinder River and ecosystem habitats in Dinder National Park, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Amir K.; Lu, Haishen; Omer, Abubaker; Ali, Abubaker B.; Abdelgader, Abdeldime M. S.

    2016-04-01

    The fate of seasonal river ecosystem habitats under climate change essentially depends on the changes in annual recharge of the river, which are related to alterations in precipitation and evaporation over the river basin. Therefore, the change in climate conditions is expected to significantly affect hydrological and ecological components, particularly in fragmented ecosystems. This study aims to assess the impacts of climate change on the streamflow in the Dinder River basin (DRB) and to infer its relative possible effects on the Dinder National Park (DNP) ecosystem habitats in Sudan. Four global circulation models (GCMs) from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and two statistical downscaling approaches combined with a hydrological model (SWAT - the Soil and Water Assessment Tool) were used to project the climate change conditions over the study periods 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. The results indicated that the climate over the DRB will become warmer and wetter under most scenarios. The projected precipitation variability mainly depends on the selected GCM and downscaling approach. Moreover, the projected streamflow is quite sensitive to rainfall and temperature variation, and will likely increase in this century. In contrast to drought periods during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the predicted climate change is likely to affect ecosystems in DNP positively and promote the ecological restoration for the habitats of flora and fauna.

  1. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization below 25 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier, but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13)C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly (13)C-labeled l-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly (13)C-labeled amino acids. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of nitroxide-based oligoradicals for low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization in solid state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Wai-Ming; Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2014-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of new nitroxide-based biradical, triradical, and tetraradical compounds and the evaluation of their performance as paramagnetic dopants in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with magic-angle spinning (MAS). Under our experimental conditions, which include temperatures in the 25-30 K range, a 9.4 T magnetic field, MAS frequencies of 6.2-6.8 kHz, and microwave irradiation at 264.0 GHz from a 800 mW extended interaction oscillator source, the most effective compounds are triradicals that are related to the previously-described compound DOTOPA-TEMPO (see Thurber et al., 2010), but have improved solubility in glycerol/water solvent near neutral pH. Using these compounds at 30 mM total nitroxide concentration, we observe DNP enhancement factors of 92-128 for cross-polarized 13C NMR signals from 15N,13C-labeled melittin in partially protonated glycerol/water, and build-up times of 2.6-3.8 s for 1H spin polarizations. Net sensitivity enhancements with biradical and tetraradical dopants, taking into account absolute 13C NMR signal amplitudes and build-up times, are approximately 2-4 times lower than with the best triradicals.

  3. Role of protein haptenation in triggering maturation events in the dendritic cell surrogate cell line THP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megherbi, Rym; Kiorpelidou, Evanthia; Foster, Brian; Rowe, Cliff; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Goldring, Christopher E.; Park, B. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation in response to contact sensitizers is a crucial step in the induction of sensitization reactions; however the underlying mechanism of activation remains unknown. To test whether the extent of protein haptenation is a determinant in DC maturation, we tested the effect of five dinitrophenyl (DNP) analogues of different reactivity, on maturation markers in the cell line, THP-1. The potencies of the test compounds in upregulating CD54 levels, inducing IL-8 release and triggering p38 MAPK phosphorylation did not correlate with their ability to deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels or cause cell toxicity. However, the compounds' potency at inducing p38 phosphorylation was significantly associated with the amount of intracellular protein adducts formed (p < 0.05). Inhibition experiments show that, at least for DNFB, p38 MAP kinase signalling controls compound-specific changes in CD54 expression and IL-8 release. 2D-PAGE analysis revealed that all the DNP analogues appeared to bind similar proteins. The analogues failed to activate NFkB, however, they activated Nrf2, which was used as a marker of oxidative stress. Neither GSH depletion, by use of buthionine sulfoximine, nor treatment with the strongly lysine-reactive hapten penicillin elicited maturation. We conclude that protein haptenation, probably through reactive cysteine residues may be a trigger for maturation events in this in vitro model and that p38 activation may be a discriminatory marker for the classification of potency of chemical sensitizers.

  4. Role of protein haptenation in triggering maturation events in the dendritic cell surrogate cell line THP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megherbi, Rym; Kiorpelidou, Evanthia; Foster, Brian; Rowe, Cliff; Naisbitt, Dean J; Goldring, Christopher E; Park, B Kevin

    2009-07-15

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation in response to contact sensitizers is a crucial step in the induction of sensitization reactions; however the underlying mechanism of activation remains unknown. To test whether the extent of protein haptenation is a determinant in DC maturation, we tested the effect of five dinitrophenyl (DNP) analogues of different reactivity, on maturation markers in the cell line, THP-1. The potencies of the test compounds in upregulating CD54 levels, inducing IL-8 release and triggering p38 MAPK phosphorylation did not correlate with their ability to deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels or cause cell toxicity. However, the compounds' potency at inducing p38 phosphorylation was significantly associated with the amount of intracellular protein adducts formed (p<0.05). Inhibition experiments show that, at least for DNFB, p38 MAP kinase signalling controls compound-specific changes in CD54 expression and IL-8 release. 2D-PAGE analysis revealed that all the DNP analogues appeared to bind similar proteins. The analogues failed to activate NFkB, however, they activated Nrf2, which was used as a marker of oxidative stress. Neither GSH depletion, by use of buthionine sulfoximine, nor treatment with the strongly lysine-reactive hapten penicillin elicited maturation. We conclude that protein haptenation, probably through reactive cysteine residues may be a trigger for maturation events in this in vitro model and that p38 activation may be a discriminatory marker for the classification of potency of chemical sensitizers.

  5. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Surfactant: Low Temperature Magic Angle Spinning 13C and 29Si NMR Enhanced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, Olivier [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Thankamony, Aany S. Lilly [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Kokayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Carnevale, Diego [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Vitzthum, Veronika [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory; Vezin, Herve [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Amoureux, Jean-Paul [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-21

    We show that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to enhance NMR signals of 13C and 29Si nuclei located in mesoporous organic/inorganic hybrid materials, at several hundreds of nanometers from stable radicals (TOTAPOL) trapped in the surrounding frozen disordered water. The approach is demonstrated using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), functionalized with 3-(N-phenylureido)propyl (PUP) groups, filled with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The DNP-enhanced proton magnetization is transported into the mesopores via 1H–1H spin diffusion and transferred to rare spins by cross-polarization, yielding signal enhancements εon/off of around 8. When the CTAB molecules are extracted, so that the radicals can enter the mesopores, the enhancements increase to εon/off ≈ 30 for both nuclei. A quantitative analysis of the signal enhancements in MSN with and without surfactant is based on a one-dimensional proton spin diffusion model. The effect of solvent deuteration is also investigated.

  6. Observation of strongly forbidden solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions via electron-electron double resonance detected NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization—suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.

  7. Synergistic tumor microenvironment targeting and blood-brain barrier penetration via a pH-responsive dual-ligand strategy for enhanced breast cancer and brain metastasis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Shi, Kairong; Tang, Xian; Wei, Jiaojie; Cun, Xingli; Long, Yang; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2018-05-22

    Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) which shape the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB) remain great challenges in targeting breast cancer and its brain metastasis. Herein, we reported a strategy using PTX-loaded liposome co-modified with acid-cleavable folic acid (FA) and BBB transmigrating cell penetrating peptide dNP2 peptide (cFd-Lip/PTX) for enhanced delivery to orthotopic breast cancer and its brain metastasis. Compared with single ligand or non-cleavable Fd modified liposomes, cFd-Lip exhibited synergistic TME targeting and BBB transmigration. Moreover, upon arrival at the TME, the acid-cleavable cFd-Lip/PTX showed sensitive cleavage of FA, which reduced the hindrance effect and maximized the function of both FA and dNP2 peptide. Consequently, efficient targeting of folate receptor (FR)-positive tumor cells and FR-negative CAFs was achieved, leading to enhanced anti-tumor activity. This strategy provides a feasible approach to the cascade targeting of TME and BBB transmigration in orthotopic and metastatic cancer treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensor based on plasmonic light scattering interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.Y.; Huang, C.H.; Chau, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensor (FO-PPR) is demonstrated for label-free biochemical detection. The sensing strategy relies on interrogating the plasmonic scattering of light from gold nanoparticles on the optical fiber in response to the surrounding refractive index changes or molecular binding events. The refractive index resolution is estimated to be 3.8 x 10 -5 RIU. The limit of detection for anti-DNP antibody spiked in buffer is 1.2 x 10 -9 g/ml (5.3 pM) by using the DNP-functionalized FO-PPR sensor. The image processing of simultaneously recorded plasmonic scattering photographs at different compartments of the sensor is also demonstrated. Results suggest that the compact sensor can perform multiple independent measurements simultaneously by means of monitoring the plasmonic scattering intensity via photodiodes or a CCD. The potential of using a combination of different kinds of noble metal nanoparticles with different types of functionalized probes in multiple cascaded detection windows on a single fiber to become an inexpensive and ultrasensitive linear-array sensing platform for higher-throughput biochemical detection is provided. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Chinese Medicinal Formula (MHGWT for Relieving Diabetic Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-I Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of modified Hungqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang (MHGWT, a formula that comprises Chinese medicinal herbs, in relieving neuropathic pain in diabetics. Method. Between March 2008 and April 2009, 112 participants were randomly assigned to either the MHGWT group, whose members received MHGWT (n=56, or the control group, whose members received a placebo (n=56. Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP was rated using the 15-item Short-Form Brief Pain Inventory (SF-BPI, the 17-item Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ, the 13-item Modified Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MMNSI, and the 36-item “SF-36.” Nerve conduction studies (NCSs were performed before and after treatment. Results. After 12 weeks of treatment, the SF-MPQ and SF-BPI scores of the MHGWT group were significantly (P0.05 reduced, and no significant difference in NCS level was observed between the groups (P>0.05. Conclusions. MHGWT shows promise in relieving DNP and deserves further investigation.

  10. Dynamical nuclear polarization using multi-colour control of color centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pengcheng [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Center for Quantum Optical Science, Wuhan (China); Plenio, Martin B. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ulm (Germany); Universitaet Ulm, Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm (Germany); Cai, Jianming [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Center for Quantum Optical Science, Wuhan (China); Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ulm (Germany); Universitaet Ulm, Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Dynamical nuclear polarization (DNP) transfers the polarization of electron spins at cryogenic temperatures to achieve strong nuclear polarization for applications in nuclear magnetic resonance. Recently introduced approaches employ optical pumping of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to achieve DNP even at ambient temperatures. In such schemes microwave radiation is used to establish a Hartmann-Hahn condition between the NV electron spin and proximal nuclear spins to facilitate polarization transfer. For a single monochromatic microwave driving field, the Hartmann-Hahn condition cannot be satisfied for an ensemble of NV centers due to inhomogeneous broadening and reduces significantly the overall efficiency of dynamical nuclear polarization using an ensemble of NV centers. Here, we adopt generalized Hartmann-Hahn type dynamical nuclear polarization schemes by applying microwave driving fields with (multiple) time-modulated frequencies. We show that it is possible to enhance the effective coupling between an ensemble of NV center spins with inhomogeneous broadening and nuclear spins, thereby improving significantly the overall efficiency of dynamical nuclear polarization. This approach can also be used to achieve dynamical nuclear polarization of an ensemble of nuclei with a distribution of Larmor frequencies, which would be helpful in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a single NV spin sensor. (orig.)

  11. Thin layer chitosan-coated cellulose filter paper as substrate for immobilization of catalytic cobalt nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Haider, Sajjad; Alghamdi, Yousef Gamaan; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2017-11-01

    A facile approach utilizing synthesis of cobalt nanoparticles in green polymers of chitosan (CS) coating layer on high surface area cellulose microfibers of filter paper (CFP) is described for the catalytic reduction of nitrophenol and an organic dye using NaBH 4 . Simple steps of CFP coating with 1wt% CS aqueous solution followed by Co 2+ ions adsorption from 0.2M CoCl 2 aqueous solution were carried out to prepare pre-catalytic strips. The Co 2+ loaded pre-catalytic strips of CS-CFP were treated with 0.19M NaBH 4 aqueous solution to convert the ions into nanoparticles. Successful Co nanoparticles formation was assessed by various characterization techniques of FESEM, EDX and XRD analyzes. TGA analyses were carried out on CFP, CS-CFP, and Co-CS-CFP for the determination of the amount of Co particles formed on the CS-FP, and to track their thermal properties. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Co-CS-CFP showed an excellent catalytic activity and reusability in the reduction reactions a nitroaromatic compound of 2,6-dintirophenol (2,6-DNP) and brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) dye by NaBH 4 . The Co-CS-CFP catalyzed the reduction reactions of 2,6-DNP and BCB by NaBH 4 with psuedo-first order rate constants of 0.0451 and 0.1987min -1 , respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Am-80, A Novel Retinoid Derivative, On Contact Hypersensitivity Caused by Repeated Applications of Hapten in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Niwa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some retinoids show an anti-inflammatory action through regulation of transcription of various genes. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of 4-((5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthyl carbamoyl benzoic acid (Am-80, a synthetic retinoid, on mouse contact hypersensitivity provoked by repeated applications of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB to the ear was investigated. Five-fold applications of DNFB on ears once per week elicited severe contact dermatitis with marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and elevation of anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP-IgE antibody in the serum. The Am-80 significantly inhibited ear swelling in a dose-dependent manner. In the histopathologic study, infiltration of inflammatory cells was clearly decreased by Am-80. However, Am-80 did not affect the production of DNP-specific IgE antibody both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The effects of Am-80 on the transcriptional level of cytokines, interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-1 and IL-4 in cervical lymph nodes were investigated. Marked elevation of mRNA for all cytokines was observed and Am-80 potently inhibited the expression of IFN-γ mRNA, but not IL-1 and IL-4 mRNA. These findings indicated that Am-80 may inhibit the contact dermatitis at the post-sensitization phase by inhibiting IFN-γ production at the transcriptional level in mice.

  13. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  14. Minocycline attenuates the development of diabetic neuropathy by inhibiting spinal cord Notch signaling in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Wu, Banglin; Yan, Nuo; Li, Hui; Ren, Yiqing; Kan, Yufei; Liang, Jiamin; Jiao, Yang; Yu, Yonghao

    2017-10-01

    We studied the effects of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) on the expression and activity of Notch-1 receptor, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of minocycline combined with Notch inhibitor DAPT in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of Streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and activity of Notch-1 and expression of macrophage/microglia marker Iba-1 were detected by WB. Diabetes induction significantly attenuated sciatic nerve conduction velocity, and dramatically augmented the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. Minocycline treatment, however, accelerated the decreased conduction velocity of sciatic nerve and suppressed Notch-1expression and activity in diabetic rats. Similar to DAPT treatment, minocycline administration also prolonged thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and increase mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) in diabetic rats in response to heat or mechanical stimulation via inhibition the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in spinal cord. Combination of DAPT and minocycline further inhibited Notch-1 receptor signaling and reduce neuropathic pain exhibited as improved TWL and MWT. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of Notch-1 receptor inhibition in spinal cord induced by minocycline administration, and suggested that the combination of minocycline and DAPT has the potential to treat DNP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Irradiated NH3 and ND3 - two new target materials for polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1982-11-01

    A study of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in NH 3 and ND 3 was made at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron. The paramagnetic radicals in the polycristalline ammonia beads were created by irradiation in the high intensity 20 MeV electron beam (> 10 14 electrons/sec) of the injection linac. During irradiation the ammonia beads, produced by dropping into liquid nitrogen, were cooled in liquid argon at approx.= 90 K. DNP measurements were performed at 1 K, 0.5 K and 0.2 K in a 2.5 T magnetic field. Samples of NH 3 , prepared in this way, yielded a maximum proton polarization of 66% at a temperature of 0.5 K with a short polarization build-up time of 9 minutes. ND 3 could be polarized at a temperature of 0.2 K up to 31%. The radiation resistance of the polarization of NH 3 is better than that of butanol. (orig.)

  16. Radiation-induced alterations in murine lymphocyte homing patterns. II. Recovery and function of memory cells in LBN rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.A.; Feldbush, T.L.; Evans, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Suspensions of lymph node cells from dinitrophenylated bovine gamma globulin (DNP-BGG)-immune LBN F 1 hybrid rats (Lewis X Brown Norway) were prepared, irradiated, and injected intravenously into unirradiated syngeneic intermediate hosts and irradiated syngeneic adoptive controls. After allowance of 24 hr for homing to occur, the intermediate hosts were killed and cell preparations from the lymph nodes and spleen were injected intravenously into separate irradiated LBN final host groups. All control and experimental groups were challenged (DNP-BGG saline iv) 24 hr after the injection of the lymphoid cells. Rats were bled on Days 7, 11, and 14 after challenge and the antigen-binding capacity (ABC) of the serum was determined. After correction for the fraction of the total cell population transferred from the intermediate host, the peak ABC of the final hosts was related to the number of memory cells present. It was thus possible to determine the relative distribution of the memory cell population to the spleen and lymph nodes of the intermediate hosts. In the intermediate control animals, irradiated memory cells provided a secondary antibody response which was delayed but not suppressed when compared to unirradiated cells. In intermediate hosts, the homing of lymph node memory cells to the spleen and lymph nodes was significantly reduced by an exposure to 200 R of x radiation

  17. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at low temperature and high magnetic eld for biomedical applications in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutailler, Florent

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work was to design, build and optimize a large volume multi-samples DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) polarizer dedicated to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging applications. The experimental system is made up of a high magnetic field magnet (3,35 T) in which takes place a cryogenic system with a pumped bath of liquid helium ("4He) allowing temperatures lower than 1,2 K. A set of inserts is used for the different steps of DNP: irradiation of the sample by a microwave field (f=94 GHz and P=50 mW), polarization measurement by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance... With this system, up to three samples of 1 mL volume can be polarized to a rate of few per-cents. The system has a long autonomy of four hours, so it can be used for polarizing molecules with a long time constant of polarization. Finally, the possibility to get quasi-simultaneously, after dissolution, several samples with a high rate of polarization opens the way of new applications in biomedical imaging. (author) [fr

  18. Secondary formation of nitrated phenols: insights from observations during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results from online measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS with acetate as reagent ion in an oil and gas production region in January and February of 2014. Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Based on known markers (CH4, NOx, CO2, primary emissions of nitrated phenols were not important in this study. A box model was used to simulate secondary formation of phenol, nitrophenol (NP, and dinitrophenols (DNP. The box model results indicate that oxidation of aromatics in the gas phase can explain the observed concentrations of NP and DNP in this study. Photolysis was the most efficient loss pathway for NP in the gas phase. We show that aqueous-phase reactions and heterogeneous reactions were minor sources of nitrated phenols in our study. This study demonstrates that the emergence of new ToF-CIMS (including PTR-TOF techniques allows for the measurement of intermediate oxygenates at low levels and these measurements improve our understanding on the evolution of primary VOCs in the atmosphere.

  19. Dynamically polarized samples for neutron protein crystallography at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jinkui; Pierce, Josh; Robertson, J. L.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Myles, Dean; Cuneo, Matt; Li, Le; Meilleur, Flora; Standaert, Bob

    2016-01-01

    To prepare for the next generation neutron scattering instruments for the planned second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and to broaden the scientific impact of neutron protein crystallography at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we have recently ramped up our efforts to develop a dynamically polarized target for neutron protein crystallography at the SNS. Proteins contain a large amount of hydrogen which contributes to incoherent diffraction background and limits the sensitivity of neutron protein crystallography. This incoherent background can be suppressed by using polarized neutron diffraction, which in the same time also improves the coherent diffraction signal. Our plan is to develop a custom Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) setup tailored to neutron protein diffraction instruments. Protein crystals will be polarized at a magnetic field of 5 T and temperatures of below 1 K. After the dynamic polarization process, the sample will be brought to a frozen-spin mode in a 0.5 T holding field and at temperatures below 100 mK. In a parallel effort, we are also investigating various ways of incorporating polarization agents needed for DNP, such as site specific spin labels, into protein crystals. (paper)

  20. Polarized proton spin density images the tyrosyl radical locations in bovine liver catalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zimmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A tyrosyl radical, as part of the amino acid chain of bovine liver catalase, supports dynamic proton spin polarization (DNP. Finding the position of the tyrosyl radical within the macromolecule relies on the accumulation of proton polarization close to it, which is readily observed by polarized neutron scattering. The nuclear scattering amplitude due to the polarization of protons less than 10 Å distant from the tyrosyl radical is ten times larger than the amplitude of magnetic neutron scattering from an unpaired polarized electron of the same radical. The direction of DNP was inverted every 5 s, and the initial evolution of the intensity of polarized neutron scattering after each inversion was used to identify those tyrosines which have assumed a radical state. Three radical sites, all of them close to the molecular centre and the haem, appear to be equally possible. Among these is tyr-369, the radical state of which had previously been proven by electron paramagnetic resonance.

  1. Polarization: A must for fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didelez J.-P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete polarization of DT fuel would increase the fusion reactivity by 50% in magnetic as well as in inertial confinements. The persistence of polarization in a fusion process could be tested, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total Cross Section (CS can sign the polarization persistence. The polarization of solid H2, D2 or T2 Hydrogen isotopes is very difficult. However, it has been possible to polarize HD, a hetero-molecular form of Hydrogen, by static polarization, at very low temperature and very high field. The radioactivity of DT molecules forbids there high polarization by the static method, therefore one has to develop the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP by RF transitions. The DNP of HD has been investigated in the past. The magnetic properties of HD and DT molecules are very similar, it is therefore expected that any polarization result obtained with HD could be extrapolated to DT.

  2. Nutritional strategies of high level natural bodybuilders during competition preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, A J; Simper, T; Barker, M E

    2018-01-01

    Competitive bodybuilders employ a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in order to lose fat mass and maintain fat free mass. Although recommendations exist for contest preparation, applied research is limited and data on the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders are restricted to case studies or small cohorts. Moreover, the influence of different nutritional strategies on competitive outcome is unknown. Fifty-one competitors (35 male and 16 female) volunteered to take part in this project. The British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF) runs an annual national competition for high level bodybuilders; competitors must qualify by winning at a qualifying events or may be invited at the judge's discretion. Competitors are subject to stringent drug testing and have to undergo a polygraph test. Study of this cohort provides an opportunity to examine the dietary practices of high level natural bodybuilders. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of bodybuilders competing at the BNBF finals. Volunteers completed a 34-item questionnaire assessing diet at three time points. At each time point participants recorded food intake over a 24-h period in grams and/or portions. Competitors were categorised according to contest placing. A "placed" competitor finished in the top 5, and a "Non-placed" (DNP) competitor finished outside the top 5. Nutrient analysis was performed using Nutritics software. Repeated measures ANOVA and effect sizes (Cohen's d ) were used to test if nutrient intake changed over time and if placing was associated with intake. Mean preparation time for a competitor was 22 ± 9 weeks. Nutrient intake of bodybuilders reflected a high-protein, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. Total carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes decreased over time in both male and female cohorts ( P  preparation (5.1 vs 3.7 g/kg BW) than DNP competitors ( d  = 1.02, 95% CI

  3. Modeling alignment enhancement for solid polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    A model of dynamic orientation using optimized radiofrequency (RF) irradiation produced perpendicular to the holding field is developed for the spin-1 system required for tensor-polarized fixed-target experiments. The derivation applies to RF produced close to the Larmor frequency of the nucleus and requires the electron spin-resonance linewidth to be much smaller than the nuclear magnetic resonance frequency. The rate equations are solved numerically to study a semi-saturated steady-state resulting from the two sources of irradiation: microwave from the DNP process and the additional RF used to manipulate the tensor polarization. The steady-state condition and continuous-wave NMR lineshape are found that optimize the spin-1 alignment in the polycrystalline materials used as solid polarized targets in charged-beam nuclear and particle physics experiments. (orig.)

  4. Taking off the square root of Nambu-Goto action and obtaining Filippov-Lie algebra gauge theory action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Sochichiu, Corneliu

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel prescription to take off the square root of the Nambu-Goto action for a p-brane, which generalizes the Brink-Di Vecchia-Howe-Tucker, also known as the Polyakov method. With an arbitrary decomposition, d+n=p+1, our resulting action is a modified d-dimensional Polyakov action, which is gauged and possesses a Nambu n-bracket squared potential. We first spell out how the (p+1)-dimensional diffeomorphism is realized in the lower dimensional action. Then we discuss a possible gauge fixing of it to a direct product of d-dimensional diffeomorphism and n-dimensional volume preserving diffeomorphism. We show that the latter naturally leads to a novel Filippov-Lie n-algebra based gauge theory action in d dimensions. (orig.)

  5. Distance between two binding sites of the same antibody molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cser, L.; Gladkikh, I.A.; Ostanevich, Y.M.; Franek, F.; Novotny, J.; Nezlin, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering experiments are reported, aimed at determining the distance between the two binding sites of the same antibody molecule employing complexes of anti-Dnp antibody with an antigenically univalent, high molecular weight ligand. Although the distance values could be determined only with a large statistical error, the data allowed the conclusion that the geometrical parameters of the complexes formed with the early (i.e., precipitating) antibody are significantly different from those of the complexes formed with the late (i.e, non-precipitating) antibody. The data suggest that the precipitating antibody complexed with a high molecular weight antigen assumes an extended shape with an antigen to antigen distance of 35.8 +- 1.3 nm. (Auth.)

  6. Design and implementation of a Smart Measurement System for AMI in the microgrid of the University of Nariño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Arciniegas M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This project describes a proposed Measure Management System, from the design stage to the implementation of a prototype smart meter, adapted to operate in the microgrid at the University of Nariño. This device features a constant record of measures, with resolution of 24 bits, sufficient to perform power quality analysis. In addition, it is integrated into the SCADA system through the open protocols MODBUS, DNP3 and IEC 61850, with scheduled cybersecurity techniques. Likewise, several management platforms for the monitoring of electrical variables and control over the current flow to the loads is designed. Finally, two study cases show the application of the implemented measure management system in the microgrid.

  7. A microculture method for the generation of primary immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, B L

    1975-11-01

    A microculture method for the generation and study of the primary immune response of murine spleen cells to defined antigens in vitro is described. Many of the variable parameters which occur in culture systems have been studied in an attempt to define the optimal culture conditions for this system. Cultures of 10(6) CBA spleen cells consistently produced an immune response of 300-600 hapten-specific plaque-forming cells after 3 days of incubation with the T cell-independent antigens DNP-POL and NIP-POL. Cultures were set up in Microtest II tissue culture plates in a volume of 0.2 ml of medium containing 10(-4) M 2-mercaptoethanol. The system described has the advantages of being highly efficient and reproducible and utilises small amounts of cells, medium and antigen. It provides a simple, economic and reliable approach for the systematic study of the immune response in vitro.

  8. Reducing excess sludge in a biological treatment system using chemical compounds; Reduccion de fangos en exceso de un sistema biologico de depuracion mediante el empleo de compuestos quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon Cruz, C.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.; Coello Oviedo, M. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the active sludge treatment of waste water, the generation of residual sludge is a major proble due to the cost of dealing with it and the dwindling number of place for disposing of it. A proposal is made for minimising the amount of excess sludge generated using chemical compounds that uncouple its metabolism. An assessment is made of the effectiveness of four such chemical compounds, two organic (2,4-dinitrophenol DNP-and 3,3', 4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide- TCS) and two metals (copper and zinc) in order to obtain the optimum amount required. It was found that both TCS and zinc can reduce the bacteria growth rate (Yobs) by over 30% without hardly affecting the elimination organic matter. (Author) 22 refs.

  9. Modelling, simulation and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons for novel applications in the high-power terahertz science and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabchevski, S.; Idehara, T.; Damyanova, M.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Balabanova, E.; Vasileva, E.

    2018-03-01

    Gyrotrons are the most powerful sources of CW coherent radiation in the sub-THz and THz frequency bands. In recent years, they have demonstrated a remarkable potential for bridging the so-called THz-gap in the electromagnetic spectrum and opened the road to many novel applications of the terahertz waves. Among them are various advanced spectroscopic techniques (e.g., ESR and DNP-NMR), plasma physics and fusion research, materials processing and characterization, imaging and inspection, new medical technologies and biological studies. In this paper, we review briefly the current status of the research in this broad field and present our problem-oriented software packages developed recently for numerical analysis, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of gyrotrons.

  10. ACE variants interact with the RAS pathway to confer risk and protection against type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Ahuja, Monica; Rai, Taranjit Singh

    2009-01-01

    Genetic predisposition has been proposed to be a major determinant in the development of renal complications of diabetes. Among candidate genes examined for susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been found to be associated with pathogenesis......, in the present study, we evaluated the association of ACE haplotypes and the interactions of ACE, angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II receptor type I (AGTR1) gene polymorphisms with DNP in Asian Indians. We genotyped seven variants of the RAS pathway genes (ACE, AGT, and AGTR1) in type 2 diabetic cohorts...... and progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the role of other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms and their possible interactions with different ACE I/D genotypes are less clearly defined. Recent studies also show that ACE haplotypes may be better predictors to disease susceptibility. Thus...

  11. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, G.D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous 3 He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail

  12. A field-sweep/field-lock system for superconducting magnets--Application to high-field EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G

    2006-12-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of +/-0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10(-5) T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR.

  13. A Field-Sweep/Field-Lock System for Superconducting Magnets-Application to High-Field EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H-NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of ± 0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10-5 T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR. PMID:17027306

  14. Simulation and Automation of Microwave Frequency Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for Solid Polarized Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Gonaduwage; Johnson, Ian; Keller, Dustin

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is used in most of the solid polarized target scattering experiments. Those target materials must be irradiated using microwaves at a frequency determined by the difference in the nuclear Larmor and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies. But the resonance frequency changes with time as a result of radiation damage. Hence the microwave frequency should be adjusted accordingly. Manually adjusting the frequency can be difficult, and improper adjustments negatively impact the polarization. In order to overcome these difficulties, two controllers were developed which automate the process of seeking and maintaining the optimal frequency: one being a standalone controller for a traditional DC motor and the other a LabVIEW VI for a stepper motor configuration. Further a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed which can accurately model the polarization over time as a function of microwave frequency. In this talk, analysis of the simulated data and recent improvements to the automated system will be presented. DOE.

  15. A Review of Communications Protocol for Intelligent Remote Terminal Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ruddin Ab. Ghani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed all the possible interfacing communication protocols for remote terminal unit (RTU. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system is a central station that can communicate with other network using the protocol. Fundamentally, the architectures of all networks are based on the seven layers of open system interconnection (OSI and International Standard Organization (ISO. The objective of designing the protocols is to check the status of all the input and output field devices and send the report according to that status. The corresponding protocol and communication parameters between the connecting devices will be included in designing a complex SCADA system. The available protocols to develop the communication of RTU are Modbus/ASCII, distributed network protocol (DNP3, controller area network (CAN, International Electro-technical Commission (IEC 60870, transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP.

  16. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, G.D. Jr. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous {sup 3}He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail.

  17. Imagine a universe with 85% down quarks: Mentoring for inclusive excellence in nuclear science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennello, Sherry J.

    2017-09-01

    If nature created six down quarks for every up quark the world might be a bit more strange. The US population is made up of over 50% women. Hispanic Americans and African Americans make up over 30% of the US population. The processes by which we foster curiosity, educate our youth, encourage people into science, recruit and retain people into physics and welcome them as members of our nuclear physics community results in a much different demographic in the membership of the DNP. Enabling the development of an identity as a scientist or nuclear scientist is a crucial part of mentoring young people to successful careers in nuclear science. Research experiences for students can play a critical role in that identity development. Since 2004, over 170 students have explored nuclear science through the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute.

  18. Exploring the surface reactivity of 3d metal endofullerenes: a density-functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Salas, Rubén E; Valladares, Ariel A

    2009-09-24

    Changes in the preferential sites of electrophilic, nucleophilic, and radical attacks on the pristine C60 surface with endohedral doping using 3d transition metal atoms were studied via two useful reactivity indices, namely the Fukui functions and the molecular electrostatic potential. Both of these were calculated at the density functional BPW91 level of theory with the DNP basis set. Our results clearly show changes in the preferential reactivity sites on the fullerene surface when it is doped with Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni atoms, whereas there are no significant changes in the preferential reactivity sites on the C60 surface upon endohedral doping with Cu and Zn atoms. Electron affinities (EA), ionization potentials (IP), and HOMO-LUMO gaps (Eg) were also calculated to complete the study of the endofullerene's surface reactivity. These findings provide insight into endofullerene functionalization, an important issue in their application.

  19. The use of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET peptidesfor measurement of clinically important proteolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Carmona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes have a fundamental role in many biological processes and are associated with multiple pathological conditions. Therefore, targeting these enzymes may be important for a better understanding of their function and development of therapeutic inhibitors. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET peptides are convenient tools for the study of peptidases specificity as they allow monitoring of the reaction on a continuous basis, providing a rapid method for the determination of enzymatic activity. Hydrolysis of a peptide bond between the donor/acceptor pair generates fluorescence that permits the measurement of the activity of nanomolar concentrations of the enzyme. The assays can be performed directly in a cuvette of the fluorimeter or adapted for determinations in a 96-well fluorescence plate reader. The synthesis of FRET peptides containing ortho-aminobenzoic acid (Abz as fluorescent group and 2, 4-dinitrophenyl (Dnp or N-(2, 4-dinitrophenylethylenediamine (EDDnp as quencher was optimized by our group and became an important line of research at the Department of Biophysics of the Federal University of São Paulo. Recently, Abz/Dnp FRET peptide libraries were developed allowing high-throughput screening of peptidases substrate specificity. This review presents the consolidation of our research activities undertaken between 1993 and 2008 on the synthesis of peptides and study of peptidases specificities.As enzimas proteolíticas têm um papel fundamental em muitos processos biológicos e estão associadas a vários estados patológicos. Por isso, o estudo da especificidade das peptidases pode ser importante para uma melhor compreensão da função destas enzimas e para o desenvolvimento de inibidores. Os substratos com supressão intramolecular de fluorescência constituem uma excelente ferramenta, pois permitem o monitoramento da reação de forma contínua, proporcionando um método prático e rápido para a determinação da

  20. Two-body form factors at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Keister, B.D.

    1983-02-01

    The charge form factor of a scalar deuteron at high momentum transfer is examined in a model employing scalar nucleons and mesons. With an eye toward establishing consistency criteria for more realistic calculations, several aspects of the model are examined in detail: the role of nucleon and meson singularities in the one-loop impulse diagram, the role of positive-and negative-energy nucleons, and the relationship to time-ordered perturbation theory. It is found that at large Q 2 (1) the form factor is dominated by a term in which the spectator nucleon is on the mass shell, and (2) the meson singularity structure of the d-n-p vertex function is unimportant in determining the overall high-Q 2 behaviour of the form factor

  1. Hydrogen evolution by a thermophilic blue-green alga. Mastigocladus laminosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirua, Y; Yokoyama, H; Kanaoka, K; Saito, S; Iwasa, K; Okazaki, M; Komemushi, S

    1980-01-01

    The thermophillic blue-green alga (cyanobacterium), Mastigocladus laminosus isolated from a hot spring, evolved hydrogen gas under nitrogen-starved conditions in light when algal cells were grown in a nitrate-free medium. Cells grown in a nitrate-medium evolved no detectable hydrogen gas in light. The optimal temperature and pH for hydrogen evolution were 44-49 degrees C and 7.0-7.5. High activity of hydrogen evolution, 1.6 ml H/sub 2//mg chl.hr, was induced when algal cells grown in the nitrate medium were actively forming heterocysts in the nitrate-free medium in air. Hydrogen evolution in light was depressed by nitrogen gas and inhibited by salicylaldoxime or DNP. This hydrogen evolution by M. laminosus is attributed to the action of nitrogenase.

  2. Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G; Pál, B; Nagybéganyi, E; Ory, I; Porochnavec, M; Kempler, P

    1999-03-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness of a benfotiamine (CAS 22457-89-2)-vitamin B combination (Milgamma-N), administered in high (4 x 2 capsules/day, = 320 mg benfotiamine/day) and medium doses (3 x 1 capsules/day), was compared to a monotherapy with benfotiamine (Benfogamma) (3 x 1 tablets/day, = 150 mg benfotiamine/day) in diabetic patients suffering from painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (DNP). In a 6-week open clinical trial, 36 patients (aged 40 to 70 yrs) having acceptable metabolic control (HbA1c benfotiamine (p benfotiamine is most effective in large doses, although even in smaller daily dosages, either in combination or in monotherapy, it is effective.

  3. The immunoglobulin class of anti-hapten antibody secreted during secondary responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J R; Dresser, D W

    1977-05-01

    A comparison has been made of the in vitro and in vivo response of primed mouse spleen cells to the hapten DNP. The responses were analysed in terms of six classes (sub-classes) of humoral antibody directed against the cross-reacting hapten TNP. By comparison with the response in intact mice the adoptive secondary response is delayed by 3 days in addition to being somewhat lesser in magnitude. The timing of the response in vitro is similar to that observed in intact mice. The preponderant class in all three responses was gammaG1 with gammaA and gammaG3 secreting cells consistently comprising the smallest proportion of the total of antibody-secreting cells.

  4. Thermal-neutron capture by protons accompanied by e+e- pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    Viewing the deuteron as an elementary particle with unit spin and positive spatial parity, we introduce five electromagnetic form factors (three transverse and two longitudinal) characterizing thermal-neutron capture in the reaction n+p→d+e + +e - . All of the observable characteristics of the process n+p→d+e + +e - involving polarized nucleons are calculated in terms of these form factors. The form factors of the transition n+p→d+γ* (γ* is a virtual photon) are related to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors and the characteristics of the dnp vertex using the relativistic impulse approximation. Here only two form factors (one transverse and one longitudinal) turn out to be leading

  5. Improving Decision Making for Advanced Heart Failure Patients and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvennan, Colleen K

    2017-04-01

    In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Colleen K. McIlvennan, DNP, ANP, lead nurse practitioner, Advanced Heart Failure and Transplantation at the University of Colorado, discusses her groundbreaking research encompassing patients' and caregivers' emotional, rational, and fundamental beliefs when considering a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Results have led to the development of 2 innovative decision aids that are currently in use by LVAD programs across the United States and Canada. Dr McIlvennan's efforts led to a $2 million grant from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, as well as national recognition from the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. Last year, she received the 2016 National Magnet Nurse of the Year® Award in the Empirical Outcomes category. In addition to sharing her findings, Dr McIlvennan examines the value of performing research in a Magnet-recognized organization.

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of a Case of Norrie Disease with Late Development of Bilateral Ocular Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Hong; Chen, Li-Hong; Xie, Hongning; Xie, Ying-Jun

    2017-06-01

    We report a case of Norrie disease, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound, confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the DNP gene from the aborted fetal cord blood and histologically. Prenatal ultrasound revealed no abnormality in either eye at 22 +1 and 31 +4 gestational weeks, but at 36 +5 gestational weeks both eyes had massive vitreous cavity opacities with complete retinal detachment. Norrie disease was initially suspected because of an older male sibling with the disease. To our knowledge, prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of Norrie disease has been previously described only one case in 1993 in a 34-week-old fetus. The normal eye development until after 31 + 4 gestational weeks provides insight into the first manifestation and then the rapid progression of the eye disease.

  7. Overhauser shift and dynamic nuclear polarization on carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Konstantin; Denninger, Gert

    2018-06-01

    We report on the first experimental magnetic resonance determination of the coupling between electrons and nuclear spins (1H, 13C) in carbon fibers. Our results strongly support the assumption that the electronic spins are delocalized on graphene like structures in the fiber. The coupling between these electrons and the nuclei of the lattice results in dynamic nuclear polarization of the nuclei (DNP), enabling very sensitive NMR experiments on these nuclear spins. For possible applications of graphene in spintronics devices the coupling between nuclei and electrons is essential. We were able to determine the interactions down to 30 × 10-9(30 ppb) . We were even able to detect the coupling of the electrons to 13C (in natural abundance). These experiments open the way for a range of new double resonance investigations with possible applications in the field of material science.

  8. Uptake and transport of chromium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, V.; D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of chromium, an important soil and water pollutant, by five different plant species was examined in nutrient culture experiments using chromium-51 as a tracer. The concentration in aerial tissues of both trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium was the greatest in peas followed by beans, tomato and the cereals over identical uptake periods. The uptake of 51 Cr 3+ was, in general, greater than 51 CrO 4 2- . Studies with bean plants indicated that shoot uptake of both forms of chromium decreased with increasing pH and salt concentration of the external solution. Concentrations of 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M DNP inhibited 51 Cr uptake by bean shoots. (author)

  9. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  10. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  11. A wide temperature range irradiation cryostat for reasearch on solid state targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Scott; Dutz, Hartmut; Goertz, Stefan; Runkel, Stefan; Voge, Thomas [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To qualitatively improve the data obtained in asymmetry measurements of scattering experiments the figure of merit (FOM) plays a major role and can reduce the data acquisition time when a certain precision in the measurement is needed. One of the defining factors for the improvement of the polarised experiment lies in the target choice and preparation, in particular the method employed to introduce the paramagnetic defects for the use of dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP). To this end the Polarized Target Group in Bonn has developed a wide range temperature cryostat for the irradiation of potential target materials in which materials can be irradiated to varying doses at specified temperatures. The stable irradiation temperature of the materials can be controlled to within {+-}1 K over a range of 90 K

  12. Haemocompatibility Of Non-Functionalized And Plasmachemical Functionalized Detonation Nanodiamond Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitura K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the innovative design of microwave plasma system for modification of detonation nanodiamond particles (DNP using a special rotating drum placed inside the reactor. Nanodiamond particles manufactured by detonation method reveal the biological activity depending on surface functionalization. Plasmachemical modification of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility of controlling surface of nanodiamonds particles in biological tests. In this paper we would like to compare detonation nanodiamond (the grain sizes from 2 to 5 nm with modified detonation nanodiamond in rotary reactor chamber, by microwave plasma activated chemical vapour deposition (MW PACVD method in materials research (Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and in vitro examinations with full of human blood. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond and modified nanodiamond by MW PACVD method in rotary reactor chamber (modified ND-3 and the presence of haemolysis in commercial detonation nanodiamond.

  13. Targeted Modification of Mitochondrial ROS Production Converts High Glucose-Induced Cytotoxicity to Cytoprotection: Effects on Anesthetic Preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlic, Filip; Muravyeva, Maria Y; Sepac, Ana; Sedlic, Marija; Williams, Anna Marie; Yang, Meiying; Bai, Xiaowen; Bosnjak, Zeljko J

    2017-01-01

    Contradictory reports on the effects of diabetes and hyperglycemia on myocardial infarction range from cytotoxicity to cytoprotection. The study was designed to investigate acute effects of high glucose-driven changes in mitochondrial metabolism and osmolarity on adaptive mechanisms and resistance to oxidative stress of isolated rat cardiomyocytes. We examined the effects of high glucose on several parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics, including changes in oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, and NAD(P)H fluorometry. Effects of high glucose on the endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms elicited by anesthetic preconditioning (APC) and the mediators of cell injury were also tested. These experiments included real-time measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in single cells by laser scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy, and cell survival assay. High glucose rapidly enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism, observed by increase in NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial membrane potential. This substantially elevated production of ROS, accelerated opening of the mPTP, and decreased survival of cells exposed to oxidative stress. Abrogation of high glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization with 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) significantly, but not completely, attenuated ROS production to a level similar to hyperosmotic mannitol control. DNP treatment reversed high glucose-induced cytotoxicity to cytoprotection. Hyperosmotic mannitol treatment also induced cytoprotection. High glucose abrogated APC-induced mitochondrial depolarization, delay in mPTP opening and cytoprotection. In conclusion, high glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization abolishes APC and augments cell injury. Attenuation of high glucose-induced ROS production by eliminating mitochondrial hyperpolarization protects cardiomyocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 216-224, 2017

  14. In vivo effects of photosynthesis inhibitors in Synechococcus as determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, W.J.; Gleason, F.K.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from darkened cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Resonance peaks were assigned to intracellular pools of sugar-phosphates, inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), nucleotides, and polyphosphate. An internal pH of 7.2 was estimated from the chemical shift of the P/sub i/ resonance. Cells were then illuminated at 1600 μE m -2 s -1 photosynthetically active radiation by a fiber optic cable immersed in the cell sample. Spectra obtained after approximately 15 min of illumination showed an increase in nucleotide pools and an increase in the cytoplasmic pH to 7.6. In the presence of 0.3 mM dinitrophenol (DNP), an uncoupler of phosphorylation, spectra of illuminated cells showed an immediate decline in nucleotide pools while sugar-phosphate levels remained constant. Addition of the photosystem II (PS II) electron-transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) (7.2 μM) did not affect nucleotide levels in the cells during the time course of the experiment (15-30 min). However, an abrupt rise in the resonance in the sugar-phosphate region was noted. Spectra of DCMU-treated cells extracts indicated that one metabolite was principally responsible for the change in pool size. The metabolite was identified as 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Spectra of illuminated cells were also obtained in the presence of the natural herbicide cyanobacterin. Unlike results obtained with DNP or DCMU, spectra of cyanobacterin-treated cells showed no major changes in nucleotide or sugar-phosphate resonances. A slow decline in cytoplasmic pH was seen in the presence of cyanobacterin, indicating that the natural product affects the proton pumping mechanism in PS II

  15. Transient elevation of glycolysis confers radio-resistance by facilitating DNA repair in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Chauhan, Ankit; Khanna, Suchit; Rai, Yogesh; Singh, Saurabh; Soni, Ravi; Kalra, Namita; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP production (the Warburg effect) and macromolecular biosynthesis; it is also linked with therapeutic resistance that is generally associated with compromised respiratory metabolism. Molecular mechanisms underlying radio-resistance linked to elevated glycolysis remain incompletely understood. We stimulated glycolysis using mitochondrial respiratory modifiers (MRMs viz. di-nitro phenol, DNP; Photosan-3, PS3; Methylene blue, MB) in established human cell lines (HEK293, BMG-1 and OCT-1). Glucose utilization and lactate production, levels of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes were investigated as indices of glycolysis. Clonogenic survival, DNA repair and cytogenetic damage were studied as parameters of radiation response. MRMs induced the glycolysis by enhancing the levels of two important regulators of glucose metabolism GLUT-1 and HK-II and resulted in 2 fold increase in glucose consumption and lactate production. This increase in glycolysis resulted in resistance against radiation-induced cell death (clonogenic survival) in different cell lines at an absorbed dose of 5 Gy. Inhibition of glucose uptake and glycolysis (using fasentin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 3-bromopyruvate) in DNP treated cells failed to increase the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells, suggesting that radio-resistance linked to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration is glycolysis dependent. Elevated glycolysis also facilitated rejoining of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by activating both non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways of DNA double strand break repair leading to a reduction in radiation-induced cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation) in these cells. These findings suggest that enhanced glycolysis generally observed in cancer cells may be responsible for the radio-resistance, partly by enhancing the repair of DNA damage

  16. Short-term Outcomes Following Concussion in the NFL: A Study of Player Longevity, Performance, and Financial Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sergio M; Sokunbi, Olumide F; Haeberle, Heather S; Schickendantz, Mark S; Mont, Michael A; Figler, Richard A; Ramkumar, Prem N

    2017-11-01

    A short-term protocol for evaluation of National Football League (NFL) athletes incurring concussion has yet to be fully defined and framed in the context of the short-term potential team and career longevity, financial risk, and performance. To compare the short-term career outcomes for NFL players with concussions by analyzing the effect of concussions on (1) franchise release rate, (2) career length, (3) salary, and (4) performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NFL player transaction records and publicly available injury reports from August 2005 to January 2016 were analyzed. All players sustaining documented concussions were evaluated for a change to inactive or DNP ("did not participate") status. A case-control design compared franchise release rates and remaining NFL career span. Career length was analyzed via survival analysis. Salary and performance differences were analyzed with publicly available contract data and a performance-scoring algorithm based on position/player level. Of the 5894 eligible NFL players over the 11-year period, 307 sustained publicly reported concussions resulting in the DNP injury protocol. Analysis of the probability of remaining in the league demonstrated a statistically significantly shorter career length for the concussion group at 3 and 5 years after concussion. The year-over-year change in contract value for the concussion group resulted in a mean overall salary reduction of $300,000 ± $1,300,000 per year (interquartile range, -$723,000 to $450,000 per year). The performance score reduction for all offensive scoring players sustaining concussions was statistically significant. This retrospective study demonstrated that NFL players who sustain a concussion face a higher overall franchise release rate and shorter career span. Players who sustained concussions may incur significant salary reductions and perform worse after concussion. Short-term reductions in longevity, performance, and salary after concussion exist and

  17. Interaction mechanisms of radioactive, chemical and thermal releases from the nuclear industry: Methodology for considering co-operative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of chemicals are known which can modify radiation effects on cell killing, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. In this paper data are reported for radiosensitizing agents. In order to discuss the interaction mechanisms of these synergistic effects, the action of radiation on DNA, on its biological functions and on its metabolism are explained briefly. Also it is indicated that part of the radiation effects in the DNA can be 'repaired' and that living cells can recover from radiation damage. One group of radiosensitizers interacts with cellular DNA or with the DNP-complex. These reactions change the configurational structure or metabolism of DNA and DNP. In this connection the action of antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and the action of SH-blocking agents such as iodoacetamide and NEM, as well as the action of alkylating agents, are discussed. A second group of radiosensitizers, especially with hypoxic cells, are the electron affinic chemicals like nitro-compounds, ketones and others. Data are also given on the modification of radiation effects by changes in temperature. Further, the problem of whether synergistic effects are to be expected arising from the chemicals and radiation originating in the nuclear industry is considered. Data show that repair and recovery processes especially are modified by radiosensitizers. The implications of this fact on sensitization at low radiation doses and at low dose rates, as well as the effect of high LET radiation, are considered. It is of interest that the dose modifying factor of some sensitizers can reach a magnitude of a factor of two to three. (author)

  18. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Micractinium pusillum Fresenius in the presence of acetate and glucose: effect of light and acetate gradient concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, L; Dauta, A; Loudiki, M

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the importance of secondary mechanism of organic carbon utilization (mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes) in addition to CO2 fixation (photoautotrophic mode) in the green alga, Micractinium pusillum Fresenius (chlorophyta), isolated from a waste stabilization pond. The growth was studied in the presence of acetate and glucose. The incorporation rate of 14C- acetate was measured in the light and in the dark at different concentrations. Finally, in order to underline the role of photosynthesis and respiration processes in the acetate assimilation, the effect of two specific metabolic inhibitors, a specific inhibitor of photosystem II (DCMU) and an uncoupler respiratory (DNP), has been studied. The obtained results showed that M. pusillum grows in the presence of organic substrates, i.e., glucose and acetate, in the light (mixotrophic growth) as well as in the dark (Heterotrophic growth). The growth was much more important in the light than in the dark and more in the presence of glucose than of acetate. In the light, the presence of acetate led to a variation of growth parameters mumax, iotaopt, and beta. The effect of acetate gradient on the growth of the microalga was severe as soon as its concentration in the medium was higher. The acetate uptake followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic in the light as well as in the dark. The capacity of assimilation was slightly higher in the dark. The utilization of DNP and DCMU indicates that acetate incorporation is an active process depending on both anabolic (photosynthesis) and catabolic (respiration) metabolisms, corroborating the model of the Michaelis-Menten kinetic.

  19. Turbulent heat transfer and nanofluid flow in a protruded ribbed square passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kothiyal, Alok Darshan; Bisht, Mangal Singh; Kumar, Anil

    In this article, turbulent heat transfer of nanofluid flow in square passage with protruded rib shape is numerically and experimentally studied over Reynolds number ranges of 4000-18000. Different nanoparticles (Al2O3, CuO, and ZnO), with different concentration (φ) range of 1-4% and different nanoparticle diameter (dnp) range of 30-45 nm are disperse in water (base fluid). Several parameters such as stream wise distance (Xs /dp) range of 1.4-2.6, span wise distance (Ys /dp) range of 1.4-2.6, ratio of protruded height to print diameter (ep /dp) range of 0.83-1.67 also studied to find the consequence on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics. Simulations were carried out to obtain heat and fluid flow behaviour of smooth and ribbed square channel using commercial CFD software, ANSYS 15.0 (Fluent). Renormalization k - ε model was employed to assess the influence of protruded ribs on turbulent flow and velocity field. The outcome indicates that Al2O3 nanofluid has the highest value of average Nusselt number as compare to other nanofluids. The average Nusselt number increases as the concentration increases and it decreases as nanoparticle diameter increases. The thermal hydrodynamic performance parameter based on equal pumping power, average Nusselt number and average friction factor were found to be highest for Al2O3, φ = 0.04, dnp = 30 nm, Xs /dp = 1.8, Ys /dp = 1.8 and ep /dp = 1.0 . The numerical data are compared with the corresponding experimental data. Comparison between CFD and experimental analysis results showed that good agreement as the data fell within ±7.0% error band.

  20. Robust techniques for polarization and detection of nuclear spin ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Müller, Samuel; Chen, Qiong; Dhand, Ish; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-11-01

    Highly sensitive nuclear spin detection is crucial in many scientific areas including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and quantum computing. The tiny thermal nuclear spin polarization represents a major obstacle towards this goal which may be overcome by dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) methods. The latter often rely on the transfer of the thermally polarized electron spins to nearby nuclear spins, which is limited by the Boltzmann distribution of the former. Here we utilize microwave dressed states to transfer the high (>92 % ) nonequilibrium electron spin polarization of a single nitrogen-vacancy center (NV) induced by short laser pulses to the surrounding 13C carbon nuclear spins. The NV is repeatedly repolarized optically, thus providing an effectively infinite polarization reservoir. A saturation of the polarization of the nearby nuclear spins is achieved, which is confirmed by the decay of the polarization transfer signal and shows an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. Hereby we introduce the polarization readout by polarization inversion method as a quantitative magnetization measure of the nuclear spin bath, which allows us to observe by ensemble averaging macroscopically hidden polarization dynamics like Landau-Zener-Stückelberg oscillations. Moreover, we show that using the integrated solid effect both for single- and double-quantum transitions nuclear spin polarization can be achieved even when the static magnetic field is not aligned along the NV's crystal axis. This opens a path for the application of our DNP technique to spins in and outside of nanodiamonds, enabling their application as MRI tracers. Furthermore, the methods reported here can be applied to other solid state systems where a central electron spin is coupled to a nuclear spin bath, e.g., phosphor donors in silicon and color centers in silicon carbide.

  1. Development and performance of a 129-GHz dynamic nuclear polarizer in an ultra-wide bore superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumata, Lloyd L; Martin, Richard; Jindal, Ashish K; Kovacs, Zoltan; Conradi, Mark S; Merritt, Matthew E

    2015-04-01

    We sought to build a dynamic nuclear polarization system for operation at 4.6 T (129 GHz) and evaluate its efficiency in terms of (13)C polarization levels using free radicals that span a range of ESR linewidths. A liquid helium cryostat was placed in a 4.6 T superconducting magnet with a 150-mm warm bore diameter. A 129-GHz microwave source was used to irradiate (13)C enriched samples. Temperatures close to 1 K were achieved using a vacuum pump with a 453-m(3)/h roots blower. A hyperpolarized (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal was detected using a saddle coil and a Varian VNMRS console operating at 49.208 MHz. Samples doped with free radicals BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl), trityl OX063 (tris{8-carboxyl-2,2,6,6-benzo(1,2-d:4,5-d)-bis(1,3)dithiole-4-yl}methyl sodium salt), galvinoxyl ((2,6-di-tert-butyl-α-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)-p-tolyloxy), 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 4-oxo-TEMPO (4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy) were assayed. Microwave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) spectra and solid-state (13)C polarization levels for these samples were determined. (13)C polarization levels close to 50 % were achieved for [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid at 1.15 K using the narrow electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidth free radicals trityl OX063 and BDPA, while 10-20 % (13)C polarizations were achieved using galvinoxyl, DPPH and 4-oxo-TEMPO. At this field strength free radicals with smaller ESR linewidths are still superior for DNP of (13)C as opposed to those with linewidths that exceed that of the (1)H Larmor frequency.

  2. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. I. Serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune donors suppresses irradiation-enhanced IgE production in low responder mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, A.S.; Chiorazzi, N.; Katz, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Exposure of mice to low doses of x irradiation at or near the time of primary immunization with 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-Ascaris suum extract (ASC) results in substantial enhancement of IgE anti-DNP antibody responses; the IgG antibody responses of such mice do not increase after such manipulations. This selective enhancement of IgE antibody production occurs in mice of both high and low IgE responder phenotype, although the extent of enhancement compared to unmanipulated control animals is more striking in low IgE responder mice. The studies presented here demonstrate that the irradiation-enhanced IgE antibody responses of low responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice as well as of intermediate responder AKR mice can be effectively suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum obtained from isologous donor mice. Moreover, adoptive secondary IgE antibody responses in SJL recipients of primed syngeneic spleen cells can be totally abolished by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum or ascitic fluid from CFA-immune mice. The suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum can be diminished or eliminated by exposure of CFA-primed donor mice to low dose x irradiation at an appropriate point during the priming regimen, after a single inoculation of CFA, and before collection of serum. Low dose x irradiation was not effective in eliminating suppressive activity of CFA-induced ascites fluid obtained from donor mice inoculated repeatedly with CFA. In contrast to the capacity of CFA-immune serum from isologous donors to suppress irradiation-enhanced IgE responses of low responder mice, similar sera or ascites fluids were ineffective in suppressing irradiation-enhanced responses of high responder BALB/c or (SJL x BALB/c)F 1 hybrid mice

  3. Improved separation with the intermittently pressed tubing of multilayer coil in type-I counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Jiao; Fang, Chen; Wang, Jihui; Gu, Dongyu; Tian, Jing; Ito, Yoichiro

    2018-05-25

    The intermittently pressed tubing was introduced in type-I counter-current chromatographic system as the separation column to improve the separation performance in the present study. The separations were performed with two different solvent systems composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, v/v) (BAW) and hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1 M HCl (1:1:1:1, v/v) (HEMW) using dipeptides and DNP-amino acids as test samples, respectively. The chromatographic performance was evaluated in terms of retention of the stationary phase (Sf), theoretical plate (N) and peak resolution (Rs). In general, the type-I planetary motion with the multilayer coil of non-modified standard tubing can yield the best separation at a low revolution speed of 200 rpm with lower flow rate. The present results with intermittently pressed tubing indicated that the performance was also optimal at the revolution speed of 200 rpm where the lower flow rate was more beneficial to retention of stationary phase and resolution. In the moderately hydrophobic two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-metanol-0.1 M hydrochloric acid (1:1:1:1, v/v), DNP-amino acids were separated with Rs at 1.67 and 1.47, respectively, with 12.66% of stationary phase retention at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/min. In the polar solvent system composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, v/v), dipeptide samples were resolved with Rs at 2.18 and 18.75% of stationary phase retention at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/min. These results indicate that the present system substantially improves the separation efficiency of type-I counter-current chromatographic system. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Methodological developments of low field MRI: Elasto-graphy, MRI-ultrasound interaction and dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelin, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with two aspects of low field (0.2 T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): the research of new contrasts due to the interaction between Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and acoustics (elasto-graphy, spin-phonon interaction) and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). Magnetic Resonance Elasto-graphy (MRE) allows to assess some viscoelastic properties of tissues by visualization of the propagation of low frequency acoustic strain waves. A review on MRE is given, as well as a study on local measurement of the acoustic absorption coefficient. The next part is dedicated to MRI-ultrasound interaction. First, the ultrasonic transducer was calibrated for power and acoustic field using the comparison of two methods: the radiation force method (balance method) and laser interferometry. Then, we tried to modify the T1 contrast of tissues by spin-phonon interaction due to the application of ultrasound at the resonance frequency at 0.2 T, which is about 8.25 MHz. No modification of T1 contrast has been obtained, but the acoustic streaming phenomenon has been observed in liquids. MRI visualization of this streaming could make possible to calibrate transducers as well as to assess some mechanical properties of viscous fluids. The goal of the last part was to set up DNP experiments at 0.2 T in order to enhance the NMR signal. This double resonance method is based on the polarization transfer of unpaired electrons of free radicals to the surrounding protons of water. This transfer occurs by cross relaxation during the saturation of an electronic transition using Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Two EPR cavities operating at 5.43 GHz have been tested on oxo-TEMPO free radicals (nitroxide). An enhancement of the NMR signal by a factor 30 was obtained during these preliminary experiments. (author)

  5. An integrated in silico approach to design specific inhibitors targeting human poly(a-specific ribonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vlachakis

    Full Text Available Poly(A-specific ribonuclease (PARN is an exoribonuclease/deadenylase that degrades 3'-end poly(A tails in almost all eukaryotic organisms. Much of the biochemical and structural information on PARN comes from the human enzyme. However, the existence of PARN all along the eukaryotic evolutionary ladder requires further and thorough investigation. Although the complete structure of the full-length human PARN, as well as several aspects of the catalytic mechanism still remain elusive, many previous studies indicate that PARN can be used as potent and promising anti-cancer target. In the present study, we attempt to complement the existing structural information on PARN with in-depth bioinformatics analyses, in order to get a hologram of the molecular evolution of PARNs active site. In an effort to draw an outline, which allows specific drug design targeting PARN, an unequivocally specific platform was designed for the development of selective modulators focusing on the unique structural and catalytic features of the enzyme. Extensive phylogenetic analysis based on all the publicly available genomes indicated a broad distribution for PARN across eukaryotic species and revealed structurally important amino acids which could be assigned as potentially strong contributors to the regulation of the catalytic mechanism of PARN. Based on the above, we propose a comprehensive in silico model for the PARN's catalytic mechanism and moreover, we developed a 3D pharmacophore model, which was subsequently used for the introduction of DNP-poly(A amphipathic substrate analog as a potential inhibitor of PARN. Indeed, biochemical analysis revealed that DNP-poly(A inhibits PARN competitively. Our approach provides an efficient integrated platform for the rational design of pharmacophore models as well as novel modulators of PARN with therapeutic potential.

  6. A comparison of quantitative methods for clinical imaging with hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Charlie J; McLean, Mary A; Schulte, Rolf F; Robb, Fraser J; Gill, Andrew B; McGlashan, Nicholas; Graves, Martin J; Schwaiger, Markus; Lomas, David J; Brindle, Kevin M; Gallagher, Ferdia A

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enables the metabolism of hyperpolarized (13)C-labelled molecules, such as the conversion of [1-(13)C]pyruvate to [1-(13)C]lactate, to be dynamically and non-invasively imaged in tissue. Imaging of this exchange reaction in animal models has been shown to detect early treatment response and correlate with tumour grade. The first human DNP study has recently been completed, and, for widespread clinical translation, simple and reliable methods are necessary to accurately probe the reaction in patients. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate method to quantify this exchange reaction. In this study, an in vitro system was used to compare several kinetic models, as well as simple model-free methods. Experiments were performed using a clinical hyperpolarizer, a human 3 T MR system, and spectroscopic imaging sequences. The quantitative methods were compared in vivo by using subcutaneous breast tumours in rats to examine the effect of pyruvate inflow. The two-way kinetic model was the most accurate method for characterizing the exchange reaction in vitro, and the incorporation of a Heaviside step inflow profile was best able to describe the in vivo data. The lactate time-to-peak and the lactate-to-pyruvate area under the curve ratio were simple model-free approaches that accurately represented the full reaction, with the time-to-peak method performing indistinguishably from the best kinetic model. Finally, extracting data from a single pixel was a robust and reliable surrogate of the whole region of interest. This work has identified appropriate quantitative methods for future work in the analysis of human hyperpolarized (13)C data. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A novel model of IgE-mediated passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Mast cells are central effector cells in allergic asthma and are augmented in the airways of asthma patients. Attenuating mast cell degranulation and with it the early asthmatic response is an important intervention point to inhibit bronchoconstriction, plasma exudation and tissue oedema formation. To validate the efficacy of novel pharmacological interventions, appropriate and practicable in vivo models reflecting mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the lung, are missing. Thus, we developed a novel model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats. Rats were passively sensitized by concurrent intratracheal and intradermal (ear application of an anti-DNP IgE antibody. Intravenous application of the antigen, DNP-BSA in combination with Evans blue dye, led to mast cell degranulation in both tissues. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the lung was determined by (1 mediator release into bronchoalveolar lavage, (2 extravasation of Evans blue dye into tracheal and bronchial lung tissue and (3 invasive measurement of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the ear was determined by extravasation of Evans blue dye into ear tissue. We pharmacologically validated our model using the SYK inhibitor Fostamatinib, the H1-receptor antagonist Desloratadine, the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (DSCG and the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist Formoterol. Fostamatinib was equally efficacious in lung and ear. Desloratadine effectively inhibited bronchoconstriction and ear vascular leakage, but was less effective against pulmonary vascular leakage, perhaps reflecting the differing roles for histamine receptor sub-types. DSCG attenuated both vascular leakage in the lung and bronchoconstriction, but with a very short duration of action. As an inhaled approach, Formoterol was more effective in the lung than in the ear. This model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis provides a tissue relevant readout of early mast cell

  8. Davallia mariesii Moore Improves FcεRI-Mediated Allergic Responses in the Rat Basophilic Leukemia Mast Cell Line RBL-2H3 and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju Do

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Davallia mariesii Moore (Drynaria rhizome extract (DRE is widely known for its efficacy in treating inflammation, arteriosclerosis, and bone injuries. This study evaluated whether treatment with DRE inhibited FcɛRI-mediated allergic responses in the RBL-2H3 mast cells and investigated the early- and late-phase mechanisms by which DRE exerts its antiallergic effects. IgE anti-DNP/DNP-HSA-sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells were tested for cytotoxicity to DRE, followed by the assessment of β-hexosaminidase release. We measured the amounts of inflammatory mediators (e.g., histamine, PGD2, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6 and examined the expression of genes involved in arachidonate and FcεRI signaling pathways. In addition, we confirmed the antiallergic effects of DRE on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA in mice. DRE inhibited RBL-2H3 mast cell degranulation and production of allergic mediators in them. In early allergic responses, DRE reduced expression of FcεRI signaling-related genes (e.g., Syk, Lyn, and Fyn and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in mast cells. In late allergic responses, DRE reduced PGD2 release and COX-2 expression and cPLA2 phosphorylation in FcɛRI-mediated mast cells. Lastly, 250–500 mg/kg DRE significantly attenuated the IgE-induced PCA reaction in mice. These findings provide novel information on the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiallergic effects of DRE in FcɛRI-mediated allergic responses.

  9. ANTI-ALLERGIC EFFECTS OF 1,5-BIS(4’-HYDROXY-3’-METHOXYPHENYL-1,4-PENTADIENE-3-ONE ON MAST CELL-MEDIATED ALLERGY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUNG ENDRO NUGROHO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one is a 1,5-diphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one analogue of curcumin that is produced by modifying the middle site of curcumin leading to 1,4-pentadiene-3-ones to maintain the hydroxy moiety at the aromatic rings that are responsible for its biological activities. Curcumin has been reported to have anti-allergic effects and can inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one in a mast cell-mediated allergy mode in order to provide information about a newly synthesised-compound for an alternative allergy drug. The study was performed using (1 a rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3 cell line, which is a tumour analogue of mast cells, with DNP24-BSA, thapsigargin and ionomycin as inducers for secretory markers from mast cells, and (2 an active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA reaction, with ovalbumin as an inductor of mast cell degranulation. Treatment with 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one strongly inhibited the DNP24-BSA, thapsigargin and ionomycin-mediated release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase from the RBL-2H3 cell line. The results indicated that this compound influenced the activation processes of FcεRI by antigen and intracellular Ca2+ signalling events in mast cells. In type 1 allergy model, this compound also inhibited the active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction on rat dorsal skins generated by ovalbumin. We conclude that the compound 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one showed anti-allergic activities mediated by mechanisms related to intracellular signalling events in mast cells.

  10. Expression of CYP2E1 in human nasopharynx and its metabolic effect in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, De-Fu; Wang, Shui-Liang; He, Zhi-Min; Yang, Fang; Chen, Zhu-Chu

    2007-04-01

    It was evident that nitrosamines can act directly on target tissue and result in carcinogenesis. As has been shown, the carcinogenic activity of nitrosamines relied on its bioactivation by Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In this study, we investigated the expression of CYP2E1 in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, embryonic nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue (ENET) specimens, and NPC biopsies by RT-PCR analysis. CYP2E1 was expressed in all NPC cell lines (6/6, including 7429) and ENET (6/6), and 80% of NPC biopsie (8/10). The fact that Human nasopharynx expresses CYP2E1 suggests that CYP2E1 may play an important role in the course of NPC by indirect carcinogens nitrosamines. To further evaluate the function of CYP2E1, the CYP2E1 was stably expressed in the cell line NIH 3T3/rtTA under a tetracycline-controlled transactivator. The expression of CYP2E1 was tightly regulated in a dose-dependent manner by Doxycycline (Dox) When the catalytic activity of CYP2E1 was assayed, the result showed that the generation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6-OH-CZ) from chlorzoxazone (CZ) was dose- and time-dependent on Dox addition to the medium. In the presence of 1 microg/ml Dox, the CZ 6-hydroxylase activity of the cell line was found to be 0.986 +/- 0.034 nmol/10(6) cells/h. The metabolic activation of Tet/3T3/2E1-6 cells was also assayed by N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) cytotoxicity, and the viability of Tet/3T3/2E1-6 cells treated with Dox was lower than that of untreated cells with a significant difference between them in 80 and 160 microg/ml DNP (P ( 0.05, t test. This cell line will be useful not only to assess the metabolic characteristics of CYP2E1, but also will be useful to investigate the role of CYP2E1 in metabolic activation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in vitro.

  11. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  12. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA inhibits the antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaralizadeh, Reza; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Pourpak, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Moin, Mostafa

    2009-12-01

    FcepsilonRI, The high affinity receptor for IgE plays a critical role in triggering the allergic reactions. It is responsible for inducing mast cell degranulation and deliberation of allergy mediators when it is aggregated by allergen and IgE complexes. FcepsilonRI on the mast cells consists of three subunits; alpha chain directly binds IgE, beta chain and dimmer of gamma chains together mediate intracellular signaling. Cross-linking of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI on the surface of mast cells and basophils by the multivalent antigen induces release of chemical mediators. The present in vitro study was designed to investigate the effect of synthetic FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on the antigen-induced activation of MC/9 cells. MC/9 cells which are murine mast cells were transfected by FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA and negative control siRNA. After 6 h, anti-DNP (Dinitrophenyl) IgE was used for the cells sensitization. Then the cells were challenged with Dinitrophenyl-Human Serum Albumin (DNP-HSA) for mast cell degranulation induction before collection of supernatants. The amount of mRNA and protein expression was measured by Real Time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Determination of the expression rate of FcepsilonRI-alpha on cell surface was achieved by flow cytometry. ELISA and spectrophotometry methods were used subsequently for measuring the effects of FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on antigen-induced histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA treated cells showed significant decrease in FcepsilonRI-alpha mRNA and protein expression in comparison to control cells. FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell release of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine were also inhibited. In this study it was shown that FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA could suppress FcepsilonRI-alpha expression and inhibited degranulation and histamine release in antigen-stimulated MC/9 cells. In conclusion, knock-down of FcepsilonRI-alpha by siRNA could be a promising method for inhibition of the mast

  13. Radioiodinated 4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine, a system L selective artificial amino acid: molecular design and transport characterization in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikano, Naoto, E-mail: sikano@ipu.ac.j [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kotani, Takashi; Nakajima, Syuichi; Ogura, Masato; Nakazawa, Shinya [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Sagara, Jun-ichi [Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan); Baba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto [Center for Medical Science, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kubota, Nobuo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: High expression of the system L amino acid transporter has been observed in clinically important tissues including tumors and the blood-brain barrier. We examined amino acid transport system L selectivity of {sup 14}C(U)-L-tyrosine ({sup 14}C-Tyr), {sup 125}I-4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (4-{sup 125}I-mTyr), {sup 125}I-6-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (6-{sup 125}I-mTyr), {sup 125}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine ({sup 125}I-IMT) and {sup 125}I-3-iodo-L-tyrosine (3-{sup 125}I-Tyr) using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). Methods: Cells in the exponential growth phase were incubated with 18.5 kBq of labeled amino acid in 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline-based uptake solution and an uptake solution with/without Na{sup +} at 37{sup o}C or 4{sup o}C. We examined the effects of the following compounds (1.0 mM) on transport: 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (a specific inhibitor of system A, in Na{sup +}-containing uptake solution); 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (a specific inhibitor of system L, in Na{sup +}-free uptake solution); sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol (NaN{sub 3} and DNP, inhibitors of the generation of adenosine triphosphate); p-aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium (PAH and TEA, inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters); and L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids. Results: {sup 14}C-Tyr exhibited affinity for systems L, A and ASC. 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr and 3-{sup 125}I-Tyr exhibited high specificity for system L, whereas 6-{sup 125}I-mTyr and {sup 125}I-IMT exhibited affinity for both systems L and ASC. Uptake of 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr was markedly reduced by incubation at 4 {sup o}C, and was not significantly inhibited by NaN{sub 3}, DNP, PAH or TEA. The inhibition profiles of the L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids indicated that system L mediates the transport of 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr. Conclusions: 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr exhibited the greatest system L specificity (93.46{+-}0.13%) of all of the tested amino acids.

  14. Electrochemical Genotoxicity Assay Based on a SOS/umu Test Using Hydrodynamic Voltammetry in a Droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitz, Hideki; Sazawa, Kazuto; Nanayama, Yasuaki; Hata, Noriko; Taguchi, Shigeru; Sugawara, Kazuharu; Fukushima, Masami

    2012-01-01

    The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the β-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI), so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-acrylamide (AF-2) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs) and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg·L−1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP

  15. Implementación de un sistema DIL/METPC con Labview para ensayos a transformadores; Implementation of embedded system DIL/NETPG with Labview for test to transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josnier Ramos Guardarrama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la modernización de las mediciones y el control de la ejecución de ensayos para la determinación de: las pérdidas de vacío y corriente de excitación, las pérdidas con carga e impedancia de cortocircuito y el incremento de temperatura de transformadores de distribución, según la norma IEEE Std. C57.12.90TM-2006. La modernización se sustenta en el diseño y construcción de un sistema de adquisición de datos basado en el DNP/1110 que realiza las tareas de muestreo y control; dirigido por tres programas elaborados en el ambiente Labview. Adicionalmente, se procesan y visualizan los resultados de cada uno de los ensayos. Se implementa un controlador del núcleo de GNU/Linux en conjunto con una aplicación en la zona de usuario, el cual permite obtener una frecuencia de muestreo de 20.22 kHz. La transferencia de información se realiza mediante una conexión por socket TCP/IP.  This paper presents the design and validation for operation of an automatic measurement system for the Laboratory of Distribution Transformers of the CIPEL. The system makes the test for no-load looses and excitement current, load losses and impedance voltage; and temperature rise according to the IEEE Std C57.12.90TM-2006 standard. A data acquisition system based on the DIL/NetPC DNP/1110 manages the sampling and control tasks; lead by three programs written in Labview. The results are processed and shown for each one of the tests. A core controller of GNU/Linux joint to an application in user area allows to obtain a sampling frequency of 20.22 kHz, according to the performance of the system hardware. The transfer of information between the embedded system and the lead programs is accomplished through a connection with socket TCP/IP.

  16. Implementación de un sistema DIL/METPC con Labview para ensayos a transformadores Implementation of embedded system DIL/NETPG with Labview for test to transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Martínez Barbado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la modernización de las mediciones y el control de la ejecución de ensayos para la determinación de: las pérdidas de vacío y corriente de excitación, las pérdidas con carga e impedancia de cortocircuito y el incremento de temperatura de transformadores de distribución, según la norma IEEE Std. C57.12.90TM-2006. La modernización se sustenta en el diseño y construcción de un sistema de adquisición de datos basado en el DNP/1110 que realiza las tareas de muestreo y control; dirigido por tres programas elaborados en el ambiente Labview. Adicionalmente, se procesan y visualizan los resultados de cada uno de los ensayos.Se implementa un controlador del núcleo de GNU/Linux en conjunto con una aplicación en la zona de usuario, el cual permite obtener una frecuencia de muestreo de 20.22 kHz. La transferencia de información se realiza mediante una conexión por socket TCP/IP.This paper presents the design and validation for operation of an automatic measurement system for the Laboratory of Distribution Transformers of the CIPEL. The system makes the test for no-load looses and excitement current, load losses and impedance voltage; and temperature rise according to the IEEE Std C57.12.90TM-2006 standard. A data acquisition system based on the DIL/NetPC DNP/1110 manages the sampling and control tasks; lead by three programs written in Labview. The results are processed and shown for each one of the tests. A core controller of GNU/Linux joint to an application in user area allows to obtain a sampling frequency of 20.22 kHz, according to the performance of the system hardware. The transfer of information between the embedded system and the lead programs is accomplished through a connection with socket TCP/IP.

  17. Contrast variation by dynamic nuclear polarization and time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering. I. Application to industrial multi-component nanocomposites1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yohei; Koizumi, Satoshi; Masui, Tomomi; Mashita, Ryo; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Kumada, Takayuki; Takata, Shin-ichi; Ohishi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at low temperature (1.2 K) and high magnetic field (3.3 T) was applied to a contrast variation study in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) focusing on industrial rubber materials. By varying the scattering contrast by DNP, time-of-flight SANS profiles were obtained at the pulsed neutron source of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The concentration of a small organic molecule, (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO), was carefully controlled by a doping method using vapour sorption into the rubber specimens. With the assistance of microwave irradiation (94 GHz), almost full polarization of the paramagnetic electronic spin of TEMPO was transferred to the spin state of hydrogen (protons) in the rubber materials to obtain a high proton spin polarization (P H). The following samples were prepared: (i) a binary mixture of styrene–butadiene random copolymer (SBR) with silica particles (SBR/SP); and (ii) a ternary mixture of SBR with silica and carbon black particles (SBR/SP/CP). For the binary mixture (SBR/SP), the intensity of SANS significantly increased or decreased while keeping its q dependence for P H = −35% or P H = 40%, respectively. The q behaviour of SANS for the SBR/SP mixture can be reproduced using the form factor of a spherical particle. The intensity at low q (∼0.01 Å−1) varied as a quadratic function of P H and indicated a minimum value at P H = 30%, which can be explained by the scattering contrast between SP and SBR. The scattering intensity at high q (∼0.3 Å−1) decreased with increasing P H, which is attributed to the incoherent scattering from hydrogen. For the ternary mixture (SBR/SP/CP), the q behaviour of SANS was varied by changing P H. At P H = −35%, the scattering maxima originating from the form factor of SP prevailed, whereas at P H = 29% and P H = 38%, the scattering maxima disappeared. After decomposition of the total SANS according to inverse matrix

  18. From a CEU '98er: 9 years and 5 research projects later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Christine

    2007-10-01

    Since my first research experience in 1996 working in low-energy nuclear structure, the results of which were presented at the original DNP CEU poster session in Santa Fe in 1998, subsequent projects led me to weave my way through various energies and collision systems in nuclear and particle physics. Through the course of the broad exposure to research that I have been fortunate enough to experience, I have found a niche for myself in the study of nucleon spin structure. I originally got involved in the field in 1998-99 through my undergraduate senior project on studies for polarizing the proton beam at HERA in Hamburg, Germany. After a foray into particle physics followed by an unanticipated diversion from research, teaching music and English abroad, fate--and some kind individuals--would give me the opportunity to return both to physics and specifically to nucleon structure in 2001 as part of the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Six years into my research on proton spin structure as a member of the PHENIX Collaboration, I will discuss where I am today and the non-linear path that brought me here.

  19. Compatibility study of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qilong; Li Xiaojiang; Zhang Laying; Li Jizhen; Li Hongli; Liu Ziru

    2008-01-01

    The compatibility of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials of solid propellants was studied by using the pressure DSC method where, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 1,4-dinitropiperazine (DNP), 1.25/1-NC/NG mixture, lead 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate (NTO-Pb), aluminum powder (Al, particle size = 13.6 μm) and N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA) were used as energetic components and polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxytetramethylene-co-oxyethylene (PET), addition product of hexamethylene diisocyanate and water (N-100), 2-nitrodianiline (2-NDPA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl urea (C 2 ), carbon black (C.B.), aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), cupric 2,4-dihydroxy-benzoate (β-Cu), cupric adipate (AD-Cu) and lead phthalate (φ-Pb) were used as inert materials. It was concluded that the binary systems of TNAD with NTO-Pb, RDX, PET and Al powder are compatible, and systems of TNAD with DINA and HMX are slightly sensitive, and with 2-NDPA, φ-Pb, β-Cu, AD-Cu and Al 2 O 3 are sensitive, and with PEG, N-100, C 2 and C.B. are incompatible. The impact and friction sensitivity data of the TNAD and TNAD in combination with the other energetic materials under present study was also obtained, and there was no consequential affiliation between sensitivity and compatibility

  20. Workshop on the next plan for the study of 'physics of fast neutron reactions and measurements'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    A work shop titled ''Physics of fast neutron reaction and measurements'' was held on 25 December 1984, where discussions were made on the new approach and techniques for neutron measurements. The possibilities of experimental tests with AVF cyclotron was also discussed. The followings are the list of papers presented at the work shop (all papers are written in Japanese except for the abstracts). (1) Monoenergetic neutron beam in Tohoku Cyclotron. (2) Spin-dependent response probed in (p,n) and (n,p) reactions. (3) Measurement of D(n,p) 2n reaction and instrumentation for (n,x) reactions in the 40 - 80 MeV region. (4) Two comments related to the neutron reaction. (5) High energy neutron production facilities in the world and a possibility of neutron induced reaction experiments at RCNP. (6) A neutron counter by detection of recoil protons with solid state detectors and development of neutron source by heavy ions. (7) The measurement of neutrons with the recoil detector. (8) Polarization transfer measurements (Py, Dss, Ds 1 , · · ·) with fast neutron beams. (9) Neutron elastic scattering. (10) Neutron capture gamma reaction and effective charge. (11) Comparison between neutron and charged particle induced reactions. (12) Study of giant resonances by fast neutrons. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Popcorn balls-like ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-ZrO{sub 2} microsphere for photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yutang [Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Xia, Xinnian, E-mail: xnxia@hnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Longlu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Popcorn balls-like microsphere photocatalyst. • High photocatalytic activity toward 2,4-DNP degradation. • Degradation kinetics, mechanism, active species were analyzed. • Excellent stable recycling performance. - Abstract: In this paper, novel popcorn balls-like ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-ZrO{sub 2} composite microspheres were successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure and optical property of the microspheres were characterized. The microspheres were used as the photocatalysts to degrade 2,4-dinitrophenol, and exhibited superior photocatalytic performance. Under simulated solar visible light irradiation, the degradation rate of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-ZrO{sub 2} photocatalyst (mass ratio of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZrO{sub 2} = 2:1) was almost 7.4 and 2.4 times higher than those of pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2}. The enhancement could attribute to stronger light absorption, lower carrier recombination and multi-porous structure of the microspheres. Moreover, the popcorn balls-like photocatalysts can be easily separated, because of the magnetism of the samples. After five times runs, the photocatalyst still showed 90% of its photocatalytic degradation efficiency. This work demonstrated a good prospect for removing organic pollutants in water.

  2. Immunoregulatory changes induced by total lymphoid irradiation. II. Development of thymus-leukemia antigen-positive and -negative suppressor T cells that differ in their regulatory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.P.; Strober, S.

    1981-01-01

    BALB/c mice treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) develop non-antigen-specific suppressor cells of the adoptive secondary antibody response and of the mixed leukocyte reaction. Suppressors of the adoptive anti-DNP response were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 or anti-thymus-leukemia (TL) antiserum and complement before cell transfer. Thymectomy before TLI prevented the appearance of the latter suppressor cells. On the other hand, suppressors of the MLR were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 but not anti-TL antiserum and complement. Thymectomy before TLI did not prevent their subsequent development. Thus, two subpopulations of suppressor T cells that differ in the expression of the TL surface antigen, dependence on the presence of the thymus, and in regulatory functions develop after TLI. The TL+, thymus-dependent cell suppresses the adoptive antibody response, and the TL-, thymus-independent cell suppresses the MLR

  3. Kinetics of neptunium (5) disproprotionation in nitric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltunov, V S; Tikhonov, M F

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of Np(5) disproportionation in HNO/sub 3/+NaNO/sub 3/ solutions at the ionic strength ..mu..=4 is studied by spectrophotometric method in the region of (HNO/sub 3/) = 2.1-4 M at 61-96 deg C. To shift an equilibrium of reaction and to exclude the reverse reaction of Np(6) and Np(4), 0.02 M of hydrazine was added to the solution which rapidly reduced Np(6) to Np(5). Under these conditions no further reduction of Np(5) into Np(4) occurs directly with hydrazine. The disproportionation rate of NpO/sub 2//sup +/ ions obeys the equation: -d(Np(5))dt = 2k(Np(5))/sup 2/H/sup +2/, where k = 0.113 + 0.005M/sup -3/min/sup -1/ at 90 deg C and ..mu.. = 4. Temperature dependence of k enabled to compute the energy (E=16.4 kcal/mole), enthalpy (..delta..Hsup(*) = 15.8 kcal/mole) free energy (..delta..Fsup(*) = 24.0 kcal/mole) and entropy (..delta..S=-27 eu) of the reaction activation. The reaction mechanism includes a slow step of charge transfer between two protonated NpO/sub 2/H/sup 2 +/ ions. The data obtaned are compared to the results of Np(5) diproportionation in HClO/sub 4/ medium.

  4. Appropriate technology of infrastructure like support at the production agricultural of the peasant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamanca Vargas, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    It refers to the Center of Appropriate Technology - CENTA, like an alternative for the improvement of the conditions of life and the production of the rural families. Since 1972 is described up to 1987, beginning as infrastructure section, routine of reparation of the rural housing and finally CENTA, with the purpose of to generate and to transfer technology of low cost in reparation of the housing. It discusses the reparation concept and the environmental conditions that affect the rural family supported in surveys made by the Planning National Department DNP. The characterization of the environmental reparation is indicated for the formulation of reparation programs. The methodology is carried out for the execution of routine of reparation of the rural housing through demonstrative centers. The results of the participation of the ICA are mentioned in the routine of reparation of the rural housing. It is analyzed the concept of appropriate technology and the principles that govern their development and their adoption. The Projects of the Section Center of appropriate Technology and the main realizations are enunciated carried out until 1987

  5. Ion implantation artifacts observed in depth profiling boron in silicon by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.; Simons, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison study of depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) was recently conducted. The specimens were portions of 5 cm diameter single crystal silicon slices in which B-10 had been implanted at various fluences and energies. NDP measurements were made on a 13 mm diameter area at the center of the wafers. SIMS measurements were taken from a 60 μm diameter area approximately 16 mm from the center of the wafer. One observation that emerged from this work was an apparent discrepancy between the profiles of B-10 measured by DNP and SIMS. The peaks of the SIMS profiles were typically deeper than those of NDP by as much as 30 nm, which is 10% of the projected range for a 70 keV implant. Moreover, the profiles could not be made to coincide by either a constant shift or a proportional change of one depth scale with respect to the other. The lateral inhomogeneity of boron that these experiments have demonstrated arises from the variable contribution of ion channeling during implantation

  6. Positive correlation between blood pressure or heart rate and chymase-dependent angiotensin II-forming activity in circulating mononuclear leukocytes measured by new ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a convenient clinically applicable assay method for chymase-dependent angiotensin II forming activity of circulating mononuclear leukocytes (CML), which was potentially a marker of tissue chymase activity. Using this method, association between CML chymase activity and clinical parameters was determined. Cardiovascular outpatients (n = 170) without taking antihypertensive medication were recruited. An ELISA for chymase-dependent angiotensin II-forming activity in CML was established using Nma /Dnp-modified angiotensin I. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age and male gender were significant independent determinants of the increased CML chymase activity. After adjustment by age and gender, the CML chymase activity was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and the brain natriuretic peptide level. The relation between blood pressure and CML chymase activity suggests that it might reflect that increased tissue chymase activity contributes to systemic high blood pressure and heart rate because plasma chymase is inactive due to inhibitory plasma inhibitors.

  7. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weam Siheri

    Full Text Available Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against all of the protozoa and the mycobacterium, exhibiting a range of EC50 values between 1.65 and 53.6 μg/ml. The toxicity against mammalian cell lines was only moderate; the most active extract against the protozoan species, P2, displayed an IC50 value of 53.2 μg/ml. The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The data sets were extracted using m/z Mine and the accurate masses of the features extracted were searched against the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP. A principal component analysis (PCA model was constructed which, in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, divided the samples into five groups. The outlying groups had different sets of dominant compounds in the extracts, which could be characterised by their elemental composition. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS analysis was used to link the activity of each extract against the different micro-organisms to particular components in the extracts.

  9. Simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Hansen, Adam Espe; Henriksen, Sarah T.

    2015-01-01

    have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization......In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We...... (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified...

  10. Simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E.; Henriksen, Sarah T.

    2015-01-01

    named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in an increase of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13CCO2 (13C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use......In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and 18F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have...... of 13C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of 13C-pyruvate to 13C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with 18F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence...

  11. Attenuation of p38α MAPK stress response signaling delays the in vivo aging of skeletal muscle myofibers and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaconstantinou, John; Wang, Chen Z; Zhang, Min; Yang, San; Deford, James; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Ansari, Naseem H

    2015-09-01

    Functional competence and self-renewal of mammalian skeletal muscle myofibers and progenitor cells declines with age. Progression of the muscle aging phenotype involves the decline of juvenile protective factorsi.e., proteins whose beneficial functions translate directly to the quality of life, and self-renewal of progenitor cells. These characteristics occur simultaneously with the age-associated increase of p38α stress response signaling. This suggests that the maintenance of low levels of p38α activity of juvenile tissues may delay or attenuate aging. We used the dominant negative haploinsufficient p38α mouse (DN-p38α(AF/+)) to demonstrate that in vivo attenuation of p38α activity in the gastrocnemius of the aged mutant delays age-associated processes that include: a) the decline of the juvenile protective factors, BubR1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A (ALDH1A1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2); b) attenuated expression of p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf) tumor suppressor genes of the Cdkn2a locus; c) decreased levels of hydroxynonenal protein adducts, expression of COX2 and iNOS; d) decline of the senescent progenitor cell pool level and d) the loss of gastrocnemius muscle mass. We propose that elevated P-p38α activity promotes skeletal muscle aging and that the homeostasis of p38α impacts the maintenance of a beneficial healthspan.

  12. High-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrar, C. T.; Hall, D. A.; Gerfen, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    A proton dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancement (ϵ) close to thermal equilibrium, ϵ = 0.89, has been obtained at high field (B0 = 5 T, νepr = 139.5 GHz) using 15 mM trityl radical in a 40:60 water/glycerol frozen solution at 11 K. The electron-nuclear polarization transfer...... is performed in the nuclear rotating frame with microwave irradiation during a nuclear spin-lock pulse. The growth of the signal enhancement is governed by the rotating frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1ρ), which is four orders of magnitude shorter than the nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1n......). Due to the rapid polarization transfer in the nuclear rotating frame the experiment can be recycled at a rate of 1/T1ρ and is not limited by the much slower lab frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation rate (1/T1n). The increased repetition rate allowed in the nuclear rotating frame provides an effective...

  13. Higher mortality of patients on haemodialysis with pancreatic diabetes compared to type 2-diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodlaj Gert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In rare cases (1-8% diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD suffer from diabetic nephropathy (dNP due to pancreatic diabetes mellitus (PDM. Aim of this study was to investigate differences in the outcome of patients with PDM and those with type 2 diabetes. In a retrospective study we evaluated 96 diabetic patients, who started hemodialysis (HD in our dialysis centre (1997-2005. In 12 patients PMD was diagnosed, and 84 patients had type 2 diabetes. In both groups we compared vascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular diseases at the start of dialysis. We also evaluated incidence of malnutrition, and 5-year survival in both patient groups. The vascular risk factors were similar in both patient groups, also the prevalence of vascular diseases at the initiation of HD was similar in both groups. In the patients with PDM the mean BMI (kg/m2 was lower (22 + 3 versus 25 + 3, and also their serum albumin was lower (2.7 + 0.3 versus 3.4 + 0.3 g/dl, p Conclusions in HD-treated patients with type 2 diabetes or PDM the prevalence of vascular diseases was not significantly different. The lower survival of PDM patients can be related to poor nutrition status.

  14. Investigation of valence inter-multiplet Auger transitions in Ne following 1s photoelectron recapture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Fanis, A; Pruemper, G; Hergenhahn, U; Kukk, E; Tanaka, T; Kitajima, M; Tanaka, H; Fritzsche, S; Kabachnik, N M; Ueda, K

    2005-01-01

    We employ a novel technique in which highly excited Rydberg states of Ne + 2p 4n p are populated via PCI-induced recapture of the near-threshold 1s photoelectron (De Fanis et al 2004 Phys. Rev. A 70 040702) to investigate valence inter-multiplet Auger transitions. The following series of the transitions have been observed: Ne + 2p 4 ( 1 D)np 2 L → Ne 2+ 2p 4 3 P J , Ne + 2p 4 ( 1 S)np 2 P →Ne 2+ 2p 4 3 P J and Ne + 2p 4 ( 1 S)np 2 P →Ne 2+ 2p 4 1 D. Their energy positions, quantum defects and the anisotropy parameters of the Auger electron emission have been determined. Experimental results are in good agreement with multi-configuration Dirac-Fock calculations carried out as a part of this study. The importance of interference effects for decays via naturally overlapping fine-structure components of the intermediate state is discussed

  15. Role of macrophages and oxygen radicals in IgA induced lung injury in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.; Kunkel, R.G.; Wilson, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Acute lung injury in the rat has been induced by the instillation of affinity-purified mouse monoclonal IgA antibody with specific reactivity to dinitrophenol (DNP) coupled to albumin. This model of lung injury requires an intact complement system but not neutrophils, and evidence suggests that pulmonary macrophages are the critical effector cell. Macrophages retrievable from the lungs of the IgA immune complex treated rats are considerably increased in number as compared to control animals which received only the antibody. In addition these cells show evidence of activation in vivo with greater spontaneous generation of the superoxide anion (O 2 - ) as well as significantly enhanced O 2 - response in the presence of a second stimulus. Inhibition studies in vivo suggest that the lung injury is mediated by oxygen radical generation by the pulmonary macrophages. Pretreatment of rats with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, the iron chelator deferoxamine or the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) all markedly suppressed the development of the lung injury. In summary, these studies suggest that IgA immune complex injury in the rat lung is mediated by oxygen radical formation from pulmonary macrophages

  16. Strategies for dereplication of natural compounds using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is commonly performed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), but annotating compounds to most likely structures using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry is a faster and feasible first step. The CASMI contest 2016 (Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification) provided spectra of eighteen compounds for the best manual structure identification in the natural products category. High resolution precursor and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) were available to characterize the compounds. We used the Seven Golden Rules, Sirius2 and MS-FINDER software for determination of molecular formulas, and then we queried the formulas in different natural product databases including DNP, UNPD, ChemSpider and REAXYS to obtain molecular structures. We used different in-silico fragmentation tools including CFM-ID, CSI:FingerID and MS-FINDER to rank these compounds. Additional neutral losses and product ion peaks were manually investigated. This manual and time consuming approach allowed for the correct dereplication of thirteen of the eighteen natural products.

  17. Live Cells as Dynamic Laboratories: Time Lapse Raman Spectral Microscopy of Nanoparticles with Both IgE Targeting and pH-Sensing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Nowak-Lovato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review captures the use of live cells as dynamic microlaboratories through implementation of labeled nanoparticles (nanosensors that have both sensing and targeting functions. The addition of 2,4-ε-dinitrophenol-L-lysine (DNP as a FcεRI targeting ligand and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy as a pH-sensing ligand enables spatial and temporal monitoring of FcεRI receptors and their pH environment within the endocytic pathway. To ensure reliability, the sensor is calibrated in vivo using the ionophore nigericin and standard buffer solutions to equilibrate the external [H+] concentration with that of the cell compartments. This review highlights the nanosensors, ability to traffic and respond to pH of receptor-bound nanosensors (1 at physiological temperature (37°C versus room temperature (25°C, (2 after pharmacological treatment with bafilomycin, an H+ ATPase pump inhibitor, or amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange, and (3 in response to both temperature and pharmacological treatment. Whole-cell, time lapse images are demonstrated to show the ability to transform live cells into dynamic laboratories to monitor temporal and spatial endosomal pH. The versatility of these probes shows promise for future applications relevant to intracellular trafficking and intelligent drug design.

  18. Hyperpolarized Amino Acid Derivatives as Multivalent Magnetic Resonance pH Sensor Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundshammer, Christian; Düwel, Stephan; Ruseckas, David; Topping, Geoffrey; Dzien, Piotr; Müller, Christoph; Feuerecker, Benedikt; Hövener, Jan B; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Glaser, Steffen J; Schilling, Franz

    2018-02-15

    pH is a tightly regulated physiological parameter that is often altered in diseased states like cancer. The development of biosensors that can be used to non-invasively image pH with hyperpolarized (HP) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging has therefore recently gained tremendous interest. However, most of the known HP-sensors have only individually and not comprehensively been analyzed for their biocompatibility, their pH sensitivity under physiological conditions, and the effects of chemical derivatization on their logarithmic acid dissociation constant (p K a ). Proteinogenic amino acids are biocompatible, can be hyperpolarized and have at least two pH sensitive moieties. However, they do not exhibit a pH sensitivity in the physiologically relevant pH range. Here, we developed a systematic approach to tailor the p K a of molecules using modifications of carbon chain length and derivatization rendering these molecules interesting for pH biosensing. Notably, we identified several derivatives such as [1- 13 C]serine amide and [1- 13 C]-2,3-diaminopropionic acid as novel pH sensors. They bear several spin-1/2 nuclei ( 13 C, 15 N, 31 P) with high sensitivity up to 4.8 ppm/pH and we show that 13 C spins can be hyperpolarized with dissolution dynamic polarization (DNP). Our findings elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chemical shift pH sensors that might help to design tailored probes for specific pH in vivo imaging applications.

  19. Photoionization study of the F2+ ion via the screening constant by unit nuclear charge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, M.; Tine, M.; Sow, M.; Diop, B.; Guèye, M.; Faye, M.; Sakho, I.; Biaye, M.; Wagué, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we have tabulated energy resonances of the 2s22p2 (1D)nd (2L), 2s22p2 (1S)nd (2L) and 2s22p3 (3D)np Rydberg series originating from the 2s22p3(2Po) and from the 2s22p3 (2Do) metastable states of F2+. In addition, energy resonances of the 2s2p3(5So)np (4P) Rydberg series originating from the 2s22p3 (4So) ground-state of F2+are also reported. Calculations are performed using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) method. Analysis of the present data is achieved by calculating the quantum defects and the effective nuclear charges for each series. The present results agree very well with the Advanced Light Source experiments on F2+ (Aguilar et al., 2005). Upto n=30, the present quantum defects are almost constant and the effective charge decreases regularly toward the electric charge of the F3+ core ion along each series.

  20. Irradiation cryostat for LiH and LiD polarized solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, S.

    1991-01-01

    Scattering experiments with polarized nucleon targets are an important tool to understand the nuclear spin structure. Pion photoproduction experiments on polarized protrons and neutrons as well as measurements of the neutron and deuteron formfactors will be performed at ELSA. 7 LiH and 6 LiD seem to be attractive target materials for these experiments, because they offer high proton and deuteron polarisation, respectively. Expecially 6 LiD has further very important advantages compared to the common deuteron target materials as d-Butanol and ND 3 . This work describes the mechanism of DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) in LiH and LiD and gives a view on the nature of the so-called paramagnetic impurities in these materials. In order to maximize the nuclear polarization, the production of these radicals have to take place under well defined temperature conditions. Therefore the first version of an irradiation cryostat was built and tested in regard to its cooling power and temperature adjustment. (orig.)

  1. [Natriuretic peptides. History of discovery, chemical structure, mechanism of action and the removal routes. Basis of diagnostic and therapeutic use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewski, Piotr J; Nessler, Bohdan; Cubera, Katarzyna; Nessler, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) are the group of proteins synthesized and secreted by the mammalian heart. All the NP are synthesized from prohormones and have 17-amino acid cyclic structures containing two cysteine residues linked by internal disulphide bond. They are characterized by a wide range of actions, mainly through their membrane receptors. The NP regulate the water and electrolyte balance, blood pressure through their diuretic, natriuretic, and relaxating the vascular smooth muscles effects. They also affect the endocrine system and the nervous system. The neurohormonal regulation of blood circulation results are mainly based on antagonism with renin--angiotensin--aldosterone system. The NP representatives are: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), urodilatine and (DNP) Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide, not found in the human body. According to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology determination of NT-proBNP level have found a use in the diagnosis of acute and chronic heart failure, risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes and pulmonary embolism. There are reports found in the literature, that demonstrate the usefulness of NT-proBNP determination in valvular, atrial fibrillation, and syncopes. Recombinant human ANP--Carperitid and BNP--Nesiritid, have already found a use in the adjunctive therapy of dyspnea in acute heart failure.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of anode exhaust of direct methanol fuel cells without isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Young Seok; Hwang, Reo Yun; Han, Ochee

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are devices that electrochemically convert the chemical energy of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and methanol, into electricity. Fuel cells more efficiently use energy than internal combustion engines and do not produce undesirable pollutants, such as NO_x ,SO_x and particulates. Fuel cells can be distinguished from one another by their electrolytes. Among the various direct alcohol fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have been developed most. However, DMFCs have several practical problems such as methanol crossove r from an anode to a cathode and slow methanol oxidation reaction rates. Therefore, understanding the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of DMFCs may provide clues to solve these problems, and various analytical methods have been employed to examine these mechanisms. We demonstrated that "1H and "1"3C NMR spectroscopy can be used for analyzing anode exhausts of DMFCs operated with methanol without any isotope enrichment. However, the low sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy hindered our efforts to detect minor reaction intermediates. Therefore, sensitivity enhancement techniques such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR methods and/or presaturation methods to increase the dynamic range of the proton spectra by pre-saturating large water signals, are expected to be useful to detect low-concentration species

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Os4BGlu12 β-glucosidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansenya, Sompong; Ketudat Cairns, James R.; Opassiri, Rodjana

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant rice Os4BGlu12 β-glucosidase purified from E. coli was crystallized with and without 2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-d-glucopyranoside. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Os4BGlu12, a glycoside hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21), was expressed as a fusion protein with an N-terminal thioredoxin/His 6 tag in Escherichia coli strain Origami B (DE3) and purified with subsequent removal of the N-terminal tag. Native Os4BGlu12 and its complex with 2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-d-glucopyranoside (DNP2FG) were crystallized using 19% polyethylene glycol (3350 or 2000, respectively) in 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5, 0.16 M NaCl at 288 K. Diffraction data sets for the apo and inhibitor-bound forms were collected to 2.50 and 2.45 Å resolution, respectively. The space group and the unit-cell parameters of the crystal indicated the presence of two molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 50%. The structure of Os4BGlu12 was successfully solved in space group P4 3 2 1 2 by molecular replacement using the white clover cyanogenic β-glucosidase structure as a search model

  4. Exploiting the interactions between the ruthenium Hoveyda–Grubbs catalyst and Al-modified mesoporous silica: the case of SBA15 vs. KCC-1

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa; Pump, Eva; Tretiakov, Mykyta; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Gurinov, Andrei; Doggali, Pradeep; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cavallo, Luigi; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Immobilization of the 2 generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst HG-II onto well-ordered 2D hexagonal (SBA15) and 3D fibrous (KCC-1) mesostructured silica, which contained tetra-coordinated Al, has been investigated through the Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC) methodology. The main interest of this study lies in the peculiarity of the silica supports, which display a well-defined tetrahedral aluminum hydride site displaying a strong Lewis acid character, [(Si-O-Si)(Si-O-)Al-H]. The resulting supported Hoveyda-Grubbs catalysts have been fully characterized by advanced solid state characterization techniques (FT-IR, H and C solid state NMR, DNP-SENS, EF-TEM...). Together with DFT calculations, the immobilization of HG-II does not occur through the formation of a covalent bond between the complex and the Al-modified mesoporous silica as expected, but through an Al⋯Cl-[Ru]-coordination. It is not surprising that in functionalized olefin metathesis of diethyldiallyl malonate, DEDAM (liquid phase), leaching of the catalyst is observed which is not the case in non-functionalized olefin metathesis of propene (gas phase). Besides, the results obtained in propene metathesis with HG-II immobilized either on SBA15 (d = 6 nm) or KCC-1 (d = 4 or 8 nm) highlight the importance of the accessibility of the catalytic site. Therefore, we demonstrate that KCC-1 is a promising and suitable 3D mesoporous support to overcome the diffusion of reactants into the porous network of heterogeneous catalysts.

  5. First feedback with the AMMON integral experiment for the JHR calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemaire M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The innovative design of the next international Material Testing Reactor, the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR, induced the development of a new neutron and photon calculation formular HORUS3D/P&N, based on deterministic and stochastic codes and the European nuclear data library JEFF3.1.1. A new integral experiment, named the AMMON experiment, was designed in order to make the experimental validation of HORUS3D. The objectives of this experimental program are to calibrate the biases and uncertainties associated with the HORUS3D/N&P calculations for JHR safety and design calculations, but also the validation of some specific nuclear data (concerning mainly hafnium and beryllium isotopes. The experiment began in 2010 and is currently performed in the EOLE zero-power critical mock-up at CEA Cadarache. This paper deals with the first feedback of the AMMON experiments with 3D Monte Carlo TRIPOLI4©/JEFF3.1.1 calculations.

  6. Development of new probes for NMR based analysis of biomolecules' cellular functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    Most NMR studies are carried out in vitro, but the structure and dynamics of some biomolecules inside cells differ from those in vitro. It thus becomes interesting to analyze biomolecules such as proteins in their natural environment: the cell. Recent progress of in cell NMR allowed to better understand the behaviour of proteins: their dynamics and their interactions with other biomolecules in the cell. But the low concentration of proteins leads to low signal intensity. Moreover, the viscosity of the environment induces faster transverse relaxation, resulting in line broadening for proteins signals. The use of the Long-Lived States and Coherencies (LLS and LLC, respectively) as well as dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (dissolution-DNP) can improve NMR observations in cells. LLS were used to understand and characterize the structure of the N-terminal domain of c-Src, which is intrinsically disordered. To follow the phosphorylation of proteins, a first preliminary study of a 21-aa peptides derived from IKBa electroporated into HepG2 cell lines was carried out. (author)

  7. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA- induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC- γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK. These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  8. Isolation of pronephros cells which endocytose chemically modified proteins in the rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannevig, B.H.; Berg, T.

    1986-01-01

    Modified serum albumin is cleared from the blood by kidney cells in salmonid fishes. The present study deals with isolation of cells from pronephros which endocytose formaldehyde-treated human serum albumin (fHSA). Radioactively labelled fHSA or dinitrophenyl-conjugated albumin (DNP-HSA) were injected intravenously into rainbow trouts. Pronephros cells, containing the endocytosed protein, were isolated and further separated by centrifugal elutriation and density-gradient centrifugation. Most of the radioactive protein was elutriated together with small cells. After centrifuging the cells through a Percoll density gradient, radioactive protein was located in cells recovered in the upper part of the gradient. In mammals, fHSA and other modified proteins are mainly taken up by sinusoidal endothelial cells in the liver via a scavenger receptor 0. Our results suggest that a comparable function in salmonids is located in a subpopulation of relatively small cells in kidney tissue, possibly sinusoidal lining cells. The separation techniques used seemed to be suitable for isolation of different populations of pronephros cells

  9. Calidad de vida urbana: una propuesta para su evaluación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Giovanni Jiménez Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the methodological basis of the doctoral thesis entitled "Quality of Life in the City of Bogota: An Assessment through the use of the Multidimensional Poverty Index - MPI," an ongoing investigation. Quality of life, understood as people's capability to develop their life projects, depends to a large extent on the guarantee that a nation provides its citizens to accede to a range of primary goods, understood as endowments and rights that a state has agreed to provide for its inhabitants. In recent years, Bogota has developed public policies to ensure this type of primary goods to its residents. The overall objective of the study is to evaluate how these actions have improved the quality of life of citizens; for which MPI was selected. The method was designed by Alkire and Foster and adapted to Colombia by the National Planning Department - DNP. It has been applied to each of the localities that make up the political and administrative divisions of the city. The advantage is it can be broken down into each of its dimensions and indicators, facilitating the formulation and evaluation of policies.

  10. Hexavalent chromate reduction during growth and by immobilized cells of arthrobacter sp. suk 1205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.; Paul, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The chromate reducing actinomycetes, Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1205, isolated from chromite mine overburden of Odisha, India exhibited significant chromate reduction during growth with characteristic formation of pale green insoluble precipitate. Reduction of chromate increased with increase in inoculum density but the reduction potential declined as and when Cr(VI) concentration in the medium was increased. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose were used as electron donors and pH and temperature were maintained at 7.0 and 35 degree C, respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II), Mn(II) and DNP. Among the matrices tested for whole cell immobilization, Ca-alginate immobilized whole cells were found to be most effective and were comparable with non-immobilized cells. Minimal salts (MS) medium was the most effective base for Cr(VI) reduction studies with immobilized cells. Under such conditions, the immobilized cells retained their enzymatic activity at least for 4 consecutive cycles indicating the potential of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1205 in bioremediation of environmental chromium pollution. (author)

  11. Research methods for graduate students: a practical framework to guide teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Patricia F; Christian, Becky J; Smith, Sandra L; Vance, David E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the Arrow Framework for Research Design, an organizing framework that facilitates teaching and learning of research methods, providing logical organization of interrelationships between concepts, content, and context of research methods, and practice application. The Arrow Framework was designed for teaching and learning research methods to facilitate progression of knowledge acquisition through synthesis. The framework was developed over several years and used successfully to teach masters, DNP, and PhD nursing students across five universities. The framework is presented with incremental graphics and narrative for teaching. The Arrow Framework provides user-friendly information, in an organized and systematic approach demonstrated as successful for teaching and learning the foundational language of research, facilitating synthesis and application in scholarly endeavors. The Arrow Framework will be useful for educators and students in teaching and learning research language, relationships, and application of methods. The materials are easily adaptable to slide or paper presentation, and meet learner needs for narrative and visual presentation. Teaching research design to graduate students is critical to meet the expectation that students are to understand the scientific underpinnings of nursing science and appropriate use of evidence that are essential for well-educated practitioners. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Economic valuation of environmental liabilities, case report: liabilities from Cicuco-Boquete oil field, Mompos-Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno G Jaime Alberto; Ussa G Jaime Eddy

    2008-01-01

    Environmental management demands the incorporation of economic tools to make decisions. One crucial aspect is to establish the compensation values demandable under parameters of acceptable rationality considering at the same time the systemic and complexicity theory of ecosystemic relationships and transmission of impacts, where the definition of environmental passive is configured. This study intended to establish the value of the damage caused in time to human populations established in the influence area of the Cicuco-Boquete oil extraction field, located in Mompos island, department of Bolivar, Colombia. The research included developing and applying a methodology to appraise the value of damages derived from oil extraction activities on the fish production potential on the nearby area. Environmental changes on hidric resources directly impacted the area's fishing potential; consequently, there was an irreversible diminishing on the main productive activity of the regions inhabitants. The study was carried out from May to December 1999 by request of the Procuraduria Delegada para Asuntos Agrarios y Ambientales and the municipalities of Talaiga Nuevo and Cicuco in Bolivar's Department, with the participation of the Departamento Nacional de Planeacion -DNP- and the Contraloria General de la Republica - CGR.

  13. The polarized double cell target of the SMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Adeva, B.; Arik, E.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjoerkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; Botton, N. de; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Bueltmann, S.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Torre, S. Dalla; Dantzig, R. van; Derro, B.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Forthmann, S.; Frois, B.; Gallas, A.; Garzon, J.A.; Gaussiran, T.; Gilly, H.; Giorgi, M.; Goeler, E. von; Goertz, S.; Gracia, G.; Groot, N. de; Perdekamp, M. Grosse; Guelmez, E.; Haft, K.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, T.; Hautle, P.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kageya, T.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kiryluk, J.; Kishi, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Kraemer, D.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kroeger, W.; Kurek, K.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Lamanna, M.; Landgraf, U.; Layda, T.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindqvist, T.; Litmaath, M.; Lowe, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marie, F.; Martin, A.; Martino, J.; Matsuda, T.; Mayes, B.; McCarthy, J.S.; Medved, K.; Meyer, W.; Middelkoop, G. van; Miller, D.; Miyachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Moromisato, J.; Nassalski, J.; Naumann, L.; Neganov, B.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Oberski, J.E.J.; Ogawa, A.; Ozben, C.; Parks, D.P.; Pereira, H.; Penzo, A.; Perrot-Kunne, F.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piegaia, R.; Pinsky, L.; Platchkov, S.; Plo, M.; Pose, D.; Postma, H.; Pretz, J.; Pussieux, T.; Pyrlik, J.; Raedel, G.; Reyhancan, I.; Reicherz, G.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.; Roberts, J.B.; Rock, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Rondio, E.; Rosado, A.; Roscherr, B.; Sabo, I.; Saborido, J.; Sandacz, A.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schiller, A.; Schueler, K.P.; Segel, R.; Seitz, R.; Semertzidis, Y.; Sever, F.; Shanahan, P.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simeoni, F.; Smirnov, G.I.; Staude, A.; Steinmetz, A.; Stiegler, U.; Stuhrmann, H.; Szleper, M.; Teichert, K.M.; Tessarotto, F.; Thers, D.; Tlaczala, W.; Trentalange, S.; Tripet, A.; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vogt, J.; Voss, R.; Weinstein, R.; Whitten, C.; Windmolders, R.; Willumeit, R.; Wislicki, W.; Witzmann, A.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zaremba, K.; Zhao, J.

    1999-01-01

    The polarized target of the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN was used for deep inelastic muon scattering experiments during 1993-1996 with a polarized muon beam to investigate the spin structure of the nucleon. Most of the experiments were carried out with longitudinal target polarization and 190 GeV muons, and some were done with transverse polarization and 100 GeV muons. Protons as well as deuterons were polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in three kinds of solid materials -- butanol, ammonia, and deuterated butanol -- with maximum degrees of polarization of 94%, 91% and 60%, respectively. Considerable attention was paid to the accuracies of the NMR polarization measurements and their analyses, the accuracies achieved were between 2.0% and 3.2%. The SMC target system with two cells of opposite polarizations, each cell 65 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, constitutes the largest polarized target system ever built and facilitates accurate spin asymmetry measurements. The design considerations, construction and performance of the target are reviewed

  14. Redox regulation of mast cell histamine release in thioredoxin-1 (TRX) transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Aoi; Nakamura, Hajime; Kondo, Norihiko; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wenrui; Oka, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Yodoi, Junji

    2006-02-01

    Thioredoxin-1 (TRX) is a stress-inducible redox-regulatory protein with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Here we show that the release of histamine from mast cells elicited by cross-linking of high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) was significantly suppressed in TRX transgenic (TRX-tg) mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) of mast cells stimulated by IgE and antigen was also reduced in TRX-tg mice compared to WT mice. Whereas there was no difference in the production of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) from mast cells in response to 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA) stimulation in TRX-tg and WT mice. Immunological status of TRX-tg mice inclined to T helper (Th) 2 dominant in primary immune response, although there was no difference in the population of dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells. We conclude that the histamine release from mast cells in TRX-tg mice is suppressed by inhibition of ROS generation. As ROS are involved in mast cell activation and facilitate mediator release, TRX may be a key signaling molecule regulating the early events in the IgE signaling in mast cells and the allergic inflammation.

  15. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W D [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y G [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Liang, Y C [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, J [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F A [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Yang, M [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V {sub max} of 2.25 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight h{sup -1}, and K {sub m} of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag{sup +}. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg{sup 2+}, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg{sup 2+} on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent.

  16. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, W.D.; Zhu, Y.G.; Liang, Y.C.; Zhang, J.; Smith, F.A.; Yang, M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V max of 2.25 μmol g -1 fresh weight h -1 , and K m of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag + . OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg 2+ , suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg 2+ on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of anode exhaust of direct methanol fuel cells without isotope enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Young Seok; Hwang, Reo Yun; Han, Ochee [Western Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Fuel cells are devices that electrochemically convert the chemical energy of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and methanol, into electricity. Fuel cells more efficiently use energy than internal combustion engines and do not produce undesirable pollutants, such as NO{sub x} ,SO{sub x} and particulates. Fuel cells can be distinguished from one another by their electrolytes. Among the various direct alcohol fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have been developed most. However, DMFCs have several practical problems such as methanol crossove r from an anode to a cathode and slow methanol oxidation reaction rates. Therefore, understanding the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of DMFCs may provide clues to solve these problems, and various analytical methods have been employed to examine these mechanisms. We demonstrated that {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy can be used for analyzing anode exhausts of DMFCs operated with methanol without any isotope enrichment. However, the low sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy hindered our efforts to detect minor reaction intermediates. Therefore, sensitivity enhancement techniques such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR methods and/or presaturation methods to increase the dynamic range of the proton spectra by pre-saturating large water signals, are expected to be useful to detect low-concentration species.

  18. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  19. Reactivity of tris(acetylacetonato) iron(III) with tridentate [ONO] donor Schiff base as an access to newer mixed-ligand iron(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Chira R.; Goswami, Pankaj; Pramanik, Harun A. R.; Paul, Pradip C.; Mondal, Paritosh

    2011-05-01

    Two new mixed-ligand iron(III) complexes, [Fe(L n)(acac)(C 2H 5OH)] incorporating coordinated ethanol from the reaction solvent were accessed from the reaction of [Fe(acac) 3] with [ONO] donor dibasic tridentate unsymmetrical Schiff base ligands derived from condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde with 2-aminophenol (H 2L 1) or 2-aminobenzoic acid (H 2L 2). The thermal study (TGA-DTA) provided evidence for weakly bound ethanol which is readily substituted by neutral N-donor molecule imidazole, benzimidazole or pyridine to produce an array of newer complexes, [Fe(L n)(acac)X] ( n = 1, 2; X = Im, Bim, Py). The compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV-vis, solution electrical conductivity, FAB mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements ( μeff ˜ 5.8 B.M.) are consistent with spin-free octahedral iron(III) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry of ethanol complexes revealed a quasi-reversible one electron redox response (Δ Ep > 100 mV) for the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple. Low half wave redox potential ( E1/2) values suggested easy redox susceptibility. The ground state geometries of the ethanol and imidazole complexes have been ascertained to be distorted octahedral by density functional theory using DMol3 program at BLYP/DNP level.

  20. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  1. Renal MR angiography and perfusion in the pig using hyperpolarized water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigh Lipsø, Kasper; Hansen, Esben Søvsø Szocska; Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Laustsen, Christoffer; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2017-09-01

    To study hyperpolarized water as an angiography and perfusion tracer in a large animal model. Protons dissolved in deuterium oxide (D 2 O) were hyperpolarized in a SPINlab dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP) polarizer and subsequently investigated in vivo in a pig model at 3 Tesla (T). Approximately 15 mL of hyperpolarized water was injected in the renal artery by hand over 4-5 s. A liquid state polarization of 5.3 ± 0.9% of 3.8 M protons in 15 mL of deuterium oxide was achieved with a T 1 of 24 ± 1 s. This allowed injection through an arterial catheter into the renal artery and subsequently high-contrast imaging of the entire kidney parenchyma over several seconds. The dynamic images allow quantification of tissue perfusion, with a mean cortical perfusion of 504 ± 123 mL/100 mL/min. Hyperpolarized water MR imaging was successfully demonstrated as a renal angiography and perfusion method. Quantitative perfusion maps of the kidney were obtained in agreement with literature and control experiments with gadolinium contrast. Magn Reson Med 78:1131-1135, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. DNA Nanoparticles: Detection of Long-Term Transgene Activity in Brain using Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Yurek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used bioluminescence imaging (BLI to track long-term transgene activity following the transfection of brain cells using a nonviral gene therapy technique. Formulations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA combined with 30-mer lysine polymers (substituted with 10 kDa polyethylene glycol form nanoparticles that transfect brain cells in vivo and produce transgene activity. Here we show that a single intracerebral injection of these DNA nanoparticles (DNPs into the rat cortex, striatum, or substantia nigra results in long-term and persistent luciferase transgene activity over an 8- to 11-week period as evaluated by in vivo BLI analysis, and single injections of DNPs into the mouse striatum showed stable luciferase transgene activity for 1 year. Compacted DNPs produced in vivo signals 7- to 34-fold higher than DNA alone. In contrast, ex vivo BLI analysis, which is subject to less signal quenching from surrounding tissues, demonstrated a DNP to DNA alone ratio of 76- to 280-fold. Moreover, the ex vivo BLI analysis confirmed that signals originated from the targeted brain structures. In summary, BLI permits serial analysis of luciferase transgene activity at multiple brain locations following gene transfer with DNPs. Ex vivo analysis may permit more accurate determination of relative activities of gene transfer vectors.

  3. Histamine release inhibitory activity of Piper nigrum leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Inaba, Kazunori; Itoh, Kimihisa; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    Oral administration of a methanolic extract of Piper nigrum leaf (PN-ext, 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)] after and 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] after DNFB challenge in mice which were passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. Ear swelling inhibitory effect of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) on very late phase response (vLPR) in the model mice was significant but weaker than that on IPR. Oral administration of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 7 d) inhibited picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice. PN-ext exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Two lignans of PN-ext, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), were identified as major active principles having histamine release inhibitory activity.

  4. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  5. Enlace de reconectadores a un sistema SCADA mediante una red de comunicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ortega Castro

    2016-12-01

    Abstract The following paper details the link methodology from a communications network for the SCADA system at Azogues Power Company (EEA, starting from the need to implement electric reconnectors in the short and medium term; using automatic reconnectors OSM for their versatility and endurance when used outdoors, IEC 870 DNP3 communications protocols and ModBus for SCADA systems and remote terminal units. This way there is an improvement in the quality of the power supply service that is distributed in Azogues and its parishes. For this task, an implementation design of a communications network was done, in order to link the new reconnectors that were acquired by the company; setting a priority of the infrastructure and resources that it already had, achieving the placement of eight of these devices that were distributed in different areas of the city, using optic fiber in some cases and radio links in other situations when the network infrastructure didn’t allow the physical access to the facility; everything backed up with the correspondent technical and financial studies

  6. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion

    1959-01-01

    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  7. Effect of ultraviolet exposure on mitochondrial respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-09-01

    To find the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondria were obtained from rat livers, and the suspension was exposed to an extensive ultraviolet light. The oxygen consumption was measured polarographically with a Clark oxygen electrode. The effect of ultraviolet exposure on the five states of respiratory control (Chance and Williams), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control index in mitochondria was discussed. The ultraviolet light with a dose of 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ erg/cm/sup 2/ caused the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to uncouple. The 2nd phosphorylation site of the respiratory chain was susceptible to ultraviolet exposure. The stimulation of latent ATPase activity in mitochondria following exposure was observed by increasing exposure of ultraviolet light. However, DNP-stimulated ATPase was found to be stable in activity. The uncoupling of the respiratory chain by ultraviolet exposure was not detected if the mitochondrial suspension was preincubated with bovine serum albumin before exposure. The changes in light absorption of the mitochondrial suspension were followed at 520 nm after exposure. A close correlation was found between the ultraviolet exposure and swelling in mitochondria. But, the reversing contraction was observed by adding ATP to the swelled mitochondria. The peroxide compound was formed in mitochondria irradiated with ultraviolet light. The amount of compounds formed was dependent on the radiant energy of ultraviolet light. The possible mechanisms involved in the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light to the mitochondrial respiration system were discussed.

  8. On Complex Nuclei Energetics in LENR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz

    2005-03-01

    Swimming Electron Layer (SEL) theory plus fission of ``complex nuclei'' were proposed earlier to explain reaction products observed in electrolysis with multi-layer thin-film metallic electrodesootnotetext1.G.H. Miley, and J.A. Patterson, J. New Energy, Vol. 1, pp.11-15, (1996).. SEL was then extended to treat gas-diffusion driven transmutation experimentsootnotetextG. H. Miley and H. Hora, ``Nuclear Reactions in Solids,'' APS DNP Mtg., East Lansing, MI, Oct (2002).. It is also consistent with measured charged-particle emission during thin-film electrolysis and x-ray emission during plasma bombardment experimentsootnotetextA. Karabut, ``X-ray emission in high-current glow discharge,'' Proc., ICCF-9, Beijing China, May (2002).. The binding energy per complex nucleon can be estimated by an energy balance combined with identification of products for each complex e.g. complexes of A 39 have ˜ 0.05 MeV/Nucleon, etc, in thin film electrolysis. Energies in gas diffusion experiments are lower due to the reduced trap site potential at the multi-atom surface. In the case of x-ray emission, complexes involve subsurface defect center traps, giving only a few keV/Nucleon, consistent with experiments^3.

  9. Exploiting the interactions between the ruthenium Hoveyda–Grubbs catalyst and Al-modified mesoporous silica: the case of SBA15 vs. KCC-1

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2018-03-05

    Immobilization of the 2 generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst HG-II onto well-ordered 2D hexagonal (SBA15) and 3D fibrous (KCC-1) mesostructured silica, which contained tetra-coordinated Al, has been investigated through the Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC) methodology. The main interest of this study lies in the peculiarity of the silica supports, which display a well-defined tetrahedral aluminum hydride site displaying a strong Lewis acid character, [(Si-O-Si)(Si-O-)Al-H]. The resulting supported Hoveyda-Grubbs catalysts have been fully characterized by advanced solid state characterization techniques (FT-IR, H and C solid state NMR, DNP-SENS, EF-TEM...). Together with DFT calculations, the immobilization of HG-II does not occur through the formation of a covalent bond between the complex and the Al-modified mesoporous silica as expected, but through an Al⋯Cl-[Ru]-coordination. It is not surprising that in functionalized olefin metathesis of diethyldiallyl malonate, DEDAM (liquid phase), leaching of the catalyst is observed which is not the case in non-functionalized olefin metathesis of propene (gas phase). Besides, the results obtained in propene metathesis with HG-II immobilized either on SBA15 (d = 6 nm) or KCC-1 (d = 4 or 8 nm) highlight the importance of the accessibility of the catalytic site. Therefore, we demonstrate that KCC-1 is a promising and suitable 3D mesoporous support to overcome the diffusion of reactants into the porous network of heterogeneous catalysts.

  10. Re-use of winery wastewaters for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Villaseñor, J; Buendía, I M; Fernández, F J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the re-use of the winery wastewater to enhance the biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. In batch experiments it was observed that the addition of winery wastewater mainly enhanced the nitrogen removal process because of the high denitrification potential (DNP), of about 130 mg N/g COD, of the contained substrates. This value is very similar to that obtained by using pure organic substrates such as acetate. The addition of winery wastewater did not significantly affect either phosphorus or COD removal processes. Based on the experimental results obtained, the optimum dosage to remove each mg of N-NO3 was determined, being a value of 6.7 mg COD/mg N-NO3. Because of the good properties of the winery wastewater to enhance the nitrogen removal, the viability of its continuous addition in an activated sludge pilot-scale plant for BNR was studied. Dosing the winery wastewater to the pilot plant a significant increase in the nitrogen removal was detected, from 58 to 75%. The COD removal was slightly increased, from 89 to 95%, and the phosphorus removal remained constant.

  11. Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siheri, Weam; Zhang, Tong; Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Biddau, Marco; Woods, Nicola; Hussain, Muattaz Yassein; Clements, Carol J; Fearnley, James; Ebel, RuAngelie Edrada; Paget, Timothy; Muller, Sylke; Carter, Katharine C; Ferro, Valerie A; De Koning, Harry P; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against all of the protozoa and the mycobacterium, exhibiting a range of EC50 values between 1.65 and 53.6 μg/ml. The toxicity against mammalian cell lines was only moderate; the most active extract against the protozoan species, P2, displayed an IC50 value of 53.2 μg/ml. The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The data sets were extracted using m/z Mine and the accurate masses of the features extracted were searched against the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP). A principal component analysis (PCA) model was constructed which, in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), divided the samples into five groups. The outlying groups had different sets of dominant compounds in the extracts, which could be characterised by their elemental composition. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analysis was used to link the activity of each extract against the different micro-organisms to particular components in the extracts.

  12. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a 14 C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism

  13. The polarized double cell target of the SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Layda, T; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Neganov, B S; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Pereira, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Reyhancan, I; Reicherz, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Segel, R E; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    The polarized target of the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN was used for deep inelastic muon scattering experiments during 1993 to 1996 with a polarized muon beam to investigate the spin structure of the nucleon. Most of the experiments were carried out with longitudinal target polarization and 190 GeV muons, and some were done with transverse polarization and 100 GeV muons. Protons as well as deuterons were polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in three kinds of solid materials $-$ butanol, ammonia, and deuterated butanol, with maximum degrees of polarization of 94, 91, and 60 \\%, respectively. Considerable attention was paid to the accuracies of the NMR polarization measurements and their analyses. The achieved accuracies were between 2.0 and 3.2 \\%. The SMC target system with two cells of opposite polarizations, each cell 65 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, constitutes the largest polarized target system ever built and facilitates accurate spin asymmetry measurements. The design considerations, the ...

  14. Study on Anti-Allergic Effecst of Ganoderma lucidum Herbal Acupuncture and Ganoderma lucidum Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Kyung-Hwa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : We studied on anti-allergic effects of Ganoderma lucidum herbal acupuncture(GHA and Ganoderma lucidum extract(GE. Methods : in vivo, Animals were herbal-acupunctured GHA at both B13s three times for 5 days. Then, we investigated compound 48/80-induced active systemic anaphylatic shock using ICR mice and anti-DNP IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis using Sprague Dawley rat. In vitro, we measured cell viability, b-hexosaminidase release, IL-4 and TNF-a from RBL-2H3 cells, and nitric oxide from Raw264.7 cell after treatment of GE of various concentrations. Results : In vivo, GHA pretreatments at both B13s inhibited compound 48/80-induced active systemic anaphylatic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis were inhibited by GHA10 and OP. In vitro, 0.1 ~ 2% GE treatments were not affect on cell viability and inhibited b-hexosaminidase release, IL-4, TNF-a and nitric oxide. Conclusions : These results suggest that GHA and GE may be beneficial in the inhibition of allergic inflammatory response.

  15. Study of homing patterns of x-irradiated murine lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of in vitro x-ray exposure of murine lymphoid cells on their subsequent in vivo homing patterns were studied. The homing of lymphoid cells to various tissues and organs was followed by using radio-labeled cell preparations or by following the distribution of cells with a specific immunological memory. X irradiation of 51 Cr-labeled spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells was found to significantly alter their subsequent in vivo distribution. Irradiated cells demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver and a significantly lower retention in the lungs. Cells going to the lymph nodes of Peyer's patches showed a significant exposure dependent decrease in homing following irradiation. Irradiated lymph node cells homed in greater numbers to the spleen and bone marrow, while irradiated cells from other sources showed a decrease or no change indistribution to the same tissues. Lymph node cell suspensions from dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma globulin (DNP-BGG) immune LBN rats were prepared, irradiated (0 and 200 R) and injected into intermediate (LBN) hosts and controls. Irradiated memory cells provided a secondary antibody response, which was delayed but not suppressed when compared to unirradiated cells. Alteration in homing of lymphocytes caused by various physical and chemical agents was a result of effects on cell membrane characteristics which controlled some aspects of the phenomenon. Radiation (100 to 200 R) may have had a similar effect or it may have resulted in the selective elimination of a population of cells. (U.S.)

  16. Effect of erythropoietin on the glucose transport of rat erythrocytes and bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosal, J.; Chakraborty, M.; Biswas, T.; Ganguly, C.K.; Datta, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of Ep on radioactive glucose and methyl-alpha-D-glucoside transport by rat erythrocytes and bone marrow cells were studied. There is initial linearity followed by saturation kinetics of [ 14 C]glucose transport by the erythrocytes of starved and starved plus Ep-treated rats at different concentrations of glucose. Starvation caused slight inhibition of glucose transport which increased markedly on Ep administration to starved rats. Normal animals failed to show any significant change in glucose transport after Ep treatment. Methyl-alpha-D-glucoside inhibited the Ep-stimulated glucose transport significantly. Ep also stimulated the transport of radioactive methyl-alpha-D-glucoside which was competitively inhibited in presence of D-glucose. Glucose transport in erythrocytes was found to be sensitive to metabolic inhibitors like azide and DNP. A sulfhydryl reagent and ouabain also inhibited the transport process. Ep stimulated glucose and methyl-alpha-D-glucoside transport in the bone marrow cells of starved rats. The sugar analog competitively inhibited the glucose transport in bone marrow cells and vice versa

  17. A novel approach for reliable detection of cathepsin S activities in mouse antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Alex; Kalbacher, Hubert; Maurer, Andreas; Beifuss, Brigitte; Bender, Annika; Schäfer, Andrea; Müller, Ricarda; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a eukaryotic protease mostly expressed in professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Since CTSS activity regulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome and psoriasis as well as in cancer progression, there is an ongoing interest in the reliable detection of cathepsin S activity. Various applications have been invented for specific detection of this enzyme. However, most of them have only been shown to be suitable for human samples, do not deliver quantitative results or the experimental procedure requires technical equipment that is not commonly available in a standard laboratory. We have tested a fluorogen substrate, Mca-GRWPPMGLPWE-Lys(Dnp)-DArg-NH2, that has been described to specifically detect CTSS activities in human APCs for its potential use for mouse samples. We have modified the protocol and thereby offer a cheap, easy, reproducible and quick activity assay to detect CTSS activities in mouse APCs. Since most of basic research on CTSS is performed in mice, this method closes a gap and offers a possibility for reliable and quantitative CTSS activity detection that can be performed in almost every laboratory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Genetic Variation in the ND1 Gene and D-loop in Protected and Commercially Exploited European Cisco (Coregonus albula L.) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirczuk, Lucyna; Rymaszewska, Anna; Pilecka-Rapacz, Malgorzata; Domagala, Jozef

    The European cisco (Coregonus albula L.) is a species with high environmental requirements. The deterioration of environmental conditions in recent decades has decreased its distribution. Currently the species is conserved by stocking, and the few existing natural populations are at risk of extinction. Therefore, contemporary studies involve not only reporting phenotypic parameters, but also determining the genetic structure of the population. This is an important aspect monitored in the C. albula population, which provides information valuable for proper fishing economy. This study included valuable populations from lakes located in Drawa National Park (DNP) and Wigry National Park (WNP), as well as lakes used for commercial fishing. In order to molecularly characterize the European cisco, the control region and NDl gene were sequenced from 48 individuals from 9 populations from lakes throughout northern Poland. Analysis revealed that populations from two park lakes (Marta, Ostrowieckie) are unique. This was also the case for some sequences originating from Lake Wigry. The mean value of genetic diversity was 0.2% within each region and 0.1-0.3% between the investigated regions. The obtained results demonstrated the necessity to strengthen and protect natural populations of the European cisco, which constitute a valuable element of the European ichthyofauna.

  19. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  20. Dynamically polarized hydrogen target as a broadband, wavelength-independent thermal neutron spin polarizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkui; Garamus, Vasil M.; Mueller, Wilhelm; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogen-rich sample with dynamically polarized hydrogen nuclei was tested as a wavelength-independent neutron transmission spin polarizer. The experiment used a modified setup of the dynamic nuclear polarization target station at the GKSS research center. The standard solvent sample at the GKSS DNP station was used. It is 2.8mm thick and consists of 43.4wt% water, 54.6wt% glycerol, and 2wt% of EHBA-Cr(v) complex. The wavelength of the incident neutrons for the transmission experiment was λ=8.1A with Δλ/λ=10%. The polarization of neutron beam after the target sample was analyzed with a supermirror analyzer. A neutron polarization of -52% was achieved at the hydrogen polarization of -69%. Further experiments will test the feasibility of other hydrogen-rich materials, such as methane, as the polarizer. A theoretical calculation shows that a polarized methane target would allow over 95% neutron polarizations with more than 30% transmission

  1. Effect of heavy water on isolated rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of O 2 consumption by isolated rat liver mitochondria was determined polarographically with a Clark electrode at 25 0 C in the active (state 3), strongly coupled (state 4) and decoupled state of the mitochondria in media containing H 2 16 O, D 2 16 O or H 2 18 O. The results confirm the value of the D 2 O isotope effect in the form on an O 2 -consumption inhibition. In H 2 18 O no isotope effect has been detected in the state of controlled respiration. In contrast, a strongly marked inverse isotope effect has been found in the active state after ADP addition and in the decoupled state after DNP addition. This inverse isotope effect occurs in reactions involving a preceding equilibrium. According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation the formation of hydronium ions is part of this reaction. The equilibrium constant k 2 = 0.9774 for the hydronium ion in H 2 16 O and H 2 18 O implies that the formation of the hydronium ion in H 2 18 O is preferred to that in H 2 16 O. The high inverse H 2 18 O isotope effect respiration shows that the formation of H 3 O + contributes to the vectorial proton transport, probably as a preceding equilibrium, and that in the active state of the respiratory chain this reaction may be the rate-determining step. (author)

  2. Hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopic detection of yttrium ion and DOTA macrocyclic ligand complexation: pH dependence and Y-DOTA intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a rapidly emerging physics technique used to enhance the signal strength in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and imaging (MRI) experiments for nuclear spins such as yttrium-89 by >10,000-fold. One of the most common and stable MRI contrast agents used in the clinic is Gd-DOTA. In this work, we have investigated the binding of the yttrium and DOTA ligand as a model for complexation of Gd ion and DOTA ligand. The macrocyclic ligand DOTA is special because its complexation with lanthanide ions such as Gd3+ or Y3+ is highly pH dependent. Using this physics technology, we have tracked the complexation kinetics of hyperpolarized Y-triflate and DOTA ligand in real-time and detected the Y-DOTA intermediates. Different kinds of buffers were used (lactate, acetate, citrate, oxalate) and the pseudo-first order complexation kinetic calculations will be discussed. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  3. A bamboo-inspired hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Ag/CuO/TiO_2 nanotube array for highly photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuhong; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Chengbin; Ding, Yangbin; Zhang, Shuqu; Zeng, Yunxiong; Liu, Yutang; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bamboo-like architecture of ternary photocatalyst. • High simulated solar light photocatalytic activity. • Integration of p-n heterojunction and Schottky junction. • Excellent stable recycling performance. - Abstract: The optimized geometrical configuration of muitiple active materials into hierarchical nanoarchitecture is essential for the creation of photocatalytic degradation system that can mimic natural photosynthesis. A bamboo-like architecture, CuO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles co-decorated TiO_2 nanotube arrays (Ag/CuO/TiO_2), was fabricated by using simple solution-immersion and electrodeposition process. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) photocatalytic degradation rate over Ag/CuO/TiO_2 was about 2.0, 1.5 and 1.2 times that over TiO_2 nanotubes, CuO/TiO_2 and Ag/TiO_2, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ternary Ag/CuO/TiO_2 photocatalyst was ascribed to improved light absorption, reduced carrier recombination and more exposed active sites. Moreover, the excellent stability and reliability of the Ag/CuO/TiO_2 photocatalyst demonstrated a promising application for organic pollutant removal from water.

  4. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  5. A bamboo-inspired hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array for highly photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuhong; Wang, Longlu [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ding, Yangbin; Zhang, Shuqu; Zeng, Yunxiong [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yutang, E-mail: liuyutang@126.com [Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Shenglian [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Bamboo-like architecture of ternary photocatalyst. • High simulated solar light photocatalytic activity. • Integration of p-n heterojunction and Schottky junction. • Excellent stable recycling performance. - Abstract: The optimized geometrical configuration of muitiple active materials into hierarchical nanoarchitecture is essential for the creation of photocatalytic degradation system that can mimic natural photosynthesis. A bamboo-like architecture, CuO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles co-decorated TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2}), was fabricated by using simple solution-immersion and electrodeposition process. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) photocatalytic degradation rate over Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} was about 2.0, 1.5 and 1.2 times that over TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, CuO/TiO{sub 2} and Ag/TiO{sub 2}, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ternary Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was ascribed to improved light absorption, reduced carrier recombination and more exposed active sites. Moreover, the excellent stability and reliability of the Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst demonstrated a promising application for organic pollutant removal from water.

  6. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  7. Atom-scale covalent electrochemical modification of single-layer graphene on SiC substrates by diaryliodonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearba, Raluca I.; Mueller, Kory M.; Veneman, Peter A.; Holliday, Bradley J.; Chan, Calvin K.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its high conductivity, graphene holds promise as an electrode for energy devices such as batteries and photovoltaics. However, to this end, the work function and doping levels in graphene need to be precisely tuned. One promising route for modifying graphene's electronic properties is via controlled covalent electrochemical grafting of molecules. We show that by employing diaryliodonium salts instead of the commonly used diazonium salts, spontaneous functionalization is avoided. This then allows for precise tuning of the grafting density. Moreover, by employing bis(4-nitrophenyl)iodonium(III) tetrafluoroborate (DNP) salt calibration curves, the surface functionalization density (coverage) of glassy carbon was controlled using cyclic voltammetry in varying salt concentrations. These electro-grafting conditions and calibration curves translated directly over to modifying single layer epitaxial graphene substrates (grown on insulating 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1)). In addition to quantifying the functionalization densities using electrochemical methods, samples with low grafting densities were characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). We show that the use of buffer-layer free graphene substrates is required for clear observation of the nitrophenyl modifications. Furthermore, atomically-resolved STM images of single site modifications were obtained, showing no preferential grafting at defect sites or SiC step edges as supposed previously in the literature. Most of the grafts exhibit threefold symmetry, but occasional extended modifications (larger than 4 nm) were observed as well

  8. Antipyretic action of the new hydrazides 2 - (5 - (adamantane-1-yl-4-r-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Pruglo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. It is known that fever is a necessary defense response that activates the immune system, enhances phagocytosis, stimulates the formation of Interferon, antibody production, which leads to inhibition of reproduction of many viruses and bacteria. However, the raising of the temperature above 39 ° C is dangerous for adults and children of all ages. Despite the high efficacy of analgesics, antipyretics, their use is not always safe. Therefore, the search for new highly efficient drug with antipyretic action is an urgent problem nowadays. RESEARCH GOAL - was pharmacological antipyretics screening among first synthesized derivatives of 1,2,4-triazoles. MATERIALS AND METHODS of research. The experimental fever reproduced on white nonlinear rats by administering 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP (disconnector of the oxidative phosphorylation at a dose of 20 mg / kg. Investigated substances were injected through 0.5 hours (T 0,5 after administration of 2,4-DNP, rectal body temperature for 1 hour (T1 was fixed. Initial rectal temperature (T0 recorded to intra-abdominal injection 2.4-DNF. Acetylsalicylic acid was used as a comparison reference drug at a dose of 100 mg / kg. The results were processed with modern statistical methods of analysis on a personal computer using standard software package Microsoft Office 2010 (Microsoft Excel and «STATISTICA ® for Windows 6.0». We used 3 levels of statistical significance of differences in outcomes research - p <0.05, p <0.01, and P <0.001. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. A new antipyretics were identified with activity not less than in the standard for comparison - acetylsalicylic acid. Intraabdominal injection of 2,4-DNF in 0.5 hour caused a fever in rat in average from 37.480 to 38.580 Co (Δ 1,10 C. Most significantly retarded the body temperature in animals compound number 76 (ΔT 1,230 C, p <0.01, 86 (ΔT 1,140 C, p <0.001, 85 (ΔT 1,330 C, p <0.01, 87 (ΔT 1,010 S , p <0.01, it’s action were somewhat

  9. Estimation of transport parameters of phenolic compounds and inorganic contaminants through composite landfill liners using one-dimensional mass transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varank, Gamze; Demir, Ahmet; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Bilgili, M. Sinan; Top, Selin; Sekman, Elif

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We conduct 1D advection-dispersion modeling to estimate transport parameters. → We examine fourteen phenolic compounds and three inorganic contaminants. → 2-MP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP have the highest coefficients. → Dispersion coefficients of Cu are determined to be higher than Zn and Fe. → Transport of phenolics can be prevented by zeolite and bentonite in landfill liners. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) advection-dispersion transport modeling was conducted as a conceptual approach for the estimation of the transport parameters of fourteen different phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and three different inorganic contaminants (Cu, Zn, Fe) migrating downward through the several liner systems. Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors (0.25 m 3 ) with different composite liners (R1: 0.10 + 0.10 m of compacted clay liner (CCL), L e = 0.20 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R2: 0.002-m-thick damaged high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane overlying 0.10 + 0.10 m of CCL, L e = 0.20 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R3: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick bentonite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, L e = 0.22 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R4: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick zeolite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, L e = 0.22 m, k e = 4.24 x 10 -7 m/s) were simultaneously run for a period of about 540 days to investigate the nature of diffusive and advective transport of the selected organic and inorganic contaminants. The results of 1D transport model showed that the highest molecular diffusion coefficients, ranging from 4.77 x 10 -10 to 10.67 x 10 -10 m 2 /s, were estimated for phenol (R4), 2-MP (R1), 2,4-DNP (R2), 2,4-DCP (R1), 2,6-DCP (R2), 2,4,5-TCP (R2) and 2,3,4,6-TeCP (R1). For all reactors, dispersion coefficients of Cu, ranging from 3.47 x 10 -6 m 2 /s to 5

  10. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.. Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP; descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP. Observou-se que a atratividade das substâncias testadas desapareceu minutos após a sua aplicação, utilizando ou não a glicerina, em ambas as variedades. A pulverização dos extratos de falsa melissa, folhas de eucalipto e folhas de laranja apresentaram um aumento no número de abelhas Apis mellifera, na variedade Quintal. Os dados mostraram que a freqüência das abelhas A. mellifera foi maior na variedade Quintal comparada à variedade Fortuna. Isto pode ter ocorrido devido à maior concentração de açúcares do néctar de suas flores. Observou-se que as abelhas A. mellifera preferiram visitar as flores do abacateiro da variedade Quintal, tanto para néctar quanto para coleta de pólen, comparada à variedade Fortuna. Com relação aos frutos, nenhuma das características apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. Entretanto, observou-se que na variedade Quintal os frutos decorrentes dos tratamentos DP e DNP foram mais pesados, mais compridos e com maior espessura da polpa, comparados ao único fruto obtido do tratamento coberto. Os produtos testados em tubos não foram eficientes para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera, em ambas as variedades.The present experiment was carried out to evaluate some methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae to two avocado varieties (Persea americana Mill.. Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, Citrus sp leaf, Eucalyptus sp leaf, the eugenol and linalol

  11. Surface bioengineering of diatomite based nanovectors for efficient intracellular uptake and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Monica; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Correia, Alexandra; Rea, Ilaria; Lamberti, Annalisa; de Stefano, Luca; Santos, Hélder A.

    2015-11-01

    Diatomite is a natural porous silica material of sedimentary origin. Due to its peculiar properties, it can be considered as a valid surrogate of synthetic porous silica for nano-based drug delivery. In this work, we exploit the potential of diatomite nanoparticles (DNPs) for drug delivery with the aim of developing a successful dual-biofunctionalization method by polyethylene glycol (PEG) coverage and cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) bioconjugation, to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of the particles, to enhance the intracellular uptake in cancer cells, and to increase the biocompatibility of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT) modified-DNPs. DNPs-APT-PEG-CPP showed hemocompatibility for up to 200 μg mL-1 after 48 h of incubation with erythrocytes, with a hemolysis value of only 1.3%. The cytotoxicity of the modified-DNPs with a concentration up to 200 μg mL-1 and incubation with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 24 h, demonstrated that PEGylation and CPP-bioconjugation can strongly reduce the cytotoxicity of DNPs-APT. The cellular uptake of the modified-DNPs was also evaluated using the above mentioned cancer cell lines, showing that the CPP-bioconjugation can considerably increase the DNP cellular uptake. Moreover, the dual surface modification of DNPs improved both the loading of a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug, sorafenib, with a loading degree up to 22 wt%, and also enhanced the drug release profiles in aqueous solutions. Overall, this work demonstrates that the biofunctionalization of DNPs is a promising platform for drug delivery applications in cancer therapy as a result of its enhanced stability, biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and drug release profiles.Diatomite is a natural porous silica material of sedimentary origin. Due to its peculiar properties, it can be considered as a valid surrogate of synthetic porous silica for nano-based drug delivery. In this work, we exploit the potential of diatomite nanoparticles

  12. Formation of methylamine by rumen microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Hisao; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1978-01-01

    An unknown ninhydrin positive peak on the chromatograms of amino acid analyzer of alkalified rumen fluid distillate of goats was isolated as DNP-derivative and identified as methylamine. Under normal feeding condition, its concentration in the rumen ranged 0.1-3.9 mgN/100 ml of rumen fluid and the proportion of methylamine in total volatile base, or apparent ammonia, ranged 0.5-13% during post-feeding. When ammonium salt was administered into the rumen with hay-concentrate ration, these values were increased up to 8.1 mgN/100 ml and 25.8% respectively. Concentrations of ammonia and methylamine when aspartic acid or alanine was administered into the rumen in place of concentrate mixture (control) were not markedly different from the control. In the case of arginine, glutamic acid or glycine administration, these concentrations were depressed as compared to the control. There were no distinct differences in the concentration of methylamine between the faunated and unfaunated goats. 14 C from 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, U- 14 C-alanine, 2- 14 C-glycine or 14 C-sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into methylamine in invitro incubation with rumen micro-organisms. When the washed suspensions of rumen bacteria or protozoa were incubated with 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, the radioactivity in methylamine appeared only in the case of bacteria suspensions. After the addition of 15 N-ammonium citrate into the rumen, the incorporation of 15 N into methylamine was observed during 1-9 hr. (auth.)

  13. Growth, 14C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up 14 C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up 14 C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of 14 C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl 2 or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP

  14. バージニア大学における高度専門看護師 (APN) 教育に関する調査報告

    OpenAIRE

    正木, 治恵; 眞嶋, 朋子; 佐藤, まゆみ; 石井, 邦子

    2008-01-01

    看護学研究科における高度専門職養成教育のあり方を検討するための基礎資料として,米国の高度専門看護師 (APN : Advanced Practice Nurse) 教育に関する調査を行った.情報提供者は同大学院の教員,大学病院における臨床指導者,大学院生であった.調査項目は,バージニア大学大学院教育課程全体の概要,APNの理論的枠組み,老人看護,急性期看護(クリティカルケア,がん看護を含む),助産師教育,NP(Nurse Practitioner)教育およびDNP (Doctor of Nursing Practice) 教育,臨床指導の概要,大学病院におけるAPNの役割の実際についてである.米国では,NP,CNS (Clinical Nurse Specialist), CNM (Certified Nurse-Midwife), CRNA (Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist) を総称してAPNとし,2年間の修士課程において養成するものとしている.このように統合した経緯には,実践現場でCNSとNPの役割を統合するような能力や役割が求め...

  15. Multiple acquisition of magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments using one receiver: Application to microcrystalline and membrane protein preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of proteins is a notoriously low-throughput technique. Relatively low-sensitivity and poor resolution of protein samples require long acquisition times for multidimensional NMR experiments. To speed up data acquisition, we developed a family of experiments called Polarization Optimized Experiments (POE), in which we utilized the orphan spin operators that are discarded in classical multidimensional NMR experiments, recovering them to allow simultaneous acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D experiments, all while using conventional probes with spectrometers equipped with one receiver. POE allow the concatenation of multiple 2D or 3D pulse sequences into a single experiment, thus potentially combining all of the aforementioned advances, boosting the capability of ssNMR spectrometers at least two-fold without the addition of any hardware. In this perspective, we describe the first generation of POE, such as dual acquisition MAS (or DUMAS) methods, and then illustrate the evolution of these experiments into MEIOSIS, a method that enables the simultaneous acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D spectra. Using these new pulse schemes for the solid-state NMR investigation of biopolymers makes it possible to obtain sequential resonance assignments, as well as distance restraints, in about half the experimental time. While designed for acquisition of heteronuclei, these new experiments can be easily implemented for proton detection and coupled with other recent advancements, such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), to improve signal to noise. Finally, we illustrate the application of these methods to microcrystalline protein preparations as well as single and multi-span membrane proteins reconstituted in lipid membranes.

  16. Cathepsin D immobilized capillary reactors for on-flow screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio, Vivian Estevam; de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Domingues, Vanessa de Cassia; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Gracas Fernandes; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2018-03-20

    The treatment of diseases using enzymes as targets has called for the development of new and reliable methods for screening. The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. The activity and kinetic parameters of CatD-IMER were evaluated by monitoring the product MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe (P-MOCAc) (K M  = 81.9 ± 7.49 μmol/L) generated by cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Leu-Lys(DNP)-d-Arg-NH2 (S-MOCAc). Stability studies have indicated that CatD-IMER retained 20% of activity after 5 months, a relevant result, because proteases are susceptible to autoproteolysis in solution assays with free enzyme. In the search for inhibitors, 12 crude natural product extracts were analyzed using CatD-IMER as the target, resulting in the isolation of different classes of natural products. In addition, 26 compounds obtained from different species of plants were also screened, demonstrating the efficiency and reproducibility of the herein reported assay even in the case of complex matrices such as plant crude extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism of Uptake of Trace Elements by Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1965-01-01

    MECHANISM OF UPTAKE OF TRACE ELEMENTS BY PLANTS (EXPERIMENTS WlTH RADIOZINC). Some authors have assumed that the uptake of (essential or non-essential) trace elements by plants is due to active transport, and therefore needs metabolic energy. In our laboratory it has been found that the uptake of zinc (“6”5Zn) by chlorella and barley roots is, in the main, a passive process, and is based largely on ion exchange. In these experiments the Zn system contrasted sharply with actively transporting systems, e. g. the K system, although the extent of accumulation may be similar: (1) decouplers (DNP, azide) or anaerobiosis do not depress the uptake of Zn: (2) plants killed by grinding, freezing or alcohol treatment take up more Zn than living plants: (3) the temperature coefficient of the Zn uptake is small: (4) many ions compete with Zn, i.e. the uptake is unspecific. We have measured - primarily with dead cells, where equilibria are reached easily - the competition of several foreign ions with radiozinc at fixed pH (usually 6). These values have been compared with analogous values obtained with radiozinc (and verified with radiocopper) in respect to cation exchange resins. It is concluded from the sequence of the different ions that the active sites in the cells are mainly carboxyl groups. Probably most of the ‘exchanger’ consists of carbohydrate derivatives in the cell wall, i.e. in the ‘free space’, However, both by Langmuir analysis of the observed ‘uptake isotherm’ and by radiochemical work with partly blocked material, sites with anomalous affinity to Zn have been demonstrated. These may be imidazol groups in the proteins known to bind zinc strongly by complexation. (author)

  18. Tc1-mediated contact sensitivity reaction, its mechanism and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zemelka-Wiącek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHS to haptens is a classic example of cell-mediated immune response. In the effector phase, two stages can be distinguished: an early component, that appears only 2 hours after subsequent contact with the hapten, and the late component that develops approximately 24 hours later which is mediated by TCRαβ+ cells. The effector lymphocytes may be CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1 cells or CD8+ T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1 cells, which depends on the employed hapten and/or mice strain. NKT lymphocytes play the crucial role in the CHS initiation, by supporting B1 cells in the antigen-specific IgM antibodies production. The development of an early component is essential for the recruitment of T effector (Teff cells to the side of hapten deposition and for the complete expansion of inflammatory reaction. The CHS reaction is under T regulatory (Treg cells control, both in the induction phase as well as in the effector phase. A new view of a negative regulation of the Tc1 mediated CHS response is based on the suppression induced by epicutaneous (EC application of protein antigen. The DNP-BSA skin application, on a gauze patch, leads to a state of immunosuppression. This maneuver results in rising the population of Treg cells with TCRαβ+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ phenotype. The mechanism of suppression requires direct contact between Treg cells and Teff cells and the participation of CTLA-4 molecule is also necessary. The described method of evoking immune tolerance via EC immunization may contribute to elaborate a new method of allergic contact dermatitis therapy. This is because of its effectiveness, ease of induction and non-invasive protein antigen application.

  19. Colorimetric Chemical Differentiation and Detection of Phosphorus in Eutrophic and High Particulate Waters: Advantages of a New Monitoring Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Felgentreu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a key factor forcing eutrophication in limnic and marine systems, and all monitoring programs for water quality accordingly include P determinations. However, traditional monitoring does not allow an analysis of the different components involved in the P cycle taking place in the water column. Nonetheless, the implementation of measures addressing eutrophication requires a full understanding of the processes involved in the transformation and transport of P, in all its chemical forms. In this study, the P categories present in a river and its estuary in northern Germany, which discharge into the Baltic Sea, were characterized. Using the molybdenum blue method we found that the classification of P into the traditional fractions (DIP, DOP, POP applied in the ocean cannot be applied to turbid waters such as rivers because interferences between the fractions seems to occur. Therefore a new nomenclature has been introduced. In addition to total phosphorus (TP and dissolved molybdate-reactive phosphorus (DRP; previously referred to as inorganic phosphorus, dissolved non-molybdate-reactive phosphorus (DNP, particulate molybdatereactive phosphorus (PRP, and particulate non-molybdate-reactive phosphorus (PNP were distinguished. The high spatial and temporal variations in the proportions of these forms with respect to the TP concentration well-demonstrate the complexity of the P cycle and the involved P fractions and emphasize the need for expanded monitoring approach. The potential of eutrophication could be underestimated if not all P categories were considered. With the new operational nomenclature the common and standardized molybdenum blue reaction could be used to implement the analysis of various P components into regular monitoring programs.

  20. Hyperpolarized Amino Acid Derivatives as Multivalent Magnetic Resonance pH Sensor Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hundshammer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available pH is a tightly regulated physiological parameter that is often altered in diseased states like cancer. The development of biosensors that can be used to non-invasively image pH with hyperpolarized (HP magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging has therefore recently gained tremendous interest. However, most of the known HP-sensors have only individually and not comprehensively been analyzed for their biocompatibility, their pH sensitivity under physiological conditions, and the effects of chemical derivatization on their logarithmic acid dissociation constant (pKa. Proteinogenic amino acids are biocompatible, can be hyperpolarized and have at least two pH sensitive moieties. However, they do not exhibit a pH sensitivity in the physiologically relevant pH range. Here, we developed a systematic approach to tailor the pKa of molecules using modifications of carbon chain length and derivatization rendering these molecules interesting for pH biosensing. Notably, we identified several derivatives such as [1-13C]serine amide and [1-13C]-2,3-diaminopropionic acid as novel pH sensors. They bear several spin-1/2 nuclei (13C, 15N, 31P with high sensitivity up to 4.8 ppm/pH and we show that 13C spins can be hyperpolarized with dissolution dynamic polarization (DNP. Our findings elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chemical shift pH sensors that might help to design tailored probes for specific pH in vivo imaging applications.

  1. Age and lesion-induced increases of GDNF transgene expression in brain following intracerebral injections of DNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurek, D M; Hasselrot, U; Cass, W A; Sesenoglu-Laird, O; Padegimas, L; Cooper, M J

    2015-01-22

    In previous studies that used compacted DNA nanoparticles (DNP) to transfect cells in the brain, we observed higher transgene expression in the denervated striatum when compared to transgene expression in the intact striatum. We also observed that long-term transgene expression occurred in astrocytes as well as neurons. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the higher transgene expression observed in the denervated striatum may be a function of increased gliosis. Several aging studies have also reported an increase of gliosis as a function of normal aging. In this study we used DNPs that encoded for human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) and either a non-specific human polyubiquitin C (UbC) or an astrocyte-specific human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. The DNPs were injected intracerebrally into the denervated or intact striatum of young, middle-aged or aged rats, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) transgene expression was subsequently quantified in brain tissue samples. The results of our studies confirmed our earlier finding that transgene expression was higher in the denervated striatum when compared to intact striatum for DNPs incorporating either promoter. In addition, we observed significantly higher transgene expression in the denervated striatum of old rats when compared to young rats following injections of both types of DNPs. Stereological analysis of GFAP+ cells in the striatum confirmed an increase of GFAP+ cells in the denervated striatum when compared to the intact striatum and also an age-related increase; importantly, increases in GFAP+ cells closely matched the increases in GDNF transgene levels. Thus neurodegeneration and aging may lay a foundation that is actually beneficial for this particular type of gene therapy while other gene therapy techniques that target neurons are actually targeting cells that are decreasing as the disease progresses. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by

  2. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China 201203 (China); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China 201203 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe neurological disorder. TD induces selective neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the brain which are commonly observed in many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The progress in this line of research is hindered due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. The neurons derived for the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide a relevant and powerful tool for the research in pharmaceutical and environmental neurotoxicity. In this study, we for the first time used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons (iCell neurons) to investigate the mechanisms of TD-induced neurodegeneration. We showed that TD caused a concentration- and duration-dependent death of iCell neurons. TD induced ER stress which was evident by the increase in ER stress markers, such as GRP78, XBP-1, CHOP, ATF-6, phosphorylated eIF2α, and cleaved caspase-12. TD also triggered oxidative stress which was shown by the increase in the expression 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). ER stress inhibitors (STF-083010 and salubrinal) and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were effective in alleviating TD-induced death of iCell neurons, supporting the involvement of ER stress and oxidative stress. It establishes that the iCell neurons are a novel tool to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes death of human neurons in culture. • TD induces both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. • Alleviating ER stress and oxidative stress reduces TD

  3. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe neurological disorder. TD induces selective neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the brain which are commonly observed in many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The progress in this line of research is hindered due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. The neurons derived for the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide a relevant and powerful tool for the research in pharmaceutical and environmental neurotoxicity. In this study, we for the first time used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons (iCell neurons) to investigate the mechanisms of TD-induced neurodegeneration. We showed that TD caused a concentration- and duration-dependent death of iCell neurons. TD induced ER stress which was evident by the increase in ER stress markers, such as GRP78, XBP-1, CHOP, ATF-6, phosphorylated eIF2α, and cleaved caspase-12. TD also triggered oxidative stress which was shown by the increase in the expression 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). ER stress inhibitors (STF-083010 and salubrinal) and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were effective in alleviating TD-induced death of iCell neurons, supporting the involvement of ER stress and oxidative stress. It establishes that the iCell neurons are a novel tool to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2011-06-01

    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  5. Reaction monitoring using hyperpolarized NMR with scaling of heteronuclear couplings by optimal tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J.; Hilty, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Off-resonance decoupling using the method of Scaling of Heteronuclear Couplings by Optimal Tracking (SHOT) enables determination of heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts in single scan NMR spectra. Through modulation of J-coupling evolution by shaped radio frequency pulses, off resonance decoupling using SHOT pulses causes a user-defined dependence of the observed J-splitting, such as the splitting of 13C peaks, on the chemical shift offset of coupled nuclei, such as 1H. Because a decoupling experiment requires only a single scan, this method is suitable for characterizing on-going chemical reactions using hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). We demonstrate the calculation of [13C, 1H] chemical shift correlations of the carbanionic active sites from hyperpolarized styrene polymerized using sodium naphthalene as an initiator. While off resonance decoupling by SHOT pulses does not enhance the resolution in the same way as a 2D NMR spectrum would, the ability to obtain the correlations in single scans makes this method ideal for determination of chemical shifts in on-going reactions on the second time scale. In addition, we present a novel SHOT pulse that allows to scale J-splittings 50% larger than the respective J-coupling constant. This feature can be used to enhance the resolution of the indirectly detected chemical shift and reduce peak overlap, as demonstrated in a model reaction between p-anisaldehyde and isobutylamine. For both pulses, the accuracy is evaluated under changing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the peaks from reactants and reaction products, with an overall standard deviation of chemical shift differences compared to reference spectra of 0.02 ppm when measured on a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Notably, the appearance of decoupling side-bands, which scale with peak intensity, appears to be of secondary importance.

  6. Optical hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in nanodiamond ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-11-01

    Dynamical nuclear polarization holds the key for orders of magnitude enhancements of nuclear magnetic resonance signals which, in turn, would enable a wide range of novel applications in biomedical sciences. However, current implementations of DNP require cryogenic temperatures and long times for achieving high polarization. Here we propose and analyze in detail protocols that can achieve rapid hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in randomly oriented ensembles of nanodiamonds at room temperature. Our protocols exploit a combination of optical polarization of electron spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers and the transfer of this polarization to 13C nuclei by means of microwave control to overcome the severe challenges that are posed by the random orientation of the nanodiamonds and their nitrogen-vacancy centers. Specifically, these random orientations result in exceedingly large energy variations of the electron spin levels that render the polarization and coherent control of the nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins as well as the control of their coherent interaction with the surrounding 13C nuclear spins highly inefficient. We address these challenges by a combination of an off-resonant microwave double resonance scheme in conjunction with a realization of the integrated solid effect which, together with adiabatic rotations of external magnetic fields or rotations of nanodiamonds, leads to a protocol that achieves high levels of hyperpolarization of the entire nuclear-spin bath in a randomly oriented ensemble of nanodiamonds even at room temperature. This hyperpolarization together with the long nuclear-spin polarization lifetimes in nanodiamonds and the relatively high density of 13C nuclei has the potential to result in a major signal enhancement in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and suggests functionalized and hyperpolarized nanodiamonds as a unique probe for molecular imaging both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Solvent-free functionalization of fullerene C{sub 60} and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes with aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Meza-Laguna, Victor [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Gromovoy, Taras Yu. [O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, Gen. Naumova 17, 03164 Kiev (Ukraine); Chávez-Uribe, Ma. Isabel [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, Vladimir A., E-mail: basiuk@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, Elena V., E-mail: elbg1111@gmail.com [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with aromatic amines. • The amines add onto nanotube defects, likewise they add onto fullerene C{sub 60}. • The addition takes place at elevated temperature and without organic solvents. • Functionalized nanotubes were characterized by a number of instrumental techniques. - Abstract: We employed a direct one-step solvent-free covalent functionalization of solid fullerene C{sub 60} and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with aromatic amines 1-aminopyrene (AP), 2-aminofluorene (AF) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The reactions were carried out under moderate vacuum, in a wide temperature range of 180–250 °C, during relatively short time of about 2 h. To confirm successful amine attachment, a large number of analytical techniques were used (depending on the nanomaterial functionalized) such as Fourier transform infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, {sup 13}C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometric detection, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nucleophilic addition of the aromatic amines to C{sub 60} molecule was studied theoretically by using density functional theory (PBE GGA functional with Grimme dispersion correction in conjunction with the DNP basis set). In the case of crystalline C{sub 60}, the solvent-free technique has a limited applicability due to poor diffusion of vaporous aromatic amines into the bulk. Nevertheless, the approach proposed allows for a facile preparation of aromatic amine-functionalized pristine MWCNTs without contamination with other chemical reagents, detergents and solvents, which is especially important for a vast variety of nanotube applications spanning from nanoelectronics to nanomedicine.

  8. iTRAQ analysis of hepatic proteins in free-living Mus spretus mice to assess the contamination status of areas surrounding Doñana National Park (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Nieves; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.es

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to develop and integrate new -omics tools that would be applicable to different ecosystem types for a technological updating of environmental evaluations. We used a 2nd-generation (iTRAQ-8plex) proteomic approach to identify/quantify proteins differentially expressed in the liver of free-living Mus spretus mice from Doñana National Park or its proximities. Mass spectrometry was performed in an LTQ Orbitrap system for iTRAQ reporter ion quantitation and protein identification using a Mus musculus database as reference. A prior IEF step improved the separation of the complex peptide mixture. Over 2000 identified proteins were altered, of which 118 changed by ≥ 2.5-fold in mice from at least two problem sites. Part of the results obtained with the iTRAQ analysis was confirmed by Western blot. Over 75% of the 118 proteins were upregulated in animals captured at polluted sites and only 16 proteins were downregulated. Upregulated proteins were involved in stress response; cell proliferation and apoptosis; signal transduction; metastasis or tumour suppression; xenobiotic export or vesicular trafficking; and metabolism. The downregulated proteins, all potentially harmful, were classified as oncoproteins and proteins favouring genome instability. The iTRAQ results presented here demonstrated that the survival of hepatic cells is compromised in animals living at polluted sites, which showed deep alterations in metabolism and the signalling pathways. The identified proteins may be useful as biomarkers of environmental pollution and provide insight about the metabolic pathways and/or physiological processes affected by pollutants in DNP and its surrounding areas. - Highlights: • iTRAQ quantitation was used for the first time to monitor a wildlife reserve • Over 2,000 proteins with altered expression were identified in problem Doñana sites • Of them, 118 changed over 2.5-fold in, at least, two problem sites • Upregulation of protective proteins

  9. A facile, sensitive, and highly specific trinitrophenol assay based on target-induced synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer towards DNA-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Hou, Ting; Ge, Lei; Li, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Reliable, selective and sensitive approaches for trinitrophenol (TNP) detection are highly desirable with respect to national security and environmental protection. Herein, a simple and novel fluorescent strategy for highly sensitive and specific TNP assay has been successfully developed, which is based on the quenching of the fluorescent poly(thymine)-templated copper nanoclusters (DNA-CuNCs), through the synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer. Upon the addition of TNP, donor-acceptor complexes between the electron-deficient nitro-groups in TNP and the electron-donating DNA templates are formed, resulting in the close proximity between TNP and CuNCs. Moreover, the acidity of TNP contributes to the pH decrease of the system. These factors combine to dramatically quench the fluorescence of DNA-CuNCs, providing a "signal-off" strategy for TNP sensing. The as-proposed strategy demonstrates high sensitivity for TNP assay, and a detection limit of 0.03μM is obtained, which is lower than those reported by using organic fluorescent materials. More significantly, this approach shows outstanding selectivity over a number of TNP analogues, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 3-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), phenol (BP), and toluene (BT). Compared with previous studies, this method does not need complex DNA sequence design, fluorescent dye labeling, or sophisticated organic reactions, rendering the strategy with additional advantages of simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In addition, the as-proposed strategy has been adopted for the detection of TNP in natural water samples, indicating its great potential to be applied in the fields of public safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Active uptake of substance P carboxy-terminal heptapeptide (5-11) into rat brain and rabbit spinal cord slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Y; Kusaka, Y; Yajima, H; Segawa, T

    1981-12-01

    We previously reported that nerve terminals and glial cells lack an active uptake system capable of terminating transmitter action of substance P (SP). In the present study, we demonstrated the existence of an active uptake system for SP carboxy-terminal heptapeptide, (5-11)SP. When the slices from either rat brain or rabbit spinal cord were incubated with (3H)(5-11)SP, the uptake of (5-11)SP into slices was observed. The uptake system has the properties of an active transport mechanism: it is dependent on temperature and sensitive to hypoosmotic treatment and is inhibited by ouabain and dinitrophenol (DNP). In the brain, (5-11)SP was accumulated by means of a high-affinity and a low-affinity uptake system. The Km and the Vmax values for the high-affinity system were 4.20 x 10(-8) M and 7.59 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min, respectively, whereas these values for the low-affinity system were 1.00 x 10(-6) M and 100 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min, respectively. In the spinal cord, there was only one uptake system, with a Km value of 2.16 x 10(-7) M and Vmax value of 26.2 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min. These results suggest that when SP is released from nerve terminals, it is hydrolysed into (5-11)SP before or after acting as a neurotransmitter, which is in turn accumulated into nerve terminals. Therefore, the uptake system may represent a possible mechanism for the inactivation of SP.

  11. Protective effects of a preparation(hemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jo, Sung-Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung-Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs (Angelica gagantis Radix, etc.) was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol- insoluble fraction yielded from one half of the total water extract to the other half of the total water extract. In vitro, lymphocytes were protected by HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions against radiation. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma- irradiation, the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  12. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Oh, Heon [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract. In vitro, HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions protected lymphocytes against radiation and scavenged hydroxyl radicals. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma-irradiation the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. Finally, oral or intraperitoneal administration of HemoHIM augmented the 30 day survival rate after irradiation. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage, thus increasing the survival following lethal irradiation. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  13. MEDEA+ project 2T302 MUSCLE: masks through user's supply chain: leadership by excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsy, Andreas

    2008-04-01

    The rapid evolution of our information society depends on the continuous developments and innovations of semiconductor products. The cost per chip functionality keeps reducing by a factor of 2 every 18 month. However, this performance and success of the semiconductor industry critically depends on the quality of the lithographic photomasks. The need for the high quality of photomask drives lithography costs sensitively, which is a key factor in the manufacture of microelectronics devices. Therefore, the aim is to reduce production costs while overcoming challenges in terms of feature sizes, complexity and cycle times. Consequently, lithography processes must provide highest possible quality at reasonable prices. This way, the leadership in the lithographic area can be maintained and European chipmakers can stay competitive with manufacturers in the Far East and the USA. Under the umbrella of MEDEA+, a project called MUSCLE (>) has been started among leading semiconductor companies in Europe: ALTIS Semiconductor (Project Leader), ALCATEL Vacuum, ATMEL, CEA/LETI, Entegris, NXP Semiconductors, TOPPAN Photomasks, AMTC, Carl ZEISS SMS, DMS, Infineon Technologies, VISTEC Semiconductor, NIKON Precision, SCHOTT Lithotec, ASML, PHOTRONICS, IMEC, DCE, DNP Photomask, STMicroelectronics, XYALIS and iCADA. MUSCLE focuses particularly on mask data flow, photomask carrier, photomask defect characterization and photomask data handling. In this paper, we will discuss potential solutions like standardization and automation of the photomask data flow based on SEMI P10, the performance and the impact of the supply chain parameter within the photomask process, the standardization of photomask defect characterization and a discussion of the impact of new Reticle Enhancement Technologies (RET) such as mask process correction and finally a generic model to describe the photomasks key performance indicators for prototype photomasks.

  14. Transcriptional response of zebrafish embryos exposed to neurotoxic compounds reveals a muscle activity dependent hspb11 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Klüver

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are widely used as pesticides and drugs. Their primary effect is the overstimulation of cholinergic receptors which results in an improper muscular function. During vertebrate embryonic development nerve activity and intracellular downstream events are critical for the regulation of muscle fiber formation. Whether AChE inhibitors and related neurotoxic compounds also provoke specific changes in gene transcription patterns during vertebrate development that allow them to establish a mechanistic link useful for identification of developmental toxicity pathways has, however, yet not been investigated. Therefore we examined the transcriptomic response of a known AChE inhibitor, the organophosphate azinphos-methyl (APM, in zebrafish embryos and compared the response with two non-AChE inhibiting unspecific control compounds, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMB and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP. A highly specific cluster of APM induced gene transcripts was identified and a subset of strongly regulated genes was analyzed in more detail. The small heat shock protein hspb11 was found to be the most sensitive induced gene in response to AChE inhibitors. Comparison of expression in wildtype, ache and sop(fixe mutant embryos revealed that hspb11 expression was dependent on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR activity. Furthermore, modulators of intracellular calcium levels within the whole embryo led to a transcriptional up-regulation of hspb11 which suggests that elevated intracellular calcium levels may regulate the expression of this gene. During early zebrafish development, hspb11 was specifically expressed in muscle pioneer cells and Hspb11 morpholino-knockdown resulted in effects on slow muscle myosin organization. Our findings imply that a comparative toxicogenomic approach and functional analysis can lead to the identification of molecular mechanisms and specific marker genes for potential neurotoxic compounds.

  15. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Ke, Zun-ji; Luo, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe neurological disorder. TD induces selective neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the brain which are commonly observed in many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The progress in this line of research is hindered due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. The neurons derived for the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide a relevant and powerful tool for the research in pharmaceutical and environmental neurotoxicity. In this study, we for the first time used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons (iCell neurons) to investigate the mechanisms of TD-induced neurodegeneration. We showed that TD caused a concentration- and duration-dependent death of iCell neurons. TD induced ER stress which was evident by the increase in ER stress markers, such as GRP78, XBP-1, CHOP, ATF-6, phosphorylated eIF2α, and cleaved caspase-12. TD also triggered oxidative stress which was shown by the increase in the expression 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). ER stress inhibitors (STF-083010 and salubrinal) and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were effective in alleviating TD-induced death of iCell neurons, supporting the involvement of ER stress and oxidative stress. It establishes that the iCell neurons are a novel tool to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes death of human neurons in culture. • TD induces both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. • Alleviating ER stress and oxidative stress reduces TD

  16. Ontogeny of B lymphocyte function. IV. Kinetics of maturation of B lymphocytes from fetal and neonatal mice when transferred into adult irradiated hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, D.; Szewczuk, M.R.; Siskind, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with adult T cells and neonatal or fetal B cells produce an anti-DNP response of restricted heterogeneity of affinity when compared with the response of mice reconstituted with T and B cells from adult donors. The capacity to reconstitute adult mice to give a heterogeneous response matures between 7 and 10 days after birth. The maturation of B cells from day-15 fetal or neonatal donors to produce a heterogeneous response was followed in the adult, cell transfer recipient by immunizing them at different times after cell transfer. It was found that B cells both from day-15 fetal mice and from neonatal mice acquire the capacity to produce a heterogeneous response within 3 days in the adult, cell transfer recipient. Thus, the B cell population matures more rapidly in the cell transfer recipient than in the intact donor. The kinetics of maturation in the adult recipient is the same for B cells from day-15 fetal and neonatal donors. The data imply that all information required to produce a fully heterogeneous response is already present in the day-15 fetus. In addition, the data strongly support the hypothesis that a factor in the adult mouse acts to induce this step in the maturation of the B lymphocyte population. Thus, the data seem to be inconsistent with the view that the timing of the occurrence of this differentiation event is precoded in an internal cell clock in the B lymphocyte line. Clearly, B cells from day-15 fetal mice are already capable of differentiating in response to the inducing factor which is present in the adult animal

  17. Probing the hydration water diffusion of macromolecular surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortony, Julia H; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Franck, John M; Pavlova, Anna; Hunt, Jasmine; Han, Songi; Kausik, Ravinath

    2011-01-01

    We probe the translational dynamics of the hydration water surrounding the macromolecular surfaces of selected polyelectrolytes, lipid vesicles and intrinsically disordered proteins with site specificity in aqueous solutions. These measurements are made possible by the recent development of a new instrumental and methodological approach based on Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This technique selectively amplifies 1 H NMR signals of hydration water around a spin label that is attached to a molecular site of interest. The selective 1 H NMR amplification within molecular length scales of a spin label is achieved by utilizing short-distance range (∼r -3 ) magnetic dipolar interactions between the 1 H spin of water and the electron spin of a nitroxide radical-based label. Key features include the fact that only minute quantities (<10 μl) and dilute (≥100 μM) sample concentrations are needed. There is no size limit on the macromolecule or molecular assembly to be analyzed. Hydration water with translational correlation times between 10 and 800 ps is measured within ∼10 A distance of the spin label, encompassing the typical thickness of a hydration layer with three water molecules across. The hydration water moving within this time scale has significant implications, as this is what is modulated whenever macromolecules or molecular assemblies undergo interactions, binding or conformational changes. We demonstrate, with the examples of polymer complexation, protein aggregation and lipid-polymer interaction, that the measurements of interfacial hydration dynamics can sensitively and site specifically probe macromolecular interactions.

  18. Myo-inositol uptake by cultured calf retinal pigment epithelial cells: regulation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatami, M.; Rockey, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Confluent primary (P-1) or subcultured passage 2 or 3 (P-2, P-3) calf retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) were incubated with [ 3 H]-myo-inositol (MI, 100-200 μM) in balanced salt solution (BSS), for 5 to 60 min at 37 0 C. MI uptake into RPE (P-2, 5 days old) was saturable with K/sub m/ of 147 μM and V/sub max/ of 5.5 pmole/min/μg DNA. P-1 or P-2 incubated with 10 μM MI for 40 min accumulated MI against a concentration gradient ([MI]in/[MI]out > 20). Replacement of 150 mM NaCl in BSS by 150 mM choline-Cl reduced the uptake of MI by 87%. MI uptake was inhibited (39%) when cells were incubated in BSS in the absence of Ca Cl 2 . Transport of MI into RPE incubated in the presence of phloridzin, ouabain or 2,4-dinitrophenol (1 mM each) for 10 min was inhibited by 65, 37 and 21%, respectively. α-D-Glucose (20 mM) in the incubation media inhibited MI uptake into primary (or P-2) cultured RPE by 30 or 43% when cells were incubated for 10 or 60 min, respectively. The ability of RPE cells, grown in the presence of 50 mM glucose for 15-25 days, to concentrate MI (40 μM) was reduced up to 41%. Cultured RPE cells accumulated myo-inositol by an active transport system, sensitive to ouabain, DNP and phloridzin. High glucose in the incubation media or in the growth media inhibited the uptake of MI into calf RPE cells

  19. Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daekeun; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Habibah, Nurina Umy; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-12-16

    Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic kaempferol at 10-20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

  20. Acinetobacter baumannii universal stress protein A plays a pivotal role in stress response and is essential for pneumonia and sepsis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhosseiny, Noha M; Amin, Magdy A; Yassin, Aymen S; Attia, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most significant threats to global public health. This threat is compounded by the fact that A. baumannii is rapidly becoming resistant to all relevant antimicrobials. Identifying key microbial factors through which A. baumannii resists hostile host environment is paramount to the development of novel antimicrobials targeting infections caused by this emerging pathogen. An attractive target could be a molecule that plays a role in the pathogenesis and stress response of A. baumannii. Accordingly, the universal stress protein A (UspA) was chosen to be fully investigated in this study. A platform of A. baumannii constructs, expressing various levels of the uspA gene ranging from zero to thirteen folds of wild-type level, and a recombinant E. coli strain, were employed to investigate the role of UspA in vitro stress and in vivo pathogenesis. The UspA protein plays a significant role in protecting A. baumannii from H(2)O(2), low pH, and the respiratory toxin 2,4-DNP. A. baumannii UspA protein plays an essential role in two of the deadliest types of infection caused by A. baumannii; pneumonia and sepsis. This distinguishes A. baumannii UspA from its closely related homolog, the Staphylococcus aureus Usp2, as well as from the less similar Burkholderia glumae Usps. Heterologous and overexpression experiments suggest that UspA mediates its role via an indirect mechanism. Our study highlights the role of UspA as an important contributor to the A. baumannii stress and virulence machineries, and polishes it as a plausible target for new therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Tier-2 studies on monocrotaline immunotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, J A; Kerkvliet, N I

    1991-01-01

    Monocrotaline (MCT) is a member of a class of naturally occurring phytotoxins known as pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and is a toxicological concern to both man and his livestock. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of a 14-day oral MCT (0-100 mg/kg per day) exposure on the functional integrity of various immunocyte effector systems in C57BL/6 mice, as well as to investigate potential mechanisms for its immunotoxicity. Decreases in lymphoid organ weights and cellularity, and resident peritoneal exudate cell (PEC) number were only observed after exposure to the highest dose of 100 mg/kg MCT. This dose also inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity, while the total number of NK lytic units per spleen was decreased (-53%) after exposure to 50 mg/kg MCT. Following i.p. injection of SRBC, the percentage of PEC macrophages containing engulfed SRBC was significantly increased in MCT-exposed mice, while the percentage of large vacuolated (activated) macrophages was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to MCT significantly decreased the total number of Ig+ cells without altering the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. The antibody responses (PFC/10(6) spleen cells) to two T cell-independent antigens, TNP-LPS and DNP-Ficoll, were significantly decreased at all MCT doses, and the degree of suppression of both responses was identical at coincident doses. MCT exposure (25 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the blastogenic response to the T cell mitogen concanavalin A (-38%), and to the B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (-58%). These results indicate that exposure to MCT can alter the functional integrity of various immune effector responses in a dose-dependent manner, and suggest that the B cell may be a relatively more sensitive target of MCT immunotoxicity compared to T cells, macrophages and NK cells.

  2. Mechanisms of relaxation and spin decoherence in nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Johan

    Relaxation in spin systems is of great interest with respect to various possible applications like quantum information processing and storage, spintronics, and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The implementation of high frequencies and fields is crucial in the study of systems with large zero-field splitting or large interactions, as for example molecular magnets and low dimensional magnetic materials. Here we will focus on the implementation of pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ERP) at multiple frequencies of 10, 95, 120, 240, and 336 GHz, and the relaxation and decoherence processes as a function of magnetic field and temperature. Firstly, at higher frequencies the direct single-phonon spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) is considerably enhanced, and will more often than not be the dominant relaxation mechanism at low temperatures, and can be much faster than at lower fields and frequencies. In principle the measurement of the SLR rates as a function of the frequency provides a means to map the phonon density of states. Secondly, the high electron spin polarization at high fields has a strong influence on the spin fluctuations in relatively concentrated spin systems, and the contribution of the electron-electron dipolar interactions to the coherence rate can be partially quenched at low temperatures. This not only allows the study of relatively concentrated spin systems by pulsed EPR (as for example magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets), it enables the separation of the contribution of the fluctuations of the electron spin system from other decoherence mechanisms. Besides choice of temperature and field, several strategies in sample design, pulse sequences, or clock transitions can be employed to extend the coherence time in nanomagnets. A review will be given of the decoherence mechanisms with an attempt at a quantitative comparison of experimental rates with theory.

  3. Chromatographic analysis with different detectors in the chemical characterisation and dereplication of African propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Omar, Ruwida; Siheri, Weam; Al Mutairi, Sultan; Clements, Carol; Fearnley, James; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Watson, David

    2014-03-01

    Propolis or bee glue has very diverse composition and is potentially a source of biologically active compounds. Comprehensive chemical profiling was performed on 22 African propolis samples collected from the sub-Saharan region of Africa by using various hyphenated analytical techniques including Liquid Chromatography (LC)-UltraViolet Detection (UV)-Evaporative Light Scattering Detection (ELSD), LC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS), Gas Chromatography (GC)-MS and LC-Diode Array Detector (DAD)-HRMS/MS. The diversity of the composition of these African propolis samples could be observed by heat mapping the LC-UV and ELSD data. The characteristic chemical components were uncovered by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the LC-HRMS data and a preliminary dereplication was carried out by searching their accurate masses in the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP). A further identification was achieved by comparing their GC-MS or LC-DAD-HRMS/MS spectra with previously published data. Generally no clear geographic delineation was observed in the classification of these African propolis samples. Triterpenoids were found as the major chemical components in more than half of the propolis samples analysed in this study and some others were classified as temperate and Eastern Mediterranean type of propolis. Based on the comparative chemical profiling and dereplication studies one uncommon propolis from southern Nigeria stood out from others by presenting prenylated isoflavonoids, which indicated that it was more like Brazilian red propolis, and more significantly a high abundance of stilbenoid compounds which could be novel in propolis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of 137Cs to establish longer-term soil erosion rates on footpaths in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway-Dyer, S J; Walling, D E

    2010-10-01

    There is increasing awareness of the damage caused to valuable and often unique sensitive habitats by people pressure as degradation causes a loss of plant species, disturbance to wildlife, on-site and off-site impacts of soil movement and loss, and visual destruction of pristine environments. This research developed a new perspective on the problem of recreational induced environmental degradation by assessing the physical aspects of soil erosion using the fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs). Temporal sampling problems have not successfully been overcome by traditional research methods monitoring footpath erosion and, to date, the (137)Cs technique has not been used to estimate longer-term soil erosion in regard to sensitive recreational habitats. The research was based on-sites within Dartmoor National Park (DNP) and the South West Coast Path (SWCP) in south-west England. (137)Cs inventories were reduced on the paths relative to the reference inventory (control), indicating loss of soil from the path areas. The Profile Distribution Model estimated longer-term erosion rates (ca. 40 years) based on the (137)Cs data and showed that the combined mean soil loss for all the sites on 'paths' was 1.41 kg m(-2) yr(-1) whereas the combined 'off path' soil loss was 0.79 kg m(-2) yr(-1), where natural (non-recreational) soil redistribution processes occur. Recreational pressure was shown to increase erosion in the long-term, as greater soil erosion occurred on the paths, especially where there was higher visitor pressure. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface bioengineering of diatomite based nanovectors for efficient intracellular uptake and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Monica; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Correia, Alexandra; Rea, Ilaria; Lamberti, Annalisa; De Stefano, Luca; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-12-21

    Diatomite is a natural porous silica material of sedimentary origin. Due to its peculiar properties, it can be considered as a valid surrogate of synthetic porous silica for nano-based drug delivery. In this work, we exploit the potential of diatomite nanoparticles (DNPs) for drug delivery with the aim of developing a successful dual-biofunctionalization method by polyethylene glycol (PEG) coverage and cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) bioconjugation, to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of the particles, to enhance the intracellular uptake in cancer cells, and to increase the biocompatibility of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT) modified-DNPs. DNPs-APT-PEG-CPP showed hemocompatibility for up to 200 μg mL(-1) after 48 h of incubation with erythrocytes, with a hemolysis value of only 1.3%. The cytotoxicity of the modified-DNPs with a concentration up to 200 μg mL(-1) and incubation with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 24 h, demonstrated that PEGylation and CPP-bioconjugation can strongly reduce the cytotoxicity of DNPs-APT. The cellular uptake of the modified-DNPs was also evaluated using the above mentioned cancer cell lines, showing that the CPP-bioconjugation can considerably increase the DNP cellular uptake. Moreover, the dual surface modification of DNPs improved both the loading of a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug, sorafenib, with a loading degree up to 22 wt%, and also enhanced the drug release profiles in aqueous solutions. Overall, this work demonstrates that the biofunctionalization of DNPs is a promising platform for drug delivery applications in cancer therapy as a result of its enhanced stability, biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and drug release profiles.

  6. Atomic data for dielectronic recombination into Mg-like Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.; Kato, T.; Kato, D.; Safronova, U.I.; Cowan, T.E.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2006-03-01

    Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3l'nl (n=3-12, l≤n-1) and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 4l'nl (n=4-7, l≤n-1) states in Mg-like iron (Fe 14+ ) are calculated by the Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method (Cowan code) and the relativistic many-body perturbation theory method (RMBPT code). Autoionizing levels above three thresholds 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3p, and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3d are considered. It is found that configuration mixing [3sns + 3pnp + 3dnd], [3snp + 3pns + 3pnd + 3dnp] play an important role for all atomic characteristics. Branching ratios relative to the first threshold and intensity factors for satellite lines are calculated, and dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients are determined for the excited 444 odd-parity and 419 even-parity states. It is shown that the contribution of the highly-excited states is very important for calculation of DR rates. Contribution from the excited 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3l'nl states with n≥12 and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 4l'nl states with n≥7 to DR rate coefficients are estimated by extrapolation of all atomic characteristics. The total DR rate coefficient is derived as a function of electron temperature. (author)

  7. Contents of vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in the subtropical plant species Cyphostemma digitatum as affected by processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Duais, Mohammed; Hohbein, Juliane; Werner, Susanne; Böhm, Volker; Jetschke, Gottfried

    2009-06-24

    The subtropical plant species Cyphostemma digitatum, Vitaceae, is used in central Yemen in traditional medicine, as a culinary herb, and as a source of food flavoring. The contents of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids and changes caused by common processing were investigated. Carotenoids were determined by reversed phase C30-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection at 470 nm, while tocopherols and tocotrienols were analyzed by using normal phase HPLC with fluorescence detection (excitation, 292 nm; emission, 330 nm). Ascorbic acid was determined spectrophotometrically after reaction with DNP by measuring the absorbance at 520 nm. For the raw material and for the processed commercial food product, both in dried form, reasonable quantities of carotenoids were found in the raw material as follows: lutein, 18.89 +/- 0.73 mg/100 g; zeaxanthin, 9.46 +/- 0.30 mg/100 g; canthaxanthin, 0.21 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.67 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g; and beta-carotene, 14.60 +/- 0.46 mg/100 g. Household processing reduced the carotenoid contents dramatically; only beta-carotene sustained the processing. Likewise, vitamin C, 49.50 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g in the raw material and 20.30 +/- 0.02 mg/100 g in the processed material, was affected negatively by processing; only 41% was retained after processing. In contrast, the outstanding high content of vitamin E, 82.74 +/- 0.63 mg/100 g in the raw material, was increased by processing to 101.20 +/- 1.38 mg/100 g; it was found in different forms, some of which were rare in other sources.

  8. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G 1 (IgG 1 ) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, 125 I-labelled bovine IgG 1 anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of 125 I-IgG 1 from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of 125 I-IgG 1 appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal 125 I-IgG 1 excretion, and (2) by the amount of 125 I-IgG 1 in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity

  9. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  10. Induction of dexamethasone (DM) of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, A.; Imanishi, N.; Nakayama, T.; Asano, M.; Tomita, K.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of glucocorticoids on HDC in cultured mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells and rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were investigated to explore the role of steroids in inflammatory tissues. DM (1 nM to 10 μM) significantly elevated the histamine content and HDC activity of P-815 cells (37 0 C, 24 hrs), accompanying with a growth retardation of the cells by about 40%. In contrast to histamine, serotonin levels of P-815 cells were decreased by treatment with DM. However, DM had no significant effects on the activities of various enzymes other than HDC present in granules or membrane of P-815 cells. DM-induced increases of histamine and HDC activity were completely suppressed by the addition of cycloheximide and actinomycin D. P-815 cells were found to have the binding sites for 3 H-DM in the cytosol (Kd=2.2 nM, 450 sites/cell) and in the nuclei (Kd=0.1 nM, 39 sites/nucleus). Purified HDC from P-815 cells was identified to be an isozyme of mast cell type enzyme (MW=110K, pI=5.4). In contrast, the basal histamine level of cultured RPMC was not affected by treatment of DM, which suppressed histamine release activity induced by DNP-ascaris antiserum by 40%-50%. Histamine-depleted RPMC after degranulation partially recovered histamine level by 50%-60% in the presence of DM. These results showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulated histamine formation with the increased de novo synthesis of HDC in mast cells

  11. Further characterization of protein kinase C in mouse mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Ishizaka, T.

    1986-01-01

    Bridging of cell-bound IgE antibody molecules on colony stimulating factor dependent mouse mast cell line (PT-18) cells by multivalent antigen induces the mobilization and uptake of Ca 2+ monitored by Quin-2 and the production of diacylglycerol. Exposure of the sensitized cells to antigen also induces a substantial increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the plasma membrane (340 units to 1375 units: 1 unit = 1 pmol of 32 P incorporated into Histone H-1/min/10 7 cells), within 30 seconds. There is also an increase in 3 H phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate ( 3 H-PDB) binding which parallels the increase in PKC activity both in kinetics and antigen dose dependency. Determination of K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ for PKC revealed no difference between the cytosolic and membranous forms of PKC. Partial purification of PKC from the membrane of sensitized mast cells which had been labeled with 32 P and stimulated with DNP-HSA revealed a protein of 80-84,000 molecular weight, which migrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis just above an authentic standard of PKC purified from rat brain. Treatment of the PKC from mouse mast cell membrane with alkaline phosphatase resulted in a reduction of phosphorylating activity and bindability of 3 H-PDB. In conclusion, the authors speculate that activation of mouse mast cells by cross-linking IgE results in the phosphorylation of a silent-pool of PKC converting it from an inactive state to an activated form

  12. Design and Synthesis of Nonequilibrium Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Stoddart, J Fraser; Astumian, R Dean

    2015-09-22

    The active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes is essential to creating the concentration gradients that sustain life in all living organisms, be they bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or Homo sapiens. Nature uses active transport everywhere for everything. Molecular biologists have long been attracted to the study of active transport and continue to this day to investigate and elucidate the tertiary structures of the complex motor proteins that sustain it, while physicists, interested in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, have developed theoretical models to describe the driven ratcheting motions that are crucial to its function. The increasingly detailed understanding that contemporary science has acquired relating to active transport, however, has yet to lead to the design and construction of artificial molecular motors capable of employing ratchet-driven motions that can also perform work against concentration gradients. Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) in the form of pseudo- and semirotaxanes are showing some encouraging signs in meeting these goals. This review summarizes recent progress in making artificial molecular motors that can perform work by "pumping" tetracationic rings into high-energy states. The launching pad is a bistable [2]rotaxane whose dumbbell component contains two electron-donating recognition sites, one, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit, which interacts more strongly with the ring component, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), containing two electron-accepting bipyridinium units, than does the other 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) unit. Switching can be induced electrochemically by oxidizing the TTF unit to a TTF(•+) radical cation, whereupon Coulombic repulsion takes care of moving the ring to the DNP unit. Reduction of the radical cation resets the switch. Molecular switches operate at, or close to, equilibrium. Any work done during one switching event is undone during the reset. Molecular motors, on the

  13. CME/CNE Article: A Framework of Care in Multiple Sclerosis, Part 1: Updated Disease Classification and Disease-Modifying Therapy Use in Specific Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Scott D; Aliotta, Philip J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bennett, Susan E; Cutter, Gary; Fenton, Kaylan; Lublin, Fred; Northrop, Dorothy; Rintell, David; Walker, Bryan D; Weigel, Megan; Zackowski, Kathleen; Jones, David E

    2016-01-01

    Activity Available Online: To access the article, post-test, and evaluation online, go to http://www.cmscscholar.org. The target audience for this activity is physicians, physician assistants, nursing professionals, and other health-care providers involved in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Apply new information about MS to a comprehensive individualized treatment plan for patients with MSIntegrate the team approach into long-term planning in order to optimize rehabilitation care of patients with MSAccreditation Statement: This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC), Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA), and Delaware Media Group. The CMSC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The CMSC designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s) ™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. NPA designates this enduring material for 1.0 Continuing Nursing Education credit. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP, has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Disclosures: Francois Bethoux, MD , Editor in Chief of the International Journal of MS Care (IJMSC), has served as Physician Planner for this activity. He has received royalties from Springer Publishing and has received intellectual property rights from Biogen. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP , has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Scott D. Newsome, DO, MSCS

  14. Oxidative stress induced by palytoxin in human keratinocytes is mediated by a H+-dependent mitochondrial pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin, Marco; Ponti, Cristina; Sosa, Silvio; Gibellini, Davide; Florio, Chiara; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, massive blooms of palytoxin (PLTX)-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been observed along Mediterranean coasts, usually associated to human respiratory and cutaneous problems. At the molecular level, PLTX induces a massive intracellular Na + influx due to the transformation of Na + /K + ATPase in a cationic channel. Recently, we have demonstrated that Na + overload is the crucial step in mediating overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in human HaCaT keratinocytes, tentatively explaining PLTX-induced skin irritant effects. In the present study the molecular mechanisms of ROS production induced by PLTX-mediated Na + intracellular overload have been investigated. In HaCaT cells, PLTX exposure caused accumulation of superoxide anion, but not of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite/hydroxyl radicals. Even if RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed an early NOX-2 and iNOS gene and protein over-expressions, their active involvement seemed to be only partial since selective inhibitors did not completely reduce O 2 − production. A significant role of other enzymes (COX-1, COX-2, XO) was not evidenced. Nigericin, that counteracts Na + -mediated H + -imbalance, dissipating ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, and the uncouplers DNP significantly reduced O 2 − production. These inhibitions were synergistic when co-exposed with complex-I inhibitor rotenone. These results suggest a novel mechanism of O 2 − production induced by PLTX-mediated ionic imbalance. Indeed, the H + intracellular overload that follows PLTX-induced intracellular Na + accumulation, could enhance ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, that seems to be the driving force for O 2 − production by reversing mitochondrial electron transport. Highlights: ► PLTX induces superoxide (O 2 − ) production by reversing mitochondrial transport chain. ► The mechanism of O 2 − production is dependent on PLTX-induced ionic imbalance. ► The results led to the

  15. Development of the ECAT Preprocessor with the Trust Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ovaz Akpinar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past several years, attacks over industrial control systems (ICS have become increasingly frequent and sophisticated. The most common objectives of these types of attacks are controlling/monitoring the physical process, manipulating programmable controllers, or affecting the integrity of software and networking equipment. As one of the widely applied protocols in the ICS world, EtherCAT is an Ethernet-based protocol; thus, it is exposed to both TCP/IP and ICS-specific attacks. In this paper, we analyze EtherCAT field-level communication principles from the security viewpoint focusing on the protocol vulnerabilities, which have been rarely analyzed previously. Our research showed that it lacks the most common security parameters, such as authentication, encryption, and authorization, and is open to Media Access Control (MAC spoofing, data injection, and other advanced attacks, which require superior skills. To prevent, detect, and reduce attacks over the EtherCAT-based critical systems, first, we improved the open-source Snort intrusion detection/prevention system (IDS/IPS to support packets that are not processed over transport and network layers. Second, by incorporating a vulnerability analysis, we proposed the EtherCAT (ECAT preprocessor. Third, we introduced a novel approach called trust-node identification and applied the approach as three rules into the preprocessor. In this sense, the ECAT preprocessor differs from other supported ICS preprocessors in the literature, such as DNP3 and Modbus/TCP. Besides supporting traditional rule expansion, it is also able to handle layer 2 packets and to apply deep packet inspection on EtherCAT packets using the trust-node approach. This method first identifies engineering-station approved nodes based on EtherCAT network information (ENI configuration files and then deeply inspects incoming packets, considering protocol specifications. The improvements and approach have been tested on the

  16. Noncovalent functionalization of pristine CVD single-walled carbon nanotubes with 3d metal(II) phthalocyanines by adsorption from the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Flores-Sánchez, Laura J.; Meza-Laguna, Victor; Flores-Flores, José Ocotlán; Bucio-Galindo, Lauro; Puente-Lee, Iván; Basiuk, Elena V.

    2018-04-01

    , calculated at the PBE-D/DNP level of density functional theory, also suggested that the interactions between metal phthalocyanines studied and nanotube sidewalls are very strong.

  17. Biological activity determination of I-BSP, a potent MMP 2 inhibitor, and its 123I tracer synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltenfreiter, R.; Staelens, L.; Slegers, G.; Lejeune, A.; Frankenne, F.; Dierckx, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of at least 18 secreted and membrane-bound zinc endopeptidases. Collectively they function in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins and play an important role in both normal and pathological tissue remodelling. Increased MMP activity is detected in a wide range of cancers and seems to be correlated to their invasive and metastatic potential. MMPs thus seem an attractive target for both diagnostic (SPECT tracer) and therapeutic purposes. Therefore, we synthesised a 123 I-labelled MMP 2 inhibitor and evaluated it in vitro. Materials and methods: The 123 I-labelled compound was synthesised by a Cu-assisted nucleophilic non-isotopic exchange starting from Br-BSP. After reaction, the mixture was purified by HPLC. IC 50 values were obtained by in vitro enzyme assays. A 1:1 mix between non-radiolabelled inhibitor (concentration range: 300 nM - 0.05 nM) and enzymes (MMP2, cMT1-MMP, cMT3-MMP) was incubated for 15 minutes at 37 0 C. The fluorescent substrate (Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dap(Dnp)-Ala-Arg-NH2) was added and the increase of fluorescence versus time, due to the hydrolysis of substrate, was measured (GEMINI-XS, λ exc = 328 nm and λ em = 393nm). Initial velocities were calculated for different concentrations of inhibitor and the IC 50 values were then determined. Results: Radiochemical yield was 30% ±3%. Radiochemical purity was >95%. IC 50 values for inhibition of MMP2, cMT3-MMP and cMT1-MMP were 0.5 nM, 7.1 nM and 16.9 nM respectively. Conclusion: 123 I-BSP was synthesised with 30% ±3% yield. After HPLC the radiochemical purity was >95%. In vitro enzyme assays of I-BSP showed an inhibition of MMP2, cMT3-MMP and cMT1-MMP in the low nM range (0.5 nM, 7.1 nM and 16.9 nM respectively). In vivo studies (biodistribution, metabolizing) in mice will be performed in the near future

  18. Contribution of oxygen-sensitive neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla to hypoxic cerebral vasodilatation in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We sought to determine whether hypoxic stimulation of neurons of the rostral ventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) would elevate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in anaesthetized paralysed rats. 2. Microinjection of sodium cyanide (NaCN; 150-450 pmol) into the RVL rapidly (within 1-2 s), transiently, dose-dependently and site-specifically elevated rCBF1 measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, by 61.3 +/- 22.1% (P < 0.01), increased arterial pressure (AP; +30 +/- 8 mmHg; P < 0.01)1 and triggered a synchronized 6 Hz rhythm of EEG activity. 3. Following cervical spinal cord transection, NaCN and also dinitrophenol (DNP) significantly (P < 0.05) elevated rCBF and synchronized the EEG but did not elevate AP; the response to NaCN was attenuated by hyperoxia and deepening of anaesthesia. 4. Electrical stimulation of NaCN-sensitive sites in the RVL in spinalized rats increased rCBF measured autoradiographically with 14C iodoantipyrine (Kety method) in the mid-line thalamus (by 182.3 +/- 17.2%; P < 0.05) and cerebral cortex (by 172.6 +/- 15.6%; P < 0.05) regions, respectively, directly or indirectly innervated by RVL neurons, and in the remainder of the brain. In contrast regional cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU), measured autoradiographically with 14C-2-deoxyglucose (Sokoloff method), was increased in proportion to rCBF in the mid-line thalamus (165.6 +/- 17.8%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in the cortex. 5. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of NaCN sensitive sites of RVL, while not altering resting rCBF or the elevation elicited by hypercarbia (arterial CO2 pressure, Pa,CO2, approximately 69 mmHg), reduced the vasodilatation elicited by normocapnic hypoxaemia (arterial O2 pressure, Pa,O2, approximately 27 mmHg) by 67% (P < 0.01) and flattened the slope of the Pa,O2-rCBF response curve. 6. We conclude that the elevation of rCBF produced in the cerebral cortex by hypoxaemia is in large measure neurogenic, mediated trans-synaptically over intrinsic neuronal pathways, and

  19. Optimization of cultural conditions for growth associated chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Satarupa, E-mail: dey1919@gmail.com [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Paul, A.K., E-mail: amalk_paul@yahoo.co.in [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of a potent Cr(VI) resistant and reducing Arthrobacter SUK 1201 from chromite mine overburdens of Orissa, India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phylogenetically (16S rDNA analysis), Arthrobacter SUK 1201 showed 99% nucleotide base pair similarity with Arthrobacter GZK-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Production of insoluble chromium precipitates during chromate reduction under batch culture by the isolate SUK 1201. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Confirmation of formation of insoluble chromium precipitate during reduction studies by EDX analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of cultural conditions for Cr(VI) reduction under batch culture leading to complete reduction of 2 mM of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromium resistant and reducing bacterium having 99% sequence homology of 16S rDNA with Arthrobacter sp. GZK-1 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. The objective of the present study was to optimize the cultural conditions for chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201. The strain showed 67% reduction of 2 mM chromate in 7 days and was associated with the formation of green insoluble precipitate, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. However, Fourier transform infrared spectra have failed to detect any complexation of end products of Cr(VI) reduction with the cell mass. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at 10{sup 10} cells/ml, but the reduction potential decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI) reduction was 7.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II) and DNP. These findings suggest that Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has great promise

  20. Caspase-Independent Apoptosis Induced by Reperfusion Following Ischemia without Bile Duct Occlusion in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Rie; Nozawa, Asako; Kobayashi, Naonobu; Shichijo, Yukari; Yoshikawa, Tadatoshi; Akagi, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of caspases to hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis has not been completely understood yet. Several studies have demonstrated increased caspase activity during I/R and the protective effect of caspase inhibitors against I/R injuries. However, reports with opposing results also exist. Herein, we examined the contribution of caspases to the I/R-induced hepatic apoptosis in rats using caspase inhibitors and specific substrates of caspases. Hepatic I/R was induced via a 2-h occlusion of the portal vein and the hepatic artery, without conducting bile duct occlusion. DNA laddering and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were increased at 3 h after reperfusion. Pretreatment with caspase inhibitors (Z-Asp-2,6-dichlorobenzoyloxymethylketone (Z-Asp-cmk) 2 or 10 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.), Z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk) 3 mg/kg i.v.) failed to reduce apoptosis induced by I/R. Interestingly, apoptosis induced by the portal triad (hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct) occlusion/reperfusion could be marginally attenuated using Z-Asp-cmk (2 mg/kg i.v.). The cleavage activity for Ac-DEVD-α-(4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide) (MCA), a caspase-3/7/8/9 substrate, was significantly increased by I/R. Conversely, the cleavage activities for Ac-DNLD-MCA and MCA-VDQVDGW[K-DNP]-NH 2 , specific substrates for caspase-3 and -7 respectively, were decreased by I/R. Protein expression of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (c-IAP2), an endogenous caspase inhibitor, was increased by ischemia. Nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), an initiator protein of caspase-independent apoptosis, was also increased during I/R. These results suggest that caspases are inhibited by c-IAP2 induced during ischemia and that AIF may be involved in initiation of apoptosis induced by hepatic I/R without

  1. Seven Golden Rules for heuristic filtering of molecular formulas obtained by accurate mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structure elucidation of unknown small molecules by mass spectrometry is a challenge despite advances in instrumentation. The first crucial step is to obtain correct elemental compositions. In order to automatically constrain the thousands of possible candidate structures, rules need to be developed to select the most likely and chemically correct molecular formulas. Results An algorithm for filtering molecular formulas is derived from seven heuristic rules: (1 restrictions for the number of elements, (2 LEWIS and SENIOR chemical rules, (3 isotopic patterns, (4 hydrogen/carbon ratios, (5 element ratio of nitrogen, oxygen, phosphor, and sulphur versus carbon, (6 element ratio probabilities and (7 presence of trimethylsilylated compounds. Formulas are ranked according to their isotopic patterns and subsequently constrained by presence in public chemical databases. The seven rules were developed on 68,237 existing molecular formulas and were validated in four experiments. First, 432,968 formulas covering five million PubChem database entries were checked for consistency. Only 0.6% of these compounds did not pass all rules. Next, the rules were shown to effectively reducing the complement all eight billion theoretically possible C, H, N, S, O, P-formulas up to 2000 Da to only 623 million most probable elemental compositions. Thirdly 6,000 pharmaceutical, toxic and natural compounds were selected from DrugBank, TSCA and DNP databases. The correct formulas were retrieved as top hit at 80–99% probability when assuming data acquisition with complete resolution of unique compounds and 5% absolute isotope ratio deviation and 3 ppm mass accuracy. Last, some exemplary compounds were analyzed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. In each case, the correct formula was ranked as top hit when combining the seven rules with database queries. Conclusion The

  2. C26 cancer-induced muscle wasting is IKKβ-dependent and NF-kappaB-independent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline W Cornwell

    Full Text Available Existing data suggest that NF-kappaB signaling is a key regulator of cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting. However, identification of the components of this signaling pathway and of the NF-κB transcription factors that regulate wasting is far from complete. In muscles of C26 tumor bearing mice, overexpression of dominant negative (d.n. IKKβ blocked muscle wasting by 69% and the IκBα-super repressor blocked wasting by 41%. In contrast, overexpression of d.n. IKKα or d.n. NIK did not block C26-induced wasting. Surprisingly, overexpression of d.n. p65 or d.n. c-Rel did not significantly affect muscle wasting. Genome-wide mRNA expression arrays showed upregulation of many genes previously implicated in muscle atrophy. To test if these upregulated genes were direct targets of NF-κB transcription factors, we compared genome-wide p65 binding to DNA in control and cachectic muscle using ChIP-sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of ChIP-sequencing data from control and C26 muscles showed very little p65 binding to genes in cachexia and little to suggest that upregulated p65 binding influences the gene expression associated with muscle based cachexia. The p65 ChIP-seq data are consistent with our finding of no significant change in protein binding to an NF-κB oligonucleotide in a gel shift assay, no activation of a NF-κB-dependent reporter, and no effect of d.n.p65 overexpression in muscles of tumor bearing mice. Taken together, these data support the idea that although inhibition of IκBα, and particularly IKKβ, blocks cancer-induced wasting, the alternative NF-κB signaling pathway is not required. In addition, the downstream NF-κB transcription factors, p65 and c-Rel do not appear to regulate the transcriptional changes induced by the C26 tumor. These data are consistent with the growing body of literature showing that there are NF-κB-independent substrates of IKKβ and IκBα that regulate physiological processes.

  3. Density functional theory study of adsorption geometries and electronic structures of azo-dye-based molecules on anatase TiO2 surface for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajongtat, Pongthep; Suramitr, Songwut; Nokbin, Somkiat; Nakajima, Koichi; Mitsuke, Koichiro; Hannongbua, Supa

    2017-09-01

    Structural and electronic properties of eight isolated azo dyes (ArNNAr', where Ar and Ar' denote the aryl groups containing benzene and naphthalene skeletons, respectively) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) based on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and TD-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) methods The effect of methanol solvent on the structural and electronic properties of the azo dyes was elucidated by employing a polarizable continuum model (PCM). Then, the azo dyes adsorbed onto the anatase TiO 2 (101) slab surface through a carboxyl group. The geometries and electronic structures of the adsorption complexes were determined using periodic DFT based on the PWC/DNP method. The calculated adsorption energies indicate that the adsorbed dyes preferentially take configuration of the bidentate bridging rather than chelating or monodentate ester-type geometries. Furthermore, the azo compounds having two carboxyl groups are coordinated to the TiO 2 surface more preferentially through the carboxyl group connecting to the benzene skeleton than through that connecting to the naphthalene skeleton. The dihedral angles (Φ B-N ) between the benzene- and naphthalene-skeleton moieties are smaller than 10° for the adsorbed azo compounds containing one carboxyl group. In contrast, Φ B-N > 30° are obtained for the adsorbed azo compounds containing two carboxyl groups. The almost planar conformations of the former appear to strengthen both π-electrons conjugation and electronic coupling between low-lying unoccupied molecular orbitals of the azo dyes and the conduction band of TiO 2 . On the other hand, such coupling is very weak for the latter, leading to a shift of the Fermi level of TiO 2 in the lower-energy direction. The obtained results are useful to the design and synthesize novel azo-dye-based molecules that give rise to higher photovoltaic performances of the dye-sensitized solar cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress induced by palytoxin in human keratinocytes is mediated by a H{sup +}-dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelin, Marco, E-mail: marco.pelin@phd.units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Ponti, Cristina, E-mail: cponti@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Sosa, Silvio, E-mail: silvio.sosa@econ.units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Gibellini, Davide, E-mail: davide.gibellini@unibo.it [Department of Haematology and Oncological Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Florio, Chiara, E-mail: florioc@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Tubaro, Aurelia, E-mail: tubaro@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, massive blooms of palytoxin (PLTX)-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been observed along Mediterranean coasts, usually associated to human respiratory and cutaneous problems. At the molecular level, PLTX induces a massive intracellular Na{sup +} influx due to the transformation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase in a cationic channel. Recently, we have demonstrated that Na{sup +} overload is the crucial step in mediating overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in human HaCaT keratinocytes, tentatively explaining PLTX-induced skin irritant effects. In the present study the molecular mechanisms of ROS production induced by PLTX-mediated Na{sup +} intracellular overload have been investigated. In HaCaT cells, PLTX exposure caused accumulation of superoxide anion, but not of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite/hydroxyl radicals. Even if RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed an early NOX-2 and iNOS gene and protein over-expressions, their active involvement seemed to be only partial since selective inhibitors did not completely reduce O{sub 2}{sup −} production. A significant role of other enzymes (COX-1, COX-2, XO) was not evidenced. Nigericin, that counteracts Na{sup +}-mediated H{sup +}-imbalance, dissipating ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, and the uncouplers DNP significantly reduced O{sub 2}{sup −} production. These inhibitions were synergistic when co-exposed with complex-I inhibitor rotenone. These results suggest a novel mechanism of O{sub 2}{sup −} production induced by PLTX-mediated ionic imbalance. Indeed, the H{sup +} intracellular overload that follows PLTX-induced intracellular Na{sup +} accumulation, could enhance ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, that seems to be the driving force for O{sub 2}{sup −} production by reversing mitochondrial electron transport. Highlights: ► PLTX induces superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup −}) production by reversing mitochondrial transport chain. ► The mechanism of

  5. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  6. Targeted Catalytic Inactivation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme by Lisinopril-Coupled Transition Metal Chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C.; Hocharoen, Lalintip; Cowan, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A series of compounds that target reactive transition metal chelates to somatic Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (sACE-1) have been synthesized. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and rate constants for both inactivation and cleavage of full length sACE-1 have been determined and evaluated in terms of metal-chelate size, charge, reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and coreactant selectivity. Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and tripeptide GGH were linked to the lysine sidechain of lisinopril by EDC/NHS coupling. The resulting amide-linked chelate-lisinopril (EDTA-lisinopril, NTA-lisinopril, DOTA-lisinopril, and GGH-lisinopril) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with iron, cobalt, nickel and copper, such that lisinopril could mediate localization of the reactive metal chelates to sACE-1. ACE activity was assayed by monitoring cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Mca-RPPGFSAFK(Dnp)-OH, a derivative of bradykinin, following pre-incubation with metal-chelate-lisinopril compounds. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sACE-1 by metal-chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed IC50 values ranging from 44 nM to 4,500 nM for Ni-NTA-lisinopril and Ni-DOTA-lisinopril, respectively, versus 1.9 nM for lisinopril. Stronger inhibition was correlated with smaller size and lower negative charge of the attached metal chelates. Time-dependent inactivation of sACE-1 by metal-chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed a remarkable range of catalytic activities, with second order rate constants as high as 150,000 M−1min−1 (Cu-GGH-lisinopril), while catalyst-mediated cleavage of sACE-1 typically occurred at much lower rates, indicating that inactivation arose primary from sidechain modification. Optimal inactivation of sACE-1 was observed when the reduction potential for the metal center was poised near 1000 mV, reflecting the difficulty of protein

  7. Targeted catalytic inactivation of angiotensin converting enzyme by lisinopril-coupled transition-metal chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C; Hocharoen, Lalintip; Cowan, J A

    2012-02-22

    A series of compounds that target reactive transition-metal chelates to somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE-1) have been synthesized. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) and rate constants for both inactivation and cleavage of full-length sACE-1 have been determined and evaluated in terms of metal chelate size, charge, reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and coreactant selectivity. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and tripeptide GGH were linked to the lysine side chain of lisinopril by 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling. The resulting amide-linked chelate-lisinopril (EDTA-lisinopril, NTA-lisinopril, DOTA-lisinopril, and GGH-lisinopril) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper, such that lisinopril could mediate localization of the reactive metal chelates to sACE-1. ACE activity was assayed by monitoring cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Mca-RPPGFSAFK(Dnp)-OH, a derivative of bradykinin, following preincubation with metal chelate-lisinopril compounds. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sACE-1 by metal chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed IC(50) values ranging from 44 to 4500 nM for Ni-NTA-lisinopril and Ni-DOTA-lisinopril, respectively, versus 1.9 nM for lisinopril. Stronger inhibition was correlated with smaller size and lower negative charge of the attached metal chelates. Time-dependent inactivation of sACE-1 by metal chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed a remarkable range of catalytic activities, with second-order rate constants as high as 150,000 M(-1) min(-1) (Cu-GGH-lisinopril), while catalyst-mediated cleavage of sACE-1 typically occurred at much lower rates, indicating that inactivation arose primarily from side chain modification. Optimal inactivation of sACE-1 was observed when the reduction potential for the

  8. The Determination of Sub-Microgram Quantities, of Amino Acids with H{sup 3}- and C{sup 1}4-Labelled 1-Fluoro-2.4 Dinitrobenzene; Determination d'acides amines en quantites inferieures au microgramme a l'aide de 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzen e marque au {sup 3}H et au {sup 14}C; Podschet submikrogrammnykh kolichestv aminokislot pri pomoshchi 2 : 4 dinitroftor'enzola, mechennogo H{sup 3} i C{sup 14}; Determinacion de cantidades de aminoacidos inferiores al microgramo por medio de 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenceno marcado con {sup 3}H y {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beale, D; Whitehead, J K [Middlesex Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    A method of isotope derivation analysis is described for the estimation of amino acids at levels as low as 10{sup -5} {mu}M in protein hydrolysates. 1-fluoro-2.4-dinitrobenzene-H{sup 3} (G) was synthesized from bromobenzene-H{sup 3} (G), and 1-fluoro- 2.4-dinitrobenzene-C{sup 14} (G) was prepared from chlorobenzene-C{sup 14} (G). The method of analysis involves the treatment of the mixture of amino acids with the tritiated reagent (specific activity 12,8{mu}c/{mu}-equivalent) in alkaline solution followed by the addition of known activities (6000 dpm) of C{sup 14}-labelled 2.4-dinitto phenyl derivatives. After solvent extraction the reaction mixture is separated into its constituent dinitro phenyl derivatives by two-way paper chromatography, and the H{sup 3} and C{sup 14} contente of each spot are determined by combustion and gas counting. The H{sup 3} count gives a measure of the amount of DNP derivative of amino acid isolated from the original mixture, and the C{sup 14} count gives a measure pf losses ihcurred during the analysis. The results obtained from the analysis of ({mu}g of hydrolyzed insulin are in good agreement with values obtained by derivative analysis with H{sup 3} and C{sup 14}-labelled acetic anhydride and by ion exchange resin chromatography. [French] Les auteurs decrivent une methode d'analyse par derivation isotopique permettant d'evaluer des quantites d'acides amines aussi faibles que 10{sup -5} {mu}M dans des hydrolysats de proteine. Le 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-{sup 3}H (G) a ete prepare par synthese a partir du bromobenzene-{sup 3}H (U), et le 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-{sup 14}C (G) a partir du chlorobenzene-{sup 14}C (U). Cette methode d'analyse implique le traitement du melange d'acides amines par le reactif tritie (activite specifique: 12,8 p.c par microequivalent) en solution alcaline, suivi.de l'addition de derives du dinitro-2,4-phenyl e marque au {sup 14}C d'activite connue (6000 dpm). Apres extraction par solvant, les derives du

  9. Automated Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Remotely Sensed Imagery for Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    a common video format. • Plotting the time series of water surface area in square kilometers. The automated spatio-temporal analysis introduced here can be embedded in virtually any existing geospatial workflow for operational applications. Three integration options were implemented in this case study: • Integration within any ArcGIS environment whether deployed on the desktop, in the cloud, or online. Execution uses a customized ArcGIS script tool. A Python script file retrieves the parameters from the user interface and runs the precompiled IDL code. That IDL code is used to interface between the Python script and the relevant ENVITasks. • Publishing the spatio-temporal analysis tasks as services via the ENVI Services Engine (ESE). ESE is a cloud-based image analysis solution to publish and deploy advanced ENVI image and data analytics to existing enterprise infrastructures. For this purpose the entire IDL code can be capsuled in a single ENVITask. • Integration in an existing geospatial workflow using the Python-to-IDL Bridge. This mechanism allows calling IDL code within Python on a user-defined platform. The results of this case study verify the drastic decrease of the amount of surface water in the AOI, indicative of the major drought that is pervasive throughout California. Accordingly, the time series analysis was correlated successfully with the daily reservoir elevations of the Don Pedro reservoir (station DNP, operated by CDEC).

  10. POBLACIÓN EN SITUACIÓN DE DESPLAZAMIENTO EN ANTIOQUIA. EL PAPEL DEL ENFOQUE DE DERECHOS EN LOS ASPECTOS TÉCNICOS PARA EL DISEÑO Y MEDICIÓN DE INDICADORES. (PARTE I POPULATION IN SITUATION OF DISPLACEMENT IN ANTIOQUIA: THE ROLE OF THE APPROACH OF RIGHTS IN THE TECHNICAL ASPECTS FOR THE DESIGN AND THE MEASUREMENT OF INDICATORS (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Espinosa Menéndez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, expone los resultados y lineamientos metodológicos derivados de una investigación realizada por el Observatorio De partamental de Desplazamiento Forzado de Antioquia (ODDIF para estimar el estado del Goce Efectivo de Derechos (GED de la población víctima de desplazamiento forzado en el Departamento. Esta investigación fue realizada en respuesta a los Autos de Seguimiento y a las órdenes impartidas en la sentencia T-025 de 2004 de la Corte Constitucional. El Auto 116 de 2008, estableció los parámetros de medición a adoptar por parte de los entes territoriales para rendir cuentas sobre la garantía de los derechos de esta población. Con el objeto de ofrecer elementos de análisis tanto para las instituciones como para las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, tanto nacionales como internacionales, que analizan y siguen el comportamiento de las situación socioeconómica de las víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia, en una serie de cuatro artículos, se cubrirán tanto la metodología de medición como algunos de los resultados hallados en el GED de Antioquia. En esta entrega, en particular, serán expuestos el marco normativo del informe, el enfoque teórico de los indicadores tratados y las principales consideraciones técnicas y metodológicas para su medición. A manera de resultado de investigación, en esta entrega del informe se señala las diferencias tanto en las metodologías como en las cifras que hay en la medición de la situación sociooeconómica de la población en situación de desplazamiento realizada por el DNP y la medición de esta realizada por el Osbervatorio.This article introduces the results and the methodological guidelines derived from a piece of research carried out by the State Observatory of Forced Displacement in Antioquia (ODDIF, in order to estimate the state of Full Possession of Rights of the population victim of forced displacement in the State of Antioquia. This piece of research

  11. Clusters minero energéticos en Colombia: Desarrollo, hallazgos y propuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Inés Cadena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un resumen del Proyecto DNP- Universidad de los Andes sobre "Clusters" en la industria minero energética, que la Universidad de los Andes realizó para el Departamento Nacional de Planeación. Para comenzar, se hace una síntesis de la metodología empleada, que combinó análisis de tipo macro con análisis de detalle. Más adelante se exponen los hallazgos en cuanto a la caracterización y localización de las industrias minero energéticas y aquellas relacionadas. Se presentan las cuatro propuestas que se plantearon para aprovechar el crecimiento de esta industria mediante la generación de valor. La primera propuesta está relacionada con la estructuración de la función de comercialización para lograr mejoras en la productividad de la pequeña y mediana minería del carbón, la segunda con la creación de un programa nacional de desarrollo de proveedores de bienes y servicios para la industria petrolera y de gran minería. Las dos últimas propuestas se enfocan en el desarrollo de conglomerados de negocios, la primera de la petroquímica y los plásticos en la región de Bolívar - Atlántico y la otra de los nuevos materiales plásticos en Bogotá, con un papel protagónico de la academia. Es importante anotar el análisis y propuestas detalladas pueden encontrarse en los informes del proyecto.//This paper presents a summary of a Project on Clusters in the Mining and Energy Industry that the Universidad de los Andes developed for the National Planning Department. The document starts with a description of the methodology that combines macro analysis with detailed analysis. Next, we present the main findings regarding the characterization and location of the mining and energy industries, as well as of the related industries. We end with a detailed presentation of the four cluster proposals designed to create value. The first proposal relates to the structuring of the marketing function to achieve improvements

  12. On the determination of the vertex constants and asymptotic normalization coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Yeremenko, V.O.

    2006-01-01

    and practically one knows the ingratitudes in the limited intervals only. To improve the convergence of the integrals, one may multiply the integrand f l (k) by exp(ikR) where R is an arbitrary parameter, the value of which does not influence the value of the extracted G abc . To test the suggested method, a model example was considered. The amplitude f 0 (k) was constructed in the explicit form, which satisfied the unitarity conditions and displayed the correct behavior at k→0 and k→∞. In the upper half-plane of k, f 0 (k) possesses a dynamical cut beginning at k=iγ and a pole at k=ik corresponding to the single bound state. The parameters of f 0 (k) were fitted to the low-energy parameters of the neutron-proton scattering in the triplet S state. In the example under consideration, the integrands of I 1 and I 2 are written in the explicit form and the integration could easily be done. Using the method described above resulted in the determination with a high accuracy of the VC G dnp corresponding to the d→n=p vertex. It was corroborated that including the exp(ikR) factor considerably improved the convergence of the values of the VC. It is worth noting that VC's are more fundamental quantities than ANC's. Indeed, VC's are related in the model-independent way to scattering amplitudes whereas the formula relating the ANC to the corresponding VC contains the combinatorial factor depending on the model of the wave function used, namely, on the way of its antisymmetrization. (author)

  13. Ciencia, innovación y competitividad empresarial. ¿Sobrevivirá Colciencias? / Science, Innovation and Business Competitiveness. Will Colciencias Survive? / Ciência, inovação e competitividade. ¿Colciencias sobreviver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Useche Aldana, PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La Ley 1753 del 9 de junio de 2015 por la cual se promulgó el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014 – 2018 (PND contiene en cinco artículos (artículos 5º, 7º, 10º, 12º, y 186º una reforma estructural del Sistema Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SNCTI en Colombia (1. Si bien es cierto, los lineamientos básicos estaban ya esbozados en el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2010 - 2014 y el énfasis en la de por sí precaria generación de conocimiento científico se había sustituido por la innovación empresarial desde 1995 con la creación del Sistema Nacional de Innovación y luego con la Ley 1286 de 2009; no se había definido de una manera tan radical como lo hace el actual PND, el que la dirección y el eje mismo del sistema de CTI no descanse ya en el Estado representado en Colciencias, ni en las universidades, ni en los centros de investigación públicos o privados, sino en las empresas a través de “las Comisiones Regionales de Competitividad en cada departamento” (art. 186 PND. Esta afirmación puede parecer exagerada porque formalmente en el art. 7º del PND, Colciencias mantiene un papel en la estructuración de los planes estratégicos de CTI. Sin embargo, el mismo artículo establece que el rol de Colciencias se limita a coordinar con el Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP y con los gobiernos regionales los planes de CTI para los departamentos. Es decir, el nivel predominante de decisión sobre los proyectos a desarrollar serán las Comisiones Regionales de Competitividad, las cuales “serán la única instancia de interlocución con el Gobierno Nacional para la implementación de la Agenda Nacional de Competitividad, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación” (art. 186 PND. En lugar de fortalecer financieramente a Colciencias, el PND mantiene la institución en el camino de su disolución como lo afirma el economista Salomón Kalmanovitz (2, pues el artículo 5º le asigna hasta el 2018 los mismos $400

  14. A Manera de Prólogo sobre el Libro “Historia de los Medicamentos”por el Académico Alfredo Jácome Roca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2003-10-01

    50s o los 60s, las Actas seguidas luego del Symposium Ciba, este último ilustrado a colores; la inolvidable revista “Medecine de France” de Specia (hoy atesorada en escasas bibliotecas médicas o el “Abottempo” para mencionar tan sólo unos cuantos. Más recientemente la misma industria, en publicaciones periódicas como DN&P o SCRIP, se encarga de mantener al día a sus afiliados sobre la evolución de nuevos medicamentos o nuevos productos, o las fusiones de las otroragrandes compañías individuales, fenómeno que ha caracterizado particularmente los últimos dos o tres lustros.

    Lo que hace más interesante la narrativa de Jácome es que no se limita a mencionar la aparición cronológica de los agentes terapéuticos sino que la salpica de anécdotas, algunas de ellas ya conocidas, otras novedosas para el lector. Así lo hacía B. Lorenzo Velásquez en sus notas salpicadas de humor, como cuando nos narraba sobre Basilius Valentinus que redescubrió el antiguo “stibium” de los romanos el cual, como se empleara popularmente como aditivo para el engorde de cerdos, decidió administrárselo a algunos de su grupo de monjes prerenacentistas, al sur de Francia, que no engordaron sino murieron por la toxicidad de estas sales; de ahí que lo llamaran en francés “anti-moine” (anti207 monje y así pasó como antimonio a otros idiomas. O cuando refiriéndose a Courtois, el descubridor del yodo en las algas marinas, dice que era tan mediocre “que no descubrió el yodo, sino que el yodo lo descubrió a él”. Realmente es tan extensa y divertida esa “petit histoire” que, con la misma, podría escribirse otro volumen si se recogieran todas las anécdotas pasadas y recientes en torno a los medicamentos y sus aplicaciones.

    Las dos últimas secciones y el addendum están dedicadas al siglo XX que el autor, en el título de la sección quinta, denomina “el siglo de la industria”. Evidentemente el surgimiento de una poderosa industria qu